Sample records for chinese school children

  1. Social Exclusion and the Hidden Curriculum: The Schooling Experiences of Chinese Rural Migrant Children in an Urban Public School (United States)

    Zhang, Donghui; Luo, Yun


    Since 2001, the Chinese government had passed a series of policies known as "the two primary responsibilities" to allow the rural migrant children to attend urban public schools. However, what the migrant children actually experienced in and after negotiating access to these schools deserves serious attention from educators, scholars and…

  2. Emotion Regulation Strategies in European American and Hong Kong Chinese Middle School Children (United States)

    Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena


    This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…

  3. Parenting style of Chinese fathers in Hong Kong: correlates with children's school-related performance. (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y


    This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong.

  4. Prevalence and association between obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese elementary school children: a school-based survey


    Liu AiLing; Lin Rong; Liu WeiJia; Du Lin; Chen Qing


    Abstract Background China has experienced an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity over the last decades. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese school children and determine if there is a significant association between childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1844 children (938 males and 906 females) in six elementary schools at Guangzhou city from April...

  5. Self-Management Training for Chinese Obese Children at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome: Effectiveness and Implications for School Health (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; Anderson, Laura M.; Ji, Hong


    This article reviews the results of a school-based self-management intervention for Chinese obese children at risk for metabolic syndrome. Twenty-eight Chinese obese children (M age?=?10 years) and their parents participated in the study. Metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured pre- and post-intervention. The risk factors included Body Mass…

  6. Impact of low blood lead concentrations on IQ and school performance in Chinese children.

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    Jianghong Liu

    Full Text Available Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ and school performance.Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3-5 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assessed by standardized city tests on 3 major subjects (Chinese, Math, and English [as a foreign language] when children were age 8-10 years.Mean blood lead concentration was 6.43 µg/dL (SD = 2.64. For blood lead concentrations, 7.8% of children (n = 105 had ≥10.0 µg/dL, 13.8% (n = 185 had 8.0 to <10.0 µg/dL, and 78.4% (n = 1051 had <8.0 µg/dL. Compared to children with blood lead concentrations <8 µg/dL, those with blood lead concentrations ≥8 µg/dL scored 2-3 points lower in IQ and 5-6 points lower in school tests. There were no significant differences in IQ or school tests between children with blood lead concentrations groups 8-10 and ≥10 µg/dL. After adjustment for child and family characteristics and IQ, blood lead concentrations ≥10 µg/dL vs <8 µg/dL at ages 3-5 years was associated with reduced scores on school tests at age 8-10 years (Chinese, β = -3.54, 95%CI = -6.46, -0.63; Math, β = -4.63, 95%CI = -7.86, -1.40; English, β = -4.66, 95%CI = -8.09, -1.23. IQ partially mediated the relationship between elevated blood lead concentrations and later school performance.Findings support that blood lead concentrations in early childhood, even <10 µg/dL, have a long-term negative impact on cognitive development. The association between blood lead concentrations 8-10 µg/dL and cognitive development needs further study in Chinese children and children from other developing countries.

  7. A Model of Reading Comprehension in Chinese Elementary School Children (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Wong, Yau-kai


    The relationships of reading-related skills (rapid naming, morphological awareness, syntactic skills, discourse skills, and verbal working memory) and word reading to reading comprehension were examined among 248 Chinese fourth graders in Hong Kong. Multiple regression analysis results showed that syntactic skills (word order knowledge,…

  8. The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children. (United States)

    Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan


    Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration.

  9. Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Social and School Adjustment in Chinese Children: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Chen, Huichang; Li, Dan; Wang, Li


    This study examined relations between early behavioral inhibition and social and school outcomes in Chinese children (N = 200). Data on behavioral inhibition were collected from a sample of 2-year-olds in China. Follow-up data on social behaviors, peer relationships, and school performance were collected from multiple sources at 7 years of age.…

  10. Behavioral pattern in Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Ha; Xu-Qing Zhuge; Qian Zheng; Bing Shi; Cai-Xia Gong; Yan Wang


    Objective:To obtain descriptive information of behavioral pattern inChinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate.Methods:A total of93 cleft lip and palate patients between the age of6-11 year-old and treated atWestChinaStomatologyHospital were selected.And another 100 unaffected controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited randomly from a common primary school inChengdu.Chart review of medical records was used to obtain psychosocial checklists.Scores were compared with published norms and controls to evaluate the risk of problems, separately for three diagnostic groups.Results:The patients group had lower scores of social and academic competencies, especially those with facial deformity or speech problem. No difference was found in the aspect of activity competency.All patients showed elevations in behavior problems.But the type of behavior problems varied in different genders.Conclusions:Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate are at raised risk for social and academic difficulties.Specific pattern of behavior problems displays differently depending on gender of the patient.

  11. Hong Kong Chinese school children with elevated urine melamine levels: A prospective follow up study

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    Chu Winnie CW


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2008, the outbreak of kidney stones in children fed by melamine-tainted milk products in Mainland China has caused major public concern of food safety. We identified Hong Kong school children with elevated urine melamine level from a community-based school survey in 2007-08 and reviewed their clinical status in 2009. Methods In 2007-08, 2119 school children participated in a primary and secondary school survey in Hong Kong using a cluster sampling method. Urine aliquots from 502 subjects were assayed for melamine level. High urine melamine level was defined as urine melamine/creatinine ratio >7.1 μg/mmol. Subjects with high urine melamine level were invited for clinical evaluation in 2009 including urinalysis and ultrasound imaging of the urinary system. Results The age range of this subcohort was 6 - 20 years with 67% girls (335 female and 167 male subjects. The spot urine melamine/creatinine ratio of the 502 urine aliquots ranged from undetectable to 1467 μg/mmol (median 0.8 μg/mmol. Of these, 213 subjects had undetectable level (42%. We invited 47 (9% subjects with high urine melamine level for re-evaluation and one subject declined. The median duration of follow-up was 23.5 months (interquartile range: 19.8 - 30.6 months. None of the 46 subjects (28% boys, mean age 13.9 ± 2.9 years had any abnormality detected on ultrasound study of the urinary system. All subjects had stable renal function with a median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 0.70 mg/mmol (interquartile range: 0.00 - 2.55 mg/mmol. Conclusions Hong Kong Chinese school children with high urine melamine levels appeared to have benign clinical course in the short term although a long term follow-up study is advisable in those with persistently high urine melamine level.

  12. Effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride and sodium fluoride varnish in arresting dentin caries in Chinese pre-school children


    Chu, CH; Lo, ECM; Lin, HC


    Untreated dental caries in Chinese pre-school children is common. This prospective controlled clinical trial investigated the effectiveness of topical fluoride applications in arresting dentin caries. Three hundred seventy-five children, aged 3-5 years, with carious upper anterior teeth were divided into five groups. Children in the first and second groups received annual applications of silver diamine fluoride solution (44,800 ppm F). Sodium fluoride varnish (22,600 ppm F) was applied every ...

  13. Prevalence and association between obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese elementary school children: a school-based survey

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    Liu AiLing


    Full Text Available Abstract Background China has experienced an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity over the last decades. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese school children and determine if there is a significant association between childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1844 children (938 males and 906 females in six elementary schools at Guangzhou city from April to June 2009. The body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, Tanner stage, lipids, insulin and glucose levels were determined. Criteria analogous to ATPIII were used for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children. Results Among 1844 children aged 7-14 years, 205 (11.1% were overweight, and 133 (7.2% were obese. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 6.6% overall, 33.1% in obese, 20.5% in overweight and 2.3% in normal weight children. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BMI (3rd quartile(OR 3.28; 95%CI 0.35-30.56, BMI (4th quartile(OR 17.98; 95%CI 1.75-184.34, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR (2nd quartile (OR2.36; 95% CI 0.46-12.09, HOMA-IR (3rd quartile (OR 2.46; 95% CI 0.48-12.66, HOMA-IR (4th quartile (OR3.87; 95% CI 0.72-20.71 were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The current epidemic of obesity with subsequent increasing cardiovascular risk factors has constituted a threat to the health of school children in China. HOMA-IR and BMI were strong predictors of metabolic syndrome in children. Therefore, rigorous obesity prevention programs should be implemented among them.

  14. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

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    Yafei Tan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69 compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  15. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study. (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping


    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  16. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status. (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam


    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  17. Tendency for Evolution of High Myopia in 308 Chinese School Children from Xi'an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanming Chen; Yining Shi; Le Yang


    Purpose: To observe the refractive status,.especially the ten-dency for evolution of high myopia,.in eyes of Chinese school children from Xi'an city. Methods:.The study was conducted in 11514 eyes of the 5757 students aged between 7~18 years in Xi’an city primary and high schools..The inclusion criterion was>-6D of the spherical equivalent refraction..The object ophthalmic examinations were done, included non-cycloplegic objective refraction, vi-sual acuity,.intraocular pressure,.fundus evaluation by oph-thalmologists and nurses with professional training..Specially designed questionnaires were filled in and the data were statis-tically analyzed with SPSS10.0. Results:.Of 11514 eyes,.the detection rate was 81.4% (9376 eyes) for myopia and 5.3%(615 eyes) for high myopia. High myopia was found in 2.6%. (300 eyes).of right eyes,.2.7%(315 eyes) in left eyes, and 2.4% (275 eyes) were in boys and 2.9% (340 eyes) in girls. Among 12 school grades,.the detection rates of high myopia increased significantly with stu-dent age,.with 0.9% in the 1st grade of primary school and 12.5% in the 3rd year of senior middle school..The average refractive error of spherical equivalent refraction was (-7.43± 1.29) D with 95% confidence interval (-7.54,-7.33). No sig-nificant differences were found between the right and left eyes or both genders..The distribution of myopic severity was low-est(-6D).in primary school students younger than 12 years, was higher (-8D) in junior middle school students older than 13 years, and highest (-13D) in senior middle school students. Conclusion: A continuous growth was evident in the severity of high myopia throughout 12 years of primary and middle school except for the first year of primary school, with growth occurring in two transitional stages between the senior primary and junior middle school years,.and between the junior and senior middle school years..The distribution of high myopia was lowest,.at -6D,.in primary school,.increased to -8D in

  18. The Influence of Heritage Language and Public Schools on Chinese American Children's Biliteracy Development (United States)

    Pu, Chang


    This article investigated four Chinese American students' biliteracy development in two contexts: their heritage language school and public school. Data were collected through participant observations, audio-recorded classroom interactions, student work samples, and semistructured interviews. Findings demonstrated how literacy instruction across…

  19. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the multidimensional anxiety scale for children among Chinese secondary school students. (United States)

    Yao, Shuqiao; Zou, Tao; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Abela, John R Z; Auerbach, Randy P; Tong, Xi


    The objective of the current study was to develop a Chinese translation of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) [March (1997) Multidimensional anxiety scale for children: Technical manual, Multi health systems, Toronto, ON], and to evaluate its reliability and validity. The original version of the MASC was translated into Chinese (MASC-C) and administered to 1,538 Chinese adolescents between the ages of 14 and 19. In comparison to the American normative sample [March (1997) Multidimensional anxiety scale for children: Technical manual, Multi health systems, Toronto, ON], Chinese adolescents reported significantly higher scores on the subscales of social anxiety and separation anxiety. Girls reported higher levels of anxiety on all subscales than males. Participants between the ages of 16 and 19 reported higher scores on the physical symptoms and harm avoidance subscales. The MASC-C exhibited strong internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.91 and the mean inter-item correlation coefficient was 0.20) and moderate test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.84 over a one-month interval). MASC scores inter-correlated a small to moderate degree with measures assessing negative life events and depressive symptoms indicating acceptable convergent validity. The results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the four-factor structure of the MASC was suitable for the Chinese sample. The four factor structure was also invariant across sex and age. As the Chinese translation of the MASC indicated high levels of reliability and validity, the MASC-C is appropriate for assessing anxiety in Chinese adolescents.

  20. Australian Chinese Parents' Language Attitudes and Practices Relating to Their Children's Bilingual Development Prior to School (United States)

    Hu, Jiangbo; Torr, Jane; Whiteman, Peter


    This article reports on a deep investigation of five Australian Chinese families regarding their preschool-aged children's bilingual experiences and development. Each family was visited 3 to 5 times by the first author. The mothers were interviewed about their attitudes toward their child's bilingualism and their practices to promote it. A…

  1. Sleep duration, schedule and quality among urban Chinese children and adolescents: associations with routine after-school activities.

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    Xiaoxiao Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With rapid urbanization accompanied by lifestyle changes, children and adolescents living in metropolitan areas are faced with many time use choices that compete with sleep. This study reports on the sleep hygiene of urban Chinese school students, and investigates the relationship between habitual after-school activities and sleep duration, schedule and quality on a regular school day. METHODS: Cross-sectional, school-based survey of school children (Grades 4-8 living in Shanghai, China, conducted in 2011. Self-reported data were collected on students' sleep duration and timing, sleep quality, habitual after-school activities (i.e. homework, leisure-time physical activity, recreational screen time and school commuting time, and potential correlates. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration of this sample (mean age: 11.5-years; 48.6% girls was 9 hours. Nearly 30% of students reported daytime tiredness. On school nights, girls slept less (p<0.001 and went to bed later (p<0.001, a sex difference that was more pronounced in older students. Age by sex interactions were observed for both sleep duration (p=0.005 and bedtime (p=0.002. Prolonged time spent on homework and mobile phone playing was related to shorter sleep duration and later bedtime. Adjusting for all other factors, with each additional hour of mobile phone playing, the odds of daytime tiredness and having difficulty maintaining sleep increased by 30% and 27% among secondary students, respectively. CONCLUSION: There are sex differences in sleep duration, schedule and quality. Habitual activities had small but significant associations with sleep hygiene outcomes especially among secondary school students. Intervention strategies such as limiting children's use of electronic screen devices after school are implicated.

  2. Chinese Children's Songs. (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  3. Factor Structure of a Multidimensional Gender Identity Scale in a Sample of Chinese Elementary School Children

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    Lu Yu


    Full Text Available This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001 in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to “Felt Pressure” and “Intergroup Bias” in the original model. The third factor “Gender Compatibility” appeared to be a combination of “Gender Typicality” and “Gender Contentment” in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity.

  4. Factor structure of a multidimensional gender identity scale in a sample of Chinese elementary school children. (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Xie, Dong; Shek, Daniel T L


    This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001) in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to "Felt Pressure" and "Intergroup Bias" in the original model. The third factor "Gender Compatibility" appeared to be a combination of "Gender Typicality" and "Gender Contentment" in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity.

  5. Transfer of reading-related cognitive skills in learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese elementary school children


    Keung, YC; Ho, CSH


    This study investigated transfer of reading-related cognitive skills between learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese children in Hong Kong. Fifty-three Grade 2 students were tested on word reading, phonological, orthographic and rapid naming skills in Chinese (L1) and English (L2). The major findings were: (a) significant correlations between Chinese and English measures in phonological awareness and rapid naming, but not in orthographic skills; (b) significant unique con...

  6. Threat perception bias and anxiety among Chinese school children and adolescents. (United States)

    Lu, Weili; Daleiden, Eric; Lu, Shou-En


    This study evaluated the relationship between threat perception bias and anxiety among children and adolescents in China. A sample of 1,004 elementary, middle and high school students aged 9 to 19 years listened to stories containing themes of generalized anxiety, social anxiety and separation anxiety in either an ambiguous or non-ambiguous context. The story content included topics such as upset stomach, teacher-student interaction, and parents who are late to return home. Multiple threat perception indices were derived from children's responses. Children's level of anxiety was assessed by means of self-report questionnaires and parental reports. Higher levels of anxiety were related to higher frequencies of threat perception and interpretation, lower thresholds to detect threat and more negative feelings and cognitions. Age and gender were also related to some indices of threat perception bias. Threat perception bias was related to anxious symptomatology in general and was not content specific to particular anxiety disorders. The findings were consistent with studies conducted in Western culture and suggest that cognitive processing theories of childhood anxiety may generalize beyond Western society.

  7. Children With Disability Are More at Risk of Violence Victimization: Evidence From a Study of School-Aged Chinese Children. (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick


    Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed.

  8. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (1) Body Mass Index Reference for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese School-age Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Purpose To establish and propose a national body mass index (BMI) reference for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents. Methods 2000 CNSSCH (Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health) data, including 216 620 primary and secondary school students aged 7 to 18 years old, were used as a reference population. Compared with those of the NCHS internatioanl reference, three temporary sets of cut-off BMI were proposed by testing different combinations of P8s, P9o, and P95. When physiological and biochemical measures between and among "obesity","overweight", and "normal weight" groups were taken into consideration, set Ⅱ was selected to be the most appropriate one.The sex-age-specific curves were then plotted and smoothed by using B-spline method. Results Based on the samples from costal developed metropolis, the BMI curves successfully overcame the shortcomings of lower and level-off tendency of the Chinese total population. Temporary set Ⅱ, composed by cut-offs of P85 for overweight and P95 for obesity, was finally selected by its sensitivity and peculiarity. BMI 24 and 28 were used as cut-offs for overweight and obesity for both males and females aged 18 years old. These cut-offs, consistent with Chinese Adult's Reference, was proposed as the Body mass index reference for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents. Conclusion The new reference clearly showed its superiorty in both prospectivity and actuality. The proposed reference minimized the gaps of the BMI curve between Chinese adolescents and the international reference. Most importantly was that it was consistent with the Eastern Asia ethnic characteristics of body fatness growth. It was therefore proposed by the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) to use it as an nationwide reference for screening overweight and obesity of school-age children and adolescents in China.

  9. Mandarin Chinese Immersion Program for Preschool Children in an Urban Private School in California: A Case Study (United States)

    Cao, Yuan


    This study enlisted language immersion practitioners in highlighting and exploring the issues and challenges that accompany language immersion education. Comprehensive focused personal interviews of preschool Mandarin Chinese language immersion educators in a private school provided the basis of the study. The research literature reviewed…

  10. Shyness and Adaptation to School in a Chinese Community (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Harkness, Sara; Super, Charles M.; Jia, Rongfang


    This study examined the process of adjustment in shy and nonshy children during the transition to school in a Chinese community. Children (35 shy and 19 nonshy) were assessed three times before and after they entered the first grade. Shy and nonshy children's interactions with peers and teachers, perceived peer acceptance, and anxious behaviour…

  11. Spirulina can increase total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children as determined by a paired isotope dilution technique. (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhao, Xianfeng; Wang, Jie; Muzhingi, Tawanda; Suter, Paolo M; Tang, Guangwen; Yin, Shi-An


    Spirulina is an alga rich in high-quality protein and carotenoids. It is unclear whether spirulina can improve the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in China with a high prevalence of vitamin A malnutrition. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina in improving the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in rural areas of China when they consumed spirulina in their daily meals. A total of 228 children (6-11 years) were recruited and randomly divided into three groups supplemented with 4 g (containing 4·18 µg β-carotene), 2 g (containing 2·54 µg β-carotene) or 0 g spirulina 5 d/week for 10 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention period, each child was given 0·5 mg [(2)H4]retinyl acetate and [(2)H8]retinyl acetate, respectively. To assess vitamin A stores, blood samples (3 ml) were collected on the third and the twenty-first day after each labelled retinyl acetate dose for a retinol enrichment analysis using a GC mass spectrometer. The concentrations of retinol and β-carotene in serum samples were also determined by using HPLC. After the 10-week intervention, serum β-carotene concentrations of children with 2 or 4 g spirulina supplement increased by 0·160 and 0·389 µmmol/l, respectively. Total-body vitamin A stores increased significantly, with a median increase of 0·160 mmol in children taking 2 g spirulina and of 0·279 mmol in children taking 4 g spirulina. Spirulina is a good dietary source of β-carotene, which may effectively increase the total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children.

  12. Bilingual Lexical Skills of School-Age Children with Chinese and Korean Heritage Languages in the United States (United States)

    Jia, Gisela; Chen, Jennifer; Kim, HyeYoung; Chan, Phoenix-Shan; Jeung, Changmo


    This cross-sectional study investigated the bilingual lexical skills of 175 US school-age children (5 to 18 years old) with Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean as their heritage language (HL), and English as their dominant language. Primary study goals were to identify potential patterns of development in bilingual lexical skills over the elementary to…

  13. Examining School Culture in Flemish and Chinese Primary Schools (United States)

    Zhu, Chang; Devos, Geert; Tondeur, Jo


    The aim of this research is to gain understanding about school culture characteristics of primary schools in the Flemish and Chinese context. The study was carried out in Flanders (Belgium) and China, involving a total of 44 Flemish schools and 40 Chinese schools. The School Culture Scales were used to measure five school culture dimensions with…

  14. Muslim Children's Other School (United States)

    Moore, Leslie C.


    Millions of Muslim children around the world participate in Qur'anic schooling. For some, this is their only formal schooling experience; others attend both Qur'anic school and secular school. Qur'anic schooling emphasizes memorization and reproduction (recitation, reading, and transcription) of Qur'anic texts without comprehension of their…

  15. Age and Cultural Differences in Self-Perceptions of Mastery Motivation and Competence in American, Chinese, and Hungarian School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztian Jozsa


    Full Text Available We examined age differences in self-perceptions of five dimensions of mastery motivation and also of competence in American, Chinese, and Hungarian children and teens. Participants included 200 Americans, 1,465 Chinese, and 8,175 Hungarians from 7 to 19 years of age. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire provides comparable data across these different cultures as indicated by very similar factor structures and reasonably good internal consistency reliabilities for the scales. Across all three cultures, there was the expected decline from primary to secondary school in total persistence and the four instrumental mastery motivation scales, except for social persistence with adults in the American sample. Mastery pleasure did not decline in the American and Chinese samples but declined in the Hungarian sample. Self-perceived competence did not decline significantly in the American sample or in the Hungarian sample from age 11 to 17; however, competence self-ratings declined in the Chinese sample. The three cultures were compared at 11 and 16. Although there were some significant differences, small effect sizes indicated that the level of motivation was similar for each culture at each age. The other literature provides clues about why the declines occur in all three cultures and why there are some differences among cultures.

  16. School-Phobic Children (United States)

    Gittelman, Rachel


    Separation anxiety is the major difficulty (and anticipatory anxiety a secondary difficulty) in treating school phobic children, and must be dealt with in a coordinated effort by school therapists, teachers, and parents. (MB)

  17. Performance of Spot Photoscreener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors in Chinese Pre-school and School Age Children Attending an Eye Clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Mu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of Spot photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors meeting 2013 the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS criteria in Chinese preschool and school-age children.One hundred and fifty-five children (310 eyes, aged between 4 to 7 years (5.74 ± 1.2 years underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, photoscreening, and cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction. The agreement of the results obtained with the photoscreening and retinoscopy was evaluated by linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting amblyopia risk factors were calculated based on the AAPOS 2013 guidelines. The overall effectiveness of detecting amblyopia risk factors was analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves.The mean refractive errors measured with the Spot were: spherical equivalent (SE = 0.70 ± 1.99 D, J0 = 0.87 ± 1.01 D, J45 = 0.09 ± 0.60 D. The mean results from retinoscopy were: SE = 1.19 ± 2.22 D, J0 = 0.77 ± 1.00 D, J45 = -0.02 ± 0.45 D. There was a strong linear agreement between results obtained from those two methods (R2 = 0.88, P<0.01. Bland-Altman plot indicated a moderate agreement of cylinder values between the two methods. Based on the criteria specified by the AAPOS 2013 guidelines, the sensitivity and specificity (in respective order for detecting hyperopia were 98.31% and 97.14%; for detecting myopia were 78.50% and 88.64%; for detecting astigmatism were 90.91% and 80.37%; for detecting anisometropia were 93.10% and 85.25%; and for detection of strabismus was 77.55% and 88.18%.The refractive values measured from Spot photoscreener showed a moderate agreement with the results from cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction, however there was an overall myopic shift of -0.49D. The performance in detecting individual amblyopia risk factors was satisfactory, but could be further improved by optimizing criteria based on ROC curves.

  18. Validation of the Self-Regulation Scale in Chinese Children (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Bullock, Amanda; Liu, Junsheng; Fu, Rui; Coplan, Robert J.; Cheah, Charissa S. L.


    Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Self-Regulation Scale (C-SRS) were examined in a sample of 1,458 third- to eighth-grade students in China. Children completed self-reports of self-regulation, loneliness, depression, and self-esteem, and teachers rated children's school adjustment. Results showed a stable three-factor model…

  19. Culture and diet among Chinese American children aged 9–13 years: A qualitative study (United States)

    This study examined Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years in community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX using constructs fro...

  20. Resistance to Cultural Intervention: Formation of Inhibitory Collective and children's Self-Defensive Regulation in a Chinese School. (United States)

    Wu, Aruna; Li, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Lihua; Zhang, Qian


    A sequel to the previous article "Roots of Excellence: The Releasing Effect of Individual Potentials through Educational Cultural Intervention in a Chinese School" (in press), the present study is on the unexpected reversal phenomena in the process of cultural intervention. The goal of the intervention is to construct the dynamics of Jiti (well-organized collective in Chinese) through creative activities to promote students' development. In the intervention, the releasing effect (Wu et al. 2016) emerged as well, but the teacher's concern about worsening discipline and academic performance evoked and reinforced his habitual notions and practices of education, turning the joint activities into a way of strengthening discipline. The energy that had been discharging at the beginning of the intervention was inhibited, so that many more problematic behaviors took shape. The whole class formed an inhibitory atmosphere, within which pupils formed self-defensive regulation strategies. By comparing with the productive collective in which intervention was effective and analyzing this unexpected reversal process, we can not only see pupils' self-construction status in the inhibitory culture but illuminate the formation of the teacher's resistance to educational and cultural transformation as well. Resistance is originated from teachers not being able to interpret pupils' inner developmental needs but instead anxious about the ongoing problems.

  1. Do Chinese Dyslexic Children Have Difficulties Learning English as a Second Language? (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man


    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary,…

  2. Effective Chinese Teaching Concept for Junior High School Children of Migrant Workers%浅析初中外来务工子弟语文有效教学观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the rising inflation floating population, the education for children of migrant workers, especially junior high school children of migrant workers has gained more and more attention, but Chinese teaching of teaching and educating function can't play its corresponding role keeping pace with trend. This paper expounds the importance of junior high school Chinese teaching starting off from the status quo of Chinese teaching for junior high school children of migrant workers and probes into some teaching strategies for junior high school children of migrant workers.%在不断膨胀的流动人口大军中,外来务工子弟特别是初中外来务工子弟的教育越来越引人关注,但具有教书育人作用的语文教学却未能跟上形势发展起到相应作用。本文从初中外来务工子弟语文教学现状出发阐述了初中语文教学的重要性,并对初中外来务工子弟语文教学策略作一些探索。

  3. Assessment of Retinal and Choroidal Measurements in Chinese School-Age Children with Cirrus-HD Optical Coherence Tomography.

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    Tao Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate retinal thickness (RT, retinal volume (RV and choroidal thickness (ChT in Chinese children using Cirrus-HD optical coherence tomography (OCT, and assess their associations with spherical equivalent (SE, age and gender.This was a prospective study that recruited 193 healthy Chinese children (193 eyes with no ophthalmic disease history between December 2012 and December 2013. RT and RV were acquired using OCT. Subfoveal ChT (SFCT and ChT1-mm and 2-mm temporal, nasal, superior and inferior to the fovea were measured manually.RT in the inner temporal and nasal regionsdiffered significantly between refraction groups (both P<0.05. Significant differences were also found inSFCT andChT 1- and 2-mm inferior to the fovea (all P<0.05. RT differed significantly between males and females in the outer superior region in the emmetropia group (P<0.05. ChT differed significantly between males and females 2-mm temporal to the fovea in the emmetropia group (P<0.05, and 1-mm temporal to the fovea in the mild myopia group (P<0.05. SE correlated positively with RT in the inner temporal (r = 0.230,nasal (r = 0.252 and inferior (r = 0.149 regions (all P<0.05. Age correlated positively with foveolar (r = 0.169, total macular (r = 0.202, inner temporal (r = 0.237, inner nasal (r = 0.248, inner superior (r = 0.378 and inner inferior (r = 0.345 region thicknesses, and with RV (r = 0.207(all P<0.05. SE correlated positively with SFCT (r = 0.195, and with ChT1-mm temporal (r = 0.167, 1- and 2-mm nasal (r = 0.144 and r = 0.162, 2-mm superior (r = 0.175, and 1- and 2-mm inferior (r = 0.207 and r = 0.238 to the fovea (all P<0.05. Age had no significant association with ChT.SE, age and gender did not influence macular RT and ChT in most regions, and correlations of RT with age and ChT with SE were weak.

  4. Personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia; Luo, Zhengxue; Liu, Xufeng


    This his article reports the findings of a study conducted to investigate the personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Form G) was used to assess the personality styles of 332 dental school applicants from the mainland of China. The results of the MBTI for Chinese dental school applicants were compared with a previous study of applicants from the U.K. A higher percentage of this group of Chinese applicants scored higher for Introversion (I) than Extroversion (E); both Chinese and English applicants preferred Judging (J) to Perceiving (P). The dominant personality types in Chinese applicants were ISTJ, ESTJ, and ISFP. The findings suggest that the personality types of Chinese dental students may be somewhat different from the personality profiles exhibited by dental students from other nations. The findings may be of value to individuals who desire to investigate personality type differences among dental students with different cultural backgrounds.

  5. Preschool Children's School Readiness (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra


    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  6. Responses of the Ocular Anterior Segment and Refraction to 0.5% Tropicamide in Chinese School-Aged Children of Myopia, Emmetropia, and Hyperopia

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    Ying Yuan


    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the changes of anterior segment after cycloplegia and estimate the association of such changes with the changes of refraction in Chinese school-aged children of myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia. Methods. 309 children were recruited and eligible subjects were assigned to three groups: hyperopia, emmetropia, or myopia. Cycloplegia was achieved with five cycles of 0.5% tropicamide. The Pentacam system was used to measure the parameters of interest before and after cycloplegia. Results. In the myopic group, the lenses were thinner and the lens position was significantly more posterior than that of the emmetropic and hyperopic groups in the cycloplegic status. The correlations between refraction and lens thickness (age adjusted; r=0.26, P<0.01, and lens position (age adjusted; r=-0.31, P<0.01 were found. After cycloplegia, ACD and ACV significantly increased, while ACA significantly decreased. Changes in refraction, ACD, ACV, and ACA were significantly different among the three groups (P<0.05, all. Changes of refraction were correlated with changes of ACD (r=0.41, P<0.01. Conclusions. Myopia presented thinner lenses and smaller changes of anterior segment and refraction after cycloplegia when compared to emmetropia and hyperopia. Changes of anterior chamber depth were correlated with refraction changes. This may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between anterior segment and myopia.

  7. School bus and children's traffic safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Shu-ming; Stephen Hargarten; ZHU Shan-kuan


    There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries.Methods: We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).Results: There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries.Conclusions: The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.

  8. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children. (United States)

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia


    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (Pspeaking Chinese children (Pspeaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time ratio of the 8-year-old group and the errors of 9-year-old group had no significant difference (P>0.05); compared with Spanish-speaking children, the scores were statistically

  9. Waist circumference cut-off values for the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors clustering in Chinese school-aged children: a cross-sectional study


    Xu Ying; Du Lin; Li Yanping; Hu Xiaoqi; Hills Andrew P; Liu Ailing; Byrne Nuala M; Ma Guansheng


    Abstract Background Waist circumference has been identified as a valuable predictor of cardiovascular risk in children. The development of waist circumference percentiles and cut-offs for various ethnic groups are necessary because of differences in body composition. The purpose of this study was to develop waist circumference percentiles for Chinese children and to explore optimal waist circumference cut-off values for predicting cardiovascular risk factors clustering in this population. Met...

