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Sample records for chinese shrimp fenneropenaeus

  1. Effects of Different Diets on the Dietary Attractability and Selectivity of Chinese Shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Guoqiang; DONG Shuanglin; WANG Fang

    2005-01-01

    Attractabilities of different diets and dietary selectivity of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis were studied through behavior observation and feeding experiment, respectively. The five diets used in the experiment are: Fish Flesh (FF), Shrimp Flesh (SF), Clam Foot (CF), Polychaete Worm (PW), and Formulated Diet (FD). No significant differences of attractability exist between any two different diets when every two natural diets or all five diets are provided simultaneously. On the other hand, significant differences of attractability existbetween FD and every single natural diet when they are provided simultaneously. Results of behavioral observation indicate that natural diets are more attractive than FD.In feeding experiment, Chineseshrimp has distinct selectivity on different diets. It positively selects CF and PW, negatively selects FF and SF, and excludes FD absolutely. The results of the present studies indicate that the dietary selectivity of shrimp was based not only on the attractabilities of the diets, but also on the responses such as growth and food conversion.

  2. Cloning and expression analysis of an o-methyltransferase (OMT) gene from Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dian-Xiang; Du, Xin-Jun; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2006-09-01

    O-methyltransferase (OMT) is ubiquitously present in diverse organisms and plays an important regulatory role in plant and animal growth, development, reproduction and defence and has also been implicated in human emotion and disease. A putative o-methyltransferase (OMT) gene has been cloned from the haemocytes of bacteria-infected Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) by suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) coupled with the SMART cDNA method. The isolated 944 bp full-length cDNA contains a single 666bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative OMT protein of 221 amino acids. The predicted protein has a molecular weight of 24,572.06 Da and a pI of 5.27 as well as ten phosphorylation sites. Northern blot and in situ hybridisation analyses demonstrated that the OMT transcripts were constitutively expressed in tissue of shrimp challenged by bacterial infection and in unchallenged shrimp tissue. Constitutive OMT transcript was found in areas such as haemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, stomach, gill, intestine and ovary. However, the OMT transcripts were upregulated in hepatopancreas and stomach in challenged shrimp.

  3. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of Crustin-like gene from Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fengsong; LI Fuhua; XIANG Jianhai; DONG Bo; LIU Yichen; ZHANG Xiaojun; ZHANG Liusuo

    2008-01-01

    A new member of antimicrobial protein genes of the Crustin family was cloned from haemocytes of the Chinese shrimp Fennero-penaeus chinensis by 3'and 5' RACE.The full-length cDNA of Crustin-like gene contains a 390 bp open reading frame,encoding 130 amino acids.The deduced peptide contains a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acids and mature peptide of 113 amino acids.The molecular mass of the deduced mature peptide is 12.3 ku.It is highly cationic with a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.5.The deduced amino acids sequence of this Crustin showed high homology with those of Penaeus (Litopenaeus) setferus.Northern blotting showed that the cloned Crustin gene was mainly expressed in haemocytes,gill,intestine,and RNA in situ hy-bridization indicated that the Crustin gene was constitutively expressed exclusively in haemocytes of these tissues.Capillary elee-trephoresis RT-PCR analysis showed that Crustin was up-regulated dramatically from 12 to 48 h after a brief decrease of mRNA during first 6 h in response to microbe infection.The level of Crustin mRNA began to restore at 72 h post-challenge.This indica-ted that Crustin gene might play an important role when shrimps are infected by bacterial pathogen.

  4. Establishment of microsatellite-based triplex PCR for parentage analysis of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Huan; KONG Jie; LIU Ping; MENG Xianhong; LUAN Sheng; ZHANG Tianshi

    2007-01-01

    Through exploring the microsatellite primers from the random genome sequences of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis), some microsatellite primers were obtained with rich polymorphic genetic information, and a triplex PCR was established using three primers (RS1101, RS0683 and H081 primers). By adjusting the final concentration of Mg2+, dNTP and primers, and using a touch-town PCR program, the optimum amplification parameters of PCR system were obtained, which could successfully amplify the three primers in a PCR reaction. In the denatured PAGE gel, the amplified DNA fragments of three primers RS1 101,RS0683 and H081 could be easily identified each other. For the triplex PCR system, the PPE (probabilities of paternity exclusion) is 0.967 9,and the DP (discrimination power) is 0.999 327.Using the triplex PCR to test ten individuals of a parentage and their parents, an individual was excluded from the parentage in all of the three microsatellite loci, which might be mixed into the parentage for some unknown reason such as factitious misplay. The triplex PCR will be of great practical value in identifying the parentages of F. chinensis.

  5. Analysis of tandem repeats in the genome of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Jie; GAO Huan

    2005-01-01

    Through random sequencing, we found a total of 884000 base-pairs (bp) of random genomic sequences in the genome of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis). Using bio-soft Tandem Repeat Finder (TRF) software, 2159 tandem repeats were found, in which there were 1714 microsatellites and 445 minisatellites, accounting for 79.4% and 20.6% of repeat sequences, respectively. The cumulative length of repeat sequences was found to be 116685 bp, accounting for 13.2% of the total DNA sequence; the cumulative length of microsatellites occupied 9.78% of the total DNA sequence, and that of minisatellites occupied 3.42%. In decreasing order, the 20 most abundant repeat sequence classes were as follows: AT (557), AC (471), AG (274), AAT (92), A (56), AAG (28), ATC (27), ATAG (27), AGG (18), ACT (15), C (11), AAC (11), ACAT (11), CAGA (10), AGAA (9), AGGG (7), CAAA (7), CGCA (6), ATAA (6), AGAGAA (6). Dinucleotide repeats, not only in the aspect of the number, but also in cumulative length, were the preponderant repeat type. There were few classes and low copy numbers of repeat units of the pentanucleotide repeat type, which included only three classes: AGAGA, GAGGC and AAAGA. The classes and copy numbers of heptanucleotide, eleven-nucleotide and thirteen-nucleotide primer-number-composed repeats were distinctly less than that of repeat types beside them.

  6. A successful microbound diet for the larval culture of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxia; Mai, Kangsen

    2005-07-01

    A 13-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of a microbound diet for rearing the larvae of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in comparison with the live foods that consist of Isochrysis galbana, Chlorella vulgaris, Tetraselmis chuii, rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia sp. Larvae of 0 to 13d post-hatch (dph) were reared in a temperature-controlled semi-open culture system and stocked at a density of 100 larvae L-1 in tanks, each containing 50 L sterilized seawater with salinity 30 32. Larvae were manually fed either the live foods or the microbound diet 6 times per day. At 13dph, the growth of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was approximately 84% of that fed on the live foods. The survival rate of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was 44.29% at 13 dph, which was not significantly different from that of larvae fed on live foods (63.55% ). The body length and development index (DI) of the larvae fed on the microbound diet were always lower than those of larvae fed on live foods. However, the differences reached significant levels only at 11 and 13dph (P<0.05). The mean dry weight loss of the microbound diet was 9.2% after 90min immersion in seawater, indicating that this diet has a good water stability. The microbound diet contains 5223% crude protein and 10.27% lipid and is easy to prepare. These characteristics of the diet suggest good potentials for its successful use in the larviculture of other penaeid and fish species.

  7. A Successful Microbound Diet for the Larval Culture of Chinese Shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinxia; MAI Kangsen

    2005-01-01

    A 13-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of a microbound diet for rearing the larvae of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in comparison with the live foods that consist of Isochrysis galbana, Chlorella vulgaris, Tetraselmis chuii, rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia sp. Larvae of 0 to 13d post-hatch (dph) were reared in a temperature-controlled semi-open culture system and stocked at a density of 100 larvae L-1 in tanks, each containing 50 L sterilized seawater with salinity 30-32. Larvae were manually fed either the live foods or the microbound diet 6 times per day. At 13 dph, the growth of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was approximately 84% of that fed on the live foods.The survival rate of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was 44.29% at 13 dph, which was not significantly different from that of larvae fed on live foods (63.55%). The body length and development index (DI) of the larvae fed on the microbound diet were always lower than those of larvae fed on live foods. However, the differences reached significant levels only at 11and 13dph (P<0.05). The mean dry weight loss of the microbound diet was 9.2% after 90min immersion in seawater, indicating that this diet has a good water stability. The microbound diet contains 52.23% crude protein and 10.27% lipid and is easy to prepare. These characteristics of the diet suggest good potentials for its successful use in the larviculture of other penaeid and fish species.

  8. A hepatopancreas-specific C-type lectin from the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis exhibits antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun-Dong; Fu, Li-Dong; Jia, Yu-Ping; Du, Xin-Jun; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yu-Hang; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2008-01-01

    Lectins play important roles in animal innate immune responses by serving as pattern recognition receptors, opsonins, or effector molecules. Here, we report a novel hepatopancreas-specific C-type lectin, designated Fc-hsL, from the hepatopancreas of the Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The cDNA of Fc-hsL is 571 bp long with a 480 bp open reading frame that encodes a 159-residue protein. Fc-hsL contains a signal peptide and a single C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) or carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). It has an EPN(Glu-Pro-Asn) motif with a predicted ligand-binding site specific for mannose. Fc-hsL was constitutively expressed in the hepatopancreas of normal shrimp, and its expression was up-regulated following challenge of shrimp with bacteria or virus. Fc-hsL was not detected in other tissues but was induced in the stomach of immune-challenged shrimp. Fc-hsL protein was detected in both hemolymph and the hepatopancreas of bacteria- and virus-challenged shrimp. Recombinant mature Fc-hsL has no hemagglutinating activity, but calcium-dependent agglutinating activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was detected. The rFc-hsL also has binding activity to some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and high antimicrobial activity against some bacteria and fungi. These in vitro functions of recombinant Fc-hsL were calcium-independent. Fc-hsL may act as a pattern recognition receptor in antibacterial defense and as an effector in innate immunity of Chinese shrimp.

  9. Clip domain serine protease and its homolog respond to Vibrio challenge in Chinese white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Xu, Zhen-Long; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2009-05-01

    Clip domain serine proteases and their homologs are involved in invertebrate innate immunity, including hemolymph coagulation, antimicrobial peptide synthesis, cell adhesion, and melanization. Recognition of pathogens by pattern recognition receptors can trigger activation of a serine protease cascade. We report here the cDNA cloning of a serine protease (FcSP) and a serine protease homolog (FcSPH) from Chinese white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Both FcSP and FcSPH possess a clip domain at the N-terminal and an SP or SP-like domain at the C-terminal. In contrast to FcSP, FcSPH lacks a catalytic residue and is catalytically inactive. Tissue distribution and time course qRT-PCR analysis indicates that FcSP and FcSPH can respond to Vibrio anguillarum challenge in hemocytes, hepatopancreas and intestine. In situ hybridization analysis shows that FcSP is distributed in hemocytes and gills, and originated mainly from the hemocytes. FcSPH protein is expressed in gills and stomach of non-challenged shrimp. Its expression in gill mainly originates from the hemocytes in it. Two immunoreactive bands of FcSP can be detected in gills and stomach of non-challenged shrimp. FcSP protein is partially cleaved in non-challenged shrimp, while FcSPH protein is unprocessed in unchallenged shrimp and is partially cleaved after V. anguillarum challenge. Our results suggest that this Clip domain serine protease and its homolog may be involved in the serine protease cascade and play an important role in innate immunity of the shrimp.

  10. [Molecular cloning, recombinant expression and characterization of lysozyme from Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xingjiang; Du, Xinjun; Zhou, Wenjie; Zhao, Xiaofan; Wang, Jinxing

    2008-05-01

    Lysozyme hydrolyses bacterial cell walls and acts as a nonspecific innate immunity molecule against the invasion of bacterial pathogens. We cloned the cDNA of lysozyme from Fenneropenaeus chinensis and named Fc-lysozyme (FcLyz in short). The full length of the gene was of 709 bp, and the open reading frame (477 bp) encoded 158 amino acids. The predicted protein had a signal peptide (-1--18 residue) and molecular weight of the mature protein (residue 1-140) was of 16.2 kD. A Lyz 1 domain (residue 1-130) in the lysozyme was found by SMART analysis. The results of semiquantity RT-PCR showed that FcLyz was constitutively expressed in tested tissues in a low level in normal shrimp, and up-regulated in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas and gill of bacterial challenged shrimp. The DNA fragment of mature Fc-Lys was subcloned to pET-30a (+) expression vector, the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and then induced by isopropylthio-beta-D-galactoside (IPTG). The antibacterial activity of the purified recombinant FcLys was analyzed and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was assayed. The recombinant protein showed high antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive bacteria, and MIC reached 3.43 micromol/L, and relatively low activity against Gram-negative bacteria. All together, the Fc-Lys was regulated by pathogen infection and had antibacterial activity. This suggested that the FcLyz may be one of the important molecules against pathogens in innate immunity of the shrimp.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cathepsin B gene from the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xupeng; Meng, Xianhong; Kong, Jie; Luo, Kun; Luan, Sheng; Cao, Baoxiang; Liu, Ning; Pang, Jinfei; Shi, Xiaoli

    2013-11-01

    Cathepsin B is a unique member of the cathepsin superfamily, which acts as both an endopeptidase and peptidyl-dipeptidase. To obtain a better understanding of this enzyme, we cloned a cDNA encoding cathepsin B from the muscle of Fenneropenaeus chinensis (FcCB). FcCB contained a 996-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 331 amino acid residues with a putative signal peptide and a propeptide_C1 at the N-terminal, a glutamine oxyanion hole and active site cysteine, histidine and asparagine residues. A region from residue 79 to 327 conferred the peptidase activity of FcCB. Pair-wise and multiple sequence alignment with 17 other organisms, including ten different vertebrate species, five different invertebrate species and two different plant species, indicated that the signal peptide and the propeptide_C1 at the N-terminal of FcCB were less conserved than the mature protein, except when compared with Penaeus monodon, Litopenaeus vannamei and Marsupenaeus japonicas, all of which belong to the genus Penaeus. The expression of FcCB in the hepatopancreas was higher than that in the gill. The expression of FcCB in the gill was higher than that in the muscle. A challenge test was performed to reveal the responses of FcCB in different tissues to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, which causes serious economic losses in the shrimp farming industry. The FcCB gene expressions in the ectoderm, mesoderm and entoderm were not the same prior to WSSV infection, but at 6 h after WSSV challenge, the FcCB expression in the gill, hepatopancreas and muscle was up-regulated, suggesting that FcCB might be involved in the immune response to WSSV. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the FcCB gene, involving C/T transitions, which are known as mutation hot spots. Notably, the three SNPs constituted a haplotype that can be used as an indicator of the haplotype block. The SNP genotypes of two groups of shrimps, respectively comprising 96 WSSV

  12. Cloning,characterization,and expression analysis of the DEAD-box family genes,Fc-vasa and Fc-PL10a,in Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周倩如; 邵明瑜; 秦贞奎; 康庆浩; 张志峰

    2010-01-01

    RNA helicases of the DEAD-box and related families are involved in various cellular processes including DNA replication,DNA repair,and RNA processing.However,the function of DEAD-box proteins in aquaculture species is poorly understood at molecular level.We obtained the full-length cDNA sequences of two genes encoding helicase-related proteins,Fc-vasa and Fc-PL10a,from the testes of Chinese shrimp,Fenneropenaeus chinensis.The two predicted amino acid sequences contain all the conserved motifs characterized ...

  13. Chromosomal localization of 5S rDNA in Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis):a chromosome-specific marker for chromosome identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇聘; 张晓军; 李富花; 赵翠; 张成松; 相建海

    2010-01-01

    Chinese shrimp(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)is an economically important aquaculture species in China.However,cytogenetic and genomic data is limited in the organism partly because the chromosomes are difficult to isolate and analyze.In this study,fluorescence in-situ hybridization(FISH) was used to identify the chromosomes of F.chinensis.The 5S ribosomal RNA gene(rDNA)of F. chinensis was isolated,cloned and then used as a hybridization probe.The results show that the 5S rDNA was located on one pair of homologo...

  14. Peptidomic analysis of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) hemolymph by magnetic bead-based MALDITOF MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baojie; LIU Mei; JIANG Keyong; ZHANG Guofan; WANG Lei

    2013-01-01

    Peptides in shrimp hemolymph play an important role in the innate immune response.Analysis of hemolymph will help to detect and identify potential novel biomarkers of microbial infection.We used magnetic bead-based purification (ClinProt system) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to characterize shrimp hemolymph peptides.Shrimp serum and plasma were used as the source of samples for comparative analysis,and it was found that serum was more suitable for shrimp hemolymph peptidomic analysis.To screen potential specific biomarkers in serum of immune-challenged shrimps,we applied magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS to serum samples from 10 immune-challenged and 10 healthy shrimps.The spectra were analyzed using FlexAnalysis 3.0and ClinProTools 2.1 software.Thirteen peptide peaks significantly different between the two groups were selected as candidate biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-infection.The diagnostic model established by genetic algorithm using five of these peaks was able to discriminate LPS-challenged shrimps from healthy control shrimps with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%.Our approach in MALDITOF MS-based peptidomics is a powerful tool for screening bioactive peptides or biomarkers derived from hemolymph,and will help to enable a better understanding of the innate immune response of shrimps.

  15. Genetic improvement on Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis): growth and viability performance in F1 hybrids of different populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi; Kong, Jie; Li, Wendong; Luan, Sheng; Yang, Cuihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2008-11-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis distributed in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China and the west coast of the Korean Peninsula. Different geographical populations represent potentially different genetic resources. To learn further the characteristics of different geographical population, crosses among two wild and three farmed populations were produced. The two wild populations were from the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea (WYP), and the west coast of the Korean Peninsula and coast (WKN). The three farmed populations included the offspring of first generation of wild shrimp from coast in Korea (FKN), the Huang Hai (the Yellow Sea in Chinese) No.1 (HH1), and JK98. The phenotypes growth and survival rates of these populations were compared to confirm the feasibility for crossbreeding. The body length (BL), carapace length (CL), carapace width (CW), height of the second and third abdominal segment (HST), width of the second and third abdominal segment (WST), length of the first abdominal segment (LF), length of the last abdominal segment (LL), live body weight (BW), and survival rate were measured. Different combinations were statistically performed with ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results show that the survival rate of JK98(♀)×WKN(♂) was the highest, followed by WYP(♀)×WKN(♂), FKN(♀)×WYP(♂), FKN(♀)×HH1(♂) and WYP(♀)×FKN(♂); the body weight of FKN(♀)sxHH1(♂) was the highest, followed by FKN(♀)×WYP(♂), WYP(♀)×WKN(♂), WYP(♀)×FKN(♂) and JK98(♀)×WKN(♂); the total length had the same ranking as the body weight. All growth traits in hybrids JK98(♀)×WKN(♂) were the lowest among all combinations. F1 hybrids had significant difference (P0.05) in other growth traits and survival rate. The results of Duncan’s Multiple Range Test are that BL and CL of JK98(♀)×WKN(♂) were significantly different from the other combinations; HST different from the combination of FKN(♀)×WYP(♂), FKN(♀)×HH1(♂) and WYP

  16. Transcriptome analysis on Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis during WSSV acute infection.

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    Shihao Li

    Full Text Available Previous studies have discovered a lot of immune-related genes responding to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection in crustacean. However, little information is available in relation to underlying mechanisms of host responses during the WSSV acute infection stage in naturally infected shrimp. In this study, we employed next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic techniques to observe the transcriptome differences of the shrimp between latent infection stage and acute infection stage. A total of 64,188,426 Illumina reads, including 31,685,758 reads from the latent infection group and 32,502,668 reads from the acute infection group, were generated and assembled into 46,676 unigenes (mean length: 676 bp; range: 200-15,094 bp. Approximately 24,000 peptides were predicted and classified based on homology searches, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous groups of proteins, and biological pathway mapping. Among which, 805 differentially expressed genes were identified and categorized into 11 groups based on their possible function. Genes in the Toll and IMD pathways, the Ras-activated endocytosis process, the RNA interference pathway, anti-lipopolysaccharide factors and many other genes, were found to be activated in shrimp from latent infection stage to acute infection stage. The anti-bacterially proPO-activating cascade was firstly uncovered to be probably participated in antiviral process. These genes contain not only members playing function in host defense against WSSV, but also genes utilized by WSSV for its rapid proliferation. In addition, the transcriptome data provides detail information for identifying novel genes in absence of the genome database of shrimp.

  17. Ecological effects of co-culturing the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus with the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in an earthen pond

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    Zhou, Shun; Ren, Yichao; Pearce, Christopher M.; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Using net enclosures in an earthen pond, we established three culture treatments with the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis: monoculture of sea cucumbers (C), monoculture of shrimp (S), and co-culture of the two species (CS). We measured levels of suspended particulate matter in the water column; total organic matter, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratios in both settling particles and the sediment; and chlorophyll a levels in the sediment. We then compared these variables between the three treatments. We also examined growth, survival, and yield of the two species in the different treatments. From June to September, the mean monthly suspended particulate matter sedimentation rates in the CS and S treatments were significantly ( Porganic matter, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and chlorophyll a contents in the sediment in the CS and S treatments were significantly ( P food for the sea cucumbers. Co-culture of the two species is a viable option for increasing yield per unit area, maximizing use of the water body, and diversifying crop production.

  18. Genetic diversity analysis of spawner and recaptured populations of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) during stock enhancement in the Bohai Bay based on an SSR marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mosang; WANG Weiji; XIAO Guangxia; LIU Kefeng; HU Yulong; TIAN Tao; KONG Jie; JIN Xianshi

    2016-01-01

    Eight microsatellite markers were used to analyze genetic diversity, level of inbreeding, and effective population size of spawner and recaptured populations of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) during stock enhancement in the Bohai Bay in 2013. A total of 254 and 238 alleles were identified in the spawner and recaptured populations, respectively, and the numbers of alleles (Na) were 8–63 and 6–60, respectively. The numbers of effective alleles (Ne) were 2.52–21.60 and 2.67–20.72, respectively. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.529 to 0.952. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) values (0.638–0.910 and 0.712–0.927) were lower than the expected heterozygosity (He) values (0.603–0.954 and 0.625–0.952), which indicated that the two populations possessed a rich genetic diversity. In 16 tests (2 populations×8 loci), 13 tests deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.Fis values were positive at seven loci and the inbreeding coefficients (F) of the two populations estimated by trioML were 13.234% and 11.603%, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding. A certain level of inbreeding depression had occurred in the Chinese shrimp population.Fst values ranged from 0 to 0.059, with a mean of 0.028, displaying a low level of genetic differentiation in the two populations. Effective population sizes (3 060.2 and 3 842.8) were higher than the minimum number suggested for retaining the evolutionary potential to adapt to new environmental conditions. For enhancement activity in 2014, the ideal number of captured shrimp spawners should have ranged from 7 686 to 19 214 to maintain genetic diversity and effective population size. Further strategies to adjust the balance of economic cost, fishing effort and ideal number of shrimp spawners to maintain a satisfactory effective population size for ensuring the sustainability of Chinese shrimp are proposed.

  19. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of the DEAD-box family genes, Fc-vasa and Fc-PL10a, in Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qianru; Shao, Mingyu; Qin, Zhenkui; Kyoung, Ho Kang; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2010-01-01

    RNA helicases of the DEAD-box and related families are involved in various cellular processes including DNA replication, DNA repair, and RNA processing. However, the function of DEAD-box proteins in aquaculture species is poorly understood at molecular level. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequences of two genes encoding helicase-related proteins, Fc-vasa and Fc-PL10a, from the testes of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The two predicted amino acid sequences contain all the conserved motifs characterized by the DEAD-box family and several RGG repeats in the N-terminal regions. Homology and phylogenetic analyses indicate that they belong to the vasa and PL10 subfamilies. The three-dimensional structures of the two proteins were predicted with a homology modeling approach. Both core proteins consist of two tandem RecA-like domains similar to those of the DEAD-box RNA helicase. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR we found that Fc-vasa was expressed specifically in the adult gonads. Transcription decreased in the ovary but increased in the testis during gonadal development. Fc-PL10a expression was widely distributed in the tissues we examined. Using in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that the Fc-vasa transcript is localized to the cytoplasm of the spermatogonia and oocytes. Thus, our results suggest that Fc-vasa plays an important role in germ-line development, and has utility as a germ cell lineage marker which will help to generate new insight into the origin and differentiation of germ cells as well as the regulation of reproduction in F. chinensis.

  20. Expression, Purification and Activity Assay of the Recombinant Protein of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase from Chinese White Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian-Xiang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We have previously cloned a gene of Chinese white shrimp Catechol O-Methyltransferase (designated Fc-COMT and characterized the gene expression pattern. In this study, expression and purification as well as activity assay of the recombinant Fc-COMT was further conducted. Approach: Using pET-30a (+ as a prokaryotic expression vector, the recombinant Fc- COMT was expressed in the supernatant of Escherichia coli lysate and easily purified by His-Bind resin chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the molecular mass of recombinant Fc-COMT was approximately 30,000 Da, in good agreement with the software-predicted molecular weight. The enzymatic activity of recombinant Fc-COMT was tested using Dihydroxybenzoic Acid (DHBAc as a substrate. Results: The methyl products of DHBAc, Vanillic Acid (VA and Isovanillic Acid (IVA, were detected in the enzymatic reaction mixture with recombinant Fc-COMT by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS. Conclusion: The recombinant Fc-COMT has catalytic activity of transferring methyl group from S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAM to the 3’ hydroxyl or 4’ hydroxyl group of benzyl ring of DHBAc.

  1. Effect of co-culture of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) on pond environment

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    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Sun, Yongjun; Wang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    Monoculture of sea cucumber (pond S) and polyculture of shrimp with sea cucumber (pond SS) were established to evaluate the effect of shrimp on the environmental conditions of sea cucumber farming pond. Contributions of sediment organic matter (SOM2) resuspended from benthic sediment and the suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) deposited from the water column to the precipitated organic matter (SOM1) collected with sediment traps were estimated with carbon stable isotope analysis. The results showed that the levels of SPOM and SOM2 in pond SS significantly decreased in comparison with those in pond S at the end of experiment ( P culturing shrimp in sea cucumber farming pond could purify the farming water. Carbon stable isotope analysis showed that the proportion of SOM2 in SOM1 in pond SS (84.97% ± 0.38%) was significantly lower than that in pond S (95.20% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), suggesting that the resuspension of organic matter from benthic sediment into overlying water was reduced in polyculture pond. In contrast, the proportion of SPOM in SOM1 in pond SS (15.03% ± 0.38%) was significantly higher than that in pond S (4.80% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), indicating that the sedimentation of SPOM from water column was enhanced in pond SS owing to the biodeposition effect of shrimp.

  2. An acyl-CoA-binding protein (FcACBP) and a fatty acid binding protein (FcFABP) respond to microbial infection in Chinese white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2009-12-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) are involved in lipid metabolism. ACBP plays a key role in multiple cellular tasks including modulation of fatty acid biosynthesis, enzyme regulation, vesicular trafficking, and gene regulation. In our study, a 536 bp cDNA of ACBP (FcACBP) was cloned and identified as a widely distributed gene in the Chinese white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Its expression in intestine was upregulated in response to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Vibrio anguillarum infection. The expression patterns were confirmed by Western blot analysis. FABPs, members of the lipid-binding protein superfamily, play an important role in lipid metabolism and also participate in vertebrate innate immunity. A cDNA of FABP (FcFABP) cloned from the hepatopancreas of the shrimp was 715 bp in size and encoded a 14 kDa protein. FcFABP appeared to be a basic fatty acid binding protein with a predicted isoelectric point of 9.16. It showed sequence similarity to both vertebrate and invertebrate FABPs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that FcFABP, together with LvFABP, were clustered into one group. FcFABP was detected mainly in the hepatopancreas and expression level increased after a challenge with WSSV. FcFABP was down-regulated by V. anguillarum challenge. The protein also had bacterial binding activity. These two lipid metabolism related proteins may play important roles in shrimp innate immunity.

  3. cDNA Cloning and Expression Analysis of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Chinese Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) Exposed to Ambient Ammonia%氨氮胁迫下中国明对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)谷氨酸脱氢酶基因的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉英; 李少飞; 王清印; 李健

    2016-01-01

    Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) is an ecologically and economically important shrimp species. During the culture, F. chinensis were exposed to a series of stressors that adversely affect biological activities including growth rate. Ammonia, a product of protein degradation and bacterial activity, is a strong stressor in shrimp aquaculture. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is an abundant and ubiquitous mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes reversible amination of glutamate. cDNA of GDH from F. chinensis (FcGDH) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The FcGDH cDNA was 1779 bp in size, and it included a 1659-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 522 amino-acid polypeptide of which the isoelectric point (pI) was 6.54 and the molecular mass was 61.3 kDa. Homology analysis revealed that the amino acid sequence of FcGDH was highly conserved with its homologs in other arthropod. The similarities between FcGDH and GDHs of Litopenaeus vannamei and Eriocheir sinensis were 98% and 89% respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that FcGDH was in the same branch with that of L. vannamei and then in the same branches with those of E. sinensis, Drosophila melanogaster, and Aedes aegypti in order. The tissue expression analysis showed that FcGDH was detected in all tested tissues including muscle, gill, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestine, lymph, and hemocytes. The highest expression of FcGDH was in the muscle that was an amino acid pool and the major tissue for protein deposition. After exposure to ambient ammonia, the expression of FcGDH gene was up-regulated significantly in muscles compared to the control group (P<0.01). The expression level of FcGDH in hepatopancreas was down-regulated significantly at 3 h (P<0.05), and was then stabilized up to 24 h. The expression of FcGDH was increased significantly after 48 h and reached the maximum at 72 h compared to the control group (P<0.01). These results implied that FcGDH might play an important role in the

  4. Hematological Changes m White Spot Syndrome Virus-Infected Shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Shouming; ZHAN Wenbin; XING Jing; LI Jun; YANG Kai; WANG Jing

    2008-01-01

    The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifesta- tions of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection, feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those in healthy shrimp. Secondly, necrotic, broken and dis- integrated cells were often observed, and a typical hematolysis was present in the haemolymph smear of WSSV-infected shrimp. Thirdly, necrosis and typical apoptosis of hemocytes were detected with TEM in the peripheral haemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp. Hyalinocytes and semi-granulocytes with masses of WSSVs in their nuclei often appeared, whereas no granular bemocytes with WSSV were found in the hepatopancreas of moribund infected shrimps. All our results supported that hemocytes were the main target cells of WSSV, and hyalinocytes and semigranular hemocytes seemed to be more favorable for WSSV infection in F. chinensis.

  5. Ovarian Transcriptome Analysis of Vitellogenic and Non-Vitellogenic Female Banana Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetan, Uraipan; Sangket, Unitsa; Deachamag, Panchalika; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-01-01

    The banana shrimp (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) is one of the most commercially important penaeid species in the world. Its numbers are declining in the wild, leading to a loss of broodstock for farmers of the shrimp and a need for more successful breeding programs. However, the molecular mechanism of the genes involved in this shrimp’s ovarian maturation is still unclear. Consequently, we compared transcriptomic profiles of ovarian tissue from females in both the vitellogenic stage and the non-vitellogenic stage. Using RNA-Seq technology to prepare the transcriptome libraries, a total of 12,187,412 and 11,694,326 sequencing reads were acquired from the non-vitellogenic and vitellogenic stages respectively. The analysis of the differentially expressed genes identified 1,025 which were significantly differentially expressed between the two stages, of which 694 were up-regulated and 331 down-regulated. Four genes putatively involved in the ovarian maturation pathway were chosen for validation by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). The data from this study provided information about gene expression in ovarian tissue of the banana shrimp which could be useful for a better understanding of the regulation of this species’ reproductive cycle. PMID:27741294

  6. Optimization of prokaryotic expression of the CYP4 gene of Chinese shrimpFenneropenaeus chinensis)%中国对虾细胞色素P450基因CYP4原核表达条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喆; 李健; 王芸; 韩俊英

    2011-01-01

    Specific primers were designed according to the open reading frame (ORF) sequence of CYP4 cDNA of Chinese shrimpFenneropenaeus chinensis). Prokaryotic expression vector p28a-CYP4 was constructed and the prokaryotic expression conditions were optimized. The results showed that the Rosetta strain after being transformed with the recombinant expression vector accumulated high amount of recombinant protein. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the recombinant protein was about 56.0 kDa. The recombinant strain Rosetta/p28a-CYP4 was induced at different temperatures, IPTG concentrations, OD600, and different times. The recombinant accumulated highest amount of recombinant protein after IPTG (1.2retool/L) induction (OD600=0.59) at 37℃ for 6 h.%根据克隆得到的中国对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)CYP4基因开放阅读框设计引物,构建了中国对虾CYP4基因原核表达载体p28a-CYP4,并对重组菌株Rosetta/28a-CYP4的原核表达条件进行了优化。结果表明:p28a—CYP4转化Rosetta后可实现CYP4基因的原核表达,SDS—PAGE分析显示其在56.0kDa处有显著诱导条带;通过对诱导温度、IPTG浓度、诱导时机(OD600)及诱导时间的优化表明,重组菌株Rosetta/p28a-CYP4的最佳诱导温度为37℃,最佳IPTG浓度为1.2mmol/L,最佳诱导时机及诱导时间分别为0.59和6h。

  7. Recombinant expression and functional characterization of a C-type lectin ( Fclectin ) from the Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis )%中国明对虾C-型凝集素基因(Fclectin)的重组表达及活性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘逸尘; 刘丽静; 张亦陈; 耿绪云; 孙妍; 孙金生

    2012-01-01

    Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) is distributed mainly along Chinese inshore areas, and is one of the most important farmed shrimp in China. The studies on innate immune responses of shrimps, especially on immune defense against the main crustacean pathogens,will provide more knowledge of shrimp immunity to prevent infectious diseases. Invertebrates do not possess an adaptive immune system based on highly specific antibodies and antigen receptors. They must rely on efficient immune defenses capable of protecting them against invading microorganisms. The chief issue of crustacean immunity should concern non-self-recognition mechanisms. Proteins that specifically bind to certain carbohydrate components on the surface of microorganisms play an important role in non-self-recognition and cleaning up of the invading microorganisms. Such proteins are known as pattern recognition receptors(PRRs). Lectins exist in almost all living organisms. Due to their ability of binding to terminal sugars on glycoproteins and glycolipids, lectins are primary candidates for pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity. C type Lectin is regarded as a potential molecule involved in immune recognition and phagocytosis through opsonization in crustacean. In the preliminary study,a novel C-type lectin was cloned from hemocytes of Chinese shrimp, ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis). It contains two tandem carbohydrate recognition domains ( CRDs)/C-type lectin-like domains. Both of the CRDs contain a QPD(Gln-Pro-Asp) motif that has a predicted binding specificity for galactose-type sugar. In this research, two recombinant target proteins ( rFclectin-CRDl and rFclectin-CRD2 ) were expressed by prokaryotic expression system. The result showed that fusion protein was expressed in the form of inclusion bodies. The LC-ESI-MS analysis showed that two peptide fragments of rFclectin-CRDl and rFclectin-CRD2 were identical with the corresponding sequence of F. chinensis C-type lectin. Recombinant

  8. Multiple forms of alpha-2 macroglobulin in shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinesis and their transcriptional response to WSSV or Vibrio pathogen infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongming; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Jiquan; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2010-06-01

    Alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense. By full length cloning and sequencing we identified three distinct cDNAs for A2M in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinesis, designated FcA2M-1, FcA2M-2 and FcA2M-3, respectively. Expression profiles in normal tissues as well as tissues after challenge by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio pathogen were conducted for FcA2M-1 and FcA2M-2. The FcA2M-1 and FcA2M-2 cDNAs encode proteins with 1501 or 1502 amino acids, respectively, containing the typical conserved domain architecture of A2M. Similar to complement component C3, FcA2M-2 has a catalytic histidine, which may confer opsonic properties on this shrimp A2M. Six variants in the bait region were found in FcA2M-2 responding differently to Vibrio challenge, thereby widening the spectrum of inhibition and the diversity of immune recognition. FcA2M-1 and FcA2M-3, as well as most other protostomia invertebrate A2Ms identified so far, have a serine residue in the catalytic histidine position instead of the conserved asparagine residue found in vertebrate A2Ms. This, as inferred from a carp C3 molecule in which the catalytic histidine is substituted by a serine, suggests A2Ms in lower invertebrates possibly bear C3-like opsonic activity. These FcA2Ms showed much lower similarity to each other than to the A2Ms in other shrimp species, further supported by pylogenetic analysis. FcA2M-1 was found to be expressed most highly in hemocytes and lymphoid organ, while FcA2M-2 was expressed most highly in the heart and lymphoid organ, with the lowest expression in hemocytes. Challenge by WSSV or Vibrio pathogen increased the FcA2M-1 mRNA level in both hemocytes and lymphoid organ. After challenge, FcA2M-2 showed up-regulation in lymphoid organ but not in hemocytes. These expression features indicate that the different types of A2M in F. chinesis carry out different functions and that they are not simply functionally redundant.

  9. Heat-shock protein 70 expression in shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis during thermal and immune-challenged stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhenyu; JIAO Chuanzhen; XIANG Jianhai

    2004-01-01

    Using western immunoblotting, we obtained heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) induction data and distribution in different tissues from shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis during thermal and immune-challenged stresses. This is probably the first report of the effects of various stressors on the expression of HSP70 in shrimp. HSP70 was prominently induced in hepatopancreas and gills, but not in muscle, eyestalk and hemolymph, when the shrimp were exposed to heat shock and Vibrio anguillavium-challenged stresses. Cold shock and WSSV treatment had no significant effects on the levels of HSP70 expression in all tissues examined. HSP70 induction was greatest after 2 h exposure to heat shock stress, which was elevated after acute heat shock exposure of 10℃ above ambient temperature.

  10. Toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense induces oxidative stress and up-regulae Caspase gene (FcCasp) expression in gills of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis%塔玛亚历山大藻对中国明对虾鳃组织的氧化胁迫和对 Caspase 基因(FcCasp)表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁忠秀; 李健; 任海; 葛倩倩; 葛红星; 李吉涛

    2014-01-01

    Toxic microalgae outbreaks have caused significant economic losses in the Chinese aquaculture industry, including the aquaculture of shrimp. Blooms that involve phycotoxins, especially paralytic shellfish poison(PSP), are dangerous, harm the shrimps and cause losses in marine production. Previous studies mainly focused on the toxic ef-fects on shellfish and fish, rather than shrimp. This study investigated the inductive effect of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense(ATHK), a producer of PSP, on oxidative stress and the expression of a caspase gene (FcCasp) in the gills of the Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, an important mariculture species in China. F. chinensis individuals were exposed to 200 and 1 000 cells/mL of A. tamarense, and F. chinensis individuals cultured with filtered seawater were set as control. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content and FcCasp expression in the gills were analyzed at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after exposure. The results showed that SOD activity, GST activity, MDA content and FcCasp expression exposed to 200 cells/mL of A. tamarense generally increased at first and then decreased with increasing exposure time. However, when exposed to 1000 cells/mL of A. tamarense, SOD activity increased and then decreased with increasing exposure time, and was significantly(P<0.05) inhibited between 24 and 96 h. GST activity was significantly(P<0.05) inhibited, except at 3-and 48 h-post treatment. The changes in SOD and GST activities of F. chinensis in this study suggest that these enzymes were actively involved in the detoxification process in gills of F. chinensis. The MDA content and FcCasp expression of F. chinensis exposed to 1 000 cells/mL of A. tamarense increased with increased exposure time, and displayed a time-dependent response relationship. The FcCasp transcript level in the gills of F. chinensis exposed to A. tamarense was positively and

  11. A Study on the Contribution of Different Food Sources to Shrimp Growth in an Intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis Pond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yuepeng; MA Shen; TIAN Xiangli; DONG Shuanglin

    2008-01-01

    Stable isotope methods can be used to determine the food sources and prey items of aquatic organisms accurately andreliably.This study examined the relative contribution of artificial foods (the formulated feed and Artemia) and natural foods toshrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond by using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes.The results showed that the nutrition utilization efficiency of the harvested shrimp was low,only 33.18% of feed nitrogen and 21.73% of feed carbon beingconverted to shrimp flesh.Our stable isotope results showed that the shrimp obtained nutrition for maximum growth from artificialfoods,whose contribution was 93.5%,with the remaining attributed to the natural foods.However,there was 0.94 t harvested shrimpderived from natural foods (the rest of 13.56t harvested shrimp derived from artificial foods) in lha intensive pond with a shrimpproduction of 14.50 tha-1.Therefore,unit area shrimp production can be increased by increasing the contribution proportion of natu-ral foods in intensive shrimp farming.

  12. THE EFFECT OF LIGHT COLOUR ON THE DIEL RHYTHM OF OXYGEN CONSUMPTION RATE IN JUVENILE CHINESE SHRIMP, FENNEROPENAEUS CHINENSIS%光色对中国明对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)稚虾耗氧率昼夜变化节律的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 王芳; 钟大森; 黄国强

    2011-01-01

    The effect of light colour on the diel rhythm of the oxygen consumption rate in ju venile Fenneropenaeus chinensis with average wet body weight of (5. 507 ±0. 147)g was ex amined under a flowing water apparatus at 25. 0±0. 5℃, and the four light colours were: natural light (590nm), yellow light (580nm), green light (525 nm), and blue light (435nm) . Respectively. The results were as follows: 1 under natural light, yellow light, and green light, the oxygen consumption rate of F. Chinensis showed definite diel rhythm, the positive peak appeared at dark condition, while the negative peak appeared at illumination condition. Mean oxygen consumption rate of F. Chinensis at dark condition was significantly higher than that at illumination one (P0. 05), but the diurnal mean oxygen consumption rate of F. Chinensis under natural light was significantly lower than that under blue light treatment.%采用流水装置测定了中国明对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)稚虾在4种先色处理下耗氧率的昼夜变化.实验设四种光色处理,分别为自然光(590nm)、黄光(580nm)、绿光(525 nm)和蓝光(435nm),光照周期为14L:10D,水温为25.0±0.5℃,实验虾的规格为(5.507±0.147)g.主要实验结果如下:1、在自然光、黄光和绿光下,中国明对虾耗氧率的昼夜波动较大,对虾耗氧率的高峰出现在夜间,低谷出现在日间,且对虾在夜间的平均耗氧率显著高于日间(P<0.05);在蓝光下,中国明对虾耗氧率的昼夜波动较小,对虾耗氧率的高峰出现在日间,低谷出现在夜间,且对虾在夜间和日间的平均耗氧率差异不显著(P>0.05);2、在自然光、黄光和绿光下,中国明对虾的日平均耗氧率差异不昱著(P>0.05),而对虾日平均耗氧率在蓝光和自然光下的差异显著(P<0.05).

