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Sample records for chinese rural children

  1. Social Exclusion and the Hidden Curriculum: The Schooling Experiences of Chinese Rural Migrant Children in an Urban Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donghui; Luo, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Since 2001, the Chinese government had passed a series of policies known as "the two primary responsibilities" to allow the rural migrant children to attend urban public schools. However, what the migrant children actually experienced in and after negotiating access to these schools deserves serious attention from educators, scholars and…

  2. Educational Equity and Institutional Safeguards: An Analysis of Compulsory Education for Chinese Rural Migrant Workers' Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xianzuo; Peng, Pai

    2008-01-01

    The educational inequity of rural workers' children is a unique social problem in the transition stage of China. Based on the specific survey in such provinces as Hubei, Henan, Anhui, and other provinces, a conclusion can be drawn that the reasons for the educational inequity of rural worker's children are very complicated, among which the system…

  3. Implication of World Health Organization growth standards on estimation of malnutrition in young Chinese children: Two examples from rural western China and the Tibet region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how malnutrition rates change in young Chinese children when 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards are used instead of 1978 WHO/National Center for Health Statistics reference. Cross-sectional survey data were used from rural western China and the Tibet region. The heights and weights of children of Tibet). The prevalence of underweight was lower in rural western China (7.7% vs. 11.7%) than rural Tibet (13.1% vs. 15.3%). For all ages, the prevalence of stunting increased and the greatest relative increase appeared in the first six months (102.9% in rural western China vs. 134.9% in rural Tibet). With respect to underweight, the relative increase occurred only during the first six months (314.3% in rural western China vs. 48.1% in rural Tibet); however, the reduction was observed in other age groups. For young Chinese Han and Tibetan children, the difference in estimation of malnutrition between two references differed in magnitude. The scale of change in the prevalence rates of stunting and underweight is much greater when 2006 reference was introduced.

  4. Life satisfaction of older Chinese adults living in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chi, Iris; Xu, Ling

    2013-06-01

    Guided by the socio-environmental theoretical framework, this study examined factors associated with life satisfaction experienced by older Chinese adults living in rural communities. The data used in this study were extracted from the Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China conducted by the China Research Center on Aging in 2000. This study included 10,084 rural older adults in mainland China. In this study 60.2 % of rural older adults were satisfied with their lives. Results from a multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that life satisfaction reported by rural older Chinese adults was significantly related to education, financial resources, self-rated health, financial support from children, satisfaction with children's support, house sitting for their children, visiting neighbors, and being invited to dinner by neighbors. Research and policy implications of these findings are also discussed.

  5. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  6. Academic Performance and Personality Traits of Chinese Children: "Onlies" versus Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Dudley L., Jr.; Falbo, Toni

    1990-01-01

    Using data from a 1987 survey of 1,460 schoolchildren, their parents and teachers, in urban and rural areas of Changchun, China, examines academic and personality outcomes in only children. Finds results similar to Western surveys: only children are more likely to be academically talented. Reveals, however, Chinese rural only children do not score…

  7. Openness to Experience as a Moderator of the Relationship between Intelligence and Creative Thinking: A Study of Chinese Children in Urban and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo eShi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Using testing and questionnaire methods, this study investigated the relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. This study focused on the moderating effects of openness to experience on the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking in a sample of 831 primary school students in China. The findings showed significant positive relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. In relation to the focus of this study, openness to experience moderated the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking. However, the correlation between openness to experience and creative thinking was stronger for urban children than for rural children, and the moderating effect existed only in urban settings.

  8. Openness to Experience as a Moderator of the Relationship between Intelligence and Creative Thinking: A Study of Chinese Children in Urban and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Baoguo; Dai, David Y; Lu, Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Using testing and questionnaire methods, this study investigated the relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. This study focused on the moderating effects of openness to experience on the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking in a sample of 831 primary school students in China. The findings showed significant positive relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. In relation to the focus of this study, openness to experience moderated the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking. However, the correlation between openness to experience and creative thinking was stronger for urban children than for rural children, and the moderating effect existed only in urban settings.

  9. Rural-Urban Differences of Dietary Patterns, Overweight, and Bone Mineral Status in Chinese Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Tian-Jiao; Bai, Ming-Jie

    2016-09-06

    China is an urban and rural social model country. In the past three decades, the developing speed of rural areas has been much slower than urban areas, which may lead to the differences in dietary patterns. This study aimed to investigate the disparities of dietary structures from urban and rural children, and to analyze the effects of different dietary patterns on their adverse outcome. Among 1590 students, aged 11 years to 17 years, from primary and middle schools, a cross-sectional study was conducted. There were three dietary patterns recognized: Westernization structure, meat diet structure, and Western and Chinese structure. Compared with rural students, more urban students were in the highest categories of the whole dietary patterns (p rural-urban disparity in dietary patterns was found in our study, and different dietary patterns were associated with the risk of some adverse outcomes. Therefore, there were different prevalences of the adverse outcomes between rural and urban students.

  10. Chinese Rural labors Transfer under the Coordination of Urban-Rural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The strategic significance of Chinese rural labor transfer is expounded.It is conducive to solving the three agricultural problems concerning agriculture,rural areas,and farmers and coordinating the urban and rural development;promoting the rational distribution of human resources and realizing the growth of national economy;restructuring industrial structure and improving Chinese market competitiveness.The problems in the transfer of Chinese rural labors are analyzed,which include the low overall cultural level of rural labors;imperfect organization developmental;weak management mechanism and imperfect supporting measures.The rational paths for Chinese rural labor transfer are pointed out,including break the urban and rural dual structure and realize the free move of rural labors;strengthen the organization construction to provide high-quality socialized service for rural labor transfer;perfect security system to foster favorable social environment for rural labor transfer;establish scientific management mechanism to realize the sustainable rural labor transfer.

  11. Nutrition in Chinese-Korean Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xiao Jian; XU Ya Tao; JI Liu; JI Cheng Ye

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the nutrition habits among Chinese-Korean children and adolescents in Yanbian Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin, China. MethodsData were obtained from the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 for Chinese-Korean children and adolescents aged 7-18 years.The number of the subjects included was 4789, 4704, 5875, and 5315, respectively. ResultsThe rate of the occurrence of stunting showed a declining trend from 1995 to 2010 (for boys:urban, 6.3%; rural, 12.7% in 1995 and 3.5% for both in 2010. For girls: urban, 7.8%; rural, 13.4% in 1995 and 4.2% and 5.5%, respectively, in 2010). Although the ratio of wasting did not show significant differences between the urban and rural children and adolescents in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 respectively, the ratio of occurrence of overweight or obesity increased (for boys: urban, 7.3% and 1.3%in 1995, 17.6% and 12.9% in 2010; rural, 7.0% and 1.3% in 1995, 14.6% and 12.8% in 2010, respectively. For girls: urban, 8.1% and 1.0% in 1995, 17.3% and 8.6% in 2010; rural 5.7% and 0.7% in 1995, 16.4%and 7.4% in 2010, respectively). ConclusionThe ratio of malnutrition in children and adolescents in Chinese-Korean areas declined from 1995 to 2010, and the distinction in malnutrition between the urban and rural areas was negligible in 2010. Further, the ratio of overweight and obesity increased over this period.

  12. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  13. Chinese rural reform:experience,problems and the future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊

    2009-01-01

    Chinese rural reform has made great achievements and accumulated a wealth of experience since the beginning of reform and opening up 30 years ago.At the core is the rapid and sustained development of the national economy.Currently,there are obstacles in rural reform;for example,the supply and demand of primary products are frequently out of balance,shortages of rural labor occur thanks to structural problems on the supply side,and the equality system between rural and urban citizens has yet to be established.Therefore,to make important breakthroughs,we must change our ideas of controlling the food market;we must improve rural land policy, loosen rural financial supervision,adjust the fiscal expense structure,protect farmers’ legal rights and interests,accelerate the building-up of democracy at the grassroots level,and intensify overall planning and coordination.

  14. Intergenerational and Urban-Rural Health Habits in Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Cao, Haijun; Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore intergenerational health habits and compare differences between urban and rural families. Methods: A total of 2500 families with children ages 6-18 in China were surveyed regarding their health habits. Results: Urban families reported significantly greater food variety and more time exercising (for fathers and children) than…

  15. Distribution and Determinants of Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Rural Chinese Twins across the Lifespan

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    Yuelong Ji

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma homocysteine (Hcy is a modifiable, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD and is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to describe the gender- and age-specific distribution of Hcy concentration for 1117 subjects aged 10–66 years, a subset of a community-based rural Chinese twin cohort. In addition, we examined environmental and genetic contributions to variances in Hcy concentration by gender and age groups. We found that the distribution pattern for Hcy varied by both age and gender. Males had higher Hcy than females across all ages. Elevated Hcy was found in 43% of male adults and 13% of female adults. Moreover, nearly one fifth of children had elevated Hcy. Genetic factors could explain 52%, 36% and 69% of the variation in Hcy concentration among children, male adults and female adults, respectively. The MTHFR C677T variant was significantly associated with Hcy concentrations. Smokers with the TT genotype had the highest Hcy levels. Overall, our results indicate that elevated Hcy is prevalent in the children and adults in this rural Chinese population. The early identification of elevated Hcy will offer a window of opportunity for the primary prevention of CVD and metabolic syndrome.

  16. Loneliness in Chinese children across contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Li, Dan; Liu, Junsheng

    2014-10-01

    This study examined loneliness and its associations with social functioning in children across different historical times and contexts in China. We collected data from urban and rural groups of school-age children (N = 2,588; M age = 10 years) using self-reports and peer assessments. The results indicated that children in 2002 and 2005 urban groups had lower scores on loneliness than did children in 1992 and 1998 urban groups, suggesting that as urban China became a more modernized, self-oriented society, children tended to report lower levels of loneliness. Consistent with this trend, urban children reported lower levels of loneliness than did their rural counterparts in recent years. The analysis of associations between social functioning and loneliness revealed that across groups, sociability was negatively associated with loneliness, and aggression was positively associated with loneliness. The association between shyness and loneliness differed among the groups; it was negative in the 1992 urban group, positive in the 2002 and 2005 urban groups, and nonsignificant in the 1998 urban and 2007 rural groups. The different associations suggest that whether shy children feel lonely might depend on context.

  17. Study of hearing screening for rural school children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolu Li; Xingkuan Bu; Carlie Driscoll

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop an appropriate mass screening system to evaluate hearing loss for primary school children, especially in rural areas. Methods: In Jiangsu Province, at a rural primary school-Longdu Primary School, 317 of 479 rural students (from Grade 1 to Grade 6, over 50 students for each grade) were screened by, using the Chinese Hearing Questionnaire for School Children (CHQS). Two weeks later, they accepted transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) test. At the same time, all participants were given a 'gold standard' audiological assessment that comprised of otoscopy, pure tone, and tympanometry. After eight weeks, 103 out of the 317 students accepted the second TEOAEs and 'gold standard' test to confirm the results. Results: There was no statistical difference in the results of two 'gold standard' test (χ2 = 0.14, 0.5 < P < 0.75). Compared with the 'gold standard' results, the hit rate, sensitivity, specificity of the CHQS was 57% ± 2.78%, 61% ± 10.18%, 57%± 2.89% respectively(α = 0.43, β = 0.39). Youden Index J, LR+, LR-, PV+ and PV- was 0.18 ± 0.11, 1.42, 0.68, 0.10, 0.95(Az < 0.54, EF = 0.75-0.95). While a higher system accuracy was obtained by TEOAEs [HR = 97 ± 0.71%, Sen = 69 ± 7.8%,Spe = 98 ± 0.52%(α = 0.02, β = 0.31), Youden Index J = 0.67 ± 0.08, LR+ = 34.5, LR- = 0.32, PV+ = 0.71, PV- = 0.99(Az = 0.85, EF = 0.97)]. Conclusion: TEOAEs got a high efficiency and specificity values with reasonable sensitivity. However,CHQS needs substantial modifications to improve its sensitivity in evaluating hearing loss.

  18. Enlightenment from ancient Chinese urban and rural stormwater management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che; Qiao, Mengxi; Wang, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of years ago, the ancient Chinese implemented several outstanding projects to cope with the changing climate and violent floods. Some of these projects are still in use today. These projects evolved from the experience and knowledge accumulated through the long coexistence of people with nature. The concepts behind these ancient stormwater management practices, such as low-impact development and sustainable drainage systems, are similar to the technology applied in modern stormwater management. This paper presents the cases of the Hani Terrace in Yunnan and the Fushou drainage system of Ganzhou in Jiangxi. The ancient Chinese knowledge behind these cases is seen in the design concepts and the features of these projects. These features help us to understand better their applications in the contemporary environment. In today's more complex environment, integrating traditional and advanced philosophy with modern technologies is extremely useful in building urban and rural stormwater management systems in China.

  19. Secular Changes of Stature in Rural Children and Adolescents in China, 1985-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tian Jiao; JI Cheng Ye

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze and assess secular change in stature in rural children and adolescents in China from 1985 to 2010. Methods Data were obtained from the 6 rounds of the Chinese National Survey on Student’s Constitution and Health. The subjects enrolled in the study were children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in rural areas of provincial capitals. Results An overall positive secular trend in stature occurred in rural areas of provincial capitals in China from 1985 to 2010. The overall average increase rates were 3.1 and 2.4 cm/decade for boys and girls, respectively. The total body height increases for grown up boys and girls were 3.6 and 2.3 cm and the increase rates were 1.4 and 0.9 cm/decade, respectively. There were differences in body height increase among eastern, central and western regions. The average body height of the children or adolescents in eastern region was highest, followed by central region and western region. The overall increase rates in central region were highest among the three regions. The difference between eastern/central region and western region was obvious. Conclusion Positive secular trend in stature of children or adolescents has occurred in rural area of China, and rural boys and girls showed a great potential for continuous growth. More attention should be paid to the differences in children’s body height between western region and eastern/central region.

  20. Patterns and Determinants of Double-Burden of Malnutrition among Rural Children: Evidence from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    Full Text Available Chinese children are facing dual burden of malnutrition-coexistence of under-and over-nutrition. Little systematic evidence exists for explaining the simultaneous presence of under-and over-nutrition. This study aims to explore underlying mechanisms of under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. This study used a nationwide longitudinal dataset of children (N = 5,017 from 9 provinces across China, with four exclusively categories of nutritional outcomes including under-nutrition (stunting and underweight, over-nutrition (overweight only including obesity, paradox (stunted overweight, with normal nutrition as reference. Multinomial logit models (Level-1: occasions; Level-2: children; Level-3: villages were fitted which corrected for non-independence of observations due to geographic clustering and repeated observations of individuals. A mixture of risk factors at the individual, household and neighbourhood levels predicted under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. Improved socioeconomic status and living in more urbanised villages reduced the risk of stunted overweight among rural children in China. Young girls appeared to have higher risk of under-nutrition, and the risk decreased with age more markedly than for boys up to age 5. From age 5 onwards, boys tended to have higher risk of under-nutrition than girls. Girls aged around 12 and older were less likely to suffer from under-nutrition, while boys' higher risk of under-nutrition persisted throughout adolescence. Children were less likely to suffer from over-nutrition compared to normal nutrition. Boys tended to have an even lower risk of over-nutrition than girls and the gender difference widened with age until adolescence. Our results have important policy implications that improving household economic status, in particular, maternal education and health insurance for children, and living environment are important to enhance rural children's nutritional status in

  1. HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN IN PUDUCHERRY”

    OpenAIRE

    Basanta Kumar; Saubhagya Kumar; Shakthipriya; Anugya Aparajita; Soumya

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: AIM: To assess the hygiene practices among rural school children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross - sectional study was conducted at Government higher secondary school in rural ar ea of Puducherry. METHODS AND MATERIAL : Around 214 children studying in standard 6 th to 8 th were randomly selected for the study during June to August 2011. The study was explained to the school children and their assent was taken before the study. They an...

  2. Parenting practice and children's well-being in rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mengtong; 陈孟彤.

    2016-01-01

    Parental absence is generally linked to poorer child well-being. In China, over 61 million rural children are left behind with other caregivers when one or both parents have to migrate to urban areas to work. A meta-analysis of 106 empirical studies reveals that left-behind children in rural China are generally more disadvantaged compared with non-left-behind children, in regard to psychological adjustment, behavioral health, school-related outcomes, child safety, and other protective outcome...

  3. The Supply-Demand Analysis and Mechanism Innovation of Chinese Rural Public Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The connotation of rural public goods is expounded.The rural public goods refer to the products and labors that satisfy the production and living of rural residents,economic growth and social progress.The rural public goods is characterized by non-excludability,non-competitiveness and indispensability of other general public goods.The supply situation of Chinese government to rural public goods is analyzed,as well as the demand situation of rural public goods,which includes farmers’ demand on training,the assistance demand of rural weak groups,farmers’ demand on comfortable living conditions and farmers’ demand on "soft" public goods.The paths for innovating the supply mechanism of rural public goods are put forward,which cover perfecting the decision mechanism of public goods supply;scientifically distributing the supply responsibility of rural public goods;facilitating the reform of each supporting equipment and exploring the multiple capital collecting channels of rural public goods.

  4. Rural-urban area of residence and trajectories of children׳s behavior in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midouhas, Emily; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-11-01

    Despite extensive studies of neighborhood effects on children׳s outcomes, there is little evidence on rural-urban impacts on child mental health. We modeled trajectories of emotional-behavioral problems of white majority children at ages 3, 5, and 7 in England in areas with varying levels of rural and urban settlement, using the Millennium Cohort Study. After adjusting for area selection, children in less sparse rural areas had fewer conduct and peer problems, and children in areas with a mix of rural and urban settlement had fewer emotional symptoms, explained by the quality of their schools. Area differences remained in emotional problems.

  5. A comparative study on the extracurricularreading environment of urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaozhao; DENG; Haiyan; YAO; Shubei; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: So far, there have been few studies that discussed children’s reading environment in China’s poverty-stricken areas, this study aims to explore differences existed in extracurricular reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area with empirical evidence.Design/methodology/approach: Using a questionnaire survey, empirical data was collected from 105 participants. Then proposed hypotheses and the reliability of the observation variables were respectively examined with ANOVA and factor analysis. The statistical analysis software SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data.Findings: Our results showed that 1) differences did exist in school and social reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area; 2) differences in family reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area were not obviously observed.Research limitations: The empirical data were collected from only one county of Chongqing Reservoir Area, which may have partially affected the generalization of our conclusions. In addition, the response rate of questionnaires was comparatively low due to a relatively limited research period. Practical implications: This study would provide some reference for governments, libraries, schools and families to consider how to jointly narrow the gap in the extracurricular reading circumstance between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area.Originality value: This is one of the first studies to explore similarities and differences in extracurricular reading environment between urban and rural children in Chinese povertystricken areas, which will help research communities to gain a deeper understanding of children’s reading environment in Chinese Reservoir Area.

  6. Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

    Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

  7. Predicting Children's Asthma Hospitalizations: Rural and Urban Differences in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineski, Sara E.

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is the number one chronic health condition facing children today; however, little is known about rural-urban inequalities in asthma. This "area effects on health" study examines rural-urban differences in childhood asthma hospitalizations within the state of Texas using negative binomial regression models. Effects associated with…

  8. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  9. 看护人营养知识与儿童饮食行为的关系%Relationship between caregivers' nutritional knowledge and children's dietary behavior in Chinese rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾嵘; 罗家有; 谭彩; 杜其云; 张维敏; 李艳萍

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨我国农村地区看护人营养知识与儿童饮食行为的关系.方法:采用询问调查方法,对随机选择的3361名看护人及其所照看儿童(2~7岁)进行问卷调查;采用logistic回归分析方法分析看护人营养知识与儿童饮食行为的关系.结果:看护人营养知识知晓率为57.9%;儿童不良饮食行为发生率:不喝牛奶79.6%,偏食挑食66.0%,吃零食84.1%,不吃早餐24.4%,不按时就餐13.7%; Logistic回归分析结果显示:看护人营养知识水平低是其所照看儿童不饮食行为(吃零食除外),如不喝牛奶(OR=1.665)、偏食挑食(OR=1.338)、不吃早餐(OR=1.330)和不按时就餐(OR=1.582)等的危险因素.结论:看护人营养知识与儿童不良饮食行为有关,应大力开展看护人营养知识健康教育,以促进儿童养成良好的饮食行为.%Objective: To explore the relationship between caregivers' nutritional knowledge and children's dietary behavior in rural areas of China.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted.3361 rural caregivers and their children,aged 2 to 7 years old,were selected randomly and surveyed by questionnaire.Logistic regression models were used to identify the relationship between caregivers' nutritional knowledge and the children's dietary behaviors.Results: The awareness level of nutritional knowledge among rural caregivers was 57.9%; among the children surveyed,79.6% did not like to drink milk,66.0% were considered choosy of food,84.1% regularly snacked,24.4% frequently skipped breakfast,and 13.7% did not come to meals on time.Logistic regression models indicated that a caregiver with a low level of nutritional knowledge is a risk factor for a child's unhealth dietary behaviors (snacking excepted): the odds ratios (OR) of not liking to drink milk,being choosy about food,skipping breakfast or not having meals on time are 1.665,1.338,1.330 and 1.582,respectively.Conclusion: Caregivers' nutritional knowledge

  10. Sun exposure patterns of urban, suburban, and rural children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sun exposure is the main etiology of skin cancer. Differences in skin cancer incidence have been observed between rural and urban populations. OBJECTIVES: As sun exposure begins in childhood, we examined summer UVR exposure doses and sun behavior in children resident in urban, suburban......, and rural areas. METHODS: Personal, electronic UVR dosimeters and sun behavior diaries were used during a summer (3.5 months) by 150 children (4-19 years of age) resident in urban, suburban, and rural areas. RESULTS: On school/kindergarten days rural children spent more time outdoors and received higher UVR...... doses than urban and suburban children (rural: median 2.3 h per day, median 0.9 SED per day, urban: median 1.3 h per day, median 0.3 SED per day, suburban: median 1.5 h per day, median 0.4 SED per day) (p ≤ 0.007). Urban and suburban children exhibited a more intermittent sun exposure pattern than rural...

  11. A study of food buying behavior among Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.; Li, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports a study on food buying behaviour among Chinese children aged between 10-13 years old. There are two important findings. Firstly, the growing influence of commercial environment. During the learning of consumer behaviour by Chinese children, the parental role of guidance remains prominent, and their recommendations have a decisive impact on children’s food choices. Secondly, the perceived importance of product attributes. Chinese children tend to pay more attention to nutr...

  12. Chinese Children's Moral Evaluation of Lies and Truths-Roles of Context and Parental Individualism-Collectivism Tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Brunet, Megan K; Lv, Yin; Ding, Xiaopan; Heyman, Gail D; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Lee, Kang

    2010-10-01

    The present study examined Chinese children's moral evaluations of truths and lies about one's own pro-social acts. Children ages 7, 9, and 11 were read vignettes in which a protagonist performs a good deed and is asked about it by a teacher, either in front of the class or in private. In response, the protagonist either tells a modest lie, which is highly valued by the Chinese culture, or tells an immodest truth, which violates the Chinese cultural norms about modesty. Children were asked to identify whether the protagonist's statement was the truth or a lie, and to evaluate how 'good' or 'bad' the statement was. Chinese children rated modest lies more positively than immodest truths, with this effect becoming more pronounced with age. Rural Chinese children and those with at least one nonprofessional parent rated immodest truths less positively when they were told in public rather than in private. Furthermore, Chinese children of parents with high collectivism scores valued modest lies more than did children of parents with low collectivism scores. These findings suggest that both macro- and micro-cultural factors contribute significantly to children's moral understanding of truth and lie telling.

  13. Research and Analysis on Difference in Per Capita Net Income of Chinese Rural Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; XUE; Yeping; ZHU; Huili; YUE

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to understand the variation of difference in per capita net income of rural residents during China’s economic development in recent years. The writer studies and analyzes rural residents’ income gap between 1997 and 2008 with relevant theories of income difference and the calculation of absolute difference index as well as relative difference index and obtains the conclusion that absolute difference of Chinese rural residents’ income experienced an upward trend while relative difference generally remained constant with slight fluctuation and growth, which reflects that rural residents’ income gap is increasing gradually. The writer also puts forward some related proposals and countermeasures.

  14. General report on the status of Chinese rural migrant workers and their development trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊; 崔传义; 金三林

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the rural migrant worker issue in China since reform and opening-up began. Firstly,utilizing substantial investigation,the authors analyze the new characteristics of Chinese rural migrant workers;Secondly,authors analyze the migrant workers’ contributions to reshaping the rural landscape and to driving China’s economic development and social structural change;Finally,using a quantitative analysis model,they examine the long-term trends of rural migrant workers and their interactions with macroeconomic and social development.

  15. Self-Concept among Hearing Chinese Children of Deaf Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lik Man; Lui, Brian

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 42 Hong Kong Chinese deaf couples, their 70 hearing children, 41 hearing couples, and their 82 hearing children. No differences were found in the self-concepts of children of deaf parents compared to children of hearing parents, but deaf parents reported lower self-concepts than hearing parents. (Author/JDD)

  16. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  17. Selenium Level and Dyslipidemia in Rural Elderly Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Su

    Full Text Available Higher selenium level has been hypothesized to have the potential to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases including dyslipidemia. However, results from previous studies are inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association between selenium level and dyslipidemia in elderly Chinese with relatively low selenium status.A cross-sectional study of 1859 participants aged 65 or older from four rural counties in China was conducted. Serum total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC, nail selenium concentration and APOE genotype were measured in all subjects. The four types of dyslipidemia were defined as >5.17 mmol/L for High-TC, >1.69 mmol/L for High-TG, >3.36 mmol/L for High-LDLC, and <1.04 mmol/L for Low-HDLC according to Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults. Logistic models adjusting for age, gender, APOE genotype, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, medication use for cardiovascular diseases were used to examine the relationship between selenium levels and the risk of dyslipidemia.Mean nail selenium concentration was 0.465 μg/gin this sample. Rates for High-TC, High-LDLC, High-TG, Low-HDLC were 18.13%, 13.23%, 12.21% and 32.76% respectively. Results from logistic models indicated that higher selenium levels were significantly associated with higher risk of High-TC, High-LDLC and lower risk of Low-HDLC adjusting for covariates (p < 0.0001. Compared with the lowest selenium quartile group, participants in selenium quartile groups 2, 3 and 4 had significantly higher rates of High-TC, High-LDLC, High-TG, and lower rate of Low-HDLC adjusting for covariates. No significant association was observed between selenium level and the risk of High-TG. APOEε4 carriers had higher rates of High-TC and High-LDLC. There was no interaction between selenium level and APOE with the rates of

  18. 中国七省农村地区1~7岁儿童饮食行为及其与生长发育的关系%Relationship between dietary behaviors and growth-development of 1-7 years old children from seven provinces in Chinese rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欢; 罗米扬; 王质蕙; 罗家有; 石艳玲

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解我国农村地区1~7岁儿童饮食行为及其与生长发育的关系,为儿童饮食行为干预提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样选择13692名1~7岁农村儿童,对其进行问卷调查和体格测量;采用x2检验,多因素非条件logistic回归分析等方法分析饮食行为与生长发育的关系.结果 在被调查者中,53.1%偶尔或从不饮牛奶/豆奶,48.1%几乎每天吃零食,22.5%挑食,7.3%偶尔或从不吃早餐,1.9%不能按时就餐.多因素非条件logistic回归分析显示:偶尔或从不吃早餐、偶尔或从不饮牛奶/豆奶、偶尔或从不吃零食与儿童生长迟缓有关;偶尔或从不吃早餐、偶尔或从不吃零食与儿童低体重有关;消瘦和超重/肥胖与饮食行为没有关联.结论 农村地区儿童不良饮食行为发生率较高,且不良饮食行为与儿童生长迟缓、低体重等有关.%Objective To explore the status of dietary behaviors of 1-7 years old children and its relationship with growth-development in Chinese rural areas and to provide scientific evidences for corresponding intervention.Methods 13 692 1-7 years old children from seven provinces in Chinese rural areas were randomly identified by multistage stratified cluster sampling.The ascertainment methods included face to face questionnaires and anthropometric measurements.Chi-square test and non-conditional logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between dietary behaviors and growth-development.Results Among the respondents,53.1% occasionally/never drank milk/soymilk,48.1% ate snacks almost everyday,22.5% were picky eaters,7.3% were breakfast-skippers,1.9% couldn't dine on time.Multivariate nonconditional logistic regression analysis showed that occasionally/never have breakfast,occasionally/never drink milk or soymilk,occasionally/never eat snacks were associated with stunting.Occasionally/never have breakfast or eat snacks

  19. Comparison of psychomotor development in urban and rural preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amouzadeh Khalili

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Baekgrouund & purpose: The purpose of this study was comparing the motor and cognitive development of urban and rural preschool children in Semnan, Iran.Materials and Methods: 97 healthy preschool children participated in the study, including 57 urban (n1=57 and 40 rural (n2=40 children.6 assessment methods including equilibrium on one leg, drawing a man, Juorchin, fekr-e-bekr, equilibrium board and the test of easy fine motor, were employed to evaluate the motor and cognitive development in the participants.For analysis of the obtained results t tests was used to determine significant differences between the two groups.Results:equilibrium on one leg and the test of easy fine motor, considering there was significant differences between, urban and rural groups.In the other four tests there was no significant differences between the two groups.Conclusion: the findings indicated that the rural children have more success in motor skills when compared to urban children, while in cognitive tests the two groups showed the same results, indicating. That revision is required for the preschool programme

  20. How to Develop Chinese Rural Tourism in the Context of New Urbanization?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingbing LIU; Chenghao REN

    2016-01-01

    With economic development,the type and form of tourism products are constantly innovated,and rural tourism has become one of the main travel choices of contemporary Chinese people. In 2014,China formulated National New Urbanization Plan,providing a new opportunity for development of rural tourism. In this paper,we first summarize the development situation and connotation of new urbanization and rural tourism,then discuss the mutually reinforcing interaction between the two,analyze the main problems in Chinese rural tourism under new urbanization,and finally put forth the recommendations,in order to better meet the needs of new urbanization,and strive to create a new model of tourism urbanization.

  1. New Paths to Learning for Rural Children and Youth: Nonformal Education for Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Philip H.; And Others

    Designed to provide developing nations and government agencies with information on nonformal education, this study presents general guidelines on how to: (1) assess the needs within a given country for rural children and youth; (2) plan effective/economic programs to meet these needs; (3) develop means to evaluate and strengthen such programs; and…

  2. Chinese Rural Women’s Decision-Making Status in Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    THE decision-making status of rural women in families is an important aspect which reflects the degree of their participation in development. Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women represent over the past 10 years has witnessed the gradual maturation of the production-related contract responsibility system in Chinese rural areas. Family functions have been further strengthened in both productive and social development in basic units such as production, consumption and trade. The period has been an important time for the rapid development of Chinese township

  3. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung

    2004-01-01

    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  4. Building New Educational Strategies to Serve Rural Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Philip H.; Ahmed, Manzoor

    Summarizing the International Council for Educational Development's (ICED) second report on the study of nonformal education for rural youth and children, this draft of the second report outlines the substance of each chapter and the main findings, conclusions, and recommendations. This summary does not include the detailed evidence,…

  5. Opera as an Intervention for Rural Public School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Pearl Yeadon

    2003-01-01

    Describes Southwest Missouri State University's efforts to transform opera from an event that the audience simply watches to an event that stimulates life-long learning and interest in the arts for rural public school children. The project incorporates elements of experiential and interactive learning to benefit both the student performers and the…

  6. Innovative Methods for Serving Rural Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Glenn; Burnham, Julia

    1985-01-01

    Some innovative methods of serving the rural handicapped population are described: volunteers; telecommunications for home instruction; SPECIALNET electronic mail; and resources for parents. Three cases involving Utah's Cooperative Extension Project for the Handicapped summarize services for handicapped and Indian students. (GDC)

  7. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  8. Internal migration, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Chiu, Helen F. K.; Chan, Sandra S. M.; Yu, Xin; Caine, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is a dearth of data on the association of internal migration with mental health in young rural Chinese. This study aims to explore the associations between migrant status, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese. Methods We recruited 1,646 rural subjects aged 16–34 years, of whom 756 were migrant workers and 890 non-migrants, from ten representative villages in rural Sichuan Province, the southwestern part of China. To assess subject's depressive symptoms and general psychological quality of life (psycho-QOL), the study protocol included the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and psycho-QOL subscale of the World Health Organization's QOL Questionnaire-Brief Version, in addition to structured questions regarding one-year suicidal thoughts and behaviors (serious ideation, plan, and attempt), socio-demographic, social support, and physical health information. Results After adjustment for confounders, migrant workers had relative to non-migrant rural residents a decreased risk for depression (OR = 0.69, P = 0.026), but comparable risk for poor psycho-QOL (OR = 0.91, P = 0.557) and one-year suicidal behaviors (OR = 0.59–1.10, P = 0.19–0.90). Migrant status only accounted for 0.5, 2.8, 4.7, 9.8, and 12.6 % of the total explainable variance for suicide attempt, poor psycho-QOL, suicide plan, depression and serious suicide ideation, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggested that among young rural Chinese there were no significant associations involving migrant status and poor psycho-QOL or one-year suicidal behaviors, while migrant status significantly correlated with a decreased risk of depression. The unique contribution of migrant status to mental health among young rural Chinese participants in this study was very small. PMID:25403568

  9. From subsistence farming towards a multifunctional agriculture: sustainability in the Chinese rural reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prändl-Zika, Veronika

    2008-04-01

    The rural economic situation in China-with a living standard mostly at subsistence level-lags far behind the prosperous development in the cities and coastal areas. To balance this disequilibrium, comprehensive concepts and endeavors are necessary keeping in view all-not just economic-interests and needs that contribute to lively rural identities. In this context the role of agriculture, where still 50% of the Chinese population are working, will be newly defined, and sustainability concepts can help to find a readjusted position within the Chinese economy focusing on environmental health and food safety as main targets of political and other supporting measures. Within the SUCCESS project, a Concept of Sustainable Agriculture was developed and it drafts one conceivable relation between the exposure to natural resources and economy and tries to find new answers to the broad range of rural challenges in China. It is a qualitative model and, therefore, not always fully applicable, but in the concrete situation of villages, it shows possible directions of sustainability-oriented development by considering the typical local potentials. In the Chinese context that means identifying the different functions of agriculture-the well-known and the hidden-to make them explicit for the Chinese public and therewith to give them new significance. The article is based on a 3-years study within the EU-China Project SUCCESS with field research in four Chinese rural communities. It analyzes the agricultural sustainability potential of these selected villages against the background of massive structural changes within the next 20 years in rural China. Starting from the current agricultural reality, based on a qualitative analysis of the actual situation, local potentials and needs towards sustainable production and marketing are identified, and possible functions of the Chinese agriculture are formulated for the future.

  10. Association of ambient air quality with children`s lung function in urban and rural Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgari, M.M.; Dubois, A.; Beckett, W.S. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Asgari, M. [Shaheed Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gent, J. [John B. Pierce Lab., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1998-05-01

    During the summer of 1994, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, in which the pulmonary function of children in Tehran was compared with pulmonary function in children in a rural town in Iran, was conducted. Four hundred children aged 5--11 y were studied. Daytime ambient nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter were measured with portable devices, which were placed in the children`s neighborhoods on the days of study. Levels of these ambient substances were markedly higher in urban Tehran than in rural areas. Children`s parents were questioned about home environmental exposures (including heating source and environmental tobacco smoke) and the children`s respiratory symptoms. Pulmonary function was assessed, both by spirometry and peak expiratory flow meter. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity--as a percentage of predicted for age, sex and height--were significantly lower in urban children than in rural children. Both measurements evidenced significant reverse correlations with levels of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. Differences in spirometric lung function were not explained by nutritional status, as assessed by height and weight for age, or by home environmental exposures. Reported airway symptoms were higher among rural children, whereas reported physician diagnosis of bronchitis and asthma were higher among urban children. The association between higher pollutant concentrations and reduced pulmonary function in this urban-rural comparison suggests that there is an effect of urban air pollution on short-term lung function and/or lung growth and development during the preadolescent years.

  11. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in children living in city and rural residences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Knudsen, Lisbeth Ehlert; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences.......The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences....

  12. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  13. Working Memory Differences between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and…

  14. Acculturative Stress of Chinese Rural-To-Urban Migrant Workers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bao-Liang; Liu, Tie-Bang; Huang, Jian-Xing; Fung, Helene H.; Chan, Sandra S. M.; Conwell, Yeates; Chiu, Helen F. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Global literature has suggested a negative impact of acculturative stress on both physical and mental health among international migrants. In China, approximately 20 percent of its population is rural-to-urban migrant workers and there are significant cultural differences between rural and urban societies, but no data are available regarding the acculturative stress of Chinese migrant workers. This study aimed to explore the forms and contexts of acculturative stress among Chinese migrant workers. Methods Qualitative data were collected from four focus group discussions with 17 Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers and three individual interviews with three medical professionals who provided mental health services for factory-workers in Shenzhen, China. Results The data in the current study showed that rural-to-urban migrant workers in China had experienced various forms of acculturative stress including difficulties in adapting to the environment, work-related stress, family-related stress, financial hardship, and lack of sense of belonging to cities. Conclusion Rural-to-urban migration in China is a challenging transition with significant acculturative stress and demands for major adjustments among migrant workers. The assessment and management of acculturative stress is a necessary first step in providing mental health services to migrant workers. PMID:27300005

  15. Acculturative Stress of Chinese Rural-To-Urban Migrant Workers: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Liang Zhong

    Full Text Available Global literature has suggested a negative impact of acculturative stress on both physical and mental health among international migrants. In China, approximately 20 percent of its population is rural-to-urban migrant workers and there are significant cultural differences between rural and urban societies, but no data are available regarding the acculturative stress of Chinese migrant workers. This study aimed to explore the forms and contexts of acculturative stress among Chinese migrant workers.Qualitative data were collected from four focus group discussions with 17 Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers and three individual interviews with three medical professionals who provided mental health services for factory-workers in Shenzhen, China.The data in the current study showed that rural-to-urban migrant workers in China had experienced various forms of acculturative stress including difficulties in adapting to the environment, work-related stress, family-related stress, financial hardship, and lack of sense of belonging to cities.Rural-to-urban migration in China is a challenging transition with significant acculturative stress and demands for major adjustments among migrant workers. The assessment and management of acculturative stress is a necessary first step in providing mental health services to migrant workers.

  16. The cognitive profile of Chinese children with mathematics difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how four domain-specific skills (arithmetic procedural skills, number fact retrieval, place value concept, and number sense) and two domain-general processing skills (working memory and processing speed) may account for Chinese children's mathematics learning difficulties. Children with mathematics difficulties (MD) of two age groups (7-8 and 9-11. years) were compared with age-matched typically achieving children. For both age groups, children with MD performed significan...

  17. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in children living in city and rural residences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences. METHODS: 103 children living in Copenhagen and 101 children living in rural residences of Denmark......, the children excreted on average 0.07 [95% CI: 0.01-0.41] micromol urinary 1-hydroxypyrene per mol creatinine. Children living in urban residences excreted 0.02 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05] micromol more 1-hydroxypyrene than children living in rural residences. This was confirmed in the multiple regression analysis...... showing a 29% (95% CI: 2-64%) higher excretion among urban children than rural children. Moreover, the regression analysis showed that for each hour per day spent outside the children excreted 58% (1.58 [1.22-2.03]) more 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that children...

  18. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (Pspeaking Chinese children (Pspeaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time ratio of the 8-year-old group and the errors of 9-year-old group had no significant difference (P>0.05); compared with Spanish-speaking children, the scores were statistically

  19. Humour among Chinese and Greek Preschool Children in Relation to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Zhang, XiangKui; Wang, Yong; Xeromeritou, Aphrodite

    2011-01-01

    The researchers studied humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development. The sample included 55 Chinese children and 50 Greek children ages 4½ to 5½ years. Results showed that both Chinese and Greek children's humour recognition were significantly and positively correlated to their cognitive development, but…

  20. Chinese kang as a domestic heating system in rural northern China - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Zhi [Building Environment and New Energy Resource Laboratory, School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Li, Yuguo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Chen, Bin [Building Environment and New Energy Resource Laboratory, School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Guo, Jiye [Rural Energy Office, Liaoning Province, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The Chinese kang is an ancient integrated home system for cooking, sleeping, domestic heating and ventilation. It is still widely used today in nearly 85% of rural homes in northern China. In 2004, there were 67 million kangs used by 175 million people. Existing kang designs are mostly based on the intuition and accumulation of craftsman experience. There is a trend that Chinese kang is gradually replaced by bed and coal-burning radiators, domestic heating stoves, etc. using commercial energy. As rural building heating constitutes 25% of total building energy consumption in China, we consider that the transition and new technologies for rural home heating in northern China is crucial for managing future building energy consumption in China. This paper reviews the basic heat transfer and airflow principles of Chinese kang, as well as describing the traditional grounded kang and the relatively new elevated kang. The thermal performance of the kang is shown by data from literature and field surveys. The future of Chinese kang and research needs is also briefly discussed. There is also a need for scientific study in addition to experience accumulation, to form basis for engineering design. (author)

  1. Validation of the Self-Regulation Scale in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Bullock, Amanda; Liu, Junsheng; Fu, Rui; Coplan, Robert J.; Cheah, Charissa S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Self-Regulation Scale (C-SRS) were examined in a sample of 1,458 third- to eighth-grade students in China. Children completed self-reports of self-regulation, loneliness, depression, and self-esteem, and teachers rated children's school adjustment. Results showed a stable three-factor model…

  2. The Cognitive Profile of Chinese Children with Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Becky Mee-yin; Ho, Connie Suk-han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how four domain-specific skills (arithmetic procedural skills, number fact retrieval, place value concept, and number sense) and two domain-general processing skills (working memory and processing speed) may account for Chinese children's mathematics learning difficulties. Children with mathematics difficulties (MD) of two age…

  3. Developmental Dyscalculia and Low Numeracy in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Au, Terry K.; Tang, Joey

    2013-01-01

    Children struggle with mathematics for different reasons. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy--two kinds of mathematical difficulties--may have their roots, respectively, in poor understanding of exact non-symbolic numerosities and of symbolic numerals. This study was the first to explore whether Chinese children, despite cultural and…

  4. HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN IN PUDUCHERRY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanta Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM: To assess the hygiene practices among rural school children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross - sectional study was conducted at Government higher secondary school in rural ar ea of Puducherry. METHODS AND MATERIAL : Around 214 children studying in standard 6 th to 8 th were randomly selected for the study during June to August 2011. The study was explained to the school children and their assent was taken before the study. They an swered the pre - designed questionnaires. Data was collected by face to face interview. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis was done by using EPI INFO 3. RESULTS: Hygiene practice of hand washing before eating was 95.33%. Only 81.31% students used sli ppers/chappals during use of toilet. Around 58.41% of students went to open field for defecation and 6.07% of students did not wash their hands after defecation. Regarding the frequency of hygiene practice, only 62.15% and 68.22% of students brushed their teeth and bathed every day respectively. The study finding also showed that only 68.69% students washed their face twice daily where as 3.27% students washed their face weekly. As regards to the materials used for hygiene practice, 93.86% of students used tooth brush & paste for brushing of teeth, 85.98% of students used soap while taking bath and 25.70% of students did not use soap for hand wash after defecation. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest the need for more hygiene practice education in rural schoo ls. Such healthy practices may help to decrease the burden of communicable diseases in rural school settings.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasitoses in urban and rural children of a developing country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AKM Mamunur Rashid; AKM Saifur Rashid; Abdur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare intestinal parasitoses between urban and rural children in developing countries and its related factors. Methods:Children of 1-6 years old in the urban and rural areas who had not taken antihelmenthic drugs in the last 6 months were randomly selected. Various factors were taken as variables in a preformed questionnaire. Results:Among the total 52 children, 24 were in urban and 28 were in rural group. Male/female ratio of the rural group was 1:1 and that of the urban group was 1.4:1. Average income was 12 000 taka and 4 000 taka per month in urban and rural areas, respectively. None of the rural group used sanitary latrine, whereas every one in urban group used sanitary latrine. Majority (71%) of the mothers in rural group were below the primary level of education. Majority (75%) of fathers were educated above higher secondary level in urban group. In the rural group 18 (64%) fathers had not received any education. Enterobius vermicularis was observed only in 1 (4%) stool samples of urban children but in rural group it was found in 7 (25%) of the stool samples. Enterobius vermicularis was the main parasite isolated from both groups. Exclusive breast feeding practice of less than 6 months was observed in 20 (83%) children of urban group but in rural group that of less than one year was found in 22 (78%) children. Conclusions:Intestinal parasitic infestation is mostly found in rural children. Urban children almost have no intestinal parasitoses. It has the relation with the poor sanitation, low standard of living, less parental income and education, and early weaning. Unnecessary universal deworming of the urban and rural children in developing countries should be discouraged in order to use the money economically and effectively. It can be carried out in rural children and their living standard should be improved.

  6. Development and evaluation of a risk score for type 2 diabetes mellitus among middle-aged Chinese rural population based on the RuralDiab Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Li, Yuqian; Liu, Xiaotian; Xu, Fei; Li, Linlin; Yang, Kaili; Qian, Xinling; Liu, Ruihua; Bie, Ronghai; Wang, Chongjian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a simple and effective risk score for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in middle-aged rural Chinese. Total of 5453 participants aged 30–59 years from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study were recruited for establishing the RuralDiab risk score by using logistic regression analysis. The RuralDiab risk score was validated in a prospective study from Henan Province of China, and compared with previous risk scores by using the receiver-operating characteristics cure. Ultimately, sex, age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, waist circumference, history of dyslipidemia, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index were included in the RuralDiab risk score (range from 0 to 36), and the optimal cutoff value was 17 with 67.9% sensitivity and 67.8% specificity. The area under the cures (AUC) of the RuralDiab risk score was 0.723(95%CI: 0.710–0.735) for T2DM in validation population, which was significant higher than the American Diabetes Association score (AUC: 0.636), the Inter99 score (AUC: 0.669), the Oman risk score (AUC: 0.675). The RuralDiab risk score was established and demonstrated an appropriate performance for predicting T2DM in middle-aged Chinese rural population. Further studies for validation should be implemented in different populations. PMID:28209984

  7. Distribution and Determinants of Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Rural Chinese Twins across the Lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Yuelong Ji; Xiangyi Kong; Guoying Wang; Xiumei Hong; Xin Xu; Zhu Chen; Tami Bartell; Xiping Xu; Genfu Tang; Fanfan Hou; Yong Huo; Xiaobin Wang; Binyan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is a modifiable, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to describe the gender- and age-specific distribution of Hcy concentration for 1117 subjects aged 10–66 years, a subset of a community-based rural Chinese twin cohort. In addition, we examined environmental and genetic contributions to variances in Hcy concentration by gender and age groups. We found that the distributi...