  10. Shyness and School Adjustment among Chinese Preschool Children: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Teacher-Child Relationship (United States)

    Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang


    Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…

  11. Interpersonal Strategy, Attachment Security and Social Status among Chinese Children in the Initial Period of Secondary School (United States)

    Chen, Bin-Bin


    This study examined the influences of peer interpersonal strategy and secure attachment on social status in peer contexts in the initial period of secondary school in China. Two hundred and thirty-one new students in secondary schools (grade 6) were recruited in the first semester to complete measures of interpersonal strategies in the peer group,…

  12. Are Physical Activity and Academic Performance Compatible? Academic Achievement, Conduct, Physical Activity and Self-Esteem of Hong Kong Chinese Primary School Children (United States)

    Yu, C. C. W.; Chan, Scarlet; Cheng, Frances; Sung, R. Y. T.; Hau, Kit-Tai


    Education is so strongly emphasized in the Chinese culture that academic success is widely regarded as the only indicator of success, while too much physical activity is often discouraged because it drains energy and affects academic concentration. This study investigated the relations among academic achievement, self-esteem, school conduct and…

  13. Parenting Style and Only Children's School Achievement in China. (United States)

    Xie, Qing; And Others

    This report describes a study which examined the relation of Chinese parenting style to only-children's academic achievement. Subjects, 186 middle-class parents of fifth and sixth graders (10-13 years old) from one Beijing elementary school, completed a Chinese translation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approximately equal…

  14. Do Chinese dyslexic children have difficulties learning English as a second language? (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man


    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary, reading, and phonological processing tasks. It was found that the Dyslexia group performed significantly worse than the Control group in nearly all the English measures. The findings suggest that Chinese dyslexic children also encounter difficulties in learning English as a second language, and they are generally weak in phonological processing both in Chinese and English. However, phonological skills were found to correlate significantly with English reading but not with Chinese reading in the dyslexic children. It is evident that there are both common and specific causes to reading difficulties in Chinese and English.

  15. Factors of children's school readiness


    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek; Urška Fekonja; Katja Bajc


    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progress...

  16. Spirulina can increase total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children as determined by a paired isotope dilution technique


    Li, Lei; Zhao, Xianfeng; Wang, Jie; Muzhingi, Tawanda; Suter, Paolo M.; Tang, Guangwen; Yin, Shi-an


    Spirulina is an alga rich in high-quality protein and carotenoids. It is unclear whether spirulina can improve the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in China with a high prevalence of vitamin A malnutrition. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina in improving the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in rural areas of China when they consumed spirulina in their daily meals. A total of 228 children (6–11 years) were recruited and randomly divided into thre...

  17. Risk Factors of Learning Disabilities in Chinese Children in Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate prevalence rate of learning disabilities (LD) in Chinese children, and to explore related risk factors, and to provide theoretical basis for preventing such disabilities.Methods One thousand and one hundred fifty one children were randomly selected in primary schools. According to criteria set by ICD-10, 118 children diagnosed as LD were classified into the study group. Four hundred and ninety one children were classified into the normal control group. Five hundred and forty two children were classified into the excellent control group. The study instruments included PRS (The pupil rating scale revised screening for learning disabilities), Conners' children behavior check-list taken by parents and YG-WR character check-list. Results The prevalence rate of LD in Chinese children was 10.3%. Significant differences were observed between LD and normally learning children, and between the LD group and the excellent group, in terms of scores of Conners' behavior check-list (P<0.05). The study further showed that individual differences in character between the LD group and the control groups still existed even after controlling individual differences in age, IQ, and gender. Some possible causal explanations contributing to LD were improper teaching by parents, low educational level of the parents, and children's characteristics and social relationships. Conclusion These data underscore the fact that LD is a serious national public health problem in China. LD is resulted from a number of factors. Good studying and living environments should be created for LD children.

  18. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachun Xie

    Full Text Available The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P0.05; compared with Spanish-speaking children, the scores were statistically significant (P0.05. DEM norms may be affected by differences in language, cultural, and educational systems among various ethnicities. The norms of the DEM test are proposed for use with Mandarin Chinese

  19. Relations of Perceived Maternal Parenting Style, Practices, and Learning Motivation to Academic Competence in Chinese Children (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine


    A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…

  20. Prevalence of picky eating behaviour in Chinese school-age children and associations with anthropometric parameters and intelligence quotient. A cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Lee, Eva; Ning, Ke; Zheng, Yingdong; Ma, Defu; Gao, Hongchong; Yang, Baoru; Bai, Ying; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei


    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7-12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p intelligence test (95% CI: 0.809, 4.643; p = 0.006) when adjusted for children's birth weight and food allergy, mothers' education, and family income. Picky eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth.

  1. Spirulina can increase total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children determined by a paired isotope dilution technique (United States)

    Spirulina is an alga rich in high-quality protein and carotenoids. It is unclear whether spirulina can improve the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in China with a high prevalence of vitamin A malnutrition. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina in improving the total-body ...

  2. School Adaptation of Roma Children (United States)

    Gerganov, Encho; Varbanova, Silvia; Kyuchukov, Hristo


    This paper examines the degree of school adaptation among Roma children who were included in a program for the desegregation of Roma schools in Bulgaria. More specifically, the program requires Roma children to attend mixed classes with Bulgarian students and Roma teacher assistants to work with them. The Bulgarian version of the Questionnaire on…

  3. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui


    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  4. Effects of Social Capital in Multiple Contexts on the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children (United States)

    Wu, Qiaobing


    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study used an ecological framework to investigate how social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Using structural equation modeling with…

  5. Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu


    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

  6. Social Capital in Promoting the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children: Interaction across Contexts (United States)

    Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong


    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study investigated how the interactions of social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…

  7. Curriculum Sequencing and the Acquisition of Clock-Reading Skills among Chinese and Flemish Children (United States)

    Burny, Elise; Valcke, Martin; Desoete, Annemie; Van Luit, Johannes E. Hans


    The present study addresses the impact of the curriculum on primary school children's acquisition of clock-reading knowledge from analog and digital clocks. Focusing on Chinese and Flemish children's clock-reading knowledge, the study is about whether the differences in sequencing of learning and instruction opportunities--as defined by the…

  8. Children's Understanding of Television Advertising: A Revisit in the Chinese Context (United States)

    Chan, Kara; McNeal, James U.


    The authors conducted a survey of 1,758 elementary school children (6-14 years old) from December 2001, to March 2002, in 3 Chinese cities with different levels of television advertising. The authors used D. R. John's (1999) model of consumer socialization as the theoretical framework for their study. More than half of the children whom the…

  9. The Chinese High School Student's Stress in the School and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong


    In a sample of 466 Chinese high school students, we examined the relationships between Chinese high school students' stress in the school and their academic achievements. Regression mixture modelling identified two different classes of the effects of Chinese high school students' stress on their academic achievements. One class contained 87% of…

  10. Factors of children's school readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1999, language competence using the Lestvice splošnega govornegarazvoja–LJ (LSGR–LJ, Scales of General Language Development; Marjanovič Umek, Kranjc, Fekonja in Bajc, 2004, and school readiness with the Preizkus pripravljenosti za šolo (PPŠ, Test of School Readiness; Toličič, 1986. The results indicate that children's intellectual ability and language competence have a high predictive value for the school readiness — they explained 51% of the variance in children's scores on the PPŠ. Preschool enrollment has a positive effect on school readiness for children whose parents have a low level of education, but not for those whose parents are highly educated.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Elevated Blood Pressure in Chinese Children Aged 6-13 Years:a Nationwide School-Based Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Yi; LI Wei Rong; SHEN Chong; Frank QIAN; SHI Xiao Ming


    Objective To estimate the prevalence of elevated blood pressure (EBP) in Chinese children and identify individual and family factors associated with EBP. Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using stratified cluster sampling. Participants’ blood pressure was measured, and their parents completed a questionnaire on personal and family characteristics. Prevalence and correlates of EBP were assessed. Results Among a total of 24,333 participants, 20.2% of boys and 16.3% of girls had EBP. The prevalence of EBP increased with the ascending trend of waist circumference, Waist-to-height ratio, and body mass index. The adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for obese boys and girls were 2.50 and 2.97, respectively. Fewer urban boys (16.2%) had EBP than rural boys (21.7%). Boys with a family history of hypertension were 12%more likely to have EBP. Children whose mothers received a college education tended to have lower likelihood of EBP;with an aPR was 0.85 among boys and 0.78 among girls. Conclusion EBP is common among obese students and those who have a family history of hypertension. A negative association between mothers’ education levels and EBP risk in children was found.

  12. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children. (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun


    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society.

  13. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning


    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  14. Children, Computers, and School Furniture. (United States)

    Maxwell, Lorraine E.


    Discusses the rise of posture-related discomfort and injury in children using computers in their classrooms and explores the research in the area. Recommends greater effort in encouraging school furniture manufacturers to create ergonomically appropriate computer workstations. Advice on what children can do to lessen musculoskeletal discomfort…

  15. The Relations Among Multiple Risks, Parenting Styles, and Chinese American Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems


    Tao, Xiao Tong


    This study examined the prospective effects of multiple risks on the internalizing and externalizing problems of 258 1st and 2nd generation Chinese American school-aged children, as well as the mediating and moderating roles of parenting styles. When examining the relations between risk domains and children's behavioral adjustment, children's low self-regulation and negative emotionality, single-parent family structure, and gaps in parent-child cultural orientations were found to be unique pr...

  16. A study of food buying behavior among Chinese children


    Fan, Y.; Li, Y.


    The paper reports a study on food buying behaviour among Chinese children aged between 10-13 years old. There are two important findings. Firstly, the growing influence of commercial environment. During the learning of consumer behaviour by Chinese children, the parental role of guidance remains prominent, and their recommendations have a decisive impact on children’s food choices. Secondly, the perceived importance of product attributes. Chinese children tend to pay more attention to nutr...

  17. Morphological Awareness and Usage in Chinese Primary School Children with Developmental Dyslexia%汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童语素分辨及运用能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋雪; 刘雯; 翁旭初


    The present study investigated morphological awareness and morphological usage in Chinese children with and without developmental dyslexia. While Experiment 1 aimed to characterize morphological awareness in Chinese developmental dyslexia, Experiment 2 examined the morphological usage. Results suggest (1)that there is significant impairment in the morphological awareness and usage in dyslexic children as compared to normal children; (2)that there are deficiencies in the morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia; the backwardness of morphological differentiation and usage illustrates that deficiency in morphological awareness is the main cause of developmental dyslexia in Chinese; (3)that the morpho-logical awareness plays a critical role in the development of reading ability in primary school children.%比较汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童和阅读正常儿童完成同音语素分辨任务和语素构词任务的情况,测查汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童的语素分辨及运用能力。研究一考察了语素分辨能力,结果发现:与阅读正常儿童相比,阅读障碍儿童完成语素分辨任务的反应时更长、准确率更低。研究二考察了语素运用能力,结果发现:与阅读正常儿童相比,阅读障碍儿童完成语素运用相关任务的反应时更长、正确率更低。两个研究的结果提示我们,汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童存在语素意识缺陷,从语素分辨能力到语素运用能力的落后,说明语素意识缺陷是造成汉语发展性阅读障碍的重要原因,汉语的语素意识在儿童阅读中起着至关重要的作用。

  18. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong (United States)

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw


    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  19. Eye movements characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children in picture searching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xu; JING Jin; ZOU Xiao-bing; WANG Meng-long; LI Xiu-hong; LIN Ai-hua


    Background Reading Chinese,a kind of ideogram,relies more on visual cognition.The visuospatial cognitive deficit of Chinese dyslexia is an interesting topic that has received much attention.The purpose of current research was to explore the visuopatial cognitive characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children by studying their eye movements via a picture searching test.Methods According to the diagnostic criteria defined by ICD-10,twenty-eight dyslexic children (mean age (10.12+1.42)years) were enrolled from the Clinic of Children Behavioral Disorder in the third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.And 28 normally reading children (mean age (10.06±1.29) years),1:1 matched by age,sex,grade and family condition were chosen from an elementary school in Guangzhou as a control group.Four groups of pictures (cock,accident,canyon,meditate) from Picture Vocabulary Test were chosen as eye movement experiment targets.All the subjects carried out the picture searching task and their eye movement data were recorded by an Eyelink Ⅱ High-Speed Eye Tracker.The duration time,average fixation duration,average saccade amplitude,fixation counts and saccade counts were compared between the two groups of children.Results The dyslexic children had longer total fixation duration and average fixation duration (F=7.711,P<0.01;F=4.520,P<0.05),more fixation counts and saccade counts (F=7.498,P<0.01;F=11.040,P<0.01),and a smaller average saccade amplitude (F=29.743,P<0.01) compared with controls.But their performance in the picture vocabulary test was the same as those of the control group.The eye movement indexes were affected by the difficulty of the pictures and words,all eye movement indexes,except saccade amplitude,had a significant difference within groups (P<0.05).Conclusions Chinese dyslexic children have abnormal eye movements in picture searching,applying slow fixations,more fixations and small and frequent saccades.Their abnormal eye movement mode reflects the

  20. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (4) Prevalence and Trends of Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Urban School-age Children and Adolescents, 1985-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To describe the nationwide prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity, and their group variations and trends over the past 20 years in the Chinese urban population. Methods Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7-18 years collected from the series of Chinese national surveillance on students' constitution and health (CNSSCH) between 1985 and 2000 were divided into five socioeconomic and demographic groups, while BMI classification reference proposed by Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) was used as screening reference to calculate the prevalence and trends of overweight/obesity in these groups. Results In 2000, the prevalence of obesity and overweight in boys aged 7-18 years was 11.3% and 6.5% in Beijing, 13.2% and 4.9% in Shanghai, 9.9% and 4.5% in coastal big cities, and 5.8% and 2.0% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively, while the prevalence of of obesity and overweight in girls of the same age group was 8.2% and 3.7% in Beijing, 7.3% and 2.6% in Shanghai, 5.9% and 2.8% in coastal big cities, and 4.8% and 1.7% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was low in most of the inland cities at an early stage of epidemic overweight. The epidemic manifested a gradient distribution in groups, which was closely related to socioeconomic status (SES) of the study population. However, a dramatic and steady increasing trend was witnessed among all sex-age subgroups in the five urban groups, and such a trend was stronger in boys than in girls, and much stronger in children than in adolescents. Conclusion Although China is at an early stage of epidemic obesity by and large, the prevalence of obesity in her urban population, particularly in coastal big cities has reached the average level of developed countries. The increasing trend has been rapid since early 1990s, and the increments in obesity and overweight are exceptionally high. The prospect of epidemic obesity in China is in no way optimistic

  1. Prospective, naturalistic study of open-label OROS methylphenidate treatment in Chinese school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yi; GONG Mei-en; YIN Qing-yun; MAI Jian-ning; JING Jin; LUO Xiang-yang; MA Hong-wei; LI Hai-bo; XIE Ling; LI Yan; Kuang Gui-fang; WANG Yu-feng; YI Ming-ji; WANG Feng; ZHU Xiao-hua; YAO Yah-bin; QIN Jiong; WANG Li-wen; ZOU Li-ping; JIN Xing-ming; XU Tong; WANG Yi; QI Yuan-li


    ).No serious adverse events were reported during the study.Conclusion This open-label,naturalistic study provides further evidence of effectiveness and safety of OROS-MPH in school-aged children under routine practice.

  2. Relations with parents and school and Chinese adolescents' self-concept, delinquency, and academic performance. (United States)

    Lau, S; Leung, K


    Current research and theory have suggested that the relational domains of family and school experiences are important to children's development. The present study thus examined how relations with parents and school were related to Chinese students' psychosocial and cognitive development in self-concept, delinquency, and academic performance. A total of 1668 secondary school students were studied, and results showed that better relation with parents was associated with higher general, academic, appearance, social, and physical ability self-concepts. Better relation with school was associated with higher academic performance, as shown in higher class rank, higher grand total exam scores, and higher scores in Chinese, English, mathematics, physical education, and music. Both poorer relations with parents and school were found to associate with more self-reported delinquency as well as more school records of misconduct.

  3. An Epidemiological Study on Sleep Characteristics of Pre-School Chinese Children%中国学龄前儿童睡眠状况的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江帆; 沈晓明; 颜崇淮; 吴胜虎; 金星明; Dyken ME; Liu-Dyken DC


    Objective As sleep promotes normal development, the cultural effect on sleep are especially important in pre-school children. We determined the total sleep times (TSTs) and the prevalence of insomnia and parasomnias in pre-school children from Shanghai, China and compared this to similar research on Western populations. Study Design A sleep questionnaire was given to the parents of 3266 children, from newborn to 5 years of age, randomly selected from five districts of Shanghai, China. Results Chinese mean TSTs were less than that of Western populations. The prevalence of insomnia and parasomnias ( 57. 26% ) was higher than for Europeans ( 29% to 35% ) , but generally lower than in the USA.Conclusion Sleep disorders across cultures were resulted from a variety of behavioral and health problems. Nevertheless,we speculate that reduced TST in Chinese children may be related to factors unique to China, such as co-sleeping with parents and cramped living quarters. There is a utility in using a questionnaire for screening large populations. This study should encourage future collaborative international studies, using similar testing methods, to confirm culturally specific factors that benefit and those which detract from optimal sleep. The early institution of proper sleep habits in pre-school children may have a significant effect on school achievement and the future adult mental health.%目的 睡眠对于儿童的生长发育具有重要的作用,同时睡眠又受到文化背景等因素的影响.此研究目的是了解中国上海0~5岁儿童总的睡眠时间以及睡眠问题的发生率,同时将结果与不同文化背景的西方儿童进行比较.方法 随机抽取上海5个区县3266名出生到5周岁的儿童,对他们的父母进行有关儿童睡眠状况的问卷调查.结果 中国48月以下儿童的平均睡眠时间少于同样年龄的西方儿童.睡眠问题的发生率(57.26%)则高于欧洲的同年龄儿童发生率(29%~35%),而

  4. Chinese Children at Ukraine International Children’s Folk Dance Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>A 27-member Chinese children’s art troupe of the Xiamen Art School, sent by the CPAFFC, visited the Ukrainian city of Vinnytsia from May 7 to 12 to take part in the Fifth International Children Festival of Folk Choreography "Barvinkove Kruzhalo". At the invitation of the

  5. Why attend school? Chinese immigrant and European American preschoolers' views and outcomes. (United States)

    Li, Jin; Yamamoto, Yoko; Luo, Lily; Batchelor, Andrea K; Bresnahan, Richard M


    The developing views of the purposes of school learning (PSLs) and related achievement among immigrant Chinese preschoolers and their European American (EA) age-mates were examined. Both culture and socioeconomic status (SES) were considered simultaneously, an often neglected research approach to studying Asian children. One hundred and fifty 4-year-olds-50 each of middle-class Chinese (CHM), low-income Chinese (CHL), and EA children-completed 2 story beginnings about school and were also tested for their language and math achievement. Results showed that 4-year-olds held sophisticated PSLs, ranging from intellectual to social and affect benefits. Large cultural and SES differences also emerged. CHM children mentioned more adult expectation and seriousness of learning than EA children who expressed more positive affect for self and compliance with adults. CHL children mentioned fewest PSLs. Achievement scores for oral expression of both immigrant groups were significantly lower than those of EA children despite similar reading and math achievement. Controlling for culture and SES, the authors found that children's articulated intellectual, but not other purposes, uniquely predicted their achievement in all tested domains. Cultural and SES influences on immigrant children are discussed.

  6. Enuresis in School Children (United States)

    Stehbens, James A.


    Studies relating to the more popular explanations of enuresis, are discussed and research relating to each is presented. Evidence supporting, or failing to support, treatment methods is also presented. Research possibilities for the school psychologist are suggested. (Author)

  7. Parenting School-Age Children (United States)

    ... important role model in her life. For some children, however, school may cause frustration and stress. Learning disabilities can interfere with the joy of learning. Poor study habits and/or a lack of motivation can create academic difficulties. Sometimes youngsters may have ...

  8. Loneliness in Chinese children across contexts. (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Li, Dan; Liu, Junsheng


    This study examined loneliness and its associations with social functioning in children across different historical times and contexts in China. We collected data from urban and rural groups of school-age children (N = 2,588; M age = 10 years) using self-reports and peer assessments. The results indicated that children in 2002 and 2005 urban groups had lower scores on loneliness than did children in 1992 and 1998 urban groups, suggesting that as urban China became a more modernized, self-oriented society, children tended to report lower levels of loneliness. Consistent with this trend, urban children reported lower levels of loneliness than did their rural counterparts in recent years. The analysis of associations between social functioning and loneliness revealed that across groups, sociability was negatively associated with loneliness, and aggression was positively associated with loneliness. The association between shyness and loneliness differed among the groups; it was negative in the 1992 urban group, positive in the 2002 and 2005 urban groups, and nonsignificant in the 1998 urban and 2007 rural groups. The different associations suggest that whether shy children feel lonely might depend on context.

  9. Self-Concept among Hearing Chinese Children of Deaf Parents. (United States)

    Chan, Lik Man; Lui, Brian


    A questionnaire was administered to 42 Hong Kong Chinese deaf couples, their 70 hearing children, 41 hearing couples, and their 82 hearing children. No differences were found in the self-concepts of children of deaf parents compared to children of hearing parents, but deaf parents reported lower self-concepts than hearing parents. (Author/JDD)

  10. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children


    Dai, Qian


    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  11. The Influences of the Chinese Modern Family Changes on the Socialization of Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chenggang; Liu Dan


    This article mainly introduces the contemporary changes in Chinese family and especially analyses the transformation of family structure and type,family housing conditions,family relationship network.the relationship between husband and wife and parenthood.In addition,it discusses the influence of family changes in the soeialization of children.Then it expounds the new transformation in children's socialization because of family,school,mass media,etc.Finally,it discusses its challenge and reflection to family and pedagogue.

  12. The prevalence of lactase deficiency and lactose intolerance in Chinese children of different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To determine lactose metabolism and lactase activity in Chinese children of different ages, prevalence of lactase deficiency (LD), and lactose intolerance (LI). Methods All 1168 healthy subjects between 3 and 13 years were recruited from schools in four large cities in China. They were screened by a 25 g lactose tolerance test.Some subjecls were challenged with .50 g milk powder on different days. Both indicators,the expiratory H2 concentration and intolerance symptoms, were analyzed. Results LD occurred in 38.5% of children in the 3-5 year age group, and 87% of the 7-8 year and 11-13 year old groups. The age of occurrence for LD may be at 7-8 years among Chinese children. The prevalence of LI among Chinese children was 12.2% alage 3-5 years, 33.1% at age 7-8 years, and 30.5% al age 11-13 years, respectively. Conclusion The results demonstrate that LD is very common in Chinese children from these four cities. LD and LI have a dose dependent response: lactose absorption and symptorms are based on lactase activity. The relationship between breast feeding history (or the history of cow milk intake) and lactase activity among Chinese children has not been established.




  14. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung


    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  15. School-Based Interventions for Anxious Children (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A.; Layne, Ann E.; Egan, Elizabeth A.; Tennison, Dana M.


    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of three school-based interventions for anxious children: group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children, group CBT for children plus parent training group, and no-treatment control. Method: Students (7-11 years old) in three elementary schools (N = 453) were screened using the Multidimensional…

  16. Unhealthy Behaviours of School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria LAZA


    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to ascertain nutritional customs of pupils in grade schools.Material and Method: Anonymous questionnaires were done to a sample of 380 children, aged 10 to 14, in 20 fourth-to eight grade classes from 2 schools in Cluj-Napoca: one from down-town, the other one from a poorer neighbourhood.Results: Almost half of students revealed to have an irregular diet. In the last month, some of them did not have enough food or money to buy it (much of them come from the poorer neighbourhood. In this latest school, a triple percent of children have a vegetable diet (no meat, in fact. The obsession to lose weight and the irregular diet has conducted to lose appetite in over 30% of girls. About 60% take vitamins or nutritional supplements. Social status as well as the irregular diet is reflected in general status: over one third feel sad, alone, useless or cry without any reason. Some of the pupils which have problems with daily food supply, think the life is hard and do not worth to live it.Conclusions: There is a wide diversity in nutritional customs of children. Some of them are due to inappropriate nutritional knowledge or a wrong perception of being on fashion as well as to social status. Although the economic conditions are difficult to change, we consider that nutrition education should still be a part of health teaching.

  17. The Relationship between Students' Problem Posing and Problem Solving Abilities and Beliefs: A Small-Scale Study with Chinese Elementary School Children (United States)

    Limin, Chen; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven


    The goal of the present study is to investigate the relationship between pupils' problem posing and problem solving abilities, their beliefs about problem posing and problem solving, and their general mathematics abilities, in a Chinese context. Five instruments, i.e., a problem posing test, a problem solving test, a problem posing…

  18. Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary (United States)

    Gao, Xuesong


    This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

  19. Food insecurity and malnutrition in Chinese elementary school students. (United States)

    Shen, Xiuhua; Gao, Xiang; Tang, Wenjing; Mao, Xuanxia; Huang, Jingyan; Cai, Wei


    It has been shown that food insecurity is associated with poor diet quality and unfavourable health outcomes. However, little is known about the potential effects of food insecurity on the overall malnutrition status among children. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of food insecurity among 1583 elementary school students, aged 6-14 years, living in Chinese rural areas and examined its association with four malnutrition signs, including rickets sequelae, anaemia, stunting and wasting. Information on food security was collected via questionnaires. Rickets sequelae were assessed by an experienced paediatrician during the interview. Anaemia was determined by the WHO Hb thresholds adjusted by the local altitude. Weight and height were measured during the interview. Stunting and wasting were then evaluated according to WHO child growth standards (2007). We examined the association between food insecurity and the number of malnutrition signs (total number = 4), and the likelihood of having severe malnutrition (presence of 3+ signs), after adjusting for potential confounders, such as age, social-economic status and dietary intakes. During the previous 12 months, the overall prevalence of food insecurity was 6.1% in the entire studied population and 16.3% in participants with severe malnutrition. Participants with food insecurity had a slightly higher number of malnutrition signs (1.14 v. 0.96; P=0.043) relative to those who were food secure, after adjusting for potential confounders. Food insecurity was also associated with increased likelihood of having severe malnutrition (adjusted OR 3.08; 95% CI 1.47, 6.46; P=0.003). In conclusion, food insecurity is significantly associated with malnutrition among Chinese children in this community.

  20. Priming effects in Chinese character recognition for Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuliang Zou; Jing Wang; Hanrong Wu


    BACKGROUND:Dyslexic children exhibit reading ability unmatched to age,although they possess normal intelligence and are well educated.OBJECTIVE:To examine the performance of dyslexic children in Chinese characters visual recognition tasks and to investigate the relationship between priming effect in character recognition and dyslexia.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A case-control study was performed at the Department of Children and Adolescent Health and Maternal Care,School of Public Health,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology between March and June 2007.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 75 primary school students in grades 3 and 5 were selected from two primary schools in Wuhan City,Hubei province,China,and were assigned to three groups.(1) Reading disability (RD,n=25);(2) chronological age (CA) group (n=25 normal readers that were intelligence quotient and age-matched to the RD group);(3) reading level (RL) group (n=25 normal readers that were intelligence quotient and RL-matched to the RD group).All children were right-handed and had normal or corrected-to-normal vision.METHODS:Recognition of target characters was performed in each child using a masked prime paradigm.Recognition speed and accuracy of graphic,phonological,and semantic characters were examined.Simultaneously,data,with respect to response time for each target character and error rate,were recorded to calculate facilitation values (unrelated RT-related RT).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Response time,facilitation,and error rate in Chinese character recognition task were calculated.RESULTS:The baseline-adjusted facilitation of graphic,phonological,and semantic priming for dyslexic children was -0.010,-0.010,and 0.001,respectively.Dyslexic children displayed inhibition in graphic and phonological prime conditions.Facilitations under the three prime conditions were 0.026,0.026,and 0.022 for the CA group.In the RL group,results were 0.062,0.058,and 0.031 respectively.The differences of baseline

  1. Epidemiology of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in Malaysian school children. (United States)

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B


    A survey of 308,101 primary school children in Peninsular Malaysia conducted in 1979 by the School Health Services, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, revealed that 10.7% of children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. The prevalence rate was higher in the economically less advanced states of Terenganu (34%), Kelantan (23%), and Perlis (21%) than in the other states (4-13%). Of 14,233 school children examined in the State of Melaka, 26% of Indians, 18.7% of Malays, 6.1% of Europeans, and 0.7% of Chinese had pediculosis. The prevalence rate, which has remained unchanged over the past 5 years, does not appear to vary with age but is higher in children with long hair and those from the lower socioeconomic groups. Boys have a lower infestation rate than do girls. The higher incidence in Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socioeconomic status in the community, and their cultural habit of maintaining longer hair than do the Chinese. The difference become less apparent in the higher socioeconomic groups.

  2. The cognitive profile of Chinese children with mathematics difficulties



    This study examined how four domain-specific skills (arithmetic procedural skills, number fact retrieval, place value concept, and number sense) and two domain-general processing skills (working memory and processing speed) may account for Chinese children's mathematics learning difficulties. Children with mathematics difficulties (MD) of two age groups (7-8 and 9-11. years) were compared with age-matched typically achieving children. For both age groups, children with MD performed significan...

  3. Fears and Related Anxieties in Chinese High School Students (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances


    Chinese students from different high school settings face unique academic and emotional challenges. They are in a very vulnerable position due to high parent and teacher expectations and pressure to succeed in college entrance examinations and honour the family and the school. They are also vulnerable due to possible inappropriate parenting…

  4. The Current State of Medical Education in Chinese Medical Schools (United States)

    Kosik, Russell Oliver; Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhao, Xudong; Guo, Li; Tang, Wen; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen


    Today's doctor is as much a humanist as a scientist. Medical schools have responded to this change by introducing a variety of courses, most notably those concerning the humanities and ethics. Thus far, no one has examined the extent of use of these subjects in Chinese medical schools. The goal of this study is to determine how many and in…

  5. Aggression, social competence, and academic achievement in Chinese children: a 5-year longitudinal study. (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Huang, Xiaorui; Chang, Lei; Wang, Li; Li, Dan


    The primary purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine, in a sample of Chinese children (initial M age = 8 years, N = 1,140), contributions of aggression to the development of social competence and academic achievement. Five waves of panel data on aggression and social and school performance were collected from peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records in Grades 2 to 5. Structural equation modeling revealed that aggression had unique effects on later social competence and academic achievement after their stabilities were controlled, particularly in the junior grades. Aggression also had significant indirect effects on social and academic outcomes through multiple pathways. Social competence and academic achievement contributed to the development of each other, but not aggression. The results indicate cascade effects of aggression in Chinese children from a developmental perspective.

  6. Families with School-Age Children (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell


    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  7. Humour among Chinese and Greek Preschool Children in Relation to Cognitive Development (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Zhang, XiangKui; Wang, Yong; Xeromeritou, Aphrodite


    The researchers studied humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development. The sample included 55 Chinese children and 50 Greek children ages 4½ to 5½ years. Results showed that both Chinese and Greek children's humour recognition were significantly and positively correlated to their cognitive development, but…

  8. The Cognitive Profile of Chinese Children with Mathematics Difficulties (United States)

    Chan, Becky Mee-yin; Ho, Connie Suk-han


    This study examined how four domain-specific skills (arithmetic procedural skills, number fact retrieval, place value concept, and number sense) and two domain-general processing skills (working memory and processing speed) may account for Chinese children's mathematics learning difficulties. Children with mathematics difficulties (MD) of two age…

  9. Developmental Dyscalculia and Low Numeracy in Chinese Children (United States)

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Au, Terry K.; Tang, Joey


    Children struggle with mathematics for different reasons. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy--two kinds of mathematical difficulties--may have their roots, respectively, in poor understanding of exact non-symbolic numerosities and of symbolic numerals. This study was the first to explore whether Chinese children, despite cultural and…

  10. Chinese Summer Schools Sell Quick Credits (United States)

    McMurtrie, Beth; Farrar, Lara


    American-style summer programs in China, catering to Chinese-born students, have taken American universities by surprise. They are yet one more player in the complex and often opaque Chinese education industry, an industry in which American colleges are finding themselves increasingly entwined. These programs have become a booming enterprise,…

  11. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness

  12. School Social Work with Grieving Children (United States)

    Quinn-Lee, Lisa


    The purpose of the research reported in this article was to advance understanding of the work of school social workers with grieving students. This research was aimed at answering the following question: What are school social workers' experiences working with grieving children? There were two steps in this study. Fifty-nine school social workers…

  13. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob


    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  14. Motivating Teachers' Commitment to Change through Transformational School Leadership in Chinese Urban Upper Secondary Schools (United States)

    Liu, Peng


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of transformational school leadership on teachers' commitment to change and the effects of organizational and teachers' factors on teachers' perception of transformational school leadership in the Chinese urban upper secondary school context. Design/methodology/approach: The paper mainly…

  15. Seeking the Seeds of Innovation in School Progress:Ideas for Coastal Re-gional Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Children are the future of the society. Of all the factors of children’s innovation is the most important. The concept of innovation has been closely tied to the push for school choice, serving as a key rationale for such choice plans of school assign-ment. While innovation continually put forward throughout Chinese education, some versions of school choice are specifically designed to accelerate the pace of innovation. This presentation will provide an analysis of acceleration of innovation.