  13. The genetic diversity and differentiation of shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in the Yellow Sea revealed by polymorphism in control region of mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis is a commercially important species in northern China and Korea. In the present study, the genetic diversity of five populations collected from Qingdao (QD, Rizhao (RZ of China, and Narodo Island (KN, Taean (KT, Yeongguang (KY of Korea in the Yellow Sea was investigated using the mitochondrial control region (CR. The length of the amplified partial mitochondrial control region (mtCR ranged from 600 to 622 bp, and the sequence variations were distributed among 13 polymorphic sites. The pattern of nucleotide substitution was biased in favour of transitions over transversions in variable sites, including 12 transitions (si, 4 A↔G and 8 T↔C changes and only one was transversion (sv, 1 T↔G changes. Altogether, 24 unique haplotypes were identified from five populations in Yellow Sea. The overall haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.368 - 0.421 and 0.052 - 0.079, respectively, and the lowest genetic diversity was found in QD population. There was no differentiation between the two Chinese populations (FST = 0.039. Within the Korean populations, there was a slight differentiation (FST = 0.075, p < 0.05 between KN and KT. The relative bigger differentiation was shown between RZ and KN population (FST = 0.170, p < 0.05. The relative further genetic distance was shown between RZ and KN population as well as between QD and KN population, while the relative closer genetic distance was shown between KT and KY, and between KT and RZ population. The low variability in the mitochondrial control region among F. chinensis in the Yellow Sea indicated the low genetic diversity in comparison to other shrimp species. The results suggested a slight population differentiation among F. chinensis populations. Such information will assist in sustainable use, management, and conservation of the species

  14. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Budget of a Polyculture System of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus), Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculenta) and Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junwei; DONG Shuanglin; GAO Qinfeng; ZHU Changbo

    2014-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish (Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system;while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7%(N) and 29.2%(P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9%and 38%higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well;it scavenged 14.3%and 70.8%of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  15. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  16. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of c-type lysozyme from Indian shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Karthik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the multitudinal antimicrobial effects of recombinant lysozyme from Fenneropenaeus indicus (rFi-Lyz in comparison with commercially available recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant rFi-Lyz using several Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi in comparison with rHEWL has been evaluated. rFi-Lyz was expressed and purified using Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The effect of rFi-Lyz in the growth of yeast Candida krusei, plant molds Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani was assessed by well diffusion assay in petri plates with potato dextrose agar. Results: rFi-Lyz exhibited high inhibitory activity on Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Among various Gram negative bacteria tested Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibited the highest inhibition followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae. rFi-Lyz also exhibited significant inhibition on two marine pathogens Aeromonas veronii and Vibrio alginolyticus. Among the various fungal strains tested, rFi-Lyz inhibited the growth of budding yeast Candida krusei significantly. Further the growth of two other plants fungus Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were retarded by rFi-Lyz in the plate inhibition assay. Conclusions: rFi-Lyz exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity like a natural antibiotic on various pathogenic bacteria and fungal strains.

  17. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of c-type lysozyme from Indian shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viswanathan Karthik; Thomas Ancy; Dharmaraj Ramkumar; Narayanasamy Mathivanan; Rangarajan Badri Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the multitudinal antimicrobial effects of recombinant lysozyme fromFenneropenaeus indicus (rFi-Lyz) in comparison with commercially available recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL).Methods:Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant rFi-Lyz using several Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi in comparison with rHEWL has been evaluated. rFi-Lyz was expressed and purified using Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The effect of rFi-Lyz in the growth of yeast Candida krusei, plant molds Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani was assessed by well diffusion assay in petri plates with potato dextrose agar.Results: rFi-Lyz exhibited high inhibitory activity on Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Among various Gram negative bacteria testedKlebsiella pneumoniae exhibited the highest inhibition followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae. rFi-Lyz also exhibited significant inhibition on two marine pathogens Aeromonas veronii and Vibrio alginolyticus. Among the various fungal strains tested, rFi-Lyz inhibited the growth of budding yeast Candida krusei significantly. Further the growth of two other plants fungus Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were retarded by rFi-Lyz in the plate inhibition assay.Conclusions: rFi-Lyz exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity like a natural antibiotic on various pathogenic bacteria and fungal strains.

  18. Genetic parameters for cold tolerance and body weight of Chinese fleshy prawn,Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenjia; LUAN Sheng; LUO Kun; SUI Juan; LU Xia; WANG Qingyin; KONG Jie

    2016-01-01

    The inability ofFenneropenaeus chinensis to tolerate low temperatures is of major economic concern in temperate climates, as it reduces their growing season and leads to over-winter mortality. In this study, the heritability of body weight under low grow-out temperature and cold tolerance inF. chinensis were first investigated and estimated using 88 ful-sib families, which might provide crucial information in Chinese fleshy prawn breeding programs. The heritability for body weight under suitable and low temperature ofF. chinensis were both moderate (0.158 0±0.307 5 and 0.132 0±0.026 9 respectively); the large coefficient of variation (approximately 21%) and moderate estimate of heritability for body weight indicated substantial potential for selective breeding. The heritability estimate for cold tolerance was low (0.019 2±0.023 5), and showed no significant differences from zero (P>0.05). A weak genetic correlation between cold tolerance and body weight was also estimated in the present study, also showing no significant differences from zero (P>0.05). Thus, more research needs to be conducted on the more accurate heritability estimate of cold tolerance and genetic correlations between traits inF. chinensis to further improve the achievement of breeding goals.

  19. Haemocyanin content of shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) associated with white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio harveyi infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanhong; Xing, Jing; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Haemocyanin (Hc) is frequently reported to vary significantly by physiological status and environmental stress in Crustaceans. In this paper, the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis was infected with different concentrations of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi. Then, the variation of Hc and total protein content of the haemolymph (TPCH) were investigated using the established double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and Coomassie brilliant blue method, respectively. The results showed that the Hc content peaked at 12 h post-infection (PI) in the 10(-2), 10(-4) and 10(-6) viral supernatant (VS) groups, and the maximum was 93.03 ± 2.55 mg ml(-1), 77.57 ± 6.02 mg ml(-1) and 70.25 ± 3.96 mg ml(-1), respectively. TPCH reached the maximum of 108.18 ± 1.36 mg ml(-1) and 103.49 ± 1.33 mg ml(-1) at 12 h PI in the 10(-2) and 10(-4) VS groups, respectively. The maximum was 96.94 ± 1.06 mg ml(-1) at 24 h PI in the 10(-6) VS group. In the V. harveyi infection groups, the Hc content reached a maximum of 87.97 ± 4.39 mg ml(-1) at 36 h PI in the 10(6) CFU ml(-1) group, 73.74 ± 4.38 mg ml(-1) and 72.47 ± 2.09 mg ml(-1) at 12 h PI in the 10(7) and 10(8) CFU ml(-1) groups, respectively. TPCH reached a maximum of 111.16 ± 0.86 mg ml(-1) at 36 h PI in the 10(6) CFU ml(-1) group, 100.41 ± 0.51 mg ml(-1) and 101.94 ± 0.47 mg ml(-1) at 12 h PI in the 10(7) and 10(8) CFU ml(-1) groups, respectively. These data showed that both Hc content and TPCH varied as the same extent after infection. The up-regulation of the Hc content at 6-36 h PI might be a reference threshold for shrimp infection.

  20. Chromosome Behavior of Heat Shock Induced Triploid in Fenneropenaeus Chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓军; 李富花; 相建海

    2003-01-01

    Triploidy was induced in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis by 30 + 0.5 ℃ heat shock treatment (initiated at 20 min after fertilization) for 10 min to inhibit the release of PB2 at 18.0℃ . The highest triploid rate obtained was 84.5% in nauplius stage. The effect of heat shock treatment on meiosis and cleavage of eggs was investigated in this work aimed to establish ef ficient procedures for triploid induction and to gain understanding of the mechanism of triploid production. Three pronuclei that could be observed in the treated eggs under fluorescence microscope developed into triploid embryos. Some abnormal chromosome behavior was observed in heat shocked eggs.

  1. Comparative growth and viability of hybrids between two populations of Chinese shrimp (Fennropenaeus chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yi; KONG Jie; YANG Cuihua

    2006-01-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis is confined to the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea in China and the West Coast of the Korean Peninsula. Intra- and intercross populations were produced between Rushany (YP) and Korean (KN) populations. Seven traits were recorded. The heterosis of hybrids was computed and comparison between treatments was performed by ANOVA. At the fourth month after post-larvae, six indexes of growth trait and viability showed a range of heterosis, ranging from 0.514% to 14.950%. At the fifth month after post-larvae, six indexes of growth trait and viability ranged from -9.000% to 19.090%. The negative heterosis was observed in CL, HST and viability. The heterosis of KN♀×YP♂ tended generally to increase as the age of the Chinese shrimp increased while the heterosis of YP♀×KN♂ tended to decrease. The results indicated that the viability of reciprocal hybrids were not significantly different (P>0.05) from their parents during the experiment. The result of ANOVA indicated that the F1 hybrids were significantly different (P<0.05) in WST and TW at the fourth month. The multiple comparisons of LSD test indicated that the hybrids of YP♀×KN♂ were significantly different (P<0.05) from their parents in TW. The hybrids of YP♀×KN♂ were significantly different (P<0.05) from the other three combinations in WST. At the fifth months, the F1 hybrids had significant difference (P<0.05) in body weight while other traits showed no significant differences (P>0.05) from their parents. The multiple comparisons of LSD test indicated that the hybrids of KN♀×YP♂ were significantly different (P<0.05) from the KN parents in TW. The results indicate that in experimental conditions, the F1 hybrids created from two populations of Chinese shrimp showed a certain level of heterosis for growth performance and viability. The crossing scheme may improve growth performance and viability in Chinese shrimp, but the improvement may be limited because effective

  2. Functional Diversity of Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factor Isoforms in Shrimp and Their Characters Related to Antiviral Activity

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is a small protein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which has potential application in the disease control. Previously, we isolated seven ALF isoforms from the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. In the present study, their distributions in tissues of shrimp were analyzed and the data showed that different isoforms had different expression profiles, which suggested that they might have different functions. Then, the functions of different...

  3. Yearly, pond, lineage and family variation of hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus (HPV) copy number in banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibb, Wayne; Quinn, Jane; Kuballa, Anna; Powell, Dan; Remilton, Courtney; Nguyen, Nguyen Hong

    2015-06-01

    Hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus (HPV) has been reported from a variety of shrimp species around the world, including Australia, and thought to impact negatively on production, but until now there was scant information available on variation of HPV over time, ponds and shrimp lineages or families, information that could be used to manage or reduce virus levels. Here we report HPV copy number estimated using qPCR from 1500 individual shrimp sampled over three years and encompassing 91 ponds, 21 breeding groups or lineages and 40 families. HPV copy number variation between ponds was used by farm management as a criterion to choose prospective broodstock (candidates were taken from low HPV ponds). Despite such choice, HPV levels in farmed animals were not reduced from 2011 to 2013. Accordingly, the hypothesis that HPV levels can be reduced over time simply by considering average HPV levels in ponds alone is rejected. Different lines of shrimp within the same farm had different HPV levels, but as lines were raised separately, the line differences could be due to either genetic or environmental differences, the latter including possible different rearing effects and differences in vertical transmission. There were large (up to 2-3 LOG fold) differences of HPV levels between families bred and grown together contemporaneously, and the heritability for HPV copy number was estimated to be moderate to large (0.40 ± 0.13). Apart from genetic differences, differences of vertical transmission from dams may contribute to the between family differences, in any case we postulate that selection between families could be an effective method to reduce HPV levels. HPV levels were not genetically correlated with performance traits such as body weight or length, so selection for HPV level should not adversely affect production characteristics. This is the first evidence for an aquacultured species that viral levels, as opposed to survival/resistance to viruses, may have a substantial

  4. Primary study of phylogeny and genetic structure of Banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis in Laft and Sirik estuaries in the Persian Gulf using mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Sourinejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis is one of the most important shrimp species in the Persian Gulf compromising about 60% of total shrimp catch in Hormozgan Province. Regarding the importance of banana shrimp in fisheries industry, phylogeny and genetic structure of the population of this in Laft and Sirik estuaries in the Persian Gulf was investigated using mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 10 shrimps including 448 aligned base pairs yielded one monomorphic locus, 447 polymorphic loci and seven haplotypes. No insertions and deletions were observed. F- statistic parameter at 95% level of confidence was 0.14 and was not significant between the two populations (P value= 0.08. Phylogenetic trees did not show a differentiated geographical structure between the two regions. Mean values of Tajima’s D and Fu’s Fs between the regions were 2.61 and 10.33, respectively. Insignificant values of these tests are indicative of no expansion of F. merguiensis population between the two regions. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the shrimps were 0.933 ± 0.004 and 0.802 ± 0.672, respectively for the two regions. The results of this study revealed that F. merguiensis populations of Laft and Sirik estuaries had high levels of genetic diversity but regarding the value of F- statistic parameter and its significance level, the existence of genetically similar populations could not be deducted with high level of confidence. The results of present study could be considered in fisheries management for restocking programs and conservation of genetic diversity of populations.

  5. Identification of three different types of serine proteases (one SP and two SPHs) in Chinese white shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2011-02-01

    Serine proteases (SPs) and serine protease homologs (SPHs) participate in digestion, embryonic development, blood coagulation, and immune defense responses. In this paper, we identify one SP and two SPHs, including a masquerade SPH (FcMas), a CUB domain containing SP (FcCUBSP), and a single domain containing SPH (FcSPH2) in Chinese white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. FcMas has a Gly-rich region formed by three repeats of LGGQGGG, a clip domain and a C-terminal SP-like domain. Absence of Ser catalytic residue results in the loss of serine protease activity of FcMas, which then functions as an SPH. FcCUBSP has a signal peptide, followed by a CUB domain and an SP domain. FcSPH2 has a signal peptide and an SP-like domain. Loss of one catalytic residue (H) makes FcSPH2 catalytically inactive, which is considered an SPH. Phylogenetic analysis shows that FcMas and other SPHs from shrimp or insect are classified into one group. FcSPH2 is grouped in the chymotrypsin family. RT-PCR results show that FcMas mRNA is mainly distributed in hemocytes and gills. FcCUBSP is only detected in gills, whereas FcSPH2 is found in hepatopancreas only. QRT-PCR is used to analyze changes of FcMas, FcCUBSP and FcSPH2 in some tissues challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Vibrio. FcMas in hemocytes is down-regulated by WSSV or Vibrio challenge, and down-regulated by WSSV in gills. However, it is up-regulated upon Vibrio challenge in gills. FcCUBSP in gills and FcSPH2 in hepatopancreas are up-regulated upon WSSV or Vibrio challenge. Results suggest the roles of FcMas, FcCUBSP and FcSPH2 in shrimp's innate immunity.

  6. Genetic improvement on Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeuschinensis): growth and viability performance in F1 hybrids of different populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yi; KONG Jie; LI Wendong; LUAN Sheng; YANG Cuihua; WANG Qingyin

    2008-01-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis distributed in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China and the west coast of the Korean Peninsula. Different geographical populations represent potentially different genetic resources. To learn further the characteristics of different geographical population, crosses among two wild and three farmed populations were produced. The two wild populations were from the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea (WYP), and the west coast of the Korean Peninsula and coast (WKN). The three farmed populations included the offspring of first generation of wild shrimp from coast in Korea (FKN), the Huang Hai (the Yellow Sea in Chinese) No. 1 (HH 1), and JK98. The phenotypes growth and survival rates of these populations were compared to confirm the feasibility for crossbreeding. The body length (BL), carapace length (CL), carapace width (CW), height of the second and third abdominal segment (HST), width of the second and third abdominal segment (WST), length of the first abdominal segment (LF), length of the last abdominal segment (LL), live body weight (BW), and survival rate were measured. Different combinations were statistically performed with ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple significant difference (P<0.05) in BL, CL, HST, LL, and BW; and insignificant difference (P0.05) in other growth traits and survival rate. The results of Duncan's Multiple Range Test are that BL and CL of was the best combination in all growth traits. Therefore, hybridization can introduce the variation to base populations. The systematic selection program based on additive genetic performance may be more effective than crossbreeding.

  7. Comparison of protein expression profiles of the hepatopancreas in Fenneropenaeus chinensis challenged with heat-inactivated Vibrio anguillarum and white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Jiquan; Zhang, Jinkang; Huang, Bingxin; Yu, Yang; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-02-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Chinese shrimp) culture industry, like other Penaeidae culture, has been seriously affected by the shrimp diseases caused by bacteria and virus. To better understand the mechanism of immune response of shrimp to different pathogens, proteome research approach was utilized in this study. Firstly, the soluble hepatopancreas protein samples in adult Chinese shrimp among control, heat-inactivated Vibrio-challenged and white spot syndrome virus-infected groups were separated by 2-DE (pH range, 4-7; sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and pH range, 3-10; tricine-SDS-PAGE). Then the differentially expressed protein spots (≥1.5-fold or ≤0.67-fold averagely of controls) were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Using Mascot online database searching algorithm and SEQUEST searching program, 48 and 49 differentially expressed protein spots were successfully identified in response to Vibrio and white spot syndrome virus infection, respectively. Based on these results, we discussed the mechanism of immune response of the shrimp and shed light on the differences between immune response of shrimp toward Vibrio and white spot syndrome virus. This study also set a basis for further analyses of some key genes in immune response of Chinese shrimp.

  8. Expression profiles of penaeidin from Fenneropenaeus chinensis in response to WSSV and vibrio infection by real-time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bo; LIU Fengsong; XIANG Jianhai; LI Fuhua; GAO Hongwei

    2005-01-01

    Penaeidin from Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) has proved to be one of the most important antimicrobial peptides in the bodies of animals. The relative quantitative real-time PCR method is developed to study through time, the mRNA expression profile of penaeidin in the muscle and haemocyte tissue of Chinese shrimp infected with vibrio (Vibrio anguillarum) and WSSV (white spot syndrome virus). Research results showed that the same pathogens infection experiments produced similar gene expression profile in different tissues while different expression profiles appeared in the same tissues infected by different exterior pathogens. In vibrio infection experiments, a "U" like expression profile resulted. Expression levels of penaeidin increased and surpassed the non-stimulated level, indicating that penaeidin from Chinese shrimp has noticeable antimicrobial activities. In WSSV infection experiments, the expression profile appeared as an inverse "U" with the expression ofpenaeidin gradually decreasing to below baseline level afier 24 h.The expression of antimicrobial peptides gene in mRNA level in response to virus infection in shrimp showed that international mechanisms of virus to haemocytes and microbial to haemocytes are completely different. Decline of penaeidins expression levels may be due to haemocytes being destroyed by WSSV or that the virus can inhibit the expression of penaeidins by yet undiscovered modes. The expression profiles of penaeidin in response to exterior pathogen and the difference of expression profiles between vibrio and WSSV infection provided some clues to further understanding the complex innate immune mechanism in shrimp.

  9. Involvement of Fenneropenaeus chinensis Cathepsin C in antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Shi, Li-Jie; Liu, Ning; Chen, An-Jing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2012-10-01

    Cathepsin C (Cath C) is a lysosomal cysteine protease that belongs to the papain superfamily. Cath C is capable of activating many chymotrypsin-like serine proteases and is reported to be a central coordinator for the activation of many serine proteinases in immune and inflammatory cells. In this study, Cath C cDNA was cloned from Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Fc). The complete cDNA of Fc-Cath C in Chinese white shrimp was found to be 1445-base pairs (bp) long. It contained an open reading frame (ORF) 1356-bp long and encoded a 451-amino acid residue protein, including a 17-amino acid residue signal peptide. Real-time PCR analysis results indicated that Fc-Cath C was present in all the tissues detected and exhibited high level of transcription in the hepatopancreas. In hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills and intestine, Fc-Cath C was upregulated after stimulation by the Vibrio anguillarum and the white spot syndrome viruses (WSSVs). Replication of the WSSV increased after the injection of Fc-Cath C antiserum or knockdown Cath C by RNA interference. These results implied that Cath C might play a crucial role in the antiviral immune response of shrimp.

  10. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research.

  11. Influence of Agathi grandiflora active principles inhibit viral multiplication and stimulate immune system in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to

  12. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Fenneropenaeus chinensis hemocytes upon white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available To elucidate molecular responses of shrimp hemocytes to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was applied to investigate differentially expressed proteins in hemocytes of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis at 24 h post infection (hpi. Approximately 580 protein spots were detected in hemocytes of healthy and WSSV-infected shrimps. Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 26 protein spots were significantly up-regulated, and 19 spots were significantly down-regulated. By mass spectrometry, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO 1, cytosolic MnSOD, triosephosphate isomerase, tubulin alpha-1 chain, microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1, nuclear receptor E75 protein, vacuolar ATP synthase subunit B L form, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, arginine kinase, etc., amounting to 33 differentially modulated proteins were identified successfully. According to Gene Ontology annotation, the identified proteins were classified into nine categories, consisting of immune related proteins, stimulus response proteins, proteins involved in glucose metabolic process, cytoskeleton proteins, DNA or protein binding proteins, proteins involved in steroid hormone mediated signal pathway, ATP synthases, proteins involved in transmembrane transport and ungrouped proteins. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of three up-regulated proteins (SUMO, heat shock protein 70, and arginine kinase and one down-regulated protein (prophenoloxidase were further analyzed by real-time RT-PCR at the transcription level after WSSV infection. The results showed that SUMO and heat shock protein 70 were significantly up-regulated at each sampling time point, while arginine kinase was significantly up-regulated at 12 and 24 hpi. In contrast, prophenoloxidase was significantly down-regulated at each sampling time point. The results of this work provided preliminary data on proteins in shrimp hemocytes involved in WSSV infection.

  13. Cloning, sequencing and expression analysis of cDNA encoding a constitutive heat shock protein 70 (HSC70) in Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Chuanzhen; WANG Zaizhao; LI Fuhua; ZHANG Chengsong; XIANG Jianhai

    2004-01-01

    The cDNA encoding hsc70 of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis was cloned from hepatopancreas by RT-PCR based on its EST sequence. The full length cDNA of 2090 bp contained an open reading frame of 1956 nucleotides and partial 5′- and 3′-untranslated region(5′- and 3′-UTR). PCR amplification and sequencing analysis showed the existence of introns in the region of 1-547 bp, but they did not exist in the region of 548-2090 bp of hsc70 cDNA. When the deduced 652 amino acid sequence of HSC70 was compared with the members of HSP70 family from other organisms, the results showed 85.9% similarity with HSC71 from Oncorhynchus mykiss and HSC70 from Homo sapiens. It also exhibited 85.8% similarity with HSP70 from Mus musculu and 85.4% with HSC70 from Manduca sexta. Expression analysis showed that hsc70 mRNA was espressed constitutively in hepatopancreas, muscle, eyestalks, haemocytes, heart, ovary, intestine and gills in Fenneropenaeus chinensis. No difference could be detected on hsc70 mRNA level in muscle between heat-shocked and control animals.

  14. Foreign gene transfer into Chinese shrimps (Penaeus chinensis) with gene gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Plasmids pG DNA-RZ1 with a GFP (green fluorescent protein) reporter gene and a ribozyme gene incising penaeid white spot baculovirus (WSBV) were first introduced into the fertilized eggs of Chinese shrimps by gene gun. The treated and control samples of different development stages were observed with a fluorescent microscope. The transient expression of GFP gene was high in nauplius and zoea larvae. Results from RT-PCR and PCR for adults showed that the foreign genes had been transferred into the shrimps and had expressed the corresponding proteins. This work has established a transgenic method for penaeid shrimps, which will set base for the application of genetic engineering breeding into industry.

  15. Life cycle assessment of Chinese shrimp farming systems targeted for export and domestic sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Diana, James S; Keoleian, Gregory A; Lai, Qiuming

    2011-08-01

    We conducted surveys of six hatcheries and 18 farms for data inputs to complete a cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance for intensive (for export markets in Chicago) and semi-intensive (for domestic markets in Shanghai) shrimp farming systems in Hainan Province, China. The relative contribution to overall environmental performance of processing and distribution to final markets were also evaluated from a cradle-to-destination-port perspective. Environmental impact categories included global warming, acidification, eutrophication, cumulative energy use, and biotic resource use. Our results indicated that intensive farming had significantly higher environmental impacts per unit production than semi-intensive farming in all impact categories. The grow-out stage contributed between 96.4% and 99.6% of the cradle-to-farm-gate impacts. These impacts were mainly caused by feed production, electricity use, and farm-level effluents. By averaging over intensive (15%) and semi-intensive (85%) farming systems, 1 metric ton (t) live-weight of shrimp production in China required 38.3 ± 4.3 GJ of energy, as well as 40.4 ± 1.7 t of net primary productivity, and generated 23.1 ± 2.6 kg of SO(2) equiv, 36.9 ± 4.3 kg of PO(4) equiv, and 3.1 ± 0.4 t of CO(2) equiv. Processing made a higher contribution to cradle-to-destination-port impacts than distribution of processed shrimp from farm gate to final markets in both supply chains. In 2008, the estimated total electricity consumption, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions from Chinese white-leg shrimp production would be 1.1 billion kW·h, 49 million GJ, and 4 million metric tons, respectively. Improvements suggested for Chinese shrimp aquaculture include changes in feed composition, farm management, electricity-generating sources, and effluent treatment before discharge. Our results can be used to optimize market-oriented shrimp supply chains and promote more

  16. Construction of AFLP-based genetic linkase maps for the Chinese shrimp Fenneropaeneus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yi; KONG Jie; WANG WeiJi

    2008-01-01

    Fenneropaeneus chinensis is an important species in marine fishery resources and aquaculture in China. A genetic linkage map is essential for improving the efficiency of its breeding by marker-as-sisted selection and identifying commercially important genes. Linkage maps of F. Chinensis were constructed with an F2 mapping population (110 progenies) using amplified fragment length polymor-phic (AFLP) marker in this study. Fifty-five AFLP primer combinations produced 532 AFLP markers fitting for map strategy in mapping family. The markers with 3:1 segregating ratios were analyzed using F2 intercross model for the common linkage map, while the markers with 1:1 ratio were analyzed using the pseudo-testcross strategy. The maps of male, female and common were constructed. The female map included 103 markers that formed 28 linkage groups, covering a total length of 1090 cM. All mark-ers were linked with the linkage groups. Segregation distortion was observed for 6 of 103 markers in the female map. The average distance between markers was 14.53 cM and ranged from 4.4 to 24.8 cM. The male map included 144 markers that formed 35 linkage groups. Ten markers remained unlinked in male map. Segregation distortion was observed for 7 of 144 markers in the male map. The total dis-tance of male map covered 1617 cM. The average distance between markers was 16.36 cM. The male map was 32.6% longer than the female map, which may reflect sex-specific recombination rates in Chinese shrimp. The common map was composed of 216 markers, including in 44 linkage groups covering a total distance of 1772.1 cM. Two markers remained unlinked. No distorted markers of 216 markers were shown in the common map. The distance between markers was 10.42 cM. An average estimated genome size for the Chinese shrimp was 2420 cM, which was consistent with the relative size of the Penaeid genome. The distribution of AFLP markers was relatively even in chromosomes of Chi-nese shrimp maps. The linkage analysis

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of Fc-TSP from the Chinese shrimp Fennerpenaeus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun-Dong; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Kang, Cui-Jie; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2006-03-01

    Thrombospondins (TSPs) are extracellular, multidomain, calcium-binding glycoproteins that modulate cell behavior in homeostasis and during development, wound-healing, immune response and tumor growth of adult tissues in vertebrates. In invertebrates these proteins are a major component of cortical rods in mature oocytes. A fragment of a thrombospondin-like gene was generated by screening a subtractive cDNA library constructed from the hemocytes of Chinese shrimp, Fennerpenaeus chinensis. The full length F. chinensis cDNA of thrombospondin was cloned by 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'- and 5'-RACE). The complete cDNA sequence, named Fc-TSP, is 2886 bp and the open reading frame of the cDNA encodes a 938-residue protein that contains three ChtBD2 domains, an EGF domain, a TSP-3 domain and a common TSP-C (CTD) domain. The protein shares a high sequence identity with the mj-TSPa (46.3%), mj-TSPb (46.9%) and mj-TSPc (51.9%) of Marsupenaeus japonicus. The expression and distribution of Fc-TSP in both challenged and unchallenged shrimps were studied by Northern blot, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Northern blot analysis showed that the Fc-TSP transcripts were detected in the hemocytes, heart, intestine, stomach and ovary of both challenged and unchallenged shrimps, but the signal was much stronger in the challenged tissues. A strong hybridization signal was detected only in challenged hepatopancreas, with no signal in the unchallenged tissue. The RT-PCR showed that the Fc-TSP was detected in both challenged and unchallenged tissues including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, stomach, gills, intestine, spermary and ovary. Except for the ovary and spermary, the signal of challenged tissues was relatively stronger than that of unchallenged ones, especially in hepatopancreas. These results suggest that the thrombospondin was upregulated in the hemocytes, heart, intestine and stomach of challenged shrimp, and induced in the hepatopancreas of challenged

  18. [Ecological carrying capacity of Chinese shrimp stock enhancement in Laizhou Bay of East China based on Ecopath model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qun; Li, Xian-sen; Li, Zhong-yi; Jin, Xian-shi

    2013-04-01

    Stock enhancement is an important way of fishery resources conservation, which can increase the high quality fishery resources and improve the fish population structure. The study of ecological carrying capacity is the premise for the scientific implementation of stock enhancement. Based on the survey data of the fishery resources and ecological environment in Laizhou Bay from 2009 to 2010, an Ecopath mass-balance model of the Laizhou Bay ecosystem consisted of 26 functional groups was constructed, and applied to analyze the overall characteristics of the ecosystem, the trophic interrelationships, and the keystone species, and to calculate the ecological carrying capacity of Chinese shrimp enhancement. As for the overall characteristics of the ecosystem, the total primary production/total respiration (TPP/TR) was 1. 53, total primary production/total biomass (TPP/B) was 24.54, Finn' s cycling index was lower (0.07), surplus production was higher (434. 41 t km-2 a-1 ), and system connectance index was lower (0. 29), indicating that this ecosystem was at an early development stage. The analysis on the keystone species showed that Chinese shrimp was not a keystone species of this ecosystem. At present, the biomass of Chinese shrimp in the ecosystem was 0. 1143 t km-2, with a greater potential of continued enhancement. It did not exceed the ecological carrying capacity of 2. 9489 t km-2 when the biomass of the Chinese shrimp was increased by 25. 8 times.

  19. Proteomic identification of the related immune-enhancing proteins in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei stimulated with vitamin C and Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jie; Du, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yueling; Du, Hong; Guo, Lingling; Zhong, Mingqi; Cao, Jingsong; Wang, Xiuying

    2011-12-01

    Recently, strong interest has been focused on immunostimulants to reducing the diseases in shrimp aquaculture. However, information regarding to the related immune-enhancing proteins in shrimps is not available yet. In this study, vitamin C (Vc), Chinese herbs (CH), and the mixture of vitamin C and Chinese herbs (Mix) were tested for their enhancement on shrimp's immune activity. Compared with those in the control group, values of phenoloxidase (PO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and antibacterial (Ua) activity in the Mix-treated group were improved significantly 12 or 24 days after the treatment. The cumulative mortality was also lower in the Mix-treated group after infection with Vibrio parahemolyticus. Furthermore, comparative proteomic approach was used to assess the protein expression profile in shrimps. Approximately 220-290 and 300-400 protein spots were observed in the 2-DE gels. Among them, 29 and 28 altered proteins from hemocytes and hepatopancreas, respectively, were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis. The results revealed that the main altered proteins showed high homologies with Litopenaeus vannamei hemocyanin, hemolymph clottable protein, hemoglobin beta, cytosolic MnSOD, trypsin, cathepsin I(L) and zinc proteinase Mpc1. Together, these studies found Vc and CH were suitable immunostimulants to shrimp L. vannamei, and 7 altered proteins could be involved in the enhanced immune activities.

  20. Analyzing the flavor compounds in Chinese traditional fermented shrimp pastes by HS-SPME-GC/MS and electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; Yin, Li'ang; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Hou, Hu; Xue, Changhu

    2017-04-01

    Shrimp paste is a type of condiments with high nutritional value. However, the flavors of shrimp paste, particularly the non-uniformity flavors, have limited its application in food processing. In order to identify the characteristic flavor compounds in Chinese traditional shrimp pastes, five kinds of typical commercial products were evaluated in this study. The differences in the volatile composition of the five products were investigated. Solid phase micro-extraction method was employed to extract the volatile compounds. GC-MS and electronic nose were applied to identify the compounds, and the data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 62 volatile compounds were identified, including 8 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 3 ketones, 7 ethers, 7 acids, 3 esters, 6 hydrocarbons, 12 pyrazines, 2 phenols, and 7 other compounds. The typical volatile compounds contributing to the flavor of shrimp paste were found as follows: dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl tetrasulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 2, 3, 5-trimethyl-6-ethyl pyrazine, ethyl-2, 5-dimethyl-pyrazine, phenol and indole. Propanoic acid, butanoic acid, furans, and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone caused unpleasant odors, such as pungent and rancid odors. Principal component analysis showed that the content of volatile compounds varied depending on the processing conditions and shrimp species. These results indicated that the combinations of multiple analysis and identification methods could make up the limitations of a single method, enhance the accuracy of identification, and provide useful information for sensory research and product development.

  1. Distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin in Fenneropenaeus chinensis larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Li, Jitao; Chang, Zhiqiang

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin (NFLX) in Fenneropenaeus chinensis ovary and egg and newly hatched larvae. Mature parental shrimp were exposed to 4 or 10 mg L-1 NFLX for 2 or 5 d. Ovary and eggs of the shrimp were sampled after spawning in order to detect NFLX residue using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that NFLX residue accumulated in F. chinensis eggs after the parental exposure, with the highest residue detected in ovary. To examine the fate of NFLX residue in larvae, we further determined the concentration of NFLX residue in F. chinensis eggs and larvae at 4 different developmental stages after 24-h exposure. From the newly metamorphosed larvae (0 h post-metamorphosis, h.p.m), samples were taken at different time intervals to 72 h.p.m. HPLC assay showed that the concentrations of NFLX residue in zoea exposed to 4 and 10 mg L-1 NFLX were the highest at 1.5 h, i.e., 0.332 and 0.454 μg g-1, respectively. At the two NFLX exposure levels, the elimination time of half NFLX (half life) in nauplius was 45.36 and 49.85 h, respectively, followed by that in zoea (31.68 and 33.13 h), mysis larvae (42.24 and 47.28 h) and postlarvae (24.48 and 30.96 h). Both NFLX exposure levels had a germicidal effect. The distribution and elimination of NFLX residue in F. chinensis tissue, eggs and larvae correlated well with the drug exposure level. The disappearance of NFLX residue coincided with the larval growth, and the half-life of NFLX decreased with the larval development.

  2. Distribution and Elimination of Norfloxacin in Fenneropenaeus chinensis Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ming; LI Jian; ZHAO Fazhen; LI Jitao; CHANG Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin (NFLX) in Fenneropenaeus chinensis ovary and egg and newly hatched larvae.Mature parental shrimp were exposed to 4 or 10mg L-1 NFLX for 2 or 5d.Ovary and eggs of the shrimp were sampled after spawning in order to detect NFLX residue using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Results showed that NFLX residue accumulated in F.chinensis eggs after the parental exposure,with the highest residue detected in ovary.To examine the fate of NFLX residue in larvae,we further determined the concentration of NFLX residue in F.chinensis eggs and larvae at 4 different developmental stages after 24-h exposure.From the newly metamorphosed larvae (0h post-metamorphosis,h.p.m),samples were taken at different time intervals to 72 h.p.m.HPLC assay showed that the concentrations of NFLX residue in zoea exposed to 4 and 10mgL-1 NFLX were the highest at 1.5h,i.e.,0.332 and 0.454μgg-1,respectively.At the two NFLX exposure levels,the elimination time of half NFLX (half life) in nauplius was 45.36 and 49.85 h,respectively,followed by that in zoea (31.68 and 33.13 h),mysis larvae (42.24 and 47.28 h) and postlarvae (24.48 and 30.96 h).Both NFLX exposure levels had a germicidal effect.The distribution and elimination of NFLX residue in F.chinensis tissue,eggs and larvae correlated well with the drug exposure level.The disappearance of NFLX residue coincided with the larval growth,and the half-life of NFLX decreased with the larval development.

  3. Report on Pontoniinae shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) collected by Joint Chinese German Marine Biology Expeditions to Hainan Island, South China Sea Ⅱ.Harpiliopsis, Ischnopontonia, Jocaste, Palaemonella, Periclimenaeus, Periclimenella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新正; 刘瑞玉

    2003-01-01

    The present paper reports 9 species of pontoniine shrimps collected from Hainan Island, South China Sea, by the Joint Chinese German Marine Biology Expeditions, in which, Periclimenaeus arabicus (Calman, 1939) and Periclimenaeus hecate (Nobili, 1904) are recorded for the first time from Hainan Island.

  4. Functional Diversity of Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factor Isoforms in Shrimp and Their Characters Related to Antiviral Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF is a small protein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which has potential application in the disease control. Previously, we isolated seven ALF isoforms from the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. In the present study, their distributions in tissues of shrimp were analyzed and the data showed that different isoforms had different expression profiles, which suggested that they might have different functions. Then, the functions of different isoforms were studied by analyzing the antibacterial and antiviral activities of the functional domain of ALFs, the LPS-binding domain (LBD, which were synthesized by chemical methods. Different ALFs showed distinct antibacterial and antiviral activities, which were consistent with their diverse tissue distribution patterns. Sequence analysis on the LBD domain of different isoforms revealed that an identical lysine residue site was specifically conserved in peptides with anti-WSSV activity. In order to confirm whether this lysine residue is critical to the antiviral activity of the peptide, new peptides were synthesized by changing residues at this site. Changing the lysine residue at the specific site to other amino acid residue, the antiviral activity of the peptide apparently decreased. While replacing other residue with a lysine residue at this site in LBD peptide without anti-WSSV activity, the peptide will obtain the antiviral activity to WSSV. These results not only showed us a comprehensive understanding on the function of ALFs from F. chinensis, but also provided clues for the development of ALFs as potential therapeutic drugs to WSSV.

  5. Functional diversity of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoforms in shrimp and their characters related to antiviral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shihao; Guo, Shuyue; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-04-27

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is a small protein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which has potential application in the disease control. Previously, we isolated seven ALF isoforms from the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. In the present study, their distributions in tissues of shrimp were analyzed and the data showed that different isoforms had different expression profiles, which suggested that they might have different functions. Then, the functions of different isoforms were studied by analyzing the antibacterial and antiviral activities of the functional domain of ALFs, the LPS-binding domain (LBD), which were synthesized by chemical methods. Different ALFs showed distinct antibacterial and antiviral activities, which were consistent with their diverse tissue distribution patterns. Sequence analysis on the LBD domain of different isoforms revealed that an identical lysine residue site was specifically conserved in peptides with anti-WSSV activity. In order to confirm whether this lysine residue is critical to the antiviral activity of the peptide, new peptides were synthesized by changing residues at this site. Changing the lysine residue at the specific site to other amino acid residue, the antiviral activity of the peptide apparently decreased. While replacing other residue with a lysine residue at this site in LBD peptide without anti-WSSV activity, the peptide will obtain the antiviral activity to WSSV. These results not only showed us a comprehensive understanding on the function of ALFs from F. chinensis, but also provided clues for the development of ALFs as potential therapeutic drugs to WSSV.

  6. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  7. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  8. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandran Shalini; Abdul Razack Nazar; Mohideen Abdul Badhul Haq; Selvaraju Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus) infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).Methods:Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph.Results:The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe) infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe) & 16.87% (low)] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low). Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  9. Growth performance and immunological and antioxidant status of Chinese shrimp, Fennerpenaeus chinensis reared in bio-floc culture system using probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Su; Min, EunYoung; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Koo, Ja-Keun; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-11-01

    Chinese shrimp Fennerpenaeus chinensis (mean length 1.86 ± 0.15 cm, and weight 137.4 ± 12.7 mg) were reared in the different concentrations of bio-floc (control, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140%) for 90 days. The growth rate was significantly increased over 100% bio-floc concentrations. In the immunological parameters, the gene expression of proPO and lysozyme was considerably increased over 120% bio-floc concentrations. The gene expression of SP was notably elevated at 140% bio-floc concentration. In the antioxidant enzymes, the activity of SOD was considerably decreased over 80% bio-floc concentrations. A notable decline in the activity of CAT was observed over 120% bio-floc concentrations. The results indicate that rearing of Chinese shrimp in bio-floc system can induce the increase of growth performance, enhancement of immune responses, and reduction of oxidative stress.

  10. Screening white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-resistant molecular markers from Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingying; Meng, Xianhong; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Wang, Qingyin; Zheng, Yongyun

    2017-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-resistant molecular markers were screened from the selectively bred new variety `Huanghai No. 2' of Fenneropenaeus chinensis using unlabeled-probe high-resolution melting (HRM) technique. After the artificial infection with WSSV, the first 96 dead shrimps and the last 96 surviving shrimps were collected, representing WSSV-susceptible and -resistant populations, respectively. The genotypes at well-developed 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) loci were obtained. As revealed in the Chi-square test, 3 SNPs, genotype A/A of contig C364-89AT, genotype A/A of C2635-527CA and genotype C/T of contig C12355-592CT, were positively correlated with disease-resistance traits. Other 2 SNPs, genotype G/G of contig C283-145AG and genotype C/C of contig C12355-592CT, were negatively correlated. Moreover, analysis with BlastX program for disease-resistant SNPs indicated that 3 contigs, Contig283, Contig364 and Contig12355, matched to the functional genes of effector caspase of Penaeus monodon, peptide transporter family 1-like protein, and 40S ribosomal protein S2 of Perca flavescens with high sequence similarity. The results will be helpful to provide theoretical and technical supports for molecular marker-assisted selective breeding of F. chinensis.

