WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinese rural children

  1. Occurrence, speciation and bioaccessibility of lead in Chinese rural household dust and the associated health risk to children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhixuan; Bi, Xiangyang; Li, Zhonggen; Yang, Wenlin; Wang, Lixing; Yang, Huan; Li, Fanglin; Ma, Zhendong

    2012-01-01

    Lead (Pb) concentration, speciation and bioaccessibility were measured in 122 household dust samples collected in rural areas of eight provinces of China. The mean Pb concentration in the household dust was 208 mg kg -1, of which samples from sites in Hunan (538 mg kg -1) and Yunnan (280 mg kg -1) provinces exhibited the highest Pb concentrations while those from Shaanxi (96 mg kg -1) and Fujian (80 mg kg -1) provinces had a relatively low Pb content. The major fraction of Pb in the household dust samples was found to be strongly bound to Fe-Mn oxide phases (37%) while Pb present in minor fractions individually making up between 14 and 18% was characterized in falling orders as residual, carbonate, organic/sulphide, and exchangeable fractions by the sequential extraction method applied. Bioaccessible Pb making up an average proportion of 53% in the household dusts was significantly correlated to the Fe-Mn oxide phases of Pb. According to the Hazard Quotient (HQ), the ingestion of dust particles pose the highest risk to children in Chinese rural areas, followed by dermal contact and inhalation. Hazard Index (HI) values for most samples were lower than 1, indicating that the domestic Pb exposure in rural areas of China were relatively safe for children when they exposure to the household dust. However, dust Pb in 4.1% of the studied families having HI values higher than 1 may pose adverse health effect to the children.

  2. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  3. Academic Performance and Personality Traits of Chinese Children: "Onlies" versus Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Dudley L., Jr.; Falbo, Toni

    1990-01-01

    Using data from a 1987 survey of 1,460 schoolchildren, their parents and teachers, in urban and rural areas of Changchun, China, examines academic and personality outcomes in only children. Finds results similar to Western surveys: only children are more likely to be academically talented. Reveals, however, Chinese rural only children do not score…

  4. The Self-Esteem of Rural Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Raymond K.; Fetsch, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The self-esteem of children in small towns was assessed. Comparing these children's self-rated competencies to extant norms suggests that rural children's self-perceptions are not distinctly different from suburban and urban children. Rural children's feelings of self-worth and self-assessments of scholastic competence are comparable to or higher…

  5. Openness to Experience as a Moderator of the Relationship between Intelligence and Creative Thinking: A Study of Chinese Children in Urban and Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Baoguo; Dai, David Y.; Lu, Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Using testing and questionnaire methods, this study investigated the relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. This study focused on the moderating effects of openness to experience on the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking in a sample of 831 primary school students in China. The findings showed significant positive relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. In relation to the focus of this study, openness to experience moderated the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking. However, the correlation between openness to experience and creative thinking was stronger for urban children than for rural children, and the moderating effect existed only in urban settings. PMID:27199866

  6. Openness to Experience as a Moderator of the Relationship between Intelligence and Creative Thinking: A Study of Chinese Children in Urban and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Baoguo; Dai, David Y; Lu, Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Using testing and questionnaire methods, this study investigated the relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. This study focused on the moderating effects of openness to experience on the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking in a sample of 831 primary school students in China. The findings showed significant positive relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. In relation to the focus of this study, openness to experience moderated the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking. However, the correlation between openness to experience and creative thinking was stronger for urban children than for rural children, and the moderating effect existed only in urban settings. PMID:27199866

  7. An overview of Chinese agricultural and rural engagement in Tanzania:

    OpenAIRE

    Bräutigam, Deborah; Tang, Xiaoyang

    2012-01-01

    The recent expansion of Chinese economic engagement in Africa is often poorly documented and not well understood. This paper is the second in an IFPRI-sponsored effort to better understand Chinese engagement in Africa’s agricultural sector. A clearer picture of Chinese activities in agriculture is important as a foundation for Africans and their development partners to more fruitfully engage with an increasingly important actor. Chinese engagement in agriculture and rural development in Tan...

  8. Nutrition in Chinese-Korean Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xiao Jian; XU Ya Tao; JI Liu; JI Cheng Ye

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the nutrition habits among Chinese-Korean children and adolescents in Yanbian Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin, China. MethodsData were obtained from the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 for Chinese-Korean children and adolescents aged 7-18 years.The number of the subjects included was 4789, 4704, 5875, and 5315, respectively. ResultsThe rate of the occurrence of stunting showed a declining trend from 1995 to 2010 (for boys:urban, 6.3%; rural, 12.7% in 1995 and 3.5% for both in 2010. For girls: urban, 7.8%; rural, 13.4% in 1995 and 4.2% and 5.5%, respectively, in 2010). Although the ratio of wasting did not show significant differences between the urban and rural children and adolescents in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 respectively, the ratio of occurrence of overweight or obesity increased (for boys: urban, 7.3% and 1.3%in 1995, 17.6% and 12.9% in 2010; rural, 7.0% and 1.3% in 1995, 14.6% and 12.8% in 2010, respectively. For girls: urban, 8.1% and 1.0% in 1995, 17.3% and 8.6% in 2010; rural 5.7% and 0.7% in 1995, 16.4%and 7.4% in 2010, respectively). ConclusionThe ratio of malnutrition in children and adolescents in Chinese-Korean areas declined from 1995 to 2010, and the distinction in malnutrition between the urban and rural areas was negligible in 2010. Further, the ratio of overweight and obesity increased over this period.

  9. Chinese Rural labors Transfer under the Coordination of Urban-Rural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The strategic significance of Chinese rural labor transfer is expounded.It is conducive to solving the three agricultural problems concerning agriculture,rural areas,and farmers and coordinating the urban and rural development;promoting the rational distribution of human resources and realizing the growth of national economy;restructuring industrial structure and improving Chinese market competitiveness.The problems in the transfer of Chinese rural labors are analyzed,which include the low overall cultural level of rural labors;imperfect organization developmental;weak management mechanism and imperfect supporting measures.The rational paths for Chinese rural labor transfer are pointed out,including break the urban and rural dual structure and realize the free move of rural labors;strengthen the organization construction to provide high-quality socialized service for rural labor transfer;perfect security system to foster favorable social environment for rural labor transfer;establish scientific management mechanism to realize the sustainable rural labor transfer.

  10. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  11. Death reason analysis of Chinese 5 ~ 14 years children in rural and urban areas in 2008%2008年我国5~14岁城乡儿童死亡原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿庆山; 刘贵浩; 薛允莲

    2010-01-01

    .Conclusion High-risk death reasons for Chinese 5 to 14 year-old children in 2008 are the same, but disease threat on the death of are in varying degrees ,which shows urban-rural and gender differences.

  12. Rural-Urban Differences of Dietary Patterns, Overweight, and Bone Mineral Status in Chinese Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Tian-Jiao; Bai, Ming-Jie

    2016-01-01

    China is an urban and rural social model country. In the past three decades, the developing speed of rural areas has been much slower than urban areas, which may lead to the differences in dietary patterns. This study aimed to investigate the disparities of dietary structures from urban and rural children, and to analyze the effects of different dietary patterns on their adverse outcome. Among 1590 students, aged 11 years to 17 years, from primary and middle schools, a cross-sectional study was conducted. There were three dietary patterns recognized: Westernization structure, meat diet structure, and Western and Chinese structure. Compared with rural students, more urban students were in the highest categories of the whole dietary patterns (p obesity and central adiposity were more prevailing among urban students, while rural students had a more prevailing risk of bone fracture (p obesity and central adiposity, the meat structure could increase the risk of elevated blood pressure/hypertension, while the risk of low bone mineral quality could be reduced by the Chinese and Western structure. In conclusion, a rural-urban disparity in dietary patterns was found in our study, and different dietary patterns were associated with the risk of some adverse outcomes. Therefore, there were different prevalences of the adverse outcomes between rural and urban students. PMID:27608038

  13. Young Chinese ESL Children's Home Literacy Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong

    1999-01-01

    Describes home literacy experiences of six Chinese English-as-a-second-language kindergartners. Includes the parents' provision of literate home environments as well as children's functional use of Chinese and English and engagement in Chinese and English literacy activities. Indicates the diverse and cultural nature of the home literacy…

  14. Chinese rural reform:experience,problems and the future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊

    2009-01-01

    Chinese rural reform has made great achievements and accumulated a wealth of experience since the beginning of reform and opening up 30 years ago.At the core is the rapid and sustained development of the national economy.Currently,there are obstacles in rural reform;for example,the supply and demand of primary products are frequently out of balance,shortages of rural labor occur thanks to structural problems on the supply side,and the equality system between rural and urban citizens has yet to be established.Therefore,to make important breakthroughs,we must change our ideas of controlling the food market;we must improve rural land policy, loosen rural financial supervision,adjust the fiscal expense structure,protect farmers’ legal rights and interests,accelerate the building-up of democracy at the grassroots level,and intensify overall planning and coordination.