  16. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay


    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  17. Phonological Awareness in Multilingual Chinese Children. (United States)

    Liow, Susan J. Rickard; Poon, Kenneth K. L.


    Investigated the impact of phonological awareness in English and Chinese of 57 multilingual pupils whose language backgrounds were English, Chinese (Mandarin/dialect), or Bahasa Indonesia, using a homophone decision task, an English lexicality spelling test, and a Hanyu Pinyin spelling test. (Author/JL)

  18. Anomalous cerebellar anatomy in Chinese children with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hui eYang


    Full Text Available The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia (DD claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia.

  19. School Phobic Children and Adolescents: A Challenge to Counselors. (United States)

    Harris, Sandra R.


    Although fearful avoidance of school is a complex and serious problem among school-age children, there are techniques available to professionals for assisting children to overcome school-related anxiety. It is important for school personnel to identify school-phobic children and to assist in planning the earliest possible intervention. (Author)

  20. Association of the rs3743205 variant of DYX1C1 with dyslexia in Chinese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waye Mary MY


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslexia is a learning disability that is characterized by difficulties in the acquisition of reading and spelling skills independent of intelligence, motivation or schooling. Studies of western populations have suggested that DYX1C1 is a candidate gene for dyslexia. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, it is therefore worthwhile to investigate whether there is an association of DYX1C1 in Chinese children with dyslexia. Method and Results Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped from three hundred and ninety three individuals from 131 Chinese families with two which have been reported in the literature and six tag SNPs at DYX1C1. Analysis for allelic and haplotypic associations was performed with the UNPHASED program and multiple testing was corrected using false discovery rates. We replicated the previously reported association of rs3743205 in Chinese children with dyslexia (pcorrected = 0.0072. This SNP was also associated with rapid naming, phonological memory and orthographic skills in quantitative trait analysis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that DYX1C1 is associated with dyslexia in people of Chinese ethnicity in Hong Kong.

  1. Chinese high school students' academic stress and depressive symptoms: gender and school climate as moderators. (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong


    In a sample of 368 Chinese high school students, the present study examined the different effects of Chinese high school students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms and the moderating effects of gender and students' perceptions of school climate on the relationships between their academic stress and depressive symptoms. Regression mixture model identified two different kinds of subgroups in the effects of students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms. One subgroup contained 90% of the students. In this subgroup, the students' perceptions of academic stress from lack of achievement positively predicted their depressive symptoms. For the other 10% of the students, academic stress did not significantly predict their depressive symptoms. Next, multinomial regression analysis revealed that girls or students who had high levels of achievement orientation were more likely to be in the first subgroup. The findings suggested that gender and students' perceptions of school climate could moderate the relationships between Chinese high school students' academic stress and their depressive symptoms.

  2. Disabled Children Face Bullying Throughout School Years (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162772.html Disabled Children Face Bullying Throughout School Years More must be done to ... 29, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Bullying is a problem that affects almost all students ...

  3. Buying behaviour of children at secondary school


    Snížková, Kateřina


    The bachelor thesis deals with buying behaviour of children at secondary school. The aim is to describe their buying behaviour and find out their motivational factors to purchase factors with a focus on advertisement. In the theoretical part is specified buying behaviour and factors influencing consumer. Gen Z and Net generation, in which children at secondary school class, are characterized. It described their buying behaviour and specification that characterize this generation. A part of th...

  4. Children's Effortful Control and Academic Competence: Mediation through School Liking (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Castro, Kimberly S.


    We examined the relations among children's effortful control, school liking, and academic competence with a sample of 240 7- to 12-year-old children. Parents and children reported on effortful control, and teachers and children assessed school liking. Children, parents, and teachers reported on children's academic competence. Significant positive…

  5. Serving Hispanic School-Aged Children in after School Programming: Implications for School Social Work (United States)

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan


    The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…

  6. Children, Schools, & Inequality. Social Inequality Series. (United States)

    Entwisle, Doris R.; And Others

    Findings from the Beginning School Study, conducted in Baltimore (Maryland) are used to show how differences in family circumstances translate into beliefs and activities that help or hinder children's development. The Beginning School Study started in 1982 and has followed 790 randomly selected Baltimore students from first-grade in 1982 through…

  7. Ritalin for School Children: The Teachers' Perspective. (United States)

    Robin, Stanley S.; Bosco, James J.

    Research in an urban public school system (Grand Rapids, Michigan) was conducted to determine teachers' view of Ritalin for school children. Three questions were addressed: what contact with and information about Ritalin do teachers have; what attitude do teachers express toward Ritalin; and what professional behaviors do teachers report in regard…

  8. The Association of Weight Status with Physical Fitness among Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Shang


    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the association of weight status with physical fitness among Chinese children. Methods. A total of 6929 children aged 6–12 years were selected from 15 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in eastern China. The height and fasting body weight were measured. The age-, sex-specific BMI WHO criteria was used to define underweight, overweight and obesity. Physical fitness parameters including standing broad jump, 50 m sprint, and 50 m∗8 shuttle run were tested. Results. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity was 3.1%, 14.9%, and 7.8%, respectively. Boys performed better than girls, and the older children performed better than their younger counterparts for all physical fitness tests. No significant difference in all three physical fitness tests were found between children with underweight and with normal weight, and they both performed better than their counterparts with overweight and obese in all three physical fitness tests. The likelihood of achieving good performance was much lower among overweight and obese children in comparison with their counterparts with normal weight (OR=0.13–0.54. Conclusions. An inverse association of obesity with cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle explosive strength, and speed was identified among Chinese children.

  9. Chinese Youth and Children Art Troupe Visits Pusan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A62-member Chinese Youth and Children Art Troupe led by Qin Lin, president of the Sichuan Provincial People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries, visited the Republic of Korea at the invitation of the Korea Cultural Exchange Foundation. It gave three performances in Pusan from August 11 to 13.

  10. Children's Knowledge of the Quantifier "Dou" in Mandarin Chinese (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen


    The quantifier "dou" (roughly corresponding to English "all") in Mandarin Chinese has been the topic of much discussion in the theoretical literature. This study investigated children's knowledge of this quantifier using a new methodological technique, which we dubbed the Question-Statement Task. Three questions were addressed: (i) whether young…

  11. The School Children's Development in Language Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ During the school years, children's development in cognition enables them to focus their thinking on the facts and relationships less intuitively and more analytically. Growing language abilities complement these cognitive skills. As a result, older children can discuss and explain their world and themselves in ways no presehoolers can. And the ability to plan and follow through on cognitive strategies further distinguishes older children from preschoolers.

  12. Teacher Perceptions of School Culture and Their Organizational Commitment and Well-Being in a Chinese School (United States)

    Zhu, Chang; Devos, Geert; Li, Yifei


    This study aims to analyze and validate the dimensions and specific features of a school culture in a Chinese context. A sample of 181 teachers from a Chinese primary and secondary school in Beijing participated in a survey that measures school organizational cultural characteristics and teacher organizational commitment and well-being as outcomes…

  13. Genetic and Environmental Overlap between Chinese and English Reading-Related Skills in Chinese Children (United States)

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Waye, Mary M. Y.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.


    This twin study examined the relative contributions of genes and environment on 2nd language reading acquisition of Chinese-speaking children learning English. We examined whether specific skills-visual word recognition, receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonological memory, and speech discrimination-in the 1st and 2nd languages have…

  14. An Investigation on 3-6-Year-Old Chinese Children's Perception of "Death" (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Cao, Yanhua; Han, Min


    Because of the taboo in Chinese culture, there is little research on Chinese children's perception of "death". The research on preschoolers' cognition of "death" could deepen our research on children's cognition process, guide children's life education, and improve the psychologic intervention on the children who experience…

  15. Creative Writing Strategies of Young Children: Evidence from a Study of Chinese Emergent Writing (United States)

    Chen, Si; Zhou, Jing


    The ways in which learning graphical representations can encourage the development of creativities in Chinese young children remain to be fully explored. Previous research on children's writing focused on children's symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding Chinese young children's symbolization and creative…

  16. Supreme Court Ruling on Chinese Children (United States)

    Integrated Education, 1974


    Presents the text of a unanimous Supreme Court opinion delivered by Justice Douglas, as well as two separate concurring opinions, which granted non-English speaking Chinese students' petition for relief from unequal and unconstitutional educational opportunities resulting from an absence of English language instruction. (Author/SF)

  17. International note: between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. (United States)

    Yangyang, Liu


    The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that academic achievement was largely domain-general in nature.

  18. Parental involvement in primary school education and children's academic and psychosocial development in Hong Kong


    Wong, Sze-man; 黃思敏


    Researchers recognize the importance of parental practices at home and in school for children’s education. However, its effects on children’s psychosocial wellbeing remain unclear. Moreover, a majority of the extant literature focuses on western school-aged children. Cultural influences on parenting beliefs and strategies may give rise to different effects of parental involvement on academic performance and wellbeing among students in the Chinese culture. There is also a scant body of literat...

  19. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Chinese children (United States)

    This study initially validates the Chinese version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), which has been identified as a potentially valid instrument to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children among diverse racial groups. The psychometric properti...

  20. Links between Chinese Mothers' Parental Beliefs and Responses to Children's Expression of Negative Emotions (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui


    This study investigated relations between parental beliefs and mothers' reported responses to their children's negative emotions. Altogether 189 Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years were interviewed in group sessions using structured questionnaires. It was found that Chinese mothers endorsed Guan, the Chinese parental beliefs. They…

  1. Anemia among school children in eastern Nepal. (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Tamang, Man Kumar; Shakya, Prem Raj; Lamsal, Madhab; Baral, Nirmal


    Anemia is one of the most common public health problems in developing countries like Nepal. This study was done to find the prevalence of anemia among the children aged 4-13 years in eastern Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in four districts (Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam) of eastern Nepal to find the prevalence of anemia among the school children of eastern Nepal. Children aged 4-13 years were selected randomly from different schools of above districts and 618 venous blood samples were collected. Hemoglobin level was estimated by using cyanmethemoglobin method. The mean hemoglobin level was 12.2 ± 1.82 gm/dl. About 37.9% (n = 234) children were found anemic. Anemia prevalence was 42.4% (n = 78), 31.6% (n = 60), 45.3% (n = 48) and 34.8% (n = 48) among school children of Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam district, respectively. The study finds anemia as a significant health problem among the school children of eastern Nepal.

  2. Relations of parenting and temperament to Chinese children's experience of negative life events, coping efficacy, and externalizing problems. (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun


    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and temperament-externalizing relations. Parents reported on their own parenting. Parents and teachers rated temperament. Children reported on negative life events and coping efficacy. Parents, teachers, children, or peers rated children's externalizing problems. Authoritative and authoritarian parenting and anger/frustration uniquely predicted externalizing problems. The relation between authoritarian parenting and externalizing was mediated by children's coping efficacy and negative school events. The results suggest there is some cross-cultural universality in the developmental pathways for externalizing problems.

  3. English vocabulary teaching in Chinese junior high schools


    Zhang, Jinghong


    Vocabulary learning is an important and indispensable part of the English language learning process. In this paper, the author tried to examine the vocabulary teaching practice in Chinese junior high schools. A questionnaire was used to investigate the problem from the perspectives of in-service teachers. Besides, the National English Curriculum (MOE, 2011) served as another important source of data in this study. The data revealed that progress has been made in English vocabulary teaching in...

  4. Recent changes in the curriculum of Chinese dental schools. (United States)

    Ling, Junqi; Fu, Yun


    Chinese dental education is organized and controlled by the government at different levels, and the curriculum is based on the stomatology model. The unique feature of this system has been a heavy emphasis on the medical sciences and the integration of medicine with dentistry. However, the problems with this curriculum have been greater than its advantages since a dental student trained under this educational model was unlikely to be well prepared for patient care in a clinical setting and could struggle to apply modern techniques during his or her professional career. From 1995 to 2000, six well-known Chinese dental schools participated in a curriculum innovation project supported by the central government. This article describes the educational model developed during the project and presents several new educational concepts that have been put into practice in dental schools in China. Nevertheless, the new model is not without problems. If there are no additional innovations related to didactic teaching methods, clinical education, and interpersonal skills, the outcome of recent changes in the curriculum of Chinese dental schools will be unpredictable, and our dental education will not continue to advance.

  5. [Stress in school-age children]. (United States)

    Plourde, R G


    In April 1988, following preliminary research, Notre Dame Elementary School in Edmunston, N.B. initiated a pilot project entitled Management of Children's Stress. Using a three-dimensional process, parents, teachers and students collaborated to empower all students enrolled at the school to effectively manage their day-to-day stress. To prepare, the children, parents and teachers participated in nine- and 15-hour education sessions, respectively. Various techniques, including deep breathing exercises, stretching, relaxation techniques and listening to music, were considered. Visualization, maximizing the mind's potential to envision relaxing images, became the preferred technique. In addition to complementing other relaxation techniques used by the children, visualization facilitated their learning; developed and improved their concentration, motivation and self-confidence; gave them a positive self-image; and reduced health problems. The project has surpassed all expectations. In March 1993, it became part of a Quality of Life Education Project at the school.

  6. Sleep problems in primary school children: comparison between mainstream and special school children. (United States)

    Quine, L


    This paper reports on a study of the prevalence and social correlates of dyssomnias, features associated with obstructive sleep apnoea, and parasomnias in primary school children aged 4-12. Head teachers of schools selected randomly from lists of local primary and special schools were contacted by telephone and asked to distribute a questionnaire package to the parents of all pupils aged 4-12 years. In all, 890 parents of children from mainstream schools and 300 from special schools were approached. The response rates were 64.7% and 60%, respectively. The results showed that significantly higher proportions of children in special schools than in mainstream schools presented four of the five dyssomnias investigated and all of the features associated with obstructive sleep apnoea. In contrast, only two of the seven parasomnias were presented by higher proportions of the children in special schools. Age and gender differences for the two groups of children are presented. Finally, multiple correlations were computed between a range of child, family, and environmental characteristics and the three problems most frequently reported: frequency of settling problems; sleeping in the parents' bed; and night waking. The findings are discussed with reference to other studies of children's sleep problems, and the implications for treatment are considered.

  7. Analysis of Pinyin and New Words of Chinese Language Textbooks for School for Children with Mental Retardation%培智学校语文教材拼音、生字分析--以上海教育出版社出版的第八册实用语文教材为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Textbooks as important media of teaching are bound to affect the student's learning effect. The rationality of textbooks' compilation is worth thinking. Pinyin and new words are the basis of Chinese lan⁃guage learning. They are also an important and difficult task in the education of children with mental retarda⁃tion. By the two aspects analysis of Pinyin and new words of practical Chinese language textbook which is pub⁃lished by Shanghai Education Press,we can find the existing problems of textbook compilation and put for⁃ward suggestions for Chinese language textbooks' compilation of school for children with mental retardation. It aims to benefit the improvement of compilation of Chinese language textbook of school for children with men⁃tal retardation in our country.%教材作为教学的重要媒介,必然会影响学生的学习效果;教材编写的合理性值得大家思考。拼音、生字是智障儿童语文学习的基础,也是智障儿童教育的一项重要且困难的任务。上海教育出版社出版的第八册实用语文教材在拼音、生字两方面都存在一定的问题,在培智学校语文教材的拼音编写方面建议从识字起步,拼音放后,重在积累,按照智障学生掌握语音的规律编写拼音;在生字编写方面建议按智障学生掌握语音的规律编写生字,坚持“识写分离”的原则编排生字,按智障儿童获得生字的词性、结构规律编排生字。

  8. School playground facilities as a determinant of children's daily activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca;


    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  9. Oral Health: What Parents Can Do: School Age Children (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Oral Health What Parents Can Do: School Age Children Past ... offices, clinics, and sometimes in schools. Read More "Oral Health" Articles Children's Dental Health / What Parents Can Do: ...

  10. A Review of School Reintegration Programs for Children with Cancer. (United States)

    Prevatt, Frances F.; Heffer, Robert W.; Lowe, Patricia A.


    Descriptive articles on school reintegration programs for children with cancer are reviewed to synthesize the information of best practices for program development. Suggestions are given for school psychologists working with chronically ill children. (Author/JDM)

  11. Associations of Six Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Obesity-Related Genes With BMI and Risk of Obesity in Chinese Children (United States)

    Wu, Lijun; Xi, Bo; Zhang, Meixian; Shen, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Sun, Dandan; Ott, Jurg; Wang, Xingyu; Mi, Jie


    OBJECTIVE Childhood obesity strongly predisposes to some adult diseases. Recently, genome-wide association (GWA) studies in Caucasians identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI and obesity. The associations of those SNPs with BMI and obesity among other ethnicities are not fully described, especially in children. Among those previously identified SNPs, we selected six (rs7138803, rs1805081, rs6499640, rs17782313, rs6265, and rs10938397, in or near obesity-related genes FAIM2, NPC1, FTO, MC4R, BDNF, and GNPDA2, respectively) because of the relatively high minor allele frequencies in Chinese individuals and tested the associations of the SNPs with BMI and obesity in Chinese children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated the associations of these SNPs with BMI and obesity in school-aged children. A total of 3,503 children participated in the study, including 1,229 obese, 655 overweight, and 1,619 normal-weight children (diagnosed by the Chinese age- and sex-specific BMI cutoffs). RESULTS After age and sex adjustment and correction for multiple testing, the SNPs rs17782313, rs6265, and rs10938397 were associated with BMI (P = 1.0 × 10−5, 0.038, and 0.00093, respectively) and also obesity (P = 5.0 × 10−6, 0.043, and 0.00085, respectively) in the Chinese children. The SNPs rs17782313 and rs10938397 were also significantly associated with waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and fat mass percentage. CONCLUSIONS Results of this study support obesity-related genes in adults as important genes for BMI variation in children and suggest that some SNPs identified by GWA studies in Caucasians also confer risk for obesity in Chinese children. PMID:20843981

  12. The prevalence of fibromyalgia among school children in Kalubia



    Aim of the work This study aimed to determine the prevalence of juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFMS) among school children in Kalubia. Patients and methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted on school children in Kalubia governorate in January 2012 to determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome among school children. A total of 2000 children attending on the days of our visits were recruited from (a) primary and (b) preparatory schools. JFMS was diagnosed according to ...

  13. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Wang

    Full Text Available Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC, a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability and executive function (e.g. working memory. This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function.

  14. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children. (United States)

    Wang, Chunjie; Geng, Fengji; Yao, Yuan; Weng, Jian; Hu, Yuzheng; Chen, Feiyan


    Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability) and executive function (e.g. working memory). This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function.

  15. Scaling of theory-of-mind understandings in Chinese children. (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M; Fang, Fuxi; Liu, David; Zhu, Liqi; Liu, Guoxiong


    Prior research demonstrates that understanding of theory of mind develops at different paces in children raised in different cultures. Are these differences simply differences in timing, or do they represent different patterns of cultural learning? That is, to what extent are sequences of theory-of-mind understanding universal, and to what extent are they culture-specific? We addressed these questions by using a theory-of-mind scale to examine performance of 140 Chinese children living in Beijing and to compare their performance with that of 135 English-speaking children living in the United States and Australia. Results reveal a common sequence of understanding, as well as sociocultural differences in children's developing theories of mind.

  16. Nutrition in Chinese-Korean Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xiao Jian; XU Ya Tao; JI Liu; JI Cheng Ye


    ObjectiveTo study the nutrition habits among Chinese-Korean children and adolescents in Yanbian Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin, China. MethodsData were obtained from the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 for Chinese-Korean children and adolescents aged 7-18 years.The number of the subjects included was 4789, 4704, 5875, and 5315, respectively. ResultsThe rate of the occurrence of stunting showed a declining trend from 1995 to 2010 (for boys:urban, 6.3%; rural, 12.7% in 1995 and 3.5% for both in 2010. For girls: urban, 7.8%; rural, 13.4% in 1995 and 4.2% and 5.5%, respectively, in 2010). Although the ratio of wasting did not show significant differences between the urban and rural children and adolescents in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 respectively, the ratio of occurrence of overweight or obesity increased (for boys: urban, 7.3% and 1.3%in 1995, 17.6% and 12.9% in 2010; rural, 7.0% and 1.3% in 1995, 14.6% and 12.8% in 2010, respectively. For girls: urban, 8.1% and 1.0% in 1995, 17.3% and 8.6% in 2010; rural 5.7% and 0.7% in 1995, 16.4%and 7.4% in 2010, respectively). ConclusionThe ratio of malnutrition in children and adolescents in Chinese-Korean areas declined from 1995 to 2010, and the distinction in malnutrition between the urban and rural areas was negligible in 2010. Further, the ratio of overweight and obesity increased over this period.

  17. Chinese Immigrant Families and Bilingualism among Young Children (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Xu, Yili


    Thirty-five children (17 boys and 18 girls, 4 to 8 years old) in 2-parent Chinese immigrant families had attended English-speaking facilities for 35.0 months (boys) and 32.9 months (girls), respectively. They were tested at home with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and the Mandarin version of PPVT-R. No gender differences were…

  18. Chinese children's respiratory diseases in 60 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Qiang; SHEN Kun-ling


    @@ This year marks the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. On this occasion, it is worthy to recall the past and look towards the future in order to do a better job in research and control of children's respiratory diseases.

  19. Exploring the Reading-Writing Connection in Chinese Children with Dyslexia in Hong Kong (United States)

    Chan, David W.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han; Chung, Kevin K. H.


    Comparing the analyses based on the data of 1,235 Chinese children referred for government services and subsequently diagnosed as children with dyslexia in Hong Kong and those of 690 Chinese children in the sample for the normative study of the Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing, we explored the reading-writing…

  20. Transition of special needs children from kindergarten to primary school


    Purkat, Maja


    In my master's thesis, I dealt with the issue of transition of special needs children from kindergarten to school. First, I provided a general description of the term transition, and then I focused more on the period when children first enter school. I described two dominant approaches to transition of children when starting schoolschool readiness and transition in accordance with the ecological model. I showed why this transition to school may represent an obstacle, what may hinder the pr...

  1. Communicating Astronomy to School Children Through Art (United States)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Collado, M. G.


    Artistic activities permeate our culture and our education, mainly because they speak of our most precious and intimate feelings, hopes, fears and sensations. Art constitutes, therefore, a universal language that can communicate and inspire through time and space, addressed to anybody with any kind of background. The power of inspiration of art is a wonderful way to excite children's imagination while communicating astronomical concepts. We present an example of communicating astronomy through different kinds of art pieces to school children. Also, children artworks are very useful to understand many of their conceptions and misconceptions about astronomical concepts.

  2. Classifying Chinese children with dyslexia by dual-route and triangle models of Chinese reading. (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming


    This present study focuses on classifying developmental dyslexia by combining two famous models, the dual-route model and the triangle model of Chinese reading, re-examining validity of the subtypes, and observing the error types of word recognition for each subtype. Sixty-sixth graders with dyslexia in Chinese and 45 sixth graders who were matched by age and IQ with the dyslexic group were involved in the present study. Twelve (20%) sixth graders from the dyslexic group were classified as having phonological dyslexia, 11 (18.3%) were classified as surface dyslexia, 12 (20%) were classified as deep dyslexia, and five (8.3%) of them were classified as displaying more than one kind of deficit. Besides, still more than half (31; 51.7%) of the dyslexic group did not belong to any subtypes here. These subtypes had a good validity based on comparison of their phonological awareness, orthography, and semantics. Finally, for their error types of word recognition, both children with multiple-deficit dyslexia and children with non-subtype dyslexia showed a proportional pattern of six kinds of errors. Children with phonological dyslexia showed more phonetic errors and analogy errors, children with surface dyslexia showed more visual errors and analogy errors, and children with deep dyslexia showed more semantic errors and selective errors.

  3. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children. (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F


    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.

  4. Children's School Placement in Germany: Does Kindergarten Attendance Matter? (United States)

    Spiess, C. Katharina; Buchel, Felix; Wagner, Gert G.


    Examined the relationship between kindergarten attendance and seventh-grade school placement of children in West Germany, differentiating associations for children of citizens from those of immigrants' children. Found a significant relationship between kindergarten attendance and later school placement for children in immigrant households but not…

  5. Perceptions of Elementary School Children's Parents Regarding Sexuality Education (United States)

    Fisher, Christine M.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Glassman, Tavis


    This study examined the preferences of parents of elementary school-aged children regarding when sexuality topics should be discussed in school and at home. The survey was mailed to a national random sample of parents of elementary school age children. Overall, 92% of parents believed that sexuality education should be taught in schools.…

  6. Building Bridges in a Third Space: A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Teaching Chinese in American Chinese Schools (United States)

    Weng, Xuan; Lin, Jing


    This study explores the lived experiences of Chinese teachers in American Chinese Schools. Max van Manen's methodology for hermeneutic phenomenological research provides a framework for the study, and the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, and Derrida guide the textual interpretations. Pedagogical voices of Aoki, Pinar, and Greene,…

  7. Children, Schools and Hallowe'en (United States)

    Plater, Mark


    This article explores the attitudes and experiences of key stage one and two children concerning the British autumn festival of Hallowe'en, and then compares the results with data on the attitudes and practices of British primary schools and their teachers towards the festival, showing that there is a discordance between the two. After outlining…

  8. Children Diagnosed with Cancer: Returning to School (United States)

    ... Cancer: Late Effects of Cancer Treatment . How your child’s cancer may affect schoolwork Most children adjust well to ... what to say when others ask about the cancer. Talk with your child about going back to school and about being ...

  9. Children's Need to Know: Curiosity in Schools (United States)

    Engel, Susan


    In this essay, Susan Engel argues that curiosity is both intrinsic to children's development and unfolds through social interactions. Thus, it should be cultivated in schools, even though it is often almost completely absent from classrooms. Calling on well-established research and more recent studies, Engel argues that interactions between…

  10. Families with school-age children. (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell


    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanika DIKIC


    Full Text Available The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation, the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.

  12. A Special Chinese Reading Acceleration Training Paradigm: To Enhance the Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Chinese Children with Reading Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai


    Full Text Available According to a number of studies, use of a Reading Acceleration Program as reading intervention training has been demonstrated to improve reading speed and comprehension level effectively in most languages and countries. The objective of the current study was to provide further evidence of the effectiveness of a Reading Acceleration Program for Chinese children with reading disabilities using a distinctive Chinese reading acceleration training paradigm. The reading acceleration training paradigm is divided into a non-accelerated reading paradigm, a Character-accelerated reading paradigm and a Words-accelerated reading paradigm. The results of training Chinese children with reading disabilities indicate that the acceleration reading paradigm applies to children with Chinese-reading disabilities. In addition, compared with other reading acceleration paradigms, Words- accelerated reading training is more effective in helping children with reading disabilities read at a high speed while maintaining superior comprehension levels.

  13. Habitual Snoring in school-aged children: environmental and biological predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shenghu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitual snoring, a prominent symptom of sleep-disordered breathing, is an important indicator for a number of health problems in children. Compared to adults, large epidemiological studies on childhood habitual snoring and associated predisposing factors are extremely scarce. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of habitual snoring among Chinese school-aged children. Methods A random sample of 20,152 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted in eight cities of China. Parent-administrated questionnaires were used to collect information on children's snoring frequency and the possible correlates. Results The prevalence of habitual snoring was 12.0% (14.5% for boys vs. 9.5% for girls in our sampled children. Following factors were associated with an increased risk for habitual snoring: lower family income (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, lower father's education (OR = 1.38 and 1.14 for middle school or under and high school of educational level, respectively, breastfeeding duration Conclusion The prevalence of habitual snoring in Chinese children was similar to that observed in other countries. The potential predisposing factors covered socioeconomic characteristics, environmental exposures, chronic health problems, and family susceptibility. Compared to socioeconomic status and family susceptibility, environmental exposures and chronic health problems had greater impact, indicating childhood habitual snoring could be partly prevented by health promotion and environmental intervention.

  14. Evaluating Physical and Perceptual Responses to Exergames in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. C. Lau


    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether exergames could help children reach the recommendations for PA and cardiorespiratory fitness regarding exercise intensity. Differences in perceived physical exertion, EE, VO2, and HR between normal weight (NW and overweight (OW children participating in exergames were also examined. Methods: Twenty-one children (age: 10.45 ± 0.88 were assessed for EE, VO2 and HR during rest, in a maximal treadmill test, and while playing different exergames. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE (category range: 0 to 10 were also measured during exergaming. Three types of exergames were examined: running, table tennis, and dancing. These games were either performed on a Chinese game console, I-Dong, or another well-developed Western game console (Sony PlayStation 3 or Nintendo Wii. Results: Exergaming resulted in EE (kcal/min from 2.05–5.14, VO2 (mL/kg/min from 9.98–25.54, and HR (beats per minute from 98.05–149.66. Children reported RPE ranging from 1.29 to 5.29. The Chinese exergame, I-Dong Running, was the only game in which children reached a moderate intensity and met the recommended minimum VO2reserve (50% for cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion: Exergames could provide alternative opportunities to enhance children’s physical activity. They could be used as light-to-moderate PA, and with exergames, children can even reach the recommended intensity for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness.

  15. Impact on the risk of obesity due to interactions between fat mass- and obesity-associated gene rs9939609 variants and behavioral factors, in the Chinese school-aged children%体脂和肥胖相关基因多态性与生活行为因素交互作用对学龄儿童肥胖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席波; 张美仙; 沈玥; 赵小元; 王兴宇; 米杰


    目的 探讨体脂和肥胖相关基因(FTO)多态性与生活行为因素的交互作用对学龄儿童肥胖的影响.方法 从"北京市儿童青少年代谢综合征(BCAMS)研究"中选取6~18岁学龄儿童3503名,分为肥胖组(1229名)和非肥胖组(2274名).进行问卷调查、静脉采血和基因型检测.结果 采用因子分析方法,共提取蛋白类食物、果蔬、烟酒、静态生活方式和业余体育活动5个公因子.logistic回归分析显示,以FTO基因与蛋白类食物交互作用为例,当两因素共同存在时,其中归因于交互作用的危险度占19.16%.该位点多态性与果蔬、静态生活方式和业余体育活动的交互作用归因百分比则依次为5.97%、19.62%和12.43%;该位点与烟酒可能不存在交互作用.结论 在中国学龄儿童中,蛋白类食物、果蔬、静态生活方式和业余体育活动等生活行为因素可能修饰FTO基因与肥胖的关系.但仍需要大规模、前瞻性的干预性研究,验证FTO基因与环境因素的交互作用对儿童肥胖的真实影响.%Objective To investigate how the interactions between fat mass- and obesityassociated (FTO) gene rs9939609 variants and daily-life related behavioral factors would influence the risk of obesity among the Chinese school-aged children. Methods 3503 school-aged children were selected from the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) Study, and divided into obese children (n=1229) and non-obese children (n=2274). Venipuncture blood test,genotyping and questionnaire were performed. Results Five common factors including protein foods, tobacco & alcohol, vegetables & fruits, sedentary behavior and physical exercise in spare time were extracted with factor analysis methodology. Data from logistic regression analysis showed that taking the interaction of rs9939609 variant with protein foods as an example, the risk of interaction accounted for 19.16% when both factors existing simultaneously. Similarly

  16. What Should American-Born Chinese Children Learn? (United States)

    Chang, Shirley

    This paper discusses the teaching of Chinese to both students with Chinese background and students with non-Chinese background. It is suggested that students with a Chinese background be separated from those without a Chinese background in order not to discourage the latter group from studying Chinese. Chinese background students should be taught…

  17. Chinese Parents' Concerns and Roles in Chinese-Origin Children's Chinese Maintenance and Bilingual Development--Taking British Chinese Children as an example%中国父母在华裔儿童汉语保存与双语发展中的困惑及作用——以英国华裔儿童为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By the influence of globalization, how to help Chinese-origin children's Chinese maintenance and bilingual development has become a great concern for overseas Chinese communities, in particular for Chi-nese parents. Taking Chinese-origin children in Britain as an example, Chinese parents can play social-cul-tural, linguistic and cognitive roles. In terms of social-cultural role, parents should create harmonious fam-ily atmosphere, and communicate with local British schools actively, on the basis of enhancing Chinese-ori-gin children's identification with Chinese language and cu take consistent and lively strategies, and help deve children to firmly develop gual development. vocabulary teaching strategies with e. In terms of linguistic role, parents should local schools, "phonetics before characters" lop children's inner grammar. In terms of cognitive role, parent should guide one language and then the other, and finally reach the target of balanced bilin-gual development.%在全球化格局的影响下,如何帮助海外华裔儿童实现汉语保存与双语发展已成为海外华人群体,尤其是中国父母最为关注的话题之一。以英国华裔儿童为例,父母在儿童汉语保存与双语发展过程中可以在社会文化、语言知识和认知发展方面起到重要作用。在社会文化方面,父母应在增强子女对中国和汉语认同感的基础上,创建和谐的家庭氛围,增强与英国当地学校之间的沟通。在语言知识方面,父母应采用与英国学校相一致的生动的词汇教学策略,“先语后文”的语音学习策略,同时帮助子女构建内部语法。在认知发展方面,父母应引导子女在良好发展好一种语言的基础上,发展第二语言,实现英汉双语平衡发展。

  18. The Provision of Mandarin Chinese in the UK Secondary Schools: What's in the Way? (United States)

    Ping, Wang


    More and more British secondary schools start to offer Mandarin Chinese and some have already implemented it into the school timetable. However, the provision of Mandarin Chinese still faces many problems, which are discussed in this article from five perspectives based on the data collected.