  11. The Complete Sequence of Mitochondrial COⅡ Gene of Fenneropenaeus chinensis and Its Applicability as a Marker for Phylogenetic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shanshan; KONG Xiaoyu; LI Yulong; XU Hui

    2007-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅱ (COⅡ) gene of Penaeinae shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis was cloned and sequenced. The gene is 688 bp in length and codes for 229 amino acids. It shows 83.2%, 87.0% and 83.8% sequence similarity to Marsupenaeus Japonicus, Penaeus monodon and Farfantepenaeus notialis, respectively. The A+T content of the whole gene and that at the third position of codons are 64.7% and 78.2%, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship between F. chinensis and three other species representing genera Farfanatepenaeus, Marsupenaeus and Penaeus was analyzed. Results showed that the genetic distances among the four taxa ranged from 0.144 0 to 0.200 5, exceeding those estimated with COⅠ and partial 16S rRNA gene sequences among Marsupenaeus, Litopenaeus and Melicertus, and being therefore larger than the value among subgenera. It has been suggested that the COⅡ gene has a faster evolutionary rate than that of the COⅠ gene and partial 16S rRNA gene and could be used for phylogenetic analysis at genus or species level. The results of the present study indicated that Farfantepenaeus, Fenneropenaeus, Marsupenaeus and Penaeus are at a higher phylogenetic level than subgenus, which supports the opinion of the elevation of phylogenetic status of the four subgenera to genus level.

  12. SUMO and SUMO-Conjugating Enzyme E2 UBC9 Are Involved in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Tang

    Full Text Available In previous work, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO in hemocytes of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis was found to be up-regulated post-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection using proteomic approach. However, the role of SUMO in viral infection is still unclear. In the present work, full length cDNAs of SUMO (FcSUMO and SUMO-conjugating enzyme E2 UBC9 (FcUBC9 were cloned from F. chinensis using rapid amplification of cDNA ends approach. The open reading frame (ORF of FcSUMO encoded a 93 amino acids peptide with the predicted molecular weight (M.W of 10.55 kDa, and the UBC9 ORF encoded a 160 amino acids peptide with the predicted M.W of 18.35 kDa. By quantitative real-time RT-PCR, higher mRNA transcription levels of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were detected in hemocytes and ovary of F. chinensis, and the two genes were significantly up-regulated post WSSV infection. Subsequently, the recombinant proteins of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3, and employed as immunogens for the production of polyclonal antibody (PAb. Indirect immunofluorescence assay revealed that the FcSUMO and UBC9 proteins were mainly located in the hemocytes nuclei. By western blotting, a 13.5 kDa protein and a 18.7 kDa protein in hemocytes were recognized by the PAb against SUMO or UBC9 respectively. Furthermore, gene silencing of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were performed using RNA interference, and the results showed that the number of WSSV copies and the viral gene expressions were inhibited by knockdown of either SUMO or UBC9, and the mortalities of shrimp were also reduced. These results indicated that FcSUMO and FcUBC9 played important roles in WSSV infection.

  13. Effect of Different Diet Combinations on WSSV Load and Survival Rate of Fenneropenaeus chinensis Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Guangxia; Meng Xianhong; Kong Jie; Cao Baoxiang; Liu Ning; Zhang Qingwen; Luo Kun; Li Zhanjun

    2015-01-01

    Using microalgae( SA),artificial feed( AF),Brachionus plicatilis( BP) and brine shrimp larvae( BS),four diets including SA + AF,SA + AF + BP,SA + AF + BS and SA + AF + BP + BS were formulated and used to rear Fenneropenaeus chinensis larvae. The fertilized eggs fed with SA + AF were divided into disinfection group with iodophor and untreated group,and the fertilized eggs fed with other diets were all disinfected with iodophor. The survival rates,body weight and WSSV load of post larvae at each stage were compared. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the survival rate of prawns at the N-Z stage by feeding with different diets( P > 0. 05),but the survival rate of prawns fed with BP was higher than others( P 0. 05); prawns fed with CF + AF and AF had significant difference with the other two groups( P 0. 05). WSSV artificial infection test showed that the accumulated mortality of prawns fed with four diets were higher than 90%,and the difference was not significant( P > 0. 05).

  14. ISSR-PCR技术在对虾中的应用初步研究%Preliminary study on the application of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR)-PCR technique in Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟继; 孔杰

    2002-01-01

    采用ISSR(Inter Simple Sequence Repeats)技术对中国对虾(Penaeus chinensis)进行了PCR扩增.优化了PCR反应体系和反应参数,对PCR产物进行聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳和银染检测.从100条ISSR引物中筛选了40条有清晰产物的引物,每条引物检测到的位点数从1到19不等,平均每条引物可检测到位点数为7.7个.实验发现:中国对虾简单重复序列区主要由两碱基循环组成.通过分析ISSR-PCR技术本身的原理,探讨了该技术相对于同工酶检测和RAPD技术在遗传多样性分析中的优势所在,以及该技术用于遗传标识的确认和遗传图谱构建方面的前景.

  15. Crystal Shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: One egg white, 500 grams of shredded river shrimp, 10 grams of soda, 750 grams of cooking oil, sesame oil, sugar, salt, corn starch and hot pepper, and half ladle of soup-stock. Directions: 1. Clean the shrimp with salt, then wash away the salt and strain off the

  16. pH胁迫对中国明对虾抗氧化系统酶活力及基因表达的影响%Effects of pH stress on antioxidant system enzyme activities and gene expression of Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芸; 李健; 李吉涛; 何玉英; 常志强; 刘德月

    2011-01-01

    Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, is an important mariculture species in China. Recently deteriorated pond environment due to intensive culture caused increased incidence of stress-induced diseases. It is well known that environmental stress can induce oxidative stress. However, there is little information about the effects of pH changes on antioxidant system of Chinese shrimp. In this study, Chinese shrimps were exposed to water of pH7.0 and 9.0 for 148 h and pH8.2 was set as control. Total antioxidation activity(T-AOC),anti-superoxide anion activity, catalase (CAT) activity and the expression CAT, peroxiredoxin (Prx) gene were analyzed in gill, hepatopancreas, muscle and haemocytes of Chinese shrimp after 0 h, 3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h,96 h, 120 h and 148 h exposure. The T-AOC, anti-superoxide anion activity, CAT activity and the gene expression of CAT in different tissues increased within 12-14 h of pH stress. However, they were inhibited in the extending periods of pH stress time. The Prx gene expression in heaptopancreas and muscle gradually increased, but decreased in gill and haemocytes with pH stress time prolonging. The enzyme activities and gene expression of antioxidant system in gills first reached its highest level in pH 9.0 group, faster than other tissues in 9.0 group. And the antioxidant enzyme activities in hepatopancreas in pH 7.0 group changed faster than in other tissues. The results indicate that the antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression of Chinese shrimp were induced by short-term pH stress which is the response to oxidative stress, while they were inhibited with pH stress time prolonging. It was shown that long time neutral and alkaline-induced oxidative stress probably caused the antioxidant defense system injury in Chinese shrimp. Gills and hepatopancreas could be the sensitive tissues to high and low pH stress, respectively.%研究了pH胁迫对中国明对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)抗氧化系统的影响,将

  17. Environmental and human health risks of antimicrobials used in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Chang, Zhiqiang; Van den Brink, Paul J; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Rico, Andreu

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the environmental fate of antimicrobials applied in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China and to assess their potential risks for surrounding aquatic ecosystems, for the promotion of antimicrobial resistance in target and non-target bacteria and for consumers eating shrimp products that contain antimicrobial residues. For this, we first used the results of an environmental monitoring study performed with the antimicrobial sulfamethazine to parameterize and calibrate the ERA-AQUA model, a mass balance model suited to perform risk assessments of veterinary medicines applied in aquaculture ponds. Next, a scenario representing F. chinensis production in China was built and used to perform risk assessments for 21 antimicrobials which are regulated for aquaculture in China. Results of the model calibration showed a good correspondence between the predicted and the measured sulfamethazine concentrations, with differences within an order of magnitude. Results of the ecological risk assessment showed that four antimicrobials (levofloxacin, sarafloxacin, ampicillin, sulfadiazine) are expected to have adverse effects on primary producers, while no short-term risks were predicted for invertebrates and fish exposed to farm wastewater effluents containing antimicrobial residues. Half of the evaluated antimicrobials showed potential to contribute to antimicrobial resistance in bacteria exposed to pond water and farm effluents. A withdrawal period of three weeks is recommended for antimicrobials applied via oral administration to F. chinensis in order to comply with the current national and international toxicological food safety standards. The results of this study indicate the need to improve the current regulatory framework for the registration of aquaculture antimicrobials in China and suggest compounds that should be targeted in future aquaculture risk assessments and environmental monitoring studies.

  18. Environmental and human health risks of antimicrobials used in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Ming; Chang, Zhiqiang; Brink, van den Paul J.; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Rico, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the environmental fate of antimicrobials applied in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China and to assess their potential risks for surrounding aquatic ecosystems, for the promotion of antimicrobial resistance in target and non-target bacteria and for

  19. Molecular characterisation of colour formation in the prawn Fenneropenaeus merguiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole G Ertl

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body colouration in animals can have a range of functions, with predator protection an important aspect of colour in crustaceans. Colour determination is associated with the carotenoid astaxanthin, which is taken up through the diet and stabilised in the tissues by the protein crustacyanin. As a variety of genes are found to play a role in colour formation in other systems, a holistic approach was employed in this study to determine the factors involved in Fenneropenaeus merguiensis colouration. RESULTS: Full length F. merguiensis crustacyanin subunit A and C sequences were isolated. Crustacyanin subunit A and C were found in the F. merguiensis transcriptomes of the muscle/cuticle tissue, hepatopancreas, eye stalk and nervous system, using 454 next generation sequencing technology. Custom microarray analysis of albino, light and dark F. merguiensis cuticle tissue showed genes encoding actin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and arginine kinase to be 4-fold or greater differentially expressed (p<0.05 and down-regulated in albinos when compared to light and dark samples. QPCR expression analysis of crustacyanin and total astaxanthin pigment extraction revealed significantly (p<0.05 lower crustacyanin subunit A and C gene transcript copy numbers and total astaxanthin levels in albinos than in the light and dark samples. Additionally, crustacyanin subunit A and C expression levels correlated positively with each other. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified gene products putatively involved in crustacean colouration, such as crustacyanin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and forms of actin, and investigated differences in gene expression and astaxanthin levels between albino, light and dark coloured prawns. These genes open a path to enhance our understanding of the biology and regulation of colour formation.

  20. Shrimp Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Shrimp Survey was initiated in 1983 by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) and monitors the relative abundance (number of shrimp),...

  1. Recombinant expression and bioactivity assay of Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor(Fc-Kazal) from Fenneropenaeus chinensis%中国明对虾Kazal型丝氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂基因(Fc-Kazal)的重组表达及活性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明; 刘逸尘; 张亦陈; 孙妍; 孙金生

    2011-01-01

    Kazal型丝氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂可以通过精确调控丝氨酸蛋白酶的活力,在生物体的防御应答等众多生物过程中发挥重要作用.以前期克隆的中国明对虾Kaza1型丝氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂基因(Fc-Kazal,GenBank注册号为DQ318856)为基础,对其功能结构域进行序列比对和进化分析;组织表达分析结果表明,该基因在血细胞、鳃和淋巴器官等组织中高水平表达,而在眼柄、神经和肌肉中无表达;利用原核表达系统对该基因成熟肽区域成功进行了重组表达,纯化后的目的蛋白最终得率为0.4 g/L培养液;活性分析结果显示,复性后的rFc-Kazal对鳗弧菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、杀鲑气单胞菌、苏云金芽孢杆菌有明显的抑菌作用.%Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. The studies on the innate immune responses of shrimp, especially on immune defense against the main crustacean pathogens, will provide more knowledge of shrimp immunity to prevent infectious diseases. Arthropod innate defence responses[e. G. Prophenoloxidase(proPO) activation and Toll pathway initiation] and many other biological processes are mediated by serine proteinase( SP) cascades. If the activity of SPs is out of control, it will be fatal to organisms. Serine protease inhibitors ( SPI) play a critical role in precise regulation of SP activity, and also directly participate in the selection and digestion of pathogen. One of the well known SPI is the Kazal-type SPI which are usually multi-domain proteins containing more than one Kazal domain. Each domain contains 50-60 amino acids with six cysteine residues forming a 1 -5,2 -4, 3-6 disulphide bridges resulting in a characteristic three-dimensional structure. The inhibitory specificity of a Kazal domain varies with a different reactive PI amino acid, which is the second amino acid after the second Cys. However,the knowledge about the Kazal-type SPI in

  2. Discovery of immune related factors in Fenneropenaeus chinensis by annotation of ESTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yaoqing; XIANG Jianhai; WANG Bing; LI Fuhua; TONG Wei

    2004-01-01

    A total of 10446 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are obtained by a large-scale sequencing of a cDNA library from cephalothorax of adult Fenneropenaeus chinensis.An EST analysis platform was built up based on local computers and bioinformatic techniques were used to annotate these ESTs in order to promptly find possible functional genes, especially for immune related factors.About 4% of the ESTs show similarity to the coding sequences of such factors, including lectin, serine protease, serpin, lysozyme, etc.These ESTs provide a partial profile of the immune system in F.chinensis and useful information for further study on these genes.

  3. Double Taste of Shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinvao Restaurant

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 8 shrimp (about 500g), 50 grams of oil, 150 grams of egg white, a little salt, MSG, pepper powder, Shaoxing wine, coriander, sesame, flour and sugar. Directions: 1. De-vein and wash the shrimp. Cut in half, separating the head from the tail. 2. Soak the shrimp tails in the salt, Shaoxing wine, pepper powder and MSG. Baste the tails with flour and coat with egg white and sesame. 3. Mix the starch in with egg white and stir until smooth. Spread the paste on the tails without the sesame, then sprinkle with coriander.

  4. Antimicrobial and Antifungal Effects of Acid and Water-Soluble Chitosan Extracted from Indian Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : Currently, efforts are underway to seek new and effective antimicrobial agents, and marine resources are potent candidates for this aim. The following study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of water-soluble and acid-soluble chitosan against some pathogenic organisms.   Materials & Method s: Inhibition zone of different concentrations (5, 7.5, and 10 mg/ml of acid- soluble and water-soluble chitosan were examined for in vitro antibacterial activity against 4 kinds of hospital bacteria and penicillium sp. Results were compared with 4 standard antibiotics: streptomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Furthermore, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum lethal concentration were determined.   Results: Inhibition activity of acid-soluble chitosan (10% showed the best result (p value < 0.05, whereas water-soluble chitosan exhibited the least antibacterial effects (p value < 0.05. Chitosan demonstrated maximum effect on V. cholera cerotype ogava , and the least effect was seen on E. coli (p value < 0.05. Acid-soluble chitosan had a more potent effect than the standard antibiotics. Also, acid-soluble chitosan (10% and water-soluble chitosan showed maximum inhibitory effects on penicillium sp.   Conclusion: Chitosan showed maximum antibacterial effect against S. aureus, V. cholerae cerotype ogava, and water-soluble chitosan demonstrated good antifungal effects, revealing a statistically significant difference with common antibacterial and antifungal medicines.

  5. Predicted sub-populations in a marine shrimp proteome as revealed by combined EST and cDNA data from multiple Penaeus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotewong Rattanawadee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many species of marine shrimp in the Family Penaeidae, viz. Penaeus (Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus chinensis, and Penaeus (Marsupenaeus japonicus, are animals of economic importance in the aquaculture industry. Yet information about their DNA and protein sequences is lacking. In order to predict their collective proteome, we combined over 270,000 available EST and cDNA sequences from the 4 shrimp species with all protein sequences of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. EST data from 4 other crustaceans, the crab Carcinus maenas, the lobster Homarus americanus (Decapoda, the water flea Daphnia pulex, and the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were also used. Findings Similarity searches from EST collections of the 4 shrimp species matched 64% of the protein sequences of the fruit fly, but only 45% of nematode proteins, indicating that the shrimp proteome content is more similar to that of an insect than a nematode. Combined results with 4 additional non-shrimp crustaceans increased matching to 78% of fruit fly and 56% of nematode proteins, suggesting that present shrimp EST collections still lack sequences for many conserved crustacean proteins. Analysis of matching data revealed the presence of 4 EST groups from shrimp, namely sequences for proteins that are both fruit fly-like and nematode-like, fruit fly-like only, nematode-like only, and non-matching. Gene ontology profiles of proteins for the 3 matching EST groups were analyzed. For non-matching ESTs, a small fraction matched protein sequences from other species in the UniProt database, including other crustacean-specific proteins. Conclusions Shrimp ESTs indicated that the shrimp proteome is comprised of sub-populations of proteins similar to those common to both insect and nematode models, those present specifically in either model, or neither. Combining small EST collections from related species to compensate for their

  6. Gulf Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...

  7. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  8. Vibrio harveyi modulated gene expression in Penaeus monodon and Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.

    major supplier of shrimp to countries like Japan, Europe, and USA. Although the growth in the production of cultured shrimp has increased, there have been considerable, periodic losses due to disease of the farmed shrimps. An estimate for total global... loss due to disease over the past 15 years may be in the order of US$15 billion (Flegel et al., 2008). This illustrates the significance of disease intervention/ control required for this industry. In this regard, infectious pathogens have a...

  9. Shrimp arginine kinase being a binding protein of WSSV envelope protein VP31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cuiyan; Gao, Qiang; Liang, Yan; Li, Chen; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Viral entry into the host is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle in which attachment proteins play a key role. VP31 (WSV340/WSSV396), an envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide domain known as a cellular attachment site. At present, the process of VP31 interacting with shrimp host cells has not been explored. Therefore, the VP31 gene was cloned into pET30a (+), expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and purified with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Four gill cellular proteins of shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were pulled down by an affinity column coupled with recombinant VP31 (rVP31), and the amino acid sequences were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Hemocyanin, beta-actin, arginine kinase (AK), and an unknown protein were suggested as the putative VP31 receptor proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that AK is the predominant binding protein of VP31. An i n vitro binding activity experiment indicated that recombinant AK's (rAK) binding activity with rVP31 is comparable to that with the same amount of WSSV. These results suggested that AK, as a member of the phosphagen kinase family, plays a role in WSSV infection. This is the first evidence showing that AK is a binding protein of VP31. Further studies on this topic will elucidate WSSV infection mechanism in the future.

  10. Burrowing behavior of penaeid shrimps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, and white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, were held were held under natural light conditions before experiments. Experiments...

  11. Structure of mitochondrial DNA control region of Fenneropenaeus chinensis and phylogenetic relationship among different populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Pengfei; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Jin, Xianshi

    2012-06-01

    This paper deals with the structure of mitochondrial DNA control region of Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The termination-associated sequence (TAS), cTAS, CSB-D-CSB-F, and CSB-1 are detected in the species. The results indicate that the structures of these parts are similar to those of most marine organisms. Two conserved regions and many stable conserved boxes are found in the extended TAS area, central sequences blocks, and conserved sequences blocks (CSBs). This is the special character of F. chinensis. All the mtDNA control region sequences do not have CSB2 and CSB3 blocks, which is quite different from most vertebrates. In addition, the complete mtDNA control region sequences are used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of F. chinensis. The phylogenetic trees show a lack of genetic structure among populations, which is similar to many previous studies.

  12. Isolation, cloning and sequencing of AFLP markers related to disease-resistance traits in Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) technique was used to analyze the fingerprinting of four successive generations of Fenneropenaeus chinensis to reveal their disease-resistance traits. Some loci showed quite different genetic frequencies due to artificial selection, which implied that these fragments were putative markers related to the disease-resistance trait. We developed a simple and effective method to further characterize these AFLP fragments. Specific AFLP bands were cut directly from polyacrylamide gels,re-amplified, cloned and sequenced. Eight putative genetic markers were sequenced and their sizes ranged from 63 to 209 bp. The sequences were submitted to dbGSS (database of Genome Sequence Survey); and the BLAST analysis showed low similarity to the function genes, indicating these markers were tightly linked to a disease-resistance trait but were not functional genes.

  13. Shrimp Ball Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Press the spring onion and ginger, add 25 grams water, soak for ten minutes, filter and remove the residue.Mince the shrimp meat and add pork fat. Add Shaoxing wine, egg white, spring onion and ginger juice, salt, MSG, and cornstarch, and blend. Slice the ham, and clean the bean sprouts. Put clear stock in a wok and heat.

  14. Development of protein enriched shrimp croquette from shrimp industry wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M.; Rahman, M.L.; Nowsad Alam, A.K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Protein fortified and tasty shrimp croquette was developed from different component parts of shrimp wastes by using a combination of vegetables (potato, Colocasia, green banana, green papaya and spinach), spices (green chili, onion, garlic, turmeric, red pepper and ginger) and other ingredients (salt, wheat flour, egg, sugar and milk powder). The ingredients were mixed with variable quantities of shrimp shell powder (3, 5 and 10%), shaped and covered with egg and bread crumb. Proximate compos...

  15. A novel L-fucose-binding lectin from Fenneropenaeus indicus induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Biji; Ghosh, Krishna; Yadav, Nitin; Kanade, Santosh R

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are omnipresent in almost all life forms, being the proteins which specifically bind to carbohydrate moieties on the cell surface; they have been explored for their anti-tumour activities. In this study, we purified a fucose specific-lectin (IFL) from Fenneropenaeus indicus haemolymph using fucose-affinity column and characterized for its haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity, dependency on cations and cytotoxicity against cancer cells. The lectin showed non-specificity against human erythrocytes. It was a Ca(2+)-dependent lectin which remained stable over wide pH and temperature ranges. The lectin showed effective dose dependent cytotoxicity against different human cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells as evidenced by DNA ladder assay and PARP cleavage in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, an increased p21 level corresponding to cyclin D downregulation in response to IFL treatment was observed which might work as probable factors to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Therefore, we report a novel lectin from the prawn haemolymph with high specificity for L-fucose and antiproliferative towards human cancer cells. However, further establishment of the modus operandi of this lectin is required to enable its biotechnological applications.

  16. Screening of Genes Specifically Expressed in Males of Fenneropenaeus chinensis and Their Potential as Sex Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The androgenic gland (AG, playing an important role in sex differentiation of male crustacean, is a target candidate to understand the mechanism of male development and to mine male-specific sex markers. An SSH library (designated as male reproduction-related tissues—SSH library, MRT-SSH library for short was constructed using cDNA from tissues located at the basal part of the 5th pereiopods, including AG and part of spermatophore sac, as tester, and the cDNA from the basal part of the 4th pereiopods of these male shrimp as driver. 402 ESTs from the SSH library were sequenced and assembled into 48 contigs and 104 singlets. Twelve contigs and 14 singlets were identified as known genes. The proteins encoded by the identified genes were categorized, according to their proposed functions, into neuropeptide hormone and hormone transporter, RNA posttranscriptional regulation, translation, cell growth and death, metabolism, genetic information processing, signal transduction/transport, or immunity-related proteins. Eleven highly expressed contigs in the SSH library were selected for validation of the MRT-SSH library and screening sex markers of shrimp. One contig, specifically expressed in male shrimp, had a potential to be developed as a transcriptomic sex marker in shrimp.

  17. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  18. The Functional Diversity of Flora in Polyculture Ecosystem of Swimming Crab, Shrimp and Short-necked Clam%蟹虾贝混养池塘生态系统微生物群落功能多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞娟; 田相利; 董双林; 张凯; 阳钢; 闫法军

    2014-01-01

    The functional diversity of flora was studied in four polyculture ecosystems including swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus ,Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis and short-necked clam Ruditapes philippinarum (B) ,swimming crab ,Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei ,and short-necked clam (C) ,swimming crab ,kuruma shrimp Marsupeaaeus japonicus ,and short- necked clam (D) ,and monoculture of swimming crab (A ,as control group) using ECO-BIOLOG kit .The results showed that there were different metabolisms of the flora and utilization strength of substrate carbon in various ecosys-tems during the culture period .(1) The flora had gradual increase in metabolic activity in Chinese shrimp , short-necked clam and swimming crab polyculture ecosystem as time elapsed .In the later experiment , there was significantly higher metabolic activity of the flora in B and C polyculture modes than that in A mode (monoculture mode) .(2) In the later experiment ,there was significantly higher utilization of sub-strate carbon in B and D polyculture modes than that in A mode (P<0 .05) .(3) In the later experiment , significant differences in Shannon index and Simpson index were observed in the flora in the different eco-systems (P<0 .05) .The McIntosh index ,however ,was significant difference during the entire experi-ment (P<0 .05) .The three diversity indices of the flora were significantly higher in the Chinese shrimp and white shrimp polyculture modes than that in the monoculture of swimming crab (P<0 .05) .The find-ings indicate that the ecosystem structure and function of the flora can be further improved by the polycul-ture swimming crab ,and short-necked clam with Pacific whiteleg shrimp .%应用BIOLOG生态微板研究了三疣梭子蟹不同混养生态系统的细菌群落功能多样性,包括三疣梭子蟹和菲律宾蛤仔分别与中国明对虾、凡纳滨对虾和日本囊对虾混养系统,以三疣梭子蟹单养作为对照。结果表明,不同养

  19. Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Permit Landings Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set contains annual shrimp landings at the permit level from 2005-current fishing year. This also contains annual value of permit holders shrimp landings by...

  20. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bestha Lakshmi; Buddolla Viswanath; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are ch...

  1. 强壮藻钩虾对中国明对虾与日本囊对虾生长和抗病力的影响%Effects of Ampithoe valida on growth and anti-disease ability of the Fenneropenaeus chinensis and Marsupenaeus japonicas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩永望; 李健; 李吉涛; 何玉英; 陈萍; 戴芳钰; 刘德月

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,shrimps of Fenneropenaeus chinensis with the body weight of(0.33 ±0.020 4) g ( SF group) and ( 2. 07 ± 0. 184 ) g ( MF group ) respectively and Marsupenaeus japonicus with (0. 25 ± 0.018 1) g(SM group) were fed with gammarid Ampithoe valida to determine the effects of gammarid on growth and anti-disease ability of the shrimps. The results were as follows: (1) Compared with shrimp pellet feed, gammarid can improve SGR of shrimps in MF and SM groups and can improve survive rate of shrimps in SM group too. (2)Gammarid can raise the total number of blood cells of shrimps in SF and SM groups significantly(P < 0. 05). (3) Gammarid can improve total protein level in blood of three shrimp groups significantly (P <0. 05) and can also improve hemocyanin of shrimps in SF and SM groups significantly ( P < 0.05). (4)Gammarid can improve activity of LSZ of M. japonicus. (5) Gammarid can improve activity of PO and SOD of shrimps in MF and SM groups significantly (P < 0. 05). (6) Gammarid can improve the relative activity of POD of shrimps in SF and SM groups significantly (P < 0. 05 ). (7) There is a linear relationship between the total score of healthy index and the time during which shrimps were all killed by WSSV(R2 =0.948 9). The results show that:Gammarid can improve growth and anti-disease ability of the F. chinensis and M. japonicus compared with pellet feed and the best time for gammarid as nature food is when the shrimps are larvae.%以强壮藻钩虾(以下简称钩虾)作为中国明对虾和日本囊对虾的天然饵料,以对虾人工配合饲料为对照研究钩虾对中国明对虾和日本囊对虾生长和抗病力的影响.对两种规格的中国明对虾[体质量分别为(0.33±0.0204)g和(2.07±0.184)g,分别记为SF组和MF组]和日本囊对虾[体质量为(0.25±0.0181)g,记为SM组]分别投喂人工配合饲料和钧虾,养殖35 d.结果显示:(1)与人工配合饲料相比钩虾可以提高MF组和SM组对虾的特定生

  2. Analysis of DNA methylation in different tissues of Fenneropenaeus chinensis from the wild population and Huanghai No. 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yuying; DU Ying; LI Jian; LIU Ping; WANG Qingyin; LI Zhaoxia

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression during biological development and tissue differentiation in eukaryotes. A methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) including digestion, pre-selective amplification and selective amplification was optimized to compare the levels of DNA cytosine methylation at CCGG sites in muscle, gill and hemocyte from the wild populations and the selective breeding of Huanghai No. 1 ofFenneropenaeus chinensis, respectively. Significant differences in cytosine methylation levels among three tissues in two populations were detected. The average DNA methylation ratios in muscle, gill and hemocyte of the wild population were 23.1%, 22.3% and 19.7%, while those were 21.4%, 19.6%, and 18.9% in Huanghai No. 1, respectively. The DNA methylation levels of gill from the two populations were highly significant (P0.05). DNA polymorphic methylation of gill and hemocyte between the wild population and Huanghai No. 1 varies to some extent, while those of muscle kept in a balanced degree. Furthermore, polymorphic methylation was associated with demethylation and methylation of CCGG loci.

  3. Microbial Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Umesha, R.K.

    Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture Iddya Karunasagar, Indrani Karunasagar and R. K. Umesha Department of Fishery Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, College of Fisheries, Mangalore-575 002, India Introduction Aquaculture is one of the fastest... growing food production sectors in the world (Subasinghe et al. 1998). According to FAO statistics, over 80% of fish produced by aquaculture comes from Asia, with the production valued at $ 38.855 billion (FAO, 1996). However, disease outbreaks have caused...

  4. Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou-Olayan, A.H. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait); Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Function of shrimp STAT during WSSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Rong; Li, Fuhua; Li, Shihao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-06-01

    JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays key roles in the antiviral immunity of mammals, fish and insect. However, limited knowledge is known about the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp although virus disease has caused severe mortality in shrimp aquaculture. In order to understand the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp, dsRNA interfering technique was used to silence the expression of STAT gene in Litopenaeus vannamei, and the mortality of shrimp was detected after WSSV infection. Furthermore, the expressions of some potential target genes regulated by STAT or genes related to RNA interfering pathway were detected in STAT silenced shrimp during WSSV infection. The WSSV copy number in STAT silenced shrimp was 10(2)-10(3) copies/ng DNA which was much lower than that in the control. The mortality in STAT silenced shrimp caused by WSSV infection decreased very significantly compared to their controls. The function of STAT was verified in vitro cultured cells of hematopoietic tissue of crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus by adding specific inhibitor of STAT3(S3I-201), and the cultured cells treated with S3I-201 showed much less WSSV copy number than their controls, which further suggested that STAT might be helpful for the replication of WSSV. Expression analysis on the potential STAT target genes and genes in RNA interfering pathway provide important information for understanding the functional mechanism of STAT in antiviral immunity of shrimp.

  6. Effect of high pressure treatment on microbiological quality of Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginson, J; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Bindu, J; Kamalakanth, C K; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-04-01

    High pressure treatment of 250 MPa for 6 min at 25 °C was applied to headless Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) to evaluate changes in microbiological characteristics of the species during chilled storage. Changes in load of mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., H2S producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and yeast & mold were estimated in pressurized and un-pressurized samples during chilled storage. All microbes were reduced significantly after high pressure treatment and there was significant difference in microbial quality of control and high pressure treated samples in the entire duration of chilled storage (p bacteria up to 6th and 9th day of storage, respectively in high pressure treated samples. In high pressure treated sample, no lag phase (λ) was observed for psychrotrophic bacteria, H2S producing bacteria, B. thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp. and lactic acid bacteria; however, other bacteria showed a reduced lag phase during chilled storage. Kinetic parameter such as specific growth rate (μmax) in high pressure treated samples was significantly reduced in most of the bacterial groups except for psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Mesophilic bacterial count of control samples crossed the marginal limit of acceptability on 12th day and unacceptable limit on 18th day of storage, whereas high pressure treated samples never breached the acceptability limit during entire duration of chilled storage. The present study indicated that application of high pressure processing can be used to improve microbial quality of Indian white prawn and extend the chilled storage life.

  7. Comparison of Growth and Development Patterns of Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck) Huanghai No.1and the First Generation of Wild Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuying HE; Ping LIU; Qingyin WANG; Jian LI; Zhaoxia LI

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to estimate the developmental characteristics of Huanghai No.1 and the first generation of wild population in Fenneropenaeus chinensis for providing a reference for the development,feeding management and breeding.[Method] Four growth models were used to fit the growth patterns of 15 morphological traits.The squared multiple correlation coefficient (R2) of the Cubic growth model was higher than the other three models,so it was selected to investigate the growth pattern and age in month at inflexion.[Result] Ages in month at inflexion of body weight in Huanghai No.1 and the G1 population were 2.87 (body weight at inflexion was 14.98 g) and 4.05 (body weight at inflexion was 26.26 g),respectively.In addition,Ages in month at inflexion of morphological characters in Huanghai No.1 were from 0.51 to 3.07.CL had the most rapid growth rate,followed by AW,CH,AH,CW,BL,FL,AL5,AL3,AL4,TL,AL2,AL1,and AL6.Ages in month at inflexion in the G1 population were from 2.38 to 3.08,except that of AL2,and the order of achieving the most rapid growth rate was AL2,AL1,AL3,AL4,CH,AL5,CW,FL,AH,AW,TL,CL,BL,and AL6,that delayed one month than that of Huanghai No.1 except AL2 and AL1.[Conclusion] The development of Huanghai No.1 cultivar was advanced for about one month compared to that of the G1 population.

  8. A model for discrimination freshness of shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linong Du

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp is popular for its nutrition and dainty, however, it is easy to decay, and its freshness degrades, so, it is important to assess its freshness. The shrimp gives off unpleasant odor with its freshness change, detecting its odor difference can evaluate its freshness. The feasibility of using electronic nose for evaluating the freshness of shrimp (Penaeus vanmamei is explored in this paper. The odor of shrimp, stored at 5 °C, was detected by the electronic nose. Combined with the sensory evaluation and TVBN, a model based on the electronic nose was constructed to evaluate the shrimp freshness. In principal components analysis, the first three principal components accounted for 86.97% of total variation, and they are used to establish a model to estimate the shrimp freshness with Fisher Liner Discriminant. The discriminant rates were 98.3% for 120 modeling sample data, and 91.7% for 36 testing sample data. The model could be easily used to evaluate the freshness of shrimp with better accuracy.

  9. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestha Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  10. Probiotics as antiviral agents in shrimp aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Viswanath, Buddolla; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  11. The Effects of Shrimp Gut Probiotic Bacteria on the Shrimp Larvae (Penaeus Chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The survival rates of shrimp larvae in different stage are higher than those of control groups when probiotic bacteria strains X4B-1 and X1B-1 which are isolated from gut of adult shrimp are added into the little volume rearing sea water of shrimp larvae. The effects of probiotic bacteria are evaluated by challenge test (pathogenic bacteria Z3G2 isolated from disease shrimp larvae in the hatchery of Jimo town) and low salinity stress resistance tests on shrimp larvae, the survival rate and lengths of the shrimp larvae in the experiment are determined. Results indicate that 1. The survival rate, ability of resistant to low salinity, lengths of the delivered shrimp larvae are improved after the strains of probiotic bacteria, X4B-1 or X1B-1, are added into the rearing sea water of hatchery. 2. The addition of the probiotic bacteria could not influence the change of the bacteria number, NH3-N and COD value in the rearing sea water. 3. The probiotic bacteria used in the experiment have many enzymes such as Lipase, Amylase, Gelatinase and Lecithinase. These enzymes may help the probiotic bacteria to digest the food components fed to shrimp larvae and increase the digestive efficiency of post larvae. This may be one of the reasons why these probiotic bacteria are beneficial to the shrimp larvae.

  12. Antiviral defense in shrimp: from innate immunity to viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Huang, Tianzhi; Zhang, Xiaobo; He, Jian-Guo

    2014-08-01

    The culture of penaeid shrimp is rapidly developing as a major business endeavor worldwide. However, viral diseases have caused huge economic loss in penaeid shrimp culture industries. Knowledge of shrimp innate immunity and antiviral responses has made important progress in recent years, allowing the design of better strategies for the prevention and control of shrimp diseases. In this study, we have updated information on shrimp antiviral immunity and interactions between shrimp hosts and viral pathogens. Current knowledge and recent progress in immune signaling pathways (e.g., Toll/IMD-NF-κB and JAK-STAT signaling pathways), RNAi, phagocytosis, and apoptosis in shrimp antiviral immunity are discussed. The mechanism of viral infection in shrimp hosts and the interactions between viruses and shrimp innate immune systems are also analyzed.

  13. Observer Coverage of the Southeastern Shrimp Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vessel, gear and biological data collected by fishery observers from the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic commerical shrimp fishery.

  14. The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Brennan; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the beginning of the power stroke. This two vortex system evolves dramatically with time as the stroke progresses. The outer circulation is noted to weaken while the inner circulation strengthens over the power stroke. The gaining strength of the inner vortex correlates with the acceleration and forward movement of the larvae.

  15. Effect of high intensity ultrasound on the allergenicity of shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The tropomyosin fraction of shrimp proteins is potentially responsible for allergic reaction in individuals with genetic predisposition to allergy. However, there are no efficient and safe methods to reduce its allergenicity. High intensity ultrasound is known to change the structure of proteins. This study is aimed at assessing high intensity ultrasound's effect on the allergenicity of shrimp allergen. Shrimp and purified shrimp allergen were treated with high intensity ultrasound for 30~180 min. Extracts of treated samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with pool serum of shrimp allergy patients and polyclonal anti-allergen antibodies and by immunoblotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Shrimp treated with high intensity ultrasound showed a decrease in allergenicity measured with ELISA. A linear relationship between the immune response induced by treated shrimp allergen and the applied treatment time was observed. The decrease in allergenicity was confirmed by immunoblot assays with shrimp allergic patients serum. Allergenicity of shrimp allergen extracted from treated shrimp was higher than that of purified shrimp allergen with the same treatment time. Gel-filtration HPLC was applied for analysis of shrimp allergen after treatment with high intensity ultrasound. Some fractions were appeared with increasing treatment time. The results suggested that high intensity ultrasound could be used to reduce the allergenicity of shrimp.

  16. 超声波辅助法提取中国对虾虾青素%Extracting Technique of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Astaxanthin from Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙协军; 胡浩; 李秀霞; 赵爽; 吴科阳; 张凯

    2015-01-01

    Abstrat:A gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)was developed for the detection of astaxanthin from Fenneropenaeus chinensis.Develosil C30 column was used as analytical column,methanol-ace-tonitrile (80∶20,v /v)as mobile phase,analyzed by diode array detector (DAD),quantified by external stand-ard method;and the extracting technique assisted by ultrasound assisted extraction method of astaxanthin from Fenneropenaeus chinensis shell and head was optimized.The results showed that free astaxanthin was the mainly form exists in Fenneropenaeus chinensis shell and head,the linear range of astaxanthin was 1 ~32 μg/mL (r2 =0.9993).The extraction technique of ultrasound assisted Fenneropenaeus chinensis astaxanthin extraction was optimized by response surface methodology,the optimal condition for extraction technique was that L/S 430 mL/g,ultrasonic power 450 W,ultrasonic time 8.5 min,under the optimal condition,the predicted astaxanthin yield was 14.02 μg/g,the measured value was 13.89 μg/g,predictive value of relative error was 0.9%,and the predicted results were basically consistent with the result of predicted.%建立了中国对虾虾青素液相色谱检测方法,采用 Develosil C30色谱柱为分析柱,甲醇∶乙腈(80∶20,v /v)为流动相,采用二极管阵列检测器(DAD)分析,外标法定量,同时对虾头和虾壳虾青素的超声波提取工艺进行了优化研究。结果表明,中国对虾虾青素主要是以游离形式存在,虾青素在1~32μg/mL 范围内线性良好,相关系数为0.9993。通过响应面试验对超声波提取虾青素的工艺进行了优化,得到超声波辅助提取虾青素的最佳条件为:液固比430 mL/g、超声波功率450 W、超声时间8.5 min,虾青素得率的预测值为14.02μg/g,在优化条件下,虾青素得率测定值为13.89μg/g,相对误差为0.9%,与预测结果基本相符。

  17. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity avoidance...

  18. Development of Researches on Preservation and Storage Technology of Shrimps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海玲; 杨春莉; 杨春瑜

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the world’s fisheries, shrimp consumption and trade are occupying an increasingly important position in the international aquatic products market. China is the world’s largest producer of shrimp and is also the main exporter of shrimp, however, compared with developed countries, technology level of shrimp production and processing in our country is still low at present, especially in aspect of shrimp preservation and storage techniques. So it is necessary to study various technologies and applications of sterilization and conclude the effective methods of shrimp preservation and storage. Traditional storage, chemical and biological technology, low temperature preservation, heat treatment, gas preservation and physical sterilization technology are reviewed in this paper based on shrimp preservation aiming to provide certain theoretical reference and practical basis for shelf life extension of shrimp.

  19. 2012 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected economic data on inshore commercial shrimp fishermen who held licenses to commercially harvest shrimp in state waters of the U.S. Gulf of...

  20. White spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sangamaheswaran, A.P.; Jeyaseelan, M.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The white spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp affects the development of the global shrimp industry. This paper reviews the viruses that cause the disease, the transmission of the virus, diagnosis and preventive measures.

  1. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Reinhard Vogl; Brojo Gopal Paul

    2012-01-01

    In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798) aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Banglade...