  8. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  9. Phonological Awareness in Multilingual Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liow, Susan J. Rickard; Poon, Kenneth K. L.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the impact of phonological awareness in English and Chinese of 57 multilingual pupils whose language backgrounds were English, Chinese (Mandarin/dialect), or Bahasa Indonesia, using a homophone decision task, an English lexicality spelling test, and a Hanyu Pinyin spelling test. (Author/JL)

  10. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

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    Yachun Xie

    Full Text Available The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P0.05; compared with Spanish-speaking children, the scores were statistically significant (P0.05. DEM norms may be affected by differences in language, cultural, and educational systems among various ethnicities. The norms of the DEM test are proposed for use with Mandarin Chinese

  11. Temporal trends and recent correlates in sedentary behaviours in Chinese children

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    Dibley Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviours (television, video and computer are related to health outcomes independent of physical activity. Few studies have examined trends and correlates of sedentary behaviours among youth in developing nations. The current study is to examine temporal trends in sedentary behaviours and recent correlates of screen use in Chinese children during a period of economic transition. Methods Secondary analysis of China Health and Nutrition Surveys. Cross-sectional data on sedentary behaviours including screen use among children aged 6-18 years from four surveys in 1997 (n = 2,469, 2000 (n = 1,838, 2004 (n = 1,382 and 2006 (n = 1,128. Temporal trends in screen use by socio-demographic characteristics were examined. The correlates of spending more than 2 hours per day on screen time in the most recent survey data (2006, n = 986 were analysed using survey logistic regression analysis. Results Daily screen time significantly increased in each subgroup by age, sex and urban/rural residence, with the largest increase for urban boys aged 13-18 years from 0.5 hours to 1.7 hours, and for rural boys aged 6-12 years from 0.7 hours to 1.7 hours (p Conclusion This study confirms sedentary behaviour has increased over the last decade in Chinese children. Efforts to ensure Chinese youth meet screen time guidelines include limiting access to screen technologies and encouraging parents to monitor their own screen time and to set limits on their child's screen time.

  12. Malariometric Indices among Nigerian Children in a Rural Setting

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    Ekong E. Udoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria contributes to high childhood morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. To determine its endemicity in a rural farming community in the south-south of Nigeria, the following malariometric indices, namely, malaria parasitaemia, spleen rates, and anaemia were evaluated in children aged 2–10 years. This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey among school-age children residing in a rubber plantation settlement. The children were selected from six primary schools using a multistaged stratified cluster sampling technique. They were all examined for pallor, enlarged spleen, or liver among other clinical parameters and had blood films for malaria parasites. Of the 461 children recruited, 329 (71.4% had malaria parasites. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was slightly higher in the under fives than that of those ≥5 years, 76.2% and 70.3%, respectively. Splenic enlargement was present in 133 children (28.9%. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 35.7%. Anaemia was more common in the under-fives (48.8% than in those ≥5 years (32.8%. The odds of anaemia in the under fives were significantly higher than the odds of those ≥5 years (OR=1.95 [1.19–3.18]. Malaria is highly endemic in this farming community and calls for intensification of control interventions in the area with special attention to school-age children.

  13. Anomalous cerebellar anatomy in Chinese children with dyslexia

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    Ying-Hui eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia (DD claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia.

  14. The prevalence and risk factors for depression symptoms in a rural Chinese sample population.

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    Xinghu Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is essential to understand how we can prevent and treat the epidemic of depression. Several studies have reported the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the urban population in China, but there is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of depression in rural populations. OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence of depression in a rural Chinese population and to analyze the risk factors for depression. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional approach. A total of 11,473 subjects were surveyed and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9 and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief scales. Living conditions, per capita income, marital status, and information about dietary health and chronic disease status were assessed. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the population was 5.9%. The prevalence in women (8.1% was higher compared with men (3.5% and also increased with age. The per capita income level, amount of sleep obtained per day, education level, weekly consumption of meat and beans or bean products, salt intake, and chronic disease status were associated with depressive symptoms. The quality of life of individuals with a score less than 10 points on the PHQ-9 was significantly better compared with individuals with a score greater than 10. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among rural population is higher than some southern cities in China. Dietary patterns may be an important risk factor linked to this disorder in the Chinese rural population.

  15. Prediction and Analysis of Chinese Rural Households’ Consumption Level Based on the ARIMA Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using the software SAS9.2 and the relevant data of consumption level of rural residents in China from 1952 to 2008,the ARIMA model is established.The model is used to analyze and forecast the time series of the consumption level of Chinese rural residents.The results show that in the near future,the consumption level of Chinese rural residents will be further raised.In 2012,the level will break through per capita 5 000 yuan,almost 100 times more than that in the primary time period.But consumption level does not equal to living standard.To let farmers lead a good life,the government should follow the objective laws;take the overall situation into consideration;coordinate the relations among farmers’ consumption level,national subsidies and farmers’ production enthusiasm.Therefore,The paper suggests that the historical and objective factors should be attached more importance to.Besides,raising farmers’ income and allaying farmers’ fear were effective measures in developing the consumptive potential of rural market and promoting the economic sustainable development.

  16. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

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    José Manuel Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  17. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

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    Yafei Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69 compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  18. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-10-16

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  19. Adversity and Internalizing Problems among Rural Chinese Adolescents: The Roles of Parents and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Shannon; Adams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, adolescents living in rural poverty face multiple and inter-related adaptive challenges. Using longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, we adopt an approach grounded in resilience theory to investigate the relationship between cumulative adversity and internalizing problems among 1,659…

  20. Risk Factors of Learning Disabilities in Chinese Children in Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIN YAO; HAN-RONG WU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate prevalence rate of learning disabilities (LD) in Chinese children, and to explore related risk factors, and to provide theoretical basis for preventing such disabilities.Methods One thousand and one hundred fifty one children were randomly selected in primary schools. According to criteria set by ICD-10, 118 children diagnosed as LD were classified into the study group. Four hundred and ninety one children were classified into the normal control group. Five hundred and forty two children were classified into the excellent control group. The study instruments included PRS (The pupil rating scale revised screening for learning disabilities), Conners' children behavior check-list taken by parents and YG-WR character check-list. Results The prevalence rate of LD in Chinese children was 10.3%. Significant differences were observed between LD and normally learning children, and between the LD group and the excellent group, in terms of scores of Conners' behavior check-list (P<0.05). The study further showed that individual differences in character between the LD group and the control groups still existed even after controlling individual differences in age, IQ, and gender. Some possible causal explanations contributing to LD were improper teaching by parents, low educational level of the parents, and children's characteristics and social relationships. Conclusion These data underscore the fact that LD is a serious national public health problem in China. LD is resulted from a number of factors. Good studying and living environments should be created for LD children.

  1. Growing up with Distant Parents: Socialization and Alienation of "Left-Behind" Children in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of left-behind children has emerged in rural China as a result of the large-scale migration of rural farmers to urban cities since the 1990s. With the absence of parent(s) from the family, the left-behind children face crises in socialization and their relationships with their parents are threatened by physical distance. This…

  2. Chinese Youth and Children Art Troupe Visits Pusan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    A62-member Chinese Youth and Children Art Troupe led by Qin Lin, president of the Sichuan Provincial People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries, visited the Republic of Korea at the invitation of the Korea Cultural Exchange Foundation. It gave three performances in Pusan from August 11 to 13.

  3. Children's Knowledge of the Quantifier "Dou" in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The quantifier "dou" (roughly corresponding to English "all") in Mandarin Chinese has been the topic of much discussion in the theoretical literature. This study investigated children's knowledge of this quantifier using a new methodological technique, which we dubbed the Question-Statement Task. Three questions were addressed: (i) whether young…

  4. Physical activity among older Chinese adults living in urban and rural areas: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With an increase in rural-to-urban migration, a rapidly aging population, and the rising risk of developing noncommunicable diseases in China, it is important to understand the epidemiology of physical activity (PA and health in the context of disease prevention and population health. Despite its public health importance, there is a significant lack of knowledge about PA in older Chinese adults that may hamper primary prevention efforts of health promotion in an increasingly aging population. To fill this gap, this article presents a narrative review of PA in the older Chinese adult population with a special focus on residential settings (i.e., urban and rural. Using existing studies, the review examines overall PA patterns and their correlates and discusses public health implications and future research. Although there are some preliminary indications of urban and rural differences in PA in the aging population in China, continued research efforts are needed to facilitate primary prevention efforts aimed at reducing noncommunicable diseases and promoting an active lifestyle among the largest population of older people in the world.

  5. The immediate economic impact of maternal deaths on rural Chinese households.

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    Fang Ye

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the immediate economic impact of maternal death on rural Chinese households. METHODS: Results are reported from a study that matched 195 households who had suffered a maternal death to 384 households that experienced a childbirth without maternal death in rural areas of three provinces in China, using quantitative questionnaire to compare differences of direct and indirect costs between two groups. FINDINGS: The direct costs of a maternal death were significantly higher than the costs of a childbirth without a maternal death (US$4,119 vs. $370, p<0.001. More than 40% of the direct costs were attributed to funeral expenses. Hospitalization and emergency care expenses were the largest proportion of non-funeral direct costs and were higher in households with maternal death than the comparison group (US$2,248 vs. $305, p<0.001. To cover most of the high direct costs, 44.1% of affected households utilized compensation from hospitals, and the rest affected households (55.9% utilized borrowing money or taking loans as major source of money to offset direct costs. The median economic burden of the direct (and non-reimbursed costs of a maternal death was quite high--37.0% of the household's annual income, which was approximately 4 times as high as the threshold for an expense being considered catastrophic. CONCLUSION: The immediate direct costs of maternal deaths are extremely catastrophic for the rural Chinese households in three provinces studied.

  6. Physical activity among older Chinese adults living in urban and rural areas:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfei Zhu; Aiping Chi; Yuliang Sun

    2016-01-01

    With an increase in rural-to-urban migration, a rapidly aging population, and the rising risk of developing noncommunicable diseases in China, it is important to understand the epidemiology of physical activity (PA) and health in the context of disease prevention and population health. Despite its public health importance, there is a significant lack of knowledge about PA in older Chinese adults that may hamper primary prevention efforts of health promotion in an increasingly aging population. To fill this gap, this article presents a narrative review of PA in the older Chinese adult population with a special focus on residential settings (i.e., urban and rural). Using existing studies, the review examines overall PA patterns and their correlates and discusses public health implications and future research. Although there are some preliminary indications of urban and rural differences in PA in the aging population in China, continued research efforts are needed to facilitate primary prevention efforts aimed at reducing noncommunicable diseases and promoting an active lifestyle among the largest population of older people in the world.

  7. Genetic and Environmental Overlap between Chinese and English Reading-Related Skills in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Waye, Mary M. Y.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2014-01-01

    This twin study examined the relative contributions of genes and environment on 2nd language reading acquisition of Chinese-speaking children learning English. We examined whether specific skills-visual word recognition, receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonological memory, and speech discrimination-in the 1st and 2nd languages have…

  8. An Investigation on 3-6-Year-Old Chinese Children's Perception of "Death"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Cao, Yanhua; Han, Min

    2017-01-01

    Because of the taboo in Chinese culture, there is little research on Chinese children's perception of "death". The research on preschoolers' cognition of "death" could deepen our research on children's cognition process, guide children's life education, and improve the psychologic intervention on the children who experience…

  9. Creative Writing Strategies of Young Children: Evidence from a Study of Chinese Emergent Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Zhou, Jing

    2010-01-01

    The ways in which learning graphical representations can encourage the development of creativities in Chinese young children remain to be fully explored. Previous research on children's writing focused on children's symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding Chinese young children's symbolization and creative…

  10. Supreme Court Ruling on Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Presents the text of a unanimous Supreme Court opinion delivered by Justice Douglas, as well as two separate concurring opinions, which granted non-English speaking Chinese students' petition for relief from unequal and unconstitutional educational opportunities resulting from an absence of English language instruction. (Author/SF)

  11. Prevalence and Treatment of Children's Asthma in Rural Areas Compared with Urban Areas in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Jing Zhu; Hai-Xia Ma; Hui-Ying Cui; Xu Lu; Ming-Jun Shao; Shuo Li; Yan-Qing Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background:The prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing in China.This study aimed to compare the prevalence,diagnosis,and treatment of asthmatic children from urban and rural areas in Beijing,China.Methods:Schools,communities,and kindergartens were randomly selected by cluster random sampling from urban and rural areas in Beijing.Parents were surveyed by the same screening questionnaires.On-the-spot inquiries,physical examinations,medical records,and previous test results were used to diagnose asthmatic children.Information on previous diagnoses,treatments,and control of symptoms was obtained.Results:From 7209 children in rural areas and 13,513 children in urban areas who completed screening questionnaires,587 children were diagnosed as asthma.The prevalence of asthma in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (1.25% vs.3.68%,x2 =100.80,P < 0.001).The diagnosis of asthma in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (48.9% vs.73.9%,x2 =34.6,P < 0.001).Compared with urban asthmatic children (56.5%),only 35.6% of rural asthmatic children received inhaled corticosteroids (P < 0.05).The use ofbronchodilators was also lower in rural areas than in urban areas (56.5% vs.66.4%,x2 =14.2,P < 0.01).Conclusion:The prevalence of asthma in children was lower in rural areas compared with children in the urban area of Beijing.A considerable number of children were not diagnosed and inadequately treated in rural areas.

  12. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study initially validates the Chinese version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), which has been identified as a potentially valid instrument to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children among diverse racial groups. The psychometric properti...

  13. Screening for Parkinson syndrome in a Chinese rural population:re-examination of a historic questionnaire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; FAN Jin-hu; CHEN Wen; NIE Zhi-yu; QIAO You-lin; ZHANG Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Standardized screening tools for Parkinson syndrome have not been developed for non-westem populations.This study aimed to validate the Copiah County questionnaire (CCQ) as a screening instrument in a Chinese rural population.Methods All participants of a previously reported prevalent study were interviewed using CCQ.The participants who answered yes to at least one item on CCQ were defined as positive.The Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis was established using United Kingdom Parkinson's disease Brain Bank Clinical diagnosis criteria (UKPDBBC) and served as a gold standard to determine the sensitivity,specificity,and positive and negative predictive values (PPV,NPV) for the questionnaire.Results Among 16 130 participants,2872 (17.8%) were screened positive for CCQ and 13 258 negative (82.2%).Among the 697 participants diagnosed as having Parkinson syndrome,605 were positive for CCQ,and 92 were negative,leading to a sensitivity of 86.8%.Out of the 15 433 non-Parkinson syndrome participants,13 166 were negative to CCQ,giving a specificity of 85.3% Among the 2872 participants screened positive,605 were diagnosed with Parkinson syndrome,and their PPV was 21.1%.For the 13 258 participants screened negative on CCQ,92 were diagnosed with Parkinson syndrome and 13 166 did not have Parkinson syndrome,leading to a NPV of 99.3%.Conclusions CCQ appeared to have satisfactory statistical parameters to serve as a screening instrument for Parkinson syndrome in this rural Chinese population.Further studies may prove the utility of this short questionnaire in Parkinson syndrome screening among Chinese populations including those residing in rural areas.

  14. Epidemiology of Hymenolepis nana infections in primary school children in urban and rural communities in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P R; Patterson, B A

    1994-04-01

    Fecal specimens were obtained on 3 occasions at 10-12 wk intervals from 315 children in 3 rural villages in Zimbabwe and from 351 children in the high-density suburbs of an adjacent small town. Specimens were examined qualitatively and quantitatively for eggs of Hymenolepis nana, and these were found in 142 (21%) children. Infections occurred more frequently in younger children in the urban area but in older children in rural areas. The prevalence in urban areas (24%) was higher than in rural areas (18%), and in urban areas infection correlated with low "hygiene scores" (determined by observation) and with the presence in the household of an infected sibling. The prevalence of infection in the 3 rural communities did not correlate with availability of water, number of households per toilet, with low "hygiene scores," or with the presence of an infected sibling. Treatment with a single oral dose of 15 mg/kg praziquantel cured 84% of the infected children. New or reinfections occurred more frequently in households that had an infected sibling in an urban but not rural setting. The study demonstrates distinct differences in the transmission of H. nana infection in rural and urban communities. The data suggest intrafamily transmission in urban areas, particularly in households with poor hygiene behavior, leading to primary infection early in life. In rural areas, the prevalence of infection and the incidence of reinfection were highest in children of school age, and there was little evidence for intrafamily transmission of the parasite.

  15. Mental health status and related characteristics of Chinese male rural-urban migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Xu, Xiaochao; Li, Mu; Rockett, Ian R H; Zhu, Waner; Ellison-Barnes, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    To explore mental health status and related characteristics in a sample of Chinese male rural-urban migrants. Subjects were 1,595 male rural-urban migrant workers selected though a multi-stage sample survey conducted in two cities (Hangzhou and Guangzhou). Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both life and work stressors were examined. Stress and mental health status were measured by the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with probable mental disorders. There are approximately 120 million rural-urban migrants in China. The prevalence of probable mental disorders in the sample population was 24.4% (95% CI: 23.3-25.5%), which was higher than among urban residents (20.2%, 95% CI: 18.8-21.7%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that five characteristics were positively associated with risk for probable mental disorders: originating in the South (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.02, 4.00), higher life stress (OR = 7.63; 95% CI = 5.88, 10.00), staying in the city for 5-9 months each year (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.67, 3.85), higher work stress (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.96, 3.33), and separation from wife (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.61, 3.57). Employment in machinery and transportation (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.81) and higher self-worth (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.62) were negatively associated. Findings support an urgent need to develop specific policies and programs to address mental health problems among Chinese rural-urban migrants.

  16. Outcome of children with traumatic brain injury in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraswamy, N; Naziah, A; Abdullah, J; Ariff MMed, A R; Abdullah, M R; Ghazaime, G

    2002-05-01

    Malaysia had the second highest crude accident rate in the world until 1998. Most children who were involved in these road traffic accidents required intensive neurosurgical care management. We report a prospective study on 36 paediatric neurotrauma patients in rural North East West Malaysia who underwent uniform intensive therapy and were subsequently followed up over a period of 2 years. The modified paediatric Glasgow Coma Scale with support of the revised Wechlser Intelligence Scale for children was used to test the outcome of these children over a period of two years. All patients were managed aggressively in our intensive care as well as our high dependency units. Our results indicate that improvement in outcome is seen after a six month period. Midline shift, duration of coma and duration of transport were found to be significant variables associated with bad outcome. Other variables i.e. age, sex, Glasgow Coma Scale on admission and on site, and lesions of the dominant lobe were not found to be associated with good outcome in these patients.

  17. Plant Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

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    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management.

  18. Links between Chinese Mothers' Parental Beliefs and Responses to Children's Expression of Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated relations between parental beliefs and mothers' reported responses to their children's negative emotions. Altogether 189 Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years were interviewed in group sessions using structured questionnaires. It was found that Chinese mothers endorsed Guan, the Chinese parental beliefs. They…

  19. Culture and diet among Chinese American children aged 9–13 years: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years in community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX using constructs fro...

  20. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

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    Zhang Biyun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC and the Children’s Loneliness Scale (CLS. Results: (1 The learning motivation of the left-behind children in rural primary school is in a slightly higher medium level. Social anxiety is significantly higher than normal level in Chinese city, and the level of loneliness of about 1/5 of the left-behind children is relatively high. (2 The score of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children in the level of knowledge learning has significant grade differences, without significant gender differences. (3 The level of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children is slightly higher than that of non-left-behind children, but both differences are not significant.

  1. Recognition of depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse in a Chinese rural sample: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yu; Hu, Mi; Liu, Zi-wei; Liu, Hui-ming; Yang, Joyce P; Zhou, Liang; Xiao, Shui-yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Under-utilization of mental health services is a global health issue. Recognition of mental disorders, as the first step to seeking help from professional sources, has been well studied in developed countries, yet little is known about the situation in rural areas of developing countries like China. The purpose of the study is to understand the recognition of depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse and its predictive factors in a Chinese rural sample Methods Face-to-face interviews ...

  2. The Problems in Rural English Teaching and the Optimization Path: A Study Based on the Chinese General Social Survey Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The new curriculum, new ideas and new requirements concerning English teaching have made the rural English teaching face unprecedented challenges. There are many problems contributing to the poor effect of rural English teaching, such as outdated teaching equipment, unreasonable curriculum design, insufficient teaching staff, asymmetrical teaching content, family education and students' personal problems. Based on the Chinese General Social Survey data, it is found that in terms of English re...

  3. Educational equity and institutional safeguards——an analysis of compulsory education for Chinese rural migrant workers'children%教育公平与制度保障——中国进城务工子女接受义务教育的现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范先佐; 彭湃

    2008-01-01

    进城务工人员子女义务教育公平问题是中国社会转型期一个独特的社会问题. 基于对中国湖北、河南、安徽等省市进城务工人员子女上学问题的专门调查,并结合全国其他省市的调查研究,可以发现,产生这一问题的原因相当复杂,但制度是其中最重要的因素.因此,要保证进城务工人员子女能公平地接受义务教育,必须为其提供制度保障.%The educational inequity of rural workers' children is a unique social problem in the transition stage of China. Based on the specific survey in such provinces as Hubei, Henan, Anhui, and other provinces, a conclusion can be drawn that the reasons for the educational inequity of rural worker's children are very complicated, among which the system is the most essential factor. Therefore, institutional safeguards should be provided to realize the education equity of rural worker's children.

  4. Incidence and characteristics of bacteremia among children in rural Ghana.

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    Maja Verena Nielsen

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to describe systemic bacterial infections occurring in acutely ill and hospitalized children in a rural region in Ghana, regarding frequency, incidence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associations with anthropometrical data.Blood cultures were performed in all children below the age of five years, who were admitted to Agogo Presbyterian Hospital (APH, Asante Region, Ghana, between September 2007 and July 2009. Medical history and anthropometrical data were assessed using a standardized questionnaire at admission. Incidences were calculated after considering the coverage population adjusted for village-dependent health-seeking behavior.Among 1,196 hospitalized children, 19.9% (n = 238 were blood culture positive. The four most frequent isolated pathogens were nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS (53.3%; n = 129, Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%; n = 32, Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.1%; n = 22 and Salmonella ser. Typhi (7.0%; n = 17. Yearly cumulative incidence of bacteremia was 46.6 cases/1,000 (CI 40.9-52.2. Yearly cumulative incidences per 1,000 of the four most frequent isolates were 25.2 (CI 21.1-29.4 for NTS, 6.3 (CI 4.1-8.4 for S. aureus, 4.3 (CI 2.5-6.1 for S. pneumoniae and 3.3 (CI 1.8-4.9 for Salmonella ser. Typhi. Wasting was positively associated with bacteremia and systemic NTS bloodstream infection. Children older than three months had more often NTS bacteremia than younger children. Ninety-eight percent of NTS and 100% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whereas both tested 100% susceptible to ceftriaxone. Seventy-seven percent of NTS and 65% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR. Systemic bacterial infections in nearly 20% of hospitalized children underline the need for microbiological diagnostics, to guide targeted antimicrobial treatment and prevention of bacteremia. If microbiological diagnostics are lacking, calculated antimicrobial

  5. Is Rural School-aged Children's Quality of Life Affected by Their Responses to Asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Sharon D.; Brown, Sharon A.; Walker, Veronica García

    2011-01-01

    The unpredictable nature of asthma makes it stressful for children and can affect their quality of life. An exploratory analysis of 183 rural school-aged children's data was conducted to determine relationships among demographic factors, children's responses to asthma (coping, asthma self-management), and their quality of life (QOL). Coping frequency, asthma severity, and race/ethnicity significantly predicted children's asthma-related QOL. Children reported more frequent coping as asthma-rel...

  6. A Rural-Urban Comparison in Emergency Department Visits for U.S. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqing; Mason, Ashley E; Boyd, Brian; Sikich, Linmarie; Baranek, Grace

    2017-03-01

    We examined rural-urban differences in emergency department visits, and child and clinical characteristics associated with visits for U.S. children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Rural children with ASD were twice more likely to have emergency department visits in urban hospitals than rural children without ASD. The children with ASD in rural areas were economically disadvantaged and concentrated in the South and Midwest regions. Rural children diagnosed with ASD and multiple comorbidities during emergency department visits were 1.6 times as that of urban children. Rural children with ASD, particularly those with multiple comorbidities, require more emergency department services when compared with urban children with ASD.

  7. Rural Dispositions of Floating Children within the Field of Beijing Schools: Can Disadvantaged Rural Habitus Turn into Recognised Cultural Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Guanglun Michael; Jia, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The rapid pace of urbanisation in China has seen a massive increase in the movement of the rural population to work and live in urban regions. In this large-scale migration context, the educational, health, and psychological problems of floating children are becoming increasingly visible. Different from extant studies, we focus our investigation…

  8. Weight Status, Physical Activity, and Fitness among Third-Grade Rural Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Harrist, Amanda W.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie; Barrett, Aimee

    2011-01-01

    Background: Rural children are at a particular high risk for obesity. Given the importance of exercise in obesity and chronic disease prevention, this study evaluated the level and relationship between physical activity and fitness in a sample of rural third graders. The second purpose of the study was to determine potential differences in…

  9. Scaling of theory-of-mind understandings in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M; Fang, Fuxi; Liu, David; Zhu, Liqi; Liu, Guoxiong

    2006-12-01

    Prior research demonstrates that understanding of theory of mind develops at different paces in children raised in different cultures. Are these differences simply differences in timing, or do they represent different patterns of cultural learning? That is, to what extent are sequences of theory-of-mind understanding universal, and to what extent are they culture-specific? We addressed these questions by using a theory-of-mind scale to examine performance of 140 Chinese children living in Beijing and to compare their performance with that of 135 English-speaking children living in the United States and Australia. Results reveal a common sequence of understanding, as well as sociocultural differences in children's developing theories of mind.

  10. Tracking blood glucose and predicting prediabetes in Chinese children and adolescents: a prospective twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoying Wang

    Full Text Available We examined the tracking of blood glucose, the development of prediabetes, and estimated their genetic contributions in a prospective, healthy, rural Chinese twin cohort. This report includes 1,766 subjects (998 males, 768 females aged 6-21 years at baseline who completed a 6-year follow-up study. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed for all subjects at both baseline and follow-up. We found that subjects with low fasting plasma glucose (FPG or 2 h post-load glucose (PG levels at baseline tended to remain at the low level at follow-up. Subjects in the top tertile of baseline plasma glucose tended to have a higher risk of developing prediabetes at follow-up compared to the low tertile: in males, 37.6% vs. 27.6% for FPG and 37.2% vs. 25.7% for 2hPG, respectively; in females, 31.0% vs. 15.4% for FPG and 28.9% vs. 15.1% for 2 h PG, respectively. Genetic factors explained 43% and 41% of the variance of FPG, and 72% and 47% for impaired fasting glucose for males and females, respectively; environmental factors substantially contribute to 2hPG status and impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, in this cohort of healthy rural Chinese children and adolescents, we demonstrated that both FPG and 2hPG tracked well and was a strong predictor of prediabetes. The high proportion of children with top tertile of blood glucose progressed to prediabetes, and the incidence of prediabetes has a male predominance. Genetic factors play more important role in fasting than postload status, most of which was explained by unique environmental factors.

  11. Chinese Immigrant Families and Bilingualism among Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Xu, Yili

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-five children (17 boys and 18 girls, 4 to 8 years old) in 2-parent Chinese immigrant families had attended English-speaking facilities for 35.0 months (boys) and 32.9 months (girls), respectively. They were tested at home with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and the Mandarin version of PPVT-R. No gender differences were…

  12. Andean rural children's views of the environment: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurial, Mahia

    Andean rural children's drawings and narratives about their crops and the immediate biological environment are rich tools to understand local views of the environment. Children's drawings and narratives were collected and linked to interviews as well as participant observation gathered from parents, leaders and teachers. The research sites are the community of Willca and the school of Mayu. Fieldwork was completed in 1998. In the conceptual framework I distinguish between two dissimilar knowledges, school knowledge and local knowledge. These knowledges produce two dissimilar views of the environment. I further analyze relationships of knowledge and power and argue that school knowledge overpowers local knowledge. Concomitantly, I studied set of ideas associated with two knowledges aforementioned: superacion (surpass) and regeneration (Apffel-Marglin 1995). Although these ideas coexist in peoples' minds they are not linked or effectively connected. In order to link local knowledge and school knowledge together, I propose the integration of environmental studies and art education to enhance a local sense of place (Blandy et. al 1993) in Andean and other schools. This will contribute to grassroots educational policy.

  13. The Intergenerational Transmission of the Value of Children in Contemporary Chinese Families: Taiwan and Mainland China Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chun Yi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag liegt nur in englischer Sprache vor.While fertility has been drastically declining in East Asia, mechanisms accounting for the current trend vary. One noticeable mechanism documented is that the changing value of children affects couples’ fertility decisions which in turn affect their subsequent fertility behaviour. This study will examine the intergenerational transmission of the value of children (VOC among grandmothers, mothers and teenagers in two Chinese societies: Taiwan and Mainland China. We assume that cultural homogeneity interacts with political and social heterogeneity and may result in different values regarding having or not having children. Data are taken from two corresponding VOC surveys from Taiwan (2005-2007 and from Mainland China (2002-2003. We first compare the value of children for Taiwan and Mainland China with special attention to cultural aspects. Two identified factor solutions are generated for both positive (traditional and emotional and negative (emotional/psychological and familial/social VOC. Analyses show that intergenerational transmission of the VOC among three generations is more likely to occur for a positive VOC in the Chinese Mainland sample. We suspect that actual fertility experience results in greater resemblance on the VOC between grandmothers and mothers in both research settings. Among selected structural mechanisms, only rural-urban background has an effect on patterns of intergenerational transmission. The paper ends with a discussion on the importance of culture in explaining the intergenerational transmission of the VOC in Chinese societies.

  14. Chinese children's respiratory diseases in 60 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Qiang; SHEN Kun-ling

    2009-01-01

    @@ This year marks the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. On this occasion, it is worthy to recall the past and look towards the future in order to do a better job in research and control of children's respiratory diseases.

  15. Prevalence of malocclusion and abnormal oral habits in North Indian rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaba, K; Ashima, G; Tewari, A; Utreja, A

    1998-03-01

    This epidemiological investigation was conducted on a sample of 3164 rural children aged 6-15 years in Raipur Rani and Naraingarh blocks in the district of Ambala in Haryana. 29. 2 percent of rural children were found to have malocclusion whereas 70.8 per cent had normal occlusion. Class I malocclusion was found to be maximum in 14.4 per cent of children, while malocclusion with class II molar relationship was observed in 13.5 per cent of children. Malocclusion with Class III molar relationship was seen in 1.3 per cent of the population studied. Three per cent of rural children were found to have abnormal oral habits, predominantly tongue thrusting and thumb sucking. The frequency distribution of abnormal oral habits in children with malocclusion was found to be 10.3 per cent.

  16. Do Chinese Dyslexic Children Have Difficulties Learning English as a Second Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary,…

  17. Exploring the Reading-Writing Connection in Chinese Children with Dyslexia in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han; Chung, Kevin K. H.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing the analyses based on the data of 1,235 Chinese children referred for government services and subsequently diagnosed as children with dyslexia in Hong Kong and those of 690 Chinese children in the sample for the normative study of the Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing, we explored the reading-writing…

  18. Physical activity levels and obesity status of Oregon Rural Elementary School children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine B. Gunter

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Children are not meeting minimum MVPA recommendations (60 min/d during school hours. Efforts to promote PA for obesity prevention in rural elementary schools should focus on increasing opportunities for MVPA.

  19. Four Schools in Sri Lanka: Equality of Opportunity for Rural Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapferer, Judith

    1975-01-01

    Author described four schools he observed in Sri Lanka in 1971-72 in an attempt to determine the extent to which rural children are disadvantaged in terms of social mobility through educational achievement. (Author/RK)

  20. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society.

  1. Classifying Chinese children with dyslexia by dual-route and triangle models of Chinese reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2014-11-01

    This present study focuses on classifying developmental dyslexia by combining two famous models, the dual-route model and the triangle model of Chinese reading, re-examining validity of the subtypes, and observing the error types of word recognition for each subtype. Sixty-sixth graders with dyslexia in Chinese and 45 sixth graders who were matched by age and IQ with the dyslexic group were involved in the present study. Twelve (20%) sixth graders from the dyslexic group were classified as having phonological dyslexia, 11 (18.3%) were classified as surface dyslexia, 12 (20%) were classified as deep dyslexia, and five (8.3%) of them were classified as displaying more than one kind of deficit. Besides, still more than half (31; 51.7%) of the dyslexic group did not belong to any subtypes here. These subtypes had a good validity based on comparison of their phonological awareness, orthography, and semantics. Finally, for their error types of word recognition, both children with multiple-deficit dyslexia and children with non-subtype dyslexia showed a proportional pattern of six kinds of errors. Children with phonological dyslexia showed more phonetic errors and analogy errors, children with surface dyslexia showed more visual errors and analogy errors, and children with deep dyslexia showed more semantic errors and selective errors.

  2. 中国部分地区农村≤7岁留守儿童的看护人看护意愿及其影响因素研究%Study on the willingness of care and related influencing factors among caregivers of those stranded children under 7 years in Chinese rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗家有; 李曼丽; 曾嵘; 张少军; 尹逊强; 龚雯洁

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨中国部分地区农村≤7岁留守儿童看护人看护意愿及其影响因素.方法 采用多阶段整群随机抽样方法,对随机选择的7585名≤7岁农村留守儿童看护人进行问卷调查,并采用多因素有序多分类logistic回归分析筛选看护意愿的影响因素.结果 单亲外出组看护人看护意愿为非常愿意、愿意、不愿意的比例分别为41.1%、55.4%和3.5%,双亲外出组分别为19.5%、71.4%和9.1%.多因素有序多分类logistic回归分析表明:看护人年龄、家庭年人均收入、社会关系和母亲外出务工时间、抚养费以及留守儿童年龄、生活方式、是否为独生子女、父母外出务工时留守儿童年龄等与看护意愿有关.结论 留守儿童看护人看护意愿有待提高,应关注其影响因素,必要时进行干预.%Objective To explore the willingness of care and related influencing factors among caregivers of those 'left at hometown' children under 7 years in Chinese rural areas.Methods Questionnaires were used to survey caregivers (n=7585) who were identified by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. Multi-factor ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to screen the influencing factors on the willingness of care among them. Results The percentage on 3.5% respectively in the group with single parent while 19.5%, 71.4% and 9.1% respectively in the group of both parents having left home. Data from the multi-factor ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that factors including the age of the caregiver, annual per capita income for caregivers'families, social connections and the length of children' s mother being absent, amount of fees for living provided by parent/parents, and the child' s age and lifestyle, being the only child or not, and the age of the child when the parent/parents left the residence etc, were related to the willingness of care of the givers. Conclusion Willingness of care calls for attention and urgent improvement

  3. Eye movements characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children in picture searching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xu; JING Jin; ZOU Xiao-bing; WANG Meng-long; LI Xiu-hong; LIN Ai-hua

    2008-01-01

    Background Reading Chinese,a kind of ideogram,relies more on visual cognition.The visuospatial cognitive deficit of Chinese dyslexia is an interesting topic that has received much attention.The purpose of current research was to explore the visuopatial cognitive characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children by studying their eye movements via a picture searching test.Methods According to the diagnostic criteria defined by ICD-10,twenty-eight dyslexic children (mean age (10.12+1.42)years) were enrolled from the Clinic of Children Behavioral Disorder in the third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.And 28 normally reading children (mean age (10.06±1.29) years),1:1 matched by age,sex,grade and family condition were chosen from an elementary school in Guangzhou as a control group.Four groups of pictures (cock,accident,canyon,meditate) from Picture Vocabulary Test were chosen as eye movement experiment targets.All the subjects carried out the picture searching task and their eye movement data were recorded by an Eyelink Ⅱ High-Speed Eye Tracker.The duration time,average fixation duration,average saccade amplitude,fixation counts and saccade counts were compared between the two groups of children.Results The dyslexic children had longer total fixation duration and average fixation duration (F=7.711,P<0.01;F=4.520,P<0.05),more fixation counts and saccade counts (F=7.498,P<0.01;F=11.040,P<0.01),and a smaller average saccade amplitude (F=29.743,P<0.01) compared with controls.But their performance in the picture vocabulary test was the same as those of the control group.The eye movement indexes were affected by the difficulty of the pictures and words,all eye movement indexes,except saccade amplitude,had a significant difference within groups (P<0.05).Conclusions Chinese dyslexic children have abnormal eye movements in picture searching,applying slow fixations,more fixations and small and frequent saccades.Their abnormal eye movement mode reflects the

  4. Does workplace social capital associate with hazardous drinking among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Gao

    Full Text Available The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW.A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking.Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04-1.23, 1.17(95%CI: 1.05-1.56 and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13-1.72, respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking.Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population.

  5. Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, and Physical Activity in School-age Children: an Urban and Rural Comparison in Valparaíso, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizana, Pablo A; Paula, Cisternas-Vallejos; Araya, Leonel; Aguilera, Francisco; Mora, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    This study analyze the relation between body composition, physical activity (PA), and sex in Chilean children from rural and urban public educational institutions. The prevalence of obesity (according to BMI) was 30.88% in urban children and 28.93% in rural children. Central obesity presented mainly in the rural girls. Approximately 90% of the participants reported child urban-rural population.

  6. La desnutrición infantil en el medio rural mexicano Children malnutrition in rural Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABELARDO AVILA-CURIEL

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer la situación nutricional de la población infantil del medio rural mexicano, comparándola con la situación previa y localizando las zonas más afectadas. Material y métodos. La muestra estuvo conformada por 38 232 familias, pertenecientes a 855 localidades, seleccionadas probabilísticamente. Se tomaron medidas antropométricas a 31 601 menores de cinco años. El análisis se realizó en consideración a la población de referencia peso/edad, peso/talla y talla/edad. Resultados. La desnutrición global afecta a 42.7% de los niños de acuerdo con el indicador peso/edad (IC= 1.9%; hace 22 años las formas de desnutrición moderada y severa eran de 17.4% y actualmente son de 19.3%. Respecto a talla/edad afecta a 55.9% (IC= 1.9%, y a peso/talla a 18.9%. Conclusiones. La ENAL96 muestra que la desnutrición sigue siendo un problema muy grave, que no se ha solucionado y que sigue afectando a las regiones del sur en donde hay mayor prevalencia de grupos indígenas.Objective. To evaluate the nutritional status of the infantile population in rural Mexico, compare it with previous data and situate the most affected areas. Material and Methods. The sample consisted of 38 232 families, from 855 randomly selected communities. Anthropometry was obtained from 31 601 children under five years of age and analysis was performed considering the reference values of weight/age, weight/height and height/age. Results. Overall malnutrition affects 42.7 of children according to weight/age indicator (CI= 1.9%. Moderate and severe malnutrition 22 years ago was 17.4% and now these affect 19.3%. Further data show that 55.9% are malnourished according to height/age, and 18.9% according to weight/height. Conclusions. The ENAL 96 shows that malnutrition is still a severe national problem which has not improved in the last 22 years. The areas of highest prevalence are the southern states which have mostly Indian population.

  7. Seasonal rural residence of Icelandic children Sendur í sveit

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    Jónína Einarsdóttir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research that focuses on children who migrate without a parent or legal guardian is most often carried out in low-income countries. Such migration is increasingly associated with child trafficking. In this article the Icelandic custom to send children to the country during the summer months in the last century will be examined. It is based on secondary documents such as journals, magazines, documents and reports from child protection authorities. The Icelandic population shared the opinion that seasonal rural residence for urban children was beneficial for the nation, the family and the child. In the country, the children would enjoy unspoiled nature, clean mountain air and nutritious food. In addition, they would learn to attend animals and proper work. Individuals, associations, charities and child protection authorities collaborated in an effort to organise rural residence for children during the summer months, either at farms or particular summer camps. Rural residence was considered to be particularly important for delinquent children, but also those who suffered from poverty, irresponsible parental behaviour and poor health. Data is lacking on the number of children sent to the country and their experiences however it is known to have varied greatly. Likewise, little is known about the considerations of the farmers who hosted the children and the children’s parents. This custom is typically per definition child migration without a parent or legal guardian. Care should be taken not to classify such customs routinely as child trafficking wherever they are practiced.Rannsóknir á búferlaflutningi barna til lengri eða skemmri tíma án samfylgdar foreldris eða löggilds forráðamanns beinast oftast að börnum sem flytja úr einum stað í annan innan eða milli lágtekjulanda. Slíkur flutningur er oft bendlaður við mansal. Hér er skoðaður siðurinn að senda íslensk börn í sveit þar sem þau dvöldu að sumri til hjá venslaf

  8. The Problems in Rural English Teaching and the Optimization Path: A Study Based on the Chinese General Social Survey Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; TAN

    2014-01-01

    The new curriculum,new ideas and new requirements concerning English teaching have made the rural English teaching face unprecedented challenges. There are many problems contributing to the poor effect of rural English teaching,such as outdated teaching equipment,unreasonable curriculum design,insufficient teaching staff,asymmetrical teaching content,family education and students’ personal problems. Based on the Chinese General Social Survey data,it is found that in terms of English reading,English speaking or English writing,the current English level of China’s rural residents is lagging behind. From the average,the reading level of rural residents is better than the speaking and writing level,but the paired T-test results show that there are no significant differences between them,suggesting that under the current system of rural English teaching,the English level of rural residents is constrained to a low level. To improve the rural English teaching in the future,it is necessary to pay close attention to the following aspects: stabilizing the investment in rural education; optimizing the English teaching content; converting the philosophy of education; increasing teacher training; establishing the new linkage system.

  9. A Special Chinese Reading Acceleration Training Paradigm: To Enhance the Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Chinese Children with Reading Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a number of studies, use of a Reading Acceleration Program as reading intervention training has been demonstrated to improve reading speed and comprehension level effectively in most languages and countries. The objective of the current study was to provide further evidence of the effectiveness of a Reading Acceleration Program for Chinese children with reading disabilities using a distinctive Chinese reading acceleration training paradigm. The reading acceleration training paradigm is divided into a non-accelerated reading paradigm, a Character-accelerated reading paradigm and a Words-accelerated reading paradigm. The results of training Chinese children with reading disabilities indicate that the acceleration reading paradigm applies to children with Chinese-reading disabilities. In addition, compared with other reading acceleration paradigms, Words- accelerated reading training is more effective in helping children with reading disabilities read at a high speed while maintaining superior comprehension levels.

  10. Do Chinese dyslexic children have difficulties learning English as a second language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary, reading, and phonological processing tasks. It was found that the Dyslexia group performed significantly worse than the Control group in nearly all the English measures. The findings suggest that Chinese dyslexic children also encounter difficulties in learning English as a second language, and they are generally weak in phonological processing both in Chinese and English. However, phonological skills were found to correlate significantly with English reading but not with Chinese reading in the dyslexic children. It is evident that there are both common and specific causes to reading difficulties in Chinese and English.

  11. Evaluating Physical and Perceptual Responses to Exergames in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. C. Lau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether exergames could help children reach the recommendations for PA and cardiorespiratory fitness regarding exercise intensity. Differences in perceived physical exertion, EE, VO2, and HR between normal weight (NW and overweight (OW children participating in exergames were also examined. Methods: Twenty-one children (age: 10.45 ± 0.88 were assessed for EE, VO2 and HR during rest, in a maximal treadmill test, and while playing different exergames. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE (category range: 0 to 10 were also measured during exergaming. Three types of exergames were examined: running, table tennis, and dancing. These games were either performed on a Chinese game console, I-Dong, or another well-developed Western game console (Sony PlayStation 3 or Nintendo Wii. Results: Exergaming resulted in EE (kcal/min from 2.05–5.14, VO2 (mL/kg/min from 9.98–25.54, and HR (beats per minute from 98.05–149.66. Children reported RPE ranging from 1.29 to 5.29. The Chinese exergame, I-Dong Running, was the only game in which children reached a moderate intensity and met the recommended minimum VO2reserve (50% for cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion: Exergames could provide alternative opportunities to enhance children’s physical activity. They could be used as light-to-moderate PA, and with exergames, children can even reach the recommended intensity for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness.

  12. What Should American-Born Chinese Children Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shirley

    This paper discusses the teaching of Chinese to both students with Chinese background and students with non-Chinese background. It is suggested that students with a Chinese background be separated from those without a Chinese background in order not to discourage the latter group from studying Chinese. Chinese background students should be taught…

  13. Access to Dental Care for Rural Children: A Survey of Nebraska General Dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Kimberly K.; Salama, Fouad; Yaseen, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pediatric dentists are too few in number to care for all children. Therefore, the level of pediatric dental services provided by general dentists, especially in rural areas, is crucial to improving the dental health of children. Purpose: The objectives of the study were to establish a baseline in regard to the quantity of pediatric…

  14. Comparative study of nutritional status of urban and rural Nigerian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oninla, S O; Owa, J A; Onayade, A A; Taiwo, O

    2007-02-01

    Nutritional assessment in the community is essential for accurate planning and implementation of intervention programmes to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with under-nutrition. The study was, therefore, carried out to determine and compare the nutritional status of children attending urban and rural public primary schools in Ife Central Local Government Area (ICLGA) of Nigeria. The schools were stratified into urban and rural, and studied schools were selected by balloting. Information obtained on each pupil was entered into a pre-designed proforma. The weight and height were recorded for each pupil, and converted to nutritional indices (weight for age, weight for height, height for age). A total of 749 pupils (366 and 383 children from the rural and urban communities, respectively) were studied. The overall prevalent rates of underweight, wasting and stunting were 61.2, 16.8 and 27.6%, respectively. In the rural area these were 70.5, 17.8 and 35.8%, while in the urban they were 52.2, 15.9 and 19.8%, respectively. The mean nutritional indices (Weight for Age, Weight for Height and Height for Age) were found to be significantly lower among the rural pupils than urban pupils (P school children in Nigeria. This is particularly so in the rural areas. Therefore, prevention of malnutrition should be given a high priority in the implementation of the ongoing primary health care programmes with particular attention paid to the rural population.

  15. A study of rural preschool practitioners' views on young children's mathematical thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunting, Robert P.; Mousley, Judith A.; Perry, Bob

    2012-03-01

    The project Mathematical Thinking of Preschool Children in Rural and Regional Australia: Research and Practice aimed to investigate views of preschool practitioners about young children's mathematical thinking and development. Structured individual interviews were conducted with 64 preschool practitioners from rural areas of three Australian states. The questions focused on five broad themes: children's mathematics learning, support for mathematics teaching, technology and computers, attitudes and feelings, and assessment and record keeping. We review results from the interview data for each of these themes, discuss their importance, and outline recommendations related to teacher education as well as resource development and research.

  16. Physical activity levels and obesity status of Oregon Rural Elementary School children

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter, Katherine B.; Patrick Abi Nader; Deborah H. John

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between physical activity (PA, min/school-day) at school and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) among rural elementary-aged children. Methods: Height (cm), weight (kg), and PA were measured for 1767 children (5–12 years) enrolled in six rural Oregon elementary schools in fall, 2013. PA at school was measured over four days using Walk4Life pedometers. Children with ≥3 valid monitoring days (n = 1482) were included in analyses. Means (min/d) were calculated ...

  17. Post-marketing Surveillance for Combined Oral Contraceptive Containing Desogestrel (Marvelon?) in Chinese Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the side effects and the continuation rate of combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing desogestrel (Marvelon ) during 12 months. Methods This was a post-marketing surveillance study on Marvelon COC among 870 healthy rural women in 5 different counties of Jiangsu Province during 12 months. Results About 24.02% of the women who used Marvelon COC experienced side effects during 12 months. Gastrointestinal disorder, bleeding/spotting and chloasma were ranked the first three in the side effects. The rate of side effects of Marvelon COC users during the first 3 months in southern area of Jiangsu was significantly higher than that of users in northern area of Jiangsu. Most of the users did not experience obvious weight changes i.e., loss or increase in weight of more than 5 kg during 12 months. Blood pressure and biochemical indicators of almost 99% among users were within the normal range. The gross cumulative continuation rate for 12 months was 83.14%; the most common medical reason for discontinuation was gastrointestinal disorder. There was an increased risk of discontinuation use among women with lower educational level.Conclusion Marvelon COC brought fewer side effects and was well accepted when applied in Chinese rural women.