  19. Adoption of Blogging by a Chinese Language Composition Class in a Vocational High School in Taiwan (United States)

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Wu, Shi-Chiao; Shih, Ru-Chu; Tseng, Kuo-Hung


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of adopting blogging upon Chinese language composition instruction in a vocational high school in Taiwan. The researchers developed a model that utilises blogging in Chinese language composition instruction. Forty randomly selected students from a public vocational high school served as the…

  20. Nocturnal enuresis among primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohamed Aljefri


    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and personal and family risk factors for nocturnal enuresis (NE among primary school children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered, three-part structured questionnaire involving 832 school children aged 6 - 15 years between 2007 and 2008. We assessed participants′ socio-demographic factors, family characteristics and factors related to the presence of NE. The mean age of the children was 11.5 (±2.7 years. The overall prevalence of NE was 28.6%, with a predominance of girls, and the prevalence decreased with increasing age (P 0.002 and a higher number of siblings (P = 0.01. Our findings reveal a high prevalence of NE among children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, with a higher prevalence in girls than in boys compared with the other studies. Sleep pattern, stressful life events, family history of NE, large family size and more children in the household may act as a risk factor for NE.

  1. Study of hearing screening for rural school children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolu Li; Xingkuan Bu; Carlie Driscoll


    Objective: To develop an appropriate mass screening system to evaluate hearing loss for primary school children, especially in rural areas. Methods: In Jiangsu Province, at a rural primary school-Longdu Primary School, 317 of 479 rural students (from Grade 1 to Grade 6, over 50 students for each grade) were screened by, using the Chinese Hearing Questionnaire for School Children (CHQS). Two weeks later, they accepted transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) test. At the same time, all participants were given a 'gold standard' audiological assessment that comprised of otoscopy, pure tone, and tympanometry. After eight weeks, 103 out of the 317 students accepted the second TEOAEs and 'gold standard' test to confirm the results. Results: There was no statistical difference in the results of two 'gold standard' test (χ2 = 0.14, 0.5 < P < 0.75). Compared with the 'gold standard' results, the hit rate, sensitivity, specificity of the CHQS was 57% ± 2.78%, 61% ± 10.18%, 57%± 2.89% respectively(α = 0.43, β = 0.39). Youden Index J, LR+, LR-, PV+ and PV- was 0.18 ± 0.11, 1.42, 0.68, 0.10, 0.95(Az < 0.54, EF = 0.75-0.95). While a higher system accuracy was obtained by TEOAEs [HR = 97 ± 0.71%, Sen = 69 ± 7.8%,Spe = 98 ± 0.52%(α = 0.02, β = 0.31), Youden Index J = 0.67 ± 0.08, LR+ = 34.5, LR- = 0.32, PV+ = 0.71, PV- = 0.99(Az = 0.85, EF = 0.97)]. Conclusion: TEOAEs got a high efficiency and specificity values with reasonable sensitivity. However,CHQS needs substantial modifications to improve its sensitivity in evaluating hearing loss.

  2. Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Relationships between Mild and Severe Corporal Punishment and Children's Internalizing Problem Behavior in a Chinese Sample (United States)

    Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang


    The study aimed to investigate the sex differences in the reciprocal relations between parental corporal punishment and child internalizing problem behavior in China. Four hundred fifty-four Chinese elementary school-age children completed measures of their parental corporal punishment toward them and their own internalizing problem behavior at…

  3. Report on childhood obesity in China (5) Body weight, body dissatisfaction, and depression symptoms of Chinese children aged 9-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.P.; Ma, G.S.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.Q.; Cui, Z.H.; Wang, D.; Kok, F.J.


    To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. METHODS: The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n = 3886, aged 9 or 10 years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the studen

  4. Maternal Parenting Styles, School Involvement, and Children's School Achievement and Conduct in Singapore (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Yeo, Kim Lian


    This study examined the roles of children's perceptions of maternal parenting styles (warmth, psychological control, and behavioral control) and maternal involvement in school-focused parenting practices (home-based involvement, home-school conferencing, and school-based involvement) predicting children's school achievement and conduct in…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU


    Full Text Available The right to education is a fundamental right that should not be and can not be denied to any child regardless of his condition of normality or deviation from it. The historic route of educational policies regarding the children with disabilities experienced a positive evolution, from denying the possibility of attending a mainstream school, to current policies of integration and inclusion based on the idea of equal opportunities The rejection of what is considered atypical, unknown, strange, unusual, is the result of perpetuating stereotypes, prejudices regarding the disability, constituting signs of less advanced societies. Is the duty of society to accept children / people with disabilities as part of the reality that surrounds us, and try by all means not to turn a disable child into one normal child, but to normalize the conditions of his life, to give him the possibility to live the same social and school experiences that live any other typically child.

  6. Interactive Effects between Maternal Parenting and Negative Emotionality on Social Functioning among Very Young Chinese Children (United States)

    Ren, Lixin; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Ning; Ng, Mei Lee


    Research Findings: This study examined how child negative emotionality interacted with mothers' self-reported parenting in predicting different aspects of social functioning among very young Chinese children. A total of 109 Chinese nursery children in Hong Kong participated with their parents. Maternal supportive and aversive parenting practices…

  7. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children. (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  8. School Social Work with Grieving Children in the Twin Cities (United States)

    Quinn-Lee, Lisa


    A review of the literature reveals few articles that deal with social work with grieving children in the public school setting. The purpose of this research is to describe and analyze the services that school social workers provide to grieving children. Grieving children are defined as those who have experienced loss through death of someone…

  9. School Readiness and Children's Developmental Status. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas; And Others

    In order to provide data to help schools respond to the diversity in the backgrounds and educational needs of children entering school, a U.S. Department of Education study asked parents of 3- to 5-year-old children who had not yet started kindergarten about their children's accomplishments that indicated emerging literacy and numeracy skills and…

  10. Educational Specifications for Hope School for Exceptional Children and Youth. (United States)

    Jackson County Public Schools, Marianna, FL.

    A presentation of the Hope School's physical plant and program specifications is introduced with a listing of the specifications committee, a history of the school, the needs of the children served, and a philosophy of teaching mentally handicapped children. Areas discussed are school-wide specifications, the administrative complex, the diagnostic…

  11. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children. (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao


    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  12. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

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    İsmail Özanli


    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  13. The Role of Home and School Factors in Predicting English Vocabulary among Bilingual Kindergarten Children in Singapore (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin


    Research in monolingual populations indicate that vocabulary knowledge is essential to reading achievement, but how vocabulary develops in bilingual children has been understudied. The current study investigated the role of home and school factors in predicting English vocabulary among 284 bilingual kindergartners (168 Chinese, 65 Malay, 51…

  14. Work Ethic, Motivation, and Parental Influences in Chinese and North American Children Learning to Play the Piano (United States)

    Comeau, Gilles; Huta, Veronika; Liu, YiFei


    This study compared 50 Chinese and 100 North American Caucasian children aged 6 to 17 who were learning piano, in terms of their work ethic, motivation, and parental influences. Compared to North American Caucasians, Chinese children and parents believed more strongly that musical ability requires hard work, and Chinese children were more…

  15. Parental Involvement and Children's Readiness for School in China (United States)

    Lau, Eva Y. H.; Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala


    Background: The remarkable academic advancement of Asian students in cross-national studies has been attributed to numerous factors, including the value placed on education by Chinese parents. However, there is a dearth of research on how exactly Chinese parents are involved in children's early learning. Purpose: This study has two major research…

  16. Disease-modifying therapies in Chinese children with multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Yang, Fen; Huang, D Hui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Wei Ping


    Limited data are available about the use of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in children with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to present our experience using DMTs in Chinese children with MS and provide additional evidence to consider treating these patients with cyclophosphamide. A retrospective chart review was conducted and data were obtained from 25 children with MS. Only three (12%) of these patients received and responded well to first-line interferon β-1b therapy, while 10 (40%) chose cyclophosphamide and 12 (48%) refused to use DMTs. For the 10 patients being treated with cyclophosphamide, the median annualized relapse rate decreased from 3.0 to 1.0, and the median score on the Expanded Disability Status Scale decreased from 3.5 to 2.0. After 12 months of treatment, no gadolinium-enhancing lesions were reported in seven of the 10 patients. The use of DMTs plays an important role in the treatment of children with MS. If first-line therapies fail, cyclophosphamide may be a good option.

  17. Health lifestyles of pre-school children in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Povlsen, Lene; Ringsberg, Karin C


    Holistic understanding of health is one of the key principles of health promotion indicating that the health status of individuals and populations is determined by a variety of environmental, economic, social and personal factors. Traditionally, research focus has been on school-aged children...... and school-based interventions and less on pre-school children and their families' engagement in promoting health in everyday life. The aim of the present study was to explore factors that parents of pre-school children in the Nordic countries experienced as influencing health lifestyles in their children......'s everyday lives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 parents of pre-school children in the five Nordic countries. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The parents identified themselves as the primary shapers of their children's lifestyles and described influencing factors...

  18. Chinese engineering students' cross-cultural adaptation in graduate school (United States)

    Jiang, Xinquan

    This study explores cross-cultural adaptation experience of Chinese engineering students in the U.S. I interact with 10 Chinese doctoral students in engineering from a public research university through in-depth interviews to describe (1) their perceptions of and responses to key challenges they encountered in graduate school, (2) their perspectives on the challenges that stem from cross-cultural differences, and (3) their conceptualization of cross-cultural adaptation in the context of graduate school. My findings reveal that the major challenges participants encounter during graduate school are academic issues related to cultural differences and difficulties of crossing cultural boundaries and integrating into the university community. These challenges include finding motivation for doctoral study, becoming an independent learner, building a close relationship with faculty, interacting and forming relationships with American people, and gaining social recognition and support. The engineering students in this study believe they are less successful in their social integration than they are in accomplishing academic goals, mainly because of their preoccupation with academics, language barriers and cultural differences. The presence of a large Chinese student community on campus has provided a sense of community and social support for these students, but it also contributes to diminishing their willingness and opportunities to interact with people of different cultural backgrounds. Depending on their needs and purposes, they have different insights into the meaning of cross-cultural adaptation and therefore, and choose different paths to establish themselves in a new environment. Overall, they agree that cross-cultural adaptation involves a process of re-establishing themselves in new academic, social, and cultural communities, and adaptation is necessary for their personal and professional advancement in the U.S. They also acknowledge that encountering and adjusting



    Basanta Kumar; Saubhagya Kumar; Shakthipriya; Anugya Aparajita; Soumya


    ABSTRACT: AIM: To assess the hygiene practices among rural school children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross - sectional study was conducted at Government higher secondary school in rural ar ea of Puducherry. METHODS AND MATERIAL : Around 214 children studying in standard 6 th to 8 th were randomly selected for the study during June to August 2011. The study was explained to the school children and their assent was taken before the study. They an...

  20. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Chan, Yu.Lung [Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Au, Kit Sum Agnes [James Cook University, Department of Psychology, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Yeung, Ka Wai David; Kwan, Ting Fai; To, Cho Yee


    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  1. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and their relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese children. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanna; Cai, Li; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Guo, Li; Jin, Yu; Ma, Yinghua; Chen, Yajun


    The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Chinese children. A total of 234 Chinese schoolchildren aged 8-11 years in Guangdong participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed via a 3-day dietary record. Seven established cardiovascular indicators were analyzed in this study: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Higher dietary GI was significantly associated with higher TG levels (P = 0.037) and lower HDL-C levels (P = 0.005) after adjusting for age, sex, nutritional intake, physical activity, and body mass index z score. LDL-C was found to differ across tertiles of dietary GL. The middle tertile tended to show the highest level of LDL-C. TC, FPG, and blood pressure were independent of both dietary GI and GL. Our findings suggest that higher dietary GI is differentially associated with some CVD risk factors, including lower HDL-C and higher TG, in school-aged children from south China.

  2. Development of reading-related skills in Chinese and English among Hong Kong Chinese children with and without dyslexia. (United States)

    Zhou, Yanling; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Law, Ada Bui-Yan; Li, Tong; Cheung, Amelie Cho-Yi; Wong, Anita M-Y; Shu, Hua


    This 2-year longitudinal study sought to identify a developmental pattern of Chinese and English reading skills in children with and without dyslexia from 6 to 8years of age. Three groups of 15 children each-those with dyslexia, age-matched (AM) controls, and reading-matched (RM) controls-participated. Dyslexia was diagnosed at 8years of age. All children were tested on phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), morphological awareness, word reading, and vocabulary knowledge in both Chinese and English and also speed of processing skill. AM controls outperformed the group with dyslexia on all measures except for phonological awareness, English word reading, and vocabulary. However, those with dyslexia and AM controls developed at a similar rate across all reading-related skills from 6 to 8years of age. Compared with the RM controls, the group with dyslexia scored higher in phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge in both Chinese and English and also in English word reading but scored similarly in RAN. Children with dyslexia, thus, manifested clear difficulties in Chinese vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, and RAN as well as general speed of processing, representing a developmental lag in cognitive skills. Among these, RAN deficits are likely to be the most severe deficits in Chinese children with dyslexia.

  3. School Personnel Responses to Children Exposed to Violence (United States)

    Kenemore, Thomas; Lynch, John; Mann, Kimberly; Steinhaus, Patricia; Thompson, Theodore


    Authors explored the experiences of school personnel in their responses to children's exposure to violence. Thirty-one school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school social workers, and psychologists, were interviewed to obtain data on their experiences related to violence exposure in their schools and the surrounding…

  4. "Entre Familia": Immigrant Parents' Strategies for Involvement in Children's Schooling (United States)

    Poza, Luis; Brooks, Maneka Deanna; Valdés, Guadalupe


    Teachers and administrators in schools with large, working-class Latino populations often complain of parents' indifference or lack of involvement in children's schooling because of their low visibility at school events and relatively little face-to-face communication with teachers and school administration. In a series of semi-structured…

  5. Meta-analysis of fluid intelligence tests of children from the Chinese mainland with learning difficulties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differences in fluid intelligence tests between normal children and children with learning difficulties in China. METHOD: PubMed, MD Consult, and other Chinese Journal Database were searched from their establishment to November 2012. After finding comparative studies of Raven measurements of normal children and children with learning difficulties, full Intelligent Quotation (FIQ values and the original values of the sub-measurement were extracted. The corresponding effect model was selected based on the results of heterogeneity and parallel sub-group analysis was performed. RESULTS: Twelve documents were included in the meta-analysis, and the studies were all performed in mainland of China. Among these, two studies were performed at child health clinics, the other ten sites were schools and control children were schoolmates or classmates. FIQ was evaluated using a random effects model. WMD was -13.18 (95% CI: -16.50- -9.85. Children with learning difficulties showed significantly lower FIQ scores than controls (P<0.00001; Type of learning difficulty and gender differences were evaluated using a fixed-effects model (I² = 0%. The sites and purposes of the studies evaluated here were taken into account, but the reasons of heterogeneity could not be eliminated; The sum IQ of all the subgroups showed considerable heterogeneity (I² = 76.5%. The sub-measurement score of document A showed moderate heterogeneity among all documents, and AB, B, and E showed considerable heterogeneity, which was used in a random effect model. Individuals with learning difficulties showed heterogeneity as well. There was a moderate delay in the first three items (-0.5 to -0.9, and a much more pronounced delay in the latter three items (-1.4 to -1.6. CONCLUSION: In the Chinese mainland, the level of fluid intelligence of children with learning difficulties was lower than that of normal children. Delayed development in sub-items of C, D

  6. Elementary school children's science learning from school field trips (United States)

    Glick, Marilyn Petty

    This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.

  7. Do You See What I See? School Perspectives of Deaf Children, Hearing Children and Their Parents (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Bull, Rebecca; Sapere, Patricia; Nordmann, Emily; Skene, Wendy; Lukomski, Jennifer; Lumsden, Sarah


    Perspectives on academic and social aspects of children's school experiences were obtained from deaf and hearing children and their (deaf or hearing) parents. Possible differences between (1) the views of children and their parents and (2) those of hearing children and their parents compared to deaf children and their parents were of particular…

  8. School lunch program for health promotion among children in Japan. (United States)

    Tanaka, Nobuko; Miyoshi, Miki


    In Japan, the present school lunch program has been implemented under the "School Lunch Act" enacted in 1954. The main purpose of the school lunch program is to promote healthy development of the minds and bodies of school children. Later, "The School Lunch Act" was revised in 2008 and its aim was changed to "promoting Shokuiku". As of May 2009, approximately 10 million school children participate in the school lunch program. This program itself is an educational activity. School children are responsible for serving lunch and clearing the dishes. They could also learn proper manners, by having meals together with classmates. Furthermore, understanding of balanced diet and food culture can be enhanced through learning the menu of each meal. Recently, as eating disorders and obesity increase among adults and school children, there is rising concern on development of lifestyle-related diseases. Under this circumstance, the Basic Law on Shokuiku was enacted in 2005. Besides, in order to enhance Shokuiku to school children, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology established the Diet and Nutrition Teacher System in April 2007. It is reported that, in those schools with Diet and Nutrition Teachers, a positive impact has been observed in terms of awareness and interest in diet among teachers and guardians. It is also reported that proportion of children skipping breakfast has decreased, and quality of life has been improved. In this way, the Japanese school lunch program system is essential for fostering healthy mind and bodies for the next generation.

  9. Worry, General Self-Efficacy and School Achievement: An Exploratory Study with Chinese Adolescents (United States)

    Tang, Natalia Yuen Yi; Westwood, Peter


    This study identified issues in school--and in life outside school--that caused significant worry for 120 Chinese adolescents (72 males, 48 females) attending a secondary school in Hong Kong. The study explored relationships existing among 3 variables comprising degree of worry, students' general self-efficacy, and their academic achievement.…

  10. Space Science in Chinese Schools: Solar Eclipse 22nd July 2009 (United States)

    Baruch, John; Huang, Qian; ShongYi, Liu; Li, Li Su; Machell, James; Marley, Scott; Pickwick, Alan; Vlastuin, Marcel; Waley, Vlad; Zhang, Yie Niu


    In China, "Space Science" and "Our Place in the Universe" form part of the geography syllabus. Such cultural challenges are part of the everyday intellectual gymnastics necessary to sustain European-Chinese school collaborations. Belle Vue Girls' School in Bradford has an ongoing collaboration with Chang Zheng Secondary School (CZMS) in Shanghai…

  11. Effect of School System and Gender on Moral Values and Forgiveness in Pakistani School Children (United States)

    Javed, Anam; Kausar, Rukhsana; Khan, Nashi


    The present research was conducted to compare children studying in private and public schools in Pakistan on forgiveness and moral values. It was hypothesized that the type of school and gender of the child are likely to affect forgiveness and moral values in children. A sample of 100 children with equal number of girls and boys was recruited from…

  12. Starting School at a Disadvantage: The School Readiness of Poor Children. The Social Genome Project (United States)

    Isaacs, Julia B.


    Poor children in the United States start school at a disadvantage in terms of their early skills, behaviors, and health. Fewer than half (48 percent) of poor children are ready for school at age five, compared to 75 percent of children from families with moderate and high income, a 27 percentage point gap. This paper examines the reasons why poor…

  13. Attitudes to Mathematics in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Dowker


    Full Text Available 44 Grade 3 children and 45 Grade 5 children from English primary schools were given the British abilities scales basic number skills subtest, and a Mathematics Attitude and Anxiety Questionnaire, using pictorial rating scales to record their Self-rating for maths, Liking for maths, Anxiety about maths, and Unhappiness about poor performance in mathematics. There were few year group differences in attitudes. Boys rated themselves higher than girls, but did not differ significantly in actual performance. Overall, Anxiety was not related to actual performance, but Self-rating was. This relationship between Self-rating and actual performance seemed to develop between Grade 3 and Grade 5. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. Bullying among school children: a case report. (United States)

    Benčić, Miro


    The case study shows an example of peer violence, a physical attack on a high school student. The attacker was a child his own age attending the same school. Immediately after the attack the victim visited his chosen family doctor accompanying by mother. After interviewing in calm and safe environment and physical examination he was referred to the hospital emergency, because of evident trauma. During the follow up, it was obvious that the patient is interested in talking about the event but is uncomfortable to do so in front of his mother. Having obtained the mother's permission the conversation was carried out alone and the patient revealed all the details regarding the assault as well as his own feelings. The case study contains a description of the incident, the basic information regarding types of abuse amongst children, information on how to approach a victim as well as the obligation to report every type of abuse.

  15. Dietary levels for Tri-City elementary school children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J.K.; Honstead, J.F.


    This program investigates dietary pathways affecting school-age children. Primarily elementary school children are approached with this study, including ages 6 through 12. A much smaller number of children aged 13 and 14 have also been contacted. The research includes measurements of the body burdens of radioactive materials in children and a study of the children's diets. This report presents a partial compilation of the dietary levels obtained for children of different ages. These data are tabulated here for reference purposes. 3 refs., 13 tabs.

  16. Progression of Chinese Students' Creative Imagination from Elementary Through High School (United States)

    Ren, Fujun; Li, Xiuju; Zhang, Huiliang; Wang, Lihui


    For almost a century, researchers have studied creative imagination, most typically that of children. This article reports on a study of the development of creative imagination of Chinese youths and its relation to the educational environment. Data consisted of 4,162 students from grades 4 through 12. Findings showed that students' creative imagination increased as the grade in school increased from grades 4 through 11, but decreased slightly at grade 12. Students' creative imagination was lower in elementary school than that in middle school. The pace of development was also different in different stages. In different grades, youths used different ways to express their imagination. Students of 'excellent' academic performance had the highest creative imagination, followed by students of 'fairly good', 'medium' and 'poor' academic performance. Student-centred teaching methods were associated with higher creative imagination. Students whose teachers had a more supportive attitude showed better creative imagination. Finally, taking part in science-related competitions and frequently visiting science venues were related to the development of students' creative imagination. Some implications and recommendations for development of students' creative imagination are also proposed.

  17. Children of the "Danchi": A Japanese Primary School for Newcomers (United States)

    Gordon, June A.


    Practices and policies of Japanese schooling for immigrant and marginalised students are examined through the lens of a primary school which serves one of the largest foreign student populations in Japan. Student families include Southeast Asian refugees, South American immigrants of Japanese descent, recent and longstanding Chinese and Koreans,…

  18. The Effect of Teachers' Emotions on Chinese Junior English Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The study intends to investigate the effect of teachers' emotions on Chinese Junior English learners. It is very common to see that in many primary schools, Chinese English teachers tend to play games with children, teach songs and the like,leading the Chinese young English beginners to the door to English world with great enthusiasm. But after children enter

  19. Voices of Children, Parents and Teachers: How Children Cope with Stress during School Transition (United States)

    Wong, Mun


    This study explores how children's perceptions of stress factors and coping strategies are constructed over time. Children were interviewed before and after they made the transition from preschool to primary school. This study also explores teachers' and parental strategies in helping children to cope with stress at school. The sample included 53…

  20. Resting heart rate, vagal tone, and reactive and proactive aggression in Chinese children. (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Raine, Adrian; Yu, Lidong; Krieg, Alexander


    Abundant research conducted in Western contexts has shown that biological risk factors such as low resting heart rate (HR) might be related to childhood aggression. However, it was unclear (1) how resting HR, as well as other markers of cardiac functions such as resting vagal tone, may be related to subtypes of aggression such as reactive and proactive aggression, and (2) whether the HR-aggression relation can be replicated in non-Western contexts. Therefore, this study examined the concurrent and prospective relations between resting HR, vagal tone, and Chinese children's reactive and proactive aggression. Participants were 183 children (M age=7.64 years, 91 girls) recruited from an elementary school in Zhenjiang, PRC. Children's resting HR and vagal tone were assessed in the second grade (T1). Teachers rated children's reactive and proactive aggression in the second (T1) and fourth grade (T2). Results showed that lower resting HR at T1 was associated with higher reactive and proactive aggression at T1 and T2, and higher vagal tone was associated with lower HR, which in turn was related to higher reactive and proactive aggression at T1 and T2. Lower vagal tone was directly related to higher reactive but not proactive aggression at T1 and T2, whereas lower HR was related to higher reactive aggression at T2 for children with low or moderate vagal tone but was not for children with high vagal tone. These psychophysiological findings from a non-Western context add additional support for both similarities and differences between reactive and proactive aggression in childhood.

  1. The Impact of Different Graduate Programs on Evaluating Chinese Graduate Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui-juan; WANG Hui-wen


    The traditional evaluation on Chinese graduate schools usually focus on the comprehensivefactors of master's and doctoral programs. This paper attempts to test a hypothesis on the relationshipbetween graduate programs and the ratings of Chinese graduate schools. The educational evaluation historyboth in the U.S. and in China is briefly reviewed and compared. A case study is performed by using part ofthe graduate schools' data from Chinese polytechnic universities in 1994. The comprehensive factors thataffect the graduate schools' scale are examined. The result indicates that different graduate programs doaffect graduate schools' ratings. Two comprehensive factors are obtained from several indicators representingmaster's scale and doctoral scale respectively. The paper also intends to help provide a new evaluationmethod in ranking graduate schools' scale.

  2. Discourse-Level Reading Comprehension in Chinese Children: What Is the Role of Syntactic Awareness? (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; Shu, Hua; Chan, Shingfong; McBride-Chang, Catherine


    This study aimed to investigate the association between syntactic awareness and discourse-level reading comprehension in 136 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children, aged 11, from a longitudinal study, were administered a set of cognitive and linguistic measures. Partial correlational analyses showed that children's performances in two…

  3. The Deficit Profile of Working Memory, Inhibition, and Updating in Chinese Children with Reading Difficulties (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Sha, Tao; Li, Beilei


    This study investigated executive function deficits among Chinese children with reading difficulties. Verbal and numerical measures of working memory, inhibition, updating, and processing speed were examined among children with only reading difficulties (RD), children with reading and mathematics difficulties (RDMD), and typically developing peers…

  4. Academic Performance and Personality Traits of Chinese Children: "Onlies" versus Others. (United States)

    Poston, Dudley L., Jr.; Falbo, Toni


    Using data from a 1987 survey of 1,460 schoolchildren, their parents and teachers, in urban and rural areas of Changchun, China, examines academic and personality outcomes in only children. Finds results similar to Western surveys: only children are more likely to be academically talented. Reveals, however, Chinese rural only children do not score…

  5. Negotiating and Creating Intercultural Relations: Chinese Immigrant Children in New Zealand Early Childhood Education Centres (United States)

    Guo, Karen; Dalli, Carmen


    A multiple-case study investigation of the experiences of eight Chinese immigrant children in New Zealand early childhood centres suggested that the immigrant children's learning experiences in their first centre can be understood as a process of negotiating and creating intercultural relations. The children's use of family cultural tools, such as…

  6. Comments on How to Develop Dewey John’s“Children-centered”Theory in Chinese Pre-education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    John Dewey (1859-1952) is the philosopher and educationalist of American utilitarian. His children-centered theory, standing for the main body of his education revolution, is the general layout of his fighting old education and implementing new education. The idea about the nature of education in John Dewey’s theory, i.e. education is life, education is growing, education is the reconstruction of experience, is the key part of Dewey’s educational theory. The idea of the school education among society, school, and children and the spirit of practice and the childrencentered theory has important implication on the present reform of Chinese fundamental education. The theory, which has strong vitality, goes up and down in our long history.

  7. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Chinese Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing Jing; BARANOWSKI Tom; LAU WC Patrick; CHEN Tzu An; PITKETHLY Amanda Jane


    Objective This study initially validates the Chines eversion of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), which has been identified as a potentially valid instrument to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children among diverse racial groups. Methods The psychometric properties of the PAQ-C with 742 Hong Kong Chinese children were assessed withthe scale's internal consistency, reliability, test-retest reliability, confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) in the overall sample, and multistep invariance tests across gender groups as well as convergent validity with body mass index (BMI), and an accelerometry-based MVPA. Results The Cronbach alpha coefficient (α=0.79),composite reliability value (ρ=0.81), andthe intraclass correlation coefficient(α=0.82)indicate the satisfactory reliability of the PAQ-C score.The CFA indicated data fit a single factor model, suggesting that the PAQ-C measures only one construct, on MVPA over the previous 7 days.The multiple-group CFAs suggested that the factor loadings and variances and covariances of the PAQ-C measurement model were invariant across gender groups. The PAQ-Cscore was related to accelerometry-based MVPA (r=0.33) and inversely related to BMI (r=-0.18). Conclusion This study demonstrates the reliability and validity of the PAQ-Cin Chinese children.

  8. Teaching and Learning Science in American and Chinese High Schools: A Comparative Study. (United States)

    Su, Zhixin; And Others


    Visiting Chinese teacher-educators observed U.S. high school science classrooms and compared U.S. and Chinese science education. Examines teaching as collective versus isolated activity, teacher- versus student-centered classrooms, deductive versus inductive reasoning, theory versus practice, active versus passive learning, book learning versus…

  9. School Adjustment, Social Support, and Mental Health of Mainland Chinese College Students in Hong Kong (United States)

    Chui, Raymond Chi-Fai; Chan, Chi-Keung


    We investigated the relationship of school adjustment and social support with the mental health of mainland Chinese college students studying in Hong Kong. During the spring semester in 2011, 384 mainland Chinese college students across the postsecondary institutions in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire. Results showed that better school…

  10. [Vulnerable children detected by the school health service: the forgotten?]. (United States)

    Noirhomme-Renard, F; Bullens, Q; Malchair, A; Gosset, C


    The current health needs of children largely exceeds the biomedical model. The school doctor occupies a special position where he can take into account the social determinants of health and identify vulneirable children. After the detection by the school health service, the harmonious development of, the child requires that health professionals cooperate in a "preventive network".

  11. Canadian Indian Children Who Had Never Attended School (United States)

    Wilson, Lolita


    This study was designed to compare the performance on selected intelligence tests of a group of Canadian Indian children who had never been to school with the performance of a similar group of children who were attending school regularly. (Author/RK)

  12. Senior Secondary School Children's Understanding of Plant Nutrition (United States)

    Mosothwane, Modise


    The purpose of this study was to assess children's understanding of plant nutrition. The research was done on a sample of secondary school pupils in the age range of 16 to 19 years in two senior secondary schools in Botswana. The sample contained 137 senior secondary pupils all in their final year of study. These children were above average…

  13. Children of Separation and Divorce: School Policies, Procedures, Problems. (United States)

    Drake, Ellen A.


    Approximately 20 percent of school children are members of families experiencing separation or divorce. This article clarifies 10 major issues affecting these children and provides guidelines for school administrators and teachers who must contend with their special needs. (Author/WD)

  14. Creativity, Emotional Intelligence, and School Performance in Children (United States)

    Hansenne, Michel; Legrand, Jessica


    Previous studies have shown that both creativity and emotional intelligence (EI) were related to children school performance. In this study, we investigated the incremental validity of EI over creativity in an elementary school setting. Seventy-three children aged from 9 to 12 years old were recruited to participate in the study. Verbal and…

  15. Relations between School Performance and Depressive Symptoms in Spanish Children (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Gomez, Marta; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.