  15. The Impact of Changes in Chinese Government Policy on Rural-Urban Migrant Children’s Schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Li; Peggy L. Placier

    2015-01-01

    In this policy analysis we will explicate changes in policies affecting the ability of Chinese rural-urban migrantfamilies to gain access to public school education for their children. We argue that these changes are traceable toa contradiction between the transformation of government economic policies in the period since 1978, whichencouraged rural surplus labor force to move to urban areas seeking job opportunities; and the Hukou policy,which continued to label migrants as “urban outsiders”...

  16. The Dynamics of Chinese Rural Households' Participation in Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Glauben, Thomas; Herzfeld, Thomas; Wang, Xiaobing

    2006-01-01

    The work focuses on the frequency of each possible transition between labor market participation regimes of rural Chinese households. A continuous hazard approach is applied to empirically evaluate factors, as household, farm, and regional characteristics affecting the frequency of transition between labor market participation states. Results suggest that there are frequent changes of labor market participations regimes among the househo lds. Given the change in external conditions and other ...

  17. Urban Teachers' Perceptions of Inclusion of Migrant Children in the Chinese Educational Institution: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Holmes, Kathryn; Albright, James

    2015-01-01

    Recently China has been undergoing an unprecedented urbanisation process which has resulted in millions of rural families living in urban areas. As part of a study of Chinese migrant children's educational experiences, surveys and interviews were conducted with primary school teachers in a metropolitan city in East China. The objectives of this…

  18. Enlightenment from ancient Chinese urban and rural stormwater management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che; Qiao, Mengxi; Wang, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of years ago, the ancient Chinese implemented several outstanding projects to cope with the changing climate and violent floods. Some of these projects are still in use today. These projects evolved from the experience and knowledge accumulated through the long coexistence of people with nature. The concepts behind these ancient stormwater management practices, such as low-impact development and sustainable drainage systems, are similar to the technology applied in modern stormwater management. This paper presents the cases of the Hani Terrace in Yunnan and the Fushou drainage system of Ganzhou in Jiangxi. The ancient Chinese knowledge behind these cases is seen in the design concepts and the features of these projects. These features help us to understand better their applications in the contemporary environment. In today's more complex environment, integrating traditional and advanced philosophy with modern technologies is extremely useful in building urban and rural stormwater management systems in China. PMID:23552234

  19. Progress of Younger Children Learning Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihong; Sisson, Keith; Kung, Hsiang-te

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out how young children can learn, understand, and progress in the Chinese language. This study focuses on 13 students between two and three years old. The data collection methods used classroom observation, benchmarks, and parent questionnaires about at home behavior. The data analysis used is qualitative…

  20. Nutritional status of rural Bolivian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, B W; Krober, M S; Gloyd, S S; Kozakowski, M; Casey, L

    1993-06-01

    While providing health care in rural Bolivia, 349 children under 4 years old were seen. Height and weight were measured and demographic data obtained. The purpose was to describe the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated socioeconomic factors. The sample included Mataco Indians and Bolivians of European or of mixed descent. Using international standards, 21% of the children had weight below the fifth percentile for age; 27% had height below the fifth percentage for age; 17% were below the fifth percentile for weight/height. Malnutrition was more common in younger children (peak prevalence in 1-2 year olds). Malnutrition was associated with race and water source, but not with family size, literacy, immunizations, meals per day, or deaths in family. Attempts to improve nutrition should focus on the youngest children. PMID:8361590

  1. Multiple regression analysis of the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households during 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Da, Wa; Xiao, Hong; Zhuo, Ma

    2009-01-01

    We use the regression analysis method of multivariate statistical analysis to establish a multiple linear regression model about the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households during the year 2007. This paper analyzes the internal relation between the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households according to the regression result. Some reasonable suggestions are put forward for raising the income of rural households and stimulating consumption.

  2. Sun exposure patterns of urban, suburban, and rural children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede;

    2015-01-01

    than rural children. Differences in UVR exposure doses were from high exposure days (e.g. beach days) outside Denmark. Suburban children had a total UVR exposure similar to rural children (suburban: median 109.4 SED, rural: median 103.1 SED), with days spent abroad contributing greatly to the total UVR...... exposure dose (total UVR on days spent abroad: suburban: median 48.0 SED, rural: median 8.0 SED). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in sun exposure patterns exist between children from different areas and may be the background for higher skin cancer incidences in urban populations....

  3. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  4. The Supply-Demand Analysis and Mechanism Innovation of Chinese Rural Public Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The connotation of rural public goods is expounded.The rural public goods refer to the products and labors that satisfy the production and living of rural residents,economic growth and social progress.The rural public goods is characterized by non-excludability,non-competitiveness and indispensability of other general public goods.The supply situation of Chinese government to rural public goods is analyzed,as well as the demand situation of rural public goods,which includes farmers’ demand on training,the assistance demand of rural weak groups,farmers’ demand on comfortable living conditions and farmers’ demand on "soft" public goods.The paths for innovating the supply mechanism of rural public goods are put forward,which cover perfecting the decision mechanism of public goods supply;scientifically distributing the supply responsibility of rural public goods;facilitating the reform of each supporting equipment and exploring the multiple capital collecting channels of rural public goods.

  5. Education of Children Left behind in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao

    2012-01-01

    Despite China's substantial internal migration, long-standing rural-urban bifurcation has prompted many migrants to leave their children behind in rural areas. This study examined the consequences of out-migration for children's education using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (N = 885). This study took into account the…

  6. A study of food buying behavior among Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.; Li, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports a study on food buying behaviour among Chinese children aged between 10-13 years old. There are two important findings. Firstly, the growing influence of commercial environment. During the learning of consumer behaviour by Chinese children, the parental role of guidance remains prominent, and their recommendations have a decisive impact on children’s food choices. Secondly, the perceived importance of product attributes. Chinese children tend to pay more attention to nutr...

  7. Energy Service Demand Projections and CO2 Reduction Potentials in Rural Households in 31 Chinese Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xing

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Until 2012, most of China’s population lived in rural areas with markedly different patterns of household energy consumption from those in Chinese cities. The studies so far done on residential energy use in rural Chinese households have been limited to questionnaire surveys and panel data analyses. Hardly any studies on energy demand in rural areas have considered both the climatic and economic disparities across Chinese regions. In this study we conduct a systematic analysis of the rural Chinese residential sector on a regional basis. We begin by developing a macro-model to estimate energy service demands up to 2050. Next, we apply the AIM(Asia-Pasific Integrated Model/Enduse model, a bottom-up cost-minimization model with a detailed mitigation technology database, to estimate the mitigation potential of low-carbon technologies in rural China. Our results show that energy service demand in the rural household sector will continue to increase in regions with growing population or income conditions. However, after 2030, the rural residential energy service demand will start to decline in most Chinese regions. The impacts of efficient technologies will vary from one region to the next due to regional climatic and economic disparities. Throughout all of China, the penetration of efficient technologies can reduce CO2 emissions by 20% to 50%. Of the technologies available, efficient lighting, biomass water heaters, and efficient electronics bring the most benefit when implemented in rural households.