  2. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  3. Cloning and expression analysis of aspartate aminotransferase cDNA in Fenneropenaeus chinensis following ambient ammonia stresses%中国明对虾天门冬氨酸转氨酶基因的克隆及氨氮胁迫对其时空表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少飞; 何玉英; 李吉涛; 李健; 刘萍; 葛倩倩

    2014-01-01

    利用 RACE 技术克隆获得中国明对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)天门冬氨酸转氨酶 GOT 基因(FcGOT)。FcGOT 基因cDNA全长为1910 bp,其中,开放阅读框1284 bp,编码427个氨基酸。同源性分析表明,中国明对虾天门冬氨酸转氨酶 GOT氨基酸序列与其他节肢动物高度保守,与克氏原螯虾(Procambarus clarkii)和桔粉蚧壳虫(Planococcus citri)的同源性分别为78%和73%。系统进化分析表明, FcGOT基因氨基酸序列与克氏原螯虾GOT聚为一支。组织表达分析发现FcGOT基因在肝胰腺、鳃、血细胞、肌肉、心脏、淋巴中均有表达,其中肝胰腺中表达量最高。氨氮胁迫后,荧光定量PCR分析结果表明, FcGOT基因在肝胰腺和鳃组织中的表达与对照组相比具有显著差异(P<0.05),表明 FcGOT 基因在氨氮代谢方面具有重要的作用,参与了中国明对虾机体的急性氨氮胁迫应答反应。%Fenneropenaeus chinensis is an important mariculture species in China. In aquaculture environments ammo-nia is a common toxic substance. In recent years, higher frequencies of ammonia nitrogen toxicity in shrimps have been reported. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate ammonia metabolism by F. chinensis. As an important member of the AAT-like family, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (GOT) is involved in many aspects of ammonia metabolism including participating in inosine monophosphate transdeamination, and the urea and citric acid cycles. Therefore, de-tailed understanding of the regulation of GOT is of great significance. In this study, we successfully cloned the aspartate aminotransferase cDNA of F. chinensis (FcGOT). The FcGOT cDNA, which was 1 910 bp in length, contained a 5′-untranslated region(UTR) of 83 bp, a 3′UTR of 543 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 284 bp, encoded a 427 amino-acid polypeptide. FcGOT protein exhibited typical AAT-like family features, including a Lys catalytic residue and 10 pyridoxal-5

  4. Liquid chromatographic determination of furazolidone in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehly, G R; Plakas, S M; el Said, K R

    1994-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the quantitation of furazolidone residues in shrimp muscle. The shrimp homogenate (1.0 g) is extracted with acetonitrile, and the extract is taken to dryness. The residue is dissolved in acetonitrile, and the solution is passed through alumina and C18 cleanup columns. The eluate is taken to dryness and reconstituted in a suitable solvent for reversed-phase (C18) LC with UV detection at 365 nm. Recoveries of furazolidone from shrimp homogenates spiked from 5 to 80 ng/g ranged from 74.3 to 79.7%, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 5.0-8.9%. RSDs for incurred furazolidone quantitated at 5.9 and 9.2 ng/g were 6.6 and 7.6%, respectively.

  5. Biophysics. For certain shrimp, life's a snap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K

    2000-09-22

    On page 2114 of this issue, physicists report that a collapsing bubble outside the claw of the snapping shrimp Alpheus heterochaelis causes its characteristic clack. According to this new study, A. heterochaelis clamps its claw so rapidly that a water jet gushing from the claw first loses and then gains pressure, causing an air bubble in the jet to swell and collapse with a pronounced "snap!" The imploding bubble generates shock waves that stun nearby prey and ward off other shrimp, who have learned to keep their distance.

  6. Full-length cloning and phylogenetic analyses of translationally controlled tumour protein and ferritin genes from the Indian white prawn, Fenneropenaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Meena, R.M.; Sreepada, R.A.

    Elucidation, through molecular analyses, of bacterial afflictions in commercially important aquaculture- reared shrimps is pivotal for the prevention and/or control of disease outbreaks. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic relatedness...

  7. The cytochemistry of oocytes of Chinese shrimp Penaeus orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiu

    1991-06-01

    In the growth of oocytes of Penaeus orientalis Kishinouye, five stages were distinguished. Histochemical tests showed the presence of DNA in the chromatin and nucleolus of the cell. The cytoplasm at the previtellogenetic stage and the nucleolus are rich in RNA and the proteins abounding with cysteine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The yolk consists mainly of proteins and phospholipids. The 1,2-glycol groups of carbohydrate occur in the cytoplasm at stage II, and aggregate mostly into cortical rods at stages IV and V. Neutral lipid droplets, and protein containing disulfides, appear in the cytoplasm at stages III and IV respectively. The proteins in the cortical rod differ from those in other components of the cell in the presence of cystine and absence of arginine.

  8. Feeding ecology of penaeid shrimp in Kenyan mangrove ecosystems: implications for biological shrimp aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gatune, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological shrimp aquaculture derives its feed input from the naturally occurring food sources. This practice has an environmental advantage of reducing the use of fish meal as the main food input. Use of fish meal in aquaculture has a negative effect on the coastal fisheries in the sense of depleting fish stocks. It also has a tendency to discharge wastes that pollutes the receiving coastal ecosystems. Ecological shrimp aquaculture therefore impacts low burden to the coastal ecosystems since...

  9. Expression profiles of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their regulation by Relish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dongdong; LI Fuhua; LI Shihao; WEN Rong; XIANG Jianhai

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs),as key immune effectors,play important roles in the innate immune system of invertebrates.Different types of AMPs,including Penaeidin,Crustin,ALF (antilipopolysaccharide factor) have been identified in different penaeid shrimp; however,systematic analyses on the function of different AMPs in shrimp responsive to different types of bacteria are very limited.In this study,we analyzed the expression profiles of AMPs in the Chinese shrimps,Fenneropenaeus chinensis,simultaneously by real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) when shrimp were challenged with Micrococcus lysodeikticus (Gram-positive,G+) or Vibrio anguillarium (Gram-negative,G).Different AMPs showed different expression profiles when shrimp were injected with one type of bacterium,and one AMP also showed different expression profiles when shrimp were challenged with different bacteria.Furthermore,the expression of these AMPs showed temporal expression profiles,suggesting that different AMPs function coordinately in bacteria-infected shrimp.An RNA interference approach was used to study the function of the Relish transcription factor in regulating the transcription of different AM Ps.The current study showed that Relish could regulate the transcription of different AMPs in shrimp.Differential expression profiles of AMPs in shrimp injected with different types of bacteria indicated that a complicated antimicrobial response network existed in shrimp.These data contribute to our understanding of immunity in shrimp and may provide a strategy for the control of disease in shrimp.

  10. Expression profiles of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their regulation by Relish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Li, Fuhua; Li, Shihao; Wen, Rong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), as key immune effectors, play important roles in the innate immune system of invertebrates. Different types of AMPs, including Penaeidin, Crustin, ALF (antilipopolysaccharide factor) have been identified in different penaeid shrimp; however, systematic analyses on the function of different AMPs in shrimp responsive to different types of bacteria are very limited. In this study, we analyzed the expression profiles of AMPs in the Chinese shrimps, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, simultaneously by real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) when shrimp were challenged with Micrococcus lysodeikticus (Gram-positive, G+) or Vibrio anguillarium (Gram-negative, G-). Different AMPs showed different expression profiles when shrimp were injected with one type of bacterium, and one AMP also showed different expression profiles when shrimp were challenged with different bacteria. Furthermore, the expression of these AMPs showed temporal expression profiles, suggesting that different AMPs function coordinately in bacteria-infected shrimp. An RNA interference approach was used to study the function of the Relish transcription factor in regulating the transcription of different AMPs. The current study showed that Relish could regulate the transcription of different AMPs in shrimp. Differential expression profiles of AMPs in shrimp injected with different types of bacteria indicated that a complicated antimicrobial response network existed in shrimp. These data contribute to our understanding of immunity in shrimp and may provide a strategy for the control of disease in shrimp.

  11. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  12. Neoliberalism and shrimp industry in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Romero Salgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of the shrimp industry development in the mangrove ecosystem, the socio-environmental conflicts generated and its relationship with neoliberalism and the financial crisis of 1999 in Ecuador. After a review of the importance of the mangrove ecosystem, the stages of the shrimp expansion, its promoters, the mangrove deforestation and the socio-environmental effects caused, I will analyze the shrimp crisis, its parallels with the financial crisis of 1999 and its subsequent recovery. I will show that the shrimp industry expanded in mangrove areas in order to reduce costs, even breaking the law and creating environmental degradation, vulnerability of the costs and loss of natural resources, based on the exploitation and privatization of a public good. This created unemployment, migration and impoverishment to local populations and costs that the State will have to assume. Therefore, it is a process of “accumulation by dispossession” characteristic of neoliberalism.

  13. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  14. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Sidik

    Full Text Available The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂ efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  15. Is the Dutch shrimp fishery sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleman, H.C.; Daan, N.

    2001-01-01

    The fishery of the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon LINNEAUS 1758) is a widespread human activity in the coastal zone. Yet management of this fishery has never been implemented. The question is raised whether an uncontrolled fishery is sustainable or the conceivable ecological stress results in recruit

  16. Spoilage evaluation, shelf-life prediction, and potential spoilage organisms of tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus notialis) at different storage temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabade, D.S.; Besten, den H.M.W.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the freshness of shrimp is a concern to shrimp stakeholders. To improve shrimp quality management, it is of importance to evaluate shrimp spoilage characteristics. Therefore, microbiological, sensory, and chemical changes of naturally contaminated tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus

  17. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  18. Lipid Adaptation of Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata in Hydrothermal Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yadong; Wang, Chunsheng; Xu, Jilin

    2015-12-01

    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is the most abundant species in hydrothermal vents. Lipids, the component of membranes, play an important role in maintaining their function normally in such extreme environments. In order to understand the lipid adaptation of R. exoculata (HV shrimp) to hydrothermal vents, we compared its lipid profile with the coastal shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (EZ shrimp) which lives in the euphotic zone, using ultra performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. As a result, the following lipid adaptation can be observed. (1) The proportion of 16:1 and 18:1, and non-methylene interrupted fatty acid (48.9 and 6.2 %) in HV shrimp was higher than that in EZ shrimp (12.7 and 0 %). While highly-unsaturated fatty acids were only present in the EZ shrimp. (2) Ceramide and sphingomyelin in the HV shrimp were enriched in d14:1 long chain base (96.5 and 100 %) and unsaturated fatty acids (67.1 and 57.7 %). While in the EZ shrimp, ceramide and sphingomyelin had the tendency to contain d16:1 long chain base (68.7 and 75 %) and saturated fatty acids (100 and 100 %). (3) Triacylglycerol content (1.998 ± 0.005 nmol/mg) in the HV shrimp was higher than that in the EZ shrimp (0.092 ± 0.005 nmol/mg). (4) Phosphatidylinositol and diacylglycerol containing highly-unsaturated fatty acids were absent from the HV shrimp. (5) Lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine were rarely detected in the HV shrimp. A possible reason for such differences was the result of food resources and inhabiting environments. Therefore, these lipid classes mentioned above may be the biomarkers to compare the organisms from different environments, which will be benefit for the further exploitation of the hydrothermal environment.

  19. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  20. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  1. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  2. Homogeneous sample preparation of raw shrimp using dry ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, E A; Altwein, D M; Johnson, L E; Farley, J R; Hammersmith, A A

    1995-01-01

    Sample homogeneity is critical to accurate and reproducible analysis of trace residues in foods. A method of uniform sample preparation using dry ice is described for shrimp. Other sample preparation techniques for raw shrimp produce nonhomogeneous samples. Sample homogeneity was determined through analysis of chloramphenicol added to intact tiger or white shrimp prior to sample preparation. Simulated chloramphenicol residue levels were 50, 15, 10, and 5 ppb. No significant differences were noted when analyses of shrimp inoculated with chlor-amphenicol prior to sample preparation with dry ice were compared with analyses of shrimp spiked after grinding with dry ice. Grinding shrimp with dry ice produced samples with homogeneous chloramphenicol residues. This technique should be applicable to other tissues and vegetable products.

  3. Bacterial Selection from Shrimp Ponds for Degradation of Organic Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Powtongsook, S.; Chanpun, K.; Suntornsuk, W.

    2007-01-01

    Accumulation of ammonia, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide in a shrimp pond is generally caused by incomplete degradation of residual organic matters from overfeeding and from organic wastes released by shrimps. The phenomenon affects shrimp growth and survival rate. The objectives of this investigation were to screen for a bacterial strain able to digest organic residues and to evaluate the changes of residues by bacterial activities under natural conditions. The results from this work showed tha...

  4. Optimization of carotenoids extraction from Penaeus semisulcatus shrimp wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza jahed Khaniki; Parisa Sadighara; Ramin Nabizadeh Nodehi; Mahmood Alimohammadi; Naiema Vakili Saatloo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find effective method for carotenoids extraction from shrimp waste which is one of the important sources of natural carotenoids and produced in large quantities in Iran. Methods: Two methods of carotenoids extraction, enzymatic and alkaline (NaOH 1 normal) treatment, were assayed. About 5 g of gritted shrimp wastes were used at each stage. For alkaline treatment, sodium hydroxide were added to shrimp waste. After 48 h, the mixture was filtered and centrifuged. ...

  5. Governance and the study of shrimp revitalization program in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dyspriani, Polite

    2007-01-01

    Shrimp world production in the last few years has shown very high growth rates. It is marked by an increasing of production volume, and by shifting from capture to aquaculture fisheries within the production system. This has occurred mostly regarding to the brackish water pond. For some years, the government has had to face hard choices in order to ensure shrimp aquaculture developed sustainable. The desire and temptation to pursue the excessive development of shrimp production as a source of...

  6. Quantitative role of shrimp fecal bacteria in organic matter fluxes in a recirculating shrimp aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun; Malfatti, Francesca; Azam, Farooq

    2011-07-01

    Microorganisms play integral roles in the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish and shellfish production. We quantified the pathways of shrimp fecal bacterial activities and their role in C- and N-flux partitioning relevant to culturing Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in RAS. Freshly produced feces from P. vannamei contained 0.6-7 × 10(10) bacteria g(-1) dry wt belonging to Bacteroidetes (7%), Alphaproteobacteria (4%), and, within the Gammaproteobacteria, almost exclusively to the genus Vibrio (61%). Because of partial disintegration of the feces (up to 27% within 12 h), the experimental seawater became inoculated with fecal bacteria. Bacteria grew rapidly in the feces and in the seawater, and exhibited high levels of aminopeptidase, chitinase, chitobiase, alkaline phosphatase, α- and β-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Moreover, fecal bacteria enriched the protein content of the feces within 12 h, potentially enriching the feces for the coprophagous shrimp. The bacterial turnover time was much faster in feces (1-10 h) than in mature RAS water (350 h). Thus, shrimp fecal bacteria not only inoculate RAS water but also contribute to bacterial abundance and productivity, and regulate system processes important for shrimp health.

  7. Antibiotic-Resistant Vibrios in Farmed Shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined in 100 strains of Vibrio isolated from the Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and identified phenotypically. A high antibiotic-resistance index (75% was observed, with the following phenotypic profiles: monoresistance (n=42, cross-resistance to β-lactams (n=20 and multiple resistance (n=13. Plasmid resistance was characterized for penicillin (n=11, penicillin + ampicillin (n = 1, penicillin + aztreonam (n = 1, and ampicillin (n = 1. Resistance to antimicrobial drugs by the other strains (n=86 was possibly mediated by chromosomal genes. The findings of this study support the conclusion that the cultured shrimps can be vehicles of vibrios resistant to β-lactam and tetracycline.

  8. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grave, Sammy; Smith, Kevin G; Adeler, Nils A; Allen, Dave J; Alvarez, Fernando; Anker, Arthur; Cai, Yixiong; Carrizo, Savrina F; Klotz, Werner; Mantelatto, Fernando L; Page, Timothy J; Shy, Jhy-Yun; Villalobos, José Luis; Wowor, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats).

  9. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy De Grave

    Full Text Available We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT. Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats.

  10. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent.

  11. Dietary supplementation of probiotic Bacillus PC465 isolated from the gut of Fenneropenaeus chinensis improves the health status and resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Peng-Cheng; Song, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Guo-Fu; Xu, Hua; Huang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    This study conducted a 30-day feeding trial and a subsequent 20-day anti-virus infection trial to determine the effects of probiotic Bacillus PC465 on the growth, health status, and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp samples were fed with three practical diets prepared from shrimp feed containing varying probiotic doses [0 (control), 10(7), and 10(9) CFU g(-1)]. Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the weight gain and survival of L. vannamei (p vannamei. Likewise, probiotic treatment increased the transcription of hemocyanin in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. The probiotic treatment also significantly increased the transcription of prophenoloxidase (proPO) but decreased the transcription of crustin in hemocytes. By contrast, the same treatment failed to increase the transcription of Ras-related protein (Rab-6) in hemocytes. The number of species and biomass of Bacillus in the mid-gut were higher in the probiotic-fed group than in the control group. The total biomass of microbes was higher in the shrimp fed with 10(7) CFU g(-1) than in the shrimp fed with 10(9) CFU g(-1) and the control group on days 15 and 30 post-feeding. In two white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections, the weight gain, survival, and WSSV copies within the gills of the probiotic-treated shrimp significantly differed (p vannamei. Probiotic treatment also enhances the microbial structures in the gut, promotes the immune status of shrimp, and provides protection against viral infection. The supplementation with 10(9) CFU g(-1) can also improve the growth and survival of L. vannamei.

  12. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hess

    Full Text Available Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  13. Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducing the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a "pen-closing" method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

  14. Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiongfei; Zhao, Zhidong; Li, Deshang; Chang, Kangmei; Tong, Zhuanshang; Si, Liegang; Xu, Kaichong; Ge, Bailin

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducting the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a “pen-closing” method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965 kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

  15. Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

    2014-01-01

    As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses.

  16. Bacterial dynamics in intestines of the black tiger shrimp and the Pacific white shrimp during Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota play important roles in health of their host, contributing to maintaining the balance and resilience against pathogen. To investigate effects of pathogen to intestinal microbiota, the bacterial dynamics upon a shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, exposures were determined in two economically important shrimp species; the black tiger shrimp (BT) and the Pacific white shrimp (PW). Both shrimp species were reared under the same diet and environmental conditions. Shrimp survival rates after the V. harveyi exposure revealed that the PW shrimp had a higher resistance to the pathogen than the BT shrimp. The intestinal bacterial profiles were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA sequences under no pathogen challenge control and under pathogenic V. harveyi challenge. The DGGE profiles showed that the presence of V. harveyi altered the intestinal bacterial patterns in comparison to the control in BT and PW intestines. This implies that bacterial balance in shrimp intestines was disrupted in the presence of V. harveyi. The barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed the similar bacterial community structures in intestines of BT and PW shrimp under a normal condition. However, during the time course exposure to V. harveyi, the relative abundance of bacteria belong to Vibrio genus was higher in the BT intestines at 12h after the exposure, whereas relative abundance of vibrios was more stable in PW intestines. The principle coordinates analysis based on weighted-UniFrac analysis showed that intestinal bacterial population in the BT shrimp lost their ability to restore their bacterial balance during the 72-h period of exposure to the pathogen, while the PW shrimp were able to reestablish their bacterial population to resemble those seen in the unexposed control group. This observation of bacterial disruption might correlate to different mortality rates observed between the two shrimp species

  17. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  18. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  19. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  20. Controlled reproduction of penaeid shrimp: a contribution to its improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaro Montoya, J.

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation deals with controlled reproduction of penaeid shrimp. New knowledge about natural reproductive activity of Penaeus occidentalis in Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, is presented. Since in vitro fertilization of open thelycum shrimp proved unsuccessful, a hypothesis is given to explain ex

  1. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  2. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  3. 中国明对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)卵黄发生前期与消退期卵巢和肝胰腺消减文库的初步构建及分析%Preliminary construction and analysis of substracted library in ovary and hepatopancreas between previtellogenesis stage and declining stage of shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 刘红; 蔡生力; 方昱

    2013-01-01

    利用抑制性消减杂交技术(SSH)分别对中国明对虾在卵黄发生的两个关键时期(卵黄发生前期和消退期)构建卵巢和肝胰腺的正反向消减文库,测序结果与GenBank进行BLASTx同源比较并利用GO分析进行功能注释.结果显示,各文库中的差异表达基因与卵巢发育时期相吻合,卵黄发生前期的卵巢和肝胰腺中分别检测到与卵黄蛋白原相关基因的出现,说明卵黄发生前期与卵黄发生有重要联系.在消退期中检测到与皮质棒形成相关的基因,说明消退期仍有皮质棒的形成,同时也检测到一些与免疫相关的基因,在机体中差异表达时期的功能有待进一步探讨.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON NITROGEN BUDGETS OF CLOSED SHRIMP POLYCULTURE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studies on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7%-83.9% of the total input nitrogen, 3.2%-7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8%-24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9%, respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% to 20.1%. The highest, 20.1%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the average of 20.0% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems. All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrogen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2%-60.8% of the total input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highest percentage in shrimp-scallop systems. During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9%-6.2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9%-8.9% of the total. The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7%-13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polyculture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen discharging

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON NITROGEN BUDGETS OF CLOSED SHRIMP POLYCULTURE SYSTEMS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐振雄; 李德尚; 张曼平; 董双林

    2001-01-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studios on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7% - 83.9% of the total input nitrogen, 3.2% - 7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8% - 24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9%, respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% to 20.1%. The highest, 20.1%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polycultttre systems, and the average of 20.0% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems.All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrngen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2% -60.8% of the total input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highost percentage in shrimp-scallop systems.During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9% - 6.2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9% - 8.9% of the total.The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7% - 13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polycul-ture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen

  6. 丁香酚对中国对虾幼虾麻醉效果的初步研究%Studies on Anesthetic Effect of Eugenol on Juvenile Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪芹; 孔杰; 张天时; 罗坤; 赖光艳

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of the study is to seek a good anesthetic to Fenneropenaeus chinensis. [Method] The anesthetic effect of eugenol to juvenile Fenneropenaeus chinensis was investigated. [Result] The juveniles could be effectively anaesthetized by 50-400 mg/L eugenol aqueous solution with temperature of 24 ℃. Within the concentration range of 50-400 mg/L, the increase of the eugenol concentration could shorten the time required for anesthesia, meanwhile could prolong the time for recovery. The recovered rate of prawn reached 100% when the eugenol concentration was lower than 200 mg/L, while the recovered rate of prawn was just 66.67% when the eugenol concentration was higher than 400 mg/L. The survival rate of prawns in test group was 100% from the observation of three consecutive days. For the specific dose, the anesthetic effect enhanced with the increase of water temperature (18-27℃). [Conclusion] Eugenol is a safe and efficient anesthetics that can be applied in genetic breeding of prawn.

  7. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1,...

  8. A Bioeconomic model of ocean acidification in the Baffin Bay/ Davis Strait Shrimp Fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    We examine the case of the shrimp fishery in Baffin Bay/Davis Straight for potential effects of Ocean Acidification (OA), including: 1. the overall productivity of the shrimp fishery, 2. the spatial spread of the shrimp fishery, 3. the quality of the shrimp brought to market, and hence price...

  9. 77 FR 36998 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY... for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Form may be found at 50 CFR 622.5(a)(1)(iii)(C... shrimp must complete an annual Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Form. The form will...

  10. 78 FR 13324 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... the domestic like product to include dusted shrimp. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil... Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 5149 (February 1, 2005... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China:...

  11. 78 FR 76106 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ..., 77 FR 53856 (``PRC Shrimp AR6 Final''). \\3\\ In the final results of the recently completed seventh... product to include dusted shrimp. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's... Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 5149 (February 1, 2005). Analysis of...

  12. The impact of shrimp farming on mangrove ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Elizabeth Clare

    2008-01-01

    , increase efficiency and profits. Community-based management using partnerships, stewardships or multilateral cooperation schemes, together with integrated, mixed or mangrove-friendly aquaculture practices and mangrove rehabilitation should also be promoted. Introduction of certification schemes may further......Farmed shrimp production and value continue to increase with Asia producing the global majority of shrimp and the USA, Japan and Europe being the main importers. Shrimp farming systems are very diverse in their management, size and impacts. There are many causes for mangrove loss but the conversion...... of mangroves to shrimp farms has caused considerable attention. The major issues of shrimp farming include the loss of important ecological and socio-economic functions of mangrove ecosystems, changes in hydrology, salinization, introduction of non-native species and diseases, pollution from effluents...

  13. Suppression of shrimp melanization during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-03-06

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453.

  14. On the sound of snapping shrimp

    CERN Document Server

    Versluis, Michel; von der Heydt, Anna; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Fluid dynamics video: Snapping shrimp produce a snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of their snapper claw. Our high speed imaging of the claw closure has revealed that the sound is generated by the collapse of a cavitation bubble formed in a fast flowing water jet forced out from the claws during claw closure. The produced sound originates from the cavitation collapse of the bubble. At collapse a short flash of light is emitted, just as in single bubble sonoluminescence. A model based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation can quantitatively account for the visual and acoustical observations.

  15. MSAP analysis of genomic DNA in the tissues of wild and“Huanghai No.1”Fenneropenaeus chinensis%野生和“黄海1号”中国明对虾不同组织基因组DNA的MSAP分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜盈; 何玉英; 李健; 刘磊; 孙铭; 王清印

    2013-01-01

      为了从表观遗传学角度讨论中国明对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)野生群体和人工选育新品种“黄海1号”不同组织间甲基化水平和多态性差异,应用甲基化敏感扩增多态性(mehylation sensitive amplified polymorphism, MSAP)分别对野生群体组中国明对虾和“黄海1号”肌肉、鳃、血液3种组织样品基因组DNA的CCGG甲基化水平进行对比分析,试图从表观遗传学角度探讨影响中国明对虾生长性状的分子机制。采用30对引物进行选择性扩增,经聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, PAGE)带型结果显示,野生群体组中国明对虾肌肉、鳃和血液的甲基化比例分别为23.1%,22.3%和19.7%;而“黄海1号”肌肉、鳃和血液的甲基化比例分别为21.4%、19.6%和18.9%。野生群体组中国明对虾和“黄海1号”同一组织间的甲基化水平和甲基化多态性水平不同,肌肉、鳃和血液不同组织间的甲基化水平和甲基化多态性水平亦不同。DNA 甲基化多态性带型分析显示,鳃组织的甲基化水平和多态性水平在野生群体组中国明对虾和“黄海1号”间变化趋势最大,肌肉最稳定。本研究旨为甲基化修饰与中国明对虾生长性状间的相关性研究提供依据。%We evaluated the epigenetic molecular mechanisms controlling the growth of Fenneropenaeus chinensis. We used MSAP (Methylation-Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism) to analyze methylation patterns of genomic DNA in the muscle, gill, and blood of wild and cultivated F.chinensis“Huanghai No.1”, a strain selected for faster growth rates and improved disease resistance. DNA methylation is closely linked to biological events, including chromatin inactivation, transgene silencing, genomic imprinting, and control of parasitic DNA elements. Because of its efficiency and competence, the MSAP technique has been increasingly used in genomic DNA or individual functional genes studies to

  16. Immune response of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) against Vibrios furnissii pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumaran Subramanian; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Rajasekar Thirunavukarasu; Suresh Gopal; Pugazhvendan Sampath Renuka; Alagappan Kumarappan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyse experimental infection and immune system of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) against Vibrios furnissii (V. furnissii). Methods: Experimental animals were collected and acclimatized by maintaining specific temperature, pH and salinity to avoid mortality. Shrimps were experimentally infected with V. furnissii and their immune responses were monitored. After the infection all the shrimps were monitored for any symptoms, death rate in 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 h. Then haemolymph were collected and tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium and lysozyme were monitored in every 12 h at the interval of 48 h. Results: Shrimps infected by live V. furnissii had showed gradual increase in tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase activity, nitro-blue-tetrazolium and lysozyme activity comparing with the killed and control.Conclusions:The live V. furnissii shows infection in experimental shrimps comparing with killed V. furnissii. So the V. furnissii in nature cause the infection in shrimp Penaeus monodon immune system. This report could be applied to control of the infection in shrimp hatchery.

  17. Prediction of shelled shrimp weight by machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-min PAN; Jian-ping LI; Gu-lai LV; Hui YANG; Song-ming ZHU; Jian-zhong LOU

    2009-01-01

    The weight of shelled shrimp is an important parameter for grading process. The weight prediction of shelled shrimp by contour area is not accurate enough because of the ignorance of the shrimp thickness. In this paper, a multivariate prediction model containing area, perimeter, length, and width was established. A new calibration algorithm for extracting length of shelled shrimp was proposed, which contains binary image thinning, branch recognition and elimination, and length reconstruction, while its width was calculated during the process of length extracting. The model was further validated with another set of images from 30 shelled shrimps. For a comparison purpose, artificial neural network (ANN) was used for the shrimp weight predication. The ANN model resulted in a better prediction accuracy (with the average relative error at 2.67%), but took a tenfold increase in calculation time compared with the weight-area-perimeter (WAP) model (with the average relative error at 3.02%). We thus conclude that the WAP model is a better method for the prediction of the weight of shelled red shrimp.

  18. Thermal and microwave energy for shrimp processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M.R.R.; Novak, A.F.

    1975-12-01

    Gulf Coast shrimp were processed by 2450 MHz microwave energy and conventional boiling to determine if differences existed in organoleptic evaluation and vitamin retention. Chemical tests for vitamin A and ..beta..-carotene, and microbiological assays for niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid were used to determine vitamin retention. Statistical analyses of all results were accomplished with the use of a 360 IBM computer. Results of the organoleptic tests showed no significant difference between the two processes; the only significant difference was among the judges, showing evidence of an untrained test panel which is typical of the consuming public. Vitamin A was not found in the tailmeat and thereafter samples were analyzed for ..beta..-carotene, one of the most important provitamins A. Apparent percent retentions were calculated from the mean values of the replicas for each vitamin and varied between 77.48 and 115.0 percent for different vitamins and processes and were based on values found for the raw control. The highest value, 115.0 percent, was found in the microwave samples assayed for thiamine, and was probably caused by thiaminase found in raw shrimp, which is responsible for destruction of thiamine.

  19. Shrimp thioredoxin is a potent antioxidant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aispuro-Hernandez, Emmanuel; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Del-Toro-Sanchez, Lizette; Robles-Sanchez, Rosario M; Hernandez, Jesus; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2008-07-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX) is a main component of the redox homeostasis machinery in the cell and it is required for ribonucleotide reductase function among others. In invertebrates, the redox balance is compromised during disease and changes in the physiological state and it is one of the components of the innate immune response. In this work, the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) LvTRX cDNA was sequenced, cloned and over-expressed in bacteria to further characterize the function of the recombinant protein. LvTRX was able to reduce insulin disulfides and it was a better antioxidant compared to reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid, by means of the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay. Interestingly, LvTRX contains aside of the canonical active site CXXC disulfide motif, one Cys (C73) residue in the interface of a putative dimer previously reported for human TRX. Using qRT-PCR, we found that shrimp LvTRX is mainly expressed in gills and pleopods; the variation of LvTRX mRNA upon hypoxia and re-oxygenation is not statistically significant. LvTRX stands as an important antioxidant that must be considered in future physiological and immune challenges studies.

  20. A new baculovirus of cultured shrimps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈细法; 陈平; 吴定虎; 黄槐; 池信才

    1997-01-01

    By means of ultrathin section, negative staining and sucrose gradient ultra-centrifugation, a new baculovirus has been discovered and purified in lymphoid organs and such tissues as muscles of the shrimps which have been spontaneously attacked by diseases and artificially infected. With a diameter of 96-112 nm, this is the thickest baculovirus of shrimps ever known. In the center is the high-density nucleus. Between the capsid and the envelope is a broad space, which is not found in any of the baculoviruses of the prawns ever reported. On the surface of the puri-fied nucleocapsid, there is a subunit of the spiral arrangement, which is also characteristic of this virus. It has not been observed and found in the epithelial cells of the livers, intestines and cheeks, which is quite different from the fact that prawn baculoviruses infect a certain epithepilial cell of the above-mentioned ones without exception. The viruses only multiplicate inside the core of target cells, which will not form occluded bodie

  1. Sustainable shrimp farming in India - Prospects and challenges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Shrimp farming has grown into a multi-crore industry in India. It has vast potential for further expansion. However, this growing industry needs to develop appropriate indigenous technologies in specific areas to make it a sustainable and profitable...

  2. Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production. It was based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurement of shoreline length and areas of marsh having more than 5.0 kilometers of shoreline per square kilometer of area for the Louisiana coast, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield.

  3. 77 FR 29586 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction AGENCY... turtle excluder devices (TEDs) in their nets, and announced five public hearings to be held in...

  4. Shrimp culture in Thailand: environmental impacts and social responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronski, R

    2000-01-01

    Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a major aquaculture commodity among Southeast Asian producers and remains a popular food export world-wide. Food brokers in Japan and the United States purchase huge quantities of these farmed shrimp and return significant foreign exchange earnings to developing nations like Thailand, a major producer and exporter since the early 1990s. However, coastal areas cannot sustain intensive shrimp farm production and local growers often end up in debt. Can the needs of farm communities around the world be suitably met when they join into a corporate-managed and export-oriented food system? What are the sustainable benefits and eventual costs to susceptible localities? The shrimp industry in Thailand reveals the difficult terrain to cross and powerful obstacles to overcome if authentic sustainable development is to be realized.

  5. 2008 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected data on the economic performance of active commercial shrimp harvesters who primarily operated in inshore waters of western Florida,...

  6. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  7. Bacterial Selection from Shrimp Ponds for Degradation of Organic Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powtongsook, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of ammonia, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide in a shrimp pond is generally caused by incomplete degradation of residual organic matters from overfeeding and from organic wastes released by shrimps. The phenomenon affects shrimp growth and survival rate. The objectives of this investigation were to screen for a bacterial strain able to digest organic residues and to evaluate the changes of residues by bacterial activities under natural conditions. The results from this work showed that the isolated strain, Bacillus cereus S1, had the highest protease activity (57.1 U/ml with the presence of glucoamylase and lipase activities (4.5 and 0.13 U/ml, respectively. Under an aseptic condition in 1-L flasks containing seawater with 0.1% shrimp feed, B. cereus S1 degraded organic matters and significantly reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD (70.8%. An amount of ammonia-nitrogen was increased during the first 5 days of incubation due to the degradation of organic compounds in shrimp feed. However, it declined afterward with nitrate-nitrogen increase and unchanged nitrite nitrogen content. Under natural conditions in 10-L glass jars containing seawater with 0.05% shrimp feed and 0.05% sediment, B. cereus S1 and a commercial bacterial product (Inpicin-G could reduce COD (4.5% and 15.8%, respectively and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD (35.1 and 11.4%, respectively. However, similar changes of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen contents in water samples were observed. The results indicate that this selected bacterium could reduce organic compound accumulations on a laboratory scale. In addition, the strain did not produce any enterotoxins compared to a toxin standard. Therefore, the bacterium, Bacillus cereus S1, could be applied to decrease organic matters accumulated in shrimp pond without any harm to shrimps or consumers.

  8. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good indication of reduction of these pathogens because of the wide natural color variation.

  9. Brine Shrimp Ecology In The Great Salt Lake, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersaline lakes are noted for their simple communities which facilitate understanding ecological interactions (Williams et al. 1990; Wurtsbaugh 1992; Jellison and Melack 1988). Nevertheless, we still cannot easily predict how environmental changes will effect the population dynamics in these lakes, at least in part because even these simple ecosystems may be more complex than we .realize. Many hypersaline lakes are dominated by the brine shrimp Artemia spp. The production of brine shrimp is...

  10. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.;

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...... diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world...... 1928–30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially diff ering in their shield morphologies. Th e shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae...

  11. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.;

    2016-01-01

    1928–30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially diff ering in their shield morphologies. Th e shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae......Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...... diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world...

  12. STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE AND COMPETITIVE CLUSTER FOR SHRIMP INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas M. Fauzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kampung Vannamei as shrimp cluster is being developed since 2004 by PT CP Prima, tbk Surabaya through Shrimp Culture Health Management transformation technology to several traditional farmers in Gresik, Lamongan, Tuban, and Madura areas. The research objectives aims to identify and mapping of stakeholder, to analyze interaction of stakeholders, to formulate strategy from internal and external environment factors and to set priority on strategy to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster in the Kampung vannamei. Primary data was collected through stakeholders’ discussion forums, questionnaires, and interviews with relevant actors. Observations to the business unit also performed to determine the production and business conditions, particularly in capturing information about the threat and challenges. While the secondary data is used in policy documents national and local area statistics, and relevant literature. Analyses were performed by using the SRI International cluster pyramid, diamond porter’s analysis, SWOT and Matrix TOWS analysis, and analytical hierarchy process. Analyses were performed by the methods discussed in qualitative and descriptive. There are 7 strategies could be implemented to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster. However, it is recommended to implement the strategy base on priority, which the first priority is strategy to improve linkages between businesses in the upstream and downstream industries into multi stakeholders’ platform in shrimp industry.Keywords: Shrimp, Cluster, Competitiveness, Diamond Porter, SWOT Analysis, AHP

  13. Import price analysis of shrimp products in international market%虾产品国际市场进口价格分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁夏; 孙琛

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]Import and export status of shrimp products and its influencing factors were analyzed in order to provide references for government and corporate decision-making on shrimp product productions and sales. [Method] Through analyzing the supply and demand of major importing countries and their competitors regarding production factors that are affecting international shrimp import price, improvement measures and suggestions for the development of Chinese shrimp industry were put forward. [Result]Import price of shrimp products in the United States and Japan, despite being impacted by trade barrier, financial crisis, human errors, and natural disasters, slowly went through the normal business cycle with peaks and dips; on the other hand, the import price of shrimp products in Spain gradually descended with little fluctuation due to its significantly horrendous economic crisis. Regarding shrimp exports to different countries, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and India were the predominant producers and shrimp exports increased year by year. [Suggestion] In order to strengthen positive and stable growth of the Chinese shrimp trade, quality and quantity of shrimp products should be improved; export structure should be adjusted and industry organization should be promoted.%[目的]分析虾产品的贸易情况及影响因素,为我国政府及企业制定决策提供参考.[方法]通过对主要进口国的需求状况和生产国的竞争状况进行分析,探讨影响国际虾产品进口价格变动因素,并为我国虾产业的发展提供对策建议.[结果]美国和日本的虾产品进口价格呈缓慢下降至一定区域后再缓慢上升的趋势,影响因素包括贸易壁垒、金融危机及各种人为或自然灾害;西班牙则是呈缓慢下降至一定区域后呈小范围波动的趋势,受金融危机的影响较大.从各国的虾类产量来看,中国、泰国、印度尼西亚与印度是主要生产国,且产量呈逐年增加的趋势.[

  14. Determination of storage conditions for shrimp extracts: analysis of specific IgE-allergen profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piboonpocanun, Surapon; Boonchoo, Siribangon; Pariyaprasert, Wipada; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

    2010-03-01

    The consumption of shrimp is a common cause of food hypersensitivity reactions. Shrimp allergy is diagnosed using a skin prick test (SPT) as well as by food challenges. Due to the lack of a wide variety of commercial shrimp extracts for SPTs, we selected various shrimp species for the preparation of local shrimp extracts. However, optimal storage conditions for the shrimp extracts which also maintains allergenic potency has not yet been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the potency of the shrimp extracts under different storage conditions and durations. Specific IgE-allergen profiles of eight shrimp-allergic patients were investigated by using sera incubated with extracts prepared from lyophilized raw or boiled shrimp, which were stored at 4 degress C or -20 degress C for up to 4 weeks. When stored at -20 degress C, most allergens were preserved after 4 weeks. However, storage at 4 degress C results in few allergens remaining after 2 weeks. Boiled-shrimp extracts stored at 4 degree C and -20 degress C contained higher amounts of IgE-allergen complexes than raw-shrimp extracts. Moreover, in both raw and boiled shrimp extracts, the IgE bound 36-40 kDa allergens constituted the major proteins since they were observed in all IgE-allergen profiles. In conclusion, we recommend that shrimp extracts are stored at -20 degress C for 4 weeks to prevent the loss of allergens.

  15. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  16. 78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations AGENCY: United...(a)), the countervailing duty investigations concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia...

  17. Simulating environmental effects on brown shrimp production in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a commercially important fishery species of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Young shrimp settle in estuarine salt marsh...

  18. Economic Data Collection for Gulf of Mexico South Atlantic Shrimp Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Economic Survey of Federal Gulf and Atlantic Shrimp Permit Holders collects data about operating expenses and costs of owning and maintaining shrimp...

  19. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... of China,Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of...

  20. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SPERM AS VECTOR FOR INTRODUCING FOREIGN DNA INTO CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS)%以精子为载体把外源DNA导入中华绒螯蟹的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向宇; 王铁辉; 张菁; 邱涛; 陆仁后

    2002-01-01

    @@ The study of crustacean genetics and breeding has been received more and more attention due to the rapid development of the shrimp and crab aquaculture. Chromosome set manipulation on shrimp and crab[1][2],and the work on transgenic shrimp[3][4]have got some progress. However, there is no transgenic research reported on crab to our knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to study the feasibility of using sperm as vector to introduce foreign DNA into Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis H.milne-Edwards), an economically important crab in China.

  1. Characterization of recombinant shrimp allergen Pen a 1 (tropomyosin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, G; Jeoung, B J; Daul, C B; Lehrer, S B

    1997-01-01

    Tropomyosin (Pen a 1) from brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, has been identified as the only major shrimp allergen. Since beef, pork and chicken are other tropomyosin-containing foods that are not very allergenic, tropomyosins can serve to investigate the contribution of the structural properties of a protein to its allergenicity. The aim of this study was to determine the primary structure of Pen a 1 and to identify IgE-binding epitopes. The screening of a unidirectional expression cDNA library from shrimp tail muscle with the Pen-a-1-specific monoclonal antibody 4.9.5 resulted in 4 positive Escherichia coli clones. Immunoblot analysis with human sera from shrimp-allergic subjects demonstrated IgE binding of all 4 recombinant shrimp proteins. Three of 4 expressed recombinant proteins have a molecular weight of approximately 36 kD, consistent with the molecular weight of natural Pen a 1. The DNA sequence analysis identified these recombinant shrimp proteins as tropomyosin and could be aligned with the sequence of greasyback shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) tropomyosin (Met e 1). In order to characterize contiguous IgE-binding epitopes of Pen a 1, a peptide library (Novagen epitope mapping system) expressing 10-30 amino-acid-residue-long recombinant Pen a 1 peptides was constructed and screened with human IgE. Four recombinant, IgE-reactive Pen a 1 peptides were selected and sequenced. They show various degrees of sequence identity with tropomyosins of other arthropods, such as fruitfly and house dust mite, helminths and vertebrates.

  2. Rice versus Shrimp Production in Thailand: Is There Really a Conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    MEKHORA, Thamrong; McCann, Laura M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Shrimp farming in Thailand has had disastrous effects on the environment in the past, which has prompted a government ban on shrimp production in inland areas. However, a new low-salinity shrimp farming system has developed that seems to have fewer disease and environmental problems than previous systems but competes with rice production for land and water resources. The present study found that shrimp farming exhibits increasing returns to scale and is much more profitable than rice farming,...