  18. Dental caries and treatment needs of children (6-10 years in rural Udaipur, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Vineet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to examine caries prevalence and corresponding treatment needs in school children of rural areas of Udaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods : A total of 750 children of rural areas in the age group of 6-10 years were examined, using WHO index, to record the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using chi square test. Results : Dental caries was found in 63.20% children, and 85.07% children needed dental treatment. The highest need was of one surface filling (85.73% followed by sealant (51.20%. Conclusion : Dental caries showed to be a significant health issue in the rural population requiring immediate attention.

  19. Interactive Effects between Maternal Parenting and Negative Emotionality on Social Functioning among Very Young Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lixin; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Ning; Ng, Mei Lee

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined how child negative emotionality interacted with mothers' self-reported parenting in predicting different aspects of social functioning among very young Chinese children. A total of 109 Chinese nursery children in Hong Kong participated with their parents. Maternal supportive and aversive parenting practices…

  20. Rural/urban background, depression and suicidal ideation in Chinese college students: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Meng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine, first, the relationship of having a rural vs. urban background with suicidal ideation in Chinese college students, and second, whether a potential relationship was mediated by depression. METHODS: A survey was conducted among 1,145 undergraduate students at a university in China. Suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms were measured by the revised Hopkins' Symptom checklist (SCL-90-R. Associations between rural vs. urban background, depression and suicidal ideation were estimated by multivariable linear regression-based β coefficients, logistic regression-based odds ratios (ORs, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs. The magnitude of indirect effect and bias-corrected 95% CIs were obtained through bootstrap techniques. RESULTS: Rural background was positively associated with depression, which was in turn associated with suicidal ideation. The OR for rural status and suicidal ideation equaled 2.15 (95% CI = 1.36-3.41. This OR was slightly, though significantly (p<0.05 attenuated by additional adjustment for depressive symptoms (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.15-3.44. CONCLUSION: Having a rural background is a determinant of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students. Depression may only marginally mediate this association.

  1. Impact of village-based health education of tobacco control on the current smoking rate in Chinese rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-miao; Xiong, Wei-ning; Xie, Jun-gang; Liu, Xian-sheng; Zhao, Jian-ping; Zhang, Zhen-xiang; Xu, Yong-jian

    2016-02-01

    The number of smokers in Chinese rural areas is more than 200 million, which is twice that in cities. It is very significant to carry out tobacco control interventions in rural areas. We performed this community intervention study to evaluate the efficacy of village-based health education of tobacco control on the male current smoking rate in rural areas. The population of this study was the males above 15 years old from 6 villages in rural areas. The villages were randomly assigned to intervention group or control group (3 villages in each group). Self-designed smoking questionnaire was applied. The intervention group received the village-based health education of tobacco control for one year. The primary outcome measurement was the male current smoking rate. In the baseline investigation, completed surveys were returned by 814 male residents from the control group and 831 male residents from the intervention group. The male current smoking rate in the control group and the intervention group was 61.2% and 58.5%, respectively, before intervention. There was no significant difference between these two groups (P>0.05). After one-year intervention, the current smoking rate in the intervention group (51.2%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (62.8%) (Pareas, which could be a suitable and feasible way for tobacco control in the Chinese rural areas.

  2. Unmet needs in continuing medical education programs for rural Chinese township health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Yi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to describe the system of continuing medical education (CME in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and to ascertain the perceived needs related to that system, in order to improve the performance of health professionals in Chinese township health centers (THCs. Methods: In-depth key informant interviews were conducted to gain insights into the current CME system. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire was also carried out from March to August 2014 in order to identify perceived needs among THC personnel in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Logistic regression was used to identify factors related to respondents’ interest in pursuing different levels of degree study. Results: The areas of need perceived by the respondents included general clinical competence and emergency or first aid knowledge. Most respondents wanted to study at medical colleges in order to obtain a higher degree. Respondents aged below 45 years with neutral or positive attitudes about the benefit of degree study for the licensure examination were more likely to attend a bachelor-level CME program than their older peers and respondents with negative attitudes towards degree study. Female respondents and respondents aged below 45 years were more likely to attend a junior college CME program than males and older respondents, respectively. Conclusion: It is necessary to develop degree-linked CME programs to meet the need for young health professionals in Chinese THCs; therefore, this programs can improve the expertise of poorly educated young health workers, who overwhelm rural Chinese heath systems.

  3. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao

    2001-01-01

    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  4. Work Ethic, Motivation, and Parental Influences in Chinese and North American Children Learning to Play the Piano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Gilles; Huta, Veronika; Liu, YiFei

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 50 Chinese and 100 North American Caucasian children aged 6 to 17 who were learning piano, in terms of their work ethic, motivation, and parental influences. Compared to North American Caucasians, Chinese children and parents believed more strongly that musical ability requires hard work, and Chinese children were more…

  5. Disease-modifying therapies in Chinese children with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fen; Huang, D Hui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Wei Ping

    2014-01-01

    Limited data are available about the use of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in children with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to present our experience using DMTs in Chinese children with MS and provide additional evidence to consider treating these patients with cyclophosphamide. A retrospective chart review was conducted and data were obtained from 25 children with MS. Only three (12%) of these patients received and responded well to first-line interferon β-1b therapy, while 10 (40%) chose cyclophosphamide and 12 (48%) refused to use DMTs. For the 10 patients being treated with cyclophosphamide, the median annualized relapse rate decreased from 3.0 to 1.0, and the median score on the Expanded Disability Status Scale decreased from 3.5 to 2.0. After 12 months of treatment, no gadolinium-enhancing lesions were reported in seven of the 10 patients. The use of DMTs plays an important role in the treatment of children with MS. If first-line therapies fail, cyclophosphamide may be a good option.

  6. Development of reading-related skills in Chinese and English among Hong Kong Chinese children with and without dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanling; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Law, Ada Bui-Yan; Li, Tong; Cheung, Amelie Cho-Yi; Wong, Anita M-Y; Shu, Hua

    2014-06-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study sought to identify a developmental pattern of Chinese and English reading skills in children with and without dyslexia from 6 to 8years of age. Three groups of 15 children each-those with dyslexia, age-matched (AM) controls, and reading-matched (RM) controls-participated. Dyslexia was diagnosed at 8years of age. All children were tested on phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), morphological awareness, word reading, and vocabulary knowledge in both Chinese and English and also speed of processing skill. AM controls outperformed the group with dyslexia on all measures except for phonological awareness, English word reading, and vocabulary. However, those with dyslexia and AM controls developed at a similar rate across all reading-related skills from 6 to 8years of age. Compared with the RM controls, the group with dyslexia scored higher in phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge in both Chinese and English and also in English word reading but scored similarly in RAN. Children with dyslexia, thus, manifested clear difficulties in Chinese vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, and RAN as well as general speed of processing, representing a developmental lag in cognitive skills. Among these, RAN deficits are likely to be the most severe deficits in Chinese children with dyslexia.

  7. Are published characteristics of the ambulatory blood pressure generalizable to rural Chinese? The JingNing population study

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in rural Chinese and compared its characteristics with those reported in other population-based studies. METHODS: We enrolled inhabitants from six villages of the JingNing County, China. We recorded the ambulatory BP using 90207 SpaceLabs monitors. Trained physicians measured the conventional BP at the participants' homes. Hypertension was defined as a conventional BP of >/=140/>/=90 mmHg or a condition requiring the intake of anti...

  8. Examining the trajectories of children providing care for adults in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Research on caregiving children tends to be limited to children's caregiving experiences of parents with a specific disease or disability. This has led to a common perception that children's caregiving is a single, uniform and often long-term experience. Whilst this is most certainly the case...... for many children in economically more advanced countries, this may not hold true in rural Africa, where poverty and AIDS can have significant knock-on effects on entire families and communities. This paper seeks to develop a more complex understanding of children's caring experiences by asking children...... was adapted, with historical profiles, Photovoice and draw-and-write essays complementing 34 individual interviews and 2 group discussions. A thematic network analysis revealed that children's caregiving was not confined to a single experience. Children were observed to provide care for a number of different...

  9. Intake of phytate and its effect on the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) and calcium in Chinese preschool children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Sian; Liu Shengjie (Beijing Pediatric Research Inst. (China))

    1991-03-15

    A metabolic balance experiment of 2 periods was conducted. In period 1, foods were eaten as usual. Intakes of phytic acid, Zn and calcium were 538 {plus minus} 18 mg/day, 829 {plus minus} 0.4 mg/day and 341 {plus minus} 8 mg/day respectively. The molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn and calcium were 14 {plus minus} 2% and 29 {plus minus} 9%. According to the usual diet of children in rural areas of China, products of corn and soybean were added in period 2. Before period 2, subjects had been adapted to the diet for one week. Intakes of phytic acid, Zn and calcium were 826 {plus minus} 26 mg/day, 7.7 {plus minus} 0.16 mg/day and 343 {plus minus} 6 mg/day respectively. The molar ratios of phytic acid to Zn and calcium were 10.64 and 0.14. The absorption of Zn and calcium were 13 {plus minus} 2% and 16 {plus minus} 2%. In summary intake of Chinese children was 80% of US RDA and calcium was 43% of US RDA. The absorption of Zn and calcium were low. Phytic acid was one of the factors affecting the bioavailability of calcium while inhibitory effect of phytic acid could not be found on Zn absorption in current dietary condition of Chinese children.

  10. The Family-Home Nutrition Environment and Dietary Intake in Rural Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Jackson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and food insecurity rates are higher among rural compared to non-rural populations. Little is known, however, about how family-home environments influence childhood obesity-related behaviors, particularly in rural settings. This study examined associations between the family-home nutrition (FN environment, food insecurity, and dietary intake (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy, protein foods, and added sugars in rural elementary school-age children (grades K-5/6; n = 102. Parents/caregivers completed surveys on FN, food insecurity, and the Block Kids Food Screener (BKFS. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 was calculated from measured height and weight. Approximately 33% of children were classified as overweight/obese and 28% of families were at-risk for food insecurity. Multivariable linear regression analyses examined associations between dietary intakes with FN and food insecurity. More favorable FN scores were associated with lower added sugar intake (B = −1.38, p = 0.04 and higher vegetable (B = 0.15, p < 0.001, fruit (B = 0.71, p = 0.01, and dairy (B = 0.31, p < 0.001 intakes. No significant associations were found between food insecurity and dietary intake. Given the association between higher FN scores and more favorable dietary intake, promoting healthy FN environments among rural children is warranted.

  11. No place is safe: sexual abuse of children in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Kazi Nazrul; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2013-01-01

    During July 2007 to June 2010, BRAC, a nongovernment organization in Bangladesh, reported 713 incidents of rape and attempted rape of children (< 18 years) in rural Bangladesh. This study explores these 713 incidents to identify possible patterns related to the victims, perpetrators, and different dynamics of the incidents. Rape and attempted rape, particularly of young girls, constituted 64% of all reported incidents of violence against children. Children were found to be abused by men from all walks of life, mainly by non-family-members (83%). Similar diversity was seen in the location, time, and context of the incidents. The present study attempts to put forward an overall picture of the depth of the problem of child sexual abuse in rural Bangladesh, linking the incidents with the socially constructed gender relations of power and how it perpetuates sexual abuse of children, especially girls.

  12. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. in Rural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tsung Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis.

  13. Discourse-Level Reading Comprehension in Chinese Children: What Is the Role of Syntactic Awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; Shu, Hua; Chan, Shingfong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between syntactic awareness and discourse-level reading comprehension in 136 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children, aged 11, from a longitudinal study, were administered a set of cognitive and linguistic measures. Partial correlational analyses showed that children's performances in two…

  14. The Deficit Profile of Working Memory, Inhibition, and Updating in Chinese Children with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Sha, Tao; Li, Beilei

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated executive function deficits among Chinese children with reading difficulties. Verbal and numerical measures of working memory, inhibition, updating, and processing speed were examined among children with only reading difficulties (RD), children with reading and mathematics difficulties (RDMD), and typically developing peers…

  15. Negotiating and Creating Intercultural Relations: Chinese Immigrant Children in New Zealand Early Childhood Education Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Karen; Dalli, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    A multiple-case study investigation of the experiences of eight Chinese immigrant children in New Zealand early childhood centres suggested that the immigrant children's learning experiences in their first centre can be understood as a process of negotiating and creating intercultural relations. The children's use of family cultural tools, such as…

  16. Examining the trajectories of children providing care for adults in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten

    2011-01-01

    was adapted, with historical profiles, Photovoice and draw-and-write essays complementing 34 individual interviews and 2 group discussions. A thematic network analysis revealed that children's caregiving was not confined to a single experience. Children were observed to provide care for a number of different...... family and community members for varying periods of time and intensities. Although their living arrangements and life circumstances often gave them little choice but to care, a social recognition of children's capacity to provide care for fragile adults, helped the children construct an identity, which...... for many children in economically more advanced countries, this may not hold true in rural Africa, where poverty and AIDS can have significant knock-on effects on entire families and communities. This paper seeks to develop a more complex understanding of children's caring experiences by asking children...

  17. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Chinese Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing Jing; BARANOWSKI Tom; LAU WC Patrick; CHEN Tzu An; PITKETHLY Amanda Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study initially validates the Chines eversion of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), which has been identified as a potentially valid instrument to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children among diverse racial groups. Methods The psychometric properties of the PAQ-C with 742 Hong Kong Chinese children were assessed withthe scale's internal consistency, reliability, test-retest reliability, confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) in the overall sample, and multistep invariance tests across gender groups as well as convergent validity with body mass index (BMI), and an accelerometry-based MVPA. Results The Cronbach alpha coefficient (α=0.79),composite reliability value (ρ=0.81), andthe intraclass correlation coefficient(α=0.82)indicate the satisfactory reliability of the PAQ-C score.The CFA indicated data fit a single factor model, suggesting that the PAQ-C measures only one construct, on MVPA over the previous 7 days.The multiple-group CFAs suggested that the factor loadings and variances and covariances of the PAQ-C measurement model were invariant across gender groups. The PAQ-Cscore was related to accelerometry-based MVPA (r=0.33) and inversely related to BMI (r=-0.18). Conclusion This study demonstrates the reliability and validity of the PAQ-Cin Chinese children.

  18. Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media and Its Association with Socio-Econonic Factors Among Rural Primary School Children of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Md. Mazharul; Raquib, Ahmed; Ahmad, Shaikh Muniruddin

    2011-01-01

    Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) is a common community health disorder of children in all developing countries like Bangladesh which causes significant impact in speech, cognitive, educational and psychological development. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of CSOM and its association with certain socio-economic factors and health related practice and believes among rural primary school children of Bangladesh. The study was done among 1468 rural school going children...

  19. HEIGHTS AND WEIGHTS OF URBAN AND RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghassemi

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric Measurements is a simple and reliable tool for assessment of nutritional status of children. In this study height and weight of 23,170 middle class school children of 6-14 years in the city of Shiraz and four rural areas were measured. Results showed no difference among the rural and urban children. They were close to the third percentile of Boston standard for height and weight for the age. While height and weight of middle class school children in Tehran are reported to be close to fiftieth percentile of the Boston standard, similar patterns of growth have been reported from similar countries. Our results confirm close correlation between socio-economic development and child physical growth. Evaluation of weight for height in our sample showed that 19.3 per cent of children in the city and 16.8 per cent in rural areas were nutritionally at risk. And relative risk was higher below ten years of age. Therefore twenty bottom percent of younger school children in provinces are to be given highest priority in nutrition intervention programs in school.

  20. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  1. School snacks containing animal source foods improve dietary quality for children in rural Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, S.P.; Gewa, C.; Liang, L.J.; Grillenberger, M.; Bwibo, N.O.; Neumann, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Provision of a snack at school could help alleviate the micronutrient malnutrition that is common among schoolchildren in developing countries. The Child Nutrition Project was designed to compare the efficacy of three school snacks in improving growth and cognitive function of children in rural Keny

  2. The Effects of the Rural Income Maintenance Experiment on the School Performance of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Rebecca A.

    1977-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between participation in an experimental negative income tax program and the school performance of rural children, using four measures of school performance--attendance, comportment grades, academic grades, and standardized achievement test scores. Available from: Secretary, The American Economic Association, 1313 21st…

  3. Anti-Smoking Socialization Beliefs among Rural Native American and White Parents of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses similarities and differences in anti-smoking socialization beliefs of White and Native American parents in a low-income, rural population in northeastern Oklahoma. Data are from a population-based, cross-sectional children's environmental health study in which in-home interviews were conducted with 356 parents (56.2% White,…

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of Communication Skills among Rural Hawaiian Children. Technical Report No. 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciborowski, Tom; Price-Williams, D.

    Fifty-six bidialectical rural Hawaiian children participated in a study to determine whether they possessed comparable communicative competence in both dialects (Hawaiian-Creole English and standard English). The subjects, selected from kindergarten, first, third, and sixth grades, worked in groups of two to complete a communication task. Half of…

  5. Role of Zinc in Stunting of Infants and Children in Rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.

    2003-01-01

    Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a

  6. Migration, Remittances, and Children's High School Attendance: The Case of Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a large nationally representative survey data to examine the impact of China's rural-urban migration on high school attendance of left-behind children by disentangling the effect of remittances from that of migration. The results show that the absence of adult household members has a negative impact on the high school attendance of…

  7. Children's Birthday Celebrations from the Lived Experiences of Low-Income Rural Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaerim; Katras, Mary Jo; Bauer, Jean W.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates how low-income rural families celebrate children's birthdays, using interview data from 128 mothers residing in five states. Findings from a qualitative content analysis show that the mothers make special efforts to have birthday celebrations as other families do despite their financial constraints. Making the…

  8. Priming effects in Chinese character recognition for Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuliang Zou; Jing Wang; Hanrong Wu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Dyslexic children exhibit reading ability unmatched to age,although they possess normal intelligence and are well educated.OBJECTIVE:To examine the performance of dyslexic children in Chinese characters visual recognition tasks and to investigate the relationship between priming effect in character recognition and dyslexia.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A case-control study was performed at the Department of Children and Adolescent Health and Maternal Care,School of Public Health,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology between March and June 2007.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 75 primary school students in grades 3 and 5 were selected from two primary schools in Wuhan City,Hubei province,China,and were assigned to three groups.(1) Reading disability (RD,n=25);(2) chronological age (CA) group (n=25 normal readers that were intelligence quotient and age-matched to the RD group);(3) reading level (RL) group (n=25 normal readers that were intelligence quotient and RL-matched to the RD group).All children were right-handed and had normal or corrected-to-normal vision.METHODS:Recognition of target characters was performed in each child using a masked prime paradigm.Recognition speed and accuracy of graphic,phonological,and semantic characters were examined.Simultaneously,data,with respect to response time for each target character and error rate,were recorded to calculate facilitation values (unrelated RT-related RT).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Response time,facilitation,and error rate in Chinese character recognition task were calculated.RESULTS:The baseline-adjusted facilitation of graphic,phonological,and semantic priming for dyslexic children was -0.010,-0.010,and 0.001,respectively.Dyslexic children displayed inhibition in graphic and phonological prime conditions.Facilitations under the three prime conditions were 0.026,0.026,and 0.022 for the CA group.In the RL group,results were 0.062,0.058,and 0.031 respectively.The differences of baseline

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Service Utilization in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Hong Lu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The number of rural-to-urban migrant workers has been increasing rapidly in China over recent decades, but there is a scarcity of data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL and health service utilization among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers in comparison to local urban residents. We aimed to address this question. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 2315 rural-to-urban migrant workers and 2347 local urban residents in the Shenzhen-Dongguan economic zone (China in 2013. Outcomes included HRQOL (measured by Health Survey Short Form 36 and health service utilization (self-reported. Results: Compared to local urban residents, rural-to-urban migrant workers had lower scores in all domains of HRQOL, and were more likely to report chronic illnesses (9.2% vs. 6.0%, adjusted OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.28–2.04 and recent two-week morbidity (21.3% vs. 5.0%, adjusted OR = 5.41, 95% CI 4.26–6.88. Among individuals who reported sickness in the recent two weeks, migrant workers were much less likely to see a doctor (32.7% vs. 66.7%, adjusted OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.13–0.36. Conclusions: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers have lower HRQOL, much more frequent morbidity, but are also much less likely to see a doctor in times of sickness as compared to local urban residents, indicating the existence of significant unmet medical care needs in this population.

  10. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Manuel Ramos; Paula Moles-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinch on

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Results: A total of 324 children were included (59.6%male) whose median age was 16.4 months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 40.0%–50.8%] under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101 (68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46 (31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children (28.7%;95%CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children (16.5%;95%CI:13.0%–21.1%) it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies (n=44, 13.6%;95%CI:10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children (9.9%;95%CI:7.1%–13.3%), of which 23 (71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children (5.9%;95%CI:3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10 (3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea (n = 9; 2.8%), infected wound and ulcer (n=7;2.2%), and burns (n=6;1.9%). Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  11. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Manuel Ramos; Paula Molés-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinchón

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia.Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia.Results: A total of 324 children were included(59.6% male) whose median age was 16.4months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval(CI): 40.0%–50.8%]under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101(68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46(31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children(28.7%; 95% CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children(16.5%; 95% CI: 13.0%–21.1%)it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies(n = 44, 13.6%; 95% CI: 10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children(9.9%; 95% CI: 7.1%–13.3%), of which 23(71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children(5.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10(3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea(n = 9; 2.8%),infected wound and ulcer(n = 7; 2.2%), and burns(n = 6; 1.9%).Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  12. The Major Problems and the Governmental Role in Chinese Rural Land Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of clarifying and defining rural land transfer, the necessity of rural land transfer is analyzed. Land transfer is the necessity in terms of promoting agricultural scale operation and improving production efficiency; proving opportunities for narrowing urban and rural gap; realizing rural surplus labor transfer and facilitating urbanization. Major problems in the existing rural land transfer are analyzed:unclear laws and regulations and rural land transfer lacks relevant legal protection;rural social security system is imperfect and can not solve farmers’ worries after land transfer; farmers and local governments are restricted by traditional ideas and it is hard to carry out the land transfer policies; rural system construction is relatively backward and the rural land transfer market is immature. Countermeasures on the governmental behaviors in rural land transfer are put forward: stipulating relevant administrative laws and regulations and perfecting the political system of rural land transfer; perfecting rural social security system and solving farmers’ worries after land transfer; changing the ideas and working style of local officials and leading farmers to form the scientific land transfer outlook;and vigorously promoting the construction of system and positively cultivating rural land transfer market.

  13. A Study on Nutritional Status of Rural School going Children in Kavre District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, D I; Haque, M K; Sharma, K; Mehta, D K; Shakya, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood is a time of active growth in terms of physical size, mental, emotional and psychological development. Normal growth is dependent on adequate nutrition and encompasses major transformations from birth to adulthood. Nutrition is a focal point for health and well being; and has special significance in countries with disadvantages in socioeconomic and hygienic standards. Objective The objective of the present study was to assess the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness among rural school going children. Method The present study was cross-sectional study, conducted on 438 rural school going children (169 male and 259 female) with the age group 4-16 years, during the period from April 2014 to July 2014. Age was recorded in year; height and weight were measured in centimeter and kilogram respectively. BMI was calculated by using standard equation. Result The present study concluded that the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were found to be 30.85%, 24.54% and 10.05% respectively among rural school going children of Kavre district. It was revealed that 37.87% was underweight, 29.59% was stunted and 11.25% was thinness among male children whereas in female children, 26.27% was underweight, 21.24% was stunted and 9.27% was thinness. Hence, high prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were observed in male than in female children. Conclusion The present study has successfully documented the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness among the rural school going children of Kavre district. The results of the present study will be useful for policy makers in their endeavor to formulate various developmental and health care programs.

  14. Children's Knowledge of Ellipsis Constructions in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated 4-year-old children's knowledge of the structural constraints on ellipsis constructions in Mandarin Chinese, focusing on the structural difference between verb phrase (VP) ellipsis and null object constructions. In Mandarin Chinese, if the antecedent clause of a VP-ellipsis structure contains an adverbial modifier,…

  15. Teaching Receptive Naming of Chinese Characters to Children with Autism by Incorporating Echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jin-Pang; Wu, Kit-I

    1997-01-01

    The facilitative effect of incorporating echolalia on teaching receptive naming of Chinese characters to four Hong Kong children (ages 8-10) with autism was assessed. Results from two experiments indicated echolalia was the active component contributing to the successful acquisition and maintenance of receptive naming of Chinese characters.…

  16. Children Learning Chinese as a Home Language in an English-Dominant Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sinming

    2015-01-01

    Many Chinese families face many difficulties in maintaining their heritage language for their children in English-dominant societies. This article first looks at the losses from monolingualism and benefits of bilingualism. Then, it explores the common methods used today in teaching Chinese. We conclude that families and community play an…

  17. The Impact of E-Book Interactivity Design on Children's Chinese Character Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Yu; Yang, Hui-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of e-book interactivity design on the learning of Chinese characters by fourth graders (10-year-old children). This study was guided by two main questions: (1) Are there any differences in achievements (Chinese character writing, lexical comprehension, and lexical usage) between groups of young learners who read…

  18. Investigating acculturation, diet, and physical activity among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in diet and physical activity. Research to understand the acculturative process early in life is important; however, there is no qualitative research directly with Chinese-American children. This study, currently in progress, a...

  19. Adapting a measure of acculturation for Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in health behaviors and disease risks. Research with Chinese children to understand their acculturative processes early in life is important; however, there is no known instrument to measure acculturation for this population. Thi...

  20. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns

  1. Cognitive perspective development of Chinese children's lexicon based on corpus Daddy where are we going

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2016-01-01

    The study of children language development has been the hot topic of numerous researchers. The thesis attempts to make analysis to Chinese content words of these five star children from constructional approach based on the corpus Daddy where are we going, whose innovation lies in parentage. In this TV, five fathers and their children spend 72 hours in villages personally. Based on the five videos downloaded from the Hunan Satellite official website, and collect more evidences from each child. The evidences mainly include Chinese content words and conversations to analyze the cognitive features of these five children from 4-6-year old.

  2. Wonderland Kids : a visual art workshop for developing creativity in Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    姚, 璐; 稲蔭, 正彦

    2011-01-01

    What is creativity? Creativity most immediately associates with the characteristics of novelty and originality. It is an indispensible capacity to most people in today's society. In China, creativity as an important issue has been written in national outline. Are Chinese children creative? According to many researches it can be found that the development of creativity in Chinese children is not so optimistic. Therefore, to develop their creativity, I designed a workshop called Wonderland Kids...

  3. How the Whole Language Approach Using Predictable Strategies Motivates Bilingual Children Learning To Read and Write Chinese as a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ya-Chen

    In recent years, the rate of Chinese immigrants to the United States has been increasing. Chinese parents desire that their Chinese-American children learn Chinese as a second language. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects on four American-born Chinese children when the researcher, as an instructor, employed whole language…

  4. Epidemiologic characteristics, knowledge and risk factors of unintentional burns in rural children in Zunyi, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shangpeng; Yang, Huajun; Hui, Ya; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Tao; Luo, Ya; Xiang, Huiyun; Shi, Xiuquan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the knowledge level and risk factors for pediatric unintentional burns in rural Southwest China with an aim to provide basic evidence for the prevention strategies. A stratified sampling method was used to recruit 1842 rural children from 9 schools. Self-reported burns during the past 12 months and relevant risk factors were collected by questionnaires. The burn incidence of all surveyed children was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 11.2–14.2%). We found that burn incidence had a trend to increase with the increasing school grade level and a trend to decrease with increasing knowledge scores on burns. The top two causes of burns were hot liquids (36.3%) and hot object (29.5%). More than 30% of children had little knowledge about preventive measures and how to give first-aid after burns. The main risk factors for burns included female gender, left-behind children by parents who were working in cities, and poor mother school education level. As the incidence of pediatric unintentional burns was high in rural southwest China, schools, families, and local public health agencies should put efforts into health education targeting burn prevention and first-aid measures after burns, particularly in “left-behind” children and those with mothers with poor education. PMID:27748426

  5. Second Language Learning Difficulties in Chinese Children with Dyslexia: What Are the Reading-Related Cognitive Skills that Contribute to English and Chinese Word Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children--28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls--participated and were administered…

  6. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the multidimensional anxiety scale for children among Chinese secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuqiao; Zou, Tao; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Abela, John R Z; Auerbach, Randy P; Tong, Xi

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to develop a Chinese translation of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) [March (1997) Multidimensional anxiety scale for children: Technical manual, Multi health systems, Toronto, ON], and to evaluate its reliability and validity. The original version of the MASC was translated into Chinese (MASC-C) and administered to 1,538 Chinese adolescents between the ages of 14 and 19. In comparison to the American normative sample [March (1997) Multidimensional anxiety scale for children: Technical manual, Multi health systems, Toronto, ON], Chinese adolescents reported significantly higher scores on the subscales of social anxiety and separation anxiety. Girls reported higher levels of anxiety on all subscales than males. Participants between the ages of 16 and 19 reported higher scores on the physical symptoms and harm avoidance subscales. The MASC-C exhibited strong internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.91 and the mean inter-item correlation coefficient was 0.20) and moderate test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.84 over a one-month interval). MASC scores inter-correlated a small to moderate degree with measures assessing negative life events and depressive symptoms indicating acceptable convergent validity. The results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the four-factor structure of the MASC was suitable for the Chinese sample. The four factor structure was also invariant across sex and age. As the Chinese translation of the MASC indicated high levels of reliability and validity, the MASC-C is appropriate for assessing anxiety in Chinese adolescents.

  7. Pilot study to evaluate children with hearing aids through PEACH and TEACH in a rural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingamdenne Paul Emerson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to evaluate the use of functional measures in hearing aid benefit assessment of children (n = 60 in a rural community. Children with age ranging from 6 months to 15 years with moderately severe to profound hearing loss were evaluated. They were evaluated by functional measures PEACH and TEACH which were translated into local language (Tamil. The relationship between PEACH and TEACH was calculated using SPSS and Chi-square tests. It was found that PEACH and TEACH questionnaires can be easily administered in the rural community and gives a quantitative measure of the effect of amplification. It gave caregivers a motivation to take an active part in the rehabilitation. This model of using functional evaluation tools to evaluate the suitability and effectiveness of amplification can be applied in children in developing countries.

  8. A STUDY ON GROWTH STATUS OF HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN IN RURAL SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahes h waran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE : To assess the growth status of High school children in Rural Primary health centre area of South India. METH ODS: C hildren from various High schools aged between 13 to 16 years belonging to a PHC area were surveyed in a School Health Program. Height and weight was measured following standard procedures. General nutritional status was assed clinically. SPSS Versio n 16 was used to analyze the data. R ESULTS: 630 students were examined. The overall prevalence of stunting was 44.6%. It was significantly higher in boys (47.7 than girls (41.6. Around 71% of the students were underweight, Boys (77.3% were significantly underweight as compared to girls (64.6. 21% of the children showed signs of malnutrition. CONCLUSION: The nutritional status of high school children in Rural Field Practice area is poor compared to many other studies

  9. Children at Risk: The Effect of Crop Loss on Child Health in Rural Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelsen, Maren M.; Tolan, Songül

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of an economic shock due to crop loss on health outcomes of children in rural Mexico. Data from the Mexican Family Life Survey for the years 2002 and 2005 off er retrospective information on economic shocks since 1997 and height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) to measure long-term effects on child health. Since crop losses are exogenous to the children, simple OLS regressions are used to estimate the effect of crop loss overall and over time. Children who were hit by...

  10. Visual perceptual abilities of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.

  11. Malaria in rural Mozambique. Part II: children admitted to hospital

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Characterization of severe malaria cases on arrival to hospital may lead to early recognition and improved management. Minimum community based-incidence rates (MCBIRs) complement hospital data, describing the malaria burden in the community. Methods A retrospective analysis of all admitted malaria cases to a Mozambican rural hospital between June 2003 and May 2005 was conducted. Prevalence and case fatality rates (CFR) for each sign and symptom were calculated. Logistic re...

  12. Perceived positive teacher-student relationship as a protective factor for Chinese left-behind children's emotional and behavioural adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xiaowei; Chen, Li; Qu, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    Using cross-sectional data collected in rural communities of two provinces of China, this study examined the protective role of perceived positive teacher-student relationship for Chinese left-behind children. The participants included 1442 children with a mean age of 14.13 classified into two groups: a left-behind group (104 boys and 110 girls) and a comparison group (588 boys and 640 girls). Self-reported questionnaires concerning self-esteem, depression, problem behaviours and the teacher-student relationship were administered. Relative to the comparison group, after controlling for age, gender and family socioeconomic status, the left-behind group was disadvantaged in terms of self-esteem and depression but not in problem behaviours. As hypothesised, the results of regression analyses indicated that teacher-student relationship positively predicted self-esteem and negatively predicted depression and problem behaviours for both groups. Moreover, the association between teacher-student relationship and depression was stronger among the left-behind group, suggesting that left-behind children were more responsive to the positive effect of a desired teacher-student relationship. Taken together, the results of our study support the idea that perceived positive teacher-student relationship may serve as a protective factor for left-behind children. Practical implications and limitations of the present study are discussed.

  13. Transfer of reading-related cognitive skills in learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese elementary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Keung, YC; Ho, CSH

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated transfer of reading-related cognitive skills between learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese children in Hong Kong. Fifty-three Grade 2 students were tested on word reading, phonological, orthographic and rapid naming skills in Chinese (L1) and English (L2). The major findings were: (a) significant correlations between Chinese and English measures in phonological awareness and rapid naming, but not in orthographic skills; (b) significant unique con...

  14. SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  15. Explaining the subjective well-being of urban and rural Chinese: income, personal concerns, and societal evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunping

    2015-01-01

    This study makes an integrated investigation of how subjective well-being is associated with income, personal concerns, and societal evaluations and how these social and psychological correlates of subjective well-being are contextualized within a country. Data used for the empirical analysis come from a nationally representative sample survey conducted in China in 2009. It is found that subjective well-being is independently linked to income, personal concerns, and societal evaluations. Comparisons of urban and rural Chinese further reveal that income, structural attributions of inequality, and evaluations of governance are related to subjective well-being among both groups. Nevertheless, different sets of other evaluative correlates of subjective well-being between urban and rural people stand out, which is conjectured to be related to the long-time institutional, economic, and social segmentation of the two groups. This study has contributed to both the subjective well-being theories and the understanding of the consequences of social inequality.

  16. Rural and urban Ugandan primary school children's alternative ideas about animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaala, Justine

    This study examined rural and urban Ugandan primary children's alternative ideas about animals through the use of qualitative research methods. Thirty-six children were selected from lower, middle, and upper primary grades in two primary schools (rural and urban). Data were collected using interview-about-instance technique. Children were shown 18 color photographs of instances and non-instances of familiar animals and asked to say if the photographed objects were animals or not. They were then asked to give reasons to justify their answers. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The results indicate that children tended to apply the label "animal" to large mammals, usually found at home, on the farm, in the zoo, and in the wild. Humans were not categorized as animals, particularly by children in the lower grades. Although the children in upper grades correctly identified humans as animals, they used reasons that were irrelevant to animal attributes and improperly derived from the biological concept of evolution. Many attributes children used to categorize instances of animals were scientifically unacceptable and included superficial features, such as body outline, anatomical features (body parts), external features (visual cues), presence or absence and number of appendages. Movement and eating (nutrition) were the most popular attributes children used to identify instances of animals. The main differences in children's ideas emanated from the reasons used to identify animals. Older rural children drew upon their cultural and traditional practices more often than urban children. Anthropomorphic thinking was predominant among younger children in both settings, but diminished with progression in children's grade levels. Some of the implications of this study are: (1) teachers, teacher educators and curriculum developers should consider learners' ideas in planning and developing teaching materials and interventions. (2) Teachers should relate humans to other

  17. Eye-movement study during visual search in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiu-hong; JING Jin; YANG De-sheng; WANG Hui; WANG Qing-xiong; SONG Shan-shan; FAN Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a disorder in which children with normal intelligence and sensory abilities show learning deficits in reading.Abnormal eye movements have been found in DD.However,eye-movement abnormalities during visual search among Chinese children with DD remain unknown.We aimed to identify the eyemovement characteristics and search efficiency of Chinese children with DD during visual search for targets of different conceptual categories,under same-category conditions.Methods We compared 32 Chinese dyslexic children and 39 non-dyslexic children in visual search tasks,which were assessed using EyeLink Ⅱ High-Speed Eye Tracker (SR Research Ltd.,Canada).Letters,single Chinese characters,digits,Chinese phrases,figures and facial expressions were used as stimuli.Targets were similar to distractors in meaning,phonology and/or shape.Results A main effect of task on visual search scores and all eye-movement parameters were found.Search scores,average saccade amplitude and saccade distance were significantly smaller in the DD group than in the controls.An interaction between group and task was found for pupil diameter.Conclusions Unlike normal readers,children with DD had a reduction in the visual attention span and search accuracy.Besides,children with DD could not increase their mental workload with increase in task difficulty.The conceptual category of the stimulus materials significantly impacts search speed,accuracy and eye-movement parameters.

  18. Dental caries in rural Alaska Native children--Alaska, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    In April 2008, the Arctic Investigations Program (AIP) of CDC was informed by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) of a large number of Alaska Native (AN) children living in a remote region of Alaska who required full mouth dental rehabilitations (FMDRs), including extractions and/or restorations of multiple carious teeth performed under general anesthesia. In this remote region, approximately 400 FMDRs were performed in AN children aged Dental caries can cause pain, which can affect children's normal growth and development. AIP and Alaska DHSS conducted an investigation of dental caries and associated risk factors among children in the remote region. A convenience sample of children aged 4-15 years in five villages (two with fluoridated water and three without) was examined to estimate dental caries prevalence and severity. Risk factor information was obtained by interviewing parents. Among children aged 4-5 years and 12-15 years who were evaluated, 87% and 91%, respectively, had dental caries, compared with 35% and 51% of U.S. children in those age groups. Among children from the Alaska villages, those aged 4-5 years had a mean of 7.3 dental caries, and those aged 12-15 years had a mean of 5.0, compared with 1.6 and 1.8 dental caries in same-aged U.S. children. Of the multiple factors assessed, lack of water fluoridation and soda pop consumption were significantly associated with dental caries severity. Collaborations between tribal, state, and federal agencies to provide effective preventive interventions, such as water fluoridation of villages with suitable water systems and provision of fluoride varnishes, should be encouraged.

  19. The Health and Well-Being of Children in Rural Areas: A Portrait of the Nation 2007. The National Survey of Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) provides a unique resource with which to analyze the health status, health care use, activities, and family and community environments experienced by children in rural and urban areas. The NSCH was designed to measure the health and well-being of children from birth through age 17 in the United…

  20. Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

    2006-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (preading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

  1. Components of Height and Blood Pressure among Ellisras Rural Children: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthai Ramoshaba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To date, there has been no study done investigating the relationship between the components of height and blood pressure (BP in rural South African children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between height, sitting height (SH, leg length (LL, and SH-to-height ratio (SH/H with BP in Ellisras rural children. All children underwent anthropometric and BP measurements using standard procedure. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between height, SH, LL, SH/H, and BP. The regression showed a positive significant (p < 0.001 association between systolic BP (SBP with height and SH (β ranged from 0.127 to 0.134 and 95% CI ranged from 0.082 to 0.415. Diastolic BP (DBP also showed a positive significant (p < 0.001 association with height and SH (β ranged from 0.080 to 0.088 and 95% CI ranged from 0.042 to 0.259. After having been adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference, DBP showed a positive significant (p < 0.05 association with height. There was a positive significant association between DBP and SBP together with the components of height amongst Ellisras rural children.

  2. An Interactive Teaching – Learning Tool for Underprivileged Children in Rural Schools

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    H.Vignesh Ramamoorthy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In a country like India, there are children who starve for food, water and cannot spend time for studying and they have to work hard, to get one meal a day. The dropouts in schools are high because of various reasons. Education is not at affordable cost, government must bring some schemes. 80% schools suffer from shortage of teachers, infrastructural gaps and several habitations. There are also frequent allegations of government schools being riddled with absenteeism and mismanagement and appointments are based on political convenience. Despite the allure of free lunch-food in the government schools, many parents send their children to private schools. As a result, proponents of low cost private schools, critiqued government schools as being poor value for money. Furthermore, many international schools with most modern Information Communication Technology (ICT tools are mushrooming even in remote villages because the rural elites who are able to afford school fees in a country where large number of families live in absolute poverty. The major objective of this paper is to develop an interactive teaching-learning tool with multimedia applications for underprivileged children in rural schools. This tool will help the rural school children to have quality education at an affordable cost.

  3. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG RURAL PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN OF MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

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    N Arlappa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia continues to be a severe public health nutritional problem in India affecting all physiological groups, even after the National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme has been in operation for more than three decades. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anaemia among rural pre-school (1-5-years children of Maharashtra. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB covering a total of 404 (Boys-243; Girls-161 pre-school children. Information of socio-demographic particulars was obtained and the finger prick blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin levels by cyanmethmoglobin method. Results: The result shows that 59.2 % (CI: 54.4-64.0 of the rural pre-school children of Maharashtra were anaemic, and the prevalence was significantly (p40% among rural pre-school children of Maharashtra. Therefore, appropriate intervention measures such as supplementary iron & folic acid, periodic deworming and health & nutrition education should be strengthened. The community needs to be encouraged to diversify their diets by consuming iron rich foods.

  4. The health and nutritional status of school children in two rural communities in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, S D; Paranavitane, S R; Rajakaruna, J; Weerasinghe, S; Silva, D; Wickremasinghe, A R

    2000-06-01

    There is growing evidence of considerable burden of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases and undernutrition in school children. This study describes the nutritional status and parasitic infections of school children in two areas of rural Sri Lanka. All children in four primary schools in the Moneragala district of Sri Lanka were included in the study. The height and weight of children were measured and anthropometric indices calculated. Stool and blood samples were examined for evidence of intestinal helminthiasis, malaria and anaemia. A greater proportion of boys than girls were underweight, wasted and stunted. Over 80% of the children were anaemic but did not apparently have iron deficiency anaemia according to their blood picture. The prevalence of parasitic infections such as hookworm and Plasmodium spp that may contribute to anaemia was low.

  5. Effect of Vision Therapy on Accommodation in Myopic Chinese Children

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    Martin Ming-Leung Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement to improve accommodative function in myopic children with poor accommodative response. Methods. This was a prospective unmasked pilot study. 14 Chinese myopic children aged 8 to 12 years with at least 1 D of lag of accommodation were enrolled. All subjects received 12 weeks of 60-minute office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement. Primary outcome measure was the change in monocular lag of accommodation from baseline visit to 12-week visit measured by Shinnipon open-field autorefractor. Secondary outcome measures were the changes in accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility. Results. All participants completed the study. The lag of accommodation at baseline visit was 1.29 ± 0.21 D and it was reduced to 0.84 ± 0.19 D at 12-week visit. This difference (−0.46 ± 0.22 D; 95% confidence interval: −0.33 to −0.58 D is statistically significant (p<0.0001. OBAVT also increased the amplitude and facility by 3.66 ± 3.36 D (p=0.0013; 95% confidence interval: 1.72 to 5.60 D and 10.9 ± 4.8 cpm (p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 8.1 to 13.6 cpm, respectively. Conclusion. Standardized 12 weeks of OBAVT with home reinforcement is able to significantly reduce monocular lag of accommodation and increase monocular accommodative amplitude and facility. A randomized clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of vision therapy on myopia progression is warranted.

  6. The Rural-Urban Difference in BMI and Anemia among Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yan; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Xia, Shi-Chang; Huang, Li-Chun; Fang, Yue-Qiang; Meng, Jia; Chen, Jiang; Zhang, He-Xiang; Zhou, Biao; Ding, Gang-Qiang

    2016-10-18

    There is growing concern over the double burden of over- and under-nutrition in individuals, especially in children and adolescents, which could dwarf their growth and development. This study aims to explore the rural-urban difference in BMI and anemia among children and adolescents. A stratified cluster sampling technique was employed. Dietary data were collected through interviews, and anthropometric values were measured. There were 1534 children and adolescents who participated in this study, including 775 male and 759 female participants. The prevalence of obesity among children living in a city, township and rural area was 10.3%, 8.5% and 5.5%, and that among adolescents was 1.4%, 2.9% and 2.8%. The prevalence of anemia among children and living in a city, township and rural area was 4.3%, 2.5% and 4.5%, while that among adolescents was 6.1%, 3.7% and 11.3%, respectively, with significant difference (χ² = 10.824, p = 0.004). The prevalence of being overweight, obesity and anemia was significant when comparing children with adolescents (χ² = 37.861, p = 0.000; χ² = 19.832, p = 0.000; χ² = 8.611, p = 0.003). Findings of this study indicate the double burden of malnutrition in Zhejiang province, characterized by a high prevalence of being overweight, obesity and anemia among children and a high prevalence of anemia among adolescents living in townships.

  7. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

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    Jubin Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.

  8. Caries experience among Chinese-American children in Manhattan Chinatown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Courtney H; Cruz, Gustavo D; Chan, Allison

    2011-01-01

    There is little research on the oral health status of Chinese-American (CA) children in the U.S. and Asian/Pacific Islanders in general. The purpose of this study was to characterize the dental caries experience of a CA child population in Manhattan Chinatown, New York City. A five-year chart review of 545 initial dental exams of patients aged 2 to 11 was conducted at a community clinic serving an immigrant CA population. DMFT/dft were compared to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed for associations among birthplace, language and untreated tooth decay at recall. Subject mean dft was higher compared to NHANES data both in aggregate and ethnic/race subgroups. Subjects had lower DMFT ccmpared to the national data. Significant difference was found between U.S. and non-U.S.-born mean dft. Asian Pacific Islander Americans include a fast-growing immigrant pediatric population at high risk for tooth decay.

  9. Study on the Exploitation and Utilization of Traditional Food Safety and Chinese Medicine Resources in Rural Areas-based on the Survey of Tongcheng Anhui

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    Zhen-Bo Xu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a study on the exploitation and utilization of traditional food safety and Chinese medicine resources in rural areas based on the survey of Tongcheng Anhui. There are a large variety and effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM resources in vast rural areas and they are the material basis for the development of TCM cause and research of TCM products. For a long time, however, because of various objective and subjective factors such as lacking of due attention to development and utilization of the resources of TCM, the cause of traditional Chinese medicine in rural areas are lack of development potential. By selecting a representative sample of rural Tongcheng in Anhui and on the basis of investigation on development and utilization of local traditional Chinese medicine resources, we should analyze current problems of development and utilization of existing rural medicine resource and propose suggestions from the aspects of government and farmers research. In this way, we can provide a reference to the motherland researchers and workers of the pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Early childhood development interventions and cognitive development of young children in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Koichiro; Flores, Rafael; Fujiwara, Junko; Tran, Lien Thi Huong

    2005-08-01

    Little is known about the long-term benefits of interventions that aim to promote early childhood development programs. The goal of this research was to determine whether an early childhood development intervention added to a nutrition intervention during preschool ages had lasting effects on the cognitive development of school-age children in communes of Thanh Hoa province in rural Vietnam. The study focused on a total of 313 children aged 6.5-8.5 y (grades 1 and 2 in primary school) in 2 communes that were exposed to nutrition intervention or nutrition and early childhood development (ECD) intervention from 1999 to 2003. Measurements of height and cognitive test scores (Raven's Progressive Matrices Test) were collected from the children; household characteristics were determined by interviews with mothers. Longitudinal analysis was performed by integrating the data with that collected from the same children in past surveys. Significant effects of the ECD intervention compared with the nutrition intervention were detected. The beneficial effect of ECD intervention on the cognitive test scores was large for the most nutritionally challenged children whose height-for-age Z-scores declined or remained in the stunted range. The findings help provide useful insights into the development of an effective integrated model of ECD and nutrition intervention for children in rural Vietnam.