  8. Differences in lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Xiaofan; Zheng Liqiang; Li Yang; Yu Shasha; Sun Guozhe; Yang Hongmei; Zhou Xinghu; Zhang Xingang; Sun Zhaoqing; Sun Yingxian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pediatric obesity has become a global public health problem. Data on the lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors of overweight and obese children and adolescents are limited. The present study aims to compare health-related factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study consisted of 4262 children and adolescents aged 5–18 years old from rural areas of the northeast China. A...

  9. Secular Changes of Stature in Rural Children and Adolescents in China, 1985-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tian Jiao; JI Cheng Ye

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze and assess secular change in stature in rural children and adolescents in China from 1985 to 2010. Methods Data were obtained from the 6 rounds of the Chinese National Survey on Student’s Constitution and Health. The subjects enrolled in the study were children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in rural areas of provincial capitals. Results An overall positive secular trend in stature occurred in rural areas of provincial capitals in China from 1985 to 2010. The overall average increase rates were 3.1 and 2.4 cm/decade for boys and girls, respectively. The total body height increases for grown up boys and girls were 3.6 and 2.3 cm and the increase rates were 1.4 and 0.9 cm/decade, respectively. There were differences in body height increase among eastern, central and western regions. The average body height of the children or adolescents in eastern region was highest, followed by central region and western region. The overall increase rates in central region were highest among the three regions. The difference between eastern/central region and western region was obvious. Conclusion Positive secular trend in stature of children or adolescents has occurred in rural area of China, and rural boys and girls showed a great potential for continuous growth. More attention should be paid to the differences in children’s body height between western region and eastern/central region.

  10. Multitasking performance of Chinese children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C K; Guo, Miaoyan; Zou, Xiaobing; Li, Dan; Hu, Zhouyi; Yang, Binrang

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore multitasking skills in a Chinese sample of 22 children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with 22 healthy controls matched by gender, age, and IQ. All of the participants completed the children's version of the Six Elements Test (C-SET) and neuropsychological tests that captured specific domains of attention, memory, and executive function. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse than the healthy controls in all domains except the number of rules broken in the C-SET. The majority of the C-SET domain scores correlated significantly with measures of executive function. The ADHD group also demonstrated deficits in various neurocognitive test performances compared with the healthy group. This preliminary study suggests that the C-SET is sensitive to multitasking behavior in Chinese children with ADHD. The main impairments of multitasking behavior in this clinical group involve the inhibition of goal-directed planning, flexible strategy generation, and self-monitoring. PMID:16981611

  11. Patterns and Determinants of Double-Burden of Malnutrition among Rural Children: Evidence from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    Full Text Available Chinese children are facing dual burden of malnutrition-coexistence of under-and over-nutrition. Little systematic evidence exists for explaining the simultaneous presence of under-and over-nutrition. This study aims to explore underlying mechanisms of under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. This study used a nationwide longitudinal dataset of children (N = 5,017 from 9 provinces across China, with four exclusively categories of nutritional outcomes including under-nutrition (stunting and underweight, over-nutrition (overweight only including obesity, paradox (stunted overweight, with normal nutrition as reference. Multinomial logit models (Level-1: occasions; Level-2: children; Level-3: villages were fitted which corrected for non-independence of observations due to geographic clustering and repeated observations of individuals. A mixture of risk factors at the individual, household and neighbourhood levels predicted under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. Improved socioeconomic status and living in more urbanised villages reduced the risk of stunted overweight among rural children in China. Young girls appeared to have higher risk of under-nutrition, and the risk decreased with age more markedly than for boys up to age 5. From age 5 onwards, boys tended to have higher risk of under-nutrition than girls. Girls aged around 12 and older were less likely to suffer from under-nutrition, while boys' higher risk of under-nutrition persisted throughout adolescence. Children were less likely to suffer from over-nutrition compared to normal nutrition. Boys tended to have an even lower risk of over-nutrition than girls and the gender difference widened with age until adolescence. Our results have important policy implications that improving household economic status, in particular, maternal education and health insurance for children, and living environment are important to enhance rural children's nutritional status in

  12. A comparative study on the extracurricularreading environment of urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaozhao; DENG; Haiyan; YAO; Shubei; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: So far, there have been few studies that discussed children’s reading environment in China’s poverty-stricken areas, this study aims to explore differences existed in extracurricular reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area with empirical evidence.Design/methodology/approach: Using a questionnaire survey, empirical data was collected from 105 participants. Then proposed hypotheses and the reliability of the observation variables were respectively examined with ANOVA and factor analysis. The statistical analysis software SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data.Findings: Our results showed that 1) differences did exist in school and social reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area; 2) differences in family reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area were not obviously observed.Research limitations: The empirical data were collected from only one county of Chongqing Reservoir Area, which may have partially affected the generalization of our conclusions. In addition, the response rate of questionnaires was comparatively low due to a relatively limited research period. Practical implications: This study would provide some reference for governments, libraries, schools and families to consider how to jointly narrow the gap in the extracurricular reading circumstance between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area.Originality value: This is one of the first studies to explore similarities and differences in extracurricular reading environment between urban and rural children in Chinese povertystricken areas, which will help research communities to gain a deeper understanding of children’s reading environment in Chinese Reservoir Area.

  13. Imparting Cultural Values to Chinese Children through Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenyi; Morrison, Johnetta W.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the occurrence of modernization and globalization in Chinese society over the last few decades, the content of 145 stories, published in the most popular Chinese children's story magazine from the 1980s to the present, were examined for the representation of cultural values. The presence of Chinese, Western and social-moral values in…

  14. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  15. 看护人营养知识与儿童饮食行为的关系%Relationship between caregivers' nutritional knowledge and children's dietary behavior in Chinese rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾嵘; 罗家有; 谭彩; 杜其云; 张维敏; 李艳萍

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨我国农村地区看护人营养知识与儿童饮食行为的关系.方法:采用询问调查方法,对随机选择的3361名看护人及其所照看儿童(2~7岁)进行问卷调查;采用logistic回归分析方法分析看护人营养知识与儿童饮食行为的关系.结果:看护人营养知识知晓率为57.9%;儿童不良饮食行为发生率:不喝牛奶79.6%,偏食挑食66.0%,吃零食84.1%,不吃早餐24.4%,不按时就餐13.7%; Logistic回归分析结果显示:看护人营养知识水平低是其所照看儿童不饮食行为(吃零食除外),如不喝牛奶(OR=1.665)、偏食挑食(OR=1.338)、不吃早餐(OR=1.330)和不按时就餐(OR=1.582)等的危险因素.结论:看护人营养知识与儿童不良饮食行为有关,应大力开展看护人营养知识健康教育,以促进儿童养成良好的饮食行为.%Objective: To explore the relationship between caregivers' nutritional knowledge and children's dietary behavior in rural areas of China.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted.3361 rural caregivers and their children,aged 2 to 7 years old,were selected randomly and surveyed by questionnaire.Logistic regression models were used to identify the relationship between caregivers' nutritional knowledge and the children's dietary behaviors.Results: The awareness level of nutritional knowledge among rural caregivers was 57.9%; among the children surveyed,79.6% did not like to drink milk,66.0% were considered choosy of food,84.1% regularly snacked,24.4% frequently skipped breakfast,and 13.7% did not come to meals on time.Logistic regression models indicated that a caregiver with a low level of nutritional knowledge is a risk factor for a child's unhealth dietary behaviors (snacking excepted): the odds ratios (OR) of not liking to drink milk,being choosy about food,skipping breakfast or not having meals on time are 1.665,1.338,1.330 and 1.582,respectively.Conclusion: Caregivers' nutritional knowledge

  16. Reaching Rural Handicapped Children: The Transportation Situation in Rural Service Delivery. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jamie; And Others

    Almost everyone who responded to three transportation surveys of rural Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (HCEEP) projects identified transportation as a critical problem in the delivery of services to handicapped children in rural areas. Transportation problems encountered were attributed to environmental/geographic factors,…

  17. Chinese children's experiences of biliteracy learning in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Andrew John

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the experiences of Chinese children acquiring literacy in both Chinese and English in Scotland. A three-dimensional research design is adopted in order to take into account the influential domains where children are exposed to literacy learning. First, it investigates the attitudes and approaches to literacy learning in fourteen Chinese homes, with evidence gathered from semi-structured interviews with parents. Second, observations of and conversations with...