  3. Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabade, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Rob; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between stakeholders, the conditions under which shrimps are handled at fishing areas and processed at shrimp plants, and the stakeholders' perceptions of quality. A total of 325 fishermen, 128 intermediate traders, 12 collectors, and 3 shrimp processing plant managers were interviewed face to face. The results showed that various specific relations existed between the stakeholders. For example, loyalty was ensured by family relationships, or incentives were provided to ensure a supply of shrimps between stakeholders. Shrimp handling practices during the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants were not in agreement with the requirements of the European regulations. For example, shrimps were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 1°C) by 94.1% of fishermen and 60.9% of intermediate traders. Shrimps were also stored in inappropriate holding containers and washed with nonpotable water. Fishermen, intermediate traders, and collectors considered shrimp size and texture their priority quality attributes, whereas plant managers considered shrimp appearance (freshness) and texture their priority quality attributes. This survey demonstrated that the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants are the critical steps for shrimp quality and safety because of temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. There is a need to communicate and provide incentives for the stakeholders in the first part of the chain to give priority to shrimp freshness. Moreover, training in Good Fishing Practices and safe food handling practices and evaluation of compliance with the practices through monitoring will contribute to better shrimp quality and safety management.

  4. Effect of Chitin Extraction Processes on Residual Antimicrobials in Shrimp Shells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the influences of industrial chitin extraction processes on the residual oxytetracycline (OTC) and oxolinic acid (OA) in shrimp carapaces and shells. The drugs were orally administered by catheter to the kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) and vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). The shrimps were sampled at 6-h post-dosing and their carapaces and shells were collected and used as raw material in the chitin extraction. Residua...

  5. Comparison of SHRIMP U-Pb dating of monazite and zircon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yusheng; LIU Dunyi; JIAN Ping

    2004-01-01

    Monazite dating is an important technique in geochronological studies. However, monazite U-Pb dating by SHRIMP is much less popular than zircon in geochronological applications. This paper compares the results of SHRIMP U-Pb dating of monazites and zircons separated from two granite samples, indicating that monazite SHRIMP U-Pb dating at the Beijing SHRIMP Centre is feasible and provides identical results within error.

  6. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  7. Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...

  8. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  9. 78 FR 72635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Department'') initiated a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp... Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

  10. 75 FR 844 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...'') is extending the time limit for the preliminary results of the new shipper review of certain frozen... order on shrimp from Vietnam for Nhat Duc Co., Ltd. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...

  11. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  12. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... concerning the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would...

  13. 76 FR 50718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the period... duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the PRC. See Initiation of...

  14. 78 FR 42492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from India.\\1\\ The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2011... during the POR. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India; Preliminary Results of...

  15. 78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... determines that countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of investigation...

  16. 75 FR 56988 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the period... initiation of the administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on certain frozen shrimp from...

  17. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21.10 and... of frozen warmwater shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and...

  18. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the... of the antidumping duty orders on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam and the...

  19. Shrimp quality and safety management along the supply chain in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabade, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis focuses on quality and safety management of tropical shrimp (Penaeus spp.) using Benin (West Africa) as an example of a shrimp exporting country. The entire supply chain, from fishing areas (brackish waters) to shrimp processing plants, was investigated. The ste

  20. The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

  1. 78 FR 15696 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Produce Development Ltd. 44. Shenzhen Yudayuan Trade Ltd. 45. Thai Royal Frozen Food Zhanjiang Co., Ltd... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering...

  2. Management options for brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) fisheries in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, J.; Kooten, van T.; Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Trapman, B.K.; Reijden, van der K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Fisheries targeting brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) in the North Sea in European waters are largely unregulated in terms of landings and effort. A license system exists, but this did not prevent the current situation of overcapacity of the shrimp fleet. The governments of the North Sea brown shrimp f

  3. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haryadi, D.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina e

  4. 78 FR 40436 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The regulations for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear... Gear Characterization Form. The form will be provided by NMFS at the time of permit application...

  5. Global and local governance of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Thu, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is one of seven ecological regions in Vietnam where aquaculture and shrimp products are internationally traded and the shrimp farmers are firmly embedded in a global system of production and trade. The growth of shrimp aquaculture, in addition to population growth and higher levels

  6. 78 FR 30272 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the... review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil with respect to...

  7. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004) (Brazil... Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, 70 FR 5143... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the...

  8. 77 FR 32498 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil with respect to...

  9. 75 FR 32915 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 7, 2009, the Department published a...

  10. 76 FR 38360 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 1, 2011, the Department published a...

  11. 75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1\\ deveined or not..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  12. 75 FR 54847 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\3... species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  13. 77 FR 12801 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results, Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\16\\ deveined or not... include, but are not limited to, white-leg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguinensis... coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled...

  14. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off, deveined or not... warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus... shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled; (4)...

  15. 76 FR 8338 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\4\\ deveined or not... include, but are not limited to, white-leg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis... coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled...

  16. 75 FR 12206 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\2\\ deveined or not deveined..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  17. 75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1\\ deveined or not deveined... not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn... as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  18. 77 FR 53856 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ...-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\19... species include, but are not limited to, white-leg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus... coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled...

  19. 75 FR 41813 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\3\\ deveined or not..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  20. 50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654.24... Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the management area and Florida's waters off Citrus and Hernando Counties for the separation of shrimp trawling and stone...

  1. Livelihood Capabilities and Pathways of Shrimp Farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Phung Ha, Ha; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Bosma, R.H.; Sinh, L.X.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is a major livelihood activity in the Mekong Delta in the southernmost part of Vietnam. The Vietnamese government has promoted shrimp farming as a way to reduce poverty, provide employment opportunities and increase exports to support economic development. The shrimp farming system, h

  2. 75 FR 33375 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration, OMB Control... Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration. OMB... document imports of shrimp pursuant to the State Department's implementation of Section 609 of Public...

  3. 78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ..., Inc.; Graham Shrimp, Inc.; Gulf Crown Seafood Co., Inc.; Gulf Fish Inc.; Gulf Island Shrimp & Seafood... Market, Inc.; Paul Piazza & Sons, Inc.; R.A. Lesso Brokerage Co., Inc.; Sea Pearl Seafood Co., Inc..., ``Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of...

  4. 78 FR 50387 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ..., Inc.; Graham Shrimp, Inc.; Gulf Crown Seafood Co., Inc.; Gulf Fish Inc.; Gulf Island Shrimp & Seafood... Market, Inc.; Paul Piazza & Sons, Inc.; R.A. Lesso Brokerage Co., Inc.; Sea Pearl Seafood Co., Inc... Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Thailand,...

  5. 78 FR 50379 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ....; Gulf Crown Seafood Co., Inc.; Gulf Fish Inc.; Gulf Island Shrimp & Seafood, LLC; Gulf Pride Enterprises... Corp.; M&M Shrimp (Biloxi Freezing and Processing); Ocean Springs Seafood Market, Inc.; Paul Piazza..., ``Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of...

  6. IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon THROUGH PROBIOTICS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irsyaphiani Insan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Brebes District, the North coast of Java. Tiger shrimp farming in Indonesia, particularly in this area faced some problems which caused by improper pond preparation, disease, and low seed quality. Probiotic was applied in pond to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of tiger shrimp in ponds with probiotic applications. Six experimental ponds (each measuring 0.5 ha were selected of which three were probiotic ponds and three were controlled. Tiger shrimp postlarvae (PL-30 were stocked at density of four shrimps/m2. Tiger shrimps were reared for three months. Shrimps were fed by commercial pellet. In the first month, shrimp were fed about 7%-5% of the total biomass; in the second months, 3.5%-3% of the total biomass; and in the third month, 2.5%-2% of the total biomass. The treatments in this study were the application of probiotics with concentration of 3 mg/L that were given every five days and control (without probiotics. The results showed the rearing period was 92 ± 6 days in probiotic ponds and 76 ± 16 days in controlled pond. The shrimp in controlled pond should be harvest earlier caused by the high mortality. The average final weight was 16.2 ± 0.7 g in probiotic pond and 15.6 ± 1.9 g in controlled pond. The survival rate was 64.13 ± 12.63% in probiotic pond and 44.17 ± 14.15% in controlled pond. Production was 208 ± 46 kg/pond/cycle in probiotic pond and 123 ± 6 kg/pond/cycle in controlled pond. The result showed that probiotic plays an important role in maintaining water quality parameters and health management as well as increases the survival of shrimp.

  7. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B. Luz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100 Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Feed palatability and the alternative protein sources in shrimp feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutima Tantikitti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Feed palatability in carnivorous aquaculture species, shrimps in particular, has been crucially related to the presence of compounds acting as attractants that are commonly associated with the prey components under wild conditions. Thus a nutritionally adequate and organoleptically-pleasing diet is essential to achieve satisfactory intake and growth in shrimps. Historically, fishmeal has been an essential dietary component of intensive shrimp cultures because of its nutrient composition and compounds of high attractability. However, in recent years the fishmeal supplies have been dwindling due to over hunting, a diminishing natural fish-stock, elevating prices and market volatility. This has led to search for cheaper sources of suitable protein as fishmeal substitutes. To improve the palatability of diets, various substances have been investigated for their effectiveness in aqua-feed including natural feed ingredients and synthetic flavor substances. For crustacean, attractants characteristically are of low molecular weight, water and ethanol soluble, and amphoteric or basic compounds that are released from potential prey items. Compounds such as free amino acids, especially taurine, hydroxyproline, glycine, arginine, glutamic acid and alanine have been identified to stimulate feeding in shrimps. The same has been identified with organic acids, nucleotides and nucleosides, betaine, and some small peptides. Palatability also has been associated with animal’s past experience with the feed. Understanding the factors that regulate feed palatability is therefore primary for successful shrimp culture.

  9. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Prevalence of Three Shrimp Viruses in Zhejiang Province in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-wei Yu; Jian-ping Wang; Wei Zhang; Zheng-li Shi

    2011-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus(WSSV), Taura syndrome virus(TSV)and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus(IHHNV)are three shrimp viruses responsible for major pandemics affecting the shrimp farming industry. Shrimps samples were collected from 12 farms in Zhejiang province, China, in 2008 and analyzed by PCR to determine the prevalence of these viruses. From the 12 sampling locations, 8 farms were positive for WSSV, 8 for IHHNV and 6 for both WSSV and IHHNV. An average percentage of 57.4% of shrimp individuals were infected with WSSV, while 49.2% were infected with IHHNV. A high prevalence of co-infection with WSSV and IHHNV among samples was detected from the following samples: Bingjiang(93.3%), liuao(66.7%), Jianshan(46.7%)and Xianxiang(46.7%). No samples exhibited evidence of infection with TSV in collected samples. This study provides comprehensive information of the prevalence of three shrimp viruses in Zhejiang and may be helpful for disease prevention control in this region.

  11. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JavidAli; BashirAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution) were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  12. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Haug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages, alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages. These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world 1928-30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially differing in their shield morphologies. The shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults.

  13. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Salas-Durán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to meassure the effect of shrimp meal (SM in commercial laying hen diets. From April to September 2013, in Costa Rica, Pleuroncodes planipes was used to obtain a meal (SM with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40.67%, ether extract (11.05%, crude fiber (7.12%, ash (27.48%, calcium (9.03%, phosphorus (2.66%, amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84% and acidity (8.34. Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p<0.05. The hens fed with 5% SM laid heavier eggs. It is suggested to evaluate a level of SM inclusion up to 15% in laying hens diets.

  14. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  15. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  16. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)]. E-mail: j.kennedy@gns.cri.nz; Mautner, M.N. [Soil, Plant and Ecological Sciences Division, Lincoln University (New Zealand) and Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8001 (New Zealand)]. E-mail: m.mautner@solis1.com; Barry, B. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Markwitz, A. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2007-07-15

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  17. Bioencapsulation of metronidazole in adult brine shrimp (Artemia sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Matthew C; Kastura, Mike; George, Robert; Bulman, Frank; Yarbrough, Jason; Cox, Sherry

    2011-06-01

    A description of bioencapsulation of metronidazole in adult brine shrimp (Artemia) for 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, and 10 g/L treatment baths is presented. Metronidazole was detected in adult brine shrimp tissue after enrichment periods of 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr, 8 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr. The assays were performed using high performance liquid chromatography. There was a positive relationship in both dose and time. When evaluating percent uptake, all three baths demonstrated a similar pattern. All three bath concentrations had a high initial concentration that fell at 30 min and slowly began to increase through the end of the study. Survival of shrimp was not affected by bath concentration but decreased over time in all treatment baths comparatively. It can be concluded that metronidazole can be successfully bioencapsulated in adult Artemia.

  18. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon van de Kerk

    Full Text Available Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp.

  19. PERFORMANCES OF TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem plays an obvious role in maintaining the biological balance in the coastal environment where shrimp ponds are usually constructed. The removal of mangroves around shrimp ponds has frequently brought about harvest failure. The study evaluated the performance of tiger shrimp culture in ponds provided with water from a water body where there was mangrove vegetation (hereafter mangrove reservoir. Twelve ponds, each measuring 2,500 m2, were filled with seawater from the mangrove reservoir until the water depth of 100 cm and then stocked with 20-40 PL/m2. In the first six ponds, the bottom water was released into the reservoir when the water depth reached 140 cm and then the water depth was maintained at 100 cm. In the second six ponds, the water was released from the ponds until the water depth reached 60 cm and then refilled with reservoir water until a depth of 100 cm. Both treatment ponds received water from the reservoir which also received the wastewater. The feeds for the shrimps were broadcast into the ponds twice a day to meet the 3% shrimp biomass requirement, which adjusted every other week through sampling. The result showed that mangrove  vegetation is capable of removing excessive nutrients, up to 70% for NO3- N and NH4 +-N, reducing PO4 =-P fluctuation, and producing bioactive  compounds. In the second treatment ponds, shrimp mortality started to occur in day 28 and most died by day 54 after stocking due to white spot disease outbreak. Mass mortality took place 54 days after stocking in two out of six of the first treatment ponds.

  20. Shrimp export from Bangladesh: Effect of war and trade liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sabur, S.A.; Palash, M S; Awal, M.A.; Rahman, K.T

    2010-01-01

    The study estimates the growth rates of frozen food, shrimp and total export, and instability of export earnings. The study evaluates the export marketing of frozen food; shrimp and fish by using time series aggregated data from the year of 1972-73 to 2005-06. The growth rates of frozen food were 44%, 11%, and 10% during post-war period (1972- 73 to 1982-83), pre-trade liberalization (1983-84 to 1992-93) and post-trade liberalization period (1993-94 to 2005-06) respectively. The export growth...

  1. Analysis of the sulphite content in shrimps and prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bonerba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Food additives are redefined in European legislation (EC Regulation No. 1333/2008. Sulphur dioxide (E220 and sulphite (E221- E228 are widely used in food processing as preservatives because they slow down bacterial growth on foods and prevent oxidation or browning developing on shrimp and lobster. Shellfish processors, farmers and fishermen have long used sulfiting agents in a variety of species of warm and coldwater crustaceans as a treatment to prevent prawns and shrimps melanosis (blackspot, which is a natural process that makes the shell black after harvesting caused by Polyphenoloxidase enzyme systems which remain active during refrigeration or ice storage. Sulfite-induced hypersensitivity is the most well-established adverse response in humans to this food additive. In the present study the presence of sulfites in different frozen and thawed shrimp and prawn species belonging to Penaeoidea superfamily has been evaluated by the Monier-Williams procedure, in order to carry out a risk assessment and evaluate the levels of consumer exposure to this class of additives from these fish products. In addition to assessing and monitoring the correct use of the additive, according to the limits imposed by the European regulations, the correct consumer information on labels was also evaluated. Analysis were performed on both whole shrimp (shell on and inedible parts (head and peeled shell. Sulphites concentration in frozen samples (expressed as SO2 mg/kg mean value±S.D. was 214±17.43 for head on shell on shrimps; 170.73±14.99 for shell on headless shrimps; 112.90±27.55 for peeled and deveined shrimps. Thawed shrimps were purchased at mass retailers channel and local fish markets and local seafood retailers and purveyors: for these samples, all head on shell on, the sulphites concentration (expressed as SO2 mg/kg mean value±S.D. was 160.05±26.15 and 292.54±146.04, respectively. Non-edible parts showed, in all samples, much higher concentrations.

  2. Zircon SHRIMP dating of granite from Qaidamshan,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Zircon SHRIMP dating from Qaidamshan granite shows that the granite age is 446 Ma, similar to that of eclogite in the UHP belt. We think that both granite and eclogite may be formed at different stages during tectonic evolution of this area. Together with other studies we suggested that the collision of ocean and continent plates may occur at the early Caledonian in this area, forming the eclogite, and the collision of continent and continent plates at the late Caledonian, forming the Qaidamshan granite with the zircon SHRIMP age of 446 Ma.

  3. The effects of a thermophile metabolite, tryptophol, upon protecting shrimp against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Jin, Min

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a shrimp pathogen responsible for significant economic loss in commercial shrimp farms and until now, there has been no effective approach to control this disease. In this study, tryptophol (indole-3-ethanol) was identified as a metabolite involved in bacteriophage-thermophile interactions. The dietary addition of tryptophol reduced the mortality in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus when orally challenged with WSSV. Our results revealed that 50 mg/kg tryptophol has a better protective effect in shrimp than 10 or 100 mg/kg tryptophol. WSSV copies in shrimp were reduced significantly (P < 0.01) when supplemented with 50 mg/kg tryptophol, indicating that virus replication was inhibited by tryptophol. Consequently, tryptophol represents an effective antiviral dietary supplement for shrimp, and thus holds significant promise as a novel and efficient therapeutic approach to control WSSV in shrimp aquaculture.

  4. Field study of cyclic hypoxic effects on gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiandao; Brouwer, Marius

    2013-12-01

    Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, are widely used for ecological and toxicological research. They commonly experience cyclic hypoxia in their natural habitats. The response of grass shrimp to laboratory-controlled cyclic hypoxia has been studied in detail, but little is known about how field acclimatized grass shrimp regulate the gene expression and response to cyclic hypoxia. In this study we examined morphometric parameters, relative fecundity and gene expression of grass shrimp collected from two areas in Weeks Bay (Mobile, Alabama). One is a traditionally normoxic location (WBM), and the other is a traditionally cyclic hypoxic location (WC). In the week preceding grass shrimp collection dissolved oxygen (DO) at the field sites was measured continuously. DO was shrimp were significantly greater than weight and length of WC shrimp. WBM shrimp had more eggs than WC shrimp, but the difference was not significant. Shrimp from WC had a significant higher number of parasites than those from WBM. A cDNA microarray was utilized to investigate the changes in gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas. Five genes, previously identified as hypoxia/cyclic hypoxia-responsive genes in laboratory exposure studies, were significantly up-regulated in WC shrimp relative to WBM. A total of 5 genes were significantly down-regulated in the field study. Only one of those genes, vitellogenin, has been previously found in chronic and cyclic hypoxic studies. Up and down-regulation of 7 selected genes was confirmed by qPCR. The overall pattern of gene expression in wild shrimp from cyclic DO sites in Weeks Bay showed only weak correlations with gene expression in shrimp from chronic and cyclic hypoxic laboratory studies. It appears therefore that transcriptome profiles of laboratory acclimated animals are of limited utility for understanding responses in field acclimatized animals that are exposed to a broader array of environmental variables.

  5. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or if they are food..., except that artificial flavorings, artificial sweeteners, artificial colors, and chemical preservatives... shrimp. Chemical preservatives that are suitable are: (1) Ascorbic acid, which may be used in a...

  6. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  7. Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

  8. Occurrence of toxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains in shrimp in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Doosti, Abbas; Gholampour, Ahmad Reza

    2010-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a common cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in people, is frequently isolated from a variety of seafood, including shrimp. The virulence of clinical V. parahaemolyticus strains is commonly associated with expression of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), which are encoded by the tdh and trh genes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of total and toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp caught off the south coast of Iran. Three hundred freshly caught shrimp from four different species, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus indicus, and Penaeus merguiensis, were collected in three provinces along Persian Gulf in the south coast of Iran. Shrimp were collected at the end of each month from July 2008 to July 2009. The samples were analyzed for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and the occurrence of toxigenic strains. Using conventional bacteriological techniques, 29 V. parahaemolyticus isolates were identified in which 28 strains were confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the tlh gene of V. parahaemolyticus. Using polymerase chain reaction assays targeting the tdh and trh genes, five (1.7%) and two (0.7%) isolates were tdh positive and trh positive, respectively. The tdh-positive isolates were commonly detected in summer, whereas no toxigenic strain was isolated in winter. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the presence of toxigenic tdh- and trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains in the seafood in Iran.

  9. Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van de C.B.T.

    2002-01-01

    Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays for the eva

  10. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2013. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methodResults: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  11. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish...

  12. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2014. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  13. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y−1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  14. Optimization of carotenoids extraction from Penaeus semisulcatus shrimp wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gholamreza jahed Khaniki; Parisa Sadighara; Ramin Nabizadeh Nodehi; Mahmood Alimohammadi; Naiema Vakili Saatloo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find effective method for carotenoids extraction from shrimp waste which is one of the important sources of natural carotenoids and produced in large quantities in Iran. Methods: Two methods of carotenoids extraction, enzymatic and alkaline (NaOH 1 normal) treatment, were assayed. About 5 g of gritted shrimp wastes were used at each stage. For alkaline treatment, sodium hydroxide were added to shrimp waste. After 48 h, the mixture was filtered and centrifuged.Results:Alcalase extraction produced (234.00±2.00) mg/L carotenoid and NaOH extraction produced (170.00±1.53) mg/L carotenoid. Based on the samples analyzed, alcalase enzyme showed more efficiency than NaOH extraction to achieve carotenoids from shrimp waste.Conclusions:It can be concluded that using alcalase enzyme for carotenoids extraction can produce higher carotenoids concentration than NaOH extraction method. So alcalase enzyme method can be used for achieving this kind of antioxidant.

  15. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria from shrimp farming in mangrove areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan Xuan; Munekage, Yukihiro; Kato, Shin-ichiro

    2005-10-15

    Shrimp farming is a sufficiently large and mature industry to have an effective range of antimicrobial agents for most bacterial diseases in shrimp culture. However, at present, there exists great concern over the widespread use of antibiotics in aquaculture, which may result in residue of antibiotics in water and mud, and subsequently, the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria in the environment. There is limited understanding about the effect of antibiotic residues on bacteria resistance in shrimp farming environment. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate bacterial resistance to Norfloxacin (NFXC), Oxolinic Acid (OXLA), Trimethoprim (TMP) and Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), which were found in four shrimp farming locations in mangrove areas in Vietnam. Findings indicate that there is a relatively high incidence of bacteria resistance to these antibiotics observed in most of the studied sites, particularly to antibiotics with concentration of 0.1 microg/ml. Yet the relation between concentration of antibiotic residues and incidence of antibiotic resistance is not clearly defined. Among individual antibiotics, the incidence of resistance to TMP and SMX was higher than the others. Identification of bacteria isolated from mud samples by DNA analyzer shows that Bacillus and Vibrio are predominant among bacteria resistant to the antibiotics. The result of the study also indicates that these antibiotics in media degraded more rapidly due to the presence of resistant bacteria.

  16. Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

  17. Progress in development of selective shrimp trawls in tropical seawaters%热带海域选择性虾拖网渔具的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 石建高; 陈小康

    2011-01-01

    Development of selective shrimp trawl is regarded as one of most promising technical measures to solve the bycatch and discard of shrimp trawling, especially tropic shrimp trawl fisheries, one of the most prominent issues in global marine fisheries. In the southeastern US shrimp trawl fisheries and Australian prawn trawl fisheries,two typical tropic shrimp trawl fisheries, more attention has been paid to development of species selective devices including Turtle Exclusion Devices (TED) and Bycatch Reduction Devices (BRD) than development of size selection, because of the simultaneous existing of bycatch and mortality of large-scale marine organism ( especially sea turtles) and finfish. In this paper, the developmental history of selective shrimp trawls in both fisheries was reviewed and different BRDs and TEDs designs occupied in different periods and regions were summarized and compared. Then the general and special characters of these selective trawls were discussed and some of legal technical conservation measures to reduce bycatch were described. It is considered that the successful experience in development of selective shrimp trawls in tropic shrimp trawls fisheres would be the necessary gist for future research and legislation on selective shrimp trawls in Chinese fisheries.%捕虾拖网,特别是热带海域捕虾拖网渔业的兼捕和抛弃是全球最为突出的渔业问题,而选择性渔具的开发是解决这一问题的主要技术手段.美国东南沿海和澳大利亚沿海对虾拖网渔业是典型的热带海域捕虾拖网渔业,在这些海域的捕虾拖网渔业中,大型海洋生物(海龟)和鱼类兼捕共存的特点使得选择性研究主要是以种类选择性为主,选择性装置研究也主要集中在海龟释放装置(TED)和鱼类兼捕减少装置(BRD)上.通过归纳和对比这两种渔业中所开展的选择性研究,找出选择性虾拖网研究的共性和个性,结合不同渔业中有关兼捕减少的法律法

  18. Detection of shrimp-derived components in food by real-time fluorescent PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jijuan; Yu, Bing; Ma, Lidan; Zheng, Qiuyue; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Junyi

    2011-10-01

    Crustaceans such as shrimp and crabs and their products are important allergens in food, and allergic reactions due to the consumption of shrimp and crabs are frequently reported. However, the chemical properties of shrimp-derived allergens, except for Pen a I, are still unclear. Therefore, it is important to establish a more sensitive and specific method for detecting the composition of foods containing shrimp. In the present study, we developed a real-time fluorescent PCR to identify the specific shrimp-derived components in food. The primers and TaqMan probes for real-time fluorescent PCR were designed based on 16S rRNA genes through comparing a large number of nucleic acid sequences from different species of shrimp that have been published by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. In total, 56 kinds of samples, including different kinds of shrimp, crab, fish, shellfish, and octopus, were subjected to detection by real-time PCR. The results indicated that real-time fluorescent PCR could successfully identify the shrimp-derived components. In order to explore the effect of food processing on detection sensitivity, fish powder containing shrimp powder was treated by heating at 133°C for 30 min. The limit of detection of shrimp-derived components in fish powder was 0.05% (wt/wt).

  19. GROWING NIPA PALM FOR RESTORATION OF ABANDONED SHRIMP PONDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noparat Bamroongrugsa; Chorthip Purintavarakul

    2006-01-01

    Rapid increase in the production of marine shrimps in the coastal zone has resulted in large - scale conversion of mangrove forests to shrimp ponds. Productions of the shrimps in some regions have been unstable. Consequently, a number of ponds are left idle. Restoring environmental conditions within the pond site by planting a suitable mangrove species considered an option. The experiment herein was carried out to explore the effect of planting methods on growth of Nipa palm in abandoned shrimp ponds in the Southern Thailand. Economically, coastal villagers in this area earn their income from the palm in several ways, the most importantly in Nipa sugar production. Most seedlings were planted on top of furrows were constructed in the pond to avoid flooding, except for some seedlings which were planted in the pond base where additional pond sludge were slightly filled up to compare their growth rates. The results showed that planting seedlings with attached rhizomes had the best growth rate and without seedling death at 14 months after planting. At this stage, however, the height of seedlings grown from the fallen fruits was similar to those growth from bare rooted seedlings (70 cm tall). Also, seedling mortality was not observed when growth from fallen fruits whereas about6% mortality was experienced by the bare rooted ones. Among the bare rooted seedling treatments, however no significant differences in growth rates were found when applying the soil with chemical fertilizers or farm manure or liming with CaCO3. In addition, it was found that seedling growth measured at 40 months after planting for those growths in pond base was almost 100% greater than those grown on the furrows. Therefore, this finding may be applied for the restoration of abandoned shrimp ponds by growing Nipa palm.

  20. Microbial deproteinization of shrimp shell penaeus merguiensis for chitin extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sedaghat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After cellulose, Chitin is the most abundant biopolymer in nature. The most important derivative of chitin is chitosan, obtained by deacetylation of chitin. Major sources of chitin are the exoskeleton of marine crustaceans such as crab, shrimp, and krill. Chitin extraction from shrimp shells can be carried out chemically or using biological methods. Microbial fermentation as an eco-friendly procedure is a suitable alternative for the chemical and enzymatic processes. In this study, the effect of three protease-producing bacteria species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Bacillus pumilus on the efficiency of microbial demineralization (DM and deproteinization (DP of the shrimp shell penaeus merguiensis, was investigated. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of hydrolysate obtained during the fermentation process was measured. Materials and methods: Demineralization and deproteinization was carried out by incubating shrimp waste inoculated with bacteria at 30°C and 100 rpm for 6 days. Results: Statistical analysis of data showed a significant difference between the percentage of demineralization and deproteinization in different bacteria species (p<0.05. The highest deproteinization (74.76% and demineralization rate (78.46% were obtained with P. aeruginosa, while the lowest was observed for S. marcescens. Antioxidant activity of hydrolysate also showed a significant difference. The highest reducing power and total antioxidant capacity were observed in volumes of 400 µl hydrolysate of S.marcescens and 100 µl hydrolysate of B. pumilus, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicated that P. aeruginosa in comparison with other bacterial strains, had a higher ability to remove proteins and minerals from shrimp shell waste. Therefore, the use of this bacterium is suitable for protein and minerals removal from marine crustaceans.

  1. NUTRICIONAL ASSESSMENT OF INGREDIENTS USED IN PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CESAR ANTUNES ROCHA NUNES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on feeding and nutrition of shrimp are still quite scarce; little is known about the use of agribusiness byproducts in shrimp diets. Therefore, this study aimed to perform nutritional and energy assessments of protein-based ingredients for feed of shrimp of the Litopenaeus vannamei species. The design was completely randomized, with six treatments and four replications: a standard diet and five test diets composed of 70% standard diet and 30% test ingredients (poultry viscera flour - PVF, cassava leaf hay - CLH, shrimp head flour - SHF, sugarcane yeast - SCY and castor bean meal - CBM. We used a total of 720 shrimps with mean weight of 8 g each. The parameters of quality showed no significant change by the Tukey’s test (p > 0.05. The apparent digestibility coefficients of PVF, CLH, SHF, SCY and CBM were respectively 27.44, 76.26, 77.78 and 90.10% for dry matter; 76.61, 70.44, 97.67 and 78.29% for protein; and 33.10, 51.19, 90.70 and 78.05% for gross energy. The digestible energy of the ingredients was 1749, 2457, 3914, 3030 and 2130 kcal/ kg; and digestible protein was 42.4, 16.09, 54.62, 23.71 and 14.31%. The SHF reached the highest coefficients of apparent digestibility, crude protein, gross energy and digestible energy. The SCY had the largest apparent digestibility of dry matter. Both SHF and SCY presented improved availability of nutrients and energy for L. vannamei.

  2. Cytokine profile of rats fed a diet containing shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lage Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; p<0.05 and IL-10 (5.0±0.98 versus 7.5±1.2pg/mL; p<0.05 and higher levels of IL-6 (17.8±2.3 versus 3.2±0.4pg/mL, p<0.001 than controls. Morphologically, the shrimp-based diet caused an architectural disorganization of the intestinal mucosa and a greater amount of eosinophils in the jejunal villus. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that shrimp consumption leads to a significant increase in the cytokine IL-6, a decrease in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum of rats, and high eosinophil infiltration in the jejunum. The cytokine profile typical of inflammation and the histological aspect of the jejunum are compatible with food allergy.

  3. Application of risk perception and communication strategies to manage disease outbreaks of coastal shrimp farming in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2008-01-01

      Risk and uncertainty are very common issues in coastal shrimp industry like in any other business. A variety of risks are associated in shrimp farming like, production risks, technical risks, economical risks and disease of shrimp. However, risk of economic losses due to shrimp mortality (for...... diseases) is the major concern of shrimp producers of developing countries like Bangladesh, India, Thailand, China and many other countries. The risk of disease outbreaks in shrimp farms could be effectively prevented and managed by early identification of disease occurrence and by rapid communication...... of such a risk to the shrimp farmers. The risk perception and communication concepts could be applied to identify and to manage the disease occurrence in the initial stage. This conceptual paper provides the models to prevent and to manage shrimp diseases in coastal shrimp farming of Bangladesh and other...

  4. Effect of ingestion and waterborne routes under different shrimp densities on white spot syndrome virus susceptibility in three commercially important penaeid shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzhanthaivel Raja

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to evaluate some factors that are important for better management of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. We examined the likelihood of that the mud crab (Scylla serrata is a potential carrier of WSSV in shrimp farms and then compared susceptibility of three shrimp species to WSSV, and finally tested the effects of shrimp stocking density and transmission routes on the intensity of WSSV infection under experimental conditions. Mud crabs were collected from the crab fattening unit of Pichavaram mangroves area, southeast coast of India. The infectivity test was conducted on Penaeus monodon, P. indicus, Litopenaeus vannamei under three different shrimp densities and two different routes of infection. Each treatment was executed in triplicate of 100 L tanks. The results showed that S. serrata is a carrier of WSSV. Among three species of shrimps, P. indicus was most susceptible and L. vannamei was most resistant in term of cumulative mortality. Ingestion route was more effective than waterborne route on WSSV outbreaks. Cumulative mortality of shrimps due to WSSV infection increased with increasing shrimp density. The result of this study is important to improve management especially to minimize the WSSV infection in the shrimp farms.

  5. Vaccination enhances early immune responses in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after secondary exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Chin Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE and secondary exposure (SE to Vibrio alginolyticus. METHODOLOGY: Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7∼35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. RESULTS: HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. CONCLUSIONS: HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve

  6. Physicochemical, Proximate Composition, Microbiological and Sensory Analysis of Farmed and Wild Harvested White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-ulloa Gomez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical, proximate composition, microbiological and sensory analysis of farmed and wild harvested white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei muscle were compared. The cultured white shrimp were obtained of two farms, whereas the wild shrimp were collected off the coasts of Sinaloa and Nayarit, Mexico. Both, the farmed and wild white shrimp muscle, supplied a good source of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The physicochemical composition, microbiological and sensory properties could be associated to their origin and handling. The wild shrimp tended to have a better proximate composition than the farmed shrimp, due to the availability of a greater diet variety in their environment.

  7. Snapping shrimp prefer natural as opposed to artificial materials as their habitat in laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Lai Kean; Ghazali, Shahriman M.

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzed the habitat selection behavior of the snapping shrimp, Alpheus spp., comparing natural shelters (Rocks with oysters attached on the surface Sh; rocks with smooth surface, Ro and coral rubble, Co with plastic bottle. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the habitat preference, effect of photoperiod and shrimp orientation at shelter. The current study indicated that snapping shrimp preferred natural materials but rejected plastic bottle as their shelter. Among the natural shelters, coral rubble was the most preferred habitat followed by shell and rock. Photoperiod showed minimum effect on the shrimp where they spend most of the time inside and underneath the shelters. In conclusion the current study showed that snapping shrimp preferred coral rubble as opposed to other natural material and plastic bottle. The result also suggested that plastic debris in the marine environment is not an alternative habitat for snapping shrimp.

  8. The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P = 0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

  9. Extension of shelf life of whole and peeled shrimp with organic acid salts and bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dagal, M M; Bazaraa, W A

    1999-01-01

    Microbiological and sensory characteristics of treated whole and peeled shrimp from the east coast of Saudi Arabia were evaluated. Shrimp samples were treated with organic acid salts with or without Bifidobacterium breve culture and stored in ice. Peeling alone extended the microbiological shelf life by 4 days. Treatment of whole shrimp with sodium acetate alone or potassium sorbate with bifidobacteria prolonged the microbiological shelf life by 3 days and increased the microbial generation time from 12.8 h (control) to 30.1 h or 31.4 h, respectively. The microbiological and sensory shelf life of peeled shrimp treated with sodium acetate was more than 17 days. Sodium acetate extended the microbial lag phase and lengthened the generation time (38.7 h compared to 15.8 h for the control). Micrococci and coryneforms were the predominant microorganisms in whole shrimp during storage. Treatment with sodium acetate maintained better sensory characteristics for peeled shrimp than potassium sorbate combined with bifidobacteria.

  10. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, J.; Modberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus...... and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life...... sakei constituted the dominating microflora of shrimp in brines that contained benzoic, citric and sorbic acids as preservatives. L sakei dominated the spoilage microflora of brined and drained MAP shrimp, and of brined shrimp preserved using acetic, citric and lactic acids, irrespective of packaging...

  11. Advances, challenges, and directions in shrimp disease control: the guidelines from an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Dai, Wenfang; Li, Chenghua

    2016-08-01

    High-density aquaculture has led to increasing occurrences of diseases in shrimp. Thus, it is imperative to establish effective and quantitative strategies for preventing and predicting these diseases. Water quality indices and investigations of specific pathogen abundance provide only a qualitative evaluation of the risk of shrimp disease and can be inaccurate. To address these shortcomings, we introduced intestinal indicative assemblages as independent variables with which to quantitatively predict incidences of shrimp disease. Given the ignorance regarding the niches differences in the shrimp intestine throughout its developmental stages, the use of probiotics in aquaculture has had limited success. Therefore, we propose the exploration of effective probiotic bacteria from shrimp intestinal flora and the establishment of therapeutic strategies dependent on shrimp age. Following ecological selection principles, we hypothesize that the larval stage provides the best opportunity to establish a desired gut microbiota through preemptive colonization of the treated rearing water with known probiotics. To employ this strategy, however, substantial barriers must be overcome.

  12. Detection of Luminous Vibrio harveyi in Penaeid Shrimp Through Nested PCR Using Haemolysin Gene Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Wawan Abdullah Setiawan; Utut Widyastuti; Munti Yuhana

    2015-01-01

    Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is one of the most important aquaculture commodity in Indonesia. However, the luminous disease primarily caused by Vibrio harveyi bacteria still becomes an obstacle in penaeid shrimp farming, especially in shrimp hatchery. This study was aimed to identify the presence of V. harveyi in L. vannamei through nested PCR using haemolysin gene primer. First, initial primers were designed using V. harveyi VIB 391 haemolysin gene sequence (accession number: DQ64...

  13. Effects of low molecular weight chitosan (LMC-1) on shrimp preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-Li; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Liu, Shu-Qing; Tian, Xue-Lin

    1996-06-01

    This study on the effects of low molecular weight chitosan (LMC-1) and shrimp preserving agents such as phytic acid (PA), sodium bisulfite (SB), and crustacean preservative (CP) on the preservation of shrimp ( Trachypenaeus curvirostris) and the bacteriostasis of LMC-1 showed that: (1) Different LMC-1 concentration has different bacteriostasis on E. coli, B. subtilis and S. aureau; (2) LMC-1 and CP are better than PA and SB for preserving the freshness of shrimp stored at 4 °C.

  14. Potentials of converting microalgae into brine shrimp Artemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgeloos, P.

    1985-01-01

    High densities of brine shrimp Artemia can be cultured in flow-through systems using the effluent of microalgae cultures as a combined source of culture medium and food. It has been proven at the "St. Croix Artificial Upwelling Mariculture Project" that in comparison with the fast growing clam Tapes japonica, brine shrimp assure a much more efficient conversion of plant into animal biomass. It appears from the given examples that microalgae conversion into brine shrimp Artemia offers efficien...

  15. Places, Chains, and Plates: Governing Transitions in the Shrimp Aquaculture Production-Consumption System

    OpenAIRE

    Lebel, L.; Lebel, P; Garden, P.; Dao, H. G.; Khrutmuang, S.; Nakayama, S

    2008-01-01

    The shrimp production-consumption system is governed by a diverse and dynamic array of actors each drawing on institutions at various levels, from local through national to international. But, for the most part, the politics of consumption (plates), chains, and places are disconnected. Instead, shrimp producers face a myriad of institutional and consumer demands and the sustainability of the shrimp aquaculture production-consumption system is not merely a technical problem to be solved by bet...

  16. The Gulf of Guinea goby-shrimp symbiosis and a review of goby-thalassinidean associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirtz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An undescribed species of the family Gobiidae shares the burrows of the axiid shrimp Axiopsis serratifrons at São Tomé and Príncipe (central eastern Atlantic. In contrast to similar associations of gobiid fishes with alpheid shrimps in the Indo-Pacific and the western Atlantic (where the goby serves as a sentinel for the crustacean and the shrimp leaves the burrow only if the goby remains at the burrow entrance, the axiid appears to completely ignore the goby, which rests near the opening of the burrow. Facultative and obligatory associations of gobies with thalassinidean shrimps are reviewed.

  17. Differential detection of shrimp and crab for food labeling using polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Hiromu; Watanabe, Satoshi; Temmei, Yusuke; Hirao, Takashi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shinobu; Adachi, Reiko; Sakata, Kozue; Urisu, Atsuo; Teshima, Reiko

    2011-04-27

    Shrimp and crab are well-known as allergenic ingredients. According to Japanese food allergy labeling regulations, shrimp species (including prawns, crayfishes, and lobsters) and crab species must be differentially declared when ≥10 ppm (total protein) of an allergenic ingredient is present. However, the commercial ELISA tests for the detection of crustacean proteins cannot differentiate between shrimp and crab. Therefore, two methods were developed to discriminate shrimp and crab: a shrimp-PCR method with postamplification digestion and a crab-PCR method that specifically amplifies a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. The sensitivity and specificity of both PCR methods were verified by experiments using DNA extracted from 15 shrimp species, 13 crab species, krill, mysid, mantis shrimp, other food samples (cephalopod, shellfish, and fish), incurred foods, and commercial food products. Both PCR methods could detect 5 pg of DNA extracted from target species and 50 ng of genomic DNA extracted from incurred foods containing 10 ppm (μg/g) total protein of shrimp or crab. The two PCR methods were considered to be specific enough to separately detect species belonging to shrimp and crab. Although false-positive and false-negative results were obtained from some nontarget crustacean species, the proposed PCR methods, when used in conjunction with ELISA tests, would be a useful tool for confirmation of the validity of food allergy labeling and management of processed food safety for allergic patients.