  11. Chinese L1 Children's English L2 Verb Morphology over Time: Individual Variation in Longterm Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Joanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti

    2016-01-01

    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a…

  12. Effects of Social Capital in Multiple Contexts on the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiaobing

    2017-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study used an ecological framework to investigate how social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Using structural equation modeling with…

  13. Impact of Immersion Teaching on English Sociopragmatic Awareness of Chinese Kindergarten Children: A Polite Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yan, Rong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of an early partial immersion program as compared to a non-immersion program on English sociopragmatic awareness among Chinese kindergarten children six years of age. Of the 128 children who participated in the experiment involving the use of politeness perception tasks, half received three years…

  14. Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Mastery Motivation among Chinese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their…

  15. Who Makes the Choice? Rethinking the Role of Autonomy and Relatedness in Chinese Children's Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xue-Hua; Lam, Shui-Fong

    2008-01-01

    The importance of autonomy for children's motivation in collectivistic cultures has been debated hotly. With the understanding that autonomy is not equivalent to freedom of choice, 4 studies addressed this debate by investigating how socioemotional relatedness, choice, and autonomy were related to Chinese children's motivation. Study 1 (N = 56,…

  16. Examining the Text Quality of English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    As a branch of multicultural literature, bilingual children's picture books present a special opportunity for readers to expand their horizons and knowledge of other cultures. The researchers took a closer look at the text quality of 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. These bilingual books were examined on the aspects of the…

  17. The Effect of Dialect Experience on Chinese Children's Mandarin Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sumei; Li, Rongbao; Li, Guangze; Wang, Youkun; Wu, Liqiong

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on bilingual phonological awareness suggested that children who were able to speak a second language performed better in phonological awareness tasks; some studies however found different results. This study revisited the issue by investigating the effect of Min dialect experience on Chinese children's Mandarin phonological awareness.…

  18. Emotion Regulation Strategies in European American and Hong Kong Chinese Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…

  19. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H

    2014-04-01

    Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children.

  20. Interparental Conflict Styles and Parenting Behaviors: Associations with Overt and Relational Aggression among Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Su, Yanjie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interparental conflict styles related to Chinese children's overt and relational aggression directly and indirectly through parenting behaviors. Mothers (n = 670) and fathers (n = 570) reported their overt and covert interparental conflict styles and different parenting behaviors. Children's (n = 671) aggression was…

  1. Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

  2. Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  4. The Pathway to English Word Reading in Chinese ESL Children: The Role of Spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan; Liu, Yingyi; Sun, Huilin; Wong, Richard Kwok; Yeung, Susanna Siu-sze

    2017-01-01

    The present longitudinal study investigated the role of spelling as a bridge between various reading-related predictors and English word reading in Chinese children learning English as a Second Language (ESL). One hundred and forty-one 5-year-old kindergarten children from Hong Kong, whose first language (L1) was Cantonese and second language (L2)…

  5. What Can Chinese and German Children Tell Us about Their Learning and Play in Kindergarten?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Hong Kong and German children's perceptions of play and learning and their relationships. Forty-eight children (24 German and 24 Chinese) playing and learning in the classroom were observed and videotaped for five consecutive days. They were interviewed 3 times about their kindergarten experiences by using free- and…

  6. Social Capital in Promoting the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children: Interaction across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study investigated how the interactions of social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…

  7. Chinese Children's Justifications for Sharing Resources: Why Do We Have to Share?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mun

    2011-01-01

    Gilligan argued that Kohlberg's justice-based stage theory of morality reflects only one type of morality and does not consider people's tendency to use care-based moral judgements. This study examines Chinese children's tendency to use justice-based and care-based justifications for moral reasoning. Children's attitudes to conforming to the…

  8. Exploring the Eye-Movement Patterns as Chinese Children Read Texts: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minglei; Ko, Hwawei

    2011-01-01

    This study was to investigate Chinese children's eye patterns while reading different text genres from a developmental perspective. Eye movements were recorded while children in the second through sixth grades read two expository texts and two narrative texts. Across passages, overall word frequency was not significantly different between the two…

  9. Curriculum Sequencing and the Acquisition of Clock-Reading Skills among Chinese and Flemish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burny, Elise; Valcke, Martin; Desoete, Annemie; Van Luit, Johannes E. Hans

    2013-01-01

    The present study addresses the impact of the curriculum on primary school children's acquisition of clock-reading knowledge from analog and digital clocks. Focusing on Chinese and Flemish children's clock-reading knowledge, the study is about whether the differences in sequencing of learning and instruction opportunities--as defined by the…

  10. Children's Understanding of Television Advertising: A Revisit in the Chinese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; McNeal, James U.

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey of 1,758 elementary school children (6-14 years old) from December 2001, to March 2002, in 3 Chinese cities with different levels of television advertising. The authors used D. R. John's (1999) model of consumer socialization as the theoretical framework for their study. More than half of the children whom the…

  11. The prevalence of lactase deficiency and lactose intolerance in Chinese children of different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine lactose metabolism and lactase activity in Chinese children of different ages, prevalence of lactase deficiency (LD), and lactose intolerance (LI). Methods All 1168 healthy subjects between 3 and 13 years were recruited from schools in four large cities in China. They were screened by a 25 g lactose tolerance test.Some subjecls were challenged with .50 g milk powder on different days. Both indicators,the expiratory H2 concentration and intolerance symptoms, were analyzed. Results LD occurred in 38.5% of children in the 3-5 year age group, and 87% of the 7-8 year and 11-13 year old groups. The age of occurrence for LD may be at 7-8 years among Chinese children. The prevalence of LI among Chinese children was 12.2% alage 3-5 years, 33.1% at age 7-8 years, and 30.5% al age 11-13 years, respectively. Conclusion The results demonstrate that LD is very common in Chinese children from these four cities. LD and LI have a dose dependent response: lactose absorption and symptorms are based on lactase activity. The relationship between breast feeding history (or the history of cow milk intake) and lactase activity among Chinese children has not been established.

  12. Picture perception in Chinese dyslexic children: an eye-movement study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiu-hong; JING Jin; ZOU Xiao-bing; HUANG Xu; JIN Yu; WANG Qing-xiong; CHEN Xue-bin; YANG Bin-rang; YANG Si-yuan

    2009-01-01

    Background Currently, whether or not there is visuospatial impairments in Chinese dyslexic children is still a matter of discussion. The relatively recent application of an eye-tracking paradigm may offer an opportunity to address this issue. In China, in comparison with reading studies, there have not been nearly as many eye movement studies dealing with nonreading tasks such as picture identification and whether Chinese children with dyslexia have a picture processing deficit is not clear. The purposes of the present study were to determine whether or not there is visuospatial impairments in Chinese dyslexic children. Moreover, we attempted to discuss whether or not the abnormal eye movement pattern that dyslexic subjects show during reading of text appropriate for their age is a consequence of their linguistic difficulties.Methods An eye-link Ⅱ High-Speed Eye Tracker was used to track the series of eye-movement of 19 Chinese dyslexic children and 19 Chinese normal children. All of the subjects were presented with three pictures for this eye-tracking task and 6 relative eye-movement parameters, first fixation duration, average fixation duration, average saccade amplitude, mean saccade distance, fixation frequency and saccade frequency were recorded for analysis.Results Analyzing the relative parameter among three pictures, except for the fixation frequency and the saccade frequency, other eye-movement parameters were significantly different among the three pictures (P 0.05).Conclusions The characteristics of the pictures can significantly influence the visuospatial cognitive processing capability of the Chinese children. There is a detectable disability for the Chinese dyslexic children in the visuospatial cognitive processing: their saccade amplitude and mean saccade distance are shorter, which may be interpreted as specific for their reading disability.

  13. Cross-Lagged Relationships between Morphological Awareness and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yahua; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Xinchun; Liu, Hongyun; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the developmental relationship between morphological awareness (MA) and reading comprehension (RC) using a 2-year and four-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 149 Chinese children (80 males and 69 females). We measured children's MA, word reading (WR), and RC from T1 to T4, in addition to phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, and general cognitive ability at T1 as control measures. Four plausible cross-lagged models were assessed and compared to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between MA and RC over time. Results found support for a reciprocal-causation model, that is, MA stably predicted subsequent RC, and the reverse relation was also found. Longitudinal mediation analyses revealed that WR partially mediated the relationship between MA and RC in Chinese children. These findings extend our understanding of the relationship between MA and RC. The practical implications for these two developing skills in Chinese children are discussed.

  14. Novel noun and verb learning in Chinese-, English-, and Japanese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif, 1996). The results also suggest that the input language uniquely shapes verb learning such that English-speaking children require grammatical support to learn verbs, whereas Chinese children require pragmatic as well as grammatical support. This research bears on how universally shared cognitive factors and language-specific linguistic factors interact in lexical development.

  15. Bushmeat consumption among rural and urban children from Province Orientale, Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie; Nebesse, Casimir; Nasi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    of other meat (from the wild, such as fish and caterpillars, or from domestic sources, such as beef, chicken, pork, goat and mutton) among children from Province Orientale, Democratic Republic of Congo. Our results show that urban and rural households consume more meat from the wild than from domestic...... sources. Of the various types of wild meat, bushmeat and fish are the most frequently consumed by children from Kisangani and fish is the most frequently consumed in villages. Poorer urban households eat meat less frequently but consume bushmeat more frequently than wealthier households. In urban areas...... monkeys), probably because rural households tend to consume the less marketable species or the smaller animals. We show that despite the tendency towards more urbanized population profiles and increased livelihood opportunities away from forest and farms, wildlife harvest remains a critical component...

  16. Migration of children and impact on depression in older parents in rural Thailand, southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Melanie; Tangchonlatip, Kanchana; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai; Darawuttimaprakorn, Niphon; Prince, Martin; Flach, Clare

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Migration is feared to be associated with abandonment and depression in older parents "left behind" in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE To test for prospective associations between (1) out-migration of all children and subsequent depression in parents and (2) having a child move back and an improvement in parents' depression. DESIGN A cohort study with a 1-year follow-up. SETTING A population-based study nested in a demographic surveillance site of 100 villages in rural Thailand. Most out-migration is to the capital city. PARTICIPANTS A stratified random sample of 1111 parents 60 years and older (1 per household) drawn from all 100 villages, of whom 960 (86%) provided depression data at follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Scoring 6 or more on the Thai version of the EURO-D depression scale at follow-up. RESULTS Depression prevalence was 22%. At baseline, 155 (16%) had all their children migrated from the district and 806 (84%) had at least 1 child living in the district. Having all children out-migrated at baseline, compared with having none or some children out-migrated, predicted a smaller odds of depression, after controlling for baseline sociodemographic and health measures (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.92). Having a child move back in the study year was associated with greater odds of depression at follow-up when adjusted for baseline measures (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.04-2.94), although this was no longer significant after adjusting for changes in disability and marital status since baseline (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.99-2.98). CONCLUSIONS Contrary to our hypothesis, parents whose children are not migrants may be at greater risk of depression than those with migrant children. More understanding is needed about the risks for depression in older rural populations and about the effectiveness of interventions.

  17. Urban and Rural Chinese Adolescents' Judgments and Reasoning about Personal and Group Jurisdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Charles C.; Yang, Shaogang; Tan, Dingliang; Liu, Chunqiong; Shao, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    This research applied social domain theory to illuminate reasoning about the perceived legitimacy and limits of group decision making (majority rule) among adolescents from urban and rural China (N = 160). Study 1 revealed that adolescents from both urban and rural China judged group decision making as acceptable for both social conventional and…

  18. The Chinese Urban-rural Dual Economic Structure Model and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuchuan; XU; Shengping; SHI; Qinghua; HUANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of urban-rural dual economic structure in China,we build a dynamic endogenous urban-rural dual economic model closely linked to China’s reality,and carry out mathematical economics analysis of optimized conditions for urban and rural sectors. The main results show that:(i) The labor growth rate of urban-rural sectors must be greater than the time discount rate,or else there would be a vicious cycle of diminishing returns in the sectors;(ii) The accumulation rate of physical capital and human capital of urban-rural sectors,and the rate of technological progress,need to be greater than the corresponding depreciation rate plus the time discount rate,otherwise there would be a vicious cycle of diminishing returns in the sectors;(iii) The low accumulation rate in the rural sector,and the occurrence of labor outflow,human capital loss and lack of investment,will expand income gap between urban and rural areas,which is a reason for solidification of urban-rural dual economic structure.

  19. The Relations Among Multiple Risks, Parenting Styles, and Chinese American Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Xiao Tong

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prospective effects of multiple risks on the internalizing and externalizing problems of 258 1st and 2nd generation Chinese American school-aged children, as well as the mediating and moderating roles of parenting styles. When examining the relations between risk domains and children's behavioral adjustment, children's low self-regulation and negative emotionality, single-parent family structure, and gaps in parent-child cultural orientations were found to be unique pr...

  20. Feeding patterns of underweight children in rural Malawi given supplementary fortified spread at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Ashorn, Ulla; Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Manary, Mark J; Ashorn, Per

    2008-01-01

    Fortified spread (FS), containing dry food particles embedded in edible fat, offers a convenient means for nutrition rehabilitation. To describe how caregivers feed FS to their undernourished children at home, and how FS use affects other feeding patterns, we conducted a longitudinal observational study in rural Malawi. Sixteen 6- to 17-month-old underweight children (weight-for-age z-score foods and does not take extra caregiver time. To limit wastage, caregivers should be advised to serve FS plain or to mix it with only a small quantity of porridge.

  1. Prediabetes in rural and urban children in 3 states in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradillas-García, Celia; Malacara, Juan M; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia; Guízar, Juan M; Camacho, Nicolás; De la Cruz-Mendoza, Esperanza; Quemada, Leticia; Sierra, Juan Francisco Hernández

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied the frequency, distribution, and factors associated with prediabetes (fasting glucose, 100-125 mg/dL) in rural and urban children from San Luis Potosí, León, and Querétaro in central Mexico. Family history, somatometry, and levels of fasting insulin, glucose, and lipids were collected in 1238 children 6 to 13 years of age. The authors found no cases of type 2 diabetes and a 5.7% frequency of prediabetes. The group with prediabetes had higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores and total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Prediabetes was more frequent in León, with similar distribution in rural and urban children. The frequency of insulin resistance was 24.1%, with higher figures in urban groups and in San Luis Potosí. In multivariate analysis, prediabetes was associated with insulin resistance and residence in León. The authors concluded that in central Mexico the frequency of prediabetes is significant, and it is associated with insulin resistance and a geographic location, but not with obesity or urban vs rural dwelling.

  2. Overview of Research on Relationship between Income Level and Happiness of Chinese Rural Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By conducting meta-analysis on the researches of relationship between income level and happiness at home and abroad,this paper researches the relationship between income level and happiness.The results show that the relationship between income level and happiness takes on U-shape curve,and it can be explained from adaptation,social comparison and psychological expectation.Finally,in order to promote rural residents’ income level and strengthen rural residents’ happiness in China,corresponding policy suggestions are put forward as follows:bridge gap of urban-rural residents’ income distribution;dilute the competitions for money and status among people;perfect rural social security system;endeavor to create a situation in which all rural residents do their best.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of restless legs syndrome among Chinese adults in a rural community of Shanghai in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbo Shi

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS in an adult Chinese population living in a rural community. We also aimed to determine the predictive diagnostic value of the 4-item screening questionnaire for RLS in this population.This study was designed as a 2-phase survey. In phase 1 we performed a face-to-face interview of eligible individuals living in a rural community in Shanghai using a 4-item screening questionnaire. In phase 2, sleep specialists performed a phone interview of the individuals who screened positive to diagnosis RLS.Forty-one RLS cases were confirmed among 2941 eligible individuals 18 years of age or older in the study community. The prevalence of RLS was 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.0-1.9%, with a significantly higher rate observed in females (1.9% [95%CI =1.3-2.7%] than that in males (0.9% [95%CI = 0.5-1.5%], p = 0.019. The prevalence rate increased significantly with age, from 0.2% (95% CI = 0.08-0.6% in those 18-39 years old to 4.1% (95% CI = 2.1-7.9% in those ≥ 70 years old (p < 0.001. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that gastritis, anemia and hypertension were risk factors for RLS. The sensitivity and specificity of the 4-item screening questionnaire used in this study were 63.4% and 97.5%, respectively.RLS prevalence is relatively low among Chinese adults living in rural Shanghai. Furthermore, population-based studies with a larger sample size and a longitudinal follow-up may help to determine the risk factors of RLS and potential interventions for RLS.

  4. Rural Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As the Chinese economy soars ahead in the wake of the international financial crisis, more attention is being given to the country’s indus-trial, financial, investment and trade figures. But the Central Rural Work

  5. Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwynn Josephine D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04 years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day, over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI, calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls, and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL. Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods.

  6. Maternal resources, parenting, and dietary patterns among rural African American children in single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Juanita; McBride Murry, Velma; Brody, Gene; Parker, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    A correlation study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal education, perceived family resources, and the importance of family routines would be related to children's dietary patterns. Additionally, the study examined the hypothesis that dietary patterns would be associated with children's cognitive and physical abilities. The sample for this study included 159 African American single-mother families with a 6- to 9-year-old child living in rural areas, most of whom lived in poverty. Children's eating patterns were assessed using a self-report questionnaire administered to the mother in an interview format. Children's cognitive ability was measured by several subscales from the Woodcock Johnson Psycho-Educational Instrument and the Harter Perceived Competence Scale for children. For male children, the mother's higher education was related to more adequate eating patterns at home, and more perceived family resources were related to the likelihood of taking vitamin supplements. For female children, greater milk intake was positively related to cognitive outcomes, including applied problem, passage comprehension, calculation, synonym identification, antonym identification, and quantitative concept scores. Milk intake was clearly related to more optimal cognitive development. The results of this study support the literature related to the importance of nutrition for cognitive and physical abilities in children.

  7. Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3–18 Months Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H. Kwong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We conducted a five-hour structured observation of the mouthing behaviors of 148 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3–18 months. We modeled mouthing frequencies using 2-parameter Weibull distributions to compare the modeled medians with those of U.S. children. In Bangladesh the median frequency of hand-mouthing was 37.3 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 34.4 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 29.7 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. The median frequency of object-mouthing was 23.1 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 29.6 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 15.2 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. At all ages both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher than those of U.S. children. Mouthing frequencies were not associated with child location (indoor/outdoor. Using hand- and object-mouthing exposure models from U.S. and other high-income countries might not accurately estimate children’s exposure to environmental contaminants via mouthing in low- and middle-income countries.

  8. The Characteristics,Structure and Trend of the Chinese Urban and Rural Residents’ Clothing Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; ZHANG; Haifeng; XIAO

    2014-01-01

    As one of the necessities of life,clothing is on the important position in the daily life of urban and rural residents. Firstly,the paper carries out the descriptive statistical analysis about clothing consumption expenditures of urban and rural residents; secondly,based on questionnaires of 543 urban and rural residents in 16 provinces,this paper analyses structure and trend of urban and rural residents’ clothing consumption. The results show that per capita clothing consumption expenditure of urban and rural residents present growth on the whole,but the gap between the two is gradually expanding; clothing consumption expenditure have differences in different regions; the differences of different income levels are also obvious; urban and rural residents’ clothing consumption structure tends to be more diversified,cotton goods and chemical fiber goods is the main variety of clothing consumption,including down feather,cotton and chemical fiber is the main variety of coat,and cotton,chemical fiber and wool is the main variety of suit and knitwear; cotton goods,down goods and woolen goods will be the fiber goods that urban and rural residents buy more in the future; clothing consumption demand will pursue for band,comfort and personality; female residents will still be the main force of clothing consumption. Finally,the paper puts forward some recommendations on the basis of analysis results.

  9. A STUDY OF THE PREVALENCE OF EAR DISEASES IN SCHOOL CHILDREN OF RURAL TUMKUR DISTRICT, KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Prevalence of ear diseases is more common in rural school going children. Most commonly observed ear diseases include chronic otits media, otitis media with effusion, acute otitis media, otitis externa and impact ed wax. The causes of ear diseases are due to lack of health education, poor socio - economic status and unhygienic practices. These diseases cause decrease in hearing in children which leads to decrease in learning abilities and also leading to more number of school dropouts. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of ear diseases among rural school going children and to identify the causes for the occurrence, there by suggesting measures to reduce the occurrence. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: This is a non - randomized, cross - sectional study. The study was conducted in schools located in and around the Rural health training C entre, Nagavalli attached to Sri Siddhartha Medical College, Tumkur district Karnataka. The study period was 14 months from December 2010 to February 2012; the study was conducted on students from 18 schools within the age group of 6 years to 15 years. The students less than 6 years were excluded from the study. The total student population was 741 and all of them were examine d for ear pathologies. The method of examination was done by using otoscopy, tuning forks tests and pure tone audiometry. RESULTS: Out of 741 students examined, 43 students had ear pathologies. Hence, the percentage of students with ear pathologies was fou nd to be 5.8%. The common ear pathologies observed was impacted wax, acute otitis media, otitis externa and chronic otitis media and these students were of low socio - economic status. CONCLUSION: Ear diseases are common in rural children due to lack of heal th education, low socio - economic status and unhygienic practices followed. Hence this survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of ear diseases among rural school going children and to find out the causes

  10. The iconicity of picture communication symbols for rural Zulu children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Lize; Alant, Erna

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the iconicity of selected Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) for rural Zulu ten-year-olds. Participants were presented with copies of a commercially available communication overlay without glosses. They were required to match a symbol with each of 36 spoken Zulu labels. With both strict and lenient scoring criteria applied, 2.8% and 11.1% (respectively) of the symbols on the communication overlay emerged as iconic for participants. It was further established that the position of symbols on the overlay, the total frequency of selection of symbols, and gender did not influence results. An analysis of errors revealed that for some symbols many of the participants agreed on a single specific label, be it the target label or a non-target label; while for other symbols there were either many possible labels, or none. The term distinctiveness was coined to describe how well defined or specific were the evoked meanings triggered by a symbol in the viewers' minds. Results suggest that participants did not make maximum use of the information provided by arrows in the symbols. This finding could be ascribed to the opaqueness of arrows and participants' lack of previous experience with these conventional cues in pictures, as well as the traditional oral nature of the Zulu culture.

  11. Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

  12. Sleep Patterns, Sleep Disturbances, and Associated Factors Among Chinese Urban Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Wang, Guanghai; Geng, Li; Luo, Junna; Li, Ningxiu; Owens, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize sleep patterns and disturbances among Chinese urban kindergarten children and examine potentially associated factors. Caregivers of 513 children (47.96% male) aged 3-6 years (mean age = 4.46, SD = 0.9) completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Almost 80% (78.8%) of the children scored above the original CSHQ cutoff point for global sleep disturbance. Regression analysis indicated that child's age, and the presence of emotional problems, hyperactivity and peer problems, cosleeping, and interparental inconsistency of attitudes toward child rearing accounted for significant variance in the CSHQ total score (R(2) = 22%). These findings indicate that there is an apparently high prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese urban kindergarten children; and sleep disturbances are associated with both child-related and parenting practice variables.

  13. Effects of Exposure to Domestic Physical Violence on Children's Behavior: A Chinese Community-based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuping; Li, Longfei; Zhao, Xingfu; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yalin; Luo, Xingguang

    2016-06-01

    Domestic physical violence (DPV) is common in China due to its long history of slavery and feudalism. This study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to DPV on children's behavior in a Chinese community. Ninety-three 12- to 16-year-old adolescents exposed to DPV were compared to 54 adolescents with no exposure to DPV. We found that DPV exposure was associated with adverse behaviors in children, especially among boys. Children witnessing DPV alone had similar behavioral scores as the abused children. We recommend that both abused and DPV witness-only adolescents in Chinese communities need treatment to mitigate the effects on maladjusted behaviors. The intervention programs for children who witness domestic violence are also important.

  14. Perception of stop onset spectra in Chinese children with phonological dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Yue, Guoan

    2012-11-01

    The ability to identify stop consonants from brief onset spectra was compared between a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia (the PD group, with a mean age of 10 years 4 months) and a group of chronological age-matched control children. The linguistic context, which included vowels and speakers, and durations of stop onset spectra were varied. Children with PD showed lower identification accuracy and exhibited a smaller vowel context effect for some stop-vowel combinations compared with the chronological age-matched control group. Further analyses revealed that the PD group had more variable response patterns, and their responses were less consistent with the acoustic characteristics of stop onset spectra. The results suggest that Chinese children with PD do not show greater sensitivity to allophonic acoustic variability compared with control children and exhibit a generally less robust response pattern to phonetic categories.

  15. Parenting style of Chinese fathers in Hong Kong: correlates with children's school-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong.

  16. Parents' participation in the sexuality education of their children in rural Namibia: a situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukolo, Linda Ndeshipandula; van Dyk, Agnes

    2014-07-29

    Talking about sexuality has never been easy in most Namibians cultures and it seems that most parents feel uncomfortable and embarrassed to talk openly with their children about sexuality. They do not participate in the sexuality education of their children, because they believe they are unable to provide quality and adequate sexuality information due to their lack of knowledge about human sexuality or their perceived inability to explain what they do know. The ultimate purpose of this study was to develop, describe, implement and evaluate an educational programme to empower rural parents to participate in the sexuality education of their children. The study was designed to be qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature. It was performed in three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a situational analysis to explore and describe how parents provide sexuality education. Phase 2 consisted of the development of a conceptual framework that facilitated the development of an educational programme. In phase 3 the programme was implemented and evaluated, recommendations were made and conclusions drawn. The main findings revealed two themes: factors influencing parental participation in their children's sexuality education, and the need for parental participation in their children's sexuality education. This article is part of series of three article stems from a study on the topic of sexuality education empowerment programme of rural parents in Namibia. The three articles have the following titles: one: parent's participation in sexuality education of their children: a situational analysis; two: conceptual framework developments that facilitate the development of an educational programme and three: programme implementation and evaluation. This article dealt with parent's participation in sexuality education of their children: a situational analysis.

  17. Contribution of discourse and morphosyntax skills to reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Wong, Yau-kai; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Lo, Lap-yan

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed at identifying important skills for reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic children and their typically developing counterparts matched on age (CA controls) or reading level (RL controls). The children were assessed on Chinese reading comprehension, cognitive, and reading-related skills. Results showed that the dyslexic children performed significantly less well than the CA controls but similarly to RL controls in most measures. Results of multiple regression analyses showed that word-level reading-related skills like oral vocabulary and word semantics were found to be strong predictors of reading comprehension among typically developing junior graders and dyslexic readers of senior grades, whereas morphosyntax, a text-level skill, was most predictive for typically developing senior graders. It was concluded that discourse and morphosyntax skills are particularly important for reading comprehension in the non-inflectional and topic-prominent Chinese system.

  18. Algorithm for the diagnosis of anaemia without laboratory facilities among small children in a malaria endemic area of rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Christian B; Soerensen, Jeff; Bjorkman, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Anaemia among small children in tropical Africa is common and often caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum. The diagnosis of anaemia is difficult without a laboratory estimation of haemoglobin. The aim of this study was to examine if clinical findings related to malaria and anaemia would...... help to detect moderate and/or severe anaemia in children in rural Tanzania....

  19. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  20. Blood pressure patterns in rural, semi-urban and urban children in the Ashanti region of Ghana, West Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Agyemang (Charles); W.K. Redekop (Ken); E. Owusu-Dabo (Ellis); M.A. Bruijnzeels (Marc)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: High blood pressure, once rare, is rapidly becoming a major public health burden in sub-Saharan/Africa. It is unclear whether this is reflected in children. The main purpose of this study was to assess blood pressure patterns among rural, semi-urban, and urban children and to

  1. Predicting Level of Mental Health Care among Children Served in a Delivery System in a Rural State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel L.; Estle, George

    2001-01-01

    A study of 150 children and adolescents with reactive attachment disorder found that inpatient admission was related to limited psychosocial strengths, previous hospitalization, and history of sexual abuse. Most children admitted to inpatient care were rural and had never received community-based services. Implications for public health education,…

  2. The effect of dietary resistant starch type 2 on the microbiota and markers of gut inflammation in rural Malawi children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant starch (RS) decreases intestinal inflammation in some settings. We tested the hypothesis that gut inflammation will be reduced with dietary supplementation with RS in rural Malawian children. Eighteen stunted 3-5-year-old children were supplemented with 8.5 g/day of RS type 2 for 4 weeks. ...

  3. Exceeding Boundaries: Chinese Children's Playful Use of Languages in Their Literacy Practices in a Mandarin-English Bilingual Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Guo, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Chinese children of immigrant families are often perceived as good at memorization and rote learning or as polite, obedient, and passive students lacking creativity and criticality. Guided by Multiple Literacies Theory and translanguaging, this study explores how Chinese children in a Mandarin-English bilingual program skillfully navigate…

  4. Self-Management Training for Chinese Obese Children at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome: Effectiveness and Implications for School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; Anderson, Laura M.; Ji, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a school-based self-management intervention for Chinese obese children at risk for metabolic syndrome. Twenty-eight Chinese obese children (M age?=?10 years) and their parents participated in the study. Metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured pre- and post-intervention. The risk factors included Body Mass…

  5. Physical activity behaviors and influences among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low physical activity is a major health issue among Chinese Americans. This study explored Chinese–American children's physical activity behaviors and influencing factors. Twenty-five children of Chinese or Taiwanese descent were interviewed to understand their favorite sports or physical activities...

  6. Women's decision-making autonomy and children's schooling in rural Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women's decision-making autonomy in developing settings has been shown to improve child survival and health outcomes. However, little research has addressed possible connections between women's autonomy and children's schooling. Objective: To examine the relationship between rural women's decision-making autonomy and enrollment status of primary school-age children living in their households and how this relationship differs by child's gender. Methods: The analysis uses data from a 2009 survey of rural households in four districts of Gaza province in southern Mozambique. Multilevel logistic models predict the probability of being in school for children between 6 and 14 years old. Results: The results show a positive association of women's decision-making autonomy with the probability of being enrolled in primary school for daughters, but not for sons. The effect of women's autonomy is net of other women's characteristics typically associated with enrollment and does not mediate the effects of those characteristics. Conclusions: Based on the results, we argue that women with higher levels of decision-making autonomy may have a stronger preference for daughters' schooling and may have a greater say in making and implementing decisions regarding daughters' education, compared to women with lower autonomy levels. Results also illustrate a need for considering a broader set of autonomy-related characteristics when examining the effects of women's status on children's educational outcomes.

  7. RICKETS IN RURAL KENYAN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwibo, N O; Nyawade, S; Neumann, C G

    2013-03-01

    Clinical rickets has not been reported previously in Embu district, Kenya. Baseline clinical assessments performed for a nutrition intervention study in preschool children (n=324) identified 28 cases of rickets (8.6% of study sample). Clinical characteristics included: delays of sitting, walking, and teething; bone and chest deformities; widened wrists and ankles; and bowed lower extremities. Risk factors identified were short duration of breastfeeding with feeding of cereal-based supplements with little or no milk, low calcium intake, limited sunlight exposure. Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies likely contributed to these cases. Treatment with Vitamin D3 and milk resulted in clinical improvement.

  8. To Restore Chinese Traditions--Inspirations Withdrawn from The Concubine’s Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻博华

    2015-01-01

    Denise Chong’s The Concubine’s Children is regarded as an autobiography.As a member of the third generation of Chinese-Canadian,Denise Chong manages to sing a family saga for her immigrant family.Chinese traditions,such as patriarchal domination,Confucianism,and other traditions could be sensed throughout the autobiography.This can not only been reflected by the main characters Chan Sam(Chong’s grandpa),May-ying(Chong’s grandma),but also by some other depictions throughout the work.The thesis is to discuss those Chinese traditions in detail.

  9. To Restore Chinese Traditions——Inspirations Withdrawn from The Concubine’s Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻博华

    2015-01-01

    Denise Chong’s The Concubine’s Children is regarded as an autobiography.As a member of the third generation of Chinese-Canadian,Denise Chong manages to sing a family saga for her immigrant family.Chinese traditions,such as patriarchal domination,Confucianism,and other traditions could be sensed throughout the autobiography.This can not only been reflected by the main characters Chan Sam(Chong’s grandpa),May-ying(Chong’s grandma),but also by some other depictions throughout the work.The thesis is to discuss those Chinese traditions in detail.

  10. Going Rural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Foreign banks are beginning to invest in China's rural financial system, helping to meet a strong need for capital As Chinese commercial banks retreat from the rural market, foreign banks appear ready to jump into a sector with a strong thirst for capital. In July, Rabobank Group, the International Finance Corp. and the United

  11. The construction of an urban underclass : a cultural study of Chinese rural-urban migrant workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Ting; 吳婷

    2015-01-01

    Sitting on the throne of the world’s second largest economy, China’s swift turnaround has surprised both international and internal audiences. However, few have truly questioned the human costs that the country has endured to achieve such glory. The exploitation and oppression of rural-urban migrant workers are the main human costs that paved the way for the country’s wealth and prosperity. This thesis intends to differentiate from previous studies, which generally discuss the topic of rural-...

  12. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  13. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  14. Environmental influences on children's physical activity and eating habits in a rural Oregon County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthy eating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions.

  15. Longitudinal Predictors of Spelling and Reading Comprehension in Chinese as an L1 and English as an L2 in Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Predictors of age 10 spelling and reading comprehension skills in both Chinese and English from vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and word reading at age 8 were tested in this longitudinal study of 141 Hong Kong Chinese children learning to read English as a second language. The correlation between…

  16. Chinese Mothers and Adolescents' Views of Authority and Autonomy: A Study of Parent-Adolescent Conflict in Urban and Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Gaddini, Min

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-five dyads of eighth-grade adolescents (mean age = 14.15 years, SD = 0.39) and their mothers in China (30 dyads from urban one-child families, 27 from urban multiple-children families, and 28 from rural multiple-children families) were interviewed individually. They described daily parent-adolescent conflicts, justified their perspectives…

  17. TEACHING ENGLISH TO CHINESE CHILDREN BY READING STORYBOOKS: A CASE STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangYanhong

    2004-01-01

    Reading storybooks has been proved to be an effective way to start learning English for a Chinese child in the United States.Based on the analysis of the child's English learning content,processes, and context, this paper re-evaluates Krashen's five hypotheses in second language acquisition. Storybooks have provided children with an interesting and comprehensible content. By integrating various foreign language instructional approaches into reading storybooks, children are motivated to learn a real and natural foreign language, their cultural appreciation is cultivated, and English performance improves.Storybook reading is a programme that Chinese English teachers can use to enhance the ever-booming English programme in China.

  18. Chinese children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration: relations to parenting styles and children's social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun; Reiser, Mark

    2004-05-01

    Relations among authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles, children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration, and children's social functioning were examined for 425 first and second graders (7-10 years old) in Beijing, China. Parents reported on parenting styles; parents and teachers rated children's effortful control, anger/frustration, externalizing problems, and socially appropriate behaviors: and peers rated aggression and leadership/sociability. High effortful control and low dispositional anger/frustration uniquely predicted Chinese children's high social functioning, and the relation of anger/frustration to social functioning was moderated by effortful control. Authoritarian parenting was associated with children's low effortful control and high dispositional anger/frustration, which (especially effortful control) mediated the negative relation between authoritarian parenting and children's social functioning. Effortful control weakly mediated the positive relation of authoritative parenting to social functioning.

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index values in 9-year-old rural Norwegian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Mamen, A; Anderssen, S A

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) values in a representative population of 9-year-old Norwegian children in two rural communities and compare present values with previous findings. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-nine 9-year-old children were invited, and 256...... and 16.8% of the girls were classified as overweight, and 1.6% of the boys and 6.9% of the girls as obese. Mean age, body mass, height and Ponderal index were not significantly different between sexes. Girls had a higher BMI than boys (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared to earlier Norwegian studies......, children's BMI values seem to have increased substantially. This increase is most pronounced in girls. When assessing these differences using the PI, this increase is less marked. Comparing maximal oxygen uptake data with that in earlier Nordic studies, there is no evidence that fitness has declined among...

  20. Prevalence of pediculosis capitis in children from a rural school in Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Manrique-Saide

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an analytical cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with active head lice infestation. In total 140 children, aged 6 to 16-years, from a public school in rural Yucatan, Mexico, were examined by wet-combing. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on individuals and the conditions in the surrounding environment. Head lice infestation was found in 19 out of the 140 children tested (13.6% and this was associated with both lower income (OR 9.9, 95% CI 2.15-45.79, p = 0.003 and a higher frequency of hair washing (OR 8, 95% CI 1.58-50, p = 0.012. Intersectoral control programs that take into account the socioeconomic differences of children should be implemented.

  1. The Association of Overweight and Obesity with Blood Pressure among Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bin; MA Jun; WANG Hai Jun; WANG Zhi Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between obesity and high blood pressure (BP) in Chinese children and adolescents. Methods Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure measurements of 197 191 children aged 7-17 years were obtained from a Chinese national survey in 2010. Obesity and high BP were defined according to the reference values for Chinese children. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95%confidence intervals (CIs) of different BMI categories for high BP, as well as the population attributable risk percent (PAR%), were also calculated. Results The prevalence of high BP was 16.1% for boys and 12.9%for girls in 2010. Overweight and obese children had a significantly higher prevalence of high BP than non-overweight children in both boys and girls in each age group. ORs (95%CI) for high BP were 4.1 (3.9, 4.4) in obese boys and 4.0 (3.7, 4.3) in obese girls. The overall PAR%for high BP due to overweight and obesity was 14.4%. Conclusion Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher risk of high BP than non-overweight children. Eliminating overweight and obesity could reduce 14.4%of high BP cases.

  2. Healthy-lifestyle behaviors associated with overweight and obesity in US rural children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are disproportionately higher rates of overweight and obesity in poor rural communities but studies exploring children’s health-related behaviors that may assist in designing effective interventions are limited. We examined the association between overweight and obesity prevalence of 401 ethnically/racially diverse, rural school-aged children and healthy-lifestyle behaviors: improving diet quality, obtaining adequate sleep, limiting screen-time viewing, and consulting a physician about a child’s weight. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of school-aged children (6–11 years in rural regions of California, Kentucky, Mississippi, and South Carolina participating in CHANGE (Creating Healthy, Active, and Nurturing Growing-up Environments Program, created by Save the Children, an independent organization that works with communities to improve overall child health, with the objective to reduce unhealthy weight gain in these school-aged children (grades 1–6 in rural America. After measuring children’s height and weight, we17 assessed overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile associations with these behaviors: improving diet quality18 (≥ 2 servings of fruits and vegetables/day, reducing whole milk, sweetened beverage consumption/day; obtaining19 adequate night-time sleep on weekdays (≥ 10 hours/night; limiting screen-time (i.e., television, video, computer,20 videogame viewing on weekdays (≤ 2 hours/day; and consulting a physician about weight. Analyses were adjusted 21 for state of residence, children's race/ethnicity, gender, age, and government assistance. Results Overweight or obesity prevalence was 37 percent in Mississippi and nearly 60 percent in Kentucky. Adjusting for covariates, obese children were twice as likely to eat ≥ 2 servings of vegetables per day (OR=2.0,95% CI 1.1-3.4, less likely to consume whole milk (OR=0.4,95% CI 0.2-0.70, Their parents are more likely to

  3. Eye Injuries Among Primary School Children in Enugu, Nigeria: Rural vs Urban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Nonso Ejikeme; Umeh, Rich Enujioke; Onwasigwe, Ernest Nnemeka

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of eye injuries among primary school children in two noncontiguous local government areas of Enugu State of Nigeria was undertaken. One of the local government areas was urban, while the other one was rural. Children who were schools in the urban area and three randomly selected schools in the rural area were interviewed and examined with Snellen chart, pen torch, head loupe, and direct ophthalmoscope. The findings were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire and the World Health Organization Programme for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) eye examination form. Training on visual acuity measurement was done for each of the class teachers. A total of 1,236 children school (20.41%). The farm was next in frequency (7.14%), especially among boys in the rural area. The church and the road/street constituted the remainder. Regarding persons causing the injury, the child's playmate was the commonest (55.10%) followed by self (27.55%). Parents and guardians were the next (9.18%). These were injuries associated with corporal punishment. Corporal punishment-related eye injury, according to this study, appears to be common in the rural area and affects boys predominantly. Other human intermediary agents that cause an eye injury include passersby (2.04%), RTA (2.04%), siblings (2.04%), and others (1.02%). The primary agents that caused an eye injury were sticks/wood, 29 (29.60%); stone, 21 (21.43%); pieces of metal, 19 (19.39%); fall, 10 (10.20%); fight/fist blow, 9 (9.918%); plastic, 2 (2.04%); fingernails, 2 (2.04%); farm tools/fruits, 2 (2.04%); and RTA, glass, and headbutt, each 1.02%. Farm implements/fruits as well as fingernails appear to be fairly common primary agents that cause an eye injury in the rural Enugu, Nigeria. In terms of prevalence, there was no significant difference between the urban and rural areas. The findings from this study showed a high prevalence of eye injury among primary school children. In terms

  4. Ear Infection and Its Associated Risk Factors in First Nations and Rural School-Aged Canadian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandima P. Karunanayake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ear infections in children are a major health problem and may be associated with hearing impairment and delayed language development. Objective. To determine the prevalence and the associated risk factors of ear infections in children 6–17 years old residing on two reserves and rural areas in the province of Saskatchewan. Methodology. Data were provided from two rural cross-sectional children studies. Outcome variable of interest was presence/absence of an ear infection. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between ear infection and the other covariates. Results. The prevalence of ear infection was 57.8% for rural Caucasian children and 43.6% for First Nations children living on-reserve. First Nations children had a lower risk of ear infection. Ear infection prevalence was positively associated with younger age; first born in the family; self-reported physician-diagnosed tonsillitis; self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma; and any respiratory related allergy. Protective effect of breastfeeding longer than three months was observed on the prevalence of ear infection. Conclusions. While ear infection is a prevalent condition of childhood, First Nations children were less likely to have a history of ear infections when compared to their rural Caucasian counterparts.

  5. Contribution of malnutrition and malaria to anemia in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The most common cause of anemia is an iron deficiency; however, the condition may also be caused by deficiencies in folate, vitamin B 12 and protein. Some anemia is not caused by nutritional factors, but by congenital factors and parasitic diseases such as malaria. Aim: This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of anemia among children in three rural communities of the Ovia North East Local government area, and to determine whether its cause was nutritional or could be attributed to malaria. Patients and Methods: A total of 316 children between the ages of 1 and 15 years were included in the study. Children were examined for malaria parasites by microscopy. The World Health Organization (WHO age-adjusted cut-off for hemoglobin was used to classify anemia. Results: 38.6% of the children were anemic, with hemoglobin levels lower than 11g/dL, although parasite prevalence and density were low. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted and 44.0% underweight. Serum ferritin was more sensitive than hemoglobin concentration in detecting anemic children. Anemia was also significantly higher in the Evbuomore village school than in the Ekosodin and Isiohor villages (P0.001. Conclusion: Anemia detected in this population may be due more to malnutrition than to malaria.

  6. Contribution of malnutrition and malaria to anemia in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntade Michael Ayo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common cause of anemia is an iron deficiency; however, the condition may also be caused by deficiencies in folate, vitamin B12 and protein. Some anemia is not caused by nutritional factors, but by congenital factors and parasitic diseases such as malaria. Aim: This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of anemia among children in three rural communities of the Ovia North East Local government area, and to determine whether its cause was nutritional or could be attributed to malaria. Patients and Methods: A total of 316 children between the ages of 1 and 15 years were included in the study. Children were examined for malaria parasites by microscopy. The World Health Organization (WHO age-adjusted cut-off for hemoglobin was used to classify anemia. Results: 38.6% of the children were anemic, with hemoglobin levels lower than 11g/dL, although parasite prevalence and density were low. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted and 44.0% underweight. Serum ferritin was more sensitive than hemoglobin concentration in detecting anemic children. Anemia was also significantly higher in the Evbuomore village school than in the Ekosodin and Isiohor villages (P<0.001. Conclusion: Anemia detected in this population may be due more to malnutrition than to malaria.

  7. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi among mothers and children in rural Mayan communities and associated reproductive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-León, Rubi; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Claudia; Pacheco-Tucuch, Freddy S; O'Shea, Matthew; Rosecrans, Kathryn; Pippitt, Julia; Dumonteil, Eric; Buekens, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among mothers and children in two rural Mayan communities in Yucatan, Mexico and examine sociodemographic characteristics and adverse reproductive outcomes associated with maternal infection. We performed household surveys in the communities of Sudzal and Teya. Mothers were interviewed, and blood samples were obtained to perform rapid tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). We surveyed 390 mothers and 685 children. The overall seroprevalence was 2.3% among mothers and 0.4% among children. In Sudzal, we found a seroprevalence of 4.4% among mothers and 0.7% in children. In Teya, we found a seroprevalence of 0.9% among mothers and 0.3% among children. Compared with uninfected mothers, seropositive mothers reported more stillbirths (relative risk = 4.7; 95% confidence interval = 2.1-10.4). T. cruzi infection is present in these communities, and infected children indicate active transmission. Seropositivity in mothers is associated with a history of adverse reproductive outcomes.

  8. Current smoking behaviour among rural South African children: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monyeki Kotsedi D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of tobacco products is the major cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. Most smokers start the smoking habits from childhood and adolescent stages. Method This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 1654 subjects (854 boys and 800 girls, aged 11 to 18 years, who were part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study completed the questionnaire. Association between tobacco products use and habits, attitudes and beliefs were explored in this study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association. Results The prevalence of tobacco product use increases with increasing (4.9 to 17.1% age among boys whereas girls do not smoke cigarette but only considerable number (1.0 to 4.1% use home made tobacco products (pipe and snuff among the Ellisras rural children. Parents and grand parents play a significant (about 50% role in influencing smoking behaviour among the Ellisras rural children. Seeing actors smoking on TV shows was positively associated (p Conclusion The usage of tobacco products was high among older boys. Girls did not smoke cigarette. This tobacco use behaviour mirrors the cultural norms and adult behaviour. The association of this tobacco used products with biological parameters will shed more light on the health of these children over time.