  18. Tips for Teachers to Help Bilingual Chinese Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Xu, Yili

    2012-01-01

    Teachers of young children in Chinese immigrant families need to help children become proficient in English (ESL) while affirming the children's bilingual abilities. Pictures, gestures, pantomimes, and props as well as specific input of school-related words help bilingual young children learn English. Teachers read storybooks in English while…

  19. Prevalence and Treatment of Children's Asthma in Rural Areas Compared with Urban Areas in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma in children was lower in rural areas compared with children in the urban area of Beijing. A considerable number of children were not diagnosed and inadequately treated in rural areas.

  20. Children and the youth in rural Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    NARCISO, GAIA; Newman, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Structural transformation in rural Viet Nam has led to rising incomes and a diversification of livelihoods away from agriculture. Using panel data on children in 2,181 rural households surveyed over the 2008-14 period, we examine how the welfare of children has been impacted by structural transformation. Our analysis depicts a society that has made great progress towards improving child welfare which can in part be linked to the empowerment of women that has accompanied the transformation pro...

  1. Research and Analysis on Difference in Per Capita Net Income of Chinese Rural Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; XUE; Yeping; ZHU; Huili; YUE

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to understand the variation of difference in per capita net income of rural residents during China’s economic development in recent years. The writer studies and analyzes rural residents’ income gap between 1997 and 2008 with relevant theories of income difference and the calculation of absolute difference index as well as relative difference index and obtains the conclusion that absolute difference of Chinese rural residents’ income experienced an upward trend while relative difference generally remained constant with slight fluctuation and growth, which reflects that rural residents’ income gap is increasing gradually. The writer also puts forward some related proposals and countermeasures.

  2. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung

    2004-01-01

    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  3. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  4. Mathematics achievement of Chinese, Japanese, and American children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    American kindergarten children lag behind Japanese children in their understanding of mathematics; by fifth grade they are surpassed by both Japanese and Chinese children. Efforts to isolate bases for these differences involved testing children on other achievement and cognitive tasks, interviewing mothers and teachers, and observing children in their classrooms. Cognitive abilities of children in the three countries are similar, but large differences exist in the children's life in school, the attitudes and beliefs of their mothers, and the involvement of both parents and children in schoolwork

  5. Psychometric Intelligence and Adaptive Competence in Rural Phillippine Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. Timothy; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Psychometric intelligence and adaptive competence constructs were compared in five- to seven-year-old children in a rural Phillippine barrio. Individualized psychometric subtests of intelligence, indigenous with respect to content, and a form for obtaining adults' ratings of children's adaptive competencies, were developed. (Author/LMO)

  6. Children as Catalysts of Change: Children's Participation in Rural Development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Caroline

    1995-01-01

    Presents information on the participation of children in effecting change in their lives and their communities in The Concerned for Working Children rural project in Karnataka, India. Discusses the concept of a children's trade union and the nature of community participation in empowering children to lead self-reliant lives. (AIM)

  7. Health Shocks and Children's School Attainments in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ang; Yao, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Using a long panel dataset of Chinese farm households covering the period of 1987-2002, this paper studies how major health shocks happening to household adults affect children's school attainments. We find that primary school-age children are the most vulnerable to health shocks, with their chances to enter middle school dropping by 9.9…

  8. Risk factors for psychopathology among Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Kurita, H; Sun, Z; Wang, F

    1999-08-01

    The present study was designed to examine the family environment and child characteristics associated with psychopathology among Chinese children. A large epidemiological sample of 1695 children aged 6-11 was drawn from 12 elementary schools in Linyi Prefecture of China. Parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist, the Family Environment Scale, and a self-administered questionnaire including a number of items with regard to family, parental, and child characteristics. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of child psychopathology was 17.2%. Logistic regression analyses showed that a number of family and parental, as well as prenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors had significant association with child psychopathology. The most notable risks were derived from poor parental rearing with regard to the child's misbehaviour, low birthweight, and poor marital relations of the parents after controlling for other factors. These findings are consistent with previously reported risk factors for child psychopathology, highlighting the importance of family and early childhood intervention as a measure to prevent child psychopathology in China. PMID:10498232

  9. Lexical Tone Awareness among Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wing-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8 ; 11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8 ; 11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control…

  10. Revisiting a Dramatic Triangle: The State, Villagers, and Social Activists in Chinese Rural Reconstruction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Stig Thøgersen

    2010-01-01

    As part of the movement to “construct a new socialist countryside”, Chinese officials and social activists are experimenting with transforming rural social and economic relations. They often draw on discourses dating back to the Rural Reconstruction Movement of the 1920s and 1930s, which saw urban intellectuals making similar efforts to modernize the villages and their inhabitants. This paper analyses the different types of relationships between the state, social activists, and villagers in a...

  11. Desiring mobiles, desiring education: mobile phones and families in a rural Chinese Town

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, T.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter draws on ethnographic data to examine the relationship between mobile communication technologies (especially mobile phones) and learning in a small rural town in north China. Building on a wide body of literature that emphasises the enduring importance of education within Chinese culture, this chapter demonstrates how contemporary attitudes towards learning become constructed and expressed through mobile phone use. The chapter illustrates how most rural parents regard mobile phon...

  12. Malariometric Indices among Nigerian Children in a Rural Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Udoh, Ekong E.; Angela E. Oyo-ita; Odey, Friday A.; Eyong, Komomo I.; Chioma M. Oringanje; Oduwole, Olabisi A.; Okebe, Joseph U.; Ekpereonne B. Esu; Meremikwu, Martin M; Asindi A. Asindi

    2013-01-01

    Malaria contributes to high childhood morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. To determine its endemicity in a rural farming community in the south-south of Nigeria, the following malariometric indices, namely, malaria parasitaemia, spleen rates, and anaemia were evaluated in children aged 2–10 years. This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey among school-age children residing in a rubber plantation settlement. The children were selected from six primary schools using a multistaged stratified...

  13. Asthma and Atopy in Rural Children: Is Farming Protective?

    OpenAIRE

    Allison L Naleway

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and other atopic diseases has recently increased, especially in urban and modernized regions of the world. The majority of published prevalence surveys report that asthma and atopy are less common among children living in rural areas. While many exposures differ in rural and urban areas of the world, several recent studies have suggested that agricultural exposures in early childhood may decrease the risk of developing atopic disease. Livestock exposure, in particular...

  14. Research and Analysis on Difference in Per Capita Net Income of Chinese Rural Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Yan; ZHU, Yeping; YUE, Huili

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to understand the variation of difference in per capita net income of rural residents during China’s economic development in recent years. The writer studies and analyzes rural residents’ income gap between 1997 and 2008 with relevant theories of income difference and the calculation of absolute difference index as well as relative difference index and obtains the conclusion that absolute difference of Chinese rural residents’ income experienced an upward trend while rela...

  15. Access to farming pesticides and risk for suicide in Chinese rural young people

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Yuanyuan; Jie ZHANG

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death in individuals 15–34 years of age in China. Highly lethal pesticides are a common method used for suicide in Chinese rural areas. This case-control study aimed to test hypotheses concerning the suicide risks associated with pesticide access. Subjects included 370 rural completed suicides aged 15 to 34 years and 370 living controls matched on age, gender, and residence (rural/urban location). Data were collected by a psychological autopsy design with proxy r...

  16. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  17. Maternal Education and Micro-Geographic Disparities in Nutritional Status among School-Aged Children in Rural Northwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Cuili; Kane, Robert L.; Xu, Dongjuan; Li, Lingui; Guan, Weihua; Li, Hui; Meng, Qingyue

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas) in a Chinese minority area. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nu...

  18. The Voices of Thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese Parents Sharing Views about their Children Attending Chinese Heritage Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Li-yuan; Larke, Patrica J.