  18. Determination of the infectious nature of the agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome affecting penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Loc; Nunan, Linda; Redman, Rita M; Mohney, Leone L; Pantoja, Carlos R; Fitzsimmons, Kevin; Lightner, Donald V

    2013-07-09

    A new emerging disease in shrimp, first reported in 2009, was initially named early mortality syndrome (EMS). In 2011, a more descriptive name for the acute phase of the disease was proposed as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS). Affecting both Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp P. monodon, the disease has caused significant losses in Southeast Asian shrimp farms. AHPNS was first classified as idiopathic because no specific causative agent had been identified. However, in early 2013, the Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory at the University of Arizona was able to isolate the causative agent of AHPNS in pure culture. Immersion challenge tests were employed for infectivity studies, which induced 100% mortality with typical AHPNS pathology to experimental shrimp exposed to the pathogenic agent. Subsequent histological analyses showed that AHPNS lesions were experimentally induced in the laboratory and were identical to those found in AHPNS-infected shrimp samples collected from the endemic areas. Bacterial isolation from the experimentally infected shrimp enabled recovery of the same bacterial colony type found in field samples. In 3 separate immersion tests, using the recovered isolate from the AHPNS-positive shrimp, the same AHPNS pathology was reproduced in experimental shrimp with consistent results. Hence, AHPNS has a bacterial etiology and Koch's Postulates have been satisfied in laboratory challenge studies with the isolate, which has been identified as a member of the Vibrio harveyi clade, most closely related to V. parahemolyticus.

  19. Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

    2000-04-01

    The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

  20. The Effect of Various Methods of Defrosting on Microbial Contamination of Frozen Banana Shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladan Mansouri-Najand

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Background and aim: The most common and the best way of preventing microbial decay of marine foods is using freezing technology and the cycles and methods of defrosting have considerable effect on microbial changes of frozen shrimp. Shrimp is one of the marine foods that due to high active water (aw) and neutral PH and autolytic enzymes have high decay. Thus, in this study the effect of various methods of defrosts on microbial contamination of shrimp was investigated. Methods: This study was an empirical design on Penaeus merguiensis. The shrimps were divided into three groups including 1- peeled and headless (PUD), 2- Complete, 3- Headless (with skin) being frosted and defrosted in three cycles. Each group of shrimp was classified in terms of the type of defrosting method in three groups as 1- Microwave, 2- Refrigerator, 3-Water and were investigated in 3 cycles with the interval of 4 days. In this investigation, the total bacteria, Psychrophil bacteria, coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus were counted in private culture mediums. For data analysis, repeated measure Anova was used. Results: All the bacteria including Psychrophil bacteria, coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus during the cycles had significant reduction process and this reduction showed significant reduction in complete shrimp and defrosting with refrigerator compared to other groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: According to the results, complete shrimp was the best kind of shrimp in terms of microbial load. Thus, avoiding temperature changes during transportation and avoiding unduly defrosts in maintaining the quality of the frozen shrimp is proposed.

  1. 76 FR 20318 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn... Sheet and Strip From Canada; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 57 FR 20460...

  2. Social and ecological challenges of market-oriented shrimp farming in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ngo Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the largest shrimp exporters in the world. Since 2010, Vietnam has earned about two billion dollars annually through shrimp exports. As a fertile area of greatest potential for agricultural production in Vietnam, the Mekong Delta has been a major contributor to the country's achievements, especially in the agricultural sector. During recent decades, trade liberation along with various policies in support of aquaculture has accelerated the development of shrimp production in the Delta. Based on an ethnographic study of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, I assert that along with great rewards arising from the expansion of shrimp farming areas, productivity, and export value, the shrimp industry has brought various environmental, economic and social challenges. Consequently, shrimp farming is a risky business and local inhabitants have relied on various strategies to cope with these challenges. Risk mitigation in shrimp production and labor migration are the two important strategies of local inhabitants for securing their livelihoods. Water pollution and poor quality post-larvae shrimp are direct consequences of market-oriented production.

  3. An investigation on the application of ohmic heating of cold water shrimp and brine mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Juhl; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Brøkner Kavli, Sissel Therese

    2016-01-01

    shrimps (Pandalus Borelias). The shrimps were heated to a core temperature of 72 °C in a brine solution using a small batch ohmic heater. Three experiments were performed: 1) a comparative analyses of the temperature development between different sizes of shrimps and thickness (head and tail region...... and salt concentrations of 13.75 kg m−3 and 25.75 kg m−3 and 3) evaluating the effect of pretreatment (maturation) of the shrimps before ohmic processing. The maturation experiment was performed with the following maturation pre-treatments: normal tap water, a 21.25 kg m−3 brine solution and without...

  4. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  5. Shrimp Lipids: A Source of Cancer Chemopreventive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Burgos-Hernández

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp.

  6. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  7. Production and characterization of Chitosan from shrimp shells waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshar Patria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the production of chitosan from shrimp shell waste origin andcharacterize the chitosan quality of shrimp shell waste that includes parameters yield, solubility,intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight and deacetylation degree. Results showed that the treatment ofheating temperature and heating time in the process of deacetylation caused significant (P≤0.01influence on yield, solubility, intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight and deacetylation degree of producedchitosan. Whereas, the interaction between heating temperature and heating time on the process ofdeacetylation gave no significant effect on yield, solubility, intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight anddeacetylation degree of chitosan produced. The best results in this study were obtained from heatingtemperature of 100˚C and 80 min heating time.

  8. Polyculture of Nile tilapia and shrimp at different stocking densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosio Paula Bessa Junior

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the productivity, growth performance and economic feasibility of polyculture of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at different stocking densities. Feed was provided based on fish requirements. The experiment was conducted at the Aquaculture facility of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido - UFERSA, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates each. Treatments consisted of a tilapia monoculture with 2 tilapias.m-2; and polyculture with 2 tilapias.m-2 and L. vannamei at four different densities (3, 6, 9 and 12 shrimps.m-2. The initial individual biomass for fish and shrimp were 1.23±0.12 g and 0.133±0.009 g, respectively. Water quality parameters, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and transparency were monitored. The experiment lasted 120 days and biomass gain was evaluated every two weeks. Final biomass, survival and feed conversion rates were calculated at the end of the experiment. The economic analysis showed that polyculture systems at stocking densities of nine and twelve shrimps.m-2 resulted in higher gross revenue and operational profits of 120.9% and 97.5% respectively, with mean gross return significantly higher than the monoculture. The O. niloticus and L. vannamei polyculture in oligohaline water was shown to be technically and economically feasible. These two species can be cultured together, without competing for the same resources, because they have different trophic niche, thus increasing productivity and economic returns for the farmers.

  9. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal; Abbas Rahimi Foroushani; Sara Sharifi –Yazdi; Mohammad Kazem Sharifi -Yazdi; Noushin Arfatahery

    2016-01-01

    Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, i...

  10. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas, E-mail: tomar@purdue.edu

    2015-04-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 80 °C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26 ± 0.89 GPa at 25 °C that reduces to 7.61 ± 0.65 GPa at 80 °C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38 ± 2.3 GPa at 25 °C to 24.58 ± 1.71 GPa at 80 °C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons. - Highlights: • Shrimp species Pandalus platyceros and Rimicaris exoculata exoskeletons are analyzed. • Temperature dependent properties of shrimp exoskeleton are compared. • Mechanical properties are correlated with structure and composition of exoskeleton. • Mechanical properties reduce with increase in temperature. • Presence of biominerals gives better thermal stability to structure.

  11. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Héctor Barraza-Guardado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1, when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.

  12. Gas chromatographic determination of chloramphenicol residues in shrimp: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, R K; Holland, D C; Roybal, J E; Storey, J M; Long, A R; Stehly, G R; Plakas, S M

    1994-01-01

    An interlaboratory study of a gas chromatographic method for determining chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in shrimp was conducted. An internal standard (Istd), the meta isomer of CAP, was added to the shrimp, and the treated shrimp were homogenized with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extract was defatted with hexane, and the CAP was partitioned into ethyl acetate from an aqueous salt solution. The ethyl acetate was evaporated, and the dried residue was treated with Sylon, a trimethylsilyl derivatizing agent, to yield the trimethylsilyl derivative of CAP. A portion of the solution containing the derivative was injected into a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. Levels of fortified and incurred CAP were calculated from the peak area ratio of standard CAP to Istd. Recoveries of CAP from tissue directly fortified at 5 ppb were 102% (within-laboratory relative standard deviation [RSDr] = 5.6%), 104% (RSDr = 5.5%), and 108% (RSDr = 6.3%) from Laboratories 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Incurred-CAP residues at 5 and 10 ppb levels were also determined, with the following results: Laboratory 1: composite A, 4.56 ppb (RSDr = 14.0%); composite B, 8.38 ppb (RSDr = 11.6%); Laboratory 2: composite A, 4.17 ppb (RSDr = 12.5%); composite B, 8.90 ppb (RSDr = 5.60%); Laboratory 3: composite A, 4.66 ppb (RSDr = 14.9%); composite B, 11.0 ppb (RSDr = 11.8%).

  13. 78 FR 14069 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... overfished and overfishing status determination criteria for pink shrimp. DATES: Written comments must be... closure. Overfished and Overfishing Status Determination Criteria for Pink Shrimp Amendment 9 would update the overfished and overfishing status determination criteria (biomass at maximum sustainable yield...

  14. Chromatographic, NMR and vibrational spectroscopic investigations of astaxanthin esters: application to "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" obtained from processing of Nordic shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, B; Thibault, M-H; Djaoued, Y; Pelletier, C; Touaibia, M; Tchoukanova, N

    2015-11-01

    Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a keto carotenoid, which possesses a non-polar linear central conjugated chain and polar β-ionone rings with ketone and hydroxyl groups at the extreme ends. It is well known as a super anti-oxidant, and recent clinical studies have established its nutritional benefits. Although it occurs in several forms, including free molecule, crystalline, aggregates and various geometrical isomers, in nature it exists primarily in the form of esters. Marine animals accumulate ASTX from primary sources such as algae. Nordic shrimps (P. borealis), which are harvested widely in the Atlantic Ocean, form a major source of astaxanthin esters. "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" was developed as a novel product in a shrimp processing plant in Eastern Canada. A compositional analysis of the shrimp oil was performed, with a view to possibly use it as a nutraceutical product for humans and animals. Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil contains 50% MUFAs and 22% PUFAs, of which 20% are omega-3. In addition, the shrimp oil contains interesting amounts of EPA and DHA, with 10%/w and 8%/w, respectively. Astaxanthin concentrations varied between 400 and 1000 ppm, depending on the harvesting season of the shrimp. Astaxanthin and its esters were isolated from the oil and analysed by NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Astaxanthin mono- and diesters were synthesized and used as standards for the analysis of astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil. NMR and vibrational spectroscopy techniques were successfully used for the rapid characterization of monoesters and diesters of astaxanthin. Raman spectroscopy provided important intermolecular interactions present in the esterified forms of astaxanthin molecules. Also discussed in this paper is the use of NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy for the detection of astaxanthin esters in shrimp oil.

  15. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris L van der Ham

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF. Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1 exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2 fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  16. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  17. Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-10-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of a Vibrio harveyi Strain Associated with Vibriosis in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Emille; Parks, Marci; Pinnell, Lee J.; Tallman, James J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative bacterium associated with vibriosis in penaeid shrimp. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a V. harveyi strain isolated from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during a vibriosis outbreak. The availability of this genome will aid future studies of vibriosis in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:28209836

  19. 76 FR 61668 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... frozen warmwater shrimp From India and Thailand covering the period February 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of...

  20. 75 FR 62099 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 32915 (June 10... frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand covering the period February 1, 2009, through January 31, 2010. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice...

  1. 75 FR 24883 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... orders on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand..., 75 FR 103 (January 4, 2010). On January 19, 2010, domestic interested parties, the Ad Hoc Shrimp... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of...

  2. Inactivation of natural microflora and Listeria innocua on raw whole shrimp by ozonated water, antimicrobial coatings, and cryogenic freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimp have been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. A survey was conducted to investigate the microbiological safety and quality of frozen raw whole shrimp in local US markets. Results from 32 brands of raw whole shrimp samples available in local retail markets representing 9 countries of ...

  3. 75 FR 49889 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\2\\ deveined or not... include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis... as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; 3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on...

  4. 77 FR 55800 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ...), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\13\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or... not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn... shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on or peeled...

  5. Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

  6. 77 FR 2958 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... results of the sixth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam....

  7. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the... imports from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... Commission following notification of preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of frozen...

  8. 76 FR 65178 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... preliminary results of the sixth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam....

  9. 78 FR 59650 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... that a request for a new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen... Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...

  10. 76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the.... 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China...\\ Commissioner Daniel R. Pearson determines that revocation of the antidumping duty orders covering...

  11. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... (Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission... (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on...

  12. Effects of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption on serum lipoproteins of healthy normolipidemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Yousefi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that moderate shrimp consumption in normolipidemic subjects will not adversely affect the overall lipoprotein profile. Hence, shrimp consumption can be included in “healthy heart" nutritional guidelines. However, the effects of cultured shrimp on serum lipoproteins of normal subjects have not yet investigated. Material and Methods: Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic men who were workers of a shrimp farm in Bushehr province participated in a quasi-experimental study. In a crossover six weeks trial, the effect of three days per week diet (containing 300 g cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei /day on serum lipid profile was compared with a zero-marine baseline diet. Results: After six weeks trial, serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed from the baseline levels (p>0.05. However, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratios were significantly increased (p<0.0001. Conclusion: Moderate cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption can increase total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in normolipidemic men. Although a diet containing native shrimp has many benefits for healthy persons, but we do not recommend cultured shrimp in a healthy heart diet for persons with dyslipidemia or cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Comparison live adult Artemia and squid meat on the growth of Penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Royan, J.P.

    An experiment lasting 14 weeks was conducted to compare the efficiency of live adult Artemia with fresh squid meat on growth of penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus dobsoni. The shrimps were found actively feeding on live Artemia and grew 84% more than those...

  14. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Recruitment in West Greenland Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Storm, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid class and fatty acid compositions were determined in shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis and P. montagui) collected along transects across banks on the West Greenland shelf in June 1999, May and July 2000. The lipid class contents were investigated as indices of larval shrimp lipid condition a...

  15. 21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.173 Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent...

  16. Prediction of spoilage of tropical shrimp (Penaeus notialis) under dynamic temperature regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabade, D.S.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Zwietering, M.H.; Besten, den H.M.W.

    2015-01-01

    The spoilage activity of Pseudomonas psychrophila and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, two tropical shrimp (Penaeus notialis) spoilage organisms, was assessed in cooked shrimps stored at 0 to 28 °C. Microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses were performed during storage. P. psychrophila had a hig

  17. Phytophilous caridean shrimps (Atyidae and Palaemonidae in Salsa river (Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Rezende Penido Paschoal

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the role of three species of macrophytes in the population of caridean shrimps in the Salsa river (Northeastern of Brazil. Results revealed that macrophytes have important functions and directly responsible for modulating the spatial distribution of these shrimp species.

  18. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

  19. Effect of Two Oil Dispersants on Larval Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, P.; Key, P. B.; Chung, K. W.; DeLorenzo, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study focused on the effects that two oil dispersants, Corexit® EC9500A and Finasol® OSR52, have on the development of larval grass shrimp, (Palaemonetes pugio). The hypothesis was that Finasol would have a greater effect on larval grass shrimp development than Corexit. The experiment was conducted using 300 grass shrimp larvae that were 24 hours old. Each larva was exposed individually. In total, five sub-lethal concentrations were tested for each dispersant (control, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0,10.0 mg/L). The larvae were exposed for five days then transferred to clean seawater until metamorphosis into the juvenile stage. Key data measurements recorded included number of days to become juveniles, number of instars, length, dry weight, and mortality. Data from exposed shrimp was compared to the results of the control for each dispersant concentration. Corexit and Finasol exposure treatments of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L showed significantly higher values for number of days and number of instars to reach juvenile status than values obtained from unexposed, control shrimp. Overall, mortality was higher in the Finasol treatments but the two dispersants did not respond significantly different from one another. Future studies are needed to determine the long term effects of dispersant exposure on all grass shrimp life stages and how any dispersant exposure impacts grass shrimp populations. Grass shrimp serve as excellent toxicity indicators of estuaries, and further studies will help to develop better oil spill mitigation techniques.

  20. Bioeconomic Modeling Of Shrimp Aquaculture Strategies For The Mahakam Delta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunting, S.W.; Bosma, R.H.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Sidik, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Bioeconomic modeling was used to evaluate traditional and extensive shrimp production in the Mahakam Delta and impacts of adopting Better Management Practices (BMP) for semi-intensive and integrated mangrove-shrimp culture. Modeling outcomes indicate that traditional production is not financially vi

  1. Effects of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijackers, R.M.M.; Nghia, T.T.; Ut, V.N.; Scheffer, M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of different concentrations of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves and their leachates on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon under laboratory conditions. Shrimp mortality was highly dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the water, which in turn was strongly correla

  2. Characterization and function of kuruma shrimp lysozyme possessing lytic activity against Vibrio species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikima, Sonomi; Hikima, Jun ichi; Rojtinnakorn, Jiraporn; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi

    2003-10-16

    Lysozyme cDNA was isolated from a kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, hemocyte cDNA library. The cDNA consists of 1055 base pairs (bp) and encodes a chicken-type (c-type) lysozyme with a deduced amino acid sequence of 156 residues. The kuruma shrimp lysozyme has a high identity (79.7%) with pacific white shrimp lysozyme, and low to moderate identities (33.3-43.0%) with lysozymes of insects and vertebrates. Comparisons with other c-type lysozymes from invertebrates and vertebrates showed that the two catalytic residues (Glu58 and Asp75) and the eight cysteine residue motif were completely conserved. Two novel insertion sequences were also observed in the kuruma and pacific white shrimp lysozyme amino acid sequences. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the kuruma shrimp lysozyme was more closely related to vertebrate c-type lysozymes. Expression of the cDNA in insect cells, using a baculovirus expression system, yielded a recombinant lysozyme with optimum activity at pH 7.5 and 50 degrees C, as evaluated by a lysoplate assay. The kuruma shrimp lysozyme displayed lytic activities against several Vibrio species and fish pathogens, including Vibrio penaeicida (a pathogenic bacteria to the kuruma shrimp) and suggested that shrimp lysozyme affects a greater variety of pathogens.

  3. Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabade, D.S.; Besten, den H.M.W.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the

  4. 76 FR 12025 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or...-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana... prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and 0306.23.00.40); (4) shrimp...

  5. 75 FR 12175 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\5\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or... to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus... state of processing; 3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings...

  6. 76 FR 20627 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail... warmwater species include, but are not limited to, white leg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn... whether shell-on or peeled (HTS subheadings 0306.23.0020 and 0306.23.0040); (4) shrimp and prawns...

  7. 75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or... to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus... state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings...

  8. 75 FR 49460 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ...-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\12\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or raw, or..., white-leg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis... processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled (HTS subheadings 0306.23.0020 and...

  9. White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

    2013-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan.

  10. Priming the immune system of Penaeid shrimp by bacterial HSP70 (DnaK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuoc, L H; Hu, B; Wille, M; Hien, N T; Phuong, V H; Tinh, N T N; Loc, N H; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to test the effect of DnaK on priming immune responses in Penaeid shrimp. Juvenile-specific pathogen-free (SPF) P. vannamei shrimp were injected with 0.05 μg recombinant DnaK. One hour post-DnaK priming, a non-lethal dose of Vibrio campbellii (10(5) CFU shrimp(-1)) was injected. Other treatments include only DnaK or V. campbellii injection or control with blank inocula. The haemolymph of three shrimp from each treatment was collected at 1.5, 6, 9 and 12 h post-DnaK priming (hpp). It was verified that injection with DnaK and V. campbellii challenge affected the transcription of 3 immune genes, transglutaminase-1 (TGase-1), prophenoloxidase-2 (proPO-2) and endogenous HSP70 (lvHSP70). In P. monodon, shrimp were first injected with DnaK at a dose of 10 μg shrimp(-1) and one hour later with 10(6) CFU of V. harveyi (BB120) shrimp(-1). Shrimp injected with DnaK showed a significant increase in proPO expression compared to the control (P < 0.05). Yet a double injection (DnaK and Vibrio) seemed to cause an antagonistic response at the level of expression, which was not equalled at the level of PO activity. Those results suggest that DnaK is able to modulate immune responses in P. vannamei and P. monodon.

  11. Import risk analysis: A case study of white shrimp in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available As the culture industry of black tiger shrimp in Thailand has encountered several problems causing unsuccessful shrimp culture over decades, a new non-indigenous marine species, i.e. Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei was imported into Thailand as an alternation. However, imported white shrimp may carry some infectious agents which pose serious threats on aquatic species native to Thailand. Therefore, in the present study the import risk analysis (IRA was conducted to identify any hazard and estimate the risk presented by importation of white shrimp. The process involves the risk analysis steps of hazard identification and characterization, risk assessment and risk management. The risks associated with individual diseases and disease agents of white shrimp have been evaluated. Risk assessment conducted using risk evaluation matrix indicated high risk of Taura syndrome virus (TSV, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in imported white shrimp. The iterative process of risk management leads to a set of acceptable measures or strategies for each identified hazard for which the unrestricted risk is considered higher than appropriate level of protection. These measures or strategies will reduce risk to a level that is considered acceptable. Where measures or strategies that reduce the risk associated with a particular hazard to an acceptable level cannot be identified, permission to import the relevant commodity will be denied. The measures implemented in the control of white shrimp imports constitute quarantine and health certificate issued by exporting countries.

  12. 78 FR 50389 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... House); Graham Fisheries, Inc.; Graham Shrimp, Inc.; Gulf Crown Seafood Co., Inc.; Gulf Fish Inc.; Gulf...); Ocean Springs Seafood Market, Inc.; Paul Piazza & Sons, Inc.; R.A. Lesso Brokerage Co., Inc.; Sea Pearl... Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Thailand,...

  13. 78 FR 50391 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ....; Gulf Fish Inc.; Gulf Island Shrimp & Seafood, LLC; Gulf Pride Enterprises, Inc.; Hi-Seas of Dulac, Inc... and Processing); Ocean Springs Seafood Market, Inc.; Paul Piazza & Sons, Inc.; R.A. Lesso Brokerage Co..., ``Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of...

  14. 78 FR 5416 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...); Graham Fisheries, Inc.; Graham Shrimp, Inc.; Gulf Crown Seafood Co., Inc.; Gulf Fish Inc.; Gulf Island... Seafood Market, Inc.; Paul Piazza & Sons, Inc.; R.A. Lesso Brokerage Co., Inc.; Sea Pearl Seafood Co.,...

  15. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

  16. Influence of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Allergenic Properties of Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei ) Allergen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhenxing; LIN Hong; CAO Limin

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether high intensity ultrasound could reduce the allergic properties of shrimp allergens. Reducing the allergenic properties of these allergens will be beneficial to allergic individuals. Samples of shrimp protein extract and shrimp muscle were treated by high-intensity ultrasound with water bathing at 0 ℃ or 50 ℃for different time periods. The treated and untreated samples were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blots and competitive inhibition ELISA (Ci-ELISA) to determine the shrimp allergenicity. The results show that high-intensity ultrasound has no effect on allergenicity when the extracts were treated at 0 ℃. However, a significant decrease was observed in the level of the major shrimp allergen, Pen a 1, when the samples were treated at 50 ℃. In the determination of allergenicity with CiELISA, a reduction in IgE binding was also observed.

  17. The Role of Cytokine PF4 in the Antiviral Immune Response of Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulei; Cao, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    During viral infection in vertebrates, cytokines play important roles in the host defense against the virus. However, the function of cytokines in invertebrates has not been well characterized. In this study, shrimp cytokines involved in viral infection were screened using a cytokine antibody microarray. The results showed that three cytokines, the Fas receptor (Fas), platelet factor 4 (PF4) and interleukin-22 (IL-22), were significantly upregulated in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-challenged shrimp, suggesting that these cytokines played positive regulatory roles in the immune response of shrimp against the virus. Further experiments revealed that PF4 had positive effects on the antiviral immunity of shrimp by enhancing the shrimp phagocytic activity and inhibiting the apoptotic activity of virus-infected hemocytes. Therefore, our study presented a novel mechanism of cytokines in the innate immunity of invertebrates. PMID:27631372

  18. Virus diseases risk-factors associated with shrimp farming practices in rice-shrimp and intensive culture systems in Mekong Delta Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duc, P.M.; Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Nguyen Thanh Phuong,; Bosma, R.H.; Huynh V., Hien; Tran N., Tuan

    2015-01-01

    In Mekong Delta, viral infection, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), heptopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and gill-associated nidovirus (GAV) frequently infect cultured shrimp starting at the postlarvae s

  19. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems.

  20. Polyculture of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and Mugil platanus mullet in earthen ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Carolina de Oliveira Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and the mullet Mugil platanus in earthen ponds (200 m² located in the Laboratory of Continental Aquaculture of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG, in both polyculture and monoculture systems. The study consisted of three replicates, as follows: shrimp monoculture (SM, shrimp and mullet polyculture (PO and mullet monoculture (MM. The stocking density was 10 post-larvae shrimp (PL m−2 and 0.67 mullet m−2. Fish and shrimp were fed commercial shrimp meal (38% crude protein once a day. Initially, the amount of feed to shrimp was 20% of their total biomass which was later reduced to 5%. Mullets were fed at 5% of their stocked biomass. The experiment lasted 79 days during the summer of 2007/2008. At harvest, shrimp in monoculture had weight gain (15.59 g, specific growth rate (8.40% day−1, apparent feed conversion (0.88, survival (91% and production (1.454 kg ha−1 significantly higher than in polyculture (1.039 kg ha−1. Mullets in polyculture had significantly better weight gain (42.72 g and specific growth rate (3.99 % day−1 than those in monoculture (31.04 g and 3.69% day−1, respectively, while the mullet condition factor was significantly smaller in polyculture (1.06 than in monoculture (1.13. The apparent feed conversion of the mullets did not present significant differences between monoculture (2.50 and polyculture (2.40. The physical and chemical water parameters were not significantly different in any of the experiments, except for the transparency, which was higher in earthen ponds with mullet monoculture. Polyculture of shrimp and mullet reared together in earthen ponds negatively affects the shrimp production and favors the production of mullets.

  1. Do Penaeid Shrimps have a Preference for Mangrove Habitats? Distribution Pattern Analysis on Inhaca Island, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnbäck, P.; Macia, A.; Almqvist, G.; Schultz, L.; Troell, M.

    2002-09-01

    Scientific information on how penaeid shrimps are distributed within mangrove ecosystems is scarce, which presents an obstacle for fisheries as well as mangrove management. This study investigated the prime nursery microhabitats for the two major commercial species in Mozambique-Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus monoceros. Stake net enclosures were used to sample shrimps living among unvegetated shallows and mangroves at Inhaca Island, Mozambique, during three consecutive spring tide periods. Four microhabitats were sampled: (1) sand flat; (2) fringe Avicennia marina on sandy substrate; (3) fringe A. marina on muddy substrate; and (4) interior A. marina adjacent to the supratidal terrestrial margin. P. indicus had a significant preference for fringe mangroves over the adjacent sand flat (P<0·001 and P=0·05). Postlarval shrimps only occupied the sand flat, whereas the mangrove was utilized by postlarval, juvenile and sub-adult life stages. Within the fringe mangrove, there was no correlation between shrimp abundance and organic content of sediment (5·7-11·6 shrimps m-2). Shrimps utilized the most interior margin of the mangroves (0·35 shrimps m-2), although catch rates were significantly lower than in the mangrove fringe (P<0·001). M. monoceros was significantly (P<0·01), more abundant in the sand flat (0·44-2·1 shrimps m-2) than in the mangrove fringe (0·04-0·61 shrimps m-2), although this habitat preference was not evident for juvenile and sub-adult life stages. The results demonstrate the extensive use of mangrove habitats by penaeid shrimps. The confinement to mangroves for P. indicus, but not for M. monoceros, is discussed in the context of habitat characteristics and predation avoidance behaviour. Methodological considerations of the stake net technique are also outlined.

  2. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  3. Isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors in mantis shrimp crustaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya S deVries

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0-1 ‰ and 3-4 ‰, respectively. Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days. In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively. We compared the mantis shrimps' incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals.

  4. Molecular Characterizations of a Novel Putative DNA-Binding Protein LvDBP23 in Marine Shrimp L. vannamei Tissues and Molting Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Yanisa Laoong-u-thai; Baoping Zhao; Amornrat Phongdara; Jinzeng Yang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Litopenaeus Vannamei, well known as pacific white shrimp, is the most popular shrimp in the world shrimp market. Identification and characterization of shrimp muscle regulatory genes are not only important for shrimp genetic improvement, but also facilitate comparative genomic tools for understanding of muscle development and regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A novel mRNA encoding for a putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 was identified from Litopenaeus vannamei abdom...

  5. [Exploitation of the shrimp trawl fishery in the period 1991-1999 at the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabash Blanco, Farid A

    2007-03-01

    In Costa Rica, the Gulf of Nicoya shrimp fishery originated in 1952 and represented one of the most important economic activities in the region. Nevertheless, overfishery reduced the captured volumes to levels that prevent this commercial activity. I analyzed official fishery statistics between 1991 and 1999. These species involved are: two species of white shrimp, (Litopenaeus occidentalis and L. stylirostris), the "titi" shrimp (Xiphopenaeus riveti), the brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus californiensis), the "pinki" shrimp (F. brevirostris) and the "fidel" shrimp (Solenocera agassizi). All the species reached the Maximum Sustainable Yield in the decades of 1970 and 1980 and are now found at over-exploitation levels. I recommend that this shrimp trawl fishery be completely closed down.

  6. Application of risk perception and communication strategies to manage disease outbreaks of coastal shrimp farming in developing countires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2008-01-01

    of identification of diseases occurrence in the initial stage. The vision of this paper is to provide models for the prevention and management of shrimp diseases in coastal shrimp farming of Bangladesh and other developing countries. It is expected that the proposed models could successfully help the farmers...... density usually initiate the rapid growth of virus and bacteria in a shrimp farm which in turn cause the disease and mortality of shrimp. Coastal shrimp farms are very densely located in Bangladesh and other Southeast Asian countries. As a result, the viral and bacterial diseases can be easily spread from...... an infected farm to the non-infected farms. The risk of disease outbreaks in shrimp farms could be effectively prevented and managed by early identification of disease occurrence and by rapid communication of such a risk to the shrimp farmers. The risk perception concept could be adapted for the purpose...

  7. USE OF SPONGE, Callyspongia basilana EXTRACT AS ADDITIVE MATERIAL ON TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Blue shrimp disease is one of the main problems in tiger shrimp culture. It reduces shrimp quality which eventually will decrease its market price. Blue shrimp is caused by deficiency of nutrition and additive materials such as carotene and other nutrient which function as vitamin source for important metabolic processes and formation of color profile in shrimp and fish. The aims of this study were to study the application effect of carotenoid extract of sponge Callyspongia basilana, as an additive material on the ability of shrimp to get back to normal state after suffering blue shrimp disease and survival rate of shrimp and to find out the optimal concentration of sponge carotenoid extract to cure the diseased shrimp. This study was consisted of two steps namely; (1. Extraction of sponge carotenoid by maseration and fractionation using acetone and petroleum ether solvents and (2, the application of carotenoid extract on the diseased shrimp. The research was arranged in a complete randomized design with four experiments consisted of (A. Control (without carotenoid extract; (B,(C, and (D carotetoid extract addition of 3 mg/L, 6 mg/L, and 9 mg/L respectively with three replication each. The test animal used were blue diseased tiger shrimp with the density of 15 ind./container having 7.5–9.5 cm in size and the average weight of 5.5–10.0 g. The study showed that Callyspongia basilana carotenoid extract was able to change blue diseased shrimp to be normal within six days at the concentration of 9 mg/L. The highest survival rate was found in the experiment D (93.3%. Meanwhile, the lowest was obtained by the control population (13.3% and the other two treatments were 80.0%(C and 73.3% (B. The average of water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, nitrite, and ammonia were in the suitable range for the growth and survival rate of tiger shrimp.

  8. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  9. SURVEY OF VIRAL DISEASES OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP, Litopenaeus vannamei IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taukhid Taukhid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimp culture is a major contributor to foreign exchange earning in Indonesia. It has significant impact on economic development of fisheries sector, and leads to be one of prime mover to improve social prosperity. However, shrimp industry particularly black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon has been facing unpredictable situation due to disease problem. The main constrain in correlation to the development of shrimp industry is disease outbreak, especially caused by viral agents. White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV occurred in 1994, causing mass mortality of black tiger shrimp almost in all of the middle and western part of Indonesia. Due to the disease problem, it is estimated that in year 2000, more than 50% of shrimp pond were idle. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei or “udang vanamei” was introduced to Indonesia at the end of 1999, and released officially in July, 2001. Response of shrimp farmers to the shrimp rapidly accepted and distributed to many provinces in the country. At the end of 2006, distribution of white shrimp culture was encountered in more than 15 provinces. The seeds are mainly produced from hatcheries located in East Java and Lampung. The information of TSV in Indonesia was reported firstly from East Java at the end of 2002, without a clear history. Since then, survey of TSV distribution was conducted intensively in white shrimp production areas. Beside TSV, population of white shrimp coming to Indonesia also susceptible to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV infection. A survey with the aim to know significant viral diseases of white shrimp is needed to set up an alternative strategy to control them. The survey was conducted, firstly in the main production centers of white shrimp; and planned to be continued throughout the country. Samples collection, diagnostic method and data compiled in this study were collected from both

  10. Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Y; Monteyne, E; Neudecker, T; Tulp, I; Smagghe, G; Cooreman, K; Roose, P; Parmentier, K

    2012-03-01

    The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union therefore took measures to reduce the use of TBT-based antifouling paints on ships and ultimately banned these paints in 2003. Despite sufficient data on OT concentrations in marine gastropods, data are scarce for other species such as the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), a dominant crustacean species in North Sea inshore benthic communities. The present study provides the first spatial overview of OT concentrations in North Sea brown shrimp. We have compared these data with historical concentrations in shrimp as well as with sediment concentrations. We have also addressed the effect on the shrimp stock and any human health risks associated with the OT concentrations found. TBT and TPhT in shrimp tail muscle ranged from 4 to 124 and from 1 to 24 μg kg(-1) DW, respectively. High levels are accumulated in estuarine areas and are clearly related with sediment concentrations (biota-sediment accumulation factor ~10). Levels have decreased approximately 10-fold since the ban took effect, coinciding with a recovery of the shrimp stock after 30 years of gradual regression. Furthermore, the OT levels found in brown shrimp no longer present a human health risk.

  11. Standardization of sodium metabisulfite solution concentrations and immersion time for farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Trigueiro de Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium metabisulfite is the main additive used in the prevention of melanosis in shrimp; however, it has currently been employed with great variation in concentration by producers. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between the concentration of the sodium metabisulfite solution and immersion time of the whole shrimp to obtain the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2 in the edible muscle of farmed shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in accordance with the limit established by law. For this, solutions of sodium metabisulfite at different concentrations (1%, 2 %, 3 %, 4% and 5% were prepared and samples of L. vannamei shrimp (100g were immersed during 10, 20 or 30 minutes at temperature of 7°C. For all treatment assayed the concentration of SO2 was determined in the edible muscle of farmed shrimp (L. vannamei. The results show that for the conditions used in this study, the correlations were linear, with significant increase (P<0.05 in the SO2 concentration in the edible muscle of shrimps both increasing sodium metabisulfite concentration as increasing immersion times, suggesting the immersion of shrimps in a 3% solution for a time of 13 minutes in order to obtain SO2 concentration of 100ppm in its edible muscle in accordance with Brazilian legislation

  12. Quality of shrimp analogue product as affected by addition of modified potato starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remya, S; Basu, S; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mohan, C O

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of addition of modified potato starch on the biochemical and textural properties of shrimp analogue/imitation shrimp, a popular value-added product prepared from surimi. Three batches of shrimp analogues were prepared with 0 % (NPS), 50 % (CPS) and 100 % (MPS) of modified starch incorporation and various quality attributes were monitored at regular intervals during frozen storage (-20 °C). Loss of myofibrillar protein was least for the shrimp analogue sample added with 100 % modified potato starch. The expressible moisture content of MPS (2.48 %) was less affected by long term storage compared to CPS (3.38 %) and NPS (3.99 %). During extended low temperature storage, the textural quality of sea food analogue was highly influenced by the type of starch added to it. The percentage of modified potato starch added to shrimp analogue significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected its hardness and fracturability. MPS samples did not show significant changes in hardness during storage as compared to other two samples. Springiness of shrimp analogue increased 2.57, 1.5 and 1.77 times with the storage period for samples with NPS, CPS and MPS, respectively. Addition of modified potato starch improved the sensory quality and textural properties of shrimp analogue and reduced the quality degradation during frozen storage as compared to NPS which contained only native potato starch.

  13. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S

    2015-10-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the control and treated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically. There were significant differences between coated shrimps and the control group in all parameters evaluated. Aloe vera at 75% and 100% concentrations was able to prevent lipid oxidation and drip loss properly; however, coatings containing 25% Aloe vera did not have the desired effects on these characteristics. Shrimps coated with higher concentrations of Aloe vera had better textural properties during cold storage. Results also indicated the positive effects of Aloe vera coating on the sensory quality of shrimp.

  14. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryadi, D; Verreth, J A J; Verdegem, M C J; Vlak, J M

    2015-05-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina et al. 2013); therefore, it is a potential propagative vector for virus transmission. The major aim of this study was to determine whether WSSV can be transmitted from naturally infected Dendronereis spp. to specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) through feeding. WSSV was detected in naturally infected Dendronereis spp. and Penaeus monodon Fabricius from a traditional shrimp pond, and the positive animals were used in the current experiment. WSSV-infected Dendronereis spp. and P. monodon in a pond had a point prevalence of 90% and 80%, respectively, as measured by PCR. WSSV was detected in the head, gills, blood and mid-body of Dendronereis spp. WSSV from naturally infected Dendronereis spp was transmitted to SPF L. vannamei and subsequently from this shrimp to new naïve-SPF L. vannamei to cause transient infection. Our findings support the contention that Dendronereis spp, upon feeding, can be a source of WSSV infection of shrimp in ponds.

  15. The role of shrimp miR-965 in virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Le; Li, Changrun; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-07-01

    RNAi, mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs), has attracted increasing attention for its important role in cross-talk between host and virus. However, the role of host miRNA in the virus infection in vivo has not been intensively investigated. In this study, the effects of a shrimp miRNA (miR-965) on the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection were characterized. The results indicated that the expression of miR-965 was significantly upregulated in shrimp in response to the WSSV challenge, suggesting its involvement in the virus infection. The miR-965 silencing led to significant increases of WSSV copies and virus-infected shrimp mortality, while the miR-965 overexpression resulted in the decreased WSSV copies and virus-infected shrimp mortality, indicating that miR-965 played a negative role in the WSSV infection. The further data revealed that miR-965 inhibited the virus infection by targeting the viral wsv240 gene, an important gene required for the WSSV infection in shrimp. The results demonstrated that miR-965 could promote the shrimp phagocytosis against virus infection by targeting the shrimp ATG5 (autophagy related 5) gene. Therefore, our findings presented novel evidence to better understand the anfractuous host-virus interactions in vivo.

  16. LEARNING CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Vocabulary: 银行 yin hang bank 邮局 you jǔ (you as in "slow") post office 电报 dian bao telegram 邮票 you piao (you as in "know") stamp 信 xin letter 信封 xin feng envelope 航空 hang kong airmail 包裹 bao guo parcel 元 yuan a unit of currency in China 人民币 ren min bi RMB (the name of Chinese currency)

  17. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  18. Genotyping of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Chinese Cultured Shrimp during 1998-1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-wei Tan; Zheng-li Shi

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies showed that white spot syndrome virus(WSSV)isolates from different geographic locations share a high genetic similarity except the variable regions in ORF23/24 and ORF14/15,and variable number of tandem repeats(VNTR)within ORF94.In this study,genotyping was performed according to these three variable regions among WSSV isolates collected during 1998/1999 from Southern China.These WSSV isolates contain a deletion of 1168,5657,5898,9316 and 11093 bp,respectively in the variable region ORF23/24compared with WSSV-TW,and a deletion of 4749 or 5622 bp in the variable region ORF14/15 relative to TH-96-II.Four types of repeat units(RUs)(6,8,9 and 13 RUs)in ORF94 were detected in these isolates,with the shortest 6 RUs as the most prevalent type.Our results provide important information for a better understanding of the spatio-temporal transmission mode and the WSSV genetic evolution lineage.

  19. Spirulina elicits the activation of innate immunity and increases resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Tayag, Carina Miranda; Li, Hui-Fang; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Bai, Jia-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    The effect of Spirulina dried powder (SDP) on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in vitro and in vivo. Incubating shrimp haemocytes in 0.5 mg ml(-1) SDP caused the degranulation of haemocytes and a reduction in the percentage of large cells within 30 min. Shrimp haemocytes incubated in 1 mg ml(-1) SDP significantly increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity, serine proteinase activity, and respiratory burst activity (RB, release of superoxide anion). A recombinant protein of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) of the white shrimp was produced, named rLvLGBP, and examined for its binding with SDP. An ELISA binding assay showed that rLvLGBP binds to SDP with a dissociation constant of 0.0507 μM. In another experiment, shrimp fed diets containing SDP at 0 (control), 30, and 60 g kg(-1) after four weeks were examined for LGBP transcript level and lysozyme activity, as well as phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus. These parameters were significantly higher in shrimp receiving diets containing SDP at 60 g kg(-1) or 30 g kg(-1) than in controls. In conclusion, shrimp haemocytes receiving SDP provoked the activation of innate immunity as evidenced by the recognition and binding of LGBP, degranulation of haemocytes, reduction in the percentage of large cells, increases in PO activity, serine proteinase activity, superoxide anion levels, and up-regulated LGBP transcript levels. Shrimp receiving diets containing SDP had increased lysozyme activity and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. This study showed the mechanism underlying the immunostimulatory action of Spirulina and its immune response in shrimp.

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador.