    Introduction: Despite data showing the relationship between depression and decreased school performance, there is a lack of studies with Spanish children. The objective of this research is to examine school performance as a function of depression and gender. Method: Participants were 658 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years, 49.6% male,…

  16. A tale of two writing systems: double dissociation and metalinguistic transfer between Chinese and English word reading among Hong Kong children. (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine


    This study investigated the rate of school-aged Chinese-English language learners at risk for reading difficulties in either Chinese or English only, or both, among second and fifth graders in Hong Kong. In addition, we examined the metalinguistic skills that distinguished those who were poor in reading Chinese from those who were poor in reading English. The prevalence of poor English readers among children identified to be poor in Chinese word recognition across the five participating schools was approximately 42% at Grade 2 and 57% at Grade 5. Across grades, children who were poor readers of both languages tended to have difficulties in phonological and morphological awareness. Poor readers of English only were found to manifest significantly poorer phonological awareness, compared to those who were poor readers of Chinese only; their average tone awareness score was also lower relative to normally developing controls. Apart from indicating possible dissociations between Chinese first language (L1) word reading and English second language (L2) word reading, these findings suggested that the degree to which different metalinguistic skills are important for reading in different writing systems may depend on the linguistic features of the particular writing system.

  17. Working-memory training improves developmental dyslexia in Chinese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Luo; Jing Wang; Hanrong Wu; Dongmei Zhu; Yu Zhang


    Although plasticity in the neural system underlies working memory, and working memory can be improved by training, there is thus far no evidence that children with developmental dyslexia can were recruited from an elementary school in Wuhan, China. They received working-memory training, including training in visuospatial memory, verbal memory, and central executive tasks. The difficulty of the tasks was adjusted based on the performance of each subject, and the training sessions lasted 40 minutes per day, for 5 weeks. The results showed that working-memory training significantly enhanced performance on the nontrained working memory tasks such as the visuospatial, the verbal domains, and central executive tasks in children with developmental dyslexia. More importantly, the visual rhyming task and reading fluency task were also significantly improved by training. Progress on working memory measures was related to changes in reading skills. These experimental findings indicate that working memory is a pivotal factor in reading development among children with developmental dyslexia, and interventions to improve working memory may help dyslexic children to become more proficient in reading.

  18. Diverse Family Types and Out-of-School Learning Time of Young School-Age Children (United States)

    Ono, Hiromi; Sanders, James


    Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological…

  19. Does a smoking prevention program in elementary schools prepare children for secondary school?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, M.R.; Spruijt, R.; Dijkstra, N.S.; Willemsen, M.C.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.


    A smoking prevention program was developed to prepare children in elementary school for secondary school. This study assessed the effects on smoking in secondary school. Methods: In 2002, 121 schools in The Netherlands were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention gro

  20. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  1. 如何提高小学语文课堂教学效率%On How to Improve the Efficiency of Primary School Chinese Language Classroom Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Primary school Chinese language is the teaching stage starting the formal training of students' language proficiency, and the stage is also the best period of cultivating children's cognition of the Chinese language and understanding of the Chinese cul-ture. Through Chinese language learning, students can not only learn the excellent Chinese literature, but also enrich their history and culture knowledge. Besides, Chinese language learning is al-so the foundation of other subjects. Continuous innovations are made in the teaching means and contents of the current primary school Chinese language teaching, but the efficiency of students' classroom learning is less impressive, affecting the teaching qual-ity. With the aim to comprehensively improve Chinese language teaching quality, this paper researches how to improve the effi-ciency of primary school Chinese language classroom teaching.%小学语文是开始正规培养学生语言能力的教学阶段,在这一阶段是培养学生对汉语的认知和对中国文化的了解的最佳时期。通过语文学习,不仅能够了解中国优秀的文学,还能丰富学生的历史文化知识。此外,语文学习也是其他学科的教学基础。目前我国小学语文教学不断进行教学手段和教学内容的创新,但是学生的课堂学习效率欠佳,影响教学质量。文章将针对小学语文教学如何提高课堂效率进行研究,旨在全面提高语文教学质量。

  2. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children


    Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Jennette P. Moreno; O’Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O; Baranowski, Janice; Woehler, Deborah; Kimbro, Rachel T.; Johnston, Craig A.


    Background Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. Methods This is a secondary analysis of 1651 elementary school children with complete biannual longitudinal data from kindergarten to the beginning of 5th grade. Heights and weights were ...

  3. Children's Knowledge of Ellipsis Constructions in Mandarin Chinese (United States)

    Zhou, Peng


    This study investigated 4-year-old children's knowledge of the structural constraints on ellipsis constructions in Mandarin Chinese, focusing on the structural difference between verb phrase (VP) ellipsis and null object constructions. In Mandarin Chinese, if the antecedent clause of a VP-ellipsis structure contains an adverbial modifier,…

  4. Teaching Receptive Naming of Chinese Characters to Children with Autism by Incorporating Echolalia. (United States)

    Leung, Jin-Pang; Wu, Kit-I


    The facilitative effect of incorporating echolalia on teaching receptive naming of Chinese characters to four Hong Kong children (ages 8-10) with autism was assessed. Results from two experiments indicated echolalia was the active component contributing to the successful acquisition and maintenance of receptive naming of Chinese characters.…

  5. Children Learning Chinese as a Home Language in an English-Dominant Society (United States)

    Law, Sinming


    Many Chinese families face many difficulties in maintaining their heritage language for their children in English-dominant societies. This article first looks at the losses from monolingualism and benefits of bilingualism. Then, it explores the common methods used today in teaching Chinese. We conclude that families and community play an…

  6. The Impact of E-Book Interactivity Design on Children's Chinese Character Acquisition (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Yu; Yang, Hui-Chun


    This study examined the impact of e-book interactivity design on the learning of Chinese characters by fourth graders (10-year-old children). This study was guided by two main questions: (1) Are there any differences in achievements (Chinese character writing, lexical comprehension, and lexical usage) between groups of young learners who read…

  7. Investigating acculturation, diet, and physical activity among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years (United States)

    Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in diet and physical activity. Research to understand the acculturative process early in life is important; however, there is no qualitative research directly with Chinese-American children. This study, currently in progress, a...

  8. Adapting a measure of acculturation for Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years (United States)

    Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in health behaviors and disease risks. Research with Chinese children to understand their acculturative processes early in life is important; however, there is no known instrument to measure acculturation for this population. Thi...

  9. Age and sex-specific relationships between phthalate exposures and obesity in Chinese children at puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zhang

    Full Text Available To examine the age and sex-specific associations of urine levels of six mono-phthalates with body size and fat distribution in Chinese children at puberty.Four hundred and ninety-three school-aged children (247 boys, 246 girls were recruited. Obesity related anthropometric indices were measured and body fat proportion (BF% was calculated. Spot urine samples were collected and phthalate monoesters were detected by an API 2000 electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS. Associations between phthalate exposure and overweight/obesity measures and their trends were examined by multiple linear regression and Logistic regression analyses, respectively.Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolites and monobutyl phthalate (MBP were found to be the most detectable chemicals. In 8-10 years (yrs group, concentrations of MEHP and MBP were significantly higher in girls than those in boys. However, concentrations of all phthalate monoesters, except for MEP and MEHP, in 11-13 yrs boys were significantly higher than those in girls. After adjusting for confounders including puberty onset, urinary concentrations of MBP and sum of low molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (∑LMP were positively associated with boys' obesity in a concentration-effect manner, while concentrations of MEHP, MEHHP and sum of DEHP metabolites (∑MEHP were negatively associated with girls' obesity. Associations between phthalate exposure levels and BMI z-score changes were age- and sex-specific in school-age children.There are age and sex-specific concentration-effect associations between phthalate exposure and fat distribution in Chinese children. Urinary phthalate levels in 11-13 yrs boys were about 30 percent higher than those in girls, and ∑MEHP levels in younger boys (10 yrs. Associations were positive for MBP and ∑LMP with both BMI z-score and fat distribution in boys >10 years of age, and negative for ∑MEHP with fat distribution in girls <10 years of age.

  10. Chinese adolescents' reasoning about democratic and authority-based decision making in peer, family, and school contexts. (United States)

    Helwig, Charles C; Arnold, Mary Louise; Tan, Dingliang; Boyd, Dwight


    This study explored the judgments and reasoning of Chinese adolescents (13-18 years of age) from 3 regions of mainland China (N = 574) regarding procedures for making decisions involving children in peer, family, and school contexts. Participants evaluated 2 democratic decision-making procedures (majority rule and consensus) and decision making by adult authorities for 2 decisions embedded in each social context. Judgments and reasoning about decision-making procedures varied by social context and by the decision under consideration, and evaluations of procedures became more differentiated with increasing age. The findings reveal that concepts of rights, individual autonomy, and democratic norms (majority rule) are salient aspects of Chinese adolescents' social reasoning and are used to evaluate critically existing social practices.

  11. Day/Night Cycle: Mental Models of Primary School Children (United States)

    Chiras, Andreas


    The study investigated the mental models of primary school children related to the day/night cycle. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade children. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data indicated that the majority of the children were classified as having geocentric models. The results also…

  12. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian


    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  13. Elementary School Children's Perception of Helpers and Their Characteristics (United States)

    Bachman, Randall W.


    Data suggest that family members, especially mothers, are primary sources of help for elementary school children who want to discuss problems. This is more true with younger children than with older ones. Moreover, children consider warmth, trust and understanding as the main characteristics of helping persons. (Author/SE)

  14. Passive cigarette smoke exposure in primary school children in Liverpool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Delpisheh; Y. Kelly; B.J. Brabin


    Objective: To assess environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure amongst primary school children. Methods: A descriptive, community-based, cross-sectional study of self-reported parental smoking patterns and children's salivary cotinine concentrations in 245 children aged 5-11 years attending 10 prim

  15. Teaching Young Children How to Sing: One School's Experience (United States)

    Kenney, Susan


    In many schools, classroom teachers are responsible for the music experiences of young children. Children may learn songs, but may not learn "how" to sing. This article outlines simple teaching strategies to help young children develop listening and vocal habits leading to beautiful singing. The article discusses how the kindergarten classes at…

  16. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD (United States)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove


    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  17. Sick Schools 2009: America's Continuing Environmental Health Crisis for Children (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2010


    Everybody knows that healthy school buildings contribute to student learning, reduce health and operating costs, and ultimately, increase school quality and competitiveness. However, 55 million of the nation's children attend public and private K-12 schools where poor air quality, hazardous chemicals and other unhealthy conditions make students…

  18. Diagnostics of children's school readiness in scientific studies abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko V.V.


    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of children's school readiness as it is represented in contemporary studies of foreign scholars. It displays a variety of approaches to estimation of school readiness as well as the ways of measuring the levels of child development as relating to school readiness, namely those of them which are in common practice in education.





    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  20. Can Schools Promote the Health of Children with Asthma? (United States)

    McWhirter, Jenny; McCann, Donna; Coleman, Helen; Calvert, Marguerite; Warner, John


    This report describes the evaluation of a whole-school intervention to improve morbidity and psychosocial well-being in pupils with asthma. In all, 193 children with asthma (7-9 years) from 23 primary/junior schools in the south of England participated. Schools (n = 12) randomly assigned to the intervention group (IV) received a staff asthma…

  1. Determinants of Children's Schooling: The Case of Tigray Region, Ethiopia (United States)

    Abafita, Jemal; Kim, Chang-Soo


    We analyze the determinants of educational outcomes of primary school children in Tigray region of Ethiopia using a survey data gathered from four villages in 2013. Four different measures of schooling were used to examine the impact of household and child-specific factors. First, we examine the determinants of school attendance (ever-attendance,…

  2. Can Future Uncertainty Keep Children Out of School?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    There is little doubt in the literature, that poverty and liquidity constraints can drive children out of school and into child labour in developing countries. But are there other important explanations for low primary school enrolment rates? The child labour and schooling literature often ignore...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper reports a survey on learning strategies employed by Chinese high school students and university students in an attempt to reveal the differences and similarity in learning strategy use. It was found out that, on the average, Chinese university students employed learning strategies more frequently than high school students did. Comparison is made in great detail between the two levels of students on various aspects.Suggestions are provided for Chinese foreign language teachers to give expert guidance in their students' learning strategy use.

  4. Cognitive perspective development of Chinese children's lexicon based on corpus Daddy where are we going

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The study of children language development has been the hot topic of numerous researchers. The thesis attempts to make analysis to Chinese content words of these five star children from constructional approach based on the corpus Daddy where are we going, whose innovation lies in parentage. In this TV, five fathers and their children spend 72 hours in villages personally. Based on the five videos downloaded from the Hunan Satellite official website, and collect more evidences from each child. The evidences mainly include Chinese content words and conversations to analyze the cognitive features of these five children from 4-6-year old.

  5. Wonderland Kids : a visual art workshop for developing creativity in Chinese children


    姚, 璐; 稲蔭, 正彦


    What is creativity? Creativity most immediately associates with the characteristics of novelty and originality. It is an indispensible capacity to most people in today's society. In China, creativity as an important issue has been written in national outline. Are Chinese children creative? According to many researches it can be found that the development of creativity in Chinese children is not so optimistic. Therefore, to develop their creativity, I designed a workshop called Wonderland Kids...

  6. Prevalence of hypertension in overweight and obese children from a large school-based population in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ongoing rise in the prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents is considered to be accompanied with the epidemic of childhood overweight and obesity. In this study, we established a large scale cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China, which presented a new evidence for the correlation of hypertension prevalence with overweight and obesity stages in Chinese children and adolescents. Methods A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during February to December 2009 in Shanghai, China, including total 78,114 children and adolescents. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC and blood pressure (BP were measured. Overweight and obesity were defined according to sex- and age- specific Chinese reference data. Results Both SBP and DBP were very significantly increased in overweight (OW and obese (OB groups. With age and sex controlled, BMI and WC were independently positively correlated with SBP and DBP. The prevalence of high SBP, DBP and hypertension were markedly higher among OW and OB children than normal weight (NW group. Odds ratios (ORs for high SBP, high DBP and high BP were significantly greater in OW and OB children than NW group, and showed a trend increase correlating with obesity stages (all P Conclusions In this study on a large school-based population in Shanghai, China, BMI and WC are positively correlated with SBP and DBP. Being overweight or obese greatly increased the risk of hypertension in Chinese children and adolescents, in which WC is considered as a more sensitive indicator than BMI.

  7. How the Whole Language Approach Using Predictable Strategies Motivates Bilingual Children Learning To Read and Write Chinese as a Second Language. (United States)

    Su, Ya-Chen

    In recent years, the rate of Chinese immigrants to the United States has been increasing. Chinese parents desire that their Chinese-American children learn Chinese as a second language. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects on four American-born Chinese children when the researcher, as an instructor, employed whole language…

  8. Second Language Learning Difficulties in Chinese Children with Dyslexia: What Are the Reading-Related Cognitive Skills that Contribute to English and Chinese Word Reading? (United States)

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han


    This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children--28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls--participated and were administered…

  9. Academic stress in Chinese schools and a proposed preventive intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao


    Full Text Available While American educators fret about the mediocre educational performance of American students in international contests (e.g. the Program for International Student Assessment and wonder why the Chinese education system produces such high-achieving students, educators, journalists, and public officials in China want to know what causes and how to prevent the high levels of academic stress that Chinese students, their families, and their school systems experience. So far, much of the blame for these toxic levels of stress has been directed to the Gaokao, the Chinese national college entrance exam that takes place in June each year. But to date, top-down Chinese educational reforms have been ineffective in reducing the problem. In this article, we build a case for strengthening bottom-up efforts at the school level in China and propose an evidence-based approach for addressing the challenge of academic stress experienced by Chinese students.

  10. Visual perceptual abilities of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children. (United States)

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing


    This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.

  11. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of Weiss Functional Impairment Scale-Parent form for school age children%Weiss功能缺陷量表父母版的信效度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱英; 杜巧新; 曲姗; 王玉凤


    Objective: To test the reliability and validity of Chinese version of the Weiss Functional Impairment Scale-Parent form (WFIRS-P) in China. Methods: Totally 123 outpatients who met the diagnostic criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 240 normal children were recruited in this study. The parents of the subjects completed the WFIRS-P. At the same time, the parents of 39 outpatients comleted the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD RS-IV) and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and doctors who made diagnosis for these 39 outpatients filled in the Global Assessment Function (GAF) to test the criteria validity. One or two weeks later, the parents of 29 outpatients were required to complete the WFIRS-P again to test the test-retest reliability. Results: The test-retest reliability were 0. 61 - 0. 87 and the Cronbach a coefficients were 0. 70 - 0. 92. Subscale scores of WFIRS-P were significantly correlated with scores of ADHD RS-IV (r = 0. 32 - 0. 50, P < 0. 05), BRIEF (r = 0. 23 -0. 71, P < 0. 05) and GAF (r = - 0. 29 - - 0. 59, P < 0. 05). Lisrel Confirmatory factor analysis showed the 5 -subscale model of BRIEF was reasonable (CFI = 0. 97 for control group, 0. 89 for ADHD group, RMSEA < 0. 08). Compared with control group, the ADHD group got significant higher scores in all subscales of WFIRS-P respectively (Ps < 0. 01) . Conclusion: The Chinese version of the Weiss Functional Impairment Scale-Parent form WFIRS-P have adequate reliability and validity.%目的:评价Weiss功能缺陷量表父母版(WFIRS-P)中文版的信效度.方法:选取符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)诊断标准的门诊患者123名及正常儿童240名,同时请病例组中39名儿童父母填写执行功能行为评定量表父母版(BRIEF)和ADHD评定量表-Ⅳ(ADHD RS-Ⅳ),并请进行诊断的医师对这39名患

  12. 新移民与美国华文教育%New Chinese Emigrants and the Education of Chinese in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周聿峨; 张树利


    Since the reform and opening, the new Chinese emigrants from Chinese mainland have increased quickly in the United States. Because of the strong sensibility of their ancestral nation, they attach importance to their children' s Chinese education. But in USA, the texts of all the Chinese language schools are printed with Big 5 (the complicated Chinese characters) and Zhuyin symbols (spelling letters), so, another kind of schools aeccommodated to their children' learning habit has been established. The development of these schools associate with the feature of new Chinese emigration, and they influence each other.

  13. Turkish children's Bender-Gestalt test performance: differences in public and private school children. (United States)

    Ozer, Serap


    The present study was undertaken to provide data on the Bender-Gestalt test for children aged 5 to 11 in Turkey. Although it is well documented that sociocultural factors are important in cognitive evaluations, the effects of type of school and differing educational opportunities provided by these schools on the Bender-Gestalt test have not been previously investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of age, sex, and school type on Bender-Gestalt performance. The test was individually administered to 484 children between the ages of 5 and 11 years. The children were enrolled in either public or private schools. Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System was utilized. The results indicated that older children performed with fewer errors. Girls performed with fewer errors than boys. Finally, as expected, private school children outperformed their public school peers. The results are discussed with respect to the importance of taking into account various educational factors in utilizing commonly used tests.

  14. A cross-cultural study of stress responses and social support between Chinese and Japanese junior high school students.


    鉄, 拳


    This comparative research’s objective is to demonstrate the relation between stress responses and social support in Japanese and Chinese junior high school students. The subjects were 602 Japanese students and 611 Chinese students. As a result, by comparison of the stress reaction, Japan was intentionally high and it was shown by comparison of social support that Chinese one is intentionally high. Lower than the score became a junior high school students of Japanese junior high school student...

  15. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    Background In 2011 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that more than 40 million children under the age of five were overweight and ten per cent of the world’s school aged children are estimated to carry excess body fat. Childhood obesity is associated with a number of immediate...... and youth and plays an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity and related morbidities. Schools are recognized as potentially effective settings for public health initiatives, as they access a large population of children and youth across a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups......-school to 6th grade) on health related outcomes in children. The objectives are: 1.To describe the Svendborg Project and the CHAMPS study-DK (paper I). 2.To evaluate the effect of four extra PE lessons per week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8 to 13 (paper II). 3.To...

  16. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children. (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S


    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  17. Gender Stereotyping and Affective Attitudes towards Science in Chinese Secondary School Students (United States)

    Liu, Mingxin; Hu, Weiping; Jiannong, Shi; Adey, Philip


    This study explores explicit and implicit gender-science stereotypes and affective attitudes towards science in a sample of Chinese secondary school students. The results showed that (1) gender-science stereotyping was more and more apparent as the specialization of science subjects progresses through secondary school, becoming stronger from the…

  18. Education and State Formation Reappraised--Chinese School Identity in Postwar Singapore and Hong Kong (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong


    After World War II the Singapore government, wishing to blend the island's several ethnic communities into a national whole, endeavored to replace Chinese schools, which imparted students with cultural-linguistic traits sharply different from those promoted in other schools. This policy, nevertheless, elicited tough resistance from Singapore's…

  19. Popular Music and School Music Education: Chinese Students' Preferences and Dilemmas in Shanghai, China (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah; Ho, Wai-Chung


    This empirical study investigates Chinese students' popular music preferences in daily life and to what extent and in what ways they prefer learning popular music in school in Shanghai, China. Data were drawn from questionnaires completed by 1,730 secondary students (aged 12-17) and interviews with 60 students from 10 secondary schools, between…

  20. Space Science in Chinese Schools: Solar Eclipse 22nd July 2009 (United States)

    Baruch, John; Huang, Qian; ShongYi, Liu; Li, Li Su; Machell, James; Marley, Scott; Pickwick, Alan; Vlastuin, Marcel; Waley, Vlad; Zhang, Yie Niu


    In China, "Space Science" and "Our Place in the Universe" form part of the geography syllabus. Such cultural challenges are part of the everyday intellectual gymnastics necessary to sustain European-Chinese school collaborations. Belle Vue Girls' School in Bradford has an ongoing collaboration with Chang Zheng Secondary School…

  1. Socialization Objectives of Chinese Primary Schools: Results of a Comparative Textbook Analysis. (United States)

    Straka, Gerald A.; Bos, Wilfried


    A content analysis of selected German translations of six Chinese primary school textbooks, used from 1963 to 1982, assessed the socializing functions of qualification, integration, and identification. Categories involved include professional, moral, cultural, family, school, associations, China as a unified nation, China's achievements, and…

  2. English Language Learning Strategy Use by Chinese Senior High School Students (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping


    Language learning strategies are important factors that affect students' learning. In China, senior high school is an important stage in a person's education. This study examines the English language learning strategy use by Chinese senior high school students by means of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning. The findings reveal that…

  3. Eye-movement study during visual search in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiu-hong; JING Jin; YANG De-sheng; WANG Hui; WANG Qing-xiong; SONG Shan-shan; FAN Fang


    Background Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a disorder in which children with normal intelligence and sensory abilities show learning deficits in reading.Abnormal eye movements have been found in DD.However,eye-movement abnormalities during visual search among Chinese children with DD remain unknown.We aimed to identify the eyemovement characteristics and search efficiency of Chinese children with DD during visual search for targets of different conceptual categories,under same-category conditions.Methods We compared 32 Chinese dyslexic children and 39 non-dyslexic children in visual search tasks,which were assessed using EyeLink Ⅱ High-Speed Eye Tracker (SR Research Ltd.,Canada).Letters,single Chinese characters,digits,Chinese phrases,figures and facial expressions were used as stimuli.Targets were similar to distractors in meaning,phonology and/or shape.Results A main effect of task on visual search scores and all eye-movement parameters were found.Search scores,average saccade amplitude and saccade distance were significantly smaller in the DD group than in the controls.An interaction between group and task was found for pupil diameter.Conclusions Unlike normal readers,children with DD had a reduction in the visual attention span and search accuracy.Besides,children with DD could not increase their mental workload with increase in task difficulty.The conceptual category of the stimulus materials significantly impacts search speed,accuracy and eye-movement parameters.

  4. Analysis of the mismatch between school furniture and children


    Gonçalves, Maria Antónia; Arezes, Pedro


    The characteristics of school furniture are strongly associated with back and neck pain, referred by school-aged children. In Portugal, about 60% of the adolescents involved in a recent study reported having felt back pain at least once in the last three months. The aim of this study was to compare furniture sizes of the 2 types indicated for primary schools, within 9 schools, with the anthropometric characteristics of Portuguese students, in order to ...

  5. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children (United States)

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula


    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Damayanthi


    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Food habit strongly predicts individual nutritional status. It is largely influenced by family food habit and family socioeconomic, partly by nutrition education learning in the school.  Objectives of this study were to analyze elementary school children eating habit and examine whether it relates to family socioeconomic and nutritional status. One hundred elementary school children, and their mother, from one school in urban Bogor were chosen purposively according to SIBERMAS Program criteria (i.e. grade 4th and 5th, morning school, having UKS program and not having canteen. Self administered, structured pre-coded questionnaire were used to collect the data. Nutritional status was assessed using weight and height, and body mass index for age (BAZ and height for age (HAZ were then calculated using AnthroPlus software developed by WHO (2009. School children were 8-11 years old (mean 9.37 + 0.66 years, more girls (54%, and mostly had normal nutritional status using both indexes (72% for BAZ and 95% for HAZ. School children were commonly from middle class as indicated by father education (sarjana and mother (senior high school.  Almost all school children (99% knew breakfast was important and 81% of them ate breakfast. Only 32% school children brought lunch box everyday although 92% stated their habit to bring lunch box to school. Buying snack in school was also common among school children. Generally school children ate rice 3 times a day (2.95 + 0.97 with fish, meat, chicken (2.47 + 1.14, tempe and

  7. School Reintegration for Children and Adolescents with Cancer: The Role of School Psychologists (United States)

    Harris, Mekel S.


    As a result of advancements in medical expertise and technology, children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer now have opportunities to participate in many typical activities, including school. To some extent, school reintegration reflects positive adjustment to their illness. Nevertheless, children and adolescents with cancer may experience…

  8. Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS (United States)

    Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui


    Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (preading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

  9. Family-environmental factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Chinese children: a case-control study.

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    Xianming du Prel Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, affecting an estimated 5 to 12% of school-aged children worldwide. From 15 to 19 million Chinese children suffer from ADHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between family-environmental factors and ADHD in a sample of Chinese children. METHODS: A pair-matched, case-control study was conducted with 161 ADHD children and 161 non-ADHD children of matching age and sex, all from 5-18 years of age. The ADHD subjects and the normal controls were all evaluated via structured diagnostic interviews. We examined the association between family-environmental factors and ADHD using the conditional multiple logistic regression with backward stepwise selection to predict the associated factors of ADHD. RESULTS: Having experienced emotional abuse and being a single child were both significant factors associated with children diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD subjects were more likely to have suffered from emotional abuse (OR = 11.09, 95% CI = 2.15-57.29, P = 0.004 and have been a single child in the family (OR = 6.32, 95% CI = 2.09-19.14, P = 0.001 when compared to normal controls. The results were not modified by other confounding factors. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence that family-environmental factors are associated with ADHD among children in China. These findings, if confirmed by future research, may help to decrease ADHD by increasing the awareness of the effects of childhood emotional abuse.

  10. Effect of Vision Therapy on Accommodation in Myopic Chinese Children

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    Martin Ming-Leung Ma


    Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement to improve accommodative function in myopic children with poor accommodative response. Methods. This was a prospective unmasked pilot study. 14 Chinese myopic children aged 8 to 12 years with at least 1 D of lag of accommodation were enrolled. All subjects received 12 weeks of 60-minute office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement. Primary outcome measure was the change in monocular lag of accommodation from baseline visit to 12-week visit measured by Shinnipon open-field autorefractor. Secondary outcome measures were the changes in accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility. Results. All participants completed the study. The lag of accommodation at baseline visit was 1.29 ± 0.21 D and it was reduced to 0.84 ± 0.19 D at 12-week visit. This difference (−0.46 ± 0.22 D; 95% confidence interval: −0.33 to −0.58 D is statistically significant (p<0.0001. OBAVT also increased the amplitude and facility by 3.66 ± 3.36 D (p=0.0013; 95% confidence interval: 1.72 to 5.60 D and 10.9 ± 4.8 cpm (p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 8.1 to 13.6 cpm, respectively. Conclusion. Standardized 12 weeks of OBAVT with home reinforcement is able to significantly reduce monocular lag of accommodation and increase monocular accommodative amplitude and facility. A randomized clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of vision therapy on myopia progression is warranted.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛琨; 郭红卫; 万文涛; 骆璇; 王文娴


    Objective To investigate the relationship between SNP rsll37101 polymorphism in the LEPR gene and obesity in Chinese children. Method One thousand, six hundred and eighty-two elementary school children in Shanghai, China were selected. Their heights, weights, waist circumferences were measured and bloods samples were collected for DNA genotyping. The associations between SNP rs1137101 and BMI, waist height ratio (WHtR), obesity (OB) prevalence were analyzed by Logistic regression or Chi-square test. Results For LEPR SNP rsl137101, the frequencies of genotypes AA, AG, GG and alleles A, G were 0.012, 0.224, 0.764 and 0.14, 0.86 respectively, in agreement with those expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium(∑X2 =1.301.P>0.05). After additional adjusting age, sex and area of school, overweight (OW) prevalence in AA/AG group was higher than that in GG group (13.1% vs. 9.1%, OR=1.43, 95%CI: 0.97-2.10, P=0.074) and there were more AA/AG carriers in BMI>P50 group than in BMKP50 group (26.3% vs. 21.1%, OR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.01-1.68). Conclusion LEPR SNP rsl137101 polymorphism may be a relavent obesity marker in Chinese children, with alleles A at the sites associated with overweight or higher BMI. [ACTA NUTRIMENTA SINICA, 2012,34(6): 536-539].%目的 探讨瘦素受体基因SNP rs1137101多态分布与儿童肥胖之间的关联.方法 对1682名上海某区小学学龄儿童进行身高、体重、腰围测量,及瘦素受体基因SNP rs1137101多态位点基因型分析,通过非条件Logistic回归、卡方检验等方法分析该基因位点多态分布与体重指数(BMI)、腰围身高比(WHtR)等肥胖相关参数之间的关系.结果 该人群LEPR基因SNP rs1137101多态位点基因型AA、AG及GG频率分别为0.012、0.224、0.764,等位基因A和G的分布频率分别为0.14和0.86,符合Hardy Weinberg遗传平衡定律(∑X2=1.301,P>0.05);调整性别、年龄、学校所在地区后,AA/AG组和GG组中超重率分别为13.1%和9.1%,其OR值为1.43(95

  12. Emotion regulation and depressive symptoms: examining the mediation effects of school connectedness in Chinese late adolescents. (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhua; Zhao, Guoxiang


    This study tested Gross's process model of emotion regulation in a Chinese adolescent sample. It hypothesized that emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) would predict adolescents' perception of school connectedness and depressive symptoms. It also posited that school connectedness may be a possible mediator between emotion regulation and depressive symptoms. Participants were 504 adolescents aged 16-18 from two Chinese public upper secondary schools. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that reappraisal and suppression significantly associated with school connectedness and depressive symptoms, and school connectedness mediated the link between emotion regulation and depressive symptoms, even when the general emotion experiences were controlled. Although boys unexpectedly reported higher level depressive symptoms, the hypothesized model was invariant across gender except for the link between suppression and depressive symptoms. These findings demonstrate that it is meaningful to involve both emotion regulation processes and school connectedness in explaining adolescent depressive symptoms.

  13. Hypothesis: Impregnated school uniforms reduce the incidence of dengue infections in school children. (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, A; Lover, A; Kittayapong, P; Burnham, G


    Dengue infection causes a significant economic, social and medical burden in affected populations in over 100 countries in the tropics and sub-tropics. Current dengue control efforts have generally focused on vector control but have not shown major impact. School-aged children are especially vulnerable to infection, due to sustained human-vector-human transmission in the close proximity environments of schools. Infection in children has a higher rate of complications, including dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndromes, than infections in adults. There is an urgent need for integrated and complementary population-based strategies to protect vulnerable children. We hypothesize that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue in school-aged children. The hypothesis would need to be tested in a community based randomized trial. If proven to be true, insecticide-treated school uniforms would be a cost-effective and scalable community based strategy to reduce the burden of dengue in children.

  14. Caries experience among Chinese-American children in Manhattan Chinatown. (United States)

    Chinn, Courtney H; Cruz, Gustavo D; Chan, Allison


    There is little research on the oral health status of Chinese-American (CA) children in the U.S. and Asian/Pacific Islanders in general. The purpose of this study was to characterize the dental caries experience of a CA child population in Manhattan Chinatown, New York City. A five-year chart review of 545 initial dental exams of patients aged 2 to 11 was conducted at a community clinic serving an immigrant CA population. DMFT/dft were compared to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed for associations among birthplace, language and untreated tooth decay at recall. Subject mean dft was higher compared to NHANES data both in aggregate and ethnic/race subgroups. Subjects had lower DMFT ccmpared to the national data. Significant difference was found between U.S. and non-U.S.-born mean dft. Asian Pacific Islander Americans include a fast-growing immigrant pediatric population at high risk for tooth decay.