    2008-01-01

    Many Chinese and Taiwanese parents in the United States see benefits of Chinese schools in providing their children the opportunity to learn Chinese culture and language. The results of this qualitative study involving interviews with thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese parents indicated that there were three main reasons why parents want to send their…

  19. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  20. Psychometric Characteristics of the Duke Social Support Index in a Young Rural Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cunxian; Zhang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Duke Social Support Scale (DSSI) in young rural Chinese individuals (379 suicides, 411 controls) aged 15-34 years. Social support was measured by 23-item DSSI, which included Social Interaction Scale, Subjective Social Support, and Instrumental Social Support. DSSI had high…

  1. Predictors of Physical Functioning Trajectories among Chinese Oldest Old Adults: Rural and Urban Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Park, Nan Sook; Klemmack, David L.; Roff, Lucinda L.; Li, Zhihong

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the differences between rural/urban older adults in their trajectories of activities of daily living (ADL) over a 4-year period. The sample included 2,490 community dwelling older adults who completed three waves (1998, 2000, and 2002) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Among them, 63.5% were from rural…

  2. Humour among Chinese and Greek Preschool Children in Relation to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Zhang, XiangKui; Wang, Yong; Xeromeritou, Aphrodite

    2011-01-01

    The researchers studied humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development. The sample included 55 Chinese children and 50 Greek children ages 4½ to 5½ years. Results showed that both Chinese and Greek children's humour recognition were significantly and positively correlated to their cognitive development,…

  3. Phonological Development in Specific Contexts: Studies of Chinese-Speaking Children. Child Language and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhu

    This book examines the phonological development and impairment of Chinese-speaking children. It contains a series of studies of phonological acquisition and development of children in specific contexts (Putonghua or Modern Standard Chinese, the language variety promoted by the Chinese government, and normally developing children, children with…

  4. Developmental Dyscalculia and Low Numeracy in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Au, Terry K.; Tang, Joey

    2013-01-01

    Children struggle with mathematics for different reasons. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy--two kinds of mathematical difficulties--may have their roots, respectively, in poor understanding of exact non-symbolic numerosities and of symbolic numerals. This study was the first to explore whether Chinese children, despite cultural and…

  5. Chinese and American Children's Knowledge of Basic Relational Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Boehm, Ann E.

    This study compared the performance of 300 Chinese children on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised (BTBC-R) with that of American children from the standardization sample of the BTBC-R. Subjects were in kindergarten, first, and second grade, and completed the test at the end of the 1996-97 school year. The focus of the comparison was to…

  6. Chinese Parenting Styles and Children's Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Prochner, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is an important aspect of student learning and academic achievement. Certain parenting styles help children develop self-regulated learning and encourage them to exert control over their own learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Chinese parenting style and children's involvement in…

  7. Social and Psychological Adjustment of Chinese Canadian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined social and psychological adjustment of immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese children in Canada. Participants included a sample of elementary school children (N = 356, M age = 11 years). Data on social functioning, peer relationships, school-related social competence, perceived self-worth, and loneliness were collected from peer…

  8. Comparison of psychomotor development in urban and rural preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amouzadeh Khalili

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Baekgrouund & purpose: The purpose of this study was comparing the motor and cognitive development of urban and rural preschool children in Semnan, Iran.Materials and Methods: 97 healthy preschool children participated in the study, including 57 urban (n1=57 and 40 rural (n2=40 children.6 assessment methods including equilibrium on one leg, drawing a man, Juorchin, fekr-e-bekr, equilibrium board and the test of easy fine motor, were employed to evaluate the motor and cognitive development in the participants.For analysis of the obtained results t tests was used to determine significant differences between the two groups.Results:equilibrium on one leg and the test of easy fine motor, considering there was significant differences between, urban and rural groups.In the other four tests there was no significant differences between the two groups.Conclusion: the findings indicated that the rural children have more success in motor skills when compared to urban children, while in cognitive tests the two groups showed the same results, indicating. That revision is required for the preschool programme

  9. Patterns and Determinants of Double-Burden of Malnutrition among Rural Children: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Bécares, Laia; Chandola, Tarani

    2016-01-01

    Chinese children are facing dual burden of malnutrition—coexistence of under-and over-nutrition. Little systematic evidence exists for explaining the simultaneous presence of under-and over-nutrition. This study aims to explore underlying mechanisms of under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. This study used a nationwide longitudinal dataset of children (N = 5,017) from 9 provinces across China, with four exclusively categories of nutritional outcomes including under-nutrition (stunting and underweight), over-nutrition (overweight only including obesity), paradox (stunted overweight), with normal nutrition as reference. Multinomial logit models (Level-1: occasions; Level-2: children; Level-3: villages) were fitted which corrected for non-independence of observations due to geographic clustering and repeated observations of individuals. A mixture of risk factors at the individual, household and neighbourhood levels predicted under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. Improved socioeconomic status and living in more urbanised villages reduced the risk of stunted overweight among rural children in China. Young girls appeared to have higher risk of under-nutrition, and the risk decreased with age more markedly than for boys up to age 5. From age 5 onwards, boys tended to have higher risk of under-nutrition than girls. Girls aged around 12 and older were less likely to suffer from under-nutrition, while boys’ higher risk of under-nutrition persisted throughout adolescence. Children were less likely to suffer from over-nutrition compared to normal nutrition. Boys tended to have an even lower risk of over-nutrition than girls and the gender difference widened with age until adolescence. Our results have important policy implications that improving household economic status, in particular, maternal education and health insurance for children, and living environment are important to enhance rural children’s nutritional status in China

  10. Rural Cherokee Children with Disabilities: Parental Stories of Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandura, Collette

    2013-01-01

    Parents of Cherokee children with disabilities encounter educational agencies from their child's birth to adulthood. Living rurally within the Cherokee Nation's jurisdictional boundaries, these indigenous families engage with a myriad of special education agencies and subsequent policies. This qualitative study explores parental…

  11. "Phronesis": Children's Local Rural Knowledge of Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Leanne M.; Kassam, Karim-Aly

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes videotaped interviews and 407 photographs taken by 20 grade 5 and 6 students in rural New York State to document their science and engineering learning. Aristotle's concept of phronesis or practical wisdom frames the findings and their implications. Key findings indicate that: (1) All 20 children found examples of science and…

  12. Opera as an Intervention for Rural Public School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Pearl Yeadon

    2003-01-01

    Describes Southwest Missouri State University's efforts to transform opera from an event that the audience simply watches to an event that stimulates life-long learning and interest in the arts for rural public school children. The project incorporates elements of experiential and interactive learning to benefit both the student performers and the…

  13. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  14. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  15. Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Hui; Yang, Yang; Chen, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia. PMID:27047403

  16. Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia. PMID:27047403

  17. Anomalous cerebellar anatomy in Chinese children with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hui eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia (DD claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia.

  18. Association of ambient air quality with children`s lung function in urban and rural Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgari, M.M.; Dubois, A.; Beckett, W.S. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Asgari, M. [Shaheed Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gent, J. [John B. Pierce Lab., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1998-05-01

    During the summer of 1994, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, in which the pulmonary function of children in Tehran was compared with pulmonary function in children in a rural town in Iran, was conducted. Four hundred children aged 5--11 y were studied. Daytime ambient nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter were measured with portable devices, which were placed in the children`s neighborhoods on the days of study. Levels of these ambient substances were markedly higher in urban Tehran than in rural areas. Children`s parents were questioned about home environmental exposures (including heating source and environmental tobacco smoke) and the children`s respiratory symptoms. Pulmonary function was assessed, both by spirometry and peak expiratory flow meter. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity--as a percentage of predicted for age, sex and height--were significantly lower in urban children than in rural children. Both measurements evidenced significant reverse correlations with levels of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. Differences in spirometric lung function were not explained by nutritional status, as assessed by height and weight for age, or by home environmental exposures. Reported airway symptoms were higher among rural children, whereas reported physician diagnosis of bronchitis and asthma were higher among urban children. The association between higher pollutant concentrations and reduced pulmonary function in this urban-rural comparison suggests that there is an effect of urban air pollution on short-term lung function and/or lung growth and development during the preadolescent years.