  1. Drying Strategy of Shrimp using Hot Air Convection and Hybrid Infrared Radiation/Hot Air Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawan TIRAWANICHAKUL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to study the effect of drying temperatures using infrared irradiation and electric heating convection on dehydration and was to investigate the effect of drying conditions on the quality of the shrimp. Two sizes of fresh shrimp (100 shrimp/kg and 200 shrimp/kg with initial moisture content of 270 - 350 % dry-basis were dried under various conditions while the final moisture content of dried shrimp was in ranges between 20 and 25 % dry-basis. Hot air flow rates of 1.0 -   1.2 m/s, drying temperatures of 40 - 90 °C and infrared intensities of 1,785.7 - 3,571.4 W/m2 were used in these experiments. The experimental results showed that the rate of moisture content transfer of both sizes of shrimps decreased exponentially with drying time while increasing drying temperature significantly affected to the drying kinetics and quality of the shrimps. Effective diffusion coefficients of both shrimps were determined by a diffusion model forming a finite cylindrical shape was in order of 10-7 m2/s and this effective diffusion coefficient value was relatively dependent on the drying temperature compared to the initial moisture content. The quality analysis of dried shrimp using an infrared source and electric heating source found that the redness value (Hunter a-value of dried samples using hybrid infrared radiation and electric heating had a higher colour uniformity than other drying methods. Additionally, shrinkage and rehydration properties were insignificantly different for all drying strategies (p < 0.05 and drying using infrared radiation had higher drying rates compared to electric heat convection, corresponding to relatively low drying times.

  2. Social Relation between Businessman and Community in Management of Intensive Shrimp Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.

  3. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.

  4. Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G. (INRS); (Purdue)

    2010-11-16

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

  5. Evaluation of space adequateness of shrimp farms in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rodrigo R; Hartmann, Carlos; Tagliani, Paulo R A; Poersch, Luís H

    2011-09-01

    In Rio Grande do Sul State, there are four marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in the municipal districts of São José do Norte and Rio Grande, and other four with previous license for operation. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and characterize areas for marine shrimp farming located in the Southern portion of the Patos Lagoon estuary (32º00'S 52º00'W) by employing the analysis of satellite remote sensing (Landsat TM and ETM+/Google Earth), airborne remote sensing (35mm system ADAR 1000), terrestrial remote sensing (RICOH 500SE), and field expeditions, integrating data in a Geographical Information System (IDRISI Andes). As a result, the enterprises were built on coastal fields or in obliterated dune areas, which are favorable for cultivation. The proximity of possible consuming markets and local labor, relatively good access roads and local technical support also favor the projects. However, there must be caution in terms of changes in the original projects, which could cause environmental impacts and noncompliance of environmental norms, such as the occupation of salt marsh areas. Based on the obtained information, instruments can be created to help inherent legal decision-making to manage the activity for futures enterprises.

  6. Lactic acid demineralization of shrimp shell and chitosan synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alewo Opuada AMEH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of lactic acid was compared to hydrochloric acid for shrimp shell demineralization in chitosan synthesis. Five different acid concentrations were considered for the study: 1.5M, 3.0M, 4.5M, 6.0M and 7.5M. After demineralization, the shrimp shell were deproteinized and subsequently deacetylated to produce chitosan using sodium hydroxide solution. The synthesized chitosan samples were characterized using solubility, FTIR, SEM, XRD and viscosity. The SEM, FTIR and XRD analysis indicated that chitosan was synthesized with a high degree of deacetylation (83.18±2.11 when lactic acid was used and 84.2±5.00 when HCl was used. The degree of deacetylation and the molecular weight of the chitosan samples were also estimated. ANOVA analysis (at 95% confidence interval indicated that acid type and concentration did not significantly affect the solubility, degree of deacetylation, viscosity and molecular weight of the chitosan within the range considered.

  7. Cyanobacterial cytotoxicity versus toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisem, Daniel; Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, Petr; Tomšíčková, Jana; Zapomělová, Eliška; Skácelová, Kateřina; Lukešová, Alena; Kopecký, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Heterocytous cyanobacteria from various habitats were screened for toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina and the murine lymphoblastic cell line Sp/2 in order to compare these two testing models for evaluation of risk posed by cyanobacteria to human health. Methanol extracts of biomass and cultivation media were tested for toxicity and selected extracts were fractionated to determine the active fraction. We found a significant toxic effect to A. salina and to Sp/2 cells in 5.2% and 31% of studied extracts, respectively. Only 8.6% of the tested strains were highly toxic to both A. salina and the Sp/2 cell line, and only two of the tested strains were toxic to A. salina and not to the murine cell line. Therefore, it is likely that the toxic effect of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites mostly targets basal metabolic pathways present in mammal cells and so is not manifested in A. salina. We conclude that it is insufficient to monitor cytotoxicity of cyanobacteria using only the brine shrimp bioassay as was usual in the past, since cytotoxicity is a more frequent feature in cyanobacteria in comparison with toxicity to A. salina. A. salina toxicity test should not be used when estimating the possible health risk for humans. We suggest that in vitro mammal cells be used for these purposes.

  8. Linkage mechanics and power amplification of the mantis shrimp's strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Nowroozi, B N; Baio, J E; Caldwell, R L; Summers, A P

    2007-10-01

    Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) generate extremely rapid and forceful predatory strikes through a suite of structural modifications of their raptorial appendages. Here we examine the key morphological and kinematic components of the raptorial strike that amplify the power output of the underlying muscle contractions. Morphological analyses of joint mechanics are integrated with CT scans of mineralization patterns and kinematic analyses toward the goal of understanding the mechanical basis of linkage dynamics and strike performance. We test whether a four-bar linkage mechanism amplifies rotation in this system and find that the rotational amplification is approximately two times the input rotation, thereby amplifying the velocity and acceleration of the strike. The four-bar model is generally supported, although the observed kinematic transmission is lower than predicted by the four-bar model. The results of the morphological, kinematic and mechanical analyses suggest a multi-faceted mechanical system that integrates latches, linkages and lever arms and is powered by multiple sites of cuticular energy storage. Through reorganization of joint architecture and asymmetric distribution of mineralized cuticle, the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage offers a remarkable example of how structural and mechanical modifications can yield power amplification sufficient to produce speeds and forces at the outer known limits of biological systems.

  9. Yield and chemical composition of fractions from fermented shrimp biowaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Bhaskar; Velappan, Suresh Puthanveetil; Zituji, Sakhare Patiram; Manjabhatta, Sachindra Nakkerike; Gowda, Lalitha Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01

    Chemical composition of chitinous residue and fermentation liquor fractions, obtained from fermented shrimp biowaste, was evaluated in order to explore their potential for further utilization. Lyophilization of the liquor fraction obtained after fermentation resulted in a powder rich in both protein (30%) and carotenoids (217.18 +/- 2.89 microg/g). The yield of chitinous residue was 44% (w/w) whereas the yield of lyophilized powder was >25% (w/v). About 69% of total carotenoids were recovered by fermentation. Fermentation resulted in the removal of both protein as well as ash content from the shrimp biowaste, as indicated by approximately 92% deproteination and >76% demineralization, respectively. Post fermentation, the residue had a chitin content of >90%. The lyophilized liquor fraction had all the essential amino acids (except threonine) in quantities comparable to Food & Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization reference protein. The composition of fermentation liquor is indicative of its potential for application as an amino acid supplement in aquaculture feed formulations.

  10. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  11. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( Pprobiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( Pprobiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  13. Clonal occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in cultured shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Gazi Md Noor; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Barco, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm...... yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S...... environments compared to other Salmonella serovars....

  14. USE OF BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA IN THE FEEDING OF STURGEON JUVENILES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the technological and biological characteristics of the use of brine shrimp (Artemia in the feeding of sturgeon juvenilse (Acipenseridae. To highlight the common biotechnological bases of the enrichment of brine shrimp with biologically active substances necessary for the full development of sturgeon juveniles. Findings. The review of scientific papers showed that the technology is the use of brine shrimp in the feeding of sturgeon speices not only had not lost its relevance in aquaculture, but also continued to evolve in response to new challenges. The review contains a description of the peculiarities of the biological structure of brine shrimp eggs and methods of their quality assessment in the field. It describes the nutritional characteristics of Artemia. It is shown that brine shrimp is the best food organism for the use in the feeding of sturgeon fingerlings. The calculation scheme for Artemia decapsulation and incubation is provided. The main technological stages of of the preparation of shrimps before their use in feeding – activation, hydration, decapsulation, incubation, dehydration were described. The effect of brine shrimp nauplia enriched with biologically active substances enriched brine shrimp on sturgeon juveniles was highlighted. Practical value. Fish farm owners search for cost-effective, easy to use, and available food that is preferred by sturgeon juveniles (Acipenseridae. Brine shrimp nauplii obtained from cysts can be readil used to feed fish just after one-day incubation. Instar I (the nauplii that just hatched and contain large yolk reserves in their body and instar II nauplii (the nauplii after first moult and with functional digestive tracts are more widely used in aquaculture, because they are easy for operation, rich in nutrients, and small, which makes them suitable for feeding fish larvae as live feed or after drying. The generalized information will be important for

  15. Effect of chitosan-based edible coating on preservation of white shrimp during partially frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-04-01

    Chitosan and chitooligosaccharides are preservatives with proven antibacterial activity, while glutathione has antioxidant activity. This study investigated the effects of chitosan coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione (0.8% glutathione+1% chitooligosaccharides+1% chitosan) on preservation of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Chitosan-based coating treatments effectively inhibited bacterial growth, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen and malondialdehyde, and basically maintained the sensory properties of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Therefore, chitosan-based edible coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione could be a promising antimicrobial and oxidant method to prevent metamorphism of white shrimp with extended shelf life.

  16. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia-Valenzuela M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary oregano essential oils on the growth of Vibrio bacteria in shrimps was evaluated. Shrimps were fed: (i food with oregano oil with a high level of thymol; (ii food with oregano oil with a high level of carvacrol, and (iii food without oregano oil (the control. The animals were infected by three species of Vibrio (vulnificus, parahaemolyticus and cholerae. The microbial counts of Vibrio species were significantly lower (p <0.05 in tissues from animals whose food was supplemented with oregano oil. We concluded that dietary supplementation of shrimps with oregano oil provides antimicrobial activity into the body of the penaeids.

  17. Coral by-catch in shrimp bottom trawl surveys in West Greenland waters (2010 – 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensbye, Helle; Arboe, Nanette Hammeken

    shrimp stock assessments. A total of 628 hauls were conducted covering an area of 17.1 km2. Sixty-six hauls contained corals and of these 13 hauls had two or more species of corals. Only two hauls contained more than one kilo of coral, which were in each case comprised of one only species...... within which shrimp are fished. This first analysis suggests that dense fields of Sea Pens and patches of octocorals occur in the depth range and within the area covered by the shrimp fishery...

  18. 独居石和锆石SHRIMP U-Pb定年对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万渝生; 刘敦一; 简平

    2004-01-01

    独居石定年在地质年代学研究中占有重要的地位.然而,相对于锆石,独居石SHRIMP U-Pb定年方法应用较少.对2个岩浆岩体中岩浆成因独居石和锆石SHRIMP U-Pb定年结果进行了对比,表明北京离子探针中心独居石SHRIMP U-Pb定年方法是可行的,为独居石精确定年打下了基础.

  19. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  20. CLUSTER MODEL FOR EXTENSIVE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon Fab. TO PREVENT TRANSMISSION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Taslihan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has become epidemic in Indonesia and affecting shrimp aquaculture interm of its production. White spot syndrome virus is transmitted from one to other ponds, through crustacean, included planktonic copepode as carrier for WSSV and through water from affected shrimp pond. A cluster model, consist of shrimp grow out ponds surrounded by non-shrimp pond as a role of biosecurity has been developed. The model aimed to prevent white spot virus transmission in extensive giant tiger shrimp pond. The study was conducted in two sites at Demak District, Central Java Province. As the treatment, a cluster consist of three shrimp ponds in site I, and two shrimp ponds in site II, each was surrounded by buffer ponds rearing only finfish. As the control, five extensive shrimp grow out ponds in site I and three shrimp grow out ponds in site II, with shrimp pond has neither applied biosecurity nor surrounded by non-shrimp pond as biosecurity as well considered as control ponds. The results found that treatment of cluster shrimp ponds surrounded by non-shrimp ponds could hold shrimp at duration of culture in the grow out pond (DOC 105.6±4.5 days significantly much longer than that of control that harvested at 60.9±16.0 days due to WSSV outbreak. Survival rate in trial ponds was 77.6±3.6%, significantly higher than that of control at 22.6±15.8%. Shrimp production in treatment ponds has total production of 425.1±146.6 kg/ha significantly higher than that of control that could only produced 54.5±47.6 kg/ha. Implementation of Better Management Practices (BMP by arranging shrimp ponds in cluster and surrounding by non-shrimp ponds proven effectively prevent WSSV transmission from traditional shrimp ponds in surrounding area.

  1. 对虾免疫机能研究概况%General situation of the immunological capability of shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国福; 黄倢; 宋晓玲

    2004-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an important source of revenue and employment in many developing countries.However, infectious diseases have adversely affected the profitability of shrimp industry. For this reason, disease prevention is a priority and shrimp immunology has become a crucial research area of this field. In this paper, the current importance and problems of shrimp-culture were described and the research advances in shrimp immunological defence mechanisms were summarized. The immunological tools are powerful and useful to evaluate the health state of the shrimp. The immunologies of shrimp mainly consist of cellular immunity and humoral immunity. In regard to cellular parameters, they are composed of haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC) and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs). The immunity ceils exert their defence functions through phagocytizing, enveloping, etc, and the changes of THC and DHC are related to health state of shrimp. The ROIs generated during post phagocytic event which maybe an important marker to evaluate the immunological capability and phenoloxidase activity have been considered as a potential marker which is relevant to the health of the shrimp too. Concerning humoral parameters, prophenoloxidase (ProPO) and phenoloxidase,antimicrobial peptides and proteins, hemagglutinin and plasma proteins were described. The determining methods of immunity parameters were discussed. The response of shrimp to pathogens such as bacteria, virus, etc. and environmental factors such as DO, pH, etc, were also reviewed. It is well-known that the immune responses induced by immunizing crustacean or shrimp are mainly the non-specific immune responses. The potential of immunological parameters, including the changes of THC and DHC, the production of ROIs, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, antibacterial activity of plasma, and so on, to appraise the healthy state of shrimp were partly discussed. The future directions for the evaluation of the

  2. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-04-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25°C to 80°C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26±0.89GPa at 25°C that reduces to 7.61±0.65GPa at 80°C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38±2.3GPa at 25°C to 24.58±1.71GPa at 80°C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons.

  3. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein; Schlerf, Martin; Heitkönig, Ignas M A

    2013-11-15

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delta using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing (HyMap) and (ii) to investigate links between the variation of foliar nitrogen mapped and local environmental variables. In this study, multivariate prediction models achieved a higher level of accuracy than narrow-band vegetation indices, making multivariate modeling the best choice for mapping. The variation of foliar nitrogen concentration in mangroves was significantly influenced by the local environment: (1) position of mangroves (seaward/landward), (2) distance to the shrimp ponds, and (3) predominant mangrove species. The findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbances, in this case shrimp ponds, influence nitrogen variation in mangroves. Mangroves closer to the shrimp ponds had higher foliar nitrogen concentrations.

  4. The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P vannamei.

  5. Flour production from shrimp by-products and sensory evaluation of flour-based products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mendes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of flour using by-products (cephalothorax obtained from the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei industry, and to perform a sensory analysis of shrimp flour-based products. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses on fresh cephalothorax and on manufactured flour were performed, as well as the determination of cholesterol content of this flour, and the sensorial evaluation of soup and pastry made with this flour. By the microbiological analyses, no pathogenic microorganism was detected in the samples. Physicochemical analyses of flour showed high levels of protein (50.05% and minerals (20.97%. Shrimp cephalothorax flour showed high levels of cholesterol. The sensory evaluation indicated a good acceptance of the products, with satisfactory acceptability index (81% for soup, and 83% for pastry, which indicates that shrimp cephalothorax in the form of flour has a potential for developing new products.

  6. Diseases and treatment reported by shrimp and tilapia farmers in Guangdong Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Liping; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard;

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture in China that meet demands from both national consumers and export markets. However, the intensified production has brought increased disease problems, antibiotics and other...

  7. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus (Litopenaeus vannamei: perspectives for genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor eCastillo-Juárez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus (Litopenaeus vannamei based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection.

  8. Penaeoid and sergestoid shrimps from the deep scattering layer (DSL) in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karuppasamy, P.K.; Menon, N.G.

    Results of a preliminary study on the occurrence and distribution of seventeen species of Penaeoid and Sergestoid shrimps from the deep scattering layer (DSL) of the Indian EEZ of Arabian Sea are presented here based on the IKMT samples collected...

  9. Clonal Occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in Cultured Shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Md Noor Uddin

    Full Text Available This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S. Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm environments compared to other Salmonella serovars.

  10. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Pokhrel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  11. Low-input Modified Extensive Shrimp Culture System for Penaeus monodon Restrian Vibriosis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Karekar. S.V.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Vogelsang, C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    in environmental parameters suggesting that the systems maintained TVLO below disease-causing threshold. The Vibrio community was represented mainly by V. metschnikovii, V. fluvialis, V. mimicus and the closely related Aeromonas spp. The vibrios in shrimp...

  12. Water quality management in shrimp aquaculture ponds using remote water quality logging system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.; Suryavanshi, U.; Ingole, B.S.; Drensgstig, A.; Braaten, B.

    Currently an institutional co-operation project funded by NORAD is evaluating different environmental management strategies for sustainable aquaculture in India. A brief description of a remote water quality logging system installed in shrimp ponds...

  13. Effects of gamma-irradiation on frozen shrimps to reduce microbial contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Adulyatham, Pitaya; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Sangthong, Naruemon (Department of Fisheries, Bangkok (Thailand). Fishery Technological Development Div.)

    1989-01-01

    This study presents data on the distribution of microorganisms in six kinds of imported frozen shrimps and the efficacy of {gamma}-irradiation for reduction of total number of bacteria and pathogens. Unpleasant off-odor was clearly detected in the shrimp irradiated at 2.5 kGy at non-frozen state and it became very strong at 10 kGy. On the other hand, off-odor was negligible in the frozen product below 5 kGy, but was clearly detected at 20 kGy. Irradiation up to 50 kGy had no effect on TMA trimethyl (trimethylamine) content of the frozen shrimps, but doses more than 20 kGy increased the TMA content of nonfrozen shrimps. (author).

  14. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laxman Pokhrel; Bigyan Sharma; Gan B Bajracharya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water) obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  15. Final Critical Habitat for Longhorn Fairy Shrimp (Branchinecta longiantenna) - Vernal Pool Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for Longhorn fairy shrimp (Branchinecta longiantenna), a vernal pool crustacean, occur.

  16. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  17. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R.; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H.

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  18. 78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown... and/or milk, and par-fried. The products included in the scope of this investigation are...

  19. The impact of shrimp farming effluent on bacterial communities in mangrove waters, Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, O V; Macrae, A; Menezes, F G R; Gomes, N C M; Vieira, R H S F; Mendonça-Hagler, L C S

    2006-12-01

    The effects of shrimp farm effluents on bacterial communities in mangroves have been infrequently reported. Classic and molecular biology methods were used to survey bacterial communities from four mangroves systems. Water temperature, salinity, pH, total heterotrophic bacteria and maximum probable numbers of Vibrio spp. were investigated. Genetic profiles of bacterial communities were also characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of eubacterial and Vibrio 16S rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Highest heterotrophic counts were registered in the mangrove not directly polluted by shrimp farming. The Enterobacteriaceae and Chryseomonas luteola dominated the heterotrophic isolates. Vibrio spp. pathogenic to humans and shrimps were identified. Eubacterial genetic profiles suggest a shared community structure independent of mangrove system. Vibrio genetic profiles were mangrove specific. Neither microbial counts nor genetic profiling revealed a significant decrease in species richness associated with shrimp farm effluent. The complex nature of mangrove ecosystems and their microbial communities is discussed.

  20. Bioaccumulation of cyanuric acid in edible tissues of shrimp following experimental feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbiwnyk, Christine M; Williams, Rodney R; Andersen, Wendy C; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Madson, Mark R; Miller, Keith E; Reimschuessel, Renate

    2010-12-01

    Due to concerns that cyanuric acid (CYA)-contaminated feed had been used in aquaculture and could enter the human food chain, a method to quantify CYA residues in the edible tissues of fish and shrimp was previously developed and validated. This paper provides further data on the deliberate feeding of CYA to shrimp to determine the extent of residue accumulation in edible tissue. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed for the analysis of CYA in shrimp tissue. Edible tissue of shrimp fed 1666 or 3333 mg kg⁻¹ CYA in their diet (approximately 55 and 124 mg kg⁻¹ body weight) contained 0.767 and 0.406 mg kg⁻¹ CYA, respectively. The residue levels are below the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake level for CYA and are generally considered unlikely to pose a human health risk.

  1. 75 FR 37757 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... its predecessor. See Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada; Notice of Final Results of Antidumping...

  2. 77 FR 40574 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus...; Countervailing Duties; Final rule, 62 FR 27296, 27393 (May 19, 1997); see also Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip...

  3. 76 FR 40881 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus... Duties; Final rule, 62 FR 27296, 27393 (May 19, 1997); see also Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in...

  4. 75 FR 44229 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ...-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana... 69941 (Nov. 18, 2005) (Brake Rotors), citing Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada; Final Results...

  5. 76 FR 41203 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus...; Countervailing Duties; Final rule, 62 FR 27296, 27393 (May 19, 1997); see also Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip...

  6. Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in sediments from Tampa Bay, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerks, P.L.; Felder, D.L.; Strasser, K.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects that ghost shrimp have on the distribution of metals in sediment. We measured levels of HNO3-extractable zinc and cadmium in surface sediment, in ghost shrimp burrow walls and in sediment ejected by the ghost shrimp from their burrows, at five sandy intertidal sites in Tampa Bay. Ghost shrimp densities and their rate of sediment ejection were also quantified, as were sediment organic content and silt + clay content. Densities of ghost shrimp (Sergio trilobata and Lepidophthalmus louisianensis) averaged 33/m2 at our sites, and they ejected sediment at an average rate of 28 g/burrow/day. Levels of both Zn and Cd were significantly higher in burrow walls than in surface sediments. Sediment ejected by the shrimp from their burrows had elevated levels of Zn (relative to surface sediments) at one of the sites. Sediment organic content and silt + clay content were higher in burrow-wall sediments than in ejected sediment, which in turn tended to have values above those of surface sediments. Differences in levels of HNO3-extractable Zn and Cd among sediment types may be a consequence of these sediments differing in other physiochemical characteristics, though the differences in metal levels remained statistically significant for some sites after correcting for differences in organic content and silt + clay content. We conclude that the presence of ghost shrimp burrows contributes to spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary metal levels, while the ghost shrimp bioturbation results in a significant flux of metals to the sediment surface and is expected to decrease heterogeneity of metal levels in sedimentary depth profiles.

  7. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Chin Lin; Jiann-Chu Chen; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Dedi Fazriansyah Putra; Chien-Lun Huang; Chang-Che Li; Jen-Fang Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticu...

  8. Polyphasic characterization of heterotrophic bacteria from shrimp farm environments to tetracyclines

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael dos Santos Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents of tetracycline class has been extensively used in aquaculture for disease control and growth promotion. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the polyphase profile of the bacterial community in shrimp farming environment front antimicrobial classes of tetracyclines, focusing on Vibrio genus. Water and sediment samples were collected four (4) shrimp farms: two (2) in the state of Cearà and two (2) in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, of points: estuary, supply chann...

  9. Genome-wide discovery of novel and conserved microRNAs in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Qian-Yun; Xiong, Yuan-Yan; Wang, Yuan-Mei; Cheng, Xiao; Qi, Qi-En; Shu, Gang; Wang, Song-Bo; Wang, Li-Na; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Of late years, a large amount of conserved and species-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) have been performed on identification from species which are economically important but lack a full genome sequence. In this study, Solexa deep sequencing and cross-species miRNA microarray were used to detect miRNAs in white shrimp. We identified 239 conserved miRNAs, 14 miRNA* sequences and 20 novel miRNAs by bioinformatics analysis from 7,561,406 high-quality reads representing 325,370 distinct sequences. The all 20 novel miRNAs were species-specific in white shrimp and not homologous in other species. Using the conserved miRNAs from the miRBase database as a query set to search for homologs from shrimp expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 32 conserved computationally predicted miRNAs were discovered in shrimp. In addition, using microarray analysis in the shrimp fed with Panax ginseng polysaccharide complex, 151 conserved miRNAs were identified, 18 of which were significant up-expression, while 49 miRNAs were significant down-expression. In particular, qRT-PCR analysis was also performed for nine miRNAs in three shrimp tissues such as muscle, gill and hepatopancreas. Results showed that these miRNAs expression are tissue specific. Combining results of the three methods, we detected 20 novel and 394 conserved miRNAs. Verification with quantitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR) and Northern blot showed a high confidentiality of data. The study provides the first comprehensive specific miRNA profile of white shrimp, which includes useful information for future investigations into the function of miRNAs in regulation of shrimp development and immunology.

  10. Biotechnological process of chitin recovery from shrimp waste using Lactobacillus plantarum NCDN4

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thanh Ha; Nguyen, Thi Ha

    2015-01-01

    Chitin in shrimp waste is tightly associated with proteins, lipids, pigments and mineral deposits. Therefore, these source materials have to be pretreated to remove these components. For a long time, chemical process has been used widely for extraction of chitin from shrimp waste. The chemical process however led to severe environmental damage and low chitin quality. The biological process has been shown promising to replace the harsh chemical process to reduce the environment impact. In our ...

  11. Moulds identification and detection of aflatoxin B1 on commercial codiments fermented of shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian tropical climate have an opportunity for fungi growth as Aspergillus flavus Link which can produce aflatoxin within foodstuffs, include condiment of fermented shrimp. Aflatoxin B1 is the dangerous agent having roles as carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic. The aims of this research were known kinds of moulds and detection of aflatoxin B1 on commercial condiments fermented of shrimp. Two brands of commercial condiments fermented of shrimp were taken from traditional markets and supermarkets in Surakarta. Isolation was done by made suspension of sample in aquadets. Suspension on appropriate dilutions was grown on CDA (Czapek’s Dox Agar media with surface spread. The grown colonies were separated and grown on PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar slant media. Furthermore, isolates were cultured on CDA and MEA (Malt Extract Agar media. The grown colonies were microscopes and microscopes examined and identified. Existence of aflatoxin B1 was known by Commercial RIDA Screen ELISA Kit that could detect qualitatively and quantitatively with detection sensitive < 1.7 ppb. Moulds that could be isolated from condiments fermented of shrimp were: Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Aspergillus wentii Wehmer, Aspergillus PU1 or Aspergillus PU2 and Penicillium citrinum Thom. There was aflatoxin B1 contaminated to 2 brands of commercial condiments fermented of shrimp that were examined. Traditional markets’ commercial condiments fermented of shrimp contained higher aflatoxin B1 than supermarkets’. The brands of commercial condiment of fermented shrimp which had better inner package quality contained lower aflatoxin B1 than the worst inner package quality of commercial condiments of fermented of shrimp.

  12. Monitoring of shrimp and farmed fish sold in Canada for cyanobacterial toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiadek, Barbara; Scott, Peter M; Lau, Ben P-Y

    2012-01-01

    Sixty-one samples of shrimp and 32 samples of farmed fish collected from retail markets across Canada were analyzed for cyanobacterial toxins, including microcystins, paralytic shellfish poisons (saxitoxins), cylindrospermopsin, and β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, using established methods of analysis. None of these toxins were detected in any of the samples. Some shrimp samples screened for paralytic shellfish poisons showed the presence of unknown peaks in the chromatogram after periodate oxidation.

  13. Application of bacterial lipopolysaccharide to improve survival of the black tiger shrimp after Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates an effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as feed supplement to improve immunity of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). LPS was coated to commercial feed pellets and given to the shrimp once or twice a day for 10 days before an exposure with shrimp pathogenic bacterium Vibrio harveyi. The growth rates, percent weight gains, total hemocyte and granulocyte counts and survival rates of shrimp between the LPS-coated pellet fed groups and a control group where shrimp fed with commercial feed pellets were compared. After 10 days of the feeding trials, growth rates were not significantly different in all groups, suggesting no toxicity from LPS supplement. To determine beneficial effect of LPS diets, each group was subsequently exposed to V. harveyi by immersion method and the survival rates were recorded for seven days after the immersion. Regardless of the dosages of LPS, the shrimp groups fed with LPS-coated pellets showed higher survival rates than the control group. There was no significant difference in survival rates between the two LPS dosages groups. In addition to survival under pathogen challenge, we also determine effect of LPS on immune-related genes after 10-day feeding trial. Gene expression analysis in the P. monodon intestines revealed that antilipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 (ALF3), C-type lectin, and mucine-like peritrophin (mucin-like PM) were expressed significantly higher in a group fed with LPS supplemental diet once or twice a day than in a control group. The transcript levels of C-type lectin and mucin-like PM had increased significantly when LPS was given once a day, while significant induction of ALF3 transcripts was observed when shrimp were fed with LPS twice a day. The up-regulation of the immune gene levels in intestines and higher resistance to V. harveyi of the shrimp fed with LPS provide the evidence for potential application of LPS as an immunostimulant in P. monodon farming.

  14. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The effect of dietary oregano essential oils on the growth of Vibrio bacteria in shrimps was evaluated. Shrimps were fed: (i) food with oregano oil with a high level of thymol; (ii) food with oregano oil with a high level of carvacrol, and (iii) food without oregano oil (the control). The animals were infected by three species of Vibrio (vulnificus, parahaemolyticus and cholerae). The microbial counts of Vibrio species were significantly lower (p

  15. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov., a new alpheid shrimp from Panama and Venezuela (Decapoda: Caridea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Arthur; Caripe, Jonathan Vera

    2016-06-22

    A new species of the infaunal alpheid shrimp genus Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 is described based on material from three localities on the Caribbean coast of Panama and Isla Chimana Grande, Venezuela. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov. belongs to a group of species characterised by the presence of well-developed adhesive disks on the major chela and appears to dwell in burrows of the large callianassid ghost shrimp, Glypturus acanthochirus Stimpson 1866.

  16. Codes of conduct and certification issues for shrimp farming: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Naegel, L.C.A; Fogel, I.

    2009-01-01

    The growing demand for fishery products from aquaculture, especially shrimp, led to fierce criticisms about the unsustainable production and socially exploitative management. The product demand is combined with enhanced consumer concern for food safety, and environmental and social issues. Additionally, there is increasing consu mer demand for information about the origin and nature of products they consume and the safety of all inputs. From the shrimp pond farmer to the retailer, there is a ...

  17. Adhesive Property of Bacteria and Its Relationship to Microbial Spoilage of Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-04

    Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp.) tend to be found in greater proportions and, hence, contribute more to the spoilage of shrimp. Accession For...on the meat surface. They also showed the adhesion process of Pseudomonas fragi when it came in contact with the beef stew meat . Thirdly, they...to indicate that Moraxella spp. would grow readily on shrimp and are a major contrib- utor to seafood spoilage . Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas

  18. Spectral sensitivity, spatial resolution and temporal resolution and their implications for conspecific signalling in cleaner shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caves, Eleanor M; Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-02-01

    Cleaner shrimp (Decapoda) regularly interact with conspecifics and client reef fish, both of which appear colourful and finely patterned to human observers. However, whether cleaner shrimp can perceive the colour patterns of conspecifics and clients is unknown, because cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are unstudied. We quantified spectral sensitivity and temporal resolution using electroretinography (ERG), and spatial resolution using both morphological (inter-ommatidial angle) and behavioural (optomotor) methods in three cleaner shrimp species: Lysmata amboinensis, Ancylomenes pedersoni and Urocaridella antonbruunii. In all three species, we found strong evidence for only a single spectral sensitivity peak of (mean ± s.e.m.) 518 ± 5, 518 ± 2 and 533 ± 3 nm, respectively. Temporal resolution in dark-adapted eyes was 39 ± 1.3, 36 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 1.3 Hz. Spatial resolution was 9.9 ± 0.3, 8.3 ± 0.1 and 11 ± 0.5 deg, respectively, which is low compared with other compound eyes of similar size. Assuming monochromacy, we present approximations of cleaner shrimp perception of both conspecifics and clients, and show that cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are sufficient to detect the outlines of large stimuli, but not to detect the colour patterns of conspecifics or clients, even over short distances. Thus, conspecific viewers have probably not played a role in the evolution of cleaner shrimp appearance; rather, further studies should investigate whether cleaner shrimp colour patterns have evolved to be viewed by client reef fish, many of which possess tri- and tetra-chromatic colour vision and relatively high spatial acuity.

  19. A different form of color vision in mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoen, Hanne H; How, Martin J; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Marshall, Justin

    2014-01-24

    One of the most complex eyes in the animal kingdom can be found in species of stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimp), some of which have 12 different photoreceptor types, each sampling a narrow set of wavelengths ranging from deep ultraviolet to far red (300 to 720 nanometers). Functionally, this chromatic complexity has presented a mystery. Why use 12 color channels when three or four are sufficient for fine color discrimination? Behavioral wavelength discrimination tests (Δλ functions) in stomatopods revealed a surprisingly poor performance, ruling out color vision that makes use of the conventional color-opponent coding system. Instead, our experiments suggest that stomatopods use a previously unknown color vision system based on temporal signaling combined with scanning eye movements, enabling a type of color recognition rather than discrimination.

  20. Genetic variability of marine shrimp in the Brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Maggioni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic variability level and distribution in Brazilian broodstocks of marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. Nine of the country's largest hatcheries were evaluated using codominant and highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. The results obtained from genotyping of ten microsatellite loci are indicative of genetic variability that is compatible with that found in wild populations of L. vannamei in Mexico and Central America. A possible explanation is the highly diversified and relatively recent origin of the available broodstocks. Bayesian analysis detected a signal for five founding populations. The distribution of genetic distances partially reflects geographical location, and this information will be useful for the creation of new broodstocks. Therefore, L. vannamei genetic variability among nine of the largest national hatcheries can be considered high.

  1. De novo transcriptome assembly of shrimp Palaemon serratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Perina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp Palaemon serratus is a coastal decapod crustacean with a high commercial value. It is harvested for human consumption. In this study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq 2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of P. serratus. RNA was isolated from muscle of adults individuals and, from a pool of larvae. A total number of 4 cDNA libraries were constructed, using the TruSeq RNA Sample Preparation Kit v2. The raw data in this study was deposited in NCBI SRA database with study accession number of SRP090769. The obtained data were subjected to de novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity software, and coding regions were predicted by TransDecoder. We used Blastp and Sma3s to annotate the identified proteins. The transcriptome data could provide some insight into the understanding of genes involved in the larval development and metamorphosis.

  2. Shrimp theorem: paddle swimming at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    A large variety of aquatic organisms, such as small planktonic crustaceans, use multiple legs as paddles; however the resultant dynamics and efficiency of locomotion are not yet clear. I will present a simple model of swimming with multiple pairs of stiff legs. The legs are assumed to oscillate in a metachronal pattern in a model based on slender-body theory for Stokes flow. The model predicts locomotion in the direction of the metachronal wave, as frequently observed in nature. Unlike scallops undergoing reciprocal motion, shrimp can swim at low Reynolds number. This study offers a possible explanation why crustaceans thrive in aquatic environments, and could inspire a new generation of powerful biomimetic robots.

  3. Physicochemical and functional characteristics of radiation-processed shrimp chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Quayson, E. T.; Adu-Gyamfi, A.; Quarcoo, E. A.; Asare, D.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Woode, B. K.

    2011-07-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on chitosan samples were determined in terms of physicochemical and functional properties. Shrimp chitosan was extracted from shell using a chemical process involving demineralization, deproteinization, decolorization and deacetylation. Commercial snow chitosan was also used. Samples (in a solid state) were given irradiation dose of 25 kGy at a dose rate of 1.1013 kGy/h in air and 0 kGy samples were used as controls. Results showed that moisture contents were between 8.690% and 13.645%. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in the degree of deacetylation of the chitosan samples. Significant differences ( Pantioxidant activity compared with BHT. Water binding capacity ranged from 582.40% to 656.75% and fat binding capacity was between 431.00% and 560.55%. Irradiation had a major effect on the viscosity and the viscosity-average molecular weight of the chitosan samples.

  4. Patterns of genome size variation in snapping shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Hultgren, Kristin; Chak, Solomon Tin Chi; Gregory, T Ryan; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2016-06-01

    Although crustaceans vary extensively in genome size, little is known about how genome size may affect the ecology and evolution of species in this diverse group, in part due to the lack of large genome size datasets. Here we investigate interspecific, intraspecific, and intracolony variation in genome size in 39 species of Synalpheus shrimps, representing one of the largest genome size datasets for a single genus within crustaceans. We find that genome size ranges approximately 4-fold across Synalpheus with little phylogenetic signal, and is not related to body size. In a subset of these species, genome size is related to chromosome size, but not to chromosome number, suggesting that despite large genomes, these species are not polyploid. Interestingly, there appears to be 35% intraspecific genome size variation in Synalpheus idios among geographic regions, and up to 30% variation in Synalpheus duffyi genome size within the same colony.

  5. Green Approaches to Extract Astaxanthin from Shrimp Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility...... of commercial use of the green solvents under plausible process conditions is compared to extraction with a mixture of hexane: isopropanol. Process flowsheets describing these processes were created using SuperPro Designer. Although the astaxanthin extraction yield was highest when using hexane: isopropanol......, according to the economic analysis, the green solvents showed lower capital and operating costs. Extraction with methyl ester of sunflower oil was found to be the more efficient green solvent process investigated with respect to production rate and unit cost of concentrated astaxanthin (155 ppm)....

  6. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassanee Eamkamon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in shrimp exposed to 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L of chlorpyrifos were significantly lower (1.7 and 3.3 times than that of control shrimp after 30 min of exposure (p<0.05. In sub-lethal exposure tests, the AChE activity of shrimp was significantly lower (1.9 times than that of control shrimp after exposure to 1.942 nmol/L of chlorpyrifos for 72 h (p<0.05. The sensitive reduction of AChE activity at the sub-lethal concentration, which was 30 times lower than 96 h LC50 value found in this study, indicates the potential use as a biomarker of chlorpyrifos exposure.

  7. PREDICTABLE AND PRICE VOLATILITY RISK IN THE BRAZILIAN MARKET INTEGRATION OF SHRIMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel José dos Santos Felipe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has the purpose of investigate the dynamics of the volatility structure in the shrimp prices in the Brazilian fish market. Therefore, a description of the initial aspects of the shrimp price series was made. From this information, statistics tests were made and selected univariate models to be price predictors. It´s presented as an exploratory research of applied nature with quantitative approach. The database was collected through direct contact with the Society of General Warehouses of São Paulo (CEAGESP.The results showed that the great variability in the active price is directly related with the gain and loss of the market agents. The price series presents a strong seasonal and biannual effect. The average structure of price of shrimp in the last 12 years was R$ 11.58 and external factors besides the production and marketing (U.S. antidumping, floods and pathologies strongly affected the prices. Among the tested models for predicting prices of shrimp, four were selected, which through the prediction methodologies of "One Step Ahead" with 12 periods horizon , proved to be statistically more robust. We concluded that the dynamic pricing of commodity shrimp is strongly influenced by external productive factors and that these phenomena cause seasonal effects in the prices. Through statistical modeling is possible to minimize the risk and uncertainty embedded in the fish market, thus, the sales and marketing strategies for the Brazilian shrimp can be consolidated and widespread.

  8. Use of acidic electrolyzed water ice for preserving the quality of shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting; Wang, Jing Jing; Li, Ji Bing; Liao, Chao; Pan, Ying Jie; Zhao, Yong

    2013-09-11

    Electrolyzed water ice is a relatively new concept developed in food industry in recent years. The effect of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) ice on preserving the quality of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Physical, chemical, and microbiological changes of the shrimp were examined during the storage. The results showed that compared with tap water (TW) ice, AEW ice displayed a potential ability in limiting the pH changes of shrimp flesh and significantly (p TVBN). And AEW ice treatment had no adverse effects on the firmness of shrimp. Conventional plate count enumeration and PCR-DGGE demonstrated that AEW ice had a capability of inhibiting growth of bacteria on raw shrimp, and the maximum reductions of population reached >1.0 log CFU/g (>90%) on the sixth day. Moreover, AEW ice was clearly more efficient in maintaining the initial attachments between muscle fibers in shrimp according to histological section analysis. On the basis of above analysis, AEW ice can be a new alternative of traditional sanitizer to better preserve the quality of seafood in the future.

  9. Black gill disease of Pacific white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei by Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Dewangan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the epidemiology of black gill disease in white leg shrimp which is a major problem being faced by the commercial shrimp farmers who are culturing Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei in India. Methods: The normal and infected shrimps were collected from shrimp pond and the gill was preserved in appropriate preservative for histopathological examination and scanning electron microscope analysis. Pathogenic fungus was isolated from black gill of L. vannamei in potato dextrose agar medium. Morphological study and fungal strain identification were done by using light microscopy and scanning electron microscope. Fungal DNA was amplified by ITS4 and ITS5 primers and gene sequencing was done by Macrogen Inc., Korea. Phylogenetic tree was prepared by using MEGA 6 software. Results: Fungal spores and hyphae were observed both in internal and external gill surface of infected shrimps. Fungal spores were round in shape and mature sporangium was observed. The histopathology study showed clearly that infected gill was damaged by the fungi. Scanning electron microscopic study showed adherence of fungi in infected gill. Internal transcribed spacer gene sequencing revealed that it was caused by Aspergillus flavus. Conclusions: The outcome of the present study would help to know the cause of black gill disease and to understand the effect of pathogenic fungi in shrimp culture. This study will initiate researchers for work in field of treatment or prevention of black gill disease in commercial L. vannamei culture.