  9. Prevalence of rickets-like bone deformities in rural Gambian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen L; Jammeh, Lamin; Owens, Stephen; Fulford, Anthony J; Moore, Sophie E; Pettifor, John M; Prentice, Ann

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of childhood rickets-like bone deformity in a rural region of West Africa where rickets has been reported in association with a low calcium intake. A population-based survey of children aged 0.5-17.9 years living in the province of West Kiang, The Gambia was conducted in 2007. 6221 children, 92% of those recorded in a recent census, were screened for physical signs of rickets by a trained survey team with clinical referral of suspected cases. Several objective measures were tested as potential screening tools. The prevalence of bone deformity in children rickets on X-ray at the time of medical examination. This emphasises the difficulties in comparing prevalence estimates of rickets-like bone deformities from population surveys and clinic-based studies. Interpopliteal distance showed promise as an objective screening measure for bow-leg deformity. In conclusion, this population survey in a rural region of West Africa with a low calcium diet has demonstrated a significant burden of rickets-like bone deformity, whether based on physical signs under survey conditions or after clinical examination, especially in boys < 5.0 years.

  10. Predicting Internalizing Problems in Chinese Children: the Unique and Interactive Effects of Parenting and Child Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, De Yun

    2013-01-01

    The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing ...

  11. The Influences of the Chinese Modern Family Changes on the Socialization of Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chenggang; Liu Dan

    2006-01-01

    This article mainly introduces the contemporary changes in Chinese family and especially analyses the transformation of family structure and type,family housing conditions,family relationship network.the relationship between husband and wife and parenthood.In addition,it discusses the influence of family changes in the soeialization of children.Then it expounds the new transformation in children's socialization because of family,school,mass media,etc.Finally,it discusses its challenge and reflection to family and pedagogue.

  12. Case–Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui-Li; Chen, Xiang-Tao; Yang, Bin; Ma, Fang-Li; Wang, Shu; Tang, Ming-liang; Hao, Ming-Gao; Ruan, Di-Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children. Objective Our goal was to investigate the association between ADHD and blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese children, adjusting for known ADHD risk factors and potential confounding variables. Methods We conducted a pair-matching case–control study with 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD controls 4–12 years of age, matched on the same age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The ...

  13. Differences in lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiaofan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric obesity has become a global public health problem. Data on the lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors of overweight and obese children and adolescents are limited. The present study aims to compare health-related factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study consisted of 4262 children and adolescents aged 5–18 years old from rural areas of the northeast China. Anthropometric measurements and self-reported information on health-related variables, such as physical activities, sleep duration, dietary habits, family income, and recognition of weight status from the views of both children and parents, were collected by trained personnel. Results The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 15.3 and 6.4%, respectively. Compared to girls, boys were more commonly overweight (17.5% vs. 12.9% and obese (9.5% vs. 3.1%. Approximately half of the parents with an overweight or obese child reported that they failed to recognize their child’s excess weight status, and 65% of patients with an overweight child reported that they would not take measures to decrease their child’s body weight. Obese children and adolescents were more likely to be nonsnackers [odds ratio (OR: 1.348; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.039–1.748] and to have a family income of 2000 CNY or more per month (OR: 1.442; 95% CI: 1.045–1.99 and less likely to sleep longer (≥7.5 h (OR: 0.475; 95% CI: 0.31–0.728 than the normal-weight participants. Conclusions Our study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large Chinese pediatric population. Differences in sleep duration, snacking, family income, and parental recognition of children’s weight status among participants in different weight categories were observed, which should be considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.

  14. Fine Scale Spatiotemporal Clustering of Dengue Virus Transmission in Children and Aedes aegypti in Rural Thai Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Fine Scale Spatiotemporal Clustering of Dengue Virus Transmission in Children and Aedes aegypti in Rural Thai Villages In-Kyu Yoon1*, Arthur Getis2...between infected humans and Aedes aegypti in Thai villages. Methodology/Principal Findings: Geographic cluster investigations of 100-meter radius were...in rural Thailand. Child contacts and Ae. aegypti from cluster houses were assessed for DENV infection. Spatiotemporal, demographic, and entomological

  15. Association of tag SNPs of GPx-3 with essential hypertension in rural Han Chinese in Fuxin, Liaoning, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Ying; LI Hong; SUN Ying-xian; WU Bao-gang; SHI Jin; CHEN Yan-li; SUN Zhao-qing; ZHENG Li-qiang; ZHANG Xin-gang; GENG Ning; LI Tie-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic mechanisms contribute to blood pressure regulation. This study investigated whether glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3) tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with hypertension in the rural areas of Fuxin county, Liaoning province, China.Methods Indigenous Fuxin Han people participated, 523 unrelated hypertensives and 547 controls were recruited. All tag SNPs of GPx-3 gene were selected. We estimated SNP allele frequency in DNA pools with pyrosequencing.Results Before Bonferroni correction, C allele frequency for rs8177417 was significantly higher in hypertensives than those in controls (23.4% vs. 19.3%, P=0.014); T allele frequency for rs3828599 was significantly lower in hypertensives than those in controls (35.6% vs. 40.8%,P=0.009). However, when a Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied, only the polymorphisms rs3828599 of GPx-3 gene was associated with hypertension (P=0.045, OR: 0.833, 95%CI: 0.695-0.998).Conclusion The polymorphism of rs3828599 of GPx-3 gene might be associated with hypertension in rural Han Chinese from Fuxin, Liaoning.

  16. Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Liao, Yong; Liu, Jia; Fang, Wenjie; Hong, Nan; Ye, Xiaofei; Li, Jianjun; Tang, Qinglong; Pan, Weihua; Liao, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Currently, research in sexual behavior and awareness in female Chinese college students (FCCSs) is limited, particularly regarding the difference and the influencing factors between students from rural areas and urban areas. To fill the gap in available data, a cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 3193 female students from six universities located in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China, from February to June, 2013. Of the 2669 respondents, 20.6% and 20.9% of the students from urban and rural areas, respectively, reported being sexually experienced. The proportion of students who received safe-sex education prior to entering university from rural areas (22.4%, 134/598) was lower (P Sexual behavior has become increasingly common among FCCSs, including high-risk sexual behavior such as unprotected commercial sex. However, knowledge concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission and the risks is insufficient, particularly for those from rural areas, which is a challenge for HIV/AIDS control in China. The Chinese government should establish more specific HIV/AIDS prevention policies for Chinese young women, strengthen sex education, and continue to perform relevant research.

  17. Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, research in sexual behavior and awareness in female Chinese college students (FCCSs is limited, particularly regarding the difference and the influencing factors between students from rural areas and urban areas. To fill the gap in available data, a cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 3193 female students from six universities located in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China, from February to June, 2013. Of the 2669 respondents, 20.6% and 20.9% of the students from urban and rural areas, respectively, reported being sexually experienced. The proportion of students who received safe-sex education prior to entering university from rural areas (22.4%, 134/598 was lower (P<0.0001 than the proportion from urban areas (41.8%, 865/2071. Sexual behavior has become increasingly common among FCCSs, including high-risk sexual behavior such as unprotected commercial sex. However, knowledge concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS transmission and the risks is insufficient, particularly for those from rural areas, which is a challenge for HIV/AIDS control in China. The Chinese government should establish more specific HIV/AIDS prevention policies for Chinese young women, strengthen sex education, and continue to perform relevant research.

  18. Elderly parent health and the migration decisions of adult children: evidence from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, John; Mu, Ren

    2007-05-01

    Recent research has shown that participation in migrant labor markets has led to substantial increases in income for families in rural China. This article addresses the question of how participation is affected by elderly parent health. We find that younger adults are less likely to work as migrants when a parent is ill. Poor health of an elderly parent has less impact on the probability of employment as a migrant when an adult child has siblings who may be available to provide care. We also highlight the potential importance of including information on nonresident family members when studying how parent illness and elder care requirements influence the labor supply decisions of adult children.

  19. Prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children in a rural area of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Wedner, S.; Ross, D.; Balira, R.; Kaji, L.; Foster, A.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—The study measured the prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children between 7 and 19 years of age in a rural area of Tanzania, and investigated whether teachers could successfully provide the first component of a school eye screening service.
METHODS—Teachers from each of three primary schools in Mwanza Region tested visual acuity using a Snellen's E chart in 1438 pupils. 1386 of these pupils were then interviewed and underwent a full eye examination by an eye team.
RESULTS—10 p...

  20. Bidirectional Longitudinal Relations between Father-Child Relationships and Chinese Children's Social Competence during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Using a two-year and three-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between father-child relationships and children's social competence. The results of structural equation modeling showed bidirectional effects between father-child conflict and social…

  1. The Longitudinal Interplay of Psychopathology and Social Competence during Chinese Children's Transition to Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal relations between psychopathology and social competence in a sample of 115 Chinese children during the transition to preschool initiated in their third year of life. Social competence was assessed by maternal reports at three months after preschool entry (T1) and at the end of the first (T2) and second…

  2. Concurrent and Longitudinal Effects of Morphological Awareness on Reading Comprehension among Chinese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haomin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the concurrent and longitudinal effects of morphological awareness on the development of reading comprehension among Chinese-speaking children (N = 123, mean[subscript age] = 8.1 at Time 2). Drawing upon multivariate analyses, the study found that morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability were intertwined together…

  3. Australian Chinese Parents' Language Attitudes and Practices Relating to Their Children's Bilingual Development Prior to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangbo; Torr, Jane; Whiteman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a deep investigation of five Australian Chinese families regarding their preschool-aged children's bilingual experiences and development. Each family was visited 3 to 5 times by the first author. The mothers were interviewed about their attitudes toward their child's bilingualism and their practices to promote it. A…

  4. Relations of Perceived Maternal Parenting Style, Practices, and Learning Motivation to Academic Competence in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…

  5. Weaknesses in semantic, syntactic and oral language expression contribute to reading difficulties in Chinese dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-Yun; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined the role of weaknesses in some language skills for the reading difficulties among Chinese dyslexic children. Thirty Chinese dyslexic children were compared with 30 chronological age (CA) controls and 30 reading-level (RL) controls on a number of language and reading measures. The results showed that Chinese dyslexic children performed significantly worse than the CA controls but similarly to the RL controls in many of the linguistic measures except that the dyslexic group also performed significantly less well than the RL group in semantic skills and syntactic skills on multiple modifiers. The dyslexic children were found to have difficulties in semantic processing, syntactic skills and oral language expression as compared with the CA controls, which were also found to predict their performance in word recognition and/or sentence comprehension. In addition, measures of semantic discrimination, advanced syntactic word order, and oral narrative also significantly predicted the group membership of having or not having dyslexia. These findings suggest that weaknesses in some semantic and advanced syntactic skills are the potential source of poor word and sentence reading in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Implications of the present findings for the identification of dyslexia were discussed.

  6. Theoretical Factors Affecting Parental Roles in Children's Mathematical Learning in American and Chinese-Born Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jessica H.; Hu, Bi Ying

    2011-01-01

    This introductory qualitative study sought to explain American and Chinese-born mothers' personal beliefs and experiences with mathematics, views of U.S. mathematics curriculum, and how these factors influenced motivation regarding roles played in their children's mathematical learning through expectancy-value and attribution theories. The…

  7. The Impact of Visual-Spatial Attention on Reading and Spelling in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Chen, Xi; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the associations of visual-spatial attention with word reading fluency and spelling in 92 third grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Word reading fluency was measured with a timed reading task whereas spelling was measured with a dictation task. Results showed that visual-spatial attention was a unique predictor of…

  8. Chinese Children at Ukraine International Children’s Folk Dance Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>A 27-member Chinese children’s art troupe of the Xiamen Art School, sent by the CPAFFC, visited the Ukrainian city of Vinnytsia from May 7 to 12 to take part in the Fifth International Children Festival of Folk Choreography "Barvinkove Kruzhalo". At the invitation of the

  9. Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese ADHD Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Ng, Gene S. H.; Choi, S. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in Chinese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD features. Methods: This study adopted a randomized controlled trial design without blinding. Participants were randomized into either the intervention group (n = 32) and…

  10. Evidence for cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Bi, Hong-Yan; Long, Zhi-Ying; Tao, Sha

    2013-05-01

    Numerous studies reported that developmental dyslexia in alphabetic languages was associated with a wide range of sensorimotor deficits, including balance, motor skill and time estimation, explained by skill automatization deficit hypothesis. Neural correlates of skill automatization deficit point to cerebellar dysfunction. Recently, a behavioral study revealed an implicit motor learning deficit in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia in their left hands, indicating left cerebellar dysfunction. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), our study examined the brain activation during implicit motor learning in 9 Chinese dyslexic and 12 age-matched children. Dyslexic children showed abnormal activations in the left cerebellum, left middle/medial temporal lobe and right thalamus compared with age-matched children during implicit motor learning. These findings provide evidence of cerebellar abnormality in Chinese dyslexic people. Furthermore, dysfunction of the left cerebellum in Chinese dyslexia is inconsistent with the right cerebellum abnormalities that were reported by studies on alphabetic-language dyslexia, suggesting that neurobiological abnormalities of impaired reading are probably language specific.

  11. The Role of Orthography in Oral Vocabulary Learning in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Ehri, Linnea; Chen, Yu; Ruan, Xiaotong; Dong, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the presence of English word spellings facilitates children's oral vocabulary learning. Whether a similar orthographic facilitation effect may exist in Chinese is interesting but not intuitively obvious due to the character writing system representing morphosyllabic but not phoneme-size information, and the more…

  12. Three-dimensional facial analysis of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Siti Adibah; Aidil Koay, Noor Airin

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed the facial features of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a normal control group using a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry camera. This cross-sectional study examined 3D measurements of the facial surfaces of 20 Chinese children with repaired UCLP and 40 unaffected Chinese children aged 7 to 12 years old, which were captured using the VECTRA 3D five-pod photosystem and analyzed using Mirror software. Twenty-five variables and two ratios were compared between both groups using independent t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using ten randomly selected images and analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC). The level of significance was set at p cleft group exhibited wider alar base root width, flattened nose and broader nostril floor width on the cleft side. They tended to have shorter upper lip length and thinner upper vermillion thickness. Faces of Chinese children with repaired UCLP displayed meaningful differences when compared to the normal group especially in the nasolabial regions.

  13. Second language learning difficulties in Chinese children with dyslexia: what are the reading-related cognitive skills that contribute to English and Chinese word reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children-28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls-participated and were administered measures of word reading, rapid naming, visual-orthographic skills, and phonological and morphological awareness in both L1 and L2. Children with dyslexia showed weaker performance than CA controls in both languages and had more difficulties in phonological awareness in English but not in Chinese. In addition, reading-related cognitive skills in Chinese contributed significantly to the ability to read English words, suggesting cross-linguistic transfer from L1 to L2. Results found evidence for different phonological units of awareness related to the characteristics of the different languages being learned, supporting the psycholinguistic grain size and linguistic coding differences hypotheses.

  14. Chinese children's imaginary companions: Relations with peer relationships and social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiyi; Fu, Hong; Wan, Yingjia; Zhou, Nan; Xu, Hui

    2016-09-25

    We investigated relationships between Chinese children's imaginary companions (ICs) and peer relationships and social competence in 160 children, aged 5-6 years old. Children and their mothers participated in the interviews regarding the details of the children's ICs, including the type of the companion and the quality of the child-IC relationship. Peer relationships were assessed using sociometric nomination and perceived popularity nomination. Teachers rated children's social competence. Here, 55 children (34.3%) were deemed to have engaged in imaginary companion play. There was no relationship between imaginary companion types and child-IC relationship qualities. Children with invisible friends received more positive nominations than children with personified objects. Children with egalitarian relationships received more positive nominations and popularity nominations, but fewer negative nominations and unpopularity nominations than children with hierarchical relationships. Compared with children with hierarchical relationships, teachers rated the children with egalitarian relationships higher in social competence. The results suggest that imaginary companion types and relationship qualities may represent different dimensions of imaginary companions, calling attentions to the different mechanisms underlying imaginary companion types and relationship qualities with respect to social functioning.

  15. Knowledge of nutritional and health needs of children among rural residents of Enugu north senatorial zone in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Uzoma O; Ngwu, Christopher N; Tanyi, Perpetua L

    2015-01-01

    The article assessed knowledge of the nutritional and health needs of children among rural dwellers in Nigeria. Focus group discussions were conducted with all male and female groups in four purposively chosen rural communities in Nsukka Senatorial zone of Enugu State. These generated data on participants' knowledge on the nutritional and health needs of the children as well as their socio-demographic characteristics. All the participants were married with mean age of 41 and 36 years for males and females, respectively. The participants had six and four children on the average for male and female participants, respectively. Findings show that participants demonstrate knowledge of basic dietary needs of children; however, actual practice is lacking. Men believe women have the sole responsibility for children's nutrition. Exclusive breastfeeding is not adhered to by participants. Some reservation still exists about immunization. Sustained health education on exclusive breastfeeding and child immunization targeting both sexes is still needed.

  16. Applying Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model to Identify the Negative Influences Facing Children with Physical Disabilities in Rural Areas in Kwa-Zulu Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Brenda; Nel, Norma

    2013-01-01

    Children with visible physical disabilities (CWPDs) living in rural areas of South Africa are a matter of particular concern. While all children living in rural areas face negative influences such as poverty and the high incidence of HIV/AIDS, this situation is exacerbated for CWPDs who are more vulnerable to these influences (Human Sciences…

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from rural household biomass burning in a typical Chinese village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGUYEN; Thi; Kim; Oanh

    2008-01-01

    Biomass energy sources are still popular in the rural areas of developing countries for cooking and space heating. Since the incomplete combustion of agricultural residues in home-made ranges might lead to both outdoor and indoor air pollution and cause potential health threat to the rural population, we monitored the ambient levels of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a typical rural site. Ambient particulate PAH samples (PM2.5 and PM10) were taken during both cooking and non-cooking periods. Source emission monitoring was also conducted for both improved and tra- ditional cooking stoves used in the area. Ambient PAHs had a significant increase during the cooking periods and varied from 72.1 to 554.4 ng/m3. The highest total PAH levels were found during the supper cooking time, in which five- and six-ring species accounted for a large proportion. The observed PAH levels during cooking periods at this rural site were even higher than those in urban areas. A good correlation was found between the benzo[a]pyrene level and the total PAH concentration (r=0.98), making benzo[a]pyrene a potential molecular marker for PAH pollution in the rural areas, where bio- mass burning is typical. The profiles of the particulate PAHs in both ambient air and source emissions showed a high proportion of high molecular-mass PAHs. In addition, emission factors of 16 PAHs from an improved household stove were found to be significantly lower than those from traditional stoves used in China and in other Asian countries.

  18. Malnutrition, Overweight, and Obesity among Urban and Rural Children in North of West Azerbijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malnutrition is one of the most important causes for improper physical and mental development of children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide public health problem. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has become a growing matter of public health concern worldwide. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and obesity in children under 5 years old in Salmas district. Methods. The current study is a cross-sectional study conducted on 902 of children under 5 years old to assess the nutritional status in Salmas district and performed from 16 until 30 October, 2011, with the cooperation of the Office of Community Nutrition Improvement and the United Nations Children’s Fund. ENA (Emergency Nutrition Assessment and Spss software were used for data analysis. Results. 49.6% of children were boys and 50.4% were girls. The prevalence of malnutrition based on underweight, stunting, and wasting was estimated to be 2.3%, 7.3%, and 1.4% among children, respectively. Stunting was more common in rural areas and this difference was significant (P<0.001. Conclusion. In this area stunting, overweight and obesity were the most important priorities that health officials must pay more attention to. ENA software has a special ability to determine the samples and clusters and is a simple, rapid, and accurate method, especially in epidemiological studies in the country, and can be a convenient tool and its use is suggested for the same studies.

  19. What Works for Parents: How Parents Support Their Children with Math Homework in Rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Tackie-Ofosu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS programs target families in deprived rural and urban communities with the objective of equipping them with skills to improve family well-being, education, and relationships. In recent years, the focus of FCS in Ghana has been on parental styles and education that foster parents’ involvement in their children's school work. Using a child-parent interactive model, a series of math activities were delivered to children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Group activities were also facilitated by the FCS staff. Parents used local materials, such as small empty cans, bottles, leaves, stones, sticks, old newspapers, and sand, to explain math concepts. Staff, parents, and children used fun activities and role plays to demonstrate developmental processes that enhance effective child development. The lessons identified were tied to the understanding of appropriate parenting styles that foster acquisition of skills for basic math concepts. At the end of the 12-week program, parents reported increased interest and confidence in math and were more proactive in supervising their children to complete their homework. The importance of the model lies in its simplicity in conveying fundamental knowledge that relates to the interwoven aspect of developmental domains to ensure children experience maximal success with math-related activities. The model also promotes acquisition of basic math skills in a naturalistic setting.

  20. Profile of Nutrition among 24-59 Months Children in a Rural Area of Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mausumi Basu, Kumaresh Chandra Sarkar, Biman Roy, Palash Das, Jayanta Kumar Barua, Sukanta Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, 162 million under-five children were suffering from stunting; 99 million from underweight and 51 million from wasting in 2012. The Government of India has introduced NewWHO 2006 Child Growth Standards in India for monitoring growth of children. This study wasconducted with the objective to assess the magnitude of under-nutrition among 24-59 months children in a rural area of West Bengal and some social factors influencing their nutritional status. Materials and methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted among 360 children of 24 – 59 months in ten randomly selected villages of West Bengal in March 2013 using a predesigned pretested schedule. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was 49.17%, 59.44% and 20.28% respectively. Boys suffered more than girls in all indicators. The prevalence of under-weight, stunting and wasting was significantly associated with age of the study population, literacy status of parents and socio economic status but not with sex. Conclusion: The problem of under-nutrition amongst under-five children needs to be addressed through comprehensive preventive, promotive, curative and social measures.

  1. Rural elementary school teachers' intent to manage children with asthma symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehorst, T Kim

    2003-01-01

    A study of 212 rural elementary school teachers sought to determine the relationships among the variables of their general knowledge about asthma, attitude toward asthma, self-efficacy in helping children with asthma manage their asthma, and social support for initial management of children's asthma with the teachers' intent to manage children who present with signs and symptoms of asthma in the classroom. The situational variables of number of years teaching experience, number of children with asthma that teachers have had in their classroom during their teaching profession, and whether or not the teacher had asthma or knew of someone with asthma also were explored in relation to intent to manage asthma. Results indicate that although teachers had a favorable attitude toward asthma and were tolerant of students with asthma, their knowledge about asthma was low. Because asthma can be life-threatening, it is essential to assist those involved in monitoring and managing children with asthma to provide timely, appropriate care. In this way, the goal of having a child with asthma live as normal a life as possible, including all school activities, can be realized.

  2. Reliability and validity of simplified Chinese version of Roland-Morris questionnaire in evaluating rural and urban patients with low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Yi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The causes of low back pain in China and Western countries are extremely different. We attempted to analyze the risk factors of low back pain in urban and rural patients under the dual economy with the simplified Chinese version of Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (SC-RMDQ to demonstrate that SC-RMDQ could evaluate patients with low back pain arising from different causes. METHODS: Roland-Morris disability questionnaire was translated into SCRMDQ according to international guidelines for questionnaire adaptation. In this study, causes of low back pain of 187 outpatients and inpatients (99 urban patients and 88 rural patients were analyzed. All patients underwent simplified Chinese version of Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (SC-RMDQ, simplified Chinese Oswestry disability index (SCODI and visual analogue scale (VAS. Reliability was tested using reproducibility (intraclass coefficient of correlation--ICC and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha. Validity was tested using Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS: The leading causes for low back pain were sedentariness (38.4% and vibration (18.1% in urban patients and waist bending (48.9% and spraining (25% in rural patients. Although causes of low back pain in the two groups of population were completely different, SCRMDQ had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α value of 0.874 in urban patients and 0.883 in rural patients and good reproducibility (ICC value of .952 in urban patients and 0.949 in rural patients, P<0.01. SCRMDQ also showed significant correlation with Simplified Chinese version of Oswestry disability index (SCODI and visual analogue scale (VAS in rural areas (SCRMDQ-SCODI r = 0.841; SCRMDQ-VAS: r = 0.685, P<0.01 and in urban areas (SCRMDQ-SCODI: r = 0.818, P<0.01; SCRMDQ-VAS: r = 0.666, P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Although causes of low back pain are completely different in rural and urban patients, SCRMDQ has a good reliability and validity, which

  3. Malnutrition and its risk factors among children 1-7 years old in rural Malaysian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, M; Noorhayati, M I; Mohammod, C G; Oothuman, P; Azizi, O; Fatimah, A; Fatmah, M S

    1997-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nutritional status of children aged 1-7 years in Malaysian rural communities and to identify its risk factors. In all, 221 children were assessed using anthropometric measurements, dietary questionnaires and other tools. Weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height were analysed. Based on the NCHS standards, the overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was 46.2%, 18.1% and 30.3% respectively. Almost one-third of the 1-2 years old groups were malnourished. Univariate analysis identified household income £ MR750.00 as a significant risk factor of stunting and wasting.

  4. Rural-Urban Differences in Household Treatment-Seeking Behaviour for Suspected Malaria in Children at Bata District, Equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Romay-Barja

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years old in Equatorial Guinea. However, little is known about the community management of malaria and treatment-seeking patterns. We aimed to assess symptoms of children with reported malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour of their caretakers in rural and urban areas in the Bata District.A cross-sectional study was conducted in the district of Bata and 440 houses were selected from 18 rural villages and 26 urban neighbourhoods. Differences between rural and urban caregivers and children with reported malaria were assessed through the chi-squared test for independence of categorical variables and the t-Student or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test for normally or not-normally distributed continuous variables, respectively.Differences between rural and urban households were observed in caregiver treatment-seeking patterns. Fever was the main symptom associated with malaria in both areas. Malaria was treated first at home, particularly in rural areas. The second step was to seek treatment outside the home, mainly at hospital and Health Centre for rural households and at hospital and private clinic for urban ones. Artemether monotherapy was the antimalarial treatment prescribed most often. Households waited for more than 24 hours before seeking treatment outside and delays were longest in rural areas. The total cost of treatment was higher in urban than in rural areas in Bata.The delays in seeking treatment, the type of malaria therapy received and the cost of treatment are the principal problems found in Bata District. Important steps for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in this area are to provide sufficient supplies of effective antimalarial drugs and to improve malaria treatment skills in households and in both public and private sectors.

  5. Rural-Urban Differences in Household Treatment-Seeking Behaviour for Suspected Malaria in Children at Bata District, Equatorial Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romay-Barja, Maria; Jarrin, Inma; Ncogo, Policarpo; Nseng, Gloria; Sagrado, Maria Jose; Santana-Morales, Maria A.; Aparcio, Pilar; Valladares, Basilio; Riloha, Matilde; Benito, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years old in Equatorial Guinea. However, little is known about the community management of malaria and treatment-seeking patterns. We aimed to assess symptoms of children with reported malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour of their caretakers in rural and urban areas in the Bata District. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted in the district of Bata and 440 houses were selected from 18 rural villages and 26 urban neighbourhoods. Differences between rural and urban caregivers and children with reported malaria were assessed through the chi-squared test for independence of categorical variables and the t-Student or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test for normally or not-normally distributed continuous variables, respectively. Results Differences between rural and urban households were observed in caregiver treatment-seeking patterns. Fever was the main symptom associated with malaria in both areas. Malaria was treated first at home, particularly in rural areas. The second step was to seek treatment outside the home, mainly at hospital and Health Centre for rural households and at hospital and private clinic for urban ones. Artemether monotherapy was the antimalarial treatment prescribed most often. Households waited for more than 24 hours before seeking treatment outside and delays were longest in rural areas. The total cost of treatment was higher in urban than in rural areas in Bata. Conclusions The delays in seeking treatment, the type of malaria therapy received and the cost of treatment are the principal problems found in Bata District. Important steps for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in this area are to provide sufficient supplies of effective antimalarial drugs and to improve malaria treatment skills in households and in both public and private sectors. PMID:26284683

  6. The Development of Children's Ethnic Identity in Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada: The Role of Parenting Practices and Children's Perceptions of Parental Family Obligation Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tina F.; Costigan, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Parents' role in children's ethnic identity development was examined among 95 immigrant Chinese families with young adolescents living in Canada. Children reported their feelings of ethnic identity and perceptions of parental family obligation expectations. Parents reported their family obligation expectations; parents and children reported on…

  7. A Model of Reading Comprehension in Chinese Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Wong, Yau-kai

    2013-01-01

    The relationships of reading-related skills (rapid naming, morphological awareness, syntactic skills, discourse skills, and verbal working memory) and word reading to reading comprehension were examined among 248 Chinese fourth graders in Hong Kong. Multiple regression analysis results showed that syntactic skills (word order knowledge,…

  8. American and Chinese children's evaluations of personal domain events and resistance to parental authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Wong, Mun; Ball, Courtney; Yau, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A total of 267 five-, seven-, and ten-year-olds (M = 7.62), 147 in Hong Kong and 120 in the United States, evaluated hypothetical personal (and moral) events described as either essential or peripheral to actors' identity. Except for young Chinese in the peripheral condition, straightforward personal events were overwhelmingly evaluated as acceptable based on personal justifications. Children primarily endorsed compliance, but attributed negative emotions to actors when mothers forbade personal choices, especially when described as essential to identity. Conventional justifications declined among Chinese children and pragmatic justifications for these judgments increased with age for all children, as did judgments that personal events were up to the child. Rules were seen as more legitimate and events were seen as more up to mothers to decide for moral than personal events.

  9. Actual Body Weight and the Parent’s Perspective of Child’s Body Weight among Rural Canadian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Rennie, Donna C.; Hildebrand, Carole; Lawson, Joshua A.; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James A.; Pahwa, Punam

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight during childhood continues to increase in the USA and Canada and children living in rural areas are more at risk than their urban counterparts. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how well the parent’s perception of their child’s weight status correlated with objectively measured weight status among a group of rural children and to identify predictors of inaccurate parental perceptions of child’s weight status. Participants were children from the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study conducted in 2010. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through rural schools to parents of children in grades one to eight. Parents reported their child’s height and weight and rated their child’s weight status (underweight, just about the right weight, or overweight). Standardized body mass index (BMI) categories were calculated for clinically measured height and weight and for parental report of height and weight for 584 children. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of misclassification of the parent’s perception of child’s weight status adjusting for potential confounders. Clinically measured overweight was much higher (26.5%) compared to parental perceived overweight (7.9%). The misclassification of the child’s BMI was more likely to occur if the child was a boy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58) or non-Caucasian (OR = 2.03). Overweight was high in this group of rural children and parental perception of weight status underestimated the actual weight status of overweight school-age children. Parental reporting of child weight status has implications for public health policy and prevention strategies. Future research should focus on assessing longitudinal effects of parental misperceptions of child’s weight status. PMID:27527235

  10. Studies on bronchial hyperreactivity, allergic responsiveness, and asthma in rural and urban children of the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

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    Turner, K J; Dowse, G K; Stewart, G A; Alpers, M P

    1986-04-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic responsiveness in rural and urban children of the highlands of Papua New Guinea was studied. Bronchial provocation studies with histamine demonstrated significant bronchial hyperreactivity in 0.5% (1 in 195) rural and 1.7% (1 in 59) urban children, rates which were significantly lower than those observed in corresponding adult populations (7%). Urban children demonstrated a higher incidence of skin test reactivity toward Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and dog dander than did the rural children. However, there were no significant differences between these populations with regard to total serum IgE levels, the degree of parasitism as judged by stool examination, or allergic responses to Ascaris suum, plantain, and coffee bean husk. A more detailed study demonstrated age- and sex-related differences in total IgE and mite-specific RAST scores in the rural but not the urban population. These data suggest an active suppression of the capacity of children to mount an IgE response to environmental allergens such as the mite manifesting itself as low asthma prevalence. The data also indicate that, although the underlying defect of bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma may be genetically inherited, it is not revealed until the lung has received an allergen-induced inflammatory insult.

  11. A Study of Reasoning Talk between Australian Chinese Mothers and Their Preschool Children: What Messages Are Mothers Sending?

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    Hu, Jiangbo; Torr, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The everyday conversations that occur between mothers and children, particularly those involving reasoning, are a major vehicle for the transmission of information and values to young children. This study explored the manner in which five Australian Chinese mothers engaged in reasoning talk with their preschool-aged children. A total of 83…

  12. The Centrality of Actors and Interfaces in the Understanding of New Ruralities: A Chinese Case Study

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    Norman Long

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate the advantages of adopting an ethnographic, actor interface approach to understanding the ongoing dynamics of rural development and policy intervention processes. It does so through the discussion of an EU-funded project orientated to introducing village-level forest-management practices in north-west China. The case highlights the ongoing everyday struggles over livelihoods and resources and focuses on the negotiations that take place between the various social actors involved. The case analysis is preceded by a broad-sweep overview of the rise of new ruralities and a discussion of the key elements of an actor interface analysis. The article concludes with a call for more cross-country and cross-regional studies of this kind.

  13. An approach to hygiene education among rural Indian school going children

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    Dongre AR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To find out the prevalence of intestinal parasites and its epidemiological correlates among rural Indian school going (6-14 years children and to study the effect of focused, need based child to child hygiene education on personal hygiene of school children. Materials and Methods: In September 2007, the present participatory action research was undertaken at a feasibly selected village Dhotra (Kasar in Wardha district of central India. A triangulated research design of quantitative (survey and qualitative (transect walk & pile sorting methods was used for the needs assessment before initiating formal hygiene education. Out of enlisted 172 children, data of 118 children with complete information was used for final analysis. The quantitative and qualitative data was entered and analyzed using the Epi Info 6.04 software and Anthropac 4.98.1/X software package respectively. School based participatory life skills based child to child hygiene education was undertaken for message dissemination and behavior change. The effect of this hygiene education on identified key behaviors was assessed after one month Results: Out of the 118 (50 male and 68 female subjects examined 21 (17.8%, 95%CI, 11.4 – 25.9% had intestinal parasite infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was significantly high among children having dirty untrimmed nails (47.4%, 95%CI, 30.9 – 64.1% followed by those having poor hand washing practices (37.2%, 95%CI, 22.9 – 53.2%. One month after hygiene education, the proportion of children having practice of hand washing with soap after defecation significantly improved from 63.6 % to 78%. The proportion of clean and cut nails also improved from 67.8% to 80 % (p<0.05. Conclusions: The need based, focused, life skills based child to child hygiene education was effective for behavior change. An integrated approach of drug treatment and focused participatory hygiene education is required to control parasite

  14. UN Official Helps Chinese Rural Women Journey from Poverty to Empowerment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    "ONE of the biggest challenges that the international society and this conference has confronted is the fight against poverty," said Dr. Leena M. Kirjavainen. a division director with Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) at the Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW). "Today more than 550 million women live below the poverty line in rural areas worldwide. The feminization of poverty has become the major obstacle to the empowerment of women."

  15. Validation of a questionnaire to measure mastery motivation among Chinese preschool children.

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    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents. Further, 44 children (39 boys and 5 girls) with developmental disabilities were recruited. The children were assessed on the cognitive sub-test of the Preschool Development Assessment Scale (PDAS). Their parents completed the task and effort motivation scales, as well as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Their teachers also completed the task and effort motivation scales. Rasch analysis results provided support for the unidimensionality of the parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales. The parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales correlated positively with the PDAS cognitive sub-test and the SDQ prosocial scale scores, and negatively with the SDQ total problem behavior scores. Children with developmental disabilities were assigned lower scores by their teachers and parents on the two motivation scales, compared with children with typical development. Reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of the parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales were above .70. The results suggested that the task and effort motivation scales were promising instruments for the assessment of motivation among Chinese preschool children.

  16. A preliminary study on nutritional status and intake in Chinese children with autism.

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    Xia, Wei; Zhou, Yanjuan; Sun, Caihong; Wang, Jia; Wu, Lijie

    2010-10-01

    Parents of children with autism often report gastrointestinal problems as well as picky eating and selective eating in their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and the nutrient intake in 111 Chinese children with autism, aged between 2 and 9 years. Anthropometric data were expressed as Z scores. A 3-day dietary recall was provided by the parents, and the data were compared with the national Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) standards for Chinese children. The results showed that only nine of the autistic children (8.1%) were acute or chronically malnourished. From the remaining 102 patients, 67 (60.4%) were eutrophic and 35 (31.5%) had either overweight or obesity. Intakes of both calories and proteins were adequate in the vast majority of these children, but the calories from fat was lower than DRI in the same age group. The average intake of vitamin E and niacin exceeded 100% of DRI, and the intakes of vitamin B1 and B2, magnesium, and iron were between 80% and 90% of DRI range. However, the following nutrients did not meet the DRI requirements at all: vitamins A, B6 and C, folic acid, calcium, and zinc. Although growth was satisfactory in the vast majority of these children with autistic disorder, this study revealed serious deficiencies in the intakes of several vitamins and essential nutrients.

  17. Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa

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    De Filippo, Carlotta; Cavalieri, Duccio; Di Paola, Monica; Ramazzotti, Matteo; Poullet, Jean Baptiste; Massart, Sebastien; Collini, Silvia; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Lionetti, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown. In this work, we compared the fecal microbiota of European children (EU) and that of children from a rural African village of Burkina Faso (BF), where the diet, high in fiber content, is similar to that of early human settlements at the time of the birth of agriculture. By using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing and biochemical analyses, we found significant differences in gut microbiota between the two groups. BF children showed a significant enrichment in Bacteroidetes and depletion in Firmicutes (P xylan hydrolysis, completely lacking in the EU children. In addition, we found significantly more short-chain fatty acids (P < 0.001) in BF than in EU children. Also, Enterobacteriaceae (Shigella and Escherichia) were significantly underrepresented in BF than in EU children (P < 0.05). We hypothesize that gut microbiota coevolved with the polysaccharide-rich diet of BF individuals, allowing them to maximize energy intake from fibers while also protecting them from inflammations and noninfectious colonic diseases. This study investigates and compares human intestinal microbiota from children characterized by a modern western diet and a rural diet, indicating the importance of preserving this treasure of microbial diversity from ancient rural communities worldwide. PMID:20679230

  18. Association of the rs3743205 variant of DYX1C1 with dyslexia in Chinese children

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    Waye Mary MY

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslexia is a learning disability that is characterized by difficulties in the acquisition of reading and spelling skills independent of intelligence, motivation or schooling. Studies of western populations have suggested that DYX1C1 is a candidate gene for dyslexia. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, it is therefore worthwhile to investigate whether there is an association of DYX1C1 in Chinese children with dyslexia. Method and Results Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped from three hundred and ninety three individuals from 131 Chinese families with two which have been reported in the literature and six tag SNPs at DYX1C1. Analysis for allelic and haplotypic associations was performed with the UNPHASED program and multiple testing was corrected using false discovery rates. We replicated the previously reported association of rs3743205 in Chinese children with dyslexia (pcorrected = 0.0072. This SNP was also associated with rapid naming, phonological memory and orthographic skills in quantitative trait analysis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that DYX1C1 is associated with dyslexia in people of Chinese ethnicity in Hong Kong.

  19. Copying skills in relation to word reading and writing in Chinese children with and without dyslexia.

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    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Chung, Kevin K H; Tong, Xiuhong

    2011-11-01

    Because Chinese character learning typically relies heavily on rote character copying, we tested independent copying skill in third- and fourth-grade Chinese children with and without dyslexia. In total, 21 Chinese third and fourth graders with dyslexia and 33 without dyslexia (matched on age, nonverbal IQ, and mother's education level) were given tasks of copying unfamiliar print in Vietnamese, Korean, and Hebrew as well as tests of word reading and writing, morphological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and orthographic processing. All three copying tasks distinguished dyslexic children from nondyslexic children with moderate effect sizes (.67-.80). Zero-order correlations of the three copying tasks with dictation and reading ranged from .37 to .58. With age, Raven's, group status, RAN, morphological awareness, and orthographic measures statistically controlled, the copying tasks uniquely explained 6% and 3% variance in word reading and dictation, respectively. Results suggest that copying skill itself may be useful in understanding the development and impairment of literacy skills in Chinese.

  20. AWARENESS OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR RISK FACTORS AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Siddharudha Shivalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral interventions for Non Communicable Diseases (NCD abeyance would profit the most, if initiated at an early age. Major risk factors of NCDs are changing life style and behavior pattern which are largely due to practices adopted in younger age. Students' awareness about NCDs and their risk factors is an important part of population based prevention strategy. Objective: To assess the awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among rural intermediate school children. Methodology: A School based cross sectional study was conducted in Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi from July - Aug 2010. Intermediate school children from eight inter-colleges of Chiraigaon development block were the study subjects. Pretested questionnaire was used in the study and frequency and proportions were used to analyze the data. Results: Less than one third of the children were aware about Diabetes and Hypertension (27% and 31% respectively. Only 18% knew about Body Mass Index (BMI as an indicator of obesity. In general awareness of NCDs was more in boys than girl. Conclusion: Over all awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among students was not satisfactory. There is a need and scope for health education activity regarding NCDs and their risk factors to promote healthy life style among these school children.

  1. Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children.

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    Abdisalan M Noor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0-4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004, the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005, and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006. The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281; 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131, and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000. The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of

  2. HOSPITAL BASED SURVEILLANCE OF ENTERIC PARASITES AN D COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECT IONS IN THE HOSPITAL CHILDREN WITH RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN AT KANCHEEPURAM

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    Kumudavathi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are prevalent in developing countries like India and have been the important cau se of morbidity and mortality especially in children. OBJECTIVES: Estimate prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in hospital as well as in rural school children to obtain an ac curate understanding of the burden and cause of intestinal parasitic infections in Kancheepuram. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2654 stool samples were collected, processed, and mic roscopically examined for intestinal parasites. 2267 were adults and remaining 387 were c hildren. In addition, 314 rural school children were also included in the study. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of IPIs was estimated as 32.59% (739/2267 in hospital adults an d 55.50% (215/387 in hospital children and 56.68% (178/314 in rural school children; high prevalence rate was found among hospital children and in school children when compared to adu lts. Among the protozoans E. histolytica was the highest, followed by Giardia and among the helminths hookworm was highest followed by Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, H ymenolepis nana and Strongoloides larvae respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal parasitic infections spreads due to low s tandards of personal hygiene, poor sanitation, open air defecatio n and an illiterate population, thus suggesting need for regular surveys to minimize the IPIs rate in the community.

  3. Rural-Urban Differences in Reasons for Incomplete Vaccination in Children Under Six Years, Southeast Iran 2013

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    Tabatabaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Geographical differences in vaccination programs are a major public health problem, which is often linked to the availability of healthcare services and socioeconomic factors. Objectives The current study aimed to identify the differences in the patterns and the reasons for incomplete vaccination of children in urban and rural areas. Patients and Methods In the current cross-sectional study, a total of 1039 children under six years (612 rural and 427 urban subjects were recruited from a databank of partially vaccinated children from March to December 2013. A group of trained Community Health Volunteers completed the study questionnaires by interviewing the parents of the identified children during their routine home visits. The Chi square test and Fisher’s Exact test were used to compare the distribution of categorical variable between urban and rural areas. Results The patterns of the number of missed doses of vaccine were similar for urban and rural subjects, but urban children 1 - 6 years were significantly more likely to miss subsequent doses of Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV and Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTP. A statistically significant association was found between mother’s age, place of birth and the number of missed vaccine doses. Rural healthcare providers more frequently disseminated vaccination information than urban vaccinators (P < 0.001. A greater proportion of rural parents reported the lack of vaccines and healthcare staff misconduct as a reason for postponing vaccination, while over-crowdedness of health center, mother illness and forgetfulness, child illness and following physician recommendations were mentioned by a greater fraction of urban mothers. Conclusions Efforts to improve vaccination coverage should be taken into account regarding the differences in the factors that contribute to the incomplete vaccination status of children in the rural and urban areas. The current study findings indicate that vaccination

  4. Anemia and Related Factors in Preschool Children in the Southern Rural Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Kounnavong, Sengchanh; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Hashizume, Masahiro; Okumura, Junko; Moji, Kazuhiko; Boupha, Boungnong; Yamamoto, Taro

    2011-12-01

    Anemia is a severe public health problem in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Consequently, a new control strategy to reduce the burden of anemia has been introduced for preschool children (aged 6-52 months). The objective of this study was to assess the current prevalence of anemia and related factors in preschool children in southern rural Lao PDR. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in six communities in Songkhone district, Savannakheth province, in February 2009. As a result, the prevalence of anemia was found to be 48.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 43.5-54.3), although most cases were mild. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that there was no protective effect of breastfeeding against anemia. The anemia prevalence was higher in 1) children aged 6-23 months (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.73, 95% CI, 1.02-2.90) than in older children, 2) children in large families (6 or more members) (OR = 1.96, 95% CI, 1.17-3.29), and 3) children in three remote villages with relatively difficult access to markets (OR = 3.01, 95% CI, 1.25-7.47).In Lao PDR, improvement of food practices and home-fortified food supplementation interventions are essential. High-risk groups should be targeted and a long-term health education program that aims to modify food habits implemented. Furthermore, in settings where iron deficiency is not the only cause of anemia, combining an iron supplement with other measures is necessary.

  5. Diet and Physical Activity in Rural vs Urban Children and Adolescents in the United States: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Lacey Arneson; Meendering, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    Current research suggests that the prevalence of obesity is higher among rural youth than urban youth. Due to the health implications that are associated with child and adolescent obesity, it is critical to understand systematic differences in diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors that may be contributing to this disparity in weight. However, varying definitions of rural and inconsistencies in study tools and methodologies may limit the generalizability of findings from research in this area. The objective of this narrative review was to synthesize and critically evaluate existing literature comparing diet and PA behaviors between rural and urban children and adolescents, providing recommendations for future research. Only five studies were found that reported on measures of diet in rural vs urban youth, whereas 16 were found that reported on measures of PA. Dietary assessment tools were generally standard and acceptable; however, differences existed in how dietary outcomes were defined. Few studies used assessment tools that objectively measured PA, and definitions for meeting PA recommendations varied among studies. Very few studies defined rural using the same criteria. Future research on the rural youth obesity disparity should focus on including a high-quality assessment of both diet and PA (as opposed to one or the other) and on using an appropriate and consistent definition of rural.

  6. Impact of low blood lead concentrations on IQ and school performance in Chinese children.

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    Jianghong Liu

    Full Text Available Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ and school performance.Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3-5 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assessed by standardized city tests on 3 major subjects (Chinese, Math, and English [as a foreign language] when children were age 8-10 years.Mean blood lead concentration was 6.43 µg/dL (SD = 2.64. For blood lead concentrations, 7.8% of children (n = 105 had ≥10.0 µg/dL, 13.8% (n = 185 had 8.0 to <10.0 µg/dL, and 78.4% (n = 1051 had <8.0 µg/dL. Compared to children with blood lead concentrations <8 µg/dL, those with blood lead concentrations ≥8 µg/dL scored 2-3 points lower in IQ and 5-6 points lower in school tests. There were no significant differences in IQ or school tests between children with blood lead concentrations groups 8-10 and ≥10 µg/dL. After adjustment for child and family characteristics and IQ, blood lead concentrations ≥10 µg/dL vs <8 µg/dL at ages 3-5 years was associated with reduced scores on school tests at age 8-10 years (Chinese, β = -3.54, 95%CI = -6.46, -0.63; Math, β = -4.63, 95%CI = -7.86, -1.40; English, β = -4.66, 95%CI = -8.09, -1.23. IQ partially mediated the relationship between elevated blood lead concentrations and later school performance.Findings support that blood lead concentrations in early childhood, even <10 µg/dL, have a long-term negative impact on cognitive development. The association between blood lead concentrations 8-10 µg/dL and cognitive development needs further study in Chinese children and children from other developing countries.

  7. Intergenerational differences in beliefs about healthy eating among carers of left-behind children in rural China: A qualitative study.