  19. Psychosocial Effects of Fractured Anterior Teeth among Rural Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Mohan; Teja, Ravi; Paulindraraj, Shankar; Vallabhaneni, Sai K; Arumugam, Selva B

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of the study is to determine how rural children view children with visible incisor fracture. Materials and methods: Class 7 (aged 11-12 years) and class 10 (aged 14-15 years) schoolchildren (the participants) were invited to make a social judgment about the color photograph of two children (the subjects). Participants were randomly allocated either (i) pictures of children without incisor fracture or (ii) pictures of the same children whose photographs had been digitally modified to visible incisor fracture. Using a child-centered questionnaire, participants rated subjects using a four-point Likert scale for three negative and six positive attributes. Total attribute scores were tested for significant differences, according to whether the subject had visible incisor fracture or not, using multivariate analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Results: Both class 7 and 10 children rated subjects with visible incisor fracture more negatively than the subjects without incisor fracture. Female participants of class 10 have rated the male subject with incisor fracture significantly negatively (p < 0.01) than male subject without incisor fracture. How to cite this article: Venkatesan R, Naveen M, Teja R, Paulindraraj S, Vallabhaneni SK, Arumugam SB. Psychosocial Effects of Fractured Anterior Teeth among Rural Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):128-130. PMID:27365933

  20. Temporal trends and recent correlates in sedentary behaviours in Chinese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibley Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviours (television, video and computer are related to health outcomes independent of physical activity. Few studies have examined trends and correlates of sedentary behaviours among youth in developing nations. The current study is to examine temporal trends in sedentary behaviours and recent correlates of screen use in Chinese children during a period of economic transition. Methods Secondary analysis of China Health and Nutrition Surveys. Cross-sectional data on sedentary behaviours including screen use among children aged 6-18 years from four surveys in 1997 (n = 2,469, 2000 (n = 1,838, 2004 (n = 1,382 and 2006 (n = 1,128. Temporal trends in screen use by socio-demographic characteristics were examined. The correlates of spending more than 2 hours per day on screen time in the most recent survey data (2006, n = 986 were analysed using survey logistic regression analysis. Results Daily screen time significantly increased in each subgroup by age, sex and urban/rural residence, with the largest increase for urban boys aged 13-18 years from 0.5 hours to 1.7 hours, and for rural boys aged 6-12 years from 0.7 hours to 1.7 hours (p Conclusion This study confirms sedentary behaviour has increased over the last decade in Chinese children. Efforts to ensure Chinese youth meet screen time guidelines include limiting access to screen technologies and encouraging parents to monitor their own screen time and to set limits on their child's screen time.

  1. Risk Factors of Learning Disabilities in Chinese Children in Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIN YAO; HAN-RONG WU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate prevalence rate of learning disabilities (LD) in Chinese children, and to explore related risk factors, and to provide theoretical basis for preventing such disabilities.Methods One thousand and one hundred fifty one children were randomly selected in primary schools. According to criteria set by ICD-10, 118 children diagnosed as LD were classified into the study group. Four hundred and ninety one children were classified into the normal control group. Five hundred and forty two children were classified into the excellent control group. The study instruments included PRS (The pupil rating scale revised screening for learning disabilities), Conners' children behavior check-list taken by parents and YG-WR character check-list. Results The prevalence rate of LD in Chinese children was 10.3%. Significant differences were observed between LD and normally learning children, and between the LD group and the excellent group, in terms of scores of Conners' behavior check-list (P<0.05). The study further showed that individual differences in character between the LD group and the control groups still existed even after controlling individual differences in age, IQ, and gender. Some possible causal explanations contributing to LD were improper teaching by parents, low educational level of the parents, and children's characteristics and social relationships. Conclusion These data underscore the fact that LD is a serious national public health problem in China. LD is resulted from a number of factors. Good studying and living environments should be created for LD children.

  2. Working Memory Differences between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and…

  3. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69 compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  4. Ecological risk model of childhood obesity in Chinese immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L

    2015-07-01

    Chinese Americans are the largest and fastest growing Asian American subgroup, increasing about one-third during the 2000s. Despite the slender Asian stereotype, nearly one-third of 6-to-11 year old Chinese American children were found to be overweight (above the 85th percentile in BMI). Importantly, unique and severe health risks are associated with being overweight/obese in Chinese. Unfortunately, Chinese immigrant children have been neglected in the literature on obesity. This review aimed to identify factors at various levels of the ecological model that may place Chinese immigrant children at risk for being overweight/obese in the U.S. Key contextual factors at the micro-, meso-, exo-, macro- and chronosystem were identified guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. The corresponding mediating and moderating processes among the factors were also reviewed and proposed. By presenting a conceptual framework and relevant research, this review can provide a basic framework for directing future interdisciplinary research in seeking solutions to childhood obesity within this understudied population. PMID:25728887

  5. Production efficiency of Chinese agriculture: evidence from rural household survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jirong; Cramer, Gail L.; Wailes, Eric J

    1996-01-01

    A shadow-price profit frontier model is developed to examine production efficiency of Chinese rural households in farming operations. The model incorporates price distortions resulting from imperfect market conditions and socioeconomic and institutional constraints, but retains the advantages of stochastic frontier properties. The shadow prices are derived through a generalized profit function estimation. The shadow-price profit frontier is then estimated and an efficiency index based on the ...

  6. Psychometric Characteristics of Duke Social Support Index in Young Rural Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Cunxian; Zhang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of Duke Social Support Scale (DSSI) in young rural Chinese individuals (379 suicides, 411 controls) aged 15–34 years. Social support was measured by 23-item DSSI which included Social Interaction Scale, Subjective Social Support and Instrumental Social Support. DSSI had high internal consistency (alphas all over .79), and correlated with hopelessness and anxiety in both samples. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the structu...

  7. Promote Democratic Citizenship among Rural Women: A Chinese NGO’s Two Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xu; Haste, Helen

    2012-01-01

    A Beijing-based non-governmental organization (NGO) strives to empower rural Chinese women and migrant girls by increasing their awareness of constitutional rights and promoting their capacities to exercise their civil and political rights. This article reports the NGO leaders’ perceptions of the goals, strategies, and challenges in their citizenship endeavor, and analyzes their educational activities in theoretical and cultural contexts. By reporting a tension between the two founding leader...

  8. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy in Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Au, Terry K. F.; Tang, Joey C Y

    2013-01-01

    Children struggle with mathematics for different reasons. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy - two kinds of mathematical difficulties - may have their roots, respectively, in poor understanding of exact non-symbolic numerosities and of symbolic numerals. This study was the first to explore whether Chinese children, despite cultural and linguistic factors supporting their mathematical learning, also showed such mathematical difficulties and whether such difficulties have measurable imp...

  9. Dental caries status of Chinese children in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, P M; Vieira, E

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dental health status of a representative sample of Johannesburg Chinese schoolchildren, all 250 attending the only Chinese school in the city. In 18 preschoolchildren, 3--5 years old, 16.7% were caries-free, mean dmft was 7.1 +/- 5.8 and labial caries was present in 33.3%. In 165 primary schoolchildren aged 5--16 years, the mean dmft was 590 +/- 3.2 with 20% of the primary dentition caries-free and the mean DMFT was 2.4 +/- 1.9 4.8% of the primary schoolchildren were caries-free. In 67 high school pupils of 11--17 years, 4.5% were caries-free and the mean DMFT score was 7.1 +/- 3.9. Caries prevalences among the Chinese were similar to corresponding groups of children of Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom and Malaysia. PMID:287589

  10. Chinese Children's Use of Subcharacter Information about Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yeqin; Wang, Qiuying; Anderson, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments involving Chinese 2nd graders and 4th graders investigated the use of subcharacter information to learn to pronounce unfamiliar semantic-phonetic compound characters. Experiment 1 confirmed that children can use the information in both tone-different and onset-different characters to learn character pronunciations and showed that…

  11. Physical Activity in the Lives of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S.; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie O. H.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the physical activity culture in the lives of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, 48 young people between the ages 9 and 16 and their parents, with different socio-economic backgrounds and geographical locations, were interviewed for this study. By applying Confucianism and postcolonialism, this study aimed to investigate…

  12. Revisiting a Dramatic Triangle: The State, Villagers, and Social Activists in Chinese Rural Reconstruction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Thøgersen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the movement to “construct a new socialist countryside”, Chinese officials and social activists are experimenting with transforming rural social and economic relations. They often draw on discourses dating back to the Rural Reconstruction Movement of the 1920s and 1930s, which saw urban intellectuals making similar efforts to modernize the villages and their inhabitants. This paper analyses the different types of relationships between the state, social activists, and villagers in a number of rural reconstruction projects. The state is still the major player in this field, but traditional top-down procedures are often perceived to be unproductive when it comes to micro-level community building, so state actors are forced to find allies among village elites and social activists.