  15. Is There a Developmental Slump in Creativity in China? The Relationship between Organizational Climate and Creativity Development in Chinese Adolescents (United States)

    Yi, Xinfa; Hu, Weiping; Plucker, Jonathan A.; McWilliams, Jenna


    The major objectives of this study were to determine the characteristics of creativity development of Chinese children, the creative organizational climate of Chinese schools, and the relations among them. The results provided evidence that the creativity scores of children in elementary school were significantly higher than those of children in…

  16. Chinese L1 Children's English L2 Verb Morphology over Time: Individual Variation in Longterm Outcomes (United States)

    Paradis, Joanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti


    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a…

  17. Impact of Immersion Teaching on English Sociopragmatic Awareness of Chinese Kindergarten Children: A Polite Study (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yan, Rong


    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of an early partial immersion program as compared to a non-immersion program on English sociopragmatic awareness among Chinese kindergarten children six years of age. Of the 128 children who participated in the experiment involving the use of politeness perception tasks, half received three years…

  18. Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Mastery Motivation among Chinese Preschool Children (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.


    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their…

  19. Who Makes the Choice? Rethinking the Role of Autonomy and Relatedness in Chinese Children's Motivation (United States)

    Bao, Xue-Hua; Lam, Shui-Fong


    The importance of autonomy for children's motivation in collectivistic cultures has been debated hotly. With the understanding that autonomy is not equivalent to freedom of choice, 4 studies addressed this debate by investigating how socioemotional relatedness, choice, and autonomy were related to Chinese children's motivation. Study 1 (N = 56,…

  20. Examining the Text Quality of English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning


    As a branch of multicultural literature, bilingual children's picture books present a special opportunity for readers to expand their horizons and knowledge of other cultures. The researchers took a closer look at the text quality of 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. These bilingual books were examined on the aspects of the…

  1. The Effect of Dialect Experience on Chinese Children's Mandarin Phonological Awareness (United States)

    Chen, Sumei; Li, Rongbao; Li, Guangze; Wang, Youkun; Wu, Liqiong


    Most studies on bilingual phonological awareness suggested that children who were able to speak a second language performed better in phonological awareness tasks; some studies however found different results. This study revisited the issue by investigating the effect of Min dialect experience on Chinese children's Mandarin phonological awareness.…

  2. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families. (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H


    Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children.

  3. Interparental Conflict Styles and Parenting Behaviors: Associations with Overt and Relational Aggression among Chinese Children (United States)

    Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Su, Yanjie


    This study examined how interparental conflict styles related to Chinese children's overt and relational aggression directly and indirectly through parenting behaviors. Mothers (n = 670) and fathers (n = 570) reported their overt and covert interparental conflict styles and different parenting behaviors. Children's (n = 671) aggression was…

  4. Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.


    Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.


    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  6. The Pathway to English Word Reading in Chinese ESL Children: The Role of Spelling (United States)

    Lin, Dan; Liu, Yingyi; Sun, Huilin; Wong, Richard Kwok; Yeung, Susanna Siu-sze


    The present longitudinal study investigated the role of spelling as a bridge between various reading-related predictors and English word reading in Chinese children learning English as a Second Language (ESL). One hundred and forty-one 5-year-old kindergarten children from Hong Kong, whose first language (L1) was Cantonese and second language (L2)…

  7. What Can Chinese and German Children Tell Us about Their Learning and Play in Kindergarten? (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chen


    This study investigated Hong Kong and German children's perceptions of play and learning and their relationships. Forty-eight children (24 German and 24 Chinese) playing and learning in the classroom were observed and videotaped for five consecutive days. They were interviewed 3 times about their kindergarten experiences by using free- and…

  8. Chinese Children's Justifications for Sharing Resources: Why Do We Have to Share? (United States)

    Wong, Mun


    Gilligan argued that Kohlberg's justice-based stage theory of morality reflects only one type of morality and does not consider people's tendency to use care-based moral judgements. This study examines Chinese children's tendency to use justice-based and care-based justifications for moral reasoning. Children's attitudes to conforming to the…

  9. Exploring the Eye-Movement Patterns as Chinese Children Read Texts: A Developmental Perspective (United States)

    Chen, Minglei; Ko, Hwawei


    This study was to investigate Chinese children's eye patterns while reading different text genres from a developmental perspective. Eye movements were recorded while children in the second through sixth grades read two expository texts and two narrative texts. Across passages, overall word frequency was not significantly different between the two…

  10. The association between sleep patterns and overweight/obesity in Chinese children: a cross-sectional study

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    Zhang B


    Full Text Available Bin Zhang,1,* Yanli Hao,2,* Jiangyan Zhou,1,3 Fujun Jia,1 Xueli Li,1 Yi Tang,1 Huirong Zheng1 1Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, 2Department of Human Anatomy, Guang Zhou Medical University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: This study evaluated the association between sleep patterns and the risk of being overweight/obese in Chinese children. Methods: A total of 3,086 children (1,608 boys and 1,478 girls between 7 and 14 years of age and studying in primary schools were recruited as eligible study participants in this study. We collected the information about children regarding sleep patterns, body height and weight, insomnia, healthy status, time allocation of daily activities, and demographic characteristics using a parental-reported questionnaire. Results: Overweight/obese children were younger, predominantly male, and more prone to have suffered from illness in the past 12 months compared to normal-weight peers. They were also less prone to compensate for sleep deficits during weekends (47.6% vs 39.1%; χ2=11.637, P<0.001 and holidays (52.0% vs 42.0%; χ2=16.057, P<0.001. Sleep duration on weekdays did not affect the risk of being overweight/obese. The adjusted odds ratios for overweight/obesity (noncompensated group using the compensated group as a reference were 1.197 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.004–1.493 during weekends and 1.309 (95% CI: 1.052–1.630 during holidays. Conclusion: Compensation for sleep deficits on non-weekdays may ameliorate the risk of being overweight/obese in Chinese children. Moreover, no significant association between the risk of being overweight/obese and sleep duration on weekdays was demonstrated in the current study, which may be due to pervasive sleep insufficiency on weekdays in Chinese children. Keywords: Chinese

  11. Picture perception in Chinese dyslexic children: an eye-movement study

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    LI Xiu-hong; JING Jin; ZOU Xiao-bing; HUANG Xu; JIN Yu; WANG Qing-xiong; CHEN Xue-bin; YANG Bin-rang; YANG Si-yuan


    Background Currently, whether or not there is visuospatial impairments in Chinese dyslexic children is still a matter of discussion. The relatively recent application of an eye-tracking paradigm may offer an opportunity to address this issue. In China, in comparison with reading studies, there have not been nearly as many eye movement studies dealing with nonreading tasks such as picture identification and whether Chinese children with dyslexia have a picture processing deficit is not clear. The purposes of the present study were to determine whether or not there is visuospatial impairments in Chinese dyslexic children. Moreover, we attempted to discuss whether or not the abnormal eye movement pattern that dyslexic subjects show during reading of text appropriate for their age is a consequence of their linguistic difficulties.Methods An eye-link Ⅱ High-Speed Eye Tracker was used to track the series of eye-movement of 19 Chinese dyslexic children and 19 Chinese normal children. All of the subjects were presented with three pictures for this eye-tracking task and 6 relative eye-movement parameters, first fixation duration, average fixation duration, average saccade amplitude, mean saccade distance, fixation frequency and saccade frequency were recorded for analysis.Results Analyzing the relative parameter among three pictures, except for the fixation frequency and the saccade frequency, other eye-movement parameters were significantly different among the three pictures (P 0.05).Conclusions The characteristics of the pictures can significantly influence the visuospatial cognitive processing capability of the Chinese children. There is a detectable disability for the Chinese dyslexic children in the visuospatial cognitive processing: their saccade amplitude and mean saccade distance are shorter, which may be interpreted as specific for their reading disability.

  12. No More Bullying: An Analysis of Primary School Children's Drawings of School Bullying (United States)

    Slee, Phillip T.; Skrzypiec, Grace


    Bullying in schools is an international problem impacting negatively on children's well-being. Children's drawings can provide an insight into their emotional states. There is little published literature that uses children's drawings to gain better understandings of the nature and impact of bullying. We report two studies using indicators of…

  13. Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Predictors of Middle School Children's After-School Physical Activity Participation (United States)

    King, Kristi M.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Brown, Stephen L.; Partridge, Julie A.


    Children's participation in after-school physical activity can attenuate the overweight and obesity rates among rural, low socioeconomic status (SES) children. Children's individual determination, as well as social and environmental factors, can influence their behaviors. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to determine if a difference…

  14. School Satisfaction of Elementary School Children : The Role of Performance, Peer Relations, Ethnicity and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem


    The present study examines school satisfaction among 1,090 Dutch and ethnic minority children aged between ten and twelve in relation to their school context. Data were gathered in 51 classes from 26 schools. Individual and classroom variables were examined simultaneously, using multilevel analysis.

  15. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice (United States)

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.


    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  16. Families, Schools, and Children's School Achievement: A Study Based on Rural Regions in China Gansu Province (United States)

    Zhijun, Sun; Zeyun, Liu; Baicai, Sun


    This paper focuses on the impact of school factors on student achievement due to differences in family backgrounds. Based on the principle of diminishing effects of school investment in children's achievement, this study built a model that includes individual characteristics, family characteristics, and school characteristics. Family and school…

  17. Cross-Lagged Relationships between Morphological Awareness and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Children. (United States)

    Cheng, Yahua; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Xinchun; Liu, Hongyun; Li, Hong


    The present study examined the developmental relationship between morphological awareness (MA) and reading comprehension (RC) using a 2-year and four-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 149 Chinese children (80 males and 69 females). We measured children's MA, word reading (WR), and RC from T1 to T4, in addition to phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, and general cognitive ability at T1 as control measures. Four plausible cross-lagged models were assessed and compared to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between MA and RC over time. Results found support for a reciprocal-causation model, that is, MA stably predicted subsequent RC, and the reverse relation was also found. Longitudinal mediation analyses revealed that WR partially mediated the relationship between MA and RC in Chinese children. These findings extend our understanding of the relationship between MA and RC. The practical implications for these two developing skills in Chinese children are discussed.

  18. Novel noun and verb learning in Chinese-, English-, and Japanese-speaking children. (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun


    When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif, 1996). The results also suggest that the input language uniquely shapes verb learning such that English-speaking children require grammatical support to learn verbs, whereas Chinese children require pragmatic as well as grammatical support. This research bears on how universally shared cognitive factors and language-specific linguistic factors interact in lexical development.

  19. Nasal nitric oxide levels in healthy pre-school children. (United States)

    Piacentini, G L; Bodini, A; Peroni, D G; Sandri, M; Brunelli, M; Pigozzi, R; Boner, A L


    The evaluation of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) has been proposed as a screening tool in children with clinically suspectable primary ciliary dyskinesia. Nevertheless, normal values have been reported for school-aged children. This study was designed to identify normal nNO levels in pre-school children. nNO was assessed in 300 healthy children aged between 1.5 and 7.2. Two hundred and fifty of them were unable to fulfill the guideline requirements for nNO measurement and were assessed by sampling the nasal air continuously with a constant trans-nasal aspiration flow for 30 s during tidal breathing. For those children who were able to cooperate, the average nNO concentration was calculated according to guidelines. A statistically significant relationship between nNO level and age was demonstrated in this study group of pre-school children (p < 0.001). An increase in nNO of about 100 ppb was observed in children older than 6 yr vs. those aged < 3. This study presents a description of normal nNO values in pre-school children. The effect of the age and the eventual presence of rhinitis and snoring need to be considered whenever nNO is evaluated in the clinical practice, in particular in non-cooperative children.

  20. Health Assessment of School Children II -- Screening Tests (United States)

    Eisner, Victor; Oglesby, Allan


    The article concludes that adequate screening, and the use of expensive diagnostic procedures (such as medical referral) only for children who have failed a screening test, will result in the most effective use of school health time and funds. (Author)

  1. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children (United States)

    McGovern, John P.


    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  2. Children stories about primary schools: sceneries and (autobiographic research challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Passeggi


    Full Text Available This study deals with 4-10 year-old children stories and analyses how they portrait their experiences at school. It is the outcome of an inter-institutional research project performed at schools in Natal, São Paulo, Recife, Niterói and Boa Vista. To collect data, we opted for conversations of children in groups of five, who would share a conversation with a little alien whose planet lacked schools. The analyses revealed consensus and tensions between scholar cultu - re and childhood cultures, which affect the way children play and learn, make friends or not, remain children or not. When narrating, the child redefines his/her experience and contributes to seize the primary school as a place where he/she becomes (or not a citizen.

  3. Who's in charge of children's environmental health at school? (United States)

    Paulson, Jerome; Barnett, Claire


    Children spend many hours each week in and around school buildings. Their short- and long-term health outcomes and ability to learn are affected by numerous environmental factors related to the school buildings, the school grounds, the school transportation system, and the use of various products and materials in and around the school. Many school buildings are old, and they-and even newer buildings-can contain multiple environmental health hazards. While some districts self-report they have environmental health policies in place, no independent verification of these policies or their quality exists. Teachers and other staff, but not children who are more vulnerable to hazards than adults, are afforded some protections from hazards by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations, by their employment contracts, or through adult occupational health services. Major environmental problems include: indoor air quality, lighting, pests and pesticides, heavy metals and chemical management issues, renovation of occupied buildings, noise, and cleaning processes and products. No agency at the federal or state levels is charged with ensuring children's health and safety in and around school buildings. No systematic means exists for collecting data about exposures which occur in the school setting. Recommendations are made for dealing with issues of data collection, federal actions, state and local actions, and for building the capacity of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-designated and funded Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units (PEHSU) in responding to and evaluating risks to children's environmental health in schools.

  4. Prevalence of intolerance to food additives among Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, C.; Saval, P.


    The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg......, Denmark. The children in the study group followed an elimination diet for two weeks before they were challenged with a mixture of food preservatives, colourings and flavours. The challenge was open and the additives were prepared as a fizzy lemonade. If the open challenge was positive, a double...... clinics, the prevalence of intolerance to food additives in school children is estimated to be 1-2%....

  5. Chinese Reading Teaching in Primary School%小学语文阅读教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    阅读教学是语文教学中的核心,不仅能提高学生的语文素养,而且还能开拓学生的视野。小学语文阅读教学是在教师的引导下,确定学生的主体地位,能够让学生自主地去学习,所以说加强小学语文阅读是非常重要的。%Reading teaching is the core of Chinese teaching, not only can enhance the students' Chinese accomplishment, but also can develop the students’ field of vision. Chinese reading teaching is under the guidance of teacher in primary school , determine the students’ subject status, can let the students to learn independently, so it is very important to strengthen the primary school Chinese reading.

  6. Prevalence of Malocclusion Among School Children in Bangalore, India



    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusion among school children of Bangalore city, India during their mixed dentition period. The sample consisted of 745 children (388 males and 357 females) in the age group of 8-12 years randomly selected from twelve different schools in Bangalore city. The subjects were randomly selected, and none had received previous orthodontic treatment. Occlusal anteroposterior relationships were assessed based on the Angle classificat...

  7. Anemia among Primary School Children in Eastern Ethiopia


    Firehiwot Mesfin; Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku


    Background Anemia during childhood impairs physical growth, cognitive development and school performance. Identifying the causes of anemia in specific contexts can help efforts to prevent negative consequences of anemia among children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and identify correlates of anemia among school children in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2012 in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included ran...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert


    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  9. Overweight and school performance among primary school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study. (United States)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C E; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriëtte A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H


    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,159 12-year-old children who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used. Two indicators of school performance were parental reported when children were 12 years of age and included (i): the score on a standardized achievement test that Dutch children have to complete at the end of their primary education (Cito)-test and (ii): the teacher's advice regarding a child's potential performance level in secondary education. Children's height and weight were measured by a trained research assistant at the age of 8 and by their parents at the age of 12. Overweight was defined using age and gender specific cut-off points. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between overweight and school performance. Besides, both confounder and mediation analyses were conducted. Results showed lower Cito-test scores and lower teacher's school-level advice among overweight children. These associations were no longer significant when adjusting for parental educational level, skipping breakfast, and screen time. This study found no independent association between overweight and school performance among primary school children. Results showed strong confounding by parental educational level.

  10. Too Cool for School?: Gifted Children and Homeschooling (United States)

    Winstanley, Carrie


    Homeschooling can be a last resort for frustrated families where gifted children are not having their complex needs met through mainstream schooling. Unlike many other groups of homeschoolers, parents of highly able children take this option for pragmatic reasons rather than as a kind of moral stance. This article explores some of the ways that…

  11. Education, Schooling, and Children's Rights: The Complexity of Homeschooling (United States)

    Kunzman, Robert


    By blurring the distinction between formal school and education writ large, homeschooling both highlights and complicates the tensions among the interests of parents, children, and the state. In this essay, Robert Kunzman argues for a modest version of children's educational rights, at least in a legal sense that the state has the duty and…

  12. Say the Word Islam: School Counselors and Muslim Children (United States)

    Saleem, Daa'iyah; Rasheed, Sakinah


    Two Muslim women who hold Ph.D.'s, a clinical and developmental psychologist and a teacher educator speak personally and professionally about important information school counselors need to know about Islam and providing services to Muslim children. First, the authors draw from personal experiences in parenting Muslim children who have come of age…

  13. Developing Children's Language Learner Strategies at Primary School (United States)

    Kirsch, Claudine


    This article discusses the strategy repertoires and strategy development of six English children who learned foreign languages at primary school. My study differs from mainstream research, in that it focuses on young children and on the development of their strategies, draws on sociocultural theory and uses ethnographic methods. My findings show…

  14. Epidemiological Study of Mental Health Problems among Handicapped School Children. (United States)

    Bahadur Singh, Tej


    Indian teachers rating the prevalence of psychiatric problems in 79 school children with visual handicaps, 91 with hearing handicaps, and 105 nonhandicapped identified a higher prevalence than did psychiatrists. Although similar percentages of children in the 3 groups were diagnosed as having psychiatric problems, the types of problems experienced…

  15. Emergent Technological Literacy: What Do Children Bring to School? (United States)

    Mawson, W. B.


    There has been very little research into children's technological practice in early childhood settings. This article describes four typical examples of the technological activity that occurs on a daily basis in New Zealand early childhood settings. It is suggested that children come to compulsory schooling with well-developed technological…

  16. Civic and Patriotic Education of Pre-School Children (United States)

    Mokeyeva, Ekaterina V.; Andreeva, Irina N.


    The urgency of the current research devoted to civic and patriotic education of pre-school children is determined by the contradiction between the necessity of civic-patriotic education of children in the current context, their readiness to defend their Motherland and the lack of the development of this issue both in pedagogical theory and…

  17. An Investigation of School Violence through Turkish Children's Drawings (United States)

    Yurtal, Filiz; Artut, Kazim


    This study investigates Turkish children's perception of violence in school as represented through drawings and narratives. In all, 66 students (12 to 13 years old) from the middle socioeconomic class participated. To elicit children's perception of violence, they were asked to draw a picture of a violent incident they had heard, experienced, or…

  18. Children's Diurnal Cortisol Activity during the First Year of School (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte


    The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…

  19. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  20. Recapturing Hope: Elementary School Support Groups for Children of Alcoholics. (United States)

    O'Rourke, Kathy


    Considers the usefulness of elementary school support groups for children of alcoholics. Discusses identification of young children of alcoholics and offers suggestions for establishing support groups. Examines techniques for exploring feelings, building self-esteem, developing coping skills, managing stress, rehearsing decision making, and…

  1. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon


    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  2. Life style and behavior of school children without parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvrgić Svetlana T.


    Full Text Available Indroduction Life style (behavior is one of the most significant factors affecting health. Although a number of factors participate in creating behavior, family is one the most important. The goal was to analyze the life style of children without parental care. Material and methods The research was done using cross-sectional data from "Children village" in Sremska Kamenica (N=127, and a questionnaire was especially created for this purpose. Results and discussion It was established that 75% of elementary school children and 43% of high school children are physically active. The greatest health risk is smoking (only 50% of students reported never to smoke cigarettes, while 17.5% were daily smokers. The problem is greatest in high school children (43% polled are daily smokers. Alcohol consumption is less common than in the general population of the same age (10% polled drink beer and wine several times a month, while 5% drink spirits - brandy, whisky etc.. Attitudes to sports, smoking and alcohol are mainly positive, but at older age there is an increased number of children with negative attitudes. Knowledge regarding healthy diet is on a lower level comparing with general population, meals are more regular, but with less desirable food. Conclusion From the aspect of health, life style of children without parental care is characterized by risky behavior, particularly in high school children.

  3. Teaching Humility in First-Grade Christian School Children (United States)

    Yonker, Julie E.; Wielard, Cassie J.; Vos, Carolyn L.; Tudder, Ashley M.


    Four classes of first-grade children at a Christian school took pre- and post-tests measuring humility. Two intervention classes had devotional lessons on humility and two comparison classes did not. For one week, devotional lessons featured humility-related children's literature, cognitively appropriate discussions, writing about humility, and…

  4. Children with Asthma: Assessment and Treatment in School Settings (United States)

    Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Grigerick, Sarah E.; Loftus, Susan; Nicholson, Heather


    Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways. It affects approximately 12% of American children, and it appears that that incidence is increasing. Asthma in children negatively influences school-based outcomes such as absenteeism and friendship formation. Potential triggers of asthma include environmental allergens, exercise, weather, and emotional…

  5. High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivers Patrick A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.

  6. Developing School Provision for Children with Dyspraxia. A Practical Guide (United States)

    Jones, Nichola, Ed.


    With a much greater awareness in schools of conditions like dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism, and the effects they have in the context of the educational curriculum, schools are becoming better placed to help children access a curriculum that takes account of the diverse needs of its learners. It has been predicted that as people move through the…

  7. The Realities of Middle School for Mexican Children. (United States)

    Bollin, Gail G.


    Presents information about the middle school educational system in Mexico. Considers the implications for better meeting the needs of Mexican children in U.S. schools. Describes experiences and knowledge gained while the author taught a graduate workshop to American teachers in Guanajuato, Mexico. Places the information gained in the context of…

  8. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the School Nurse (United States)

    Grace, Lisa Goldblatt; Starck, Maureen; Potenza, Jane; Kenney, Patricia A.; Sheetz, Anne H.


    As trusted health professionals in the school setting, school nurses are well positioned to identify students who may be victims of commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). However, until recently this issue has been clouded by lack of awareness, stigma, and/or denial. Since nationally the average age of entry for girls into the…

  9. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children (United States)

    Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. T...

  10. Obesity and Other Predictors of Absenteeism in Philadelphia School Children (United States)

    Rappaport, Elizabeth B.; Daskalakis, Constantine; Andrel, Jocelyn


    Background: Limited data indicate that obese children are absent from school more than their normal-weight peers. We analyzed administrative data from a large urban school district to investigate the association of obesity and student sociodemographic characteristics with absenteeism. Methods: We analyzed 291,040 records, representing 165,056…

  11. Sleep Disorders in Children: Collaboration for School-Based Intervention (United States)

    Everhart, D. Erik


    The effects of sleep disturbance on children are wide ranging and include alterations in behavior, mood, cognition, and academic performance. Screening and intervention for pediatric sleep disorders within the schools are not widely implemented, and the concept of integrating school personnel into the multidisciplinary sleep team has yet to be…

  12. School Psychologists Working with Children Affected by Abuse and Neglect (United States)

    Dezen, Kristin A.; Gurl, Aaron; Ping, Jenn


    School psychologists encounter children regularly who have been affected by abuse and neglect. Maltreatment adversely affects the mental health status and academic achievement of youth, thereby making the topic an area of concern for school psychologists. More recently, child protection laws have been expanded to include mandatory child abuse…

  13. Caregivers' perspective of school reintegration in children survivors of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, R.; Santos, B.D.; Van Loey, N.E.E.; Geenen, R.; Rossi, L.A.; Nascimento, L.C.


    Introduction: Pediatric burns are an important reason of treatment and hospitalization. Children victims of burns may interrupt or even abandon school activities. The process of school reintegration of this population has become a point of attention. Aim: To analyze the caregivers’ perspective of th

  14. Children of Divorce in the Elementary School Classroom. (United States)

    Strom, Mary E.

    In this document, literature is reviewed concerning (1) effects of divorce on the academic achievement, behavior, and self-concept of elementary school students; and (2) ways the adjustment of children whose parents have divorced can be facilitated in schools by teachers and counselors. Annotations of 40 articles are provided. Also included are a…

  15. Children's Rights, School Exclusion and Alternative Educational Provision (United States)

    McCluskey, Gillean; Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet


    This paper examines findings from a recent study in Wales of school exclusion and alternative educational provision. Many, but not all, children in alternative provision have been excluded from school. The most recent statistics reveal that nearly 90% of pupils in alternative provision have special educational needs, nearly 70% are entitled to…

  16. Color Vision Defects in School Going Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Shrestha


    Full Text Available Introduction: Color Vision defect can be observed in various diseases of optic nerve and retina and also a significant number of people suffer from the inherited condition of red and green color defect. Methods: A cross-sectional descritptive study was designed with purposive sampling of students from various schools of Kathmandu Valley. All children were subjected to color vision evaluation using Ishihara Isochromatic color plates along with other examination to rule out any other causes of color deficiency. Results: A total of 2001 students were examined, 1050 male students and 951 females with mean age of 10.35 (±2.75 and 10.54 (±2.72 respectively. Among the total students examined, 2.1% had some form of color vision defects. Of the male population , 3.9% had color vision defects while none of the female was found with the deficiency. Conclusions: The prelevance of color vision defect in Nepal is significant and comparable with the prelevance quoted in the studies from different countries. Keywords:color vision; congenital red green color effect; Nepal; prevalence.

  17. The Unintended Hegemonic Effects of a Limited Concession: Institutional Incorporation of Chinese Schools in Post-War Hong Kong (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong


    Using the case of Chinese schools in post-Second World War Hong Kong, this paper explores the unintended consequences of an incomplete hegemonic project. After World War II, anti-imperialist pressures and rising educational demands in the local setting propelled the colonial authorities to be more active in providing and funding Chinese schools.…

  18. Awareness of dengue fever among school children: a comparison between private and government schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Kalra


    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is the mosquito born viral disease spreading its tentacles all over the world. Dengue constitutes for major cause of deaths in children. According to WHO, globally it was estimated that approximately 70-100 million people were infected every year. Therefore, the study has been conducted with the aim to assess knowledge regarding dengue fever among school children. Methodology: Total of 500 children were selected from 9th and 10th class of private and government schools using total enumerative sampling technique. Data was collected using questionnaire method. After assessing knowledge classes were taken by investigators focusing on prevention of dengue fever. Results: Finding of study revealed that among Private schools excellent knowledge was found in 06 (01.2% children, good in 123 (24.6% children, average 112 (22.4% children and poor in 02 (00.41 whereas in Government schools none of students had excellent knowledge, 76(15.2% children were having good knowledge, 178(35.6% children were having average knowledge & 03 (00.6 children were having poor knowledge. The mean knowledge scores were higher in students of Private schools i.e. 31.45 ± 6.41 as compared to students of Government schools i.e. 28.17 ± 5.39 at t=6.19 (p=0.00. Conclusion: It is concluded that majority of school students of private and government schools were having average knowledge regarding prevention of dengue fever. Therefore, there is need for further information, education and communication programs regarding prevention of dengue fever and this can be achieved by organizing health education campaigns in community involving schools.

  19. Prevalence of obesity in school-going children of Karachi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Javed Warraich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is an emerging problem in Pakistan. The authors sought to determine prevalence of obesity and malnutrition in school-going children, from grades 6(th to 8(th of different schools of Karachi and assess associations that affect the weight of the children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study design with children studying in grades 6(th to 8(th grade, in different schools of Karachi. We visited 10 schools of which 4 consented; two subsidized government schools and two private schools. A questionnaire was developed in consultation with a qualified nutritionist. Height and weight were measured on calibrated scales. A modified BMI criterion for Asian populations was used. Data was collected from 284 students. Of our sample, 52% were found to be underweight whereas 34% of all the children were normal. Of the population, 6% was obese and 8% overweight. Of all obese children, 70% belonged to the higher socio-economic status (SES group, while of the underweight children, 63.3% were in the lower SES. Amongst obese children in our study, 65% ate meat every day, compared to 33% of normal kids. CONCLUSION: Obesity and undernutrition co-exist in Pakistani school-children. Our study shows that socio-economic factors are important since obesity and overweight increase with SES. Higher SES groups should be targeted for overweight while underweight is a problem of lower SES. Meat intake and lack of physical activity are some of the other factors that have been highlighted in our study.

  20. Narrative Development in Preschool and School-Age Children


    Hegsted, Sara


    Children hear and use narratives in a variety of contexts including school, social situations, and at home. A narrative is a form of discourse that is used to tell the listener what happened in a temporally sequenced, agent-focused way, and these stories can be a production of a real or fictional account. Speech language pathologists take a particular interest in children's narrative abilities because children's story telling capabilities play a large role in language acquisition as well as f...



    Kolli Sree Karuna


    ‘’Sarvendriya nam nayanam pradhanam” Of all the organs in the body, eyes are the most important. The blindness or defect in vision decreases the productivity of the nation in addition to increased dependability. The refractive errors in the school children throw them in to defective future. Nutrition deficiency, mental strain, wrong reading habits etc are some of the causes for this defect in these children. Vision is essential for all the children, for the academic and overal...

  2. [Prevalence of obesity amount elementary school children in Grenoble]. (United States)

    Viguié, M; Fayard, M; Micheletti, P; Boussuges, S


    Facing the growing increase of childhood obesity in France, the Grenoble Municipal School Health Service wanted to evaluate the importance of this phenomenon present among elementary school children in the area. A descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective survey was conducted during the 2000/2001 academic year among a group of 1361 children born in 1990. The Quetelet Index was utilized to measure the level of being overweight, and the breaking point levels for being overweight and obese were defined according to new international standards. The prevalence of obesity is approximately 3% (2.7% in girls and 2.9% in boys) and remains constant from nursery school to elementary school. Nearly 35% of obese children in nursery school remain obese at the end of elementary school. Overweight prevalence is at its highest and increases significantly from nursery school (8.3%) through elementary school (14%). The study further revealed that girls aged 10-12 who did not pass and were held back from the next grade are five times more at risk of obesity than those who pass. The Municipal School Health Service has a critical role to play in the prevention of childhood obesity and its early screening and detection.

  3. School performance in cholesteatoma-operated children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki; Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe


    Cholesteatoma in childhood had no long-term effect on school performance for the majority who completed lower secondary school. Aim To investigate whether individuals operated on for cholesteatoma in childhood have impaired school performance in adolescence. Methods All children born in Denmark...... between 1986-1991 with cholesteatoma surgery performed before the age of 15 years were included (cholestetaoma group). A control group consisting of a 5% random sample of all children born in Denmark during the same period was used for comparison. Final marks (average, mathematics, Danish, and English...

  4. Communities of Children in the transition from preschool to school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt


    This article is concerned with the meaning of Communities of Children in the transition from preschool to school – analyzed from the children’s perspectives (Aronsson, Hedegaard, Højholt, & Ulvik, 2012).The text is based on an ethnographic study where a group of Danish children where followed...... participation possibilities within the children’s communities in preschool. This means that we need both cooperation with the children’s parents and professional collaboration and information sharing across preschool and school and professional cooperation within the school....

  5. Sleep Patterns, Sleep Disturbances, and Associated Factors Among Chinese Urban Kindergarten Children. (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Wang, Guanghai; Geng, Li; Luo, Junna; Li, Ningxiu; Owens, Judith


    This study aimed to characterize sleep patterns and disturbances among Chinese urban kindergarten children and examine potentially associated factors. Caregivers of 513 children (47.96% male) aged 3-6 years (mean age = 4.46, SD = 0.9) completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Almost 80% (78.8%) of the children scored above the original CSHQ cutoff point for global sleep disturbance. Regression analysis indicated that child's age, and the presence of emotional problems, hyperactivity and peer problems, cosleeping, and interparental inconsistency of attitudes toward child rearing accounted for significant variance in the CSHQ total score (R(2) = 22%). These findings indicate that there is an apparently high prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese urban kindergarten children; and sleep disturbances are associated with both child-related and parenting practice variables.