  10. The Effect of Three Culture Methods on Intensive Culture System of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhen; WAN Rong; SONG Xiefa; GAO Lei

    2013-01-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance.This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84d.The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks,i.e.,outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C),greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M).Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C (P <0.05).In contrast to the other two treatments,mode-M had stable pH after 50d cultivation of shrimps.In the mid-late period,the average concentrations of TAN,NO2-N,DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C (P <0.05).Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments (P >0.05),mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield,survival rate and feed conversion rate (P < 0.05) than other modes.There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments (P<0.05).These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system ofL.vannamei.

  11. Encapsulated Synbiotic Dietary Supplementation at Different Dosages to Prevent Vibriosis in White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Zubaidah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus sp. NP5 and oligosaccharide dietary at different dosages on growth performance, survival rate, feed conversion ratio, and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio infection. The shrimps of the main treatments were fed by the diet that contained three different dosages of encapsulated synbiotic [0.5% (A, 1% (B, and 2% (C (w/w] with feeding rate of 5% of shrimp biomass (4 times a day. The shrimps of two control treatments (negative control and positive control were fed only by commercial feed without supplementation of encapsulated synbiotic. The growth, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate were observed after 30 days of encapsulated synbiotic dietary. The shrimps were then challenged by injection of Vibrio harveyi (6 log colony forming units/mL 0.1 mL/shrimp, excluded the negative control treatment. Afterward, the survival and immune responses were observed for 9 days after experimental infection. The shrimps treated with 2% encapsulated synbiotic (treatment C in the diet showed the highest growth performance (2.98 ± 0.42%, feed conversion ratio (1.26 ± 0.19, and better immune responses i.e. total hemocyte counts, differential hemocyte count, phenoloxidase, and intestine bacteria observation compared to those of positive control treatment.

  12. Inhibition of melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp by the extract of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2011-09-15

    Lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extract was prepared using distilled water as a medium. An extraction yield of 26.16g/100g of seed was obtained after extraction at room temperature for 12h. Total phenolic and mimosine contents in the lead seed extract powder (LSEP) were 17.4g GAE/100g and 8.8g/100g, respectively. LSEP at different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v) showed inhibitory activity towards polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose dependent manner. When the whole Pacific white shrimp were treated with 0.25% and 0.5% (w/v) LSEP, the shrimp treated with 0.5% LSEP had the lower melanosis score throughout the storage of 12days and showed a higher score for colour and odour, as well as overall likeness, compared with the control (without treatment) and 1.25% sodium metabisulphite treated samples at day 12 (P<0.05). Meat of shrimps treated with LSEP at both levels had the increase in mimosine content up to 8days, suggesting the migration of mimosine into shrimp muscle during extended storage. Therefore, 0.5% LSEP can be used as a novel melanosis inhibitor for Pacific white shrimp.

  13. Unruly women and invisible workers: the shrimp traders of Mazatlán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Torres, María L

    2012-01-01

    During the 1980s, a group of women from rural communities in the Mexican state of Sinaloa organized a grassroots social movement in order to gain legal access to the sale of shrimp. The movement reached its peak in 1984, with the formation of a shrimp traders union and the establishment of a shrimp marketplace in the tourist city of Mazatlán. Despite the long trajectory of the movement and the success of the shrimp market, these women and their work have been completely ignored by government agencies in charge of the development and management of the fishing industry. For the most part, one gets to read about the shrimp traders only in tourist-oriented brochures depicting them as a “local attraction,” something to be seen while one is touring the city on a private charter bus en route to the Archaeological Museum or to the upscale jewelry shops in the Golden Zone. In this article, I examine how women used their gender and their identity as rural workers to defy the state and its policies, overcome poverty, and take control of the local marketing of shrimp. Another objective of this article is to show why and how women engaged in collective action so they could be legitimized as workers and how gender shaped their individual experiences.

  14. Effect of stocking density on extensive production of freshwater shrimp in coal mine reclamation ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, J.H.; Wynne, F.; Coyle, S.D. [Kentucky State Univ., Frankfort, KY (United States). Aquaculture Research Center; Grey, B. [Peabody Coal Co., Rockport, KY (United States); McGuire, J.

    1998-12-31

    The use of post-mining reclamation ponds for the production of freshwater shrimp was evaluated by examining different stocking densities. Juvenile shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) averaging 0.5g each were stocked into four existing ponds at Peabody`s Ken Surface Mine at 6,175; 12,350; 18,500; and 24,700/ha (2,500, 5,000, 7,500, and 10,000/acre) on June 1, 1995. Shrimp were fed twice a week for 103 days, with harvest conducted September 13, 1995. Survival averaged 40%, overall. Average individual weight size was inversely related to stocking density ranging from 52 g (8.7 shrimp/lb) at 6,175/ha to 20.3 g (22.7 shrimp/lb) at 18,500/acre. Total production was directly related to stocking density ranging from 97 kg/ha (86 lbs/acre) at low density to 211 kg/ha (188 lbs/acre) at 18,500/ha shrimp acre. The major difficulty was at harvest due to difficulty in draining ponds. Construction of designed culture ponds with gravity drains during reclamation could greatly enhance survival, harvestability, and commercial feasibility.

  15. Knowledge and innovation relationships in the shrimp industry in Thailand and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Louis; Garden, Po; Luers, Amy; Manuel-Navarrete, David; Giap, Dao Huy

    2016-04-26

    Experts, government officials, and industry leaders concerned about the sustainability of shrimp aquaculture believe they know what farmers need to know and should be doing. They have framed sustainability as a technical problem that, at the farm level, is to be solved by better shrimp and management of ponds and businesses. Codes of conduct, standards, and regulations are expected to bring deviant practices into line. Shrimp farmers are often cornered in a challenging game of knowledge in which their livelihoods are at stake. In the commodity chain there are multiple relations with both suppliers and buyers, not all of which are trustworthy. The social networks shrimp farmers belong to are crucial for sifting out misinformation and multiplying insights from personal experience in learning by doing. Successful farmers become part of a learning culture through seminars, workshops, and clubs in which knowledge and practices are continually re-evaluated. The combination of vertical and horizontal relationships creates a set of alternative arenas that together are critical to bridging knowledge and action gaps for shrimp farmers. Government and industry initiatives for improving links between knowledge and practice for sustainability have largely succeeded when incentives are aligned: shrimp grow better in healthy environments, and using fewer resources means higher profits.

  16. Black gill disease of Paciifc white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) byAspergillus lfavus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naresh Kumar Dewangan; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan; Daniel Kannan; Narayanasamy Shettu; Ramakrishna Rajkumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the epidemiology of black gill disease in white leg shrimp which is a major problem being faced by the commercial shrimp farmers who are culturingLitopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) in India. Methods:The normal and infected shrimps were collected from shrimp pond and the gill was preserved in appropriate preservative for histopathological examination and scanning electron microscope analysis. Pathogenic fungus was isolated from black gill of L. vannameiin potato dextrose agar medium. Morphological study and fungal strain identification were done by using light microscopy and scanning electron microscope. FungalDNA was amplified byITS4 andITS5 primers and gene sequencing was done by Macrogen Inc., Korea. Phylogenetic tree was prepared by usingMEGA 6 software. Results:Fungal spores and hyphae were observed both in internal and external gill surface of infected shrimps. Fungal spores were round in shape and mature sporangium was observed. The histopathology study showed clearly that infected gill was damaged by the fungi. Scanning electron microscopic study showed adherence of fungi in infected gill. Internal transcribed spacer gene sequencing revealed that it was caused by Aspergillus flavus. Conclusions: The outcome of the present study would help to know the cause of black gill disease and to understand theeffectof pathogenic fungi in shrimp culture. This study will initiate researchers for work in field of treatment or prevention of black gill disease in commercial L. vannameiculture.

  17. Validation of a two-plate microbiological method for screening antibiotic residues in shrimp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Pham Kim; Degand, Guy; Danyi, Sophie; Pierret, Gilles; Delahaut, Philippe; Ton, Vu Dinh; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2010-07-05

    Microbiological inhibition screening tests could play an important role to detect residues of antibiotics in the different animal food products, but very few are available for the aquaculture products in general, and for shrimps in particular. A two-plate microbiological method to screen shrimp for residues of the most commonly used antibiotics has been developed and validated according to criteria derived from the European Commission Decision 2002/657/CE. Bacillus subtilis was used as a sensitive strain to target antibiotics. Culture conditions on Petri plates (pH of medium) were selected to enhance the capacity of antibiotic detection. Antibiotic residues were extracted from shrimps using acetonitrile/acetone (70/30, v/v) before application on Petri plates seeded with B. subtilis. The method was validated using spiked blank tissues as well as antibiotic treated shrimps with enrofloxacin and tetracycline, two antibiotics often found to be used in shrimp production. For tetracyclines and (fluoro)quinolones, the detection capability was below the maximum residue limit (MRL), while it was around the MRL for sulfonamides. The specificity of the microbiological screening was 100% in all cases while the sensitivity and accuracy was 100% in almost all cases. The capacity of the method to detect contaminated samples was confirmed on antibiotic treated shrimps, analyzed in parallel with a confirmatory method (Liquid Chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS)).

  18. Recent insights into host-pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, M S; Ponniah, A G

    2015-07-01

    Viral disease outbreaks are a major concern impeding the development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. The viral disease due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed in early 1990s still continues unabated affecting the shrimp farms and cause huge economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand viral pathogenesis and shrimp response to WSSV at the molecular level. Identification and molecular characterization of WSSV proteins and receptors may facilitate in designing and development of novel therapeutics and antiviral drugs that may inhibit viral replication. Investigations into host-pathogen interactions might give new insights to viral infectivity, tissue tropism and defence mechanism elicited in response to WSSV infection. However, due to the limited information on WSSV gene function and host immune response, the signalling pathways which are associated in shrimp pathogen interaction have also not been elucidated completely. In the present review, the focus is on those shrimp proteins and receptors that are potentially involved in virus infection or in the defence mechanism against WSSV. In addition, the major signalling pathways involved in the innate immune response and the role of apoptosis in host-pathogen interaction is discussed.

  19. Prevalence and distribution of White Spot Syndrome Virus in cultured shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, A; Nandi, S P; Siddique, M A; Sanyal, S K; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-02-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a dsDNA virus causing White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD) in shrimp with almost 100% morality rate within 3-10 days. In Bangladesh, WSSD is one of the major impediments of shrimp farming. This study first investigated the prevalence and distribution of WSSV in cultured shrimps of the coastal regions in Bangladesh. A total of 60 shrimp samples, collected from the 25 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat and Cox's Bazar), were analysed during 2013-2014 by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers; 39 of 60 samples were found WSSV positive. SYBR green real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 60 samples were Satkhira 79%, Khulna 50%, Bagerhat 38% and Cox's Bazar 25%. Sequencing of WSSV-positive PCR amplicons of VP28 showed 99% similarity with WSSV NCBI Ref/Seq Sequences. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh.

  20. Transgene expression in Penaeus monodon cells: evaluation of recombinant baculoviral vectors with shrimp specific hybrid promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    It has been realized that shrimp cell immortalization may not be accomplished without in vitro transformation by expressing immortalizing gene in cells. In this process, efficiency of transgene expression is confined to the ability of vectors to transmit gene of interests to the genome. Over the years, unavailability of such vectors has been hampering application of such a strategy in shrimp cells. We report the use of recombinant baculovirus mediated transduction using hybrid promoter system for transgene expression in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon. Two recombinant baculovirus vectors with shrimp viral promoters (WSSV-Ie1 and IHHNV-P2) were constructed (BacIe1-GFP and BacP2-GFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as the transgene. The GFP expression in cells under the control of hybrid promoters, PH-Ie1 or PH-P2, were analyzed and confirmed in shrimp cells. The results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus with shrimp specific viral promoters (hybrid) can be employed for delivery of foreign genes to shrimp cells for in vitro transformation.

  1. The Origin of Large-Bodied Shrimp that Dominate Modern Global Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robalino, Javier; Wilkins, Blake; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Chan, Tin-Yam; O'Leary, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    Several shrimp species from the clade Penaeidae are farmed industrially for human consumption, and this farming has turned shrimp into the largest seafood commodity in the world. The species that are in demand for farming are an anomaly within their clade because they grow to much larger sizes than other members of Penaeidae. Here we trace the evolutionary history of the anomalous farmed shrimp using combined data phylogenetic analysis of living and fossil species. We show that exquisitely preserved fossils of †Antrimpos speciosus from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen limestone belong to the same clade as the species that dominate modern farming, dating the origin of this clade to at least 145 mya. This finding contradicts a much younger Late Cretaceous age (ca. 95 mya) previously estimated for this clade using molecular clocks. The species in the farmed shrimp clade defy a widespread tendency, by reaching relatively large body sizes despite their warm water lifestyles. Small body sizes have been shown to be physiologically favored in warm aquatic environments because satisfying oxygen demands is difficult for large organisms breathing in warm water. Our analysis shows that large-bodied, farmed shrimp have more gills than their smaller-bodied shallow-water relatives, suggesting that extra gills may have been key to the clade's ability to meet oxygen demands at a large size. Our combined data phylogenetic tree also suggests that, during penaeid evolution, the adoption of mangrove forests as habitats for young shrimp occurred multiple times independently.

  2. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  3. Proteomic Analyses of the Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-wei TAN; Zheng-li SHI

    2008-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a unique member within the virus family Nimaviridae, is the most notorious aquatic virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans and has caused enormous economic losses in the shrimp farming industry worldwide. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of WSSV morphogenesis, structural proteins, and replication is essential for developing prevention measures of this serious parasite. The viral genome is approximately 300kb and contains more than 180 open reading frames (ORF). However, most of proteins encoded by these ORF have not been characterized. Due to the importance of WSSV structural proteins in the composition of the virion structure, infection process and interaction with host cells, knowledge of structural proteins is essential to understanding WSSV entry and infection as well as for exploring effective prevention measures. This review article summarizes mainly current investigations on WSSV structural proteins including the relative quantities, localization, function and protein-protein interactions. Traditional proteomic studies of 1D or 2D gel electrophoresis separations and mass spectrometry (MS) followed by database searches have identified a total of 39 structural proteins. Shotgun proteomics and iTRAQ were initiated to identify more structural proteins. To date, it is estimated that WSSV is assembled by at least 59 structural proteins, among them 35 are defined as the envelope fraction (including tegument proteins) and 9 as nucleocapsid proteins. Furthermore, the interaction within several major structural proteins has also been investigated. This identitification and characterization of WSSV protein components should help in the understanding of the viral assembly process and elucidate the roles of several major structural proteins.

  4. COMPARISON OF FATTY ACID PROFILES OF MALE AND FEMALE GIANT RED SHRIMPS (Aristaeomorpha foliacea RISSO, 1827) OBTAINED FROM MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    OpenAIRE

    İ.A. Olgunoglu; E. Artar; M. Gocer

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to detect the concentration of fatty acid in female and male specimens of commercially important giant red shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) obtained from (including 20 male shrimps and also 20 female shrimp) Mediterranean Sea. In fatty acid composition, the saturated fatty acid fraction was dominant, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid for both sexes. The analyses indicated that PUFAs, and the MUFAs content were higher in female shr...

  5. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). WHITE SHRIMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    temperature (15 - 66 mm long) did not fair well in in late spring and summer affect 41-opt salinity in the Laguna Madre , distribution and reduce the size of...distri- Food habits of juvenile marine bution of postlarval brown and white fishes occupying seagrass beds in shrimp near Galveston, Texas , with the...in catches shrimp of the Gulf of Mexico. of juvenile brown and white shrimp Trans. Am. Fish . Soc. 100(3):584- in a Texas estuarine canal. Con- 586

  6. Oxidative stress response of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to enrofloxacin and to culture system

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In Vietnam, enrofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in shrimp farms. Although the European Union set a maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 µg/kg for enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in edible tissues of aquatic animals for human consumption, only few data are available on its potential deleterious effects on shrimp. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of enrofloxacin on oxidative stress in hepatopancreas and gills of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). ...

  7. Proximate composition and mineral and fatty acid profiles of male and female jinga shrimps (Metapenaeus affinis, H. Milne Edwards, 1837)

    OpenAIRE

    DİNÇER, Mehmet Tolga; İlker AYDIN

    2014-01-01

    The jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis, H. Milne Edwards, 1837) is a commercially valuable alien decapod and a seafood product that is highly popular at seafood restaurants in İzmir (Turkey). The chemical, mineral, and fatty acid compositions of male and female jinga shrimps harvested in the Mediterranean Sea were determined for the first time. The compositions of both sexes confirmed that the jinga shrimp is a healthy food source due to its balance of nutrients, with efficient levels of prote...

  8. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  9. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, H.; Dziedzoave, N. T.; Kortei, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎ = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L⁎ = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  10. ADOPTION OF GOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICE (GMP IN SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE VANNAMEI SHRIMP FARMS ON THE NORTHERN SHORE EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Florina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to describe the value chain of Vannamei shrimp industry on the northern shore of East Java, to identify the current management practice that is being implemented by small to medium scale shrimp farmers, to analyze the level of adoption of Good Management Practice by small to medium scale shrimp farmers and to identify the challenges that prevent small to medium scale farmers from adopting Good Management Practice. This research utilized descriptive qualitative method using multiple-case study. Data collection was conducted through interviews with experts and various actors in shrimp industry and interviews and observations in shrimp farms. From this research it can be concluded that the farming activity gives the largest contribution in final product value, that the current management practice in observed intensive Vannamei shrimp farms is in line with recommendations of various institutions with the exception of waste management, that the observed intensive Vannamei shrimp farms have high adoption level of Good Management Practice (GMP for various stages of shrimp farming activity with the exception of waste management, and that there is a tendency that farmers follow the good practices that have direct impact to the success of the production, and that the main challenges of GMP adoption are the lack of a comprehensive GMP manual, the lack of structured technology dissemination, and the lack of incentive for the farmers to adopt waste management practices.Keywords: Litopenaeus Vannamei, Shrimp Farm, Good Management Practice, Value Chain, Multiple-Case Study

  11. Relating large-scale climate variability to local species abundance: ENSO forcing and shrimp in Breton Sound, Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Bryan P.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Keim, B.D.

    2010-01-01

    Climate creates environmental constraints (filters) that affect the abundance and distribution of species. In estuaries, these constraints often result from variability in water flow properties and environmental conditions (i.e. water flow, salinity, water temperature) and can have significant effects on the abundance and distribution of commercially important nekton species. We investigated links between large-scale climate variability and juvenile brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus abundance in Breton Sound estuary, Louisiana (USA). Our goals were to (1) determine if a teleconnection exists between local juvenile brown shrimp abundance and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and (2) relate that linkage to environmental constraints that may affect juvenile brown shrimp recruitment to, and survival in, the estuary. Our results identified a teleconnection between winter ENSO conditions and juvenile brown shrimp abundance in Breton Sound estuary the following spring. The physical connection results from the impact of ENSO on winter weather conditions in Breton Sound (air pressure, temperature, and precipitation). Juvenile brown shrimp abundance effects lagged ENSO by 3 mo: lower than average abundances of juvenile brown shrimp were caught in springs following winter El Niño events, and higher than average abundances of brown shrimp were caught in springs following La Niña winters. Salinity was the dominant ENSO-forced environmental filter for juvenile brown shrimp. Spring salinity was cumulatively forced by winter river discharge, winter wind forcing, and spring precipitation. Thus, predicting brown shrimp abundance requires incorporating climate variability into models.

  12. Properties, translucence, and microstructure of Pacific white shrimp treated with mixed phosphates as affected by freshness and deveining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanasatheirn, N; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K

    2008-01-01

    Effects of freshness and deveining on some properties, translucence, and microstructure of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) soaked in 2.5% NaCl containing different phosphates were studied. Shrimp soaked in all solutions had increases in weight gain and cooking yield with lowered cooking loss, compared with the control (P phosphates in quality improvement of ice-stored shrimp was lower than fresh shrimp. Deveining resulted in increased weight gain and yield (P phosphates became more translucent. Shrimp stored in ice for 7 d and treated with mixed phosphates were generally more translucent than fresh counterparts (P phosphates. Cooked meats of fresh shrimp and ice-stored shrimp had more compact fiber arrangement with the shrinkage of sarcomere compared with raw samples. Disintegration was observed at the M-line in ice-stored shrimp treated with mixed phosphates after cooking, while such a phenomenon was not found in the cooked fresh sample treated with phosphates. T(max) and enthalpy of both myosin and actin peaks shifted to lower values when shrimp were treated with mixed phosphates (P phosphates.

  13. Bacterial virulence analysis using brine shrimp as an infection model in relation to the importance of quorum sensing and proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Nan; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Li, Xi-Hui; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Brine shrimp are aquatic crustaceans belonging to a genus of Artemia. This organism is widely used for testing the toxicity of chemicals. In this study, brine shrimp were evaluated as an infection model organism to study bacterial virulence. Artemia nauplii were infected with various pathogenic bacteria, such as Vibrio vulnificus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, and the susceptibility to these bacteria was investigated by counting the survival of the infected nauplii. While all of the tested bacteria have significant virulence to brine shrimp, killing the nauplii in a few days, V. vulnificus showed the strongest virulence. P. aeruginosa also showed a dose-dependent virulence to brine shrimp, but the virulence was weaker than that of V. vulnificus. The virulence tests using the virulence-attenuated mutants of V. vulnificus and P. aeruginosa, such as quorum sensing (QS) mutants or protease-deficient mutants showed a significant attenuation of virulence, demonstrating that the QS mechanism is important in the virulence of these bacteria to brine shrimp. B. vietnamiensis, S. aureus, and E. coli were also virulent to brine shrimp and the virulence was correlated with dosage within 24 h under our conditions. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis were also virulent to brine shrimp, but the virulence was weak and slowly exerted compared with that of other bacteria. Taken together, we suggest that brine shrimp are a good infection model to assay bacterial virulence, especially for V. vulnificus and P. aeruginosa, and QS is important in the bacterial virulence to brine shrimp.

  14. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  15. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Akonor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎=47.4 than the air-oven-dried (L⁎=49.0. Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p<0.05 higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%, compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%. Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  16. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  17. The known two types of transglutaminases regulate immune and stress responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chang, Hao-Che; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Cheng, Winton

    2016-06-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) play critical roles in blood coagulation, immune responses, and other biochemical functions, which undergo post-translational remodeling such as acetylation, phosphorylation and fatty acylation. Two types of TG have been identified in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on their potential function was conducted by gene silencing in the present study. Total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph clotting time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured when shrimps were individually injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water (DEPC-H2O) or TG dsRNAs. In addition, haemolymph glucose and lactate, and haemocytes crustin, lysozyme, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), transglutaminaseI (TGI), transglutaminaseII (TGII) and clotting protein (CP) mRNA expression were determined in the dsRNA injected shrimp under hypothermal stress. Results showed that TG activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly decreased, but THC, hyaline cells (HCs) and haemolymph clotting time were significantly increased in the shrimp which received LvTGI dsRNA and LvTGI + LvTGII dsRNA after 3 days. However, respiratory burst per haemocyte was significantly decreased in only LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp. In hypothermal stress studies, elevation of haemolymph glucose and lactate was observed in all treated groups, and were advanced in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp following exposure to 22 °C. LvCHH mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated, but crustin and lysozyme mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp; moreover, LvTGII was significantly increased, but LvTGI was significantly decreased in LvTGI silenced shrimp

  18. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y

    2003-05-01

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO{sub 2}-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO{sub 4}-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO{sub 3}-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P{<=}0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P{<=}0.05) in BOD{sub 5}, TAN and NO{sub 2}-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8{+-}1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P{<=}0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3{+-}1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system.

  19. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens.

  20. An update of shrimp and prawn supply chain initiatives in Bangladesh : recommendations for inclusive shrimp supply chain development for the STDF project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, van der W.

    2014-01-01

    The Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF) project implemented by FAO in cooperation with the Department of Fisheries and WorldFish is funded by WTO. It will target 1,000 shrimp and prawn farmers in Southwest Bangladesh and focuses on improving their livelihoods and securing their market ac

  1. [Applicability of PCR methods for detection of shrimp and crab in processed food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Hiromu; Nagatomi, Yasuaki; Kikuchi, Ryo; Hirao, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    According to Japanese food allergen labeling regulations, an ELISA screening test is used for detection of crustacean proteins in food and a shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test is used to confirm a positive ELISA screening test and to exclude false positives. Forty-six kinds of processed foods labeled as containing shrimp/crab were subjected to ELISA screening test and PCR confirmation test and the usefulness of the shrimp/crab-PCR was evaluated. Twenty-seven of the 46 samples contained total crustacean protein levels of 10 ppm or more in the ELISA screening test. All of the samples were positive in the shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test. The results of the confirmation test were consistent with the declaration in the list of ingredients and with the results of the ELISA screening test. The shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test was demonstrated to be applicable to various kinds of foods, including powder, extract, seasoning paste, prepared frozen food, snack food, retort food and canned food.

  2. Urea as a Nitrogen Source in a Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Closed Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supannee SUWANPAKDEE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Urea [(NH22CO] is an organic compound that serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compound by animals. Urea is widely used in aquaculture systems. This study investigated the effects of urea on growth of Penaeus monodon. Shrimp were reared in 500 l fiber tanks. There was no exchange of water throughout the experiment. Shrimp with an average body weight of 10.99 ± 0.19 g were stocked at a density of 32 shrimp/m2 in 20 ppt diluted seawater and fed with 38 % protein diet for 9 weeks. Urea was added into the culture tanks at a concentration of 1.25 ppm once a week. The results show that urea slightly affects growth and survival of shrimp. Shrimp reared in the culture pond with added urea had a marginal better growth rate (p > 0.05 while the survival rate was significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05. The urea in the closed culture tanks was shown to reduce the toxicity of ammonia in soil and promoted growth of plankton communities. Adding urea has no effect on water quality. This study concluded that urea is a potential nitrogen source in closed culture systems when the nitrogen input through the feeding regime is limited. It suggests that urea should be added at a concentration of 1.25 ppm once a week into culture systems with limiting nitrogen sources.

  3. Physiochemical Changes and Optimization of Phosphate-Treated Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei ) Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Saiah Djebbour; Yang, Je-Eun; Oh, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Wook; Lee, Yang-Bong

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors responsible for the changed physiochemical properties of unpeeled shrimp treated in cold phosphate solution (2~4°C) with the intervention of 4 factors: phosphate concentration, dipping time, rotation speed, and volume of brine solution. Response surface analysis was used to characterize the effect of the phosphate treatment on shrimps by running 33 treatments for optimizing the experiment. For each treatment, phosphate amount, moisture content, and weight gain were measured. The results showed that phosphate concentration is the most important factor than other factors for facilitating phosphate penetration in the meat of the shrimp and for getting the best result. The optimum condition of phosphate-treated shrimp in this study was 110 to 120 min dipping time, 500 to 550 mL brine solution for 100 g shrimp sample, and 190 to 210 rpm agitation speed. The studied conditions can be applied in fisheries and other food industries for good phosphate treatments.

  4. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  5. Cultivation of marine shrimp in biofloc technology (BFT system under different water alkalinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Piérri

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of alkalinity for the superintensive cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc system. A total of 12 experimental circular units of 1000L were used supplied with 850L water from a nursery, populated at a density of 165 shrimps.m–3 and average weight of 5.6 g. The treatments, in triplicate, consisted in four levels of alkalinity in the water: 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg.L–1 of calcium carbonate. To correct the alkalinity was used calcium hydroxide (CaOH. It was observed a decrease in pH of the water in the treatments with lower alkalinity (p<0.05. The total suspended settleable solids were also lower in the treatment of low alkalinity. No significant difference was observed in other physico-chemical and biological parameters in the water quality assessed, as well as the zootechnical parameters of cultivation between treatments (p≥0.05. The results of survival and growth rate of shrimps were considered suitable for the cultivation system used in the different treatments. The cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc at density of 165 shrimps.m–3 can be performed in waters with alkalinity between 40 and 160 mg.L–1 of CaCO3, without compromising the zootechnical indexes of cultivation.

  6. Genetic variation in a closed line of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Penaeidae

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    Eloize Luvesuto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has recently boosted the Brazilian shrimp industry. However, it is well known that selection methods based solely on phenotypic characteristics, a reduced number of breeders and the practice of inbreeding may promote a significant raise in the genetic similarity of the captive populations, leading to greater disease susceptibility and impairing both the growth and final size of the shrimps. We used four microsatellite loci to investigate genetic variation in three generations (F5, F6 and F7 of a closed and reared L. vannamei lineage. Although an accentuated heterozygosis deficit was detected, we also observed that the captive propagation of this lineage did not lead to a significant loss of genetic variability over the three generations studied. One possible reason for this is that the breeding conditions of this lineage were good enough to prevent any significant loss of genetic variability. However, three generations may have been insufficient to produce detectable changes in genetic frequencies in the loci studied. Alternatively, the microsatellite loci may have been non-neutral (biased and related to the conditions in which the shrimps were kept, resulting in a similar allele pool in respect to these four microsatellites over the three generations studied. Any generalizations regarding microsatellite variation in closed shrimp lines may thus be incomplete and should be carefully analyzed.

  7. Comparative transcriptomic characterization of the early development in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Huang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-01-01

    Penaeid shrimp has a distinctive metamorphosis stage during early development. Although morphological and biochemical studies about this ontogeny have been developed for decades, researches on gene expression level are still scarce. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptomes of five continuous developmental stages in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with high throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The reads were assembled and clustered into 66,815 unigenes, of which 32,398 have putative homologues in nr database, 14,981 have been classified into diverse functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and 26,257 have been associated with 255 pathways by KEGG pathway mapping. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adjacent developmental stages were identified and gene expression patterns were clustered. By GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and functional gene profiling, the physiological changes during shrimp metamorphosis could be better understood, especially histogenesis, diet transition, muscle development and exoskeleton reconstruction. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles during early development of penaeid shrimp, and these findings will serve as significant references for shrimp developmental biology and aquaculture research.

  8. The Importance of Supratidal Habitats for Wintering Shorebirds and the Potential Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasué, M.; Dearden, P.

    2009-06-01

    Intensive black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal ( N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds.

  9. Catalase eliminates reactive oxygen species and influences the intestinal microbiota of shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Yang, Ming-Chong; Sun, Jie-Jie; Guo, Fang; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2015-11-01

    Intestinal innate immune response is an important defense mechanism of animals and humans against external pathogens. The mechanism of microbiota homeostasis in host intestines has been well studied in mammals and Drosophila. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antimicrobial peptides have been reported to play important roles in homeostasis. However, how to maintain the microbiota homeostasis in crustacean intestine needs to be elucidated. In this study, we identified a novel catalase (MjCAT) involved in ROS elimination in kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus. MjCAT mRNA was widely distributed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. After the shrimp were challenged with pathogenic bacteria via oral infection, the expression level of MjCAT was upregulated, and the enzyme activity was increased in the intestine. ROS level was also increased in the intestine at early time after oral infection and recovered rapidly. When MjCAT was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi), high ROS level maintained longer time, and the number of bacteria number was declined in the shrimp intestinal lumen than those in the control group, but the survival rate of the MjCAT-RNAi shrimp was declined. Further study demonstrated that the intestinal villi protruded from epithelial lining of the intestinal wall were damaged by the high ROS level in MjCAT-knockdown shrimp. These results suggested that MjCAT participated in the intestinal host-microbe homeostasis by regulating ROS level.

  10. Diet supplemented with probiotic for Nile tilapia in polyculture system with marine shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatobá, Adolfo; Vieira, Felipe do Nascimento; Buglione-Neto, Celso Carlos; Mouriño', José Luiz Pedreira; Silva, Bruno Corrêa; Seiftter, Walter Quadros; Andreatta, Edemar Roberto

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a probiotic (Lactobacillus plantarum) supplemented diet on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in a polyculture system with marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as regards culture performance, hematology, and gut bacterial microbiota. Ten 20-m² pens were arranged in one earthen pond and stocked with 2 fish (41.9 g) m(-2) and 10 shrimp (2.3 g) m(-2), in total of 40 Nile tilapias and 200 shrimp per experimental unit. Tilapia groups in five of the experimental units were fed a commercial diet supplemented with L. plantarum and the other five with an unsupplemented commercial diet (control). After 12 weeks of culture, the tilapia groups fed the probiotic-supplemented diet presented values 13.6, 7.5, and 7.1% higher for feed efficiency, yield, and final weight, respectively. Viable culturable heterotrophic bacteria counts were reduced, and the number of lactic acid bacteria was increased in the gut of fish and shrimp fed the probiotic-supplemented diet. Hematological analyses showed higher number of thrombocytes and leukocytes in tilapia fed the supplemented diet. L. plantarum utilized in this study colonized the gut of tilapia and shrimp and resulted in reduced number of total bacteria and increased tilapia final weight and feed efficiency.

  11. Quality evaluation of farmed whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, treated with different slaughter processing by infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling-lin; Chen, Xiaojing; Wang, Yanbo

    2014-05-15

    The present study was to evaluate two slaughter processing methods (ice water immersion (T-1) and individual beheaded (T-2)) on whiteleg shrimp quality farmed in freshwater culture systems using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) technology. In addition, the corresponding physical, chemical and microbial properties of shrimp samples were also determined. No significant differences were observed in pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbutiric acid (TBA) and K value as well as the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash between groups of T-1 and T-2. However, significantly higher springiness and chewiness (Pshelf life of whiteleg shrimp killed by ice water immersion could be improved and prolonged. Furthermore, all the samples were successfully divided into two categories regarding the two slaughter methods by principal component analysis (PCA) according to the infrared spectra. By analysis of the regression coefficients of PLS-DA, it can be supposed that the quality differences of whiteleg shrimp with different slaughter processing are largely caused by structural changes of their protein and fat. All together, our results indicated that the springiness and chewiness of whiteleg shrimp with different processing could be correctly distinguished using infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Soil salinity and sodicity in a shrimp farming coastal area of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tho, Nguyen; Vromant, N.; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Hens, L.

    2008-06-01

    Soil salinity and sodicity are environmental problems in the shrimp farming areas of the Cai Nuoc district, Ca Mau province, Vietnam. In 2000, farmers in the district switched en masse from rice cropping to shrimp culture. Due to recent failure in shrimp farming, many farmers wish to revert to a rotational system with rice in the wet season and shrimps in the dry season. So far, all their attempts to grow rice have failed. To assess soil salinity and sodicity, 25 boreholes in shrimp ponds were analysed in four consecutive seasons from 2002 to 2004. The results showed that soil salinity was quite serious (mean ECe 29.25 dS m-1), particularly in the dry season (mean ECe 33.44 dS m-1). In the wet season, significant amounts of salts still remained in the soil (mean ECe 24.65 dS m-1) and the highest soil salinity levels were found near the sea. Soil sodicity is also a problem in the district (exchangeable sodium percentage range 9.63-72.07%). Sodicity is mainly a phenomenon of topsoils and of soils near the sea. Both soil salinity and sodicity are regulated by seasonal rainfall patterns. They could together result in disastrous soil degradation in the Cai Nuoc district.

  13. Subtracted Transcriptome Profile of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon That Survived WSSV Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict A. Maralit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increased interest in the development of virus-resistant or improved shrimp stock because production is currently hindered by outbreaks and limited understanding of shrimp defense. Recent advancement now allows for high-throughput molecular studies on shrimp immunity. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS coupled with suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to generate a transcriptome database of genes from tiger shrimp that survived White spot syndrome virus (WSSV challenge. A total of 9,597 unique sequences were uploaded to NCBI Sequence Read Archive with accession number SRR577080. Sixty-five unique sequences, 6% of the total, were homologous to genes of Penaeus monodon. Genes that were initially related to bacterial infection and environmental stress such as 14-3-3 gene, heat shock protein 90, and calreticulin were also found including a few full-length gene sequences. Initial analysis of the expression of some genes was done. Hemocyanin, ferritin, and fortilin-binding protein exhibited differential expression between survivor and control tiger shrimps. Furthermore, candidate microsatellite markers for brood stock selection were mined and tested. Four trinucleotide and one dinucleotide microsatellites were successfully amplified. The study highlights the advantage of the NGS platform coupled with SSH in terms of gene discovery and marker generation.

  14. Problems related to the foreign exchange earnings of Surinam's shrimp industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pottier, D.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp grounds of Surinam are actually fully exploited by some 136 trawlers of the Florida type, ranging from 100 to 130 GRT. Through export and import levies and fishing licence fees the country was able to obtain a small piece of the foreign currency cake. The Republic of Surinam has been looking for means to increase the benefits from its shrimp business. The alleged huge profits made by foreign vessels inspired the country to invest in a national shrimp fleet and man it with national crew (SUGAM. For reasons explained in the text Sugam has difficultes to operate with a gain. This paper will review Sugam's attempt to earn hard currency. An analysis is made of the foreign exchange earnings of Sugam and is compared with the results of a Korean company. The main conclusions are as follows : shrimp exploitation in a fully exploited Exclusive Economic Zone can only be brought to success by fishermen of proven ability. Each vessel should make trips lasting from 45 to 60 days and be some 280 days at sea per year. Surinam should also reconsider its present policy of shrimp purchasing.

  15. Comparative transcriptomic characterization of the early development in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankai Wei

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimp has a distinctive metamorphosis stage during early development. Although morphological and biochemical studies about this ontogeny have been developed for decades, researches on gene expression level are still scarce. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptomes of five continuous developmental stages in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei with high throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The reads were assembled and clustered into 66,815 unigenes, of which 32,398 have putative homologues in nr database, 14,981 have been classified into diverse functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO annotation and 26,257 have been associated with 255 pathways by KEGG pathway mapping. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs between adjacent developmental stages were identified and gene expression patterns were clustered. By GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and functional gene profiling, the physiological changes during shrimp metamorphosis could be better understood, especially histogenesis, diet transition, muscle development and exoskeleton reconstruction. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles during early development of penaeid shrimp, and these findings will serve as significant references for shrimp developmental biology and aquaculture research.

  16. Influence of sampling, storage, processing and optimal experimental conditions on adenylate energy charge in penaeid shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robles-Romo Arlett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenylate energy charge (AEC has been used as a practical index of the physiological status and health in several disciplines, such as ecotoxicology and aquaculture. This study standardizes several procedures for AEC determination in penaeid shrimp that are very sensitive to sampling. We concluded that shrimp can be frozen in liquid nitrogen and then stored at -76°C for up to two years for further analysis, or freshly dissected and immediately homogenized in acid. Other cooling procedures, such as immersion in cold water or placing shrimp on ice for 15 min resulted in 50% and 73% decreases in ATP levels, and 9-fold and 10-fold increases in IMP levels, respectively. Optimal values of AEC (0.9 were obtained in shrimp recently transferred from ponds to indoor conditions, but decreased to 0.77 after one month in indoor tanks when stocked at high densities; the AEC re-established to 0.85 when the shrimps were transferred to optimal conditions (lower density and dark tanks. While the levels of arginine phosphate followed the same pattern, its levels did not fully re-establish. Comparison of different devices for sample homogenization indicated that a cryogenic ball mill mixer is the more suitable procedure.

  17. Identification of the major brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) allergen as the muscle protein tropomyosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daul, C B; Slattery, M; Reese, G; Lehrer, S B

    1994-09-01

    Shrimp, a major seafood allergen, was investigated as a model food allergen. Extracts from both shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) meat and cooking fluid contain a substantial and similar amount of allergenic activity. A 36-kD allergen, demonstrated in both extracts by SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis, reacted with 28/34 (82%) sera from shrimp-sensitive, skin test and RAST-positive, individuals. This allergen, named Pen a I, was isolated by SDS-PAGE; its amino acid composition was rich in aspartic and glutamic acids. A 21-residue peptide, obtained from endoproteinase Lys-C digested Pen a I by high-performance liquid chromatography, demonstrated significant homology (60-87%) with the muscle protein tropomyosin from various species and origins. The greatest homology (87%) was noted with tropomyosin of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) reflecting the phylogenic relationship between these two arthropods. These studies demonstrate that tropomyosin is the major shrimp allergen. Although the amino acid sequence of this shrimp muscle protein shares considerable homology with tropomyosins of other species including man, significant differences remain in allergenic activity.

  18. Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2011-09-15

    The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 μg(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics.

  19. Research on Preparation of Human Immune Cell in vitro with Response to Shrimp Allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp is one of the most important food allergens. Tropomyosin is its major allergen. Wherein Pen a 1, contains five antibody binding regions, has been identified as the only major shrimp allergen. However, the study on IgE with response to shrimp allergen is still a serious lack, compared with the allergenic proteins. Particularly in the aspects of the preparation of IgE in vitro, it is restricted and can only obtain the complete IgE molecules by polyclonal or monoclonal technology. As for the preparation of small molecule IgE to the shrimp allergen has not yet been reported. This study attempts to carry out research on obtaining of cell materials that are used to clone. It sets up a convenient and efficient immune system in vitro which combines dendritic cell differentiation, allergens immune, mixed lymphocyte culture and so on. Finally the system successfully activates the proliferation of specific B cells and the secretion of a large number of specific IgE antibodies to shrimp allergen.

  20. Reducing nutrient impacts from shrimp effluents in a subtropical coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Mohedano, José-Gilberto; Bernardello, Raffaele; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina; Molino-Minero-Re, Erik; Cruzado, Antonio

    2016-11-15

    Shrimp farm aquaculture causes environmental impacts, notably decreased water quality due to the release of nutrient-rich effluents. Pond wastewater is usually discharged without treatment, and tidal conditions are not taken into account in the management plans. However, natural variability of nutrients makes difficult field evaluation and attribution of impacts. Here we implemented a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model (spatial resolution=50m×50m, time resolution=4s) in order to evaluate the dispersion conditions under specific tidal conditions of nutrient discharges from a semi-intensive shrimp farm during spring and neap tide. Ammonia was quickly assimilated by plankton and its concentration recovered initial levels 10days after the beginning of the harvest. Due to the higher salinity of the pond effluents, shrimp farm discharges accumulate in waters and sediments of the upper lagoon creeks, mostly affecting the benthos, thus implying a potential risk of shrimp farm self-contamination. Maximum concentrations of most biogeochemical tracers occurred when the harvest ends and the ponds are fully emptied. We show that maximum nutrient concentrations can be reduced by ~10% when the harvest ends during spring tides compared to harvests ending during neap tides. This work may be useful to improve the management of shrimp farm effluents by reducing, easily and at little cost, nutrient impacts on tropical and sub-tropical receiving ecosystems.