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    Zhang, Nan; Bécares, Laia; Chandola, Tarani; Callery, Peter

    2015-12-01

    China's internal migration has left 61 million rural children living apart from parents and usually being cared for by grandparents. This study aims to explore caregivers' beliefs about healthy eating for left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Twenty-six children aged 6-12 (21 LBC and 5 non-LBC) and 32 caregivers (21 grandparents, 9 mothers, and 2 uncles/aunts) were recruited in one township in rural China. Children were encouraged to keep food diaries followed by in-depth interviews with caregivers. Distinct intergenerational differences in beliefs about healthy eating emerged: the grandparent generation was concerned about not having enough food and tended to emphasise the importance of starchy foods for children's growth, due to their past experiences during the Great Famine. On the other hand, the parent generation was concerned about food safety and paid more attention to protein-source foods including meat, eggs and milk. Parents appeared to offer children high-energy food, which was viewed as a sign of economic status, rather than as part of a balanced diet. Lack of remittances from migrant parents may compromise LBC's food choices. These findings suggest the potential for LBC left in the care of grandparents, especially with experience of the Great Famine, may be at greater risk of malnutrition than children cared for by parents. By gaining an in-depth understanding of intergenerational differences in healthy eating beliefs for children, our findings could inform for the development of nutrition-related policies and interventions for LBC in rural China.

  8. Plasmodium falciparum genotypes diversity in symptomatic malaria of children living in an urban and a rural setting in Burkina Faso

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    Konaté Amadou T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical presentation of malaria, considered as the result of a complex interaction between parasite and human genetics, is described to be different between rural and urban areas. The analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity in children with uncomplicated malaria, living in these two different areas, may help to understand the effect of urbanization on the distribution of P. falciparum genotypes. Methods Isolates collected from 75 and 89 children with uncomplicated malaria infection living in a rural and an urban area of Burkina Faso, respectively, were analysed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes to compare P. falciparum diversity. Results The K1 allelic family was widespread in children living in the two sites, compared to other msp1 allelic families (frequency >90%. The MAD 20 allelic family of msp1 was more prevalent (p = 0.0001 in the urban (85.3% than the rural area (63.2%. In the urban area, the 3D7 alleles of msp2 were more prevalent compared to FC27 alleles, with a high frequency for the 3D7 300bp allele (>30%. The multiplicity of infection was in the range of one to six in the urban area and of one to seven in the rural area. There was no difference in the frequency of multiple infections (p = 0.6: 96.0% (95% C.I: 91.6–100 in urban versus 93.1% (95%C.I: 87.6–98.6 in rural areas. The complexity of infection increased with age [p = 0.04 (rural area, p = 0.06 (urban area]. Conclusion Urban-rural area differences were observed in some allelic families (MAD20, FC27, 3D7, suggesting a probable impact of urbanization on genetic variability of P. falciparum. This should be taken into account in the implementation of malaria control measures.

  9. Right aortic arch with coarctation in Chinese children

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    Ming, Zhu; Aimin, Sun [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2008-05-15

    Because of the rarity of right aortic arch coarctation there are few reports of large groups of patients. To characterize the frequency and type of right aortic arch coarctation in a large group of pediatric patients. From June 1997 through May 2007, 11,276 consecutive children with congenital heart disease underwent multidetector CT (MDCT), MRI or angiocardiography examination. All children with a right aortic arch or coarctation were reviewed. Right aortic arch coarctation was found in 11 children representing 0.1% of the total group of 11,276 children, 1.7% of 658 children with native coarctations and 2.3% of 473 children with a right aortic arch. Among the 11 patients, 6 had long-segment narrowing and 7 had an aberrant left subclavian artery. MDCT, MRI and angiocardiography are reliable imaging techniques for the diagnosis of right aortic arch and coarctation. Our findings showed that the pattern of right aortic arch coarctation was different from that of left aortic arch coarctation, suggesting that they are different etiological entities. The pivotal role possibly played by flow dynamics in the development of right aortic arch coarctation is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Clinical Features and Visual Outcomes of Optic Neuritis in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huanfen; Xu, Quangang; Tan, Shaoying; Zhao, Shuo; Yang, Mo; Peng, Chunxia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Although optic neuritis (ON) in children is relatively common, visual outcomes and factors associated with the condition have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and visual outcomes of ON in Chinese children. Methods. Patients with a first episode of ON at a tertiary neuroophthalmic centre in China were assessed and followed up for at least three months. Visual outcomes and clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging findings were reviewed. In patients with bilateral ON, only the eyes with worse visual acuity (VA) at presentation were used for statistical analysis. Results. Seventy-six children (76 eyes) with a first episode of ON were included. The mean age was 11.8 years, 60.5% were females, and 48.7% had bilateral involvement. The children were followed up for an average of 18.5 months (age range, 3–48 months). Vision loss at presentation was severe, with VA Chinese children. ON in children was associated with severe vision loss and relatively good visual recovery. The age at onset could predict the final visual function.

  11. The Association of Weight Status with Physical Fitness among Chinese Children

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    Xianwen Shang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the association of weight status with physical fitness among Chinese children. Methods. A total of 6929 children aged 6–12 years were selected from 15 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in eastern China. The height and fasting body weight were measured. The age-, sex-specific BMI WHO criteria was used to define underweight, overweight and obesity. Physical fitness parameters including standing broad jump, 50 m sprint, and 50 m∗8 shuttle run were tested. Results. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity was 3.1%, 14.9%, and 7.8%, respectively. Boys performed better than girls, and the older children performed better than their younger counterparts for all physical fitness tests. No significant difference in all three physical fitness tests were found between children with underweight and with normal weight, and they both performed better than their counterparts with overweight and obese in all three physical fitness tests. The likelihood of achieving good performance was much lower among overweight and obese children in comparison with their counterparts with normal weight (OR=0.13–0.54. Conclusions. An inverse association of obesity with cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle explosive strength, and speed was identified among Chinese children.

  12. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among women in Chinese rural areas.

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    Hui Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metabolic syndrome (MS is prevalent in recent years but few data is reported in the rural areas in China. The aim of this study was to examine MS prevalence and its risk factors among women in rural China. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study (NMSS, a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted during 2007-2008 in Nantong, China. In person interviews, blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 13,505 female participants aged 18-74 years. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF, the US Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program, the Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and modified ATPIII for Asian population has determined three criteria of MS. These criteria for MS were used and compared in this study. The prevalence of MS was 22.0%, 16.9% and 23.3% according to IDF, ATPIII and ATPIII-modified criteria, respectively. Levels of agreement of these criteria for MS were above 0.75. We found that vigorous-intensity of occupational physical activity was associated with a low prevalence of MS with OR of 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.63-0.91. Rice wine drinkers (alcohol >12.8 g/day had about 34% low risks of developing MS with OR of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48-0.91, compared with non-drinkers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.81 (95% CI: 1.15-2.84 in women who smoked more than 20 pack-years, compared to non-smokers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.25-1.95 in women who had familial history of diseases, including hypertension, diabetes and stroke, compared to women without familial history of those diseases. CONCLUSION: MS is highly prevalent among women in rural China. Both physical activity and rice wine consumption play a protective role, while family history and smoking are risk factors in MS development. Educational programs should be established for promoting healthy lifestyles and appropriate interventions in rural China.

  13. The Role of Internet Use and Parental Mediation on Cyberbullying Victimization among Spanish Children from Rural Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Raúl; Serna, Cristina; Martínez, Verónica; Ruiz-Oliva, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying victimization research on individual and familial correlates is scarce in Spain. By building upon previous studies, this research examines the role of Internet usage and parental mediation in online victimization. Spanish children from rural public schools (10-12 years; n?=?1068) completed a self-report questionnaire which measured…

  14. Chronic suppurative otitis media and its association with socio-econonic factors among rural primary school children of bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Md Mazharul; Raquib, Ahmed; Ahmad, Shaikh Muniruddin

    2012-03-01

    Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) is a common community health disorder of children in all developing countries like Bangladesh which causes significant impact in speech, cognitive, educational and psychological development. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of CSOM and its association with certain socio-economic factors and health related practice and believes among rural primary school children of Bangladesh. The study was done among 1468 rural school going children (Boys:Girls, 1:1.23) aged between 4 and 12 years (mean 8.8 ± 1.66) in five randomly selected rural primary school of Palash Upazilla of Narsingdi district, Bangladesh. They had underwent ENT check up by the doctors trained in ENT and their guardians were interviewed regarding their socioeconomic status, health related practices and beliefs and other related issues using a pre tested protocol. Total 77 (5.2%) cases of CSOM were detected with girl's predominance (5.7 vs. 4.7%). Our study revealed statistically significant association of CSOM with yearly income of guardian (P ear cleaning habit (P problem of CSOM can be resolved by collective effort by incorporating primary ear care program with primary health care system among the vulnerable children of rural area along with their socio-economic development. Thus, future citizens can be safeguarded from developing CSOM, hearing impairment and its resultant complications.

  15. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  16. Children's Self-Concept: Parental School Engagement and Student-Teacher Relationships in Rural and Urban Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavidia-Payne, Susana; Denny, Bianca; Davis, Kate; Francis, Andrew; Jackson, Mervyn

    2015-01-01

    Self-concept is one important yet understudied construct, often associated with healthy children's well-being, and particularly crucial for those raised in rural disadvantaged communities. Also, commonly acknowledged is that adults, including parents and teachers, play an important role in fostering self-concept. The overall aim of the current…

  17. A Comparison of Urban and Rural Kindergarten Teachers' Perceptions of School Safety for Young Children: Implications for Quality Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yau-ho Paul

    2017-01-01

    Although a quality preschool supports young children's health and safety, "quality" has been defined diversely enough that its delivery has been varied among kindergarten teachers. The current study was the first to examine and compare perceptions of school safety between urban and rural kindergarten teachers. Sixty-seven Hong Kong…

  18. Perceptions of Asthma Quality of Life in Children and Parent Dyads in Two Rural Counties in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Susan; McCrone, Susan; Shapiro, April L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines perceived quality of life (QOL) in a convenience sample of children (aged 7-11) with asthma and their parents from two schools in rural West Virginia. Forty-nine child-parent dyads representing 25 males and 24 females completed the study. The PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module was utilized to separately measure child and parent…

  19. A Case Study: Leadership and Its Effect on Achievement of Children from Poverty in a Rural Setting

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    Horst, Marilyn Dishman; Martin, Barbara N.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived effectiveness of leadership in a Missouri rural K-8 school with a high incidence of poverty that consistently met federal and state accountability mandates. The concepts of accountability as measured by student achievement, the unique educational needs of children from poverty, and the…

  20. Correlation of C-reactive protein level and obesity in Chinese adults and children: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Lv, G

    2013-09-01

    This meta-analysis evaluated the correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) and obesity in Chinese adults and children. We searched three Chinese databases [Wanfang, WEIPU, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)] in addition to PubMed. The search was restricted to only Chinese studies published online before January 9, 2013. Data from 28 articles were independently abstracted by two reviewers. The articles' characteristics were abstracted as follows: 1) first author name; 2) year of publication; 3) study population; 4) sample size; 5) sex, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and CRP level of the study population; 6) Pearson correlation coefficients, Spearman correlation coefficients, or odds ratios between CRP level and obesity. The metaanalysis was conducted to pool the Pearson correlation coefficients using a random-effects model. The pooled Pearson correlation coefficient between CRP and BMI was 0.45 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.56] in Chinese adults and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.31-0.62) in Chinese children, and the pooled Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.24-0.40) in the general Chinese population and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.42-0.64) in the obese Chinese population. Significant correlation was thus found between CRP and obesity in Chinese adults and children.

  1. Is a decentralized continuing medical education program feasible for Chinese rural health professionals?

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    Guijie Hu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Rural health professionals in township health centers (THCs tend to have less advanced educational degrees. This study aimed to ascertain the perceived feasibility of a decentralized continuing medical education (CME program to upgrade their educational levels. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of THC health professionals was conducted using a self-administered, structured questionnaire in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Results: The health professionals in the THCs were overwhelmingly young with low education levels. They had a strong desire to upgrade their educational degrees. The decentralized CME program was perceived as feasible by health workers with positive attitudes about the benefit for license examination, and by those who intended to improve their clinical diagnosis and treatment skills. The target groups of such a program were those who expected to undertake a bachelor’s degree and who rated themselves as “partially capable” in clinical competency. They reported that 160-400 USD annually would be an affordable fee for the program. Conclusion: A decentralized CME program was perceived feasible to upgrade rural health workers’ education level to a bachelor’s degree and improve their clinical competency.

  2. [Obesity, overweight and anemia in children from a rural area of Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Milton J

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the association between anemia, overweight and obesity in a children population of a rural area in Lima.Demographic, anthropometric and hemoglobin information (from the Information System of Nutritional Status of Children, ISNSC, 2014, of schoolchildren 1-15 attending public schools under the Micro Red Pachacamac jurisdiction) were employed in a cross sectional design. Descriptive statistical and association analysis between anemia and nutritional status were carried out. Logistic regression was used to find significant variables associated to anemia.The prevalence of anemia was 10.8% (CI95% 9.5-12.0), overweight was 17.3% (CI95% 15.8-18.9) and 16.2% of children were obese (CI95% 14.7 - 17.7). No significant association between the diagnosis of anemia, overweight or obesity (chi2 = 1.68, p = 0.432) was found. However, there was an inverse significant association between the diagnosis of anemia and Body Mass Index (BMI) (z =-3.77, p = 0.000); and a higher level of hemoglobin among those over 12 y/o (ANOVA, F = 108.19, p = 0.006). In univariate analysis, only age (OR 1.14, IC95% 1.08-1.20) and IMC (OR 1.08, IC95% 1.04-1.13) were associated to anemia. There is no relationship between nutritional diagnosis of obesity, overweight and anemia in this population. However, children with older age and greater BMI were less likely to present anemia. Public policies in the last five years have focused on reducing this double nutritional problem in children.

  3. Does migration benefit the schooling of children left behind?: Evidence from rural northwest China

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    Feng Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND While many studies have found that migration can benefit home communities and family members left behind by increasing household income, thus easing liquidity constraints on investment; less is known about how "internal" migration and remittances affect the educational performance of the children who are left behind in the source communities. OBJECTIVE My aim in this paper is to examine the effects of migration on the educational attainment of left-behind rural children in northwest China. To gain a better understanding of whether the educational performance of these children improves or suffers when adult family members migrate, I attempt to disentangle the effects of remittances from the effects of migration. METHODS The data used in this study come from the 2004 wave of the Gansu Survey of Children and Families. To account for the possible endogeneity of migration-related variables, I use the migration network variables to instrument for different migration strategies. RESULTS The results show that the absence of adult household members, including parents, has a negative effect on the educational performance of the children left behind, but that remittances can partially compensate for this loss. Boys' educational performance does not seem to be greatly affected by the migration of adult household members. By contrast, the absence of adult household members is shown to have a large negative effect on girls' educational performance, and the positive effect of remittances is also found to be significant for girls. CONCLUSIONS The findings may be of interest to other developing countries with large internal migration flows and to the relevant policy makers, as the results suggest that remittances sent home by out-migrants may serve as a channel for investing in human capital in the migrants' regions of origin, and especially for investing in the human capital of girls.

  4. Dietary micronutrients are associated with higher cognitive function gains among primary school children in rural Kenya.

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    Gewa, Constance A; Weiss, Robert E; Bwibo, Nimrod O; Whaley, Shannon; Sigman, Marian; Murphy, Suzanne P; Harrison, Gail; Neumann, Charlotte G

    2009-05-01

    With the exception of iodine and Fe, there is still very limited information on the effect of micronutrients on cognitive function, especially among school-age children. The present analysis evaluates the relationship between dietary Fe, Zn and B vitamins (B12, B6, folate and riboflavin) and gains in cognitive test scores among school children in rural Kenya. Data for the present study were obtained from The Child Nutrition Kenya Project, a 2-year longitudinal, randomised controlled feeding intervention study using animal source foods. Dietary nutrient values were based on monthly and bimonthly 24 h recall data collected during the study period. In longitudinal regression analyses, available Fe, available Zn, vitamin B12 and riboflavin showed significant relationships with improved cognitive test scores, after controlling for confounders such as energy intake, school, socio-economic status and morbidity. Available Fe intake was associated with significantly higher gains in Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test scores over time. Available Zn intake was associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-total test scores over time, while vitamin B12 and riboflavin intakes were each associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-forward test scores over time. This analysis demonstrates the influence of improved dietary micronutrient status on school children's cognitive function.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers regarding diarrhoea among children in a Sudanese rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, I S; Eltom, A R; Karrar, Z A; Gibril, A R

    1994-11-01

    A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers in the rural communities of two villages in Sudan regarding diarrhoeal diseases in children was conducted using a focus group research technique. Seven groups of literate mothers (87 mothers) and 13 groups of illiterate mothers (152 mothers) interviewed comprised 85% of mothers with children under 5 years of age in that community. The study showed that mothers can define and describe diarrhoea, however awareness about the aetiology and the importance of germs in its causation was low. The majority of mothers attributed diarrhoea to teething, milk of pregnant women, hot food and salty water. Less than 40% of mothers identify symptoms and signs of "dehydration" and the need for consultation. Only 10% could relate danger signs to severe dehydration. The ORS use rate was very low (2.1-4.3%). Although awareness about ORS was high (100%), only 25% prepared and used it correctly. However, home made fluids including rice water, custard, pap and tabaladi juice were used by 45% of the mothers. 45% of illiterate mothers stop breast feeding and food during diarrhoea compared to 30% of literate mothers. Harmful practices used in caring for children with diarrhoea included: fumigation (50%), cauterization and removal of teeth buds (45% illiterate mothers, 10% literate), withholding of breast feeding and indiscriminate use of drugs and herbs in 30%.

  6. Aggression, social competence, and academic achievement in Chinese children: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Huang, Xiaorui; Chang, Lei; Wang, Li; Li, Dan

    2010-08-01

    The primary purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine, in a sample of Chinese children (initial M age = 8 years, N = 1,140), contributions of aggression to the development of social competence and academic achievement. Five waves of panel data on aggression and social and school performance were collected from peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records in Grades 2 to 5. Structural equation modeling revealed that aggression had unique effects on later social competence and academic achievement after their stabilities were controlled, particularly in the junior grades. Aggression also had significant indirect effects on social and academic outcomes through multiple pathways. Social competence and academic achievement contributed to the development of each other, but not aggression. The results indicate cascade effects of aggression in Chinese children from a developmental perspective.

  7. Limits on efficient human mindreading: convergence across Chinese adults and Semai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Hadi, Nur Shafiqah Abdul; Low, Jason

    2015-11-01

    We tested Apperly and Butterfill's (2009, Psychological Review, 116, 753) theory that humans have two mindreading systems whereby the efficient-system guiding anticipatory glances displays signature limits that do not apply to the flexible system guiding verbal predictions. Experiments 1 and 2 tested urban Mainland-Chinese adults (n = 64) and Experiment 3 tested Semai children living in the rainforests of Peninsular Malaysia (3- to 4-year-olds, n = 60). Participants - across different ages, groups and methods - anticipated others' false-beliefs about object-location but not object-identity. Convergence in signature limits signalled that the early-developing efficient system involved minimal theory-of-mind. Chinese adults and older Semai children showed flexibility in their direct predictions. The flexible mindreading system in ascribing others' beliefs as such was task-sensitive and implicated maturational and cultural contributions.

  8. Development of spatial representation of numbers: a study of the SNARC effect in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin; Xu, Jihong; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chunhui

    2014-01-01

    Using the standard parity judgment task, this study investigated the development of numerical-spatial representation. Participants were 314 healthy right-handed Chinese children (from kindergarteners to sixth graders) and adults. The results revealed that all age groups showed a significant (or marginally significant in the case of first graders) SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, indicating that Chinese children as young as kindergarteners already had developed automatic spatial representations of numbers (or the mental number line). Surprisingly, however, the size of the SNARC effect did not show much developmental change. These results are discussed in the context of the literature on spatial representations of numbers and on cross-cultural differences in early development of number cognition.

  9. Decreased Streptococcus pneumoniae susceptibility to oral antibiotics among children in rural Vietnam: a community study

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    Phuc Ho D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most significant bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia among children under five years worldwide. Updated resistance information of S. pneumoniae among children is essential to adjust the recommendations for empirical treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, which will have immense implications for local and global health. This study investigated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in isolated strains of S. pneumoniae and relationship with antibiotic use and demographic factors of children under five in rural Vietnam in 2007. Methods In Bavi district, 847 children 6 to 60 months were selected from 847 households. The main child-caregivers in the households were interviewed weekly using structured questionnaires to collect information of daily illness symptoms and drug use for the selected child over a four-week period (from March through June 2007. In the 3rd week, the children were invited for a clinical examination and to collect nasopharyngeal samples for S. pneumoniae identification. Etest and disk diffusion were used to test antibiotic susceptibility. Results Of 818 participating children, 258 (32% had ongoing respiratory infections, 421 (52% carried S. pneumoniae, and 477 (58% had used antibiotics within the previous three weeks. Of the 421 isolates, 95% were resistant to at least one antibiotic (401/421. Resistance to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline, phenoxymethylpenicillin, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin was 78%, 75%, 75%, 70% and 28%, respectively. Low resistance was noted for amoxicillin (4%, benzylpenicillin (4%, and cefotaxime (2%. The intermediate resistance to amoxicillin was 32%. Multidrug-resistance was seen in 60%. The most common pattern was co-resistance to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin. The proportion of children carrying resistant bacteria was higher among the children who had used antibiotics in the previous three weeks. Conclusions Resistance

  10. ATTENTION PROBLEMS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN, IN A RURAL SETTING, IN INDIA

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    Mubeen Taj

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and emotional disorders include internalizing symptoms which affect the self and externalizing symptoms that impact others and the environment. Behavioral and emotional disorders occur frequently in the general population of children. It has been seen that female children had more of internalizing behavior problems whereas male children had more of externalizing symptoms. Psychiatric epidemiological studies from developed countries indicate that more than a quarter of children and adolescents meet lifetime criteria for a mental disorder. Among the behavioral disorders, the presence of attention problems is of importance as they have been shown to be associated with increasing academic difficulties. Among the various scales that have been used to study behavior problems, Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist has been the most widely used and has different versions for parents and teachers so that a complete assessment of a child’s behavior can made with several inputs. This study aimed at assessing attention problems among primary school children, and to study the association between academic performance and attention problems using the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, using class teachers as raters, as interventions to reduce attention problems at an early stage may go a long way in improving the academic performance of the children. In this cross- sectional study, 198 children, 114 boys and 84 girls between 6 and 12 years of age, were rated on Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 6-18years - Teacher Rating Form (TRF, revised 2001, by his/her class teacher. About 25 children had a score of more than 50% on the attention problems scale. No significant differences were found in the attention problem scores between boys and girls in the sample studied. There was no significant association between current academic performance as rated on the TRF and attention problem scores. School teachers, especially in the rural areas where

  11. Shortcomings of adherence counselling provided to caregivers of children receiving antiretroviral therapy in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Bronwyne; Kagee, Ashraf; Bland, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    In order to achieve optimal benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), caregivers of children receiving ART are required to attend routine clinic visits monthly and administer medication to the child as prescribed. Yet, the level of adherence to these behaviours varies considerably in many settings. As a way to achieve optimal adherence in rural KwaZulu-Natal, caregivers are required to attend routine counselling sessions at HIV treatment clinics that are centred on imparting information, motivation, and behavioural skills related to medication administration. According to the information-motivation-behavioural skills model, information related to adherence, motivation, and behavioural skills are necessary and fundamental determinants of adherence to ART. The purpose of the study was to observe and document the content of adherence counselling sessions that caregivers attending rural clinics in KwaZulu Natal receive. We observed 25 adherence counselling sessions, which lasted on average 8.1 minutes. Counselling typically consisted of counsellors recording patient attendance, reporting CD4 count and viral load results to caregivers, emphasising dose times, and asking caregivers to name their medications and dosage amounts. Patients were seldom asked to demonstrate how they measure the medication. They were also not probed for problems regarding treatment, even when an unsuppressed VL was reported to a caregiver. This paper calls attention to the sub-optimal level of counselling provided to patients on ART and the urgent need to standardise and improve the training, support, and debriefing provided to counsellors.

  12. Relations of parenting style to Chinese children's effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment.

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    Eisenberg, Nancy; Chang, Lei; Ma, Yue; Huang, Xiaorui

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders' effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children's EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children's internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children's externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children's ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems.

  13. The nature of the automatization deficit in Chinese children with dyslexia.

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    Wong, Simpson W L; Ho, Connie S-H

    2010-01-01

    Clarifying whether automatization deficits constitute the primary causes or symptoms of developmental dyslexia, we focused on three critical issues of the dyslexic automatization deficit, namely universality, domain specificity, and severity. Thirty Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 10 years and 5 months), 30 chronological-age-, and 30 reading-level-matched children were tested in 4 areas of automaticity: motor, visual search, Stroop facilitation effects, and automatic word recognition. The results showed that the dyslexic children performed significantly worse than the CA-controls but not the RL-controls in all the tasks except for Stroop congruent-color words, on which they performed worse than children in both control groups. The deficits reflect a lag in reading experiences rather than a persistent cognitive deficit.

  14. The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan

    2014-09-03

    Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration.

  15. Teaching receptive naming of Chinese characters to children with autism by incorporating echolalia.

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, J. P.; Wu, K I

    1997-01-01

    The facilitative effect of incorporating echolalia on teaching receptive naming of Chinese characters to children with autism was assessed. In Experiment 1, echoing the requested character name prior to the receptive naming task facilitated matching a character to its name. In addition, task performance was consistently maintained only when echolalia preceded the receptive manual response. Positive results from generalization tests suggested that learned responses occurred across various nove...

  16. Relationship of body fat and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular risk in Chinese children.

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    Pei-gang Wang

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVES: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and body fat play an important role in elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the combined effects of CRF and obesity on metabolic health in Chinese children are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent and combined associations between body fat, CRF, and CVD risk in Chinese schoolchildren. METHODS: The study subjects comprised 676 schoolchildren (392 boys and 284 girls, aged 9.6±0.7 yrs old in Wuhan, China. Their body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, CRF, blood pressure (BP, lipids, glucose, and pubertal status were assessed. Children were categorized into different groups based on their BMI, WC, and CRF using Chinese obesity cut-off points and CRF sex-specific median points. Metabolic Risk Score (MRS was computed based on the standardized scores of BP, lipids, and glucose. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression models showed that, in the separate models, body fat was positively associated with MRS while CRF was inversely associated with MRS (p<0.001. However, when assessed simultaneously, only body fat had a significant association with MRS (p<0.001. In general, low-fit children had a lower MRS compared to their counterparts, and a significant difference between the two extreme groups was observed (low CRF and high fat vs. high CRF and low fat, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that both body fat and CRF should be considered when interpreting CVD risk in Chinese children, while body fat may be correlated with CVD risk more than CRF.

  17. Tinea capitis among rural school children of the district of Magude, in Maputo province, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidat, Mohsin M; Correia, Della; Buene, Titos P

    2006-11-01

    The study was carried out in two rural primary schools of the District of Magude, the largest district of Maputo Province in 2001. The prevalence of tinea capitis in each school was 11.6% (49/422) and 6.8% (18/263) and affected predominantly male children. The most common dermatophytes isolated from both schools were Microsporum audouinii. However, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was also found to be an important causal agent of tinea capitis in the District of Magude. Although the prevalence of tinea capitis found in our study is relatively high compared to previous cross-sectional studies carried out in Mozambique, it is still closely related to the prevalence rates reported for African countries. Tinea capitis continues to be an important public health issue in Mozambique, particularly in primary school setting.

  18. NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN CHILDREN (1 – 5 YRS – A RURAL STUDY

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    Ehtisham Ahmad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition (PEM in 1 – 5 yrs of age and factors associated with it. Objective: 1. To assess prevalence of protein energy malnutrition in children 1 – 5 yrs of age. 2. To identify the socio-economic and cultural factor associated with protein energy malnutrition Setting: Rural Health Training Centre, Jawan, Department of Community Medicine, J N Medical College, Aligarh. Study design: Cross-sectional study Study variable: Nutritional status, sex, family size, caste, social class, literacy status of parents. Statistical analysis: Chi-square (÷² test of significance Result: Overall prevalence of PEM was 56.4% in study population, with higher prevalence in female (58.6% as compared to males (54.2%. Significant relationship was seen between PEM and sex, social class, caste, literacy status of parents and mother.

  19. Theory of Mind and Executive Function in Chinese Preschool Children

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    Duh, Shinchieh; Paik, Jae H.; Miller, Patricia H.; Gluck, Stephanie C.; Li, Hui; Himelfarb, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Cross-cultural research on children's theory of mind (ToM) understanding has raised questions about its developmental sequence and relationship with executive function (EF). The current study examined how ToM develops (using the tasks from Wellman & Liu, 2004) in relation to 2 EF skills (conflict inhibition, working memory) in 997 Chinese…

  20. Chinese City Children and Youth Physical Activity Study: An Introduction

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    Chen, Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity and its repercussions will be one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. Promoting physical activity and preventing the decline of children's fitness and the increase of childhood obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease therefore need to be a high priority. So far, besides a few large-scale…

  1. Working-memory training improves developmental dyslexia in Chinese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Luo; Jing Wang; Hanrong Wu; Dongmei Zhu; Yu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Although plasticity in the neural system underlies working memory, and working memory can be improved by training, there is thus far no evidence that children with developmental dyslexia can were recruited from an elementary school in Wuhan, China. They received working-memory training, including training in visuospatial memory, verbal memory, and central executive tasks. The difficulty of the tasks was adjusted based on the performance of each subject, and the training sessions lasted 40 minutes per day, for 5 weeks. The results showed that working-memory training significantly enhanced performance on the nontrained working memory tasks such as the visuospatial, the verbal domains, and central executive tasks in children with developmental dyslexia. More importantly, the visual rhyming task and reading fluency task were also significantly improved by training. Progress on working memory measures was related to changes in reading skills. These experimental findings indicate that working memory is a pivotal factor in reading development among children with developmental dyslexia, and interventions to improve working memory may help dyslexic children to become more proficient in reading.

  2. The Dog's Tale: Chinese, Hungarian and Swedish Children's Narrative Conventions.

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    Carlsson, Maj Asplund; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Soponyai, Anna; Wen, Quifang

    2001-01-01

    This study examined content and conventions of stories made up by 6- and 7-year-olds from China, Hungary, and Sweden. Analyses revealed qualitative differences in children's life worlds, which could be related to their cultural backgrounds. The study also explored the origin of characters in the stories, characteristic plot events, and cultural…

  3. Chinese City Children and Youth Physical Activity Study: An Introduction

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    Chen, Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity and its repercussions will be one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. Promoting physical activity and preventing the decline of children's fitness and the increase of childhood obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease therefore need to be a high priority. So far, besides a few large-scale…

  4. Development and evaluation of a patching treatment questionnaire for Chinese amblyopic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jinling; Lu Qun; Huang Ying; Chen Yuanyuan; Chen Jie; Yu Xinping

    2014-01-01

    Background Amblyopia is a common disease for children.The main treatment approach for amblyopia is to patch the normally sighted eye and force the use of the amblyopic eye.However,patching treatment in children may negatively impact psychological well-being of both the child and family.At present,no specific questionnaire is available to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of amblyopic treatment for children and their families in China.The purpose of our study was to develop a Chinese version of patching treatment questionnaire,and evaluate its reliability and validity.Methods The original patching treatment questionnaire of amblyopia treatment index (ATI) was translated into Chinese.Amblyopic patients aged 4-9 years receiving patching 4-8 hours per day or full-time were recruited.The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the patching treatment questionnaire were determined by internal consistency,test-retest reliability,item-scale correlations,and construct validity.The associated baseline factors and the questionnaire responses were assessed.Results One hundred and nine children with amblyopia treated with patching were enrolled.Distribution of response options for individual items and correlation with the respective subscale were calculated.Factor analysis revealed that 16 of the 21 items were loaded in the three subscales as follows:"adverse effects" of treatment,“difficulties with compliance" and "social stigma" of treatment.Intemal consistency values measured by Cronbach's a coefficient (0.768) and split-half coefficient (0.790) were satisfactory for the total scales.The intra-class correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.998.No significant difference was found between the overall questionnaire scores and children's age,sex,baseline visual acuity of amblyopic eyes,improvement of the amblyopic eye,or patching time.Conclusions We developed a Chinese version of the patching treatment questionnaire with satisfactory

  5. Knowledge and practice of handwashing among mothers of under five children in rural coastal South India

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    SS Datta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge and practice of handwashing after critical moments among mothers of under five children and to recommend measures for improvement of handwashing practices based on the study findings Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken during February 2010 covering 28 villages around coastal South India. The EPI 30-cluster sampling method was used and 1898 mothers of under five children were interviewed about their knowledge and practice regarding handwashing after critical moments. Results: 83.41% mothers stated handwashing was important for prevention of communicable diseases. 77.82% opined that washing hands with only water was sufficient. 38.88% and 24.92% stated handwashing could prevent diarrhoea and ARI respectively. 80.08% mothers thought handwashing was crucial before eating meals; 56.90%, 41.73% and 40.73% respectively felt that it was important to wash hands after defeacation, before preparing food and feeding child. 73.18% mothers washed hands with soap and water after defeacation and 63.91% after cleaning the child who had defeacated. Majority wash their hands with only water before preparing food (71.86% and feeding the child (67.39%. Mothers with per capita monthly family income of Rs.1001-2000 and more, education of 5-7 standard and above, belonging to a joint family and Christian background had better handwashing practices. However, daily labourer mothers were at highest risk of not washing hands at all critical moments. Conclusion: Knowledge and practice of handwashing is low among rural mothers. Hence there is a need to spread importance of proper and regular handwashing in rural areas through available evidence based BCC strategies and multiple dissemination channels.

  6. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

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    Fankun Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296 and non-ADHD (n = 296 aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006. Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014. Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003. In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children.

  7. Cross-lagged relationships between morphological awareness and reading comprehension among Chinese children

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    Yahua Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the developmental relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension using a two-year and four-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 149 Chinese children (80 male and 69 female. We measured children’s morphological awareness, word reading, and reading comprehension from T1 to T4, in addition to phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, and general cognitive ability at T1 as control measures. Four plausible cross-lagged models were assessed and compared to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between morphological awareness and reading comprehension over time. Results found support for a reciprocal-causation model, that is, morphological awareness stably predicted subsequent reading comprehension, and the reverse relation was also found. Longitudinal mediation analyses revealed that word reading partially mediated the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in Chinese children. These findings extend our understanding of the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension. The practical implications for these two developing skills in Chinese children are discussed.

  8. Cross-sectional study on differences in pain perception and behavioral distress during venipuncture between Italian and Chinese children

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    Sofia Bisogni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Venipuncture is perhaps the scariest aspect of hospitalization for children as it causes pain and high levels of behavioral distress. Pain is a complex experience which is also influenced by social factors such as cultural attitudes, beliefs and traditions. Studies focusing on ethnic/cultural differences in pain perception and behavioral distress show controversial results, in particular with regards to children. The aim of this paper is to evaluate differences in pain perception and behavioral manifestations between Italian and Chinese children undergoing a venipuncture, through a cross-sectional study. Behavioral distress and self-reported pain were measured in Chinese and Italian outpatient children during a standardized blood-drawing procedure, using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD and pain scales. We observed 332 children: 93 Chinese and 239 Italian. Chinese children scored higher than Italians on pain scales − mean scores 5.3 (95%CI 4.78-5.81 vs. 3.2 (95%CI 2.86-3.53 − but lower mean OSBD scores − mean 4.1 (95%CI 3.04-5.15 vs. 8.1 (95%CI 7.06-9.14. Our data suggest that Chinese children experience higher levels of pain than their Italian peers, although they show more self-control in their behavioral reaction to pain when experiencing venipuncture.

  9. Specific reading difficulties in Chinese, English, or both: longitudinal markers of phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and RAN in Hong Kong Chinese children.

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    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Phil D; Wong, Terry; Wong, Anita; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    What are the longitudinal cognitive profiles of Hong Kong Chinese children with specific reading difficulties in Chinese only, in English only, or both? A total of 16 poor readers each of Chinese (PC) and English (PE) and 8 poor readers of both orthographies (PB) were compared to a control sample (C) of 16 children; all were drawn from a statistically representative sample of 154 Hong Kong Chinese children tested at ages 5 to 9 years. PE and PB children's mothers had lower education levels than did the other groups. With children's ages and mothers' education levels statistically controlled, the PE, PC, and PB groups were significantly lower than the C group on phonological awareness. The PB and PE groups also scored significantly lower than the others on English vocabulary across years, whereas the PC and PB groups were significantly poorer than the C and PE groups on morphological awareness across years. Finally, the PB group was significantly slower than the other groups on speed naming at every age tested, underscoring the potential importance of automaticity in reading across orthographies. Findings highlight the need to consider the issue of how to identify reading difficulties in a second language.

  10. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

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    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  11. Effect of Home-Based Complementary Food Fortification on Prevalence of Anemia Among Infants and Young Children Aged 6 to 23 Months in Poor Rural Regions of China.

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    Huo, Junsheng; Sun, Jing; Fang, Zheng; Chang, Suying; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Begin, France; Hipgrave, David B; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-12-01

    Following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the Chinese government instituted an infant and young and child nutrition program that included promotion of in-home fortification of complementary food with ying yang bao (YYB), a soy-based powder containing iron, 2.5 mg as iron-EDTA and 5 mg as ferrous fumarate, and other micronutrients. Ying yang bao was provided to participating families in 8 poor rural counties in Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces by the Ministry of Health. We assessed hemoglobin levels among infants and young children (IYC) aged 6 to 23 months at baseline in May 2010 (n = 1290) and during follow-up in November 2010 (n = 1142), May 2011 (n = 1118), and November 2011 (n = 1040), using the Hemocue method. Interviewers collected basic demographic information and child feeding practices from the children's caretakers. Altitude-adjusted hemoglobin level averaged 10.8 g/dL, and total anemia prevalence was 49.5% at baseline. Average hemoglobin was 11.3 g/dL at 6 months, 11.6 g/dL at 12 months, and 11.7 g/dL at 18 months after introduction of YYB. Moderate anemia (hemoglobin: 70-99 g/dL) decreased from 20.3% at baseline to 7.5%, 5.8%, and 7.3% after 6, 12, and 18 months of home fortification, respectively (P regions of China.

  12. Spirulina can increase total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children as determined by a paired isotope dilution technique.

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    Li, Lei; Zhao, Xianfeng; Wang, Jie; Muzhingi, Tawanda; Suter, Paolo M; Tang, Guangwen; Yin, Shi-An

    2012-01-01

    Spirulina is an alga rich in high-quality protein and carotenoids. It is unclear whether spirulina can improve the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in China with a high prevalence of vitamin A malnutrition. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina in improving the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in rural areas of China when they consumed spirulina in their daily meals. A total of 228 children (6-11 years) were recruited and randomly divided into three groups supplemented with 4 g (containing 4·18 µg β-carotene), 2 g (containing 2·54 µg β-carotene) or 0 g spirulina 5 d/week for 10 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention period, each child was given 0·5 mg [(2)H4]retinyl acetate and [(2)H8]retinyl acetate, respectively. To assess vitamin A stores, blood samples (3 ml) were collected on the third and the twenty-first day after each labelled retinyl acetate dose for a retinol enrichment analysis using a GC mass spectrometer. The concentrations of retinol and β-carotene in serum samples were also determined by using HPLC. After the 10-week intervention, serum β-carotene concentrations of children with 2 or 4 g spirulina supplement increased by 0·160 and 0·389 µmmol/l, respectively. Total-body vitamin A stores increased significantly, with a median increase of 0·160 mmol in children taking 2 g spirulina and of 0·279 mmol in children taking 4 g spirulina. Spirulina is a good dietary source of β-carotene, which may effectively increase the total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children.

  13. High prevalence of antibiotic resistance in commensal Escherichia coli among children in rural Vietnam

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    Dyar Oliver

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commensal bacteria represent an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Few community-based studies of antibiotic resistance in commensal bacteria have been conducted in Southeast Asia. We investigated the prevalence of resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in preschool children in rural Vietnam, and factors associated with carriage of resistant bacteria. Methods We tested isolates of E. coli from faecal samples of 818 children aged 6-60 months living in FilaBavi, a demographic surveillance site near Hanoi. Daily antibiotic use data was collected for participating children for three weeks prior to sampling and analysed with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics extracted from FilaBavi's re-census survey 2007. Descriptive statistics were generated, and a logistic regression model was used to identify contributions of the examined factors. Results High prevalences of resistance were found to tetracycline (74%, co-trimoxazole (68%, ampicillin (65%, chloramphenicol (40%, and nalidixic acid (27%. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Sixty percent of isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Recent sulphonamide use was associated with co-trimoxazole resistance [OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.7], and beta-lactam use with ampicillin resistance [OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4]. Isolates from children aged 6-23 months were more likely to be resistant to ampicillin [OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4] and co-trimoxazole [OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0]. Associations were identified between geographical areas and tetracycline and ampicillin resistance. Conclusions We present high prevalence of carriage of commensal E. coli resistant to commonly used antibiotics. The identified associations with recent antibiotic use, age, and geographical location might contribute to our understanding of carriage of antibiotic resistant commensal bacteria.

  14. [Food habits of rural school children from Chile's metropolitan area. A comparative study. 1989].

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    Hazbun Game, J; Ivanovic Marincovich, R; Durán Santana, M C; Ivanovic Marincovich, D

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the food habits of a representative sample of 651 rural school-age children from Chile's Metropolitan Region and to carry out a comparative study between 1986-1987 and 1989. Food habits were defined as the frequency of consumption of foods expressed as days per week and were determined through a questionnaire administered to school-age children by the investigators and were compared with Model Allowance, established by Chile's Ministry of Health. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured through Graffar's modified method. Statistical procedures included analysis of variance and student "t" test for comparison of the means. The frequency of consumption of most food decreased in 1989 compared with 1986-1987. Most consumed foods (above 90%) were bread and potatoes and between 70-75% of the school-age children consumed milk, meat, yoghurt, poultry, eggs, beans, onions, cabbage, squash, lettuce, bananas, oranges, apples, grapes, biscuits, spaghetti, rice, oil, butter, carbonated beverages and juices, candies, sugar and chocolate. Foods most disliked were fresh cheese (69.3%), radish (62.2%), shellfish (59.4%) and chickpeas (48.8%). Males presented a frequency of consumption of beans, chickpeas (p < 0.05), lentil and chard swiss (p < 0.01) significantly higher than females, but these last ones registered a frequency of consumption of apples, cookies, oil (p < 0.05), onions and candies (p < 0.01) significantly higher than males. The frequency of consumption of most foods, especially milk, fish and bread (p < 0.01) decreased with age. SES had no effect on food habits of the school-age children. These results could be useful in the School Feeding Program (PAE) and in nutrition education related to school population.

  15. Epidemiological correlates of nutritional anemia among children (6-35 months in rural Wardha, Central India

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    Sinha N

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Nutritional anemia is associated with impaired performance of a range of mental and physical functions in children, along with increased morbidity. Iron supplementation at a later age may not reverse the adverse effects. National Nutritional Anemia Control Program was launched in India in 1970, but it failed to make any impact. The present study was undertaken to find out prevalence of anemia and its correlates in rural Wardha in children 6-35 months of age. Materials and Methods : Seven hundred seventy-two children between 6 months and 35 months of age were studied for anemia by cluster-sampling method. The hemoglobin was estimated in the child by ′Filter paper cyanmethemoglobin method.′ Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and other variables. Data was analyzed by SPSS 12.0.1. Results : Mean hemoglobin level was 98.5 ± 12.9 gm/L. Prevalence of anemia was 80.3%. Only 1.3% children had severe anemia (hemoglobin < 70 gm/L. The univariate analysis showed that anemia is significantly associated with age of the child, education of mother and father, occupation of father, socioeconomic status, birth order and nutritional status as measured by weight for age. The final model suggested that only educational status of the mother, occupation of the father, birth order and nutritional status of the child were significantly associated with anemia. Interpretation and Conclusion : For short-term impact, appropriate nutritional interventions remain the only operational intervention as only the nutritional status (weight for age is a modifiable factor. But for long-term sustained impact, policy makers need to focus on improving maternal education and reducing family size.

  16. Assessment of Immunization to Hepatitis B Vaccine among Children under Five Years in Rural Areas of Taiz, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sonboli, Najla A.; Alkumaim, Fawzi A.; Alsayaad, Nader S.; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed S.; Higazi, Tarig B.; Elagib, Atif A.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses a major health problem worldwide. approximately 1 million deaths annually due to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Objectives. This study was conducted to determine the coverage rate of HBV vaccine and assess the vaccine protective response among children under five years old in rural areas of Yemen. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2015 in four districts of countryside Yemen. The target population was children aged from 6 to 59 months. 227 children were enrolled in the study. Questionnaire was used to collect of data. Serum samples were tested for anti-HBs antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anti-HBs level ≥ 10 IU/L was considered a protective response to the vaccine. Results. The coverage rate of HBV vaccine among children was 87.3%. A total of 143 (72.2%) children responded to the vaccine with anti-HBs level ≥ 10 IU/L, while 55 (27.8%) of the children had nonprotective anti-HBs levels of <10 IU/L (P = 0.003). Conclusion. This study revealed a good coverage rate of HBV vaccine in rural areas but the protective rate against HBV infection was moderate. A considerable proportion of vaccinated children should be considered for either revaccination or booster doses. PMID:28367327

  17. Towards a food-based approach to improve iron and zinc status of rural Beninese children: enhancing mineral bioavailability from sorghum-based food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.