  6. Effects of Exposure to Domestic Physical Violence on Children's Behavior: A Chinese Community-based Sample. (United States)

    Cao, Yuping; Li, Longfei; Zhao, Xingfu; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yalin; Luo, Xingguang


    Domestic physical violence (DPV) is common in China due to its long history of slavery and feudalism. This study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to DPV on children's behavior in a Chinese community. Ninety-three 12- to 16-year-old adolescents exposed to DPV were compared to 54 adolescents with no exposure to DPV. We found that DPV exposure was associated with adverse behaviors in children, especially among boys. Children witnessing DPV alone had similar behavioral scores as the abused children. We recommend that both abused and DPV witness-only adolescents in Chinese communities need treatment to mitigate the effects on maladjusted behaviors. The intervention programs for children who witness domestic violence are also important.

  7. Perception of stop onset spectra in Chinese children with phonological dyslexia. (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Yue, Guoan


    The ability to identify stop consonants from brief onset spectra was compared between a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia (the PD group, with a mean age of 10 years 4 months) and a group of chronological age-matched control children. The linguistic context, which included vowels and speakers, and durations of stop onset spectra were varied. Children with PD showed lower identification accuracy and exhibited a smaller vowel context effect for some stop-vowel combinations compared with the chronological age-matched control group. Further analyses revealed that the PD group had more variable response patterns, and their responses were less consistent with the acoustic characteristics of stop onset spectra. The results suggest that Chinese children with PD do not show greater sensitivity to allophonic acoustic variability compared with control children and exhibit a generally less robust response pattern to phonetic categories.

  8. Lifestyle riskfactors of noncommunicable diseases: Awareness among school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Divakaran


    Full Text Available Background : Currently, the health scenario is riddled with the burden of noncommunicable diseases. Aim : The aim of this study is to assess the awareness of school children regarding the risk factors of noncommunicable diseases (NCD. Setting and Design : Three hundred and seventy-five school children, studying in classes 6 to 10, formed the study subjects. Materials and Methods : The school selected for the study was a government school, located in a rural area. The socioeconomic status of the children was mainly in the upper lower and lower class. Students from the 6 to 10 grades formed the study subjects and from among them, a random sample of 375 children were selected for the study. A close-ended questionnaire relating to 3 most commonly occurring NCDs, namely, Cancer, Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD, and Diabetes Mellitus (DM was administered to the students. Statistical Analysis: Frequency and proportions were used to analyze the data. Results : It is found that awareness among the school children regarding lifestyle risk factors of NCDs is not satisfactory. The areas of least knowledge were found to be regarding passive smoking, early age at marriage, and reuse of cooking oil as risk factors for NCD. Conclusion : The study recommends the need for curriculum-based health education regarding the prevention aspects and motivation of the children to incorporate healthy lifestyle practices into their daily lives.

  9. Contribution of discourse and morphosyntax skills to reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic and typically developing children. (United States)

    Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Wong, Yau-kai; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Lo, Lap-yan


    This study aimed at identifying important skills for reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic children and their typically developing counterparts matched on age (CA controls) or reading level (RL controls). The children were assessed on Chinese reading comprehension, cognitive, and reading-related skills. Results showed that the dyslexic children performed significantly less well than the CA controls but similarly to RL controls in most measures. Results of multiple regression analyses showed that word-level reading-related skills like oral vocabulary and word semantics were found to be strong predictors of reading comprehension among typically developing junior graders and dyslexic readers of senior grades, whereas morphosyntax, a text-level skill, was most predictive for typically developing senior graders. It was concluded that discourse and morphosyntax skills are particularly important for reading comprehension in the non-inflectional and topic-prominent Chinese system.

  10. Exceeding Boundaries: Chinese Children's Playful Use of Languages in Their Literacy Practices in a Mandarin-English Bilingual Program (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Guo, Yan


    Chinese children of immigrant families are often perceived as good at memorization and rote learning or as polite, obedient, and passive students lacking creativity and criticality. Guided by Multiple Literacies Theory and translanguaging, this study explores how Chinese children in a Mandarin-English bilingual program skillfully navigate…

  11. Physical activity behaviors and influences among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years: A qualitative study (United States)

    Low physical activity is a major health issue among Chinese Americans. This study explored Chinese–American children's physical activity behaviors and influencing factors. Twenty-five children of Chinese or Taiwanese descent were interviewed to understand their favorite sports or physical activities...

  12. To Restore Chinese Traditions--Inspirations Withdrawn from The Concubine’s Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Denise Chong’s The Concubine’s Children is regarded as an autobiography.As a member of the third generation of Chinese-Canadian,Denise Chong manages to sing a family saga for her immigrant family.Chinese traditions,such as patriarchal domination,Confucianism,and other traditions could be sensed throughout the autobiography.This can not only been reflected by the main characters Chan Sam(Chong’s grandpa),May-ying(Chong’s grandma),but also by some other depictions throughout the work.The thesis is to discuss those Chinese traditions in detail.

  13. To Restore Chinese Traditions——Inspirations Withdrawn from The Concubine’s Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Denise Chong’s The Concubine’s Children is regarded as an autobiography.As a member of the third generation of Chinese-Canadian,Denise Chong manages to sing a family saga for her immigrant family.Chinese traditions,such as patriarchal domination,Confucianism,and other traditions could be sensed throughout the autobiography.This can not only been reflected by the main characters Chan Sam(Chong’s grandpa),May-ying(Chong’s grandma),but also by some other depictions throughout the work.The thesis is to discuss those Chinese traditions in detail.

  14. Children's Books in a High School Library? A Risky Question Worth Asking. (United States)

    Johnson, Keith


    An online survey seeking librarians' opinions about including children's books in the high school library returned many positive responses. Lists ways children's books could be used in high school. Discusses the new wave of children's literature; children's books made into movies; commonality of high school libraries having collections of…

  15. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.


    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  16. Towards Healthy Schools 2015: Progress on America's Environmental Health Crisis for Children (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2013


    States compel children to attend school; in fact, 98% of all school-age children attend schools--irrespective of conditions. Yet the environmental conditions of decayed facilities or facilities close to hazards can damage children's health and ability to learn. At the same time, it is well documented that healthy school facilities can help…

  17. School Readiness among Low-Income, Latino Children Attending Family Childcare versus Centre-Based Care (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Winsler, Adam


    Latino children often struggle in school. Early childhood education programmes are seen as critical for fostering children's school readiness. Latino families often choose family childcare (FCC) over centre-based childcare (CBC), yet little is known about the school readiness of Latino children attending FCC. We compared school readiness over the…

  18. Longitudinal Predictors of Spelling and Reading Comprehension in Chinese as an L1 and English as an L2 in Hong Kong Chinese Children (United States)

    Li, Tong; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita; Shu, Hua


    Predictors of age 10 spelling and reading comprehension skills in both Chinese and English from vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and word reading at age 8 were tested in this longitudinal study of 141 Hong Kong Chinese children learning to read English as a second language. The correlation between…

  19. Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackelprang Alyssa J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria. Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of the schools had breakfast in the classroom; all other schools had breakfast in the cafeteria. Information about 180 days of school breakfast and school lunch participation during fourth grade for each of 1,571 children (90% Black; 53% girls was available in electronic administrative records from the school district. Children were weighed and measured, and BMI was calculated. Each of a subset of 465 children (95% Black; 49% girls was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch on the same day. Mixed-effects regression was conducted with BMI as the dependent variable and school as the random effect; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, combined participation (breakfast and lunch on the same day, average observed energy intake for breakfast, average observed energy intake for lunch, sex, age, breakfast location, and school year. Analyses were repeated for BMI category (underweight/healthy weight; overweight; obese; severely obese using pooled ordered logistic regression models that excluded sex and age. Results Breakfast participation, lunch participation, and combined participation were not significantly associated with BMI or BMI category irrespective of whether the model included observed energy intake at school meals. Observed energy intake at school meals was significantly and positively associated with BMI and BMI category. For the total sample and subset, breakfast location was significantly associated with BMI; average BMI was larger for


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Reading storybooks has been proved to be an effective way to start learning English for a Chinese child in the United States.Based on the analysis of the child's English learning content,processes, and context, this paper re-evaluates Krashen's five hypotheses in second language acquisition. Storybooks have provided children with an interesting and comprehensible content. By integrating various foreign language instructional approaches into reading storybooks, children are motivated to learn a real and natural foreign language, their cultural appreciation is cultivated, and English performance improves.Storybook reading is a programme that Chinese English teachers can use to enhance the ever-booming English programme in China.

  1. A survey of learning problems in black primary school children. (United States)

    Cartwright, J D; Jukes, C; Wilson, A; Xaba, D


    A survey of the prevalence and types of learning disorders among Black primary school children was undertaken on the East Rand. Class teachers were given a questionnaire and asked to identify the number of children in their class with learning problems and the number of those with specific disabilities such as poor eyesight or hearing, epilepsy, physical handicaps or mental retardation. There were 7516 children in the classes surveyed; 1692 (22,4%) of them were identified by their teachers as having learning problems, while 666 (8,7%) had a physical or mental handicap. The prevalence and present status of children with learning disability need to be defined before plans to improve their education can be established. Our data show that at present classes are large and the prevalence of children with learning problems is high. Improving teachers' skills and reducing the number of children per class might improve the education of children with learning problems.

  2. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren


    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  3. Chinese children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration: relations to parenting styles and children's social functioning. (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun; Reiser, Mark


    Relations among authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles, children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration, and children's social functioning were examined for 425 first and second graders (7-10 years old) in Beijing, China. Parents reported on parenting styles; parents and teachers rated children's effortful control, anger/frustration, externalizing problems, and socially appropriate behaviors: and peers rated aggression and leadership/sociability. High effortful control and low dispositional anger/frustration uniquely predicted Chinese children's high social functioning, and the relation of anger/frustration to social functioning was moderated by effortful control. Authoritarian parenting was associated with children's low effortful control and high dispositional anger/frustration, which (especially effortful control) mediated the negative relation between authoritarian parenting and children's social functioning. Effortful control weakly mediated the positive relation of authoritative parenting to social functioning.

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Status of Physical Fitness Index (PFI % and Anthropometric Parameters in Residential School Children Compared to Nonresidential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti P Khodnapur


    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival, to achieve any goal and to lead a healthy life. Effect of exercise to have a good physical fitness is well known since ancient Vedas. Physical fitness can be recorded by cardiopulmonary efficiency test like Physical Fitness Index (PFI % which is a powerful indicator of cardiopulmonary efficiency. Regular exercise increases PFI by increasing oxygen consumption. Residential school children are exposed to regular exercise and nutritious food under the guidance. Aims and Objectives: Our study is aimed to compare the physical fitness index status and anthropometric parameters in Residential Sainik (n=100 school children compared to Non-Residential (n=100 school children (aged between 12-16 years of Bijapur. Material and Methods: PFI was measured by Harvard Step Test [1]. TheAnthropometrical parameters like Height (cms, Weight (Kg, Body Surface Area (BSA in sq.mts, Body Mass Index (BMI in Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference (cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were recorded. Results: Mean score of PFI(%, Height(cms, Weight(Kg, BSA(sq.mts, BMI(Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference(cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were significantly higher (p=0.000 in Residential school children compared to Non Residential school children. In conclusion regular exercise and nutritious diet under the guidance increases the physical fitness and growth in growing children.

  5. Obese Chinese Primary-School Students and Low Self-Esteem: A Cross-Sectional Study


    Zhang Xue-Yan; Li Dong-Mei; Xu Dan-Dan; Zhou Le-Shan


    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine several factors related to low self-esteem among obese Chinese primary-school students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2009 and June 2010. A total of 1,410 primary-school students (China grades 4 - 6) in Changsha city were divided into normal weight (n = 1,084), overweight (n = 211), and obese groups (n = 115) according to world health organization (WHO) g...

  6. The Association of Overweight and Obesity with Blood Pressure among Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bin; MA Jun; WANG Hai Jun; WANG Zhi Qiang


    Objective To examine the association between obesity and high blood pressure (BP) in Chinese children and adolescents. Methods Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure measurements of 197 191 children aged 7-17 years were obtained from a Chinese national survey in 2010. Obesity and high BP were defined according to the reference values for Chinese children. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95%confidence intervals (CIs) of different BMI categories for high BP, as well as the population attributable risk percent (PAR%), were also calculated. Results The prevalence of high BP was 16.1% for boys and 12.9%for girls in 2010. Overweight and obese children had a significantly higher prevalence of high BP than non-overweight children in both boys and girls in each age group. ORs (95%CI) for high BP were 4.1 (3.9, 4.4) in obese boys and 4.0 (3.7, 4.3) in obese girls. The overall PAR%for high BP due to overweight and obesity was 14.4%. Conclusion Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher risk of high BP than non-overweight children. Eliminating overweight and obesity could reduce 14.4%of high BP cases.

  7. Pre-School Age Visually Impaired Children's Motives for Learning


    Gudonis, Vytautas


    The article presents longitudinal data of the survey of 212 Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre’s 6–7-year-old pre-school children’s motives to attend school. A brief theoretical analysis of significance of motives for learning in child’s development is displayed. Analysing research results, a positive experience on development of positive motives for school attendance in pre-school age children attending Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre is rendered in a generalising way.

  8. Organization of school health education in obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Woźniak-Holecka


    Full Text Available Abnormal body weight poses a risk of the development of various health disorders, having a negative impact on the quality and length of life. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among European children is estimated to be 10–20%. In Poland this figure reaches 18%. A war on the epidemic obesity waged from the youngest age of the child is a strategy that brings long-term health benefits for the entire population. Apart from the family, the school is the second important educational environment responsible for conducting health education activities among children and teenagers. School health education programs should be implementing by teachers in collaboration with other school staff, parents and the broadly understood local community. Comprehensive health education aiming at combating obesity should cover the entire population of school children and teenagers, with special attention given to high risk groups. The school, undertaking health education activities aimed at preventing abnormal body weight, should implement nationwide programs for the prevention of obesity, and should also pursue its own health education program based on its curriculum. In most cases, development of obesity at children results from improper eating habits and insufficient physical activity, and therefore school health education programs aimed at the prevention of overweight and obesity should focus on these two most important modifiable risk factors of abnormal body weight.

  9. Mainland Chinese Primary and Middle-School Students' Social and Emotional Wellbeing. (United States)

    Askell-Williams, Helen; Skrzypiec, Grace; Jin, Yan; Owens, Larry


    Educators in mainland China are increasingly concerned about promoting school students' social and emotional wellbeing. However, there has been little exchange of research between China and western countries about this topic. For example, questionnaires developed in the west have not been generally available to mainland Chinese researchers. We…

  10. Self-Efficacy in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language in Australian Schools (United States)

    Chen, Zhu; Yeung, Alexander S.


    Participating in a research-oriented teacher education program, 20 university graduates from China were invited to teach Chinese as a foreign language in western Sydney schools and conducted teacher research for one and half years. By analysing their research on their own teaching through a qualitative approach, this study attempted to identify…

  11. Realization of Culture in English Textbooks in Chinese High School Level (United States)

    Aliakbari, Mohammad; Jamalvandi, Behrouz


    This study reflects on the presentation of culture in the English textbooks adopted in Chinese high school level. The categorization by Ramirez and Hall (1990) shaped the basis of the textbook analysis. The main objectives of the inquiry were to examine the quality of representation of source, target and other cultures in the ELT textbooks.…

  12. Learning Chinese Characters via Mobile Technology in a Primary School Classroom (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Meng, Sue; Tam, Vincent


    This paper describes a project, including the design, development, and use of a mobile application (referred to as application hereafter) for learning Chinese as a second language in a bilingual primary school. The application was designed for iPod Touch Apple technology with the purpose to facilitate learning of a fundamental set of 200 Chinese…

  13. Serious Game Motivation in an EFL Classroom in Chinese Primary School (United States)

    Anyaegbu, Ruphina; Ting, Wei; Li, Yi


    This paper is a report on the findings of a qualitative PhD pilot research study on the integration of Serious Games specifically Mingoville to motivate the Chinese primary students in an EFL classrooms. It was carried out in two primary schools: the students are both from low and high income families respectively in Jiangsu Province, PR, China.…

  14. Gratitude, Gratitude Intervention and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese School Teachers in Hong Kong (United States)

    Chan, David W.


    This study assessed the dispositional gratitude and its relationships with orientations to happiness and burnout in a sample of 96 Chinese school teachers in Hong Kong and investigated the effectiveness of an eight-week gratitude intervention programme using a pre-test/post-test design with outcome measures of subjective well-being in the same…

  15. Corrective Feedback Strategies Used in Chinese Senior Middle School EFL Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Error correction,part of teacher talk,plays a significant role in the classroom interaction.This thesis discusses the current error correction practice in Chinese senior middle school English classes and then proposes several approaches to improve English teachers' corrective feedback strategies.

  16. Corrective Feedback Strategies Used in Chinese Senior Middle School EFL Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Error correction,part of teacher talk,plays a significant role in the classroom interaction.This thesis discusses the current error correction practice in Chinese senior middle school English classes and then proposes several approaches to improve English teachers’ corrective feedback strategies.


    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N


    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.

  18. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children (United States)

    Rivers, Charisse L.


    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  19. Overweight and School Performance Among Primary School Children : The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C. E.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriette A.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.


    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,1

  20. Overweight and School Performance Among Primary School Children: The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, J.; Fries, M.C.E.; Bemelmans, W.J.E.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Smit, H.A.; Koppelman, G.H.; Wijga, A.H.


    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,1

  1. Food Group Preferences of Elementary School Children Participating in the National School Lunch Program (United States)

    Cashman, Linda; Tripurana, Madhuri; Englund, Tim; Bergman, Ethan A.


    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the food group preferences of second through fifth grade children based on ethnic background, gender, and grade. Food group preferences were determined by the amount of various food groups consumed in meals served as part of the National School Lunch Program at selected schools. Research…

  2. A Controlled Evaluation of a School-Based Obesity Prevention in Turkish School Children (United States)

    Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Savaser, Sevim


    This research was conducted to assess the effect of a weight management program in Turkish school children with overweight and obesity. Forty one students formed the intervention group while 40 students formed the control group in two elementary schools. Students in intervention group were given seven training sessions in a period of 2.5 months.…

  3. Association between serum ferritin and goitre in Iranian school children. (United States)

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Soheilipour, Fahimeh; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Siavash, Mansour; Amini, Masoud; Kelishadi, Roya


    Despite long-standing supplementation of iodine in Iran, the prevalence of goitre among general people remains high in some regions. The study investigated the role of iron status in the aetiology of goitre in school children in Isfahan, Iran. Two thousand three hundred and thirty-one school children were selected by multi-stage random sampling. Thyroid size was estimated by inspection and palpation. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and serum ferritin (SF) were measured. Overall, 32.9% of the children had goitre. The median UIC was 195.5 microg/L. The mean +/- SD of SF in the goitrous and non-goitrous children was 47.65 +/- 42.51 and 44.55 +/- 37.07 microg/L respectively (p=0.52). The prevalence of iron deficiency in goitrous and non-goitrous children was 9.6% and 3.1% respectively (p=0.007). Goitre is still prevalent in school children of Isfahan. However, their median UIC was well in the accepted range. Iron deficiency is associated with goitre in a small group of goitrous children. The role of goitrogens should also be investigated in this region.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity in children and adolescents is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions globally as well as in India. It is a well-recognized risk factor for adult obesity, which in turn may be the basis of various chronic diseases. So, by preventing the development of obesity in childhood can reduce the likelihood of obesity in adulthood and its health consequences. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children in Bhopal city. MATERIAL & METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. STUDY POPULATION: Students studying in IX, X, XI, XII class in government and private schools of Bhopal STUDY PERIOD: July 2012-June 2014 (24 Months SAMPLING PROCEDURE: Multistage simple random sampling method was used to select schools from a list obtained by Ministry of education. Total 38 schools were chosen to fulfill the sample size, in which 120 students from each school were included under study. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION: Data was collected by taking anthropometric measurements like body weight, height, BMI (Body mass index, WC (waist circumference. RESULTS: In present study, 256 (5.6% students were overweight and 46 (1.0% were obese. Total 2505 (55.0% of students have waist circumferences between 70 to 85 cm, whereas only 187(4.0% students have waist circumference more than 85 cm. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 5.6% and 1.0% respectively among school children. It was more common in girls and among students of private schools.

  5. Predicting Internalizing Problems in Chinese Children: the Unique and Interactive Effects of Parenting and Child Temperament


    Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, De Yun


    The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing ...

  6. Case–Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Chinese Children


    Wang, Hui-Li; Chen, Xiang-Tao; Yang, Bin; Ma, Fang-Li; Wang, Shu; Tang, Ming-liang; Hao, Ming-Gao; Ruan, Di-Yun


    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children. Objective Our goal was to investigate the association between ADHD and blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese children, adjusting for known ADHD risk factors and potential confounding variables. Methods We conducted a pair-matching case–control study with 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD controls 4–12 years of age, matched on the same age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The ...

  7. High School Chinese: Second Year Student Work Book. (United States)

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This workbook accompanies the second volume (FL 002 776) of the Chinese text used in the Washington Foreign Language Program. It is organized according to the lessons in the companion textbook and provides vocabulary, substitution, pattern, transformation, translation, and expansion drills, and question and answer practice. For related documents…

  8. High School Chinese: First Year Student Work Book. (United States)

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This workbook accompanies the first volume (FL 002 774) of the Chinese text used in the Washington Foreign Language Program. It is organized according to the lessons in the companion textbook and provides vocabulary, substitution, pattern, transformation, expansion, and translation drills, dialogues, and questions and answers for practice. For…

  9. High School Chinese: Second Year Text, Vocabulary, and Character Lists. (United States)

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This second year volume of a 3-year course in Chinese includes a textbook, vocabulary, and character lists. A student workbook has also been designed (see FL 002 777 ). The text provided dialogues and practice in vocabulary, translation, questions, writing, and language patterns. Ideas for homework are also included. The book is divided into…

  10. Chinese Middle School Teachers' Preferences Regarding Performance Evaluation Measures (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Xu, Xianxuan; Stronge, James H.


    Teacher performance evaluation currently is receiving unprecedented attention from policy makers, scholars, and practitioners worldwide. This study is one of the few studies of teacher perceptions regarding teacher performance measures that focus on China. We employed a quantitative dominant mixed research design to investigate Chinese teachers'…

  11. Does school mobility place elementary school children at risk for lower math achievement? The mediating role of cognitive dysregulation. (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele


    Children growing up in poverty have a higher likelihood of exposure to multiple forms of adversity that jeopardize their chances of academic success. The current paper identifies school mobility, or changing schools, as 1 such poverty-related risk. Using a sample of low-income, predominantly ethnic-minority children (n = 381) in Chicago, this study tests the hypothesis that repeatedly changing schools during the 5-year period between Head Start (preschool) and third grade is a potent predictor of children's math achievement in fourth grade and that children's cognitive dysregulation serves as a mechanism through which school mobility may negatively affect children's math achievement. Hierarchical linear models controlling for baseline child and family characteristics (including children's early math and dysregulation measured during Head Start) revealed an inverse relation between the number of times low-income children changed schools between preschool and third grade and children's math achievement on state standardized tests in fourth grade. Furthermore, frequently changing schools (3 or 4 school changes over the same time period) was positively associated with teacher-reported cognitive dysregulation in third grade and negatively associated with children's math achievement in fourth grade. Evidence for the role of children's cognitive dysregulation as a partial statistical mediator was found for the relation between frequently changing schools and math achievement, even after accounting for baseline risk. Results are discussed in terms of school policies, practices, and intervention strategies to prevent the disruptive and potentially stressful experiences of school mobility for young, low-income children.

  12. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soepardi Soedibyo


    Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

  13. Red Genesis: The Hunan First Normal School and the Creation of Chinese Communism, 1903-1921. SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture (United States)

    Liu, Liyan


    How did an obscure provincial teachers college produce graduates who would go on to become founders and ideologues of the Chinese Communist Party? Mao Zedong, Cai Hesen, Xiao Zisheng, and others attended the Hunan First Normal School. Focusing on their alma mater, this work explores the critical but overlooked role modern schools played in sowing…

  14. Empirical estimation of school siting parameter towards improving children's safety (United States)

    Aziz, I. S.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Rasam, A. R. A.; Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Omar, D.


    Distance from school to home is a key determination in ensuring the safety of hildren. School siting parameters are made to make sure that a particular school is located in a safe environment. School siting parameters are made by Department of Town and Country Planning Malaysia (DTCP) and latest review was on June 2012. These school siting parameters are crucially important as they can affect the safety, school reputation, and not to mention the perception of the pupil and parents of the school. There have been many studies to review school siting parameters since these change in conjunction with this ever-changing world. In this study, the focus is the impact of school siting parameter on people with low income that live in the urban area, specifically in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. In achieving that, this study will use two methods which are on site and off site. The on site method is to give questionnaires to people and off site is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) and Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS), to analyse the results obtained from the questionnaire. The output is a maps of suitable safe distance from school to house. The results of this study will be useful to people with low income as their children tend to walk to school rather than use transportation.

  15. Children's Voice or Children's Voices? How Educational Research Can Be at the Heart of Schooling (United States)

    Stern, Julian


    There are problems with considering children and young people in schools as quite separate individuals, and with considering them as members of a single collectivity. The tension is represented in the use of "voice" and "voices" in educational debates. Voices in dialogue, in contrast to "children's voice", are…

  16. Children Writing Ethnography: Children's Perspectives and Nomadic Thinking in Researching School Classrooms (United States)

    Hohti, Riikka


    This article makes a connection between narrative ethnography, childhood studies and new materialist theories in studying children's perspective on school. It presents "children writing ethnography" as an approach based on complexity and involving participatory research. The question of "what is happening in the classroom" is…

  17. Mapping "Chinese" Christian Schools in Indonesia: Ethnicity, Class and Religion (United States)

    Hoon, Chang-Yau


    Schools are not "innocent" sites of cultural transmission. They play an active and significant role in transmitting values and inculcating culture. Schools also serve as a site for the maintenance of boundaries and for the construction of identities. Previous studies have recognized the relationship between education and identity.…

  18. Bidirectional Longitudinal Relations between Father-Child Relationships and Chinese Children's Social Competence during Early Childhood (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao


    Using a two-year and three-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between father-child relationships and children's social competence. The results of structural equation modeling showed bidirectional effects between father-child conflict and social…

  19. The Longitudinal Interplay of Psychopathology and Social Competence during Chinese Children's Transition to Preschool (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao


    The present study examined the longitudinal relations between psychopathology and social competence in a sample of 115 Chinese children during the transition to preschool initiated in their third year of life. Social competence was assessed by maternal reports at three months after preschool entry (T1) and at the end of the first (T2) and second…

  20. Concurrent and Longitudinal Effects of Morphological Awareness on Reading Comprehension among Chinese-Speaking Children (United States)

    Zhang, Haomin


    This study explored the concurrent and longitudinal effects of morphological awareness on the development of reading comprehension among Chinese-speaking children (N = 123, mean[subscript age] = 8.1 at Time 2). Drawing upon multivariate analyses, the study found that morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability were intertwined together…

  1. Weaknesses in semantic, syntactic and oral language expression contribute to reading difficulties in Chinese dyslexic children. (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-Yun; Ho, Connie Suk-Han


    The present study examined the role of weaknesses in some language skills for the reading difficulties among Chinese dyslexic children. Thirty Chinese dyslexic children were compared with 30 chronological age (CA) controls and 30 reading-level (RL) controls on a number of language and reading measures. The results showed that Chinese dyslexic children performed significantly worse than the CA controls but similarly to the RL controls in many of the linguistic measures except that the dyslexic group also performed significantly less well than the RL group in semantic skills and syntactic skills on multiple modifiers. The dyslexic children were found to have difficulties in semantic processing, syntactic skills and oral language expression as compared with the CA controls, which were also found to predict their performance in word recognition and/or sentence comprehension. In addition, measures of semantic discrimination, advanced syntactic word order, and oral narrative also significantly predicted the group membership of having or not having dyslexia. These findings suggest that weaknesses in some semantic and advanced syntactic skills are the potential source of poor word and sentence reading in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Implications of the present findings for the identification of dyslexia were discussed.

  2. Theoretical Factors Affecting Parental Roles in Children's Mathematical Learning in American and Chinese-Born Mothers (United States)

    Hunt, Jessica H.; Hu, Bi Ying


    This introductory qualitative study sought to explain American and Chinese-born mothers' personal beliefs and experiences with mathematics, views of U.S. mathematics curriculum, and how these factors influenced motivation regarding roles played in their children's mathematical learning through expectancy-value and attribution theories. The…

  3. The Impact of Visual-Spatial Attention on Reading and Spelling in Chinese Children (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Chen, Xi; Wang, Ying


    The present study investigated the associations of visual-spatial attention with word reading fluency and spelling in 92 third grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Word reading fluency was measured with a timed reading task whereas spelling was measured with a dictation task. Results showed that visual-spatial attention was a unique predictor of…

  4. Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese ADHD Children: Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Ng, Gene S. H.; Choi, S. Y.


    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in Chinese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD features. Methods: This study adopted a randomized controlled trial design without blinding. Participants were randomized into either the intervention group (n = 32) and…

  5. Evidence for cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia: an fMRI study. (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Bi, Hong-Yan; Long, Zhi-Ying; Tao, Sha


    Numerous studies reported that developmental dyslexia in alphabetic languages was associated with a wide range of sensorimotor deficits, including balance, motor skill and time estimation, explained by skill automatization deficit hypothesis. Neural correlates of skill automatization deficit point to cerebellar dysfunction. Recently, a behavioral study revealed an implicit motor learning deficit in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia in their left hands, indicating left cerebellar dysfunction. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), our study examined the brain activation during implicit motor learning in 9 Chinese dyslexic and 12 age-matched children. Dyslexic children showed abnormal activations in the left cerebellum, left middle/medial temporal lobe and right thalamus compared with age-matched children during implicit motor learning. These findings provide evidence of cerebellar abnormality in Chinese dyslexic people. Furthermore, dysfunction of the left cerebellum in Chinese dyslexia is inconsistent with the right cerebellum abnormalities that were reported by studies on alphabetic-language dyslexia, suggesting that neurobiological abnormalities of impaired reading are probably language specific.

  6. The Role of Orthography in Oral Vocabulary Learning in Chinese Children (United States)

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Ehri, Linnea; Chen, Yu; Ruan, Xiaotong; Dong, Qiong


    Previous research has shown that the presence of English word spellings facilitates children's oral vocabulary learning. Whether a similar orthographic facilitation effect may exist in Chinese is interesting but not intuitively obvious due to the character writing system representing morphosyllabic but not phoneme-size information, and the more…

  7. Three-dimensional facial analysis of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (United States)

    Othman, Siti Adibah; Aidil Koay, Noor Airin


    We analyzed the facial features of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a normal control group using a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry camera. This cross-sectional study examined 3D measurements of the facial surfaces of 20 Chinese children with repaired UCLP and 40 unaffected Chinese children aged 7 to 12 years old, which were captured using the VECTRA 3D five-pod photosystem and analyzed using Mirror software. Twenty-five variables and two ratios were compared between both groups using independent t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using ten randomly selected images and analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC). The level of significance was set at p cleft group exhibited wider alar base root width, flattened nose and broader nostril floor width on the cleft side. They tended to have shorter upper lip length and thinner upper vermillion thickness. Faces of Chinese children with repaired UCLP displayed meaningful differences when compared to the normal group especially in the nasolabial regions.

  8. Second language learning difficulties in Chinese children with dyslexia: what are the reading-related cognitive skills that contribute to English and Chinese word reading? (United States)

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han


    This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children-28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls-participated and were administered measures of word reading, rapid naming, visual-orthographic skills, and phonological and morphological awareness in both L1 and L2. Children with dyslexia showed weaker performance than CA controls in both languages and had more difficulties in phonological awareness in English but not in Chinese. In addition, reading-related cognitive skills in Chinese contributed significantly to the ability to read English words, suggesting cross-linguistic transfer from L1 to L2. Results found evidence for different phonological units of awareness related to the characteristics of the different languages being learned, supporting the psycholinguistic grain size and linguistic coding differences hypotheses.