  13. Genetic and Environmental Overlap between Chinese and English Reading-Related Skills in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Waye, Mary M. Y.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2014-01-01

    This twin study examined the relative contributions of genes and environment on 2nd language reading acquisition of Chinese-speaking children learning English. We examined whether specific skills-visual word recognition, receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonological memory, and speech discrimination-in the 1st and 2nd languages have…

  14. Prediction and Analysis of Chinese Rural Households’ Consumption Level Based on the ARIMA Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using the software SAS9.2 and the relevant data of consumption level of rural residents in China from 1952 to 2008,the ARIMA model is established.The model is used to analyze and forecast the time series of the consumption level of Chinese rural residents.The results show that in the near future,the consumption level of Chinese rural residents will be further raised.In 2012,the level will break through per capita 5 000 yuan,almost 100 times more than that in the primary time period.But consumption level does not equal to living standard.To let farmers lead a good life,the government should follow the objective laws;take the overall situation into consideration;coordinate the relations among farmers’ consumption level,national subsidies and farmers’ production enthusiasm.Therefore,The paper suggests that the historical and objective factors should be attached more importance to.Besides,raising farmers’ income and allaying farmers’ fear were effective measures in developing the consumptive potential of rural market and promoting the economic sustainable development.

  15. DETERMINANTS OF PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION AMONG RURAL PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Mangala; Subrahmanyam

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is a widespread problem in developing countries and 60 - 70% of them suffer from mild to moderate t ype. AIMS, SETTING AND DESIGN: This was a cross - sectional study in Hoskote Rural Health Centre area of Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre conducted a) to assess nutritional and health status of the anganwadi children and b) to deter mine factors contributing to protein energy maln...

  16. Intelligence and Lead Toxins in Rural Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, R. W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Hair lead content, intelligence tests, school achievement, and motor impairment assessments were obtained from 149 children aged 5 to 16. Hair lead concentration significantly discriminated between groups and significantly predicted IQ scores, independent of group classifications. Regression analyses showed a significant negative correlation…

  17. The Chinese electricity access model for rural electrification: Approach, experience and lessons for others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic and infrastructural disparities between the rural and urban communities of most developing countries in general and in terms of energy access in particular are quite glaring. China presents a good example of a developing country that has successfully embarked on rural electrification projects over the last few decades and achieved a great feat of almost 100% electrification rate (. World Energy Outlook, 2009, International Energy Agency, Paris (see IEA website at (http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/electricity.asp).)). The purpose of this paper is to find out how China has achieved this feat; how China’s rural energy projects were financed and whether China provides lessons for other countries to follow. The above questions are examined through an extensive literature review and the paper finds that unlike many other countries following the top-down approach to rural electrification, China has preferred to use a phased development through a bottom-up approach where local resources, and village level development and empowerment played an important role. While the state provided the overall guidance and financial support, the integrated rural development approach has produced local-level solutions that are subsequently integrated to produce an alternative development pathway. Strong government commitment, active local participation, technological flexibility and diversity, strong emphasis on rural development through agricultural and industrial activities and an emphasis on capacity building and training have also played an important role in the success. However, despite achieving the universal access objective, China still faces a number of issues related to rural electricity use, especially in terms of regional use patterns, long-term sustainability of supply and commercial operation of the systems. The Chinese model could serve as an inspiration for other developing countries trying to ensure universal electricity access. - Highlights: ► It

  18. Creative Writing Strategies of Young Children: Evidence from a Study of Chinese Emergent Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Zhou, Jing

    2010-01-01

    The ways in which learning graphical representations can encourage the development of creativities in Chinese young children remain to be fully explored. Previous research on children's writing focused on children's symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding Chinese young children's symbolization and creative…

  19. Do Mothers in Rural China Practice Gender Equality in Educational Aspirations for Their Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Kao, Grace; Hannum, Emily

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on a poor rural area in northwestern China and investigates whether the gender attitudes of mothers can be linked to their plans for educating their own children in the future. Using recent longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families (GSCF), a survey of rural 9-12-year-old children, families,…

  20. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klipstein-Grobusch Kerstin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. Methods The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritonal status. Results Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%, was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97. HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Conclusions This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival.

  1. Lexical tone awareness in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Li, WS; Ho, CSH

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8;11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8;11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control group, mean age 7;4) on different measures of lexical tone awareness, rhyme awareness and visual-verbal paired-associate learning. Results showed that ...

  2. HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN IN PUDUCHERRY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanta Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM: To assess the hygiene practices among rural school children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross - sectional study was conducted at Government higher secondary school in rural ar ea of Puducherry. METHODS AND MATERIAL : Around 214 children studying in standard 6 th to 8 th were randomly selected for the study during June to August 2011. The study was explained to the school children and their assent was taken before the study. They an swered the pre - designed questionnaires. Data was collected by face to face interview. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis was done by using EPI INFO 3. RESULTS: Hygiene practice of hand washing before eating was 95.33%. Only 81.31% students used sli ppers/chappals during use of toilet. Around 58.41% of students went to open field for defecation and 6.07% of students did not wash their hands after defecation. Regarding the frequency of hygiene practice, only 62.15% and 68.22% of students brushed their teeth and bathed every day respectively. The study finding also showed that only 68.69% students washed their face twice daily where as 3.27% students washed their face weekly. As regards to the materials used for hygiene practice, 93.86% of students used tooth brush & paste for brushing of teeth, 85.98% of students used soap while taking bath and 25.70% of students did not use soap for hand wash after defecation. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest the need for more hygiene practice education in rural schoo ls. Such healthy practices may help to decrease the burden of communicable diseases in rural school settings.

  3. Links between Chinese Mothers' Parental Beliefs and Responses to Children's Expression of Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated relations between parental beliefs and mothers' reported responses to their children's negative emotions. Altogether 189 Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years were interviewed in group sessions using structured questionnaires. It was found that Chinese mothers endorsed Guan, the Chinese parental beliefs. They…

  4. DETERMINANTS OF PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION AMONG RURAL PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Protein energy malnutrition (PEM is a widespread problem in developing countries and 60 - 70% of them suffer from mild to moderate t ype. AIMS, SETTING AND DESIGN: This was a cross - sectional study in Hoskote Rural Health Centre area of Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre conducted a to assess nutritional and health status of the anganwadi children and b to deter mine factors contributing to protein energy malnutrition. METHODS AND MATERIAL : 268 children under five years of age formed the study group. Interview of the mothers, clinical and anthropometric measurements of the children was conducted. RESULTS : 63.8% of the children were undernourished according to IAP classification. Multivariate analysis revealed that birth weight and anemia were significant risk factors for development of protein energy malnutrition (Odds Ratio 1.4 and 2.5 respectively. Only 26.9% of these children had received colostrum. 13.8% had received exclusive breast feeding for six months. Complementary feeding was initiated either too early (7months in 39.9% of the children. 66.7% of the children were complet ely immunized. During the study 30.2% of the children suffered from illnesses, acute respiratory infections 57(21.3%, diarrhea 10(3.7% and 14 (5.2% had viral fever, fits or acute suppurative otitis media. CONCLUSIONS : a antenatal nutrition to be improv ed to prevent low birth weight b nutrition education for mothers to prevent anemia in children c advocacy for breast feeding and appropriate complementary feeding practices by all health functionaries and anganwadi workers d nutrition and health educati on should be given for mothers to enable them to prevent protein energy malnutrition in their children KEY WORDS: protein energy malnutrition, health, under five children