    2007-01-01

    The growth performance, food pattern, and iron and zinc status of 80 rural Beninese school-age children were assessed in a post-harvest and in a pre-harvest season. The foods as eaten by the children were analysed chemically with special reference to iron, zinc, and phytate contents. The children sh

  18. ENDOSCOPIC AND HISTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC DYSPEPSIA IN A RURAL MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL IN MELMARUVATHUR- TAMILNADU

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    Padma K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Chronic pain abdomen and dyspepsia is the most common presenting symptoms in the Paediatric Outpatient Department (OPD after respiratory illnesses. It is increasing alarmingly both in the paediatric and adult population. We, therefore carried out a cross-sectional study among children with chronic dyspepsia aged between 5 to 15 years attending Paediatric OPD in a rural medical college hospital, Melmaruvathur, Tamilnadu, South India. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the gastroduodenal morbidity in children presenting to the paediatric department of a rural medical college hospital with chronic dyspeptic symptoms. METHODS Forty six children between the age group of 5 to 15 years with chronic dyspeptic symptoms of at least one month duration were evaluated for their symptom profile, epidemiological profile, nutritional status, endoscopic appearance and histopathological changes. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 18. RESULTS Of the 46 children studied, 43% were between the age group of 5-10 years and 70% were female children. Pain abdomen lasting for more than at least one month was the most common finding (93% observed. Other common symptoms in the order of decreasing frequency were early satiety (87%, poor appetite (76%, nausea (57% and not thriving (57%. History of loss of appetite was significantly associated with chronic dyspepsia with an odds ratio of 68.9394 and 95% confidence interval 26.62 to 178.54, p value of <0.0001. Most of the children belonged to lower income group predominantly of a rural background. 33 (72% children had under nutrition as per IAP classification. 10 (30% Grade I, 15 (45% Grade II and eight (24% had Grade III malnutrition. 26 children (57% had abnormal endoscopic findings. Antral mucosal biopsy done showed chronic lymphocytic gastritis in 44 (96% cases. 38 of these 44 (86% were H. pylori positive. H. pylori positivity in chronic dyspepsia was highly statistically significant with a p value of 0

  19. From the External to the Internal: Behavior Clarifications Facilitate Theory of Mind (ToM) Development in Chinese Children

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    Liu, Yanchun; Wang, Yijie; Luo, Rufan; Su, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how Chinese children develop theory of mind (ToM) in a language environment with limited mental state talk that is rich in behavior discourse. In Study 1, 60 mothers shared a wordless storybook with their 3-4-year-olds. The children completed two false-belief tasks and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised at…

  20. Acceptability and Applicability of an American Health Videogame with Story for Childhood Obesity Prevention Among Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Baranowski, Tom; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane; Buday, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of “Escape from Diab” (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese children as interesting has not been explored. This study assessed the acceptability and applicability of Diab among Hong Kong Chinese children, whether the Diab story was understood by them, and whether it had potential to influence them both during the game and afterward. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-four students (21 males, 13 females) 9–12 years of age were included. Upon completion of all the Diab episodes, children completed an immersion scale with 18 items, as well as an individual interview with 10 open-ended questions. Results: Children achieved average immersion after playing Diab with the mean score at 39.1 (standard deviation = 9.0), higher than the median (36) of possible scores (range, 18–54). Four themes using framework analysis emerged from the interviews, including intuitive feelings about the interface, playing experience, perception of the effect of Diab on behavior change, and the applicability of Diab to Hong Kong children. The story and game developed for American children were found acceptable and applicable to Hong Kong Chinese children. Conclusions: The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods confirmed the acceptability and applicability of Diab to Hong Kong Chinese children. PMID:26382015

  1. Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in Chinese rural adults with dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Cheng, R; Cheng, G; Zhang, X

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) among residents of rural China with dental fluorosis aged 30-69 years. A village located in northern China in which dental fluorosis was common was selected. Some 1250 residents with fluorosis ranging in age from 30 to 69 years completed a structured questionnaire and underwent clinical examination. Diagnosis of DH was based on the combination of the subject's self-evaluation and clinical examination. Dental fluorosis was evaluated using Dean's index (DI). In the village, the fluoride concentration in drinking water was 1.15-1.50 mg L(-1) . The community fluorosis index was 1.47, and 74 (9.7%) of the participants with dental fluorosis were diagnosed with DH. There was no significant difference between men and women. DH was most commonly observed in the lower incisors, and the most common cause of DH was cold stimulation. Logistic regression analysis showed acid reflux to be the only risk factor for DH in the current study. Among subjects with DH, none took treatment measures, visited a hospital or clinic, or used antisensitivity toothpaste. The prevalence of DH in the selected subjects with dental fluorosis was 9.7%. Acid reflux was found to be a risk factor for DH in the current study.

  2. Did capitation payment reform make a difference in Chinese rural primary health care?

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    Jing Sun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the effect of capitation payment reform in New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme designating primary facilities in Qianjiang 2007-2009. Retrospective administrative claims were analyzed. Intercepts changes of cost per visit in facilities started the reform in different stages and of overall Qianjiang were compared. Referral rate, prescribing indicators, hospitalization rate, income of facility and individuals were compared pre- and post- the reform. Growth rate of cost per visit in health centers was contained in 2008, kept unchanged in 2009. Cost containment effect on village clinics was observed in each starting stage of reforms, but vanished later on. Except for the fact the proportion of essential medicines used in health centers significantly increased (X2 test, P<0.05, prescription indicators were not improved significantly in all facilities. After a slight increase in 2007, the hospitalization rate continuously dropped. The monthly income and outpatient revenue continuously increased in 2006-2009. Cost containment objective of the capitation reform was achieved immediately following the reform, but was not sustainable. Provider behaviors were partially improved with limited effects on prescriptions behaviors. The reform brought no financial loss to both the facilities and individuals.

  3. Craniofacial dimensions in children in rural Oaxaca, southern Mexico: secular change, 1968-2000.

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    Little, Bertis B; Buschang, Peter H; Peña Reyes, Maria Eugenia; Tan, Swee Kheng; Malina, Robert M

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this investigation was to analyze the underlying cause(s) of secular changes in craniofacial dimensions among indigenous children in an isolated community in Oaxaca, southern Mexico, between 1968-2000. Subjects were schoolchildren resident in a rural, agrarian, Zapotec-speaking community in the Valley of Oaxaca, previously characterized as mildly-to-moderately undernourished with growth-stunting in 1968 and 1978. In 2000, children had experienced a secular increase in height compared with two prior growth surveys. Four craniofacial dimensions (head length, head breadth, and bizygomatic and bigonial breadths) were measured during anthropometric surveys of schoolchildren aged 6-13 years in 1968, 1978, and 2000. Cephalic and zygomandibular indices were calculated. Samples by survey were: 1968, 151 males and 157 females; 1978, 179 males and 184 females; and 2000, 180 males and 186 females. The analysis was based on a total of 1,037 children. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess secular trend effects, with height, age, and age2 as covariates by sex. Over the interval of 32 years, significant secular changes occurred in craniofacial dimensions and one index: 1) head length was shorter in boys and girls; 2) bizygomatic breadth was narrower in boys and girls; 3) head breadth increased over time only among girls; 4) brachycephalization increased significantly in a linear manner among both sexes; and 5) the zygomandibular index decreased significantly only in boys. Thus, the cranial complex remodeled to a shorter head length, both relatively (brachycephalization) and absolutely. Remodeling over time also resulted in a narrower face, with the midface changing at about the same rate as the lower face (i.e., mandible). Secular changes are generally recognized as multifactorial. Changes in the cephalic index and cranium over time in schoolchildren in an isolated rural agrarian Zapotec-speaking community in the Valley of Oaxaca suggest that the

  4. Effect of an integrated child nutrition intervention on the complementary food intake of young children in rural north Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachón, Helena; Schroeder, Dirk G; Marsh, David R; Dearden, Kirk A; Ha, Tran Thu; Lang, Tran Thi

    2002-12-01

    Forty-two percent of Vietnamese children are stunted by two years of age. Since 1990, Save the Children Federation/US (SC) has implemented integrated nutrition programs targeting young children. We evaluated the effect of SC's nutrition program on the complementary food intake of young rural Vietnamese children. Using a longitudinal, prospective, randomized design, we followed 238 children (119 each from intervention and comparison communes) age 5 to 25 months old for six months with a re-survey at 12 months. We gathered 24-hour recall data at baseline and at months 2, 4, 6, and 12. Dietary energy intake was calculated using the 1972 Vietnamese food composition table. Key outcomes were daily frequency of consuming intervention-promoted food and non-breastmilk liquids and food, daily quantity of non-breastmilk liquids and food consumed, daily energy intake, and proportion of children meeting daily median energy requirements. Young rural children exposed to SC's program consumed intervention-promoted, and any, foods more frequently, ate a greater quantity of any food, consumed more energy, and were more likely to meet their daily energy requirements than comparison children. Some effects were only observed during the intensive intervention period; others persisted into or were evident only at the 12-month follow-up, approximately four months after program completion. Based on the mothers' reports, the intervention did not apparently compromise breastfeeding prevalence or frequency. The intervention improved children's food and energy intake and protected them from declining as rapidly as comparison children in meeting their energy requirements.

  5. The effect of magnocellular-based visual-motor intervention on Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

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    Yi eQian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnocellular(M deficit theory points out that the core deficit of developmental dyslexia (DD is the impairment in M pathway, which has been evidenced in many previous studies. Based on the M deficit, some researchers found that visual intervention focusing on M deficit improved dyslexics’ M function as well as reading abilities. However, the number and reliability of these training studies were limited. Therefore, the present study conducted an M-based visual-motor intervention on Chinese children with DD to investigate the relationship between M deficit and Chinese DD. Intervention programs included coherent motion detection, visual search, visual tracking and juggling, which were related to M function. The results showed that M function and phonological awareness of training dyslexic group were improved to a normal level as age-matched normal children after intervention, while non-training dyslexics did not. It supported M deficit theory, and suggested M deficit might be the core deficit of Chinese DD.

  6. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

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    Stephanie L. Godrich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA. Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256 living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23. A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20 for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007, promotion (p = 0.017, location of food outlets (p = 0.027, and price (p = 0.043. Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  7. Snack foods consumption contributes to poor nutrition of rural children in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits of children, including snack foods consumption, in developing countries have seldom been investigated in relation to their nutrition and health. To assess the effects of snack foods consumption of 154 children aged 1-12 years in a rural village of West Java, Indonesia, a 3-hour-interval food recall survey for all meals and snack foods consumed in seven consecutive days for each subject, anthropometry, and interviews for sociodemographic indicators were conducted. Their overall prevalence of stunting and underweight was 69.5% and 35.7%. There were 221 foods consumed by the subjects, among which 68 foods were categorized as snack foods. Though the children of both <7 year and ≥7 year age groups consumed snack foods similarly throughout the day, the latter group only consumed larger amounts of energy from snack foods at school recess-times. The mean percent contribution of snack foods was 59.6% for fat, 40.0% for energy, 20.6% for calcium, and <10% for vitamins A and C. Half number of the subjects who snacked more than the median amount consumed less carbohydrate and vitamin C than the remaining half. Furthermore, the more snack-consuming group the lower z score for height-for-age (HAZ) among schoolchildren. To improve this nutritionally vulnerable situation, consumption of snack foods should be replaced by the non-snack foods which contain much higher nutrient density; i.e. 15 times for calcium and 32 times for vitamin A. Moreover, considering high snack foods consumption of ≥7 y age group at school, appropriate school nutrition programs should be promoted.

  8. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan

    2015-01-01

    Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC) has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words) in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese). Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old). Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i) EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii) EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old); and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii) EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv) EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old), then Chinese

  9. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Li

    Full Text Available Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese. Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old. Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old; and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old, then

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Elevated Blood Pressure in Chinese Children Aged 6-13 Years:a Nationwide School-Based Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Yi; LI Wei Rong; SHEN Chong; Frank QIAN; SHI Xiao Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of elevated blood pressure (EBP) in Chinese children and identify individual and family factors associated with EBP. Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using stratified cluster sampling. Participants’ blood pressure was measured, and their parents completed a questionnaire on personal and family characteristics. Prevalence and correlates of EBP were assessed. Results Among a total of 24,333 participants, 20.2% of boys and 16.3% of girls had EBP. The prevalence of EBP increased with the ascending trend of waist circumference, Waist-to-height ratio, and body mass index. The adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for obese boys and girls were 2.50 and 2.97, respectively. Fewer urban boys (16.2%) had EBP than rural boys (21.7%). Boys with a family history of hypertension were 12%more likely to have EBP. Children whose mothers received a college education tended to have lower likelihood of EBP;with an aPR was 0.85 among boys and 0.78 among girls. Conclusion EBP is common among obese students and those who have a family history of hypertension. A negative association between mothers’ education levels and EBP risk in children was found.

  11. Minerals and Trace Elements Intakes and Food Consumption Patterns of Young Children Living in Rural Areas of Tibet Autonomous Region, P.R. China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermience, Michael; Mathieu, Françoise; Li, Xiao Wei; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Claus, William; De Maertelaer, Viviane; Dufourny, Ghislaine; Bin, Li; Yangzom, Dechen; Lognay, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Several studies revealed clinical signs of stunting and rickets among rural populations of Tibet Autonomous Region (T.A.R.), and especially amid children. Further, these populations are affected by a bone disease named Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). However, little is known about the dietary status of this population. This survey aimed to assess the usual intakes of young Tibetan children living in rural areas around Lhasa for energy, water, and ten minerals and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se) involved in bone metabolism. Design: A cross-sectional survey was designed. Totally, 250 pre-school children aged 3–5 years living in rural areas were enrolled. The 24-h food recall method was used to collect the intakes for two days, during two different seasons (September 2012 and April 2013). Because Tibetan foods are mainly derived from local agriculture and artisanal production, a combination of food composition tables was compiled, including specific and local food composition data. Results: The Chinese dietary recommended intakes are not met for most of the elements investigated. Intake of sodium is much too high, while usual intakes are too low for K, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Se. Bioavailability of Ca, Fe, and Zn may be of concern due to the high phytic acid content in the diet. Conclusion: These nutrient imbalances may impact growth and bone metabolism of young Tibetan children. The advantages of the implementation of food diversification programs are discussed as well as the relevance of supplements distribution. PMID:28257043

  12. Effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride and sodium fluoride varnish in arresting dentin caries in Chinese pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, CH; Lo, ECM; Lin, HC

    2002-01-01

    Untreated dental caries in Chinese pre-school children is common. This prospective controlled clinical trial investigated the effectiveness of topical fluoride applications in arresting dentin caries. Three hundred seventy-five children, aged 3-5 years, with carious upper anterior teeth were divided into five groups. Children in the first and second groups received annual applications of silver diamine fluoride solution (44,800 ppm F). Sodium fluoride varnish (22,600 ppm F) was applied every ...

  13. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  14. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children

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    Dunger David B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those 2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those ≥ 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of ≥ 94 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. Results About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. Conclusions The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile

  15. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children

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    Shalaby NM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Naglaa M Shalaby,1 Nehad M Shalaby2 1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Mansoura University Children Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Abstract: Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-4 (IL-4, and interleukin-5 (IL-5 in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (P<0.01 between A. lumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5.Keywords: Ascaris lumbricoides, children, rural, Egypt, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α

  16. Predicting internalizing problems in Chinese children: the unique and interactive effects of parenting and child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-08-01

    The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children's internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (aged 6-9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children's internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that the main effect of authoritative parenting and the interactions of Authoritarian Parenting × Effortful Control and Authoritative Parenting × Anger/Frustration (parents' reports only) prospectively and uniquely predicted internalizing problems. The above results did not vary by child sex and remained significant after controlling for co-occurring externalizing problems. These findings suggest that (a) children with low effortful control may be particularly susceptible to the adverse effect of authoritarian parenting and (b) the benefit of authoritative parenting may be especially important for children with high anger/frustration.

  17. Parasitic infections, anemia and malnutrition among rural settled and mobile pastoralist mothers and their children in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Hamit, M A; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2012-06-01

    Malnutrition, resulting from various etiologies, is common in rural Chadian women and children. This cross-sectional study assessed the spectrum of parasitic infection and level of anemia and their effect on nutritional status in settled and mobile pastoral mothers and children near Lake Chad. Intestinal parasites were evaluated using direct fecal smears and the Kato-Katz technique. Malaria status was determined using Paracheck-Pf(®) rapid diagnostic test, and anemia was assessed with the Hemocue photometer. Nutritional status was evaluated using anthropometric parameters. At the end of the 2008 wet season, the prevalence of malnutrition was 36% [confidence interval (CI) 30-42] among women and 15% (CI 11-18) among children. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 75% (CI 68-83) among women and 60% (CI 53-66) among children. The predominant helminth species was Ascaris lumbricoides while Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the most common protozoan. The hookworm prevalence was 14% (CI 8-20) in women and 18% (CI 13-23) in children. Malaria prevalence was low among women (1%, CI 0.5-2) and children (3% CI 2-5). No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of parasitic infection between the mobile pastoralist and rural sedentary populations. Thirty-four percent (CI 27-40) of nonpregnant women, 53% (CI 34-72) of pregnant women, and 27% (CI 23-32) of children were anemic. In subjects infected with Plasmodium, all women and 54% (CI 22-85) of children were anemic. Malnutrition was significantly associated with anemia in mothers and with selected intestinal parasites, anemia and age in their children.

  18. The Prevalence of anemia among informal primary school children: a community based study in Rural Upper Egypt

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    Rasha Aziz Salama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Background: Anemia has been recognized as a major public health problem in developing countries. The magnitude of anemia among school children has received less attention compared with that in preschoolers and pregnant women. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of anemia and to assess its associated factors among informal school children in rural Upper Egypt.Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in a randomly selected Girls Education initiative schools in three Egyptian governorates for duration of 11 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data from 2826 children aged 6-19 years. Hemoglobin concentration and anthropometric indicators were assessed using the World Health Organization guidelines. Stool samples were examined for parasitic infestations, using the Kato Katz technique. The objective of the study was adequately explained to participants’ guardian and their consensus was obtained with assured confidentiality.Results: the prevalence of anemia among these children was 59.3%, out of which, 82.5% had mild anemia and 17.4% of them had moderate anemia. It was significantly higher among 64% of children in age group 6-9years and 61.3% of females. The majority of underweight children (75.8% and 66.4% of children with parasitic infestation were anemic.Conclusions: Anemia remains a common problem among GEI School particularly the young children and girls of low income household. School children should be screened periodically and appropriate measures should be taken in order to promote health and guide effective education sector reform initiatives. Keywords: Anemia, GEI schools, Rural Upper Egypt  

  19. Validating the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) questionnaire for use in Chinese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-Y; Cheng, C-C; Hung, J-W; Ju, Y-H; Lin, J-H; Lo, S-K

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) questionnaire. We performed forward (into Chinese) and backward translation of the CP QOL-Child for: (1) the primary caregiver form (for parents of children with CP aged 4-12 years); and (2) the child self-report form (for children with cerebral palsy aged 9-12 years). Psychometric properties assessed included test-retest reliability, internal consistency, item discrimination, construct validity, and concordance between the forms of questionnaire. The Chinese CP QOL-Child was completed by 145 caregivers and 44 children. Excellent test-retest reliability and internal consistency were obtained. Item discrimination analysis revealed a majority of the items have moderate to good discriminating power. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated distinguishable domain structure as on the original English version. Significant associations were found between lower QOL and more severe motor disability. Consistent with the English version, the highest correlation between the primary caregiver and child forms on QOL was in the domain of functioning. Results of this study indicate that the Chinese CP QOL-Child appears to be valid for use in Mandarin-Chinese speaking children with cerebral palsy.

  20. How to Shape Children's Value Attitudes toward the Rural Way of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur'ianova, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    The crisis of rural life in Russia involves a declining and aging population, emigration of rural young people to urban areas, lack of employment, and farms in urgent need of modernization. Programs in rural schools can be used more deliberately to encourage young people to remain in the village and to equip them to be agents of rural…

  1. Endotoxin as a determinant of asthma and wheeze among rural dwelling children and adolescents: A case–control study

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    Lawson Joshua A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between endotoxin exposure and asthma is complex and has been associated with rural living. We examined the relationship between domestic endotoxin and asthma or wheeze among rural school-aged children (6–18 years and assessed the interaction between endotoxin and other characteristics with these outcomes. Methods Between 2005 and 2007 we conducted a case–control study of children 6–18 years in the rural region of Humboldt, Canada. Cases (n = 102 reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or wheeze in the past year. Controls (n = 208 were randomly selected from children without asthma or wheeze. Data were collected to ascertain symptoms, asthma history and indoor environmental exposures (questionnaire, endotoxin (dust collection from the play area floor and child’s mattress, and tobacco smoke exposure (saliva collection. Statistical testing was completed using multiple logistic regression to account for potential confounders and to assess interaction between risk factors. A stratified analysis was also completed to examine the effect of personal history of allergy. Results Among children aged 6–12 years, mattress endotoxin concentration (EU/mg and load (EU/m2 were inversely associated with being a case [odds ratio (OR = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.20-0.98; and OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.20-0.75, respectively]. These associations were not observed in older children or with play area endotoxin. Conclusions Our results suggest that endotoxin exposure might be protective for asthma or wheeze. The protective effect is found in younger school-aged, non-allergic children. These results may help explain the inconsistencies in previous studies and suggest that the protective effects of endotoxin in the prevention of atopy and asthma or wheeze are most effective earlier in life.

  2. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Chinese American children in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Loretta; Kwong, Kenny; Chou, Jolene C; Tso, Alan; Wong, Mei

    2009-10-01

    Childhood obesity has been a growing concern in recent years. The extent of obesity in various ethnic pediatric populations including Chinese Americans has not been fully explored. In this study, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a Chinese American pediatric population (6-19 years) was determined through a chart review of 4,695 patients from a large community health center in New York City. Demographic characteristics including sex, age and immigrant status were used in a logistic regression to determine risk factors for obesity in this community. Overall, 24.6% of the children studied were overweight or obese (defined as BMI > or = 85th percentile for age and sex). Among US born boys aged 6-12 years, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be as high as 40%. Further studies are needed to understand the complex interplay of factors that contribute to obesity in pediatric immigrant groups.

  3. ENDOSCOPIC AND HISTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC DYSPEPSIA IN A RURAL MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL IN MELMARUVATHUR- TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Padma K; Sumathi S.; Dinakaran Nagendram; Kannan C

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Chronic pain abdomen and dyspepsia is the most common presenting symptoms in the Paediatric Outpatient Department (OPD) after respiratory illnesses. It is increasing alarmingly both in the paediatric and adult population. We, therefore carried out a cross-sectional study among children with chronic dyspepsia aged between 5 to 15 years attending Paediatric OPD in a rural medical college hospital, Melmaruvathur, Tamilnadu, South India. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the ga...

  4. Are the Children of Uneducated Farmers Doubly Doomed? Farm, Nonfarm and Intergenerational Educational Mobility in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Emran, M. Shahe; Sun, Yan

    2014-01-01

    This paper relaxes the single factor model of intergenerational educational mobility standard in the literature, and develops a research design to study the effects of parents' education and occupation on children's schooling. We use survey data from rural China that cover three generations and are not subject to coresidency bias. The evidence from recently developed matching and propensity score weighted estimators shows that the mean effects of parents education from the standard model miss...

  5. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY FROM VARANASI

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    Amit Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the nutritional status of primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what factors are associated with malnutrition? Objective: To assess the nutritional status of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates of nutritional status. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were involved in the study. Results: Out of total 816 study subjects 429 or 52.6% (201 boys and 228 girls were underweight and 75 or 9.2% (39 boys and 36 girls were stunted. Educational status of the parents was found to be significantly associated with the nutritional status of school children Conclusion: As the literacy status of the parents has been revealed to be strongly associated with nutritional status of children, there is an increasing need to focus the efforts towards the parents to improve the nutritional status of primary school children.

  6. Recent illness, feeding practices and father's education as determinants of nutritional status among preschool children in a rural Nigerian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Titilola B; Yakubu, Alhassan M

    2015-04-01

    Good nutrition is necessary for the growth and development of preschool children. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, data on the determinants of their nutritional status are lacking. A cross-sectional survey of 366 preschool children was conducted in a rural community in northern Nigeria. Anthropometric measurements of the children were taken and information about feeding practices, immunization and parental education was obtained from their mothers. Fifty-two percent were stunted, 30% were underweight and 25% were wasted. Recent history of diarrhea was associated with wasting (OR = 2.66, p education were less likely to be stunted (OR = 0.45, p = 0.01) or underweight (OR = 0.37, p = 0.005). Promoting exclusive breastfeeding, preventing recurrent diarrhea and including fathers in community interventions will improve the health of children in this community.

  7. Children Education Investment of Rural Families in Hechuan District of Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling SONG; Dan YANG; Xiaohong SONG

    2015-01-01

    Taking 20 relative poor families in Hechuan District of Chongqing Municipality as survey samples,taking 275 households of rural families selected by stratified sampling method as research objects,and taking family education investment behavior of this rural area as research content,this paper studied current situations of rural family education investment behavior in Hechuan District,difference in investment behavior and related influence factors. It is intended to provide references for family education investment of rural areas in Hechuan District and even Chongqing Municipality,and promote development of rural education undertaking in China.

  8. Longitudinal, cross-cohort comparison of physical activity patterns in Chinese mothers and children

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    Dearth-Wesley Tracy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence comparing adult and child physical activity (PA trends and examining parent–child PA associations within a newly industrialized country setting. PA research within a newly industrialized country setting is particularly important given the negative effects of rapid urbanization, socioeconomic growth, and technological advances on PA behaviors. The purpose of our study was to examine trends and associations in PA behaviors in Chinese mother-child pairs and to investigate relationships between PA behaviors and socioeconomic variables in this dyad. Methods We studied PA behaviors in 2 separate cohorts of mother-child pairs (n = 353 followed over a 2–4 year time period using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2000 Cohort: 2000–2004; 2004 Cohort: 2004–2006. Comparable mother-child PA behaviors included total metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-hrs/wk from active commuting, leisure-time sports, and sedentary behaviors. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between mother and child PA and relationships between PA behaviors and socioeconomic variables. Results Children experienced increases in active commuting and leisure-time sports activities with increasing child age, whereas mothers experienced temporal declines in active commuting and minimal change in leisure-time sports activity. Sedentary behavior was high for children and mothers over time. Mother-child associations were positive for active commuting and leisure-time sports activities and negative for sedentary behavior (P P  Conclusion Efforts to reduce sedentary behavior in Chinese mothers and children are imperative. While increased leisure-time and active commuting activities in children is encouraging, continued PA promotion in children and more intensive efforts to promote leisure-time sports and active commuting in mothers is needed.

  9. Rural Poverty Rate Edges Downward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Although rural poverty began to decline, 1994-95, many rural households had incomes just above poverty. Rural minorities were especially disadvantaged; racial differences in educational attainment accounted for 20-33% of income gaps. One-quarter of rural children lived in poverty, most in single-parent households. Most rural poor families lived in…

  10. Preschool Provision and Children of Migrants in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Berenice; Nyland, Chris; Yan, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Chinese children with an urban household registration ("hukou") normally attend subsidized preschools for three years prior to primary school. This is an experience available to relatively few of China's many millions of migrant children whose families are registered as rural residents but choose to migrate to urban areas. This paper…

  11. Analysis and Countermeasures to Loneliness Survey of Rural Children%农村儿童孤独感现状调查及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金娥; 李月

    2011-01-01

    关于儿童孤独感的研究多以城市儿童为被试,对农村儿童关注较少。为了弥补这个研究的缺陷,选取了160名小学3-6年级的农村儿童为研究对象,采用Asher等1984年编制的《儿童孤独感量表》进行问卷调查,并对其孤独感特点进行分析。结果表明,农村儿童孤独感在不同年级、不同性别之间均存在显著差异。四年级儿童的孤独感最高,男生的孤独感显著高于女生。%The Loneliness of the past,most children were urban children as subjects,on the loneliness of rural children less attention.To compensate for the shortcomings of this study,this study of rural children 3-6 year study,1984 by Asher and other "compiled by loneliness scale" of the 160 survey of rural children,rural children in the loneliness of Investigation of characteristics.The results show that the loneliness of rural children in different grades and between genders were significantly different.

  12. Trends in the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Preschool Children from 2006 to 2014.

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    Yanyu Xiao

    Full Text Available To examine the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool children from 2006 to 2014.A total of 145,078 children aged 3-6 years from 46 kindergartens finished the annual health examination in Tianjin, China. Height, weight and other information were obtained using standardized methods. Z-scores for weight, height, and BMI were calculated based on the standards for the World Health Organization (WHO child growth standards.From 2006 to 2014, mean values of height z-scores significantly increased from 0.34 to 0.54, mean values of weight z-scores kept constant, and mean values of BMI z-scores significantly decreased from 0.40 to 0.23. Mean values of height z-scores, weight z-scores, and BMI z-scores slightly decreased among children from 3 to 4 years old, and then increased among children from 4 to 6 years old. Between 2006 and 2014, there were no significant changes in prevalence of overweight (BMI z-scores >2 SD and obesity (BMI z-scores >3 SD among 3-4 years children. However, prevalence of obesity (BMI z-scores >2 SD increased from 8.8% in 2006 to 10.1% in 2010, and then kept stable until 2014 among 5-6 years children. Boys had higher prevalence of obesity than girls.Mean values of BMI z-scores decreased from 2006 to 2014 among Chinese children aged 3-6 years old due to the significant increase of height z-scores. Prevalence of obesity increased from 2006 to 2010, and then kept stable until 2014 among children aged 5-6 years. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys than in girls.

  13. Acute liver failure in Chinese children:a multicenter investigation

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    Pan Zhao; Chun-Ya Wang; Wei-Wei Liu; Xi Wang; Li-Ming Yu and Yan-Rong Sun

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently,  no  documentation  is  available regarding Chinese children with acute liver failure (ALF). This study was undertaken to investigate etiologies and outcomes of Chinese children with ALF. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 32 pediatric patients with  ALF  admitted  in  ifve  hospitals  in  different  areas  of China from January 2007 to December 2012. The coagulation indices,  serum  creatinine,  serum  lactate  dehydrogenase, blood ammonia and prothrombin activity were analyzed; the relationship between these indices and mortality was evaluated by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The most common causes of Chinese children with ALF were indeterminate etiology (15/32), drug toxicity (8/32), and acute cytomegalovirus hepatitis (6/32). Only 1 patient (3.13%) received liver transplantation and the spontaneous mortality of Chinese children with ALF was 58.06% (18/31). Patients who eventually died had higher baseline levels of international normalized ratio (P=0.01), serum creatinine (P=0.04), serum lactate dehydrogenase (P=0.01), blood ammonia (P CONCLUSIONS: The indeterminate causes predominated in the etiologies of ALF in Chinese children. The spontaneous mortality of pediatric patients with ALF was high, whereas the proportion of patients undergoing liver transplantation was signiifcantly low. Entry blood ammonia was a reliable predictor for the death of pediatric patients with ALF.

  14. What Makes Children Defy Majorities? The Role of Dissenters in Chinese and Spanish Preschoolers’ Social Judgments

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    Enesco, Ileana; Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Guerrero, Silvia; Quan, Siyu; Garijo, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    When many people say the same thing, the individual is more likely to endorse this information than when just a single person says the same. Yet, the influence of consensus information may be modulated by many personal, contextual and cultural variables. Here, we study the sensitivity of Chinese (N = 68) and Spanish (N = 82) preschoolers to consensus in social decision making contexts. Children faced two different types of peer-interaction events, which involved (1) uncertain or ambiguous scenarios open to interpretation (social interpretation context), and (2) explicit scenarios depicting the exclusion of a peer (moral judgment context). Children first observed a video in which a group of teachers offered their opinion about the events, and then they were asked to evaluate the information provided. Participants were assigned to two conditions that differed in the type of consensus: Unanimous majority (non-dissenter condition) and non-unanimous majority (dissenter condition). In the dissenter condition, we presented the conflicting opinions of three teachers vs. one teacher. In the non-dissenter condition, we presented the unanimous opinion of three teachers. The general results indicated that children’s sensitivity to consensus varies depending both on the degree of ambiguity of the social events and the presence or not of a dissenter: (1) Children were much more likely to endorse the majority view when they were uncertain (social interpretation context), than when they already had a clear interpretation of the situation (moral judgment context); (2) The presence of a dissenter resulted in a significant decrease in children’s confidence in majority. Interestingly, in the moral judgment context, Chinese and Spanish children differed in their willingness to defy a majority whose opinion run against their own. While Spanish children maintained their own criteria regardless of the type of condition, Chinese children did so when an “allied” dissenter was

  15. Deletion analysis of SMN1 and NAIP genes in southern Chinese children with spinal muscular atrophy

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    Yu-hua LIANG; Xiao-ling CHEN; Zhong-sheng YU; Chun-yue CHEN; Sheng BI; Lian-gen MAO; Bo-lin ZHOU; Xian-ning ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a disorder characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons and occasionally bulbar motor neurons leading to progressive limb and trunk paralysis as well as muscular atrophy. Three types of SMA are rec-ognized depending on the age of onset, the maximum muscular activity achieved, and survivorship: SMA1, SMA2, and SMA3. The survival of motor neuron (SMN) gene has been identified as an SMA determining gene, whereas the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene is considered to be a modifying factor of the severity of SMA. The main objective of this study was to analyze the deletion of SMN1 and NAIP genes in southern Chinese children with SMA. Here, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was performed to detect the deletion of both exon 7 and exon 8 of SMNI and exon 5 of NAIP in 62 southern Chinese children with strongly suspected clinical symptoms of SMA. All the 32 SMAI patients and 76% (13/17) of SMA2 patients showed homozygous deletions for exon 7 and exon 8, and all the 13 SMA3 patients showed single deletion of SMN1 exon 7 along with 24% (4/17) of SMA2 patients. Eleven out of 32 (34%) SMA1 patients showed NAIP deletion, and none of SMA2 and SMA3 patients was found to have NAIP deletion. The findings of homozygous deletions of exon 7 and/or exon 8 of SMN1 gene confirmed the diagnosis of SMA, and suggested that the deletion of SMN1 exon 7 is a major cause of SMA in southern Chinese children, and that the NA1P gene may be a modifying factor for disease severity of SMA 1. The molecular diagnosis system based on PCR-RFLP analysis can conveniently be applied in the clinical testing, genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and preimplantation genetic diagnosis of SMA.

  16. Knowledge of malaria prevention among pregnant women and female caregivers of under-five children in rural southwest Nigeria

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    Ayodeji M. Adebayo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The morbidity and mortality from malaria are still unacceptably high in the developing countries, especially among the vulnerable groups like pregnant women and under-five children, despite all control efforts. The knowledge about the preventive measures of malaria is an important preceding factor for the acceptance and use of malaria preventive measures like Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN by community members. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of malaria prevention among caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria.Methodology. This is part of a larger malaria prevention study in rural Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women and caregivers of under-five children in Igbo-Ora, a rural town in Southwest Nigeria using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was obtained on knowledge of malaria prevention, and overall composite scores were computed for knowledge of malaria prevention and ITN use. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square with the level of statistical significance set at 5%.Results. Of the 631 respondents, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children and 67.7% were married. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% aged between 20 and 29 years. Majority (91.1% had at least primary school education and 60.2% were traders. Overall, 57.7% had poor knowledge of malaria prevention. A good proportion (83.5% were aware of the use of ITN for malaria prevention while 30.6% had poor knowledge of its use. Respondents who were younger (<30 years, had at least primary education and earn <10,000/per month had significantly poor knowledge of ITN use in malaria prevention. Majority (60.0% respondents had poor attitude regarding use of ITNs.Conclusion. This study showed that the knowledge of malaria prevention is still low among under

  17. Knowledge of malaria prevention among pregnant women and female caregivers of under-five children in rural southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Ayodeji M; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun O; Cadmus, Eniola O

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The morbidity and mortality from malaria are still unacceptably high in the developing countries, especially among the vulnerable groups like pregnant women and under-five children, despite all control efforts. The knowledge about the preventive measures of malaria is an important preceding factor for the acceptance and use of malaria preventive measures like Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) by community members. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of malaria prevention among caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. Methodology. This is part of a larger malaria prevention study in rural Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women and caregivers of under-five children in Igbo-Ora, a rural town in Southwest Nigeria using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was obtained on knowledge of malaria prevention, and overall composite scores were computed for knowledge of malaria prevention and ITN use. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square with the level of statistical significance set at 5%. Results. Of the 631 respondents, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children and 67.7% were married. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% aged between 20 and 29 years. Majority (91.1%) had at least primary school education and 60.2% were traders. Overall, 57.7% had poor knowledge of malaria prevention. A good proportion (83.5%) were aware of the use of ITN for malaria prevention while 30.6% had poor knowledge of its use. Respondents who were younger (malaria prevention. Majority (60.0%) respondents had poor attitude regarding use of ITNs. Conclusion. This study showed that the knowledge of malaria prevention is still low among under-five caregivers and pregnant women in rural Southwest Nigeria despite current control measures. There is a need for concerted

  18. Parental Beliefs on Children's Play: Comparison among Mainland Chinese, Chinese Immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Han, Myae

    2016-01-01

    The current study surveyed parental play beliefs among the three groups of parents: the mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans. Limited comparison studies on parental play beliefs were previously reported for these three populations in the literature. Two measures, the Chinese child-rearing ideology and parental…

  19. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

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    Chunjie Wang

    Full Text Available Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC, a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability and executive function (e.g. working memory. This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function.

  20. Blood pressure-to-height ratio for screening prehypertension and hypertension in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, B; Wang, Z; Wang, H-J; Ma, J

    2015-10-01

    The diagnosis of hypertension in children is complicated because of the multiple age-, sex- and height-specific thresholds. To simplify the process of diagnosis, blood pressure-to-height ratio (BPHR) was employed in this study. Data were obtained from a Chinese national survey conducted in 2010, and 197 191 children aged 7-17 years were included. High normal and elevated blood pressure (BP) were defined according to the National High Blood Pressure Education Program (NHBPEP) Working Group definition. The optimal thresholds were selected by Youden's index. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV) and area under the curve (AUC) were assessed for the performance of these thresholds. The systolic and diastolic BPHR thresholds for identifying high normal BP were 0.84/0.55, 0.78/0.50 and 0.75/0.46 for children aged 7-8 years, 9-11 years and 12-17 years, respectively. The corresponding thresholds for identifying elevated BP were 0.87/0.57, 0.81/0.53 and 0.76/0.49, respectively. These proposed thresholds revealed high sensitivity and NPVs, all above 0.96, moderate to high specificity and AUCs, and low PPVs. Our finding suggested the proposed BPHR thresholds were accurate for identifying children without high normal or elevated BP, and could be employed to simplify the procedure of screening prehypertension and hypertension in children.

  1. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjie; Geng, Fengji; Yao, Yuan; Weng, Jian; Hu, Yuzheng; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability) and executive function (e.g. working memory). This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function.

  2. Associations of Six Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Obesity-Related Genes With BMI and Risk of Obesity in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijun; Xi, Bo; Zhang, Meixian; Shen, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Sun, Dandan; Ott, Jurg; Wang, Xingyu; Mi, Jie

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Childhood obesity strongly predisposes to some adult diseases. Recently, genome-wide association (GWA) studies in Caucasians identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI and obesity. The associations of those SNPs with BMI and obesity among other ethnicities are not fully described, especially in children. Among those previously identified SNPs, we selected six (rs7138803, rs1805081, rs6499640, rs17782313, rs6265, and rs10938397, in or near obesity-related genes FAIM2, NPC1, FTO, MC4R, BDNF, and GNPDA2, respectively) because of the relatively high minor allele frequencies in Chinese individuals and tested the associations of the SNPs with BMI and obesity in Chinese children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated the associations of these SNPs with BMI and obesity in school-aged children. A total of 3,503 children participated in the study, including 1,229 obese, 655 overweight, and 1,619 normal-weight children (diagnosed by the Chinese age- and sex-specific BMI cutoffs). RESULTS After age and sex adjustment and correction for multiple testing, the SNPs rs17782313, rs6265, and rs10938397 were associated with BMI (P = 1.0 × 10−5, 0.038, and 0.00093, respectively) and also obesity (P = 5.0 × 10−6, 0.043, and 0.00085, respectively) in the Chinese children. The SNPs rs17782313 and rs10938397 were also significantly associated with waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and fat mass percentage. CONCLUSIONS Results of this study support obesity-related genes in adults as important genes for BMI variation in children and suggest that some SNPs identified by GWA studies in Caucasians also confer risk for obesity in Chinese children. PMID:20843981

  3. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and correlated risk factors in preschool and school-aged children in rural Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Wang

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of 1707 children in 141 impoverished rural areas of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces in Southwest China. Kato-Katz smear testing of stool samples elucidated the prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections in pre-school and school aged children. Demographic, hygiene, household and anthropometric data were collected to better understand risks for infection in this population. 21.2 percent of pre-school children and 22.9 percent of school aged children were infected with at least one of the three types of STH. In Guizhou, 33.9 percent of pre-school children were infected, as were 40.1 percent of school aged children. In Sichuan, these numbers were 9.7 percent and 6.6 percent, respectively. Number of siblings, maternal education, consumption of uncooked meat, consumption of unboiled water, and livestock ownership all correlated significantly with STH infection. Through decomposition analysis, we determined that these correlates made up 26.7 percent of the difference in STH infection between the two provinces. Multivariate analysis showed that STH infection is associated with significantly lower weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores; moreover, older children infected with STHs lag further behind on the international growth scales than younger children.

  4. Multilingual home environment and specific language impairment: a case-control study in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Daniel Ka Leung; Wong, Virginia; Leung, Gabriel Matthew

    2005-07-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder in young children. To investigate the association between multilingual home environment and SLI, we conducted a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese children over a 4-year period in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. Consecutive medical records of all new referrals below 5 years of age were reviewed and children diagnosed with SLI (case) were compared with those referred with other developmental and behavioural problems who had been assessed as having normal language and overall development (control) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale. SLI was defined as those with a language quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean and below the general developmental quotient in children with normal general developmental quotient, but without neurological or other organic diseases. We used binary and ordinal logistic regression to assess any association between SLI and multilingual exposure at home, adjusting for age and gender of subjects, parental age, education level and occupational status, number of siblings, family history of language delay and main caregiver at home. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of covariates on the language comprehension and expression standard scores assessed by the Reynell Developmental Language Scale. A total of 326 cases and 304 controls were included. The mean ages of cases and controls were 2.56 and 2.89 years respectively. Boys predominated in both groups (cases, 75.2%; controls, 60.2%). The children were exposed to between one and four languages at home, the major ones being Cantonese Chinese followed by English. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of SLI was 2.94; [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82, 4.74] for multilingual compared with monolingual exposure. A significant linear dose-response relationship was found (OR of SLI = 2.58 [1.72, 3.88] for each additional language to which the child was exposed). Male

  5. Clinical Features and Visual Outcomes of Optic Neuritis in Chinese Children

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    Huanfen Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Although optic neuritis (ON in children is relatively common, visual outcomes and factors associated with the condition have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and visual outcomes of ON in Chinese children. Methods. Patients with a first episode of ON at a tertiary neuroophthalmic centre in China were assessed and followed up for at least three months. Visual outcomes and clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging findings were reviewed. In patients with bilateral ON, only the eyes with worse visual acuity (VA at presentation were used for statistical analysis. Results. Seventy-six children (76 eyes with a first episode of ON were included. The mean age was 11.8 years, 60.5% were females, and 48.7% had bilateral involvement. The children were followed up for an average of 18.5 months (age range, 3–48 months. Vision loss at presentation was severe, with VA < 20/200 in 37 eyes (48.7%. At the final visit, 3 (3.9% eyes had VA of at least 20/20, and 41 (53.9% eyes had VA of at least 20/40. The final VA in 35 eyes (46.1% was worse than 20/40. Children aged ≤ 10 years had better predicted visual outcomes when compared to children over 10 years (odds ratio = 2.73, 95% confidential interval: 1.05–7.07, and P=0.039. The other features of this cohort, such as sex, experienced bilateral attack, VA at presentation, presence of optic disc edema, systemic diseases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings, and aquaporin-4 (AQP-4 antibody status, were not significantly correlated with the final visual outcome. Conclusion. The data revealed the clinical characteristics and visual outcomes of ON in Chinese children. ON in children was associated with severe vision loss and relatively good visual recovery. The age at onset could predict the final visual function.

  6. Meta-analysis of fluid intelligence tests of children from the Chinese mainland with learning difficulties.

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    Fang Tong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differences in fluid intelligence tests between normal children and children with learning difficulties in China. METHOD: PubMed, MD Consult, and other Chinese Journal Database were searched from their establishment to November 2012. After finding comparative studies of Raven measurements of normal children and children with learning difficulties, full Intelligent Quotation (FIQ values and the original values of the sub-measurement were extracted. The corresponding effect model was selected based on the results of heterogeneity and parallel sub-group analysis was performed. RESULTS: Twelve documents were included in the meta-analysis, and the studies were all performed in mainland of China. Among these, two studies were performed at child health clinics, the other ten sites were schools and control children were schoolmates or classmates. FIQ was evaluated using a random effects model. WMD was -13.18 (95% CI: -16.50- -9.85. Children with learning difficulties showed significantly lower FIQ scores than controls (P<0.00001; Type of learning difficulty and gender differences were evaluated using a fixed-effects model (I² = 0%. The sites and purposes of the studies evaluated here were taken into account, but the reasons of heterogeneity could not be eliminated; The sum IQ of all the subgroups showed considerable heterogeneity (I² = 76.5%. The sub-measurement score of document A showed moderate heterogeneity among all documents, and AB, B, and E showed considerable heterogeneity, which was used in a random effect model. Individuals with learning difficulties showed heterogeneity as well. There was a moderate delay in the first three items (-0.5 to -0.9, and a much more pronounced delay in the latter three items (-1.4 to -1.6. CONCLUSION: In the Chinese mainland, the level of fluid intelligence of children with learning difficulties was lower than that of normal children. Delayed development in sub-items of C, D

  7. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Its Association with Biochemical and Anthropometric Variables of Young Children in Rural Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Shan Geng; Jing-Qiu Ma; Shan-Shan Liu; Jie Zhang; Xiao-Yang Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background:With recognition of the important roles of Vitamin D (VitD) in various physiological processes,increasing attention has been drawn to the status of VitD in early life.However,the VitD status of young children and the related factors in rural areas of Southwestern China remain unclear.This study aimed to explore VitD status and its seasonal variation in 18-month-old children living in rural Southwestern China.The association of VitD with biochemical and anthropometric variables was also investigated.Methods:A total of 177 18-month-old children in a rural area of Yunnan Province,Southwestem China,were enrolled.Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured through high-performance liquid chromatogram-tandem mass spectrometry.Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were measured with a chemiluminescence assay.Serum concentrations of calcium,phosphorus,and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also measured.Anthropometric data and the outdoor activity time of each participant were collected.Results:The serum 25(OH)D concentration was 26.61 ± 7.26 ng/ml;concentrations lower than 30 ng/ml accounted for 70.6% of the participants and concentrations lower than 20 ng/ml accounted for 16.4%.The level of serum 25(OH)D was not significantly different among four seasons (P > 0.05).A positive relationship was found between 25(OH)D concentration and the time of outdoor activities (r =0.168,P < 0.05).Serum PTH concentration was negatively correlated with 25(OH)D concentration (r =-0.163,P < 0.05).A positive relationship was found between the serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and calcium (r =0.154,P < 0.05).No significant association was observed between 25(OH)D and ALP,phosphorus,or anthropometric variables.Conclusions:The prevalence of VitD insufficiency is high among young children in the rural Southwestern China regardless of the seasons.VitD supplementation is still essential to maintain VitD sufficiency for children living in rural area.

  8. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  9. The experiences of Hong Kong Chinese parents of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, B S

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Chinese parents of children diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Respondents consisted of a convenience sample of nine mothers and eight fathers. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and were scheduled to coincide with the disease trajectory, and were analyzed using the matrix system described by Miles and Huberman. Major categories identified include parental reactions, methods used by the parents to disclose the child's diagnosis to others, changes in the family routine, and the preferred sources of parental support. Implications for health professionals include a need for thorough psychosocial assessment of the affected children, parents, and siblings. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are also discussed.