  9. Prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children and it's association with children's sociodemographic and lifestyle in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Syahrul


    Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children in Makassar, Indonesia is high. These conditions are associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of children and parents, as well as the lifestyle of children. Parental characteristics and children's lifestyle should be considered when planning prevention and intervention programs for underweight or overweight children.

  10. Heritage language fluency, ethnic identity, and school effort of immigrant Chinese and Mexico adolescents. (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K


    The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures that assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second-generation Mexican adolescents.

  11. Positive psychological strengths and school engagement in primary school children

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    Bronwyn Wilkins


    Full Text Available A sizeable body of research has investigated the impact of specific character strengths or traits on significant outcomes. Some recent research is beginning to consider the effects of groups of strengths, combined as a higher order variable and termed covitality. This study investigated the combined influence of four positive character traits, gratitude, optimism, zest and persistence, upon school engagement, within a sample of 112 Australian primary school students. The combined effect of these four traits, in defining covitality as a higher or second-order factor within a path analysis, was found to predict relatively higher levels of school engagement and pro-social behaviour.

  12. 78 FR 64153 - Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for Free School... (United States)


    ... of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for Free School Meals; Approval of Information Collection... Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for Free School Meals was published on April 25, 2011. The ICR...


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    Anosov I. P.


    Full Text Available This work addresses the question of primary school age children`s blood microcirculation in dependence on their individual typical features. We examined some 120 healthy children of 6-9 years, which were the students of secondary schools of the city of Melitopol. Anthropometric survey was conducted by the standard measurement scheme of longitudinal chest and weight parameters of the bodies of children. Diagnosis of body type (somatotype was conducted by the method of M. Chernorutskiy. According to the index of physical development - Pine index (PI, the children were divided into three somatic type: asthenic with IP> 30 gipersteni at PI <10 and normostenic type at 10 children of 6-9 years correspond to normoemic type. This pattern doesn’t change with age, and counts about of 51% from prepubertal age children; hypoemic type was registered for 48% of children, hyperemic type – for 1%

  14. Chinese children's imaginary companions: Relations with peer relationships and social competence. (United States)

    Lin, Qiyi; Fu, Hong; Wan, Yingjia; Zhou, Nan; Xu, Hui


    We investigated relationships between Chinese children's imaginary companions (ICs) and peer relationships and social competence in 160 children, aged 5-6 years old. Children and their mothers participated in the interviews regarding the details of the children's ICs, including the type of the companion and the quality of the child-IC relationship. Peer relationships were assessed using sociometric nomination and perceived popularity nomination. Teachers rated children's social competence. Here, 55 children (34.3%) were deemed to have engaged in imaginary companion play. There was no relationship between imaginary companion types and child-IC relationship qualities. Children with invisible friends received more positive nominations than children with personified objects. Children with egalitarian relationships received more positive nominations and popularity nominations, but fewer negative nominations and unpopularity nominations than children with hierarchical relationships. Compared with children with hierarchical relationships, teachers rated the children with egalitarian relationships higher in social competence. The results suggest that imaginary companion types and relationship qualities may represent different dimensions of imaginary companions, calling attentions to the different mechanisms underlying imaginary companion types and relationship qualities with respect to social functioning.

  15. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran


    Morteza Naserbakht; Mitra Hakim Shooshtari; Maryam Rasoulain; Mohammad Salehi; Mirfarhad Ghalebandi; Mohammad Hosien Salarifar


    "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmar...

  16. Sleep clinical record: what differences in school and preschool children?

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    Maria Pia Villa


    Full Text Available The sleep clinical record (SCR may be a valid method for detecting children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA. This study aimed to evaluate whether there were differences in SCR depending on age and to identify the possible risk factors for OSA development. We enrolled children with sleep disordered breathing between 2013 and 2015, and divided them according to age into preschool- and school-age groups. All patients underwent SCR and polysomnography. OSA was detected in 81.1% and 83.6% of preschool- and school-age groups, respectively. Obesity, malocclusions, nasal septal deviation and inferior turbinate hypertrophy were significantly more prevalent in school-age children (p6.5 had a sensitivity of 74% in predicting OSA in preschool children with positive predictive value of 86% (p=0.0001. Our study confirms the validity of the SCR as a screening tool for patient candidates for a PSG study for suspected OSA, in both school and preschool children.


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    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia is a nutritional problem worldwide and its prevalence is higher in developing countries when compared to the developed countries. Anaemia, a manifestation of under-nutrition and poor dietary intake of iron is a public health problem, not only among pregnant women, infants and young children, but also among adolescents. Recent studies on the prevalence of anaemia have been conducted on preschool children only, so there is a need for more studies related to anaemia among school children. The present study was done to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among school children aged 10-15 years from Guntur, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 school children aged 10 to 15 years. Purposive sampling was used to include 250 boys and 250 girls. Haemoglobin estimation was done by cyanmethaemoglobin method. The severity of anaemia was classified on the basis of WHO criteria into Mild, Moderate and Severe. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 21. RESULTS The overall prevalence of anaemia was 27.4% in the present study. A higher prevalence of anaemia was observed among girls (42.4% than boys (12.4%. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 34.4% and 9.6% among girls and boys respectively. CONCLUSION The prevalence of anaemia is high among school going adolescents. Special emphasis should be given on nutritional supplementation with iron and health education for this age group.

  18. Children's Progress through School: A Research Note. (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.


    Socioeconomic characteristics exert much stronger effects on grade retention among Hispanic, Black, and White children than do family compositional factors. One important exception is that the probability of enrollment below modal grade is much higher for Hispanic children living in single-parent households than for those in two-parent households.…

  19. School-Based Counseling of Abused Children (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Rivelis, Erin; Diaz, Vielka


    Abused children experience high rates of behavior, emotional, and learning problems but infrequently receive treatment. Most services provided to abused children and their families are not based on any clear evidence that they work. A number of evidence-based treatments (EBTs), demonstrated to be safe and effective in treating a range of…

  20. Reliability of upright posture measurements in primary school children


    Grimmer Karen; McEvoy Maureen P


    Abstract Background Correct upright posture is considered to be a measure of good musculoskeletal health. Little is known about the usual variability of children's upright standing posture. The aim of this study was to assess differences between repeated measures of upright posture in a group of primary school children. Methods Sagittal plane photographs of usual, relaxed upright standing posture of 38 boys and girls aged 5–12 years were taken twice within an hour. Reflective markers were pla...

  1. Getting southern Sudanese children to school

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    Sibeso Luswata


    Full Text Available The Government of Southern Sudan’s Go to School Initiative,supported by UNICEF, which seeks to get 1.6 millionchildren back in school by the end of 2007, incorporateskey elements of the INEE Minimum Standards for Educationin Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction.

  2. Sexual Abuse of School Age Children : Evidence from Kenya



    Student unrest that sometimes culminates in violent expressions have had a long history in Kenyan schools. Recent evidence, however, points to new expressions of abuse on children. There is concern that an ethos of gendered violence often expressed by sexual subjugation of girls by boys is getting institutionalised within Kenyan Schools. The rise in incidents of reported crimes of a sexual nature and the periodic mass sexual violence directed at girls within learning institutions attest to th...

  3. Children's Physical Activity during Recess and Outside of School (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy; Pangrazi, Robert P.


    The purpose of this study was to examine children's physical activity during recess and outside of school. Third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students (N = 270; 121 boys, age = 9.5 plus or minus 0.9 years; 150 girls, age = 9.6 plus or minus 0.9 years) wore sealed pedometers during a 15-minute recess period and outside of school for 4 consecutive…

  4. Clustering of Unhealthy Food around German Schools and Its Influence on Dietary Behavior in School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buck, Christoph; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann


    to investigate (1) the clustering of food outlets around schools and (2) the influence of junk food availability on the food intake in school children. Methods We geocoded food outlets offering junk food (e.g. supermarkets, kiosks, and fast food restaurants). Spatial cluster analysis of food retailers around......-HDR. Conclusion In the built environment of the German study region, clustering of food retailers does not depend on the location of schools. Additionally, the results suggest that the consumption of junk food in young children is not influenced by spatial availability of unhealthy food. However......Background The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy...


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    Nowak Agata


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  6. Observations on early school failure in Zulu children. (United States)

    Frets-Van Buuren, J J; Letuma, E; Daynes, G


    The outcome of the screening of 2,190 children who had to repeat the school entry grades (Substandard A) in 25 junior primary schools in two KwaZulu townships is reported and the implications are discussed. The high number of repeaters did not appear to be due to an excess of mentally retarded children, the percentage being similar to that which could be expected in such a community world-wide. Difficulty in intelligence testing was experienced, but we describe how this was overcome by testing speed of learning. Visual defects, hearing defects and having no food before school accounted for the failure of many repeaters. Lack of preschool teaching by parents and schools and very strict discipline necessitated by large classes and a wide range in ages, which both led to anxiety on the part of the pupils, and sending children to school at too young an age were regarded as additional factors. Simple interventions were suggested to the school teachers; more than 1,000 pupils were followed up, with encouraging results.

  7. Ophthalmic Morbidity in School Children in Hilly Areas of Uttarakhand

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    Surekha Kishore


    Full Text Available Introduction: School children constitute about one fourth of population of India. Early detection and treatment of various eye diseases helps in avoiding many complications. The magnitude of blindness is 3-4 times greater in developing countries. Very few studies have been conducted in Uttarakhand revealing the ophthalmic morbidity in school children or general population. Hilly areas especially the remote ones face various problems like, poor transportation facilities, distant health facilities, use of traditional methods for treatment, faith healing, customs and belief system, lack of information.  Moreover   water supply, poor personal hygiene and other factors also add up to these problems. Aim: To study the ophthalmic morbidities in school children in 3 schools of Thatyur block. Methodology: It was a cross sectional study. Result: A total of 705 students were enrolled. Permission from school authorities was seeked before the start of study. Schools were visited twice in a week current and preliminary information was taken from the students & teacher regarding education, occupation, income etc. General examination and ophthalmic examination was done with day & torch light along with refraction, with the help of standard Snellen’s chart. Each eye was examined separately. A vision of 6/6 was considered as normal. Near vision was tested with new vision Snellen’s chart at 12-14 inches away from eye.

  8. Formation of concept of decimal system in Mexican school children

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    L. Quintanar Rojas


    Full Text Available The present study deals with initial formation of concept of decimal system in second year of education at primary school in Mexico (City of Puebla. Our research is based on Activity Theory conception of teaching-learning process and of gradual introduction of scientific concepts in school age. The method has been designed and worked out with the help of actions in which logic, symbolic, spatial and mathematical aspects were implemented. All actions were introduced within divided activity of children in group guided by adult. A pretest-posttest design was used with an experimental group of Mexican school children. The results showed that children have developed the significant skills necessary for understanding the concept of decimal number system. They were also able to apply this concept for new kind if activity al the end of school year. Such new activity was solving of mathematic problems, which was not included in official school program. We consider that proposed method can be an approximation for solution of common difficulties which arise at primary school concerning teaching of mathematics.

  9. Confucius School, a National Strategy for Chinese Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Confucius Great educator, thinker, and founder of Confucianism, Confucius(551-479 B.C.) is regarded as having had the greatest innuence on the development of Chinese culture. He is believed to have had 3,000 students and 72 disciples, with whom he traveled the vassal states in ancient China for 14 years. He collated and compiled many ancient books,including the Book of Songs, the Book of History, the Book of Rites,and the Book of Music.

  10. Supporting Language in Schools: Evaluating an Intervention for Children with Delayed Language in the Early School Years (United States)

    Lee, Wendy; Pring, Tim


    Extensive evidence exists that many children who experience early socio-economic disadvantage have delayed language development. These delays have been shown to exist when children start school and appear to persist through their education. Interventions that can help these children are desirable to ease the difficulties they have in school and to…

  11. Visiting Again? Subjective Well-Being of Children in Elementary School and Repeated Visits to School Health Nurses (United States)

    Leaver, Cynthia A.


    Background: Children with vague complaints are without chronic illness, and who repeatedly visit the school nurse may be at risk for limited academic success. This study compares student reports of subjective well-being between children who do and do not repeatedly visit the school nurse with vague complaints. Methods: Children in grades 4 through…

  12. 49 CFR 372.103 - Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school. (United States)


    ... school children and teachers to or from school. 372.103 Section 372.103 Transportation Other Regulations... Exemptions § 372.103 Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from... motor vehicles being used at the time of operation in the transportation of schoolchildren and...

  13. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee


    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  14. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School (United States)

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman


    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  15. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna


    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  16. Cultural Relay in Early Childhood Education: Methods of Teaching School Behavior to Low-Income Children (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie C.


    There is a distinct class difference in the way that children are taught school behavior. Teachers in affluent schools use more implicit teaching techniques while teachers of low-income children are more explicit in their teaching of behavior. This stems largely from the alignment of the home culture of middle class children to school behavior and…

  17. The Development of Children's Ethnic Identity in Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada: The Role of Parenting Practices and Children's Perceptions of Parental Family Obligation Expectations (United States)

    Su, Tina F.; Costigan, Catherine L.


    Parents' role in children's ethnic identity development was examined among 95 immigrant Chinese families with young adolescents living in Canada. Children reported their feelings of ethnic identity and perceptions of parental family obligation expectations. Parents reported their family obligation expectations; parents and children reported on…

  18. Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia. (United States)

    Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Mahmud, Siti Zuraidah; Ambak, Rashidah; Sallehuddin, Syafinaz Mohd; Mutalip, Hatta Abdul; Saari, Riyanti; Sahril, Norhafizah; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abdul


    This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity.

  19. Pets, pica, pathogens and pre-school children


    Newton, R W; Stack, Tom; Blair, R. E.; Keel, J. C.


    The incidence of pica in pre-school children was investigated by studying 192 children attending a general paediatric hospital clinic and 69 attending a general practice surgery. The incidence of pica was twice as common in those who kept pets in both study groups. Half of the pet-keeping children with pica had eaten their pet's food. Imitative behaviour is suggested as a probable cause. Pet-keeping compounds a child's risk of infestation not only by providing close contact with a reservoir o...

  20. The development of associate learning in school age children.

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    Brian T Harel

    Full Text Available Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  1. Poly-helminth infection in east guatemalan school children

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    William C Sorensen


    Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.

  2. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children. (United States)

    Dobashi, Kazushige


    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  3. Dietary pattern and its association with the prevalence of obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors among Chinese children.

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    Xianwen Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of dietary pattern with chronic diseases has been investigated widely in western countries. However, information is quite limited among children in China. Our study is aimed to identify the dietary patterns of Chinese children and examine their association with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: A total of 5267 children were selected using multistage random sampling from 30 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in China. Dietary intake was derived from 24 hour dietary recall for three consecutive days. Anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profiles were obtained. Factor analysis combined with cluster analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. The associations of dietary patterns with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors were examined by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Three mutually exclusive dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as the healthy dietary pattern, the transitive dietary pattern, and the Western dietary pattern. Compared with children of the healthy dietary pattern, the multiple-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI of obesity were 1.11 (0.89-1.38 for children with the transitive dietary pattern and 1.80 (1.15-2.81 for children with the Western dietary pattern, which was 1.31 (95%CI 1.09-1.56 and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.13-2.56, respectively, for abdominal obesity. The Western dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<.001, triglycerides (P<.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0435 and fasting glucose (P = 0.0082 and a lower concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0023, as compared with the healthy dietary pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The Western dietary pattern characterized by red meat, eggs, refined grain and products, was positively associated with odds of obesity, the levels of plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein

  4. Chinese Children's Moral Evaluation of Lies and Truths-Roles of Context and Parental Individualism-Collectivism Tendencies. (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Brunet, Megan K; Lv, Yin; Ding, Xiaopan; Heyman, Gail D; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Lee, Kang


    The present study examined Chinese children's moral evaluations of truths and lies about one's own pro-social acts. Children ages 7, 9, and 11 were read vignettes in which a protagonist performs a good deed and is asked about it by a teacher, either in front of the class or in private. In response, the protagonist either tells a modest lie, which is highly valued by the Chinese culture, or tells an immodest truth, which violates the Chinese cultural norms about modesty. Children were asked to identify whether the protagonist's statement was the truth or a lie, and to evaluate how 'good' or 'bad' the statement was. Chinese children rated modest lies more positively than immodest truths, with this effect becoming more pronounced with age. Rural Chinese children and those with at least one nonprofessional parent rated immodest truths less positively when they were told in public rather than in private. Furthermore, Chinese children of parents with high collectivism scores valued modest lies more than did children of parents with low collectivism scores. These findings suggest that both macro- and micro-cultural factors contribute significantly to children's moral understanding of truth and lie telling.

  5. American and Chinese children's evaluations of personal domain events and resistance to parental authority. (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Wong, Mun; Ball, Courtney; Yau, Jenny


    A total of 267 five-, seven-, and ten-year-olds (M = 7.62), 147 in Hong Kong and 120 in the United States, evaluated hypothetical personal (and moral) events described as either essential or peripheral to actors' identity. Except for young Chinese in the peripheral condition, straightforward personal events were overwhelmingly evaluated as acceptable based on personal justifications. Children primarily endorsed compliance, but attributed negative emotions to actors when mothers forbade personal choices, especially when described as essential to identity. Conventional justifications declined among Chinese children and pragmatic justifications for these judgments increased with age for all children, as did judgments that personal events were up to the child. Rules were seen as more legitimate and events were seen as more up to mothers to decide for moral than personal events.

  6. Urban/Rural Disparity and Migrant Children's Education: An Investigation into Schools for Children of Transient Workers in Beijing (United States)

    Shaoqing, Lu; Shouli, Zhang


    In the study of compulsory education for transient children, Beijing Xingzhi School for the Children of Transient Workers is a good example. There is no question that this is the most well-known school to date for transient children in China, and it has to a certain extent become a symbol of this social issue. The initial reports regarding this…

  7. Time Concepts for Elementary School Children. (United States)

    Muir, Sharon Pray


    Points out that children have difficulty learning time concepts. Presents instructional activities for concepts associated with clocks, calendars, and chronology. Outlines Jerome Bruner's three different stages of representation for each concept: enactive, iconic, and symbolic. (DB)

  8. A Study of Reasoning Talk between Australian Chinese Mothers and Their Preschool Children: What Messages Are Mothers Sending? (United States)

    Hu, Jiangbo; Torr, Jane


    The everyday conversations that occur between mothers and children, particularly those involving reasoning, are a major vehicle for the transmission of information and values to young children. This study explored the manner in which five Australian Chinese mothers engaged in reasoning talk with their preschool-aged children. A total of 83…

  9. Fungal infection risk groups among school children

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    Elżbieta Ejdas


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ocurrence of fungi in children and living environment (city - countryside, sex, age, diet, undergone diseases therapy with antibiotics and exposure to hospital environment, and to indicate children potentially vulnerable to fungal infections. The material was consisted of swabs collected from the oral cavily, the throat and the nose of healthy children, aged 6-9 and 10-15, from both urban and rural environmens. Candida albicans, the basic aetiological factor in thc majority of mycoses recorded in humans, unquestionably prevailed in the group of the 13 speciec of yeast-like fungi and yeasts isolated. Records of C. glabrata and C. krusei increasing numbers of whose strains show resistance to basic antimycoties, as well as relatively frequent records of Trichosporon beigelii, Saccharomycopsis capsularis and Saccharomyces sp., fungi whose expansiveness and enzymatic activity have been growing, may be considered disconcerting. Vulnerability to fungal infection increases following anti-bacterial antibiotic therapy in the majority of subjects regardless season or age. This is particularly true primarily of the most stable ontocoenosis of the throat. Younger children, on the other hand, are the most vulnerable foUowing infection of the respiratory system. Fungi are likely to colonise the nose in this case. Children living in the countryside who had been ll immediately prior to the collection of the material constitute the highest risk group of the occurrence of fungi in any of the ontocoenoses studied. A greater number of positive inoculations were recorded in these children in comparison to the children from the city. It may be indicative of a more extensive spectrum of natural reservoirs of fungi and the vectors of their transmission in rural areas than those in the city, lower health hygiene and lower immunity or of a more common carriage of fungi among rural children.

  10. Parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, and level of acculturation of Chinese Americans in relation to their school-age child's weight status. (United States)

    Pai, Hsiao-Liang; Contento, Isobel


    Parents influence their child's eating behavior and attitudes directly as food providers and indirectly through their parental feeding styles and feeding concerns and practices. Chinese American parents' practices are likely influenced by culture. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, level of parental acculturation (LPA), and child weight status via a self-administered questionnaire. This survey study involved a convenience sample of 712 individuals who were parents of 5- to 10-year old children attending Chinese language after-school programs. The prevalence of overweight was 11.5% and obesity was 11.1%. LPA was not directly predictive of child overweight in multiple regression but from categorical data, Chinese American parents tended to use indulgent (33.2%) and authoritarian (27.9%) feeding styles, with the former increasing with acculturation and the latter decreasing. Indulgent parents had more than expected overweight and obese children, and authoritarian and authoritative parents, fewer. LPA was negatively predictive of pressure to eat healthy foods (p Parental perceptions and concerns about child weight were predictors of child weight. Consequently, parental concerns and responsiveness to child needs without also encouragement (demandingness) to eat healthy foods (indulgent feeding style) may promote overweight. The authoritative parental feeding style may contribute to children having healthy weights and therefore healthy lives.

  11. Hand Washing Practices among School Children in Ghana

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    M. Steiner-Asiedu


    Full Text Available The high incidence of diarrhoeal diseases and other communicable diseases among children due to poor personal hygiene and sanitation remains a concern on the public health agenda in most countries. To address the problem efficiently, an understanding of the knowledge and practices among target populations is needed to plan and design behavioural interventions. It is against this background that the present study was carried out to determine the hand washing practices among children in private and public school in the Metropolis in the Greater-Accra region of Ghana, with both private and public schools. A total of 295 school children were randomly recruited into the study. The study was cross-sectional in design and used qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographics. A check list was used during the observation of hand washing practices and an interview guide was used for the focus group discussions. The results showed that, most school children observed did not practice proper hand washing with soap, both in school and at home due to the unavailability and inaccessibility of hand washing facilities such as soap, towel and clean running water. However, majority (90.2% of those who used the school toilet practiced hand washing with soap after defecation. Private schools were found to be 63% (p = 0.02 less likely to wash their hands after using the toilet, 51% (p = 0.03 less likely to wash their hands before eating and 77% (p<0.001 less likely to wash their hands with soap after eating compared to their public school counterparts. Parents reported the presence of hand washing facilities at home but structured observations during home visits proved otherwise. The need to extend the hand washing campaigns to private schools cannot be overemphasised. It will be useful for the Ghana Education Service to collaborate with all stakeholders; such as Ghana Health Services, National

  12. Protecting the Rights of School Children with Diabetes (United States)

    Wood, James M.


    School children with diabetes are facing increasing difficulties in receiving care during the school day. Despite theexistence of federal statutes ensuring their rights to a free, appropriate public education, many school districts throughout the country do little, if anything, to ensure that their condition is treated throughout the school day. The chronic shortage of school nurses has resulted in hardships on families, relatives, and friends to ensure that care, including insulin, is timely and appropriately provided. While many states have taken measures to provide care by unlicensed trained volunteers, efforts to accomplish this in California have resulted in prolonged litigation. A variety of nursing organizations oppose all efforts to train unlicensed volunteers, arguing that such is not permitted by California law. The issue is unresolved and currently pending in the California Supreme Court. PMID:23566990

  13. Protecting the rights of school children with diabetes. (United States)

    Wood, James M


    School children with diabetes are facing increasing difficulties in receiving care during the school day. Despite theexistence of federal statutes ensuring their rights to a free, appropriate public education, many school districts throughout the country do little, if anything, to ensure that their condition is treated throughout the school day. The chronic shortage of school nurses has resulted in hardships on families, relatives, and friends to ensure that care, including insulin, is timely and appropriately provided. While many states have taken measures to provide care by unlicensed trained volunteers, efforts to accomplish this in California have resulted in prolonged litigation. A variety of nursing organizations oppose all efforts to train unlicensed volunteers, arguing that such is not permitted by California law. The issue is unresolved and currently pending in the California Supreme Court.

  14. Validation of a questionnaire to measure mastery motivation among Chinese preschool children. (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S K


    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents. Further, 44 children (39 boys and 5 girls) with developmental disabilities were recruited. The children were assessed on the cognitive sub-test of the Preschool Development Assessment Scale (PDAS). Their parents completed the task and effort motivation scales, as well as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Their teachers also completed the task and effort motivation scales. Rasch analysis results provided support for the unidimensionality of the parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales. The parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales correlated positively with the PDAS cognitive sub-test and the SDQ prosocial scale scores, and negatively with the SDQ total problem behavior scores. Children with developmental disabilities were assigned lower scores by their teachers and parents on the two motivation scales, compared with children with typical development. Reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of the parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales were above .70. The results suggested that the task and effort motivation scales were promising instruments for the assessment of motivation among Chinese preschool children.

  15. A preliminary study on nutritional status and intake in Chinese children with autism. (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Zhou, Yanjuan; Sun, Caihong; Wang, Jia; Wu, Lijie


    Parents of children with autism often report gastrointestinal problems as well as picky eating and selective eating in their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and the nutrient intake in 111 Chinese children with autism, aged between 2 and 9 years. Anthropometric data were expressed as Z scores. A 3-day dietary recall was provided by the parents, and the data were compared with the national Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) standards for Chinese children. The results showed that only nine of the autistic children (8.1%) were acute or chronically malnourished. From the remaining 102 patients, 67 (60.4%) were eutrophic and 35 (31.5%) had either overweight or obesity. Intakes of both calories and proteins were adequate in the vast majority of these children, but the calories from fat was lower than DRI in the same age group. The average intake of vitamin E and niacin exceeded 100% of DRI, and the intakes of vitamin B1 and B2, magnesium, and iron were between 80% and 90% of DRI range. However, the following nutrients did not meet the DRI requirements at all: vitamins A, B6 and C, folic acid, calcium, and zinc. Although growth was satisfactory in the vast majority of these children with autistic disorder, this study revealed serious deficiencies in the intakes of several vitamins and essential nutrients.

  16. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan (United States)

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi


    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  17. A Hidden Minority Becomes Visible: Romani Refugee Children in the Schools. (United States)

    Tamas, Judit


    Discusses educational concerns of Roma, or Gypsy, children in Canada. Provides background information on this minority group and discusses Roma attitudes toward education and Romani children's experiences in Eastern European schools. Provides suggestions for welcoming Romani children into new schools, including developing children's first and…

  18. Effects of Divorce on Children, Traits of Resiliency and School Intervention. (United States)

    Ackerman, Betty J.

    Gaining an awareness of the needs of children of divorce and how children achieve resilience should help students become well-adjusted and productive. This paper explores ways in which school systems and school counselors can meet the needs of these children. It portrays the effects of divorce on children by drawing on the literature, observations…

  19. The Impact of Pre-School on Young Children's Cognitive Attainments at Entry to Reception (United States)

    Sammons, Pam; Elliot, Karen; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda


    This article explores the impact of pre-school experience on young children's cognitive attainments at entry to primary school and analyses data collected as part of a wider longitudinal study, the Effective Provision of Pre-school Education (EPPE) project, which followed a large sample of young children attending 141 pre-school centres drawn from…

  20. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school

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    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de


    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (Magen=n6.09 years; 70 girls) participate

  1. Schooling of Immigrant Children in West Germany, Sweden, England (United States)

    Willke, I.


    The focus of this article is on children of migrant workers and immigrants in the schools of West Germany, Sweden and England. One central problem, that of language, is considered both as it is dealt with in policy, i. e., in curricula, and as it is actually implemented in some programs, which are typical for the actions in these countries.…

  2. Comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  3. Children and Natural Disasters: A Primer for School Psychologists (United States)

    Evans, Linda; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy


    Worldwide children are impacted by natural disasters, including hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, landslides and sandstorms, winter and severe storms, heat waves, volcanoes and tsunamis. School psychologists should understand natural disaster effects, such as economic loss, relocation and health concerns and mental health…

  4. Effects of Follow Through on School Fearfulness Among Black Children (United States)

    Rhine, W. Ray; Spencer, Leilani M.


    Results suggest some progress in formulating educational environments that reduce the level of school fearfulness among black children. Other studies should explore the differences in classroom atmosphere that nediate these encouraging results; i.e. patterns of pupil-teacher and pupil-pupil interaction. (Author/AM)

  5. Exploring Categorical Body Mass Index Trajectories in Elementary School Children (United States)

    Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody


    Background: Studies of body mass index (BMI) change have focused on understanding growth trajectories from childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood, but few have explored BMI trajectories solely in elementary (grades K-5) school children. This report complements these studies by exploring changes in obesity status using analytic…

  6. Preschool Predictors of Narrative Writing Skills in Elementary School Children (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Nelson, Lauren; Zeisel, Susan; Kasambira Fannin, Danai


    This study examined the preschool predictors of elementary school narrative writing skills. The sample included 65 typically developing African American children, ranging in age from 5.0 to 5.5 years, and was 44.6% male. Targeted preschool predictors included measures of phonological processing, core language abilities, prereading skills, and…

  7. Enhancing Home-School Collaboration through Children's Expression (United States)

    Yuen, Lai Ha


    There is a growing concern within the early childhood education sector to empower parents to support the education of young children. Research has shown the importance of home support in early childhood learning and development. Working within the context of a school improvement project, the researcher responded to parents' concerns towards…

  8. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt (United States)

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo


    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  9. Should Young School Children be Required to Study Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai; Jingting


    Now,more and more parents believe the theory that their children should take the lead as soon as possible at the starting line,requiring the young to study art in school.But after years,we witness the disadvantages of it.This essay states the drawbacks of this demand and exemplifies them through facts in daily life.

  10. Should Young School Children be Required to Study Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Jingting


    Now, more and more parents believe the theory that their children should take the lead as soon as possible at the starting line, requiring the young to study art in school. But after years, we witness the disadvantages of it. This essay states the drawbacks of this demand and exemplifies them through facts in daily life.

  11. Position Effects in Play Equipment Preferences of Nursery School Children. (United States)

    Witt, Peter A.; Gramza, Anthony F.

    With reference to the need for delineation of parameters operative in children's play, the position preferences of four groups of nursery school subjects were studied in a laboratory playroom. A large and small trestle were interchanged between center and corner positions in a series of play sessions. The frequency with which the subjects used…

  12. Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage. (United States)

    Grant, D. R. B.

    This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

  13. Family Background and School Achievement of Children with Motoric Disorders (United States)

    Radojlovic, Jasmina; Ilic-Stosovic, Danijela; Djonovic, Nela; Simovic, Tatjana


    There is no pedagogical literature about school achievement that does not include the family as a very important factor. Family and family relationships of children with motoric disorders are determined by the ability of parents and other family members to build an objective attitude toward the child with disability. That includes the construction…

  14. Metacomprehension and School-Aged Children's Reading: An Overview. (United States)

    Pace, Ann Jaffe

    Several research studies were reviewed to formulate a definition of metacomprehension in elementary school children. Although much additional research is needed, the one conclusion evident from the review is that metacomprehension is not a unitary phenomenon. It encompasses several kinds of abilities and degrees of awareness that may appear at…

  15. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie


    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  16. Opera as an Intervention for Rural Public School Children. (United States)

    McGinnis, Pearl Yeadon


    Describes Southwest Missouri State University's efforts to transform opera from an event that the audience simply watches to an event that stimulates life-long learning and interest in the arts for rural public school children. The project incorporates elements of experiential and interactive learning to benefit both the student performers and the…

  17. Innovative Financing for Out-of-School Children and Youth (United States)

    UNESCO Bangkok, 2015


    Despite government commitments to Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to improve access to education, more than 18 million primary-aged children remain out of school in the Asia-Pacific (UNESCO, 2014). Given the impact of education on individuals, societies, and economies, there is great urgency for governments to…

  18. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures? (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca


    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  19. Lexical Quality and Reading Comprehension in Primary School Children (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Isberner, Maj-Britt; Naumann, Johannes; Neeb, Yvonne


    In a cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between the quality of lexical representations and text comprehension skill in German primary school children (Grades 1-4). We measured the efficiency and accuracy of orthographical, phonological, and meaning representations by means of computerized tests. Text comprehension skill was…

  20. Developmentally Appropriate Soccer Activities for Elementary School Children (United States)

    Quinn, Ronald; Carr, David


    The sport of soccer has seen significant growth across multiple levels for the past two decades. Nowhere has this growth been more dramatic than at the youth level. It is estimated that well over 20 million children have some involvement with the game each year. As a result of this growth in community youth soccer, elementary school students are…