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasitoses in urban and rural children of a developing country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AKM Mamunur Rashid; AKM Saifur Rashid; Abdur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare intestinal parasitoses between urban and rural children in developing countries and its related factors. Methods:Children of 1-6 years old in the urban and rural areas who had not taken antihelmenthic drugs in the last 6 months were randomly selected. Various factors were taken as variables in a preformed questionnaire. Results:Among the total 52 children, 24 were in urban and 28 were in rural group. Male/female ratio of the rural group was 1:1 and that of the urban group was 1.4:1. Average income was 12 000 taka and 4 000 taka per month in urban and rural areas, respectively. None of the rural group used sanitary latrine, whereas every one in urban group used sanitary latrine. Majority (71%) of the mothers in rural group were below the primary level of education. Majority (75%) of fathers were educated above higher secondary level in urban group. In the rural group 18 (64%) fathers had not received any education. Enterobius vermicularis was observed only in 1 (4%) stool samples of urban children but in rural group it was found in 7 (25%) of the stool samples. Enterobius vermicularis was the main parasite isolated from both groups. Exclusive breast feeding practice of less than 6 months was observed in 20 (83%) children of urban group but in rural group that of less than one year was found in 22 (78%) children. Conclusions:Intestinal parasitic infestation is mostly found in rural children. Urban children almost have no intestinal parasitoses. It has the relation with the poor sanitation, low standard of living, less parental income and education, and early weaning. Unnecessary universal deworming of the urban and rural children in developing countries should be discouraged in order to use the money economically and effectively. It can be carried out in rural children and their living standard should be improved.

  6. Serum lipid & lipoprotein profiles of obese Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, T F; Paramsothy, S; Aw, T C; Yip, W C

    1996-03-01

    The serum lipid and lipoprotein levels of 59 obese Chinese children with a mean age of 13.0 years and mean relative weight of 164.2% were analysed. Between 40% to 54% of these children had elevated lipid and lipoprotein levels and about 78% had reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) level when compared to healthy American and Japanese children. The obese children also had higher mean levels of total cholesterol (TC) and lower HDL compared to male adults in the local population. Those with elevated TC had higher mean relative weight (170% vs 159%, p obese children should be carefully screened and managed to prevent long term morbidity and mortality of coronary artery disease. PMID:10967982

  7. Theory of mind and executive function in Chinese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Shinchieh; Paik, Jae H; Miller, Patricia H; Gluck, Stephanie C; Li, Hui; Himelfarb, Igor

    2016-04-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 52(4) of Developmental Psychology (see record 2016-13852-001). In the article, there were two errors in Table 6. The coefficient between WM and Age was incorrectly set as .46; it should have been .46. Further, the coefficient between WM and Gender should be .00 instead of .00. The correct version is provided.] Cross-cultural research on children's theory of mind (ToM) understanding has raised questions about its developmental sequence and relationship with executive function (EF). The current study examined how ToM develops (using the tasks from Wellman & Liu, 2004) in relation to 2 EF skills (conflict inhibition, working memory) in 997 Chinese preschoolers (ages 3, 4, 5) in Chengdu, China. Compared with prior research with other Chinese and non-Chinese children, some general patterns in development were replicated in this sample. However, the children showed culture-specific reversals in the developmental sequence of ToM. For example, Chengdu children performed differently on the 2 false-belief tasks that were thought to be equivalent. Furthermore, conflict inhibition as well as working memory uniquely predicted ToM performance. We discuss the issues of ToM development as they relate to test items and cross-cultural-and subcultural-differences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845504

  8. Malaria in rural Mozambique. Part II: children admitted to hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macete Eusébio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterization of severe malaria cases on arrival to hospital may lead to early recognition and improved management. Minimum community based-incidence rates (MCBIRs complement hospital data, describing the malaria burden in the community. Methods A retrospective analysis of all admitted malaria cases to a Mozambican rural hospital between June 2003 and May 2005 was conducted. Prevalence and case fatality rates (CFR for each sign and symptom were calculated. Logistic regression was used to identify variables which were independent risk factors for death. MCBIRs for malaria and severe malaria were calculated using data from the Demographic Surveillance System. Results Almost half of the 8,311 patients admitted during the study period had malaria and 13,2% had severe malaria. Children under two years accounted for almost 60% of all malaria cases. CFR for malaria was 1.6% and for severe malaria 4.4%. Almost 19% of all paediatric hospital deaths were due to malaria. Prostration (55.0%, respiratory distress (41.1% and severe anaemia (17.3% were the most prevalent signs among severe malaria cases. Severe anaemia and inability to look for mother's breast were independent risk factors for death in infants younger than eight months. For children aged eight months to four years, the risk factors were malnutrition, hypoglycaemia, chest indrawing, inability to sit and a history of vomiting. MCBIRs for severe malaria cases were highest in children aged six months to two years of age. MCBIRs for severe malaria per 1,000 child years at risk for the whole study period were 27 in infants, 23 in children aged 1 to Conclusion Malaria remains the number one cause of admission in this area of rural Mozambique, predominantly affecting young children, which are also at higher risk of dying. Measures envisaged to protect children during their first two years of life are likely to have a greater impact than at any other age.

  9. Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ying-Hui; Yang, Yang; Chen, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children ...

  10. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) ...

  11. Chinese Immigrant Families and Bilingualism among Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Xu, Yili

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-five children (17 boys and 18 girls, 4 to 8 years old) in 2-parent Chinese immigrant families had attended English-speaking facilities for 35.0 months (boys) and 32.9 months (girls), respectively. They were tested at home with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and the Mandarin version of PPVT-R. No gender differences were…

  12. Screening for Parkinson syndrome in a Chinese rural population:re-examination of a historic questionnaire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; FAN Jin-hu; CHEN Wen; NIE Zhi-yu; QIAO You-lin; ZHANG Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Standardized screening tools for Parkinson syndrome have not been developed for non-westem populations.This study aimed to validate the Copiah County questionnaire (CCQ) as a screening instrument in a Chinese rural population.Methods All participants of a previously reported prevalent study were interviewed using CCQ.The participants who answered yes to at least one item on CCQ were defined as positive.The Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis was established using United Kingdom Parkinson's disease Brain Bank Clinical diagnosis criteria (UKPDBBC) and served as a gold standard to determine the sensitivity,specificity,and positive and negative predictive values (PPV,NPV) for the questionnaire.Results Among 16 130 participants,2872 (17.8%) were screened positive for CCQ and 13 258 negative (82.2%).Among the 697 participants diagnosed as having Parkinson syndrome,605 were positive for CCQ,and 92 were negative,leading to a sensitivity of 86.8%.Out of the 15 433 non-Parkinson syndrome participants,13 166 were negative to CCQ,giving a specificity of 85.3% Among the 2872 participants screened positive,605 were diagnosed with Parkinson syndrome,and their PPV was 21.1%.For the 13 258 participants screened negative on CCQ,92 were diagnosed with Parkinson syndrome and 13 166 did not have Parkinson syndrome,leading to a NPV of 99.3%.Conclusions CCQ appeared to have satisfactory statistical parameters to serve as a screening instrument for Parkinson syndrome in this rural Chinese population.Further studies may prove the utility of this short questionnaire in Parkinson syndrome screening among Chinese populations including those residing in rural areas.

  13. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684

  14. The Utility of Chinese Tone Processing Skill in Detecting Children with English Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alida; Wang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The utility of Chinese tone processing skill in detecting children with English reading difficulties was examined through differences in a Chinese tone experimental task between a group of native English-speaking children with reading disabilities (RD) and a comparison group of children with normal reading development (NRD). General auditory…

  15. Cultural