  10. Effect of lifestyle intervention on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese obese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Lin Wang; Li Liang; Jun-Fen Fu; Chao-Chun Zou; Fang Hong; Jin-Zheng Xue; Jin-Rui Lu; Xiang-Min Wu

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of lifestyle intervention on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)in Chinese obese children.METHODS:Seventy-six obese children aged from 10 to 17 years with NAFLD were enrolled for a one-month intervention and divided randomly into three groups.Group1,consisting of 38 obese children,was an untreated control group without any intervention.Group 2,consisting of 19 obese children in summer camp,was strictly controlled only by life style intervention.Group 3,consisting of 19 obese children,received oral vitamin E therapy at a dose of 100 mg/d.The height,weight,fasting blood glucose(FBG),fasting serum insulin(FINS),plasma alanine aminotransferase(ALT),aspartate aminotransferase(AST),triglyceride(TG),total cholesterol(TCHO)and homeostasis model assentinsulin resistance(HOMA-IR)were measured at baseline and after one month.All patients were underwent to an ultrasonographic study of the liver performed by one operator who was blinded to the groups.RESULTS:The monitor indices of BMI,ALT,AST,TG,TCHO and HOMA-IR were successfully improved except in group 1.BMI and ALT in group 2 were reduced more significantly than in group 3 (2.44±0.82 vs 1.45±0.80,P=0.001;88.58±39.99 vs 63.69±27.05,P=0.040,respectively).CONCLUSION:Both a short-term lifestyle intervention and vitamin E therapy have an effect on NAFLD in obese children.Compared with vitamin E,lifestyle intervention is more effective.Therefore,lifestyle intervention should represent the first step in the management of children with NAFLD.

  11. The Association of Hypertension with Obesity and Metabolic Abnormalities among Chinese Children

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    Haiquan Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 8898 Chinese children (4580 boys and 4318 girls aged 7–13 years in 6 cities of east China were recruited. Data on height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum lipid profiles, glucose, and insulin were collected. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 11.1%. Overweight and obese children had a higher risk of developing hypertension than their counterparts (29.1%, 17.4%, and 7.8%, resp. (P=0.0001. The means levels of triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR (1.0 mmol/L, 4.5 mmol/L, 8.4 mU/mL and 1.7, resp. among hypertensive children were all significantly higher than their normotensive counterparts (0.8 mmol/L, 4.5 mmol/L, 5.9 mU/mL, and 1.2, resp. (P=0.0001. Compared with the healthy children, the risk (odds ratio, OR of having hypertension among children with high triglycerides, hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome was 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.0–2.0, P=0.0334, 1.5 (95% CI: 0.9–2.5, P=0.0890, and 2.8 (95%CI: 1.5–5.4, P=0.0014, respectively, after controlling for age, gender, BMI, income level, parents' education level and puberty. In conclusion, overweight and obese children have higher risk of having hypertension and children with dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome and higher HOMA-IR have higher risk of developing hypertension.

  12. Lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms and risks of childhood obesity in Chinese preschool children.

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    Wang, Li N; Yu, Qing; Xiong, Yan; Liu, Lin F; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Xue N; Cheng, Hao; Wang, Bei

    2011-10-01

    Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in the community and is related to many adult diseases. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a central role in dyslipidemia, and polymorphisms of the LPL gene may result in the disturbance in the lipid's metabolism. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that genetic variants of LPL and serum lipid levels are associated with the risk of childhood obesity. We genotyped +495T > G and PvuII T > C in an LPL gene and measured the serum lipid levels in a case-control study of 124 obese children and 346 frequency-matched normal controls in preschool Chinese children. The variant genotypes of LPL + 495GG and PvuII CC were associated with a significantly increased risk of childhood obesity [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.09-5.23 for +495 GG; adjusted OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.04-3.83 for PvuII CC], compared with their wild-type genotypes, respectively. In addition, compared with the lower serum level cut off by the control median, the higher level of serum triglyceride (TG) (>0.59 mmol/L) was associated with a 1.32-fold increased risk of childhood obesity, and the higher level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) (>1.14 mmol/L) was associated with a 36% decrease in risk of childhood obesity. Furthermore, the median levels of TG were higher in obese children carrying LPL +495TT/TG and PvuII TT/CT genotypes than those in controls, the HDLC levels were lower in obese children carrying LPL +495TG and PvuII CT/CC genotypes than those in controls. In conclusion, the LPL gene +495T > G and PvuII T > C polymorphisms may modulate the magnitude of dyslipidemia in Chinese early-onset obesity.

  13. Risk factors for pre-treatment mortality among HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cohort study.

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    Catherine G Sutcliffe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa enter care at a late stage of disease. As preparation of the child and family for antiretroviral therapy (ART can take several clinic visits, some children die prior to ART initiation. This study was undertaken to determine mortality rates and clinical predictors of mortality during the period prior to ART initiation. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of HIV-infected treatment-naïve children was conducted between September 2007 and September 2010 at the HIV clinic at Macha Hospital in rural Southern Province, Zambia. HIV-infected children younger than 16 years of age who were treatment-naïve at study enrollment were eligible for analysis. Mortality rates prior to ART initiation were calculated and risk factors for mortality were evaluated. RESULTS: 351 children were included in the study, of whom 210 (59.8% were eligible for ART at study enrollment. Among children ineligible for ART at enrollment, 6 children died (mortality rate: 0.33; 95% CI:0.15, 0.74. Among children eligible at enrollment, 21 children died before initiation of ART and their mortality rate (2.73 per 100 person-years; 95% CI:1.78, 4.18 was significantly higher than among children ineligible for ART (incidence rate ratio: 8.20; 95% CI:3.20, 24.83. In both groups, mortality was highest in the first three months of follow-up. Factors associated with mortality included younger age, anemia and lower weight-for-age z-score at study enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: These results underscore the need to increase efforts to identify HIV-infected children at an earlier age and stage of disease progression so they can enroll in HIV care and treatment programs prior to becoming eligible for ART and these deaths can be prevented.

  14. Assessment of the Impact of an Animal Welfare Educational Course with First Grade Children in Rural Schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico

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    Aguirre, Virginio; Orihuela, Agustin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an educational package used for animal welfare teaching would have significant effects on the knowledge of first grade children in a rural area of Mexico. The research was conducted with 276 students in six public schools. In the experimental group, 177 children participated in a 10 week-long animal…

  15. Who Decided College Access in Chinese Secondary Education? Rural-Urban Inequality of Basic Education in Contemporary China

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    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the rural-urban inequalities in basic education of contemporary China. The China Education Panel Survey (2013-2014) (CEPS) was utilized to analyze the gaps between rural and urban inequality in junior high schools in terms of three domains, which include the equalities of access, inputs, and outcomes. From the sociocultural…

  16. Causes, epidemiology, and long-term outcome of traumatic cataracts in children in rural India

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    Parikshit Gogate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To describe preoperative factors, long-term (>3 years postoperative outcome and cost of traumatic cataracts in children in predominantly rural districts of western India. Subjects : Eighty-two traumatic cataracts in 81 children in a pediatric ophthalmology department of a tertiary eye-care center. Materials and Methods : Traumatic cataracts operated in 2004-2008 were reexamined prospectively in 2010-2011 using standardized technique. Cause and type of trauma, demographic factors, surgical intervention, complications, and visual acuity was recorded. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis done by using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences version 17.0 We have used Chi-square test, Fisher′s exact test, paired t-test to find the association between the final vision and various parameters at 5% level of significance; binary logistic regression was performed for visual outcome ≥6/18 and ≥6/60. Results : The children were examined in a 3-7 year follow-up (4.35 ± 1.54. Average age at time of surgery was 10.4 ± 4.43 years (1.03 to 18. Fifty (61.7% were boys. Forty (48.8% were blunt and 32 (39% were sharp trauma. The most common cause was wooden stick 23 (28.0% and sharp thorn 14 (17.1%. Delay between trauma and presentation to hospital ranged from same day to 12 years after the injury with median of 4 days. The mean preoperative visual acuity by decimal notation was 0.059 ± 0.073 and mean postoperative visual acuity was 0.483 ± 0.417 (P < 0.001. Thirty-eight (46.3% had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA ≥6/18 and 51 (62.2% had BCVA ≥ 6/60. In univariable analysis, visual outcome (≥6/18 depended on type of surgery (P = 0.002, gender (P = 0.028, and type of injury (P = 0.07-sharp trauma and open globe injury had poorer outcomes; but not on age of child, preoperative vision, and type of surgeon. On multivariable binary logistic regression, only gender was significant variable. Of the 82 eyes, 18 (22% needed more than one

  17. NUTRITIONAL ESTIMATES OF SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN BASED ON ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS: STUDY FROM A RURAL AREA OF VARANASI

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    M K Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the adoption of western lifestyle the problem of overweight and obesity is gradually increasing in children, while problem of malnutrition is persisting continuously in the country. With this background a school based cross sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of school going children in a rural area: Chiraigaon block of Varanasi. Study period: July 2010 to September 2010 Methods: A school-based study with cross-sectional design was adopted. A total of 1448 school children were examined from 3 middle-schools that were selected by simple random sampling method. Height and weight of the children were measured, and BMI and other parameters were assessed. Results: On applying the BMI-for-age criteria, twelve percent of the children (12.4% boys and 11.1% girls were found underweight while 5.4% were overweight or obese (5.71% of the boys and 4.63% of the girls. But when the previous WHO’s BMI classification was used, 86.5% children had BMI <18.5 (88.4% of total boys and 81.9% of all girls. Conclusion: Nutritional status of school going children based on WHO criteria of BMI for age has been satisfactory. However, this approach needs scientific validation by undertaking a multi-centric study.

  18. Behavioral pattern in Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate

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    Pin Ha; Xu-Qing Zhuge; Qian Zheng; Bing Shi; Cai-Xia Gong; Yan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To obtain descriptive information of behavioral pattern inChinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate.Methods:A total of93 cleft lip and palate patients between the age of6-11 year-old and treated atWestChinaStomatologyHospital were selected.And another 100 unaffected controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited randomly from a common primary school inChengdu.Chart review of medical records was used to obtain psychosocial checklists.Scores were compared with published norms and controls to evaluate the risk of problems, separately for three diagnostic groups.Results:The patients group had lower scores of social and academic competencies, especially those with facial deformity or speech problem. No difference was found in the aspect of activity competency.All patients showed elevations in behavior problems.But the type of behavior problems varied in different genders.Conclusions:Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate are at raised risk for social and academic difficulties.Specific pattern of behavior problems displays differently depending on gender of the patient.

  19. Relationship between Divergent Thinking and Intelligence: An Empirical Study of the Threshold Hypothesis with Chinese Children

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    Shi, Baoguo; Wang, Lijing; Yang, Jiahui; Zhang, Mengpin; Xu, Li

    2017-01-01

    The threshold hypothesis is a classical and notable explanation for the relationship between creativity and intelligence. However, few empirical examinations of this theory exist, and the results are inconsistent. To test this hypothesis, this study investigated the relationship between divergent thinking (DT) and intelligence with a sample of 568 Chinese children aged between 11 and 13 years old using testing and questionnaire methods. The study focused on the breakpoint of intelligence and the moderation effect of openness on the relationship between intelligence and DT. The findings were as follows: (1) a breakpoint at the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 109.20 when investigating the relationship between either DT fluency or DT flexibility and intelligence. Another breakpoint was detected at the IQ of 116.80 concerning the correlation between originality and intelligence. The breakpoint of the relation between the composite score of creativity and intelligence occurred at the IQ of 110.10. (2) Openness to experience had a moderating effect on the correlation between the indicators of creativity and intelligence under the breakpoint. Above this point, however, the effect was not significant. The results suggested a relationship between DT and intelligence among Chinese children, which conforms to the threshold hypothesis. Besides, it remains necessary to explore the personality factors accounting for individual differences in the relationship between DT and intelligence. PMID:28275361

  20. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

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    Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Chan, Yu.Lung [Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Au, Kit Sum Agnes [James Cook University, Department of Psychology, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Yeung, Ka Wai David; Kwan, Ting Fai; To, Cho Yee

    2005-06-01

    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  1. Genetic Variants Identified from Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology in Chinese Children by Targeted Exome Sequencing

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    Wang, Yimin; Du, Xiaonan; Bin, Rao; Yu, Shanshan; Xia, Zhezhi; Zheng, Guo; Zhong, Jianmin; Zhang, Yunjian; Jiang, Yong-hui; Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Genetic factors play a major role in the etiology of epilepsy disorders. Recent genomics studies using next generation sequencing (NGS) technique have identified a large number of genetic variants including copy number (CNV) and single nucleotide variant (SNV) in a small set of genes from individuals with epilepsy. These discoveries have contributed significantly to evaluate the etiology of epilepsy in clinic and lay the foundation to develop molecular specific treatment. However, the molecular basis for a majority of epilepsy patients remains elusive, and furthermore, most of these studies have been conducted in Caucasian children. Here we conducted a targeted exome-sequencing of 63 trios of Chinese epilepsy families using a custom-designed NGS panel that covers 412 known and candidate genes for epilepsy. We identified pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in 15 of 63 (23.8%) families in known epilepsy genes including SCN1A, CDKL5, STXBP1, CHD2, SCN3A, SCN9A, TSC2, MBD5, POLG and EFHC1. More importantly, we identified likely pathologic variants in several novel candidate genes such as GABRE, MYH1, and CLCN6. Our results provide the evidence supporting the application of custom-designed NGS panel in clinic and indicate a conserved genetic susceptibility for epilepsy between Chinese and Caucasian children. PMID:28074849

  2. Applicability of various estimation formulas to assess renal function in Chinese children

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    Yue Du; Ting-Ting Sun; Ling Hou; Jin-Jie Guo; Xiu-Li Wang; Yu-Bin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was to evaluate the relative applicability of the most commonly used estimation formulas for renal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of Chinese children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: One hundred CKD patients of less than 17 years old were divided into two groups by sex which was further categorized intofi ve subgroups based on CKD staging according to the "reference" GFR (rGFR) determined by Tc-99m-DTPA renal dynamic imaging. Four GFR markers including serum cystatin C (CysC),β2-microglobulin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were measured. Results: Among all four markers, CysC best refl ected the extent of glomerular damages for CKD stage 1. The value for estimation of GFR (eGFR) was derived from five different formulas either over-estimated or under-estimated GFR as referenced to rGFR, and the extent of deviations was dependent on gender, age and CKD stage. The Counahan-Barratt formula and the Schwartz formula gave the most accurate estimations of GFR for CKD stages 1 and 2-3, respectively regardless of gender and age differences. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that the Counahan-Barratt formula has the highest diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion: The Counahan-Barratt formula provides the best approximation to rGFR, thereby the highest applicability to Chinese children with CKD of different genders, ages and CKD stages.

  3. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and their relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese children.

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    Zhang, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanna; Cai, Li; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Guo, Li; Jin, Yu; Ma, Yinghua; Chen, Yajun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Chinese children. A total of 234 Chinese schoolchildren aged 8-11 years in Guangdong participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed via a 3-day dietary record. Seven established cardiovascular indicators were analyzed in this study: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Higher dietary GI was significantly associated with higher TG levels (P = 0.037) and lower HDL-C levels (P = 0.005) after adjusting for age, sex, nutritional intake, physical activity, and body mass index z score. LDL-C was found to differ across tertiles of dietary GL. The middle tertile tended to show the highest level of LDL-C. TC, FPG, and blood pressure were independent of both dietary GI and GL. Our findings suggest that higher dietary GI is differentially associated with some CVD risk factors, including lower HDL-C and higher TG, in school-aged children from south China.

  4. Characterization of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates causing invasive diseases in Chinese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiang; YAO Kai-hu; XIE Gui-lin; ZHENG YUE-jie; WANG Chuan-qing; SHANG Yun-xiao; WANG Hui-yun

    2013-01-01

    Background Erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that causing invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in Chinese children remain uncharacterized.This study aims to identify the resistance genes associated with erythromycin resistance and to determine the genetic relationships of IPD isolates in Chinese children.Methods A total of 171 S.pneumoniae strains were isolated from 11 medical centers in China from 2006 to 2008.All the isolates were characterized via serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility determination.The erythromycin-resistant isolates were further characterized via ermB and mefA gene detection,multi-locus sequence typing analysis,and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.Results A total of 164 (95.9%) isolates showed resistance to erythromycin,of which 162 strains with high high-level resistance (MIC ≥ 256 μg/ml).A total of 104 (63.4%) isolates carry the ermB gene alone,whereas 59 (36.0%) harbor both ermB and mefA genes.Of the 59 strains,54 were of serotypes 19A and 19F and were identified as highly clonal and related to the Taiwan19F-14 clone.Conclusions The erythromycin resistance rate in IPD isolates is significantly high and is predominantly mediated by the ermB gene.Isolates that carry both ermB and mefA genes are predominantly of serotypes 19A and 19F.

  5. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD): Implications for health and nutritional issues among rural children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Aihua; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Ling; Wang, Baozhen; Luo, Huiwen; Mo, Xiuting; Tobe, Ruoyan Gai

    2015-04-01

    In China, with fast economic growth, health and nutrition status among the rural population has shown significant improvement in the past decades. On the other hand, burden of non-communicable diseases and prevalence of related risk factors such as overweight and obesity has also increased. Among rural children, the double burden of malnutrition and emerging overweight and obesity has been neglected so far. According to the theory of Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases (DOHaD), malnutrition, including both undernutrition (stunting and wasting) and over-nutrition (overweight and obesity) during childhood is closely related to worsened health outcomes during adulthood. Such a neglected problem is attributable to a complicated synergy of social and environmental factors such as parental migration, financial situation of the household, child-rearing knowledge and practices of the primary caregivers, and has implications for public health. Based on literature review of lessons from the field, intervention to address malnutrition among rural children should be a comprehensive package, with consideration of their developmental environment and geographical and socioeconomic diversity. The scientific evidence on DOHaD indicates the probability and necessity of prevention of adult disease by promotion of maternal and child health and reducing malnutrition by provision of high-quality complementary foods, promotion of a well-balanced dietary pattern, and promotion of health literacy in the public would bring a potential benefit to reduce potential risk of diseases.

  6. Determinants of smoking and chewing habits among rural school children in Bankura district of West Bengal, India

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    Naba Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of smoking and chewing habits and causes of addiction among the school children of rural areas.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools from rural areas of Bankura District, West Bengal during August 2012 to September 2012. Total 1674 students studying in 5th to 10th standard (age group of 10-15 years were enrolled in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was applied for data collection.Results The study showed that 18.45%, 27.95% and 67.56% of the students were smokers, chewer and non-addicted, respectively. Considerable number of boys were addicted with smoking (boys 32.3% vs. 4.33girls % and chewing habits (boys 43.53% vs 12.15girls %. In case of boys, these habits were increased with advancement of ages. Students were more attracted to bidi and tobacco with pan-masala among different types of smoking and chewing agents. The most familiar reasons for tobacco user were: influenced by friends (22.88%, influenced by family members (16.32% and stress relief (10.88%. Conclusion This study indicated that smoking and chewing habits among school children in rural areas is looming public health issue. Adverse health effect of tobacco use may be incorporated in school secondary curriculum to change the attraction with tobacco among the young generation.

  7. Relations of parenting and temperament to Chinese children's experience of negative life events, coping efficacy, and externalizing problems.

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    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and temperament-externalizing relations. Parents reported on their own parenting. Parents and teachers rated temperament. Children reported on negative life events and coping efficacy. Parents, teachers, children, or peers rated children's externalizing problems. Authoritative and authoritarian parenting and anger/frustration uniquely predicted externalizing problems. The relation between authoritarian parenting and externalizing was mediated by children's coping efficacy and negative school events. The results suggest there is some cross-cultural universality in the developmental pathways for externalizing problems.

  8. Association of the Resistin Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Kawasaki Disease in Chinese Children

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    Ruixi Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The −420C>G polymorphism located in the resistin gene (RETN promoter has recently been suggested to play a potential role in proinflammatory conditions and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the association of the RETN promoter polymorphism with Kawasaki disease (KD and its clinical parameters in Chinese children. Methods. We compared patients with complete KD to incomplete KD children. Genotyping of the RETN promoter polymorphism was performed using MassARRAY system, and serum resistin levels were estimated using the sandwich enzyme immunoassay method. Results. There was no significant difference in RETN (−420C>G genotypes between KD and control groups. However, the frequency of the G allele was higher in iKD patients than in cKD children due to a significantly increased frequency of the GG genotypes. Serum levels of resistin were significantly higher in KD patients than in controls regardless of the presence of coronary artery lesions (CALs. Conclusion. The present findings suggest that while resistin may play a role in the pathogenesis of KD, there is no apparent association between CAL and the RETN (−420C>G gene polymorphism in KD children. However, the diagnosis of iKD is challenging but can be supported by the presence of the G allele and the GG genotypes.

  9. The prevalence, intensity and ecological determinants of helminth infection among children in an urban and rural community in Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, K S

    2001-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation and poor town planning in Malawi has been associated with poor environmental hygiene and sanitation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, intensity and some potential risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children aged 3 - 14 years in an urban and rural community in Southern Malawi. A randomised cross-sectional survey was conducted in July, 1998. Data were collected through questionnaire interview regarding socio-demographic and environmental conditions from households in both areas. Stool samples were collected from 273 children in the urban community and 280 in the rural. There was a significant difference (purban and rural communities, 16.5% and 3.6% respectively. Most of the infections were light (93.2% for Ascaris lumbricodes, 85.7% for hookworm). Large variance to mean ratios of egg intensity within age groups and the total study population suggested a high degree of aggregation of the parasites in the communities. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that certain groups of children in the urban community were much more likely to develop helminth infection. They included children who had pools of water/sewage around houses (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4 ñ 6.5), did not wear shoes (OR a 7.1, 95% CI = 2.7 - 19.2), did not attend school (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2 ñ 6.5), had mothers who had 4 to 8 years of education (OR = 5.2, 95% CI = 2.0 - 14.0), had mothers below 35 years of age (OR = 4.09, 95% CI = 1.39 - 16.28) and living in an urban community (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 2.6 - 12.1). Efforts to reduce helminth infections should focus on reducing exposures.

  10. Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family: Relations with parents' cultural orientations and children's emotion-related regulation.

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    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Main, Alexandra; Lee, Erica H

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined 2 measures of Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family context: self-reported emotional expressivity and observed emotional expression during a parent-child interaction task. Path analyses were conducted to examine the concurrent associations between measures of emotional expression and (a) parents' American and Chinese cultural orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social affiliation domains, and (b) parents' and teachers' ratings of children's emotion-related regulation. Results suggested that cultural orientations were primarily associated with parents' self-reported expressivity (rather than observed emotional expression), such that higher American orientations were generally associated with higher expressivity. Although parents' self-reported expressivity was only related to their own reports of children's regulation, parents' observed emotional expression was related to both parents' and teachers' reports of children's regulation. These results suggest that self-reported expressivity and observed emotional expression reflect different constructs and have differential relations to parents' cultural orientations and children's regulation.

  11. Resting heart rate, vagal tone, and reactive and proactive aggression in Chinese children.

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    Xu, Yiyuan; Raine, Adrian; Yu, Lidong; Krieg, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Abundant research conducted in Western contexts has shown that biological risk factors such as low resting heart rate (HR) might be related to childhood aggression. However, it was unclear (1) how resting HR, as well as other markers of cardiac functions such as resting vagal tone, may be related to subtypes of aggression such as reactive and proactive aggression, and (2) whether the HR-aggression relation can be replicated in non-Western contexts. Therefore, this study examined the concurrent and prospective relations between resting HR, vagal tone, and Chinese children's reactive and proactive aggression. Participants were 183 children (M age=7.64 years, 91 girls) recruited from an elementary school in Zhenjiang, PRC. Children's resting HR and vagal tone were assessed in the second grade (T1). Teachers rated children's reactive and proactive aggression in the second (T1) and fourth grade (T2). Results showed that lower resting HR at T1 was associated with higher reactive and proactive aggression at T1 and T2, and higher vagal tone was associated with lower HR, which in turn was related to higher reactive and proactive aggression at T1 and T2. Lower vagal tone was directly related to higher reactive but not proactive aggression at T1 and T2, whereas lower HR was related to higher reactive aggression at T2 for children with low or moderate vagal tone but was not for children with high vagal tone. These psychophysiological findings from a non-Western context add additional support for both similarities and differences between reactive and proactive aggression in childhood.

  12. Antenatal and neonatal visits increase complete immunization status among children aged 12-23 months in rural area of Indonesia

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    Suparmi Suparmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar Belakang: Anak yang memiliki status imunisasi dasarlengkap di daerah pedesaan di Indonesia lebih rendah dibandingkan di perkotaan. Penelitian ini menilai hubungan kunjungan antenatal dan neonatal terhadap status imunisasi lengkap pada anak usia 12-23 bulan di daerah pedesaan Indonesia.Metode: Penilaian menggunakan data Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013 (Riskesdas. Sub-sampel terdiri dari anak usia 12-23 bulan di daerah pedesaan. Dari 8747 anak umur 12-23 bulan di wilayah perdesaan, 5452 memiliki data yang lengkap untuk dilakukan analisis. Status imunisasi dasar lengkap berdasarkan catatan pada kartu imunisasi dan wawancara. Analisis menggunakan regresi Cox dengan waktu yang konstan.Hasil: Dari 5452 responden, 52,8% (2880/5452 mempunyai imunisasi dasar lengkap. Faktor-faktor dominan yang berhubungan dengan status dasar imunisasi lengkap adalah kunjungan antenatal dan neonatal, indeks kekayaan, pendidikan ibu, dan pekerjaan ibu. Dibandingkan dengan yang tidak melakukan kunjungan antenatal, mereka yang melakukan kunjungan antenatal 38% lebih besar kemungkinan mendapatkan imunisasi dasar lengkap [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 1,38; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,27-1,50; P = 0,000]. Menurut kunjungan neonatal, mereka yang melakukan kunjungan neonatal 37% lebih besar untuk mendapatkan imunisasi dasar yang lengkap dibandingkan dengan yang tidak melakukan kunjungan neonatal (RRa = 1,37; 95% CI = 1,29-1,46; P = 0,000.Kesimpulan: Anak-anak di pedesaan Indonesia yang melakukan kunjungan antenatal dan neonatal lebih mempunyai kemungkinan mendapatkan imunisasi dasar lengkap.  (Health Science Indones 2014;2:73-7Kata kunci: imunisasi dasar lengkap, kunjungan antenatal dan neonatal, pedesaanAbstractBackground: The children who had complete basic immunization status in rural areas in Indonesia was lower than in urban areas. This study assessed the association of antenatal and neonatal visits with complete immunization status among children aged 12

  13. Measures of Implicit Gender Attitudes May Exaggerate Differences in Underlying Associations among Chinese Urban and Rural Women

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    Zhen Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oppression of women in rural China is more severe than in urban China, not only because the two areas differ in terms of social hierarchy, but also because urban women are more likely to fight against their subordination, which is endorsed by conventional social views on gender. To independently assess these relationships, we applied the Quadruple Process model to measure the processes underlying implicit gender attitudes in a sample of urban and rural females. The results indicated that the urban women had higher in-group favoritism than did the rural women. Application of the Quad model, however, showed that pro-women associations were similarly activated among urban and rural women, but that women in rural settings more effectively inhibited activated associations. Differences in inhibition, rather than in activated associations, appear to account for the less favorable attitudes among rural women. Thus, the differences in attitudinal responses among urban and rural women exaggerate the differences in underlying evaluative associations with respect to gender and conceal differences in self-regulating the expression of those associations.

  14. Prevalence and association between obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese elementary school children: a school-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liu AiLing; Lin Rong; Liu WeiJia; Du Lin; Chen Qing

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background China has experienced an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity over the last decades. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese school children and determine if there is a significant association between childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1844 children (938 males and 906 females) in six elementary schools at Guangzhou city from April...

  15. Anemia and intestinal parasite infection in school children in rural Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, H.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study hypothesized that besides iron deficiency, intestinal parasites infection is also a determinant of anemia in schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Methods: 400 primary schoolchildren from 20 primary schools in Tam Nong district, a poor rural area in Vietnam, were randomly selected

  16. A Comparison of Rural and Urban Partial Hospital Programs for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Richard J.; Petti, Theodore A.

    1990-01-01

    Compares rural and urban child and adolescent partial hospital mental health programs in Pennsylvania. Rural areas were much smaller, more exclusively served adolescents, had stronger financial and administrative links to local community health centers and special education authorities, and had more deficient educational facilities. (KS)

  17. Rural-Urban Differences in Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Overweight Prevalence of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joens-Matre, Roxane R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Calabro, Miguel A.; Russell, Daniel W.; Nicklay, Elizabeth; Hensley, Larry D.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The increasing prevalence of overweight in youth has been well chronicled, but less is known about the unique patterns and risks that may exist in rural and urban environments. A better understanding of possible rural-urban differences in physical activity profiles may facilitate the development of more targeted physical activity…

  18. Association of the Common Genetic Variant Upstream of INSIG2 Gene with Obesity Related Phenotypes in Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-JUN WANG; HENG ZHANG; SHI-WEI ZHANG; YONG-PING PAN; JUN MA

    2008-01-01

    To study the association between the rs7566605 variant of INSIG2 and obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese children and adolescents.Methods The study sample consisted of two independent cohorts of Chinese children and adolescents.Anthropometric indices,lipids,blood pressure,fasting glucose,insulin and percentage of fat mass were determined.PCR with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed for genotyping the rs7566605 variant.Results In each of the two independent cohorts,no significant association was observed between rs7566605 and obesity under additive,dominant or recessive model.We also did not detect any difference in the genotype frequency between all the obese children and controls.Furthermore,we did not find evidence of an association between body composition indices and metabolic phenotypes in all children.However,the triglyceride level of CC homozygotes was significantly higher than that of GG+GC genotypes in obese children (P=0.022).Additionally,we observed a non-significant trend of severe obesity in a post-hoc test.Conclusion INSIG2 rs7566605 variant is not associated Chinese childhood obesity in two independent cohorts.Further study is needed to verify the effect of rs7566605 on triglyceride in obese children.

  19. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 μg m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

  20. Genetic variation of ITGB3 is associated with asthma in Chinese Han children.

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    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that integrins are involved in the aetiology of asthma. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the integrin β3 (ITGB3 gene are significantly associated with asthma in Western populations. Given the important roles of environmental exposures in the development of asthma, we evaluated the associations between six SNPs in ITGB3 and asthma in Chinese Han children. A total of 321 unrelated Chinese children with asthma and 315 healthy children were recruited for the study. SNP genotyping was performed by high-resolution melting analysis (HRM. The selected SNPs were well genotyped by HRM, and SNP rs3809865 in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR of ITGB3 was found to be strongly associated with asthma (adjusted p = 0.004. The minor allele of rs3809865 showed a protective effect against asthma (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43-0.8. The seed regions of two miRNAs (hsa-mir-124 and hsa-mir-506 were predicted to bind to the sequence containing rs3809865 by TargetScan and PITA. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the T allele of rs3809865 was more efficiently targeted by hsa-mir-124 than was the A allele, which suggested that rs3809865 could affect the binding of hsa-mir-124 to ITGB3. Furthermore, the transfection of A549 cells with hsa-mir-124 resulted in the downregulation of ITGB3 expression. Our results revealed that rs3809865 was significantly associated with asthma due to its effect on the binding of hsa-mir-124 to ITGB3.

  1. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

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    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results: Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion: Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  2. Women's work in farming, child feeding practices and nutritional status among under-five children in rural Rukwa, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordang, Sunniva; Shoo, Tiransia; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Kinabo, Joyce; Wandel, Margareta

    2015-11-28

    Some progress has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Tanzania. In the Rukwa region (2010), the level of stunted and underweight children was 50·4 and 13·5 %, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, feeding practices and risk factors of undernutrition in a rural village in the Rukwa region, as well as to discuss the results in light of a similar study conducted in 1987/1988. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 152 households with children under 5 years of age. Data were obtained from the child's main caretaker and the household head, using a structured questionnaire and a 24 h dietary recall. Children's length/height and weight were measured. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was found to be 63·8 and 33·6 % (Z-scorechildren on the first day after birth. A thin gruel was introduced after a median of 2 months (25th-75th percentiles; 1-3). The time mothers spent farming was a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0·04). Illness, food shortage and dry-season cultivation were significant risk factors for underweight (Pfeeding practices were not in line with WHO recommendations. Women working in farms, food shortage, dry-season cultivation and diseases partly explain the children's poor nutritional status.

  3. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

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    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods : Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results : Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion : Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  4. 略论汉语拼音与海外儿童汉语教学%A preliminary study of the role of the Chinese Pinyi in the teaching of Chinese to overseas children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彩华; 刘璟之

    2016-01-01

    Though the Chinese Pinyin plays a key role in the teaching of Chinese to overseas chil‐dren ,its theoretical research is inadequate .This paper discusses the following problems :1 .the cogni‐tive function of the Chinese Pinyin in the teaching of Chinese to overseas children ,and the distinction between the“teaching” and the“learning” of the Chinese Pinyin;2 .the major bilingual learning theo‐ries concerning the overseas children's learning of Chinese as well as the teaching of the Chinese Pinyin in the perspective of biliteracy ;3 .the current situation of the teaching of Chinese characters to overseas children and the integrated teaching of the Chinese Pinyin and Chinese characters .It also discusses the final goal of the teaching of Chinese to overseas children ,w hich includes the training of their spoken Chinese and Chinese‐character w riting ,because the younger the children ,the better they can learn spo‐ken Chinese ,while the older the children ,they can receive more training .Thus ,the training of the communicative ability of the children's spoken Chinese relies on their long training of the Chinese Pi‐nyin .%汉语拼音在海外儿童汉语教学中的作用举足轻重,然而其相关理论研究却十分缺乏。本文探讨了与此相关的几个问题:(1)汉语拼音在海外儿童汉语教学中的认知功能,提出对汉语拼音“教学”和“学习”加以区分;(2)儿童双文学习优势理论以及双文学习视阈下的汉语拼音教学;(3)海外儿童汉字教学现状及汉语拼音与汉字的衔接问题。最后讨论海外儿童汉语教学的总目标,提出总目标应同时包含口语交际和汉字能力培养两方面。儿童年龄越小前者内容越多;随着儿童年龄增大后者的强度可逐渐增大;儿童汉语口语交际能力的培养应以长期扎实的汉语拼音学习为基础。

  5. The Study of Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviours in Greek, Russian, Indian, and Chinese Children Using the Fairy Tale Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Elena; Coulacoglou, Carina; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated externalizing and internalizing behaviours in Greek (n = 599), Russian (n = 596), Indian (n = 571), and Chinese (n = 376) 7- to 12-year-old children. The Fairy Tale Test was used to measure impulsive and motivated aggression, fear of aggression, anxiety, and depression. The results indicated culture-specific patterns…

  6. A National Survey of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior of Chinese City Children and Youth Using Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to objectively assess levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) of Chinese city children and youth aged 9 to 17 years old using accelerometers and to examine their differences by gender, age, grade, and weight status. Method: The PA and SB of 2,163 students in 4th grade through 11th grade…

  7. Young Chinese Children's Anger and Distress: Emotion Category and Intensity Identified by the Time Course of Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Qiu, Peihua; Park, Ka Young; Xu, Qinmei; Potegal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A hierarchical cluster analysis of the time course of the videotaped reactions of 75 Chinese 2-4-year olds to mothers' toy-removal identified Distress, Low Anger, and High Anger behavior clusters. Anger often begins at low intensity; some children then escalate. The face-validity of Low and High Anger-cluster classifications was supported in…

  8. Acculturation, weight status, and eating habits among Chinese-American preschool children and their primary caregivers: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated acculturation, eating habits, and weight status among 53 Chinese-American children and their primary caregivers. Caregivers’ mean acculturation score was 2.1, indicating low acculturation. Caregivers’ mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.3; 21% were overweight (BMI is greater ...

  9. Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Social and School Adjustment in Chinese Children: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Chen, Huichang; Li, Dan; Wang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations between early behavioral inhibition and social and school outcomes in Chinese children (N = 200). Data on behavioral inhibition were collected from a sample of 2-year-olds in China. Follow-up data on social behaviors, peer relationships, and school performance were collected from multiple sources at 7 years of age.…

  10. Effects of the Peer Group on the Development of Social Functioning and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun; He, Yunfeng

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial mean ages = 9.5 and 12.7 years, N = 505), how the peer group contributed to social functioning and academic achievement and their associations. Data on informal peer groups, social functioning, and academic achievement were collected from multiple sources. Multilevel…

  11. The duration of diarrhea and fever is associated with growth faltering in rural Malawian children aged 6-18 months

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    Trehan Indi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nutrition support programs that only focus upon better complementary feeding remain an insufficient means of limiting growth faltering in vulnerable populations of children. To determine if symptoms of acute infections correlate with the incidence of growth faltering in rural Malawian children, the associations between fever, diarrhea, and cough with anthropometric measures of stunting, wasting, and underweight were investigated. Data were analyzed from a trial where 209 children were provided with adequate complementary food and followed fortnightly from 6-18 months of age. Linear mixed model analysis was used to test for associations. Diarrheal disease was inversely associated with changes in height-for-age Z-score (HAZ, mid-upper arm circumference Z-score (MUACZ, and weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ. Fever was also inversely associated with changes in MUACZ and WAZ. These results suggest that initiatives to reduce febrile and diarrheal diseases are needed in conjunction with improved complementary feeding to limit growth faltering in rural Malawi.

  12. EFFECT OF DOUBLE FORTIFIED SALT SUPPLEMENTATION ON IODINE AND HEMOGLOBIN STATUS OF SCHOOL CHILDREN OF RURAL VADODARA, INDIA

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    Kejal Joshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency along with iodine deficiency affects the developing brains, physical and mental growth of the children. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies co-exists in developing countries at a higher rate due to monotonous diets with low nutrient density. Hence, food fortification has been used as a tool to increase the content of essential micronutrients. Aim: Our study was aimed to assess the efficacy of DFS supplementation on iodine and hemoglobin status of the rural school children Method: Interventional study. Rural school children (6-15 yrs randomly divided into experimental and control group. Experimental were supplemented with double fortified salt (DFS and controls consumed adequately iodized salt (IS. Pre and post hemoglobin concentration (Hb and urinary iodine (UI recorded. Results Mean Hb increased in experimental (+0.42 g/dl (p<0.001 and decreased in control group (-0.54 g/dl (p<0.001. The intensity of anemia classification decreased in experimental group and increased in control group. UI increased significantly in both the groups (p<0.001. Hence, DFS is proven to be beneficial compared to IS.

  13. Eating behaviour patterns in Chinese children aged 12-18 months and association with relative weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

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    Cao Ying-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating behaviours have been suggested relating to obesity development. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ is a parent-report measure constructed to assess multiple dimensions of eating behavior for children. This study aimed to test the validity of the Chinese version of Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ in Chinese children aged 12-18 months. We examined factor structure and the reliability of the Chinese version of the CEBQ, the associations between children's eating behaviours and children's weight (BMI SDS were assessed. Methods 219 questionnaires were filled out by the caregivers, approached in community health care centers in two cities in China. BMI of each child was calculated and converted to BMI SDS. Factor validation (Principal Component Analysis, exploratory factor analysis on all CEBQ items was performed and gender difference in eating behaviours was examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analyzed by linear regression analysis controlling for gender, parental combined weight, and education. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven-factor solution, with factor 'food responsiveness' (FR split into two. 'Satiety responsiveness' (SR and 'Enjoyment of food' (EF factors were not detected. Interestingly, boys scored higher than girls in the FR scales, whereas girls had a higher score in 'food fussiness' (FF scale. Conclusions We conclude that although a valuable psychometric instrument, CEBQ might be affected by age and cultural differences. Therefore, adjusting it in order to fit the Chinese population was suggested. We did not find an association between eating behaviours and children's BMI SDS, when it was controlled for gender and parental weight.

  14. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

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    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  15. A Cross-Site Intervention in Chinese Rural Migrants Enhances HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior

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    Ning Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the influx of rural migrants into urban areas, the spread of HIV has increased significantly in Shaanxi Province (China. Migrant workers are at high risk of HIV infection due to social conditions and hardships (isolation, separation, marginalization, barriers to services, etc.. Objective: We explored the efficacy of a HIV/AIDS prevention and control program for rural migrants in Shaanxi Province, administered at both rural and urban sites. Methods: Guidance concerning HIV/AIDS prevention was given to the experimental group (266 migrants for 1 year by the center of disease control, community health agencies and family planning department. The intervention was conducted according to the HIV/AIDS Prevention Management Manual for Rural Migrants. A control group of migrants only received general population intervention. The impact of the intervention was evaluated by administering HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and sexual behavior (KAB questionnaires after 6 and 12 months. Results: In the experimental group; 6 months of intervention achieved improvements in HIV/AIDS related knowledge. After 12 months; HIV/AIDS-related knowledge reached near maximal scores. Attitude and most behaviors scores were significantly improved. Moreover; the experimental group showed significant differences in HIV-AIDS knowledge; attitude and most behavior compared with the control group. Conclusions: The systematic long-term cross-site HIV/AIDS prevention in both rural and urban areas is a highly effective method to improve HIV/AIDS KAB among rural migrants.

  16. Reading performance is enhanced by visual texture discrimination training in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia.

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    Xiangzhi Meng

    Full Text Available High order cognitive processing and learning, such as reading, interact with lower-level sensory processing and learning. Previous studies have reported that visual perceptual training enlarges visual span and, consequently, improves reading speed in young and old people with amblyopia. Recently, a visual perceptual training study in Chinese-speaking children with dyslexia found that the visual texture discrimination thresholds of these children in visual perceptual training significantly correlated with their performance in Chinese character recognition, suggesting that deficits in visual perceptual processing/learning might partly underpin the difficulty in reading Chinese.To further clarify whether visual perceptual training improves the measures of reading performance, eighteen children with dyslexia and eighteen typically developed readers that were age- and IQ-matched completed a series of reading measures before and after visual texture discrimination task (TDT training. Prior to the TDT training, each group of children was split into two equivalent training and non-training groups in terms of all reading measures, IQ, and TDT. The results revealed that the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT were significantly higher for the children with dyslexia than for the control children before training. Interestingly, training significantly decreased the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT for both the typically developed readers and the children with dyslexia. More importantly, the training group with dyslexia exhibited significant enhancement in reading fluency, while the non-training group with dyslexia did not show this improvement. Additional follow-up tests showed that the improvement in reading fluency is a long-lasting effect and could be maintained for up to two months in the training group with dyslexia.These results suggest that basic visual perceptual processing/learning and reading ability in Chinese might at least partially rely on

  17. Dental caries and their treatment needs in 3-5 year old preschool children in a Rural District of India

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    Devanand Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01. Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers.

  18. Lactose intolerance among Malay and Orang Asli female children in selected rural Selangor and its effect on bone mineral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makbul, Ika Aida Aprilini; Daud, Norlida Mat; Aziz, Nurul Azrianti Abdul; Yahya, Noor Fairuzi Suhana

    2016-11-01

    Sufficient intake of calcium during childhood is very important to ensure an optimal growth and strong bones development. However, lactose intolerance (LI) may limit the intake of milk and dairy products due to the inability of the body to digest lactose to its constituents, glucose and galactose. Children in rural area were a major concern as they are commonly associated with an inadequate intake of nutrients. Hence, the objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of LI among Malay and Orang Asli female children in rural Selangor and its association with bone mineral density (BMD). A total of 65 (39 Malay, 26 Orang Asli) female primary school students with a mean age of 10.4 ± 0.6 years old underwent hydrogen breath test and lactose tolerance test (LTT) during fasting and after ingestion of 25g lactose solution. A Wong Baker Face Pain Rating Scale (WBFPRS) was used to assess the presence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during the study. LI symptoms are defined when breath H2 levels exceed 20 ppm above baseline values, an increase of postprandial blood glucose (PBG) levels of less than 1.1 mmol/L and GI symptom score is more or equal than score 2. BMD was measured in the calcaneus using QUS-2 Ultrasonometer. The result showed that 35 subjects (15 Malay, 20 Orang Asli) had a positive breath test (>20ppm). A total of 74.4% Malay and 88.5% Orang Asli children had an increase of PBG of less than 1.1 mmol/L. Both groups have low percentage (35.9 % Malay, 34.6 % Orang Asli) of GI symptoms. A total of 20.0% children (n=13, Malay=4, Orang Asli=9) was found to experience LI. Orang Asli children showed a significantly higher (pcalcium can affect bone health development needed throughout their entire life.

  19. Key research fields and basic directions of Chinese rural-land comprehensive consolidation in transitional period%转型期中国农村土地综合整治重点领域与基本方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯应斌; 杨庆媛

    2014-01-01

    该文以中国社会经济转型发展为切入点,探讨转型期中国农村土地综合整治面临的宏观背景和现实需求,进一步梳理和明确转型期中国农村土地综合整治基本方向、战略重点。结果表明,当前中国社会经济转型将进入较为剧烈、各类矛盾较为突出的关键时期,中国农村土地综合整治应立足农村、联动城乡,搭建新农村建设和城乡统筹发展新平台。以农用地整治及宜耕土地开发为先导,以农村居民点用地整治为战略重心是当前中国土地整治研究重点领域和核心内容。同时,基于农村土地整治多功能性,开展土地综合整治的多区域、多尺度社会经济、生态环境影响过程及其效应研究。把生态文明建设融入农村土地整治的全过程,以促进城乡一体化发展和适应现代农业专业化、标准化、规模化和集约化发展要求为目标,以维护农民合法权益为前提,以集中连片推进为手段,开展多目标土地综合整治是转型期中国农村土地整治的基本方向。并应加强对农村土地综合整治过程涉及的资金筹措与权益分配、资源环境效应及其整治模式等方面的研究。%This paper presents a comprehensive discussion on the macro-background and real requirements of Chinese rural-land comprehensive consolidation in a transitional period in the perspective of transformational development of Chinese socio-economy, and then undertook a further study to sum up the key research fields and basic directions of Chinese rural land comprehensive consolidation, which have made theoretical and practical significance of solving problems faced by agriculture, rural areas, and farmers, and promoting rural and urban integrated development. The results have shown Chinese socio-economy has been in a key stage of transformational development with many kinds of acute contradictions, while Chinese rural-land comprehensive

  20. Chinese Parents' Concerns and Roles in Chinese-Origin Children's Chinese Maintenance and Bilingual Development--Taking British Chinese Children as an example%中国父母在华裔儿童汉语保存与双语发展中的困惑及作用——以英国华裔儿童为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛静

    2012-01-01

    By the influence of globalization, how to help Chinese-origin children's Chinese maintenance and bilingual development has become a great concern for overseas Chinese communities, in particular for Chi-nese parents. Taking Chinese-origin children in Britain as an example, Chinese parents can play social-cul-tural, linguistic and cognitive roles. In terms of social-cultural role, parents should create harmonious fam-ily atmosphere, and communicate with local British schools actively, on the basis of enhancing Chinese-ori-gin children's identification with Chinese language and cu take consistent and lively strategies, and help deve children to firmly develop gual development. vocabulary teaching strategies with e. In terms of linguistic role, parents should local schools, "phonetics before characters" lop children's inner grammar. In terms of cognitive role, parent should guide one language and then the other, and finally reach the target of balanced bilin-gual development.%在全球化格局的影响下,如何帮助海外华裔儿童实现汉语保存与双语发展已成为海外华人群体,尤其是中国父母最为关注的话题之一。以英国华裔儿童为例,父母在儿童汉语保存与双语发展过程中可以在社会文化、语言知识和认知发展方面起到重要作用。在社会文化方面,父母应在增强子女对中国和汉语认同感的基础上,创建和谐的家庭氛围,增强与英国当地学校之间的沟通。在语言知识方面,父母应采用与英国学校相一致的生动的词汇教学策略,“先语后文”的语音学习策略,同时帮助子女构建内部语法。在认知发展方面,父母应引导子女在良好发展好一种语言的基础上,发展第二语言,实现英汉双语平衡发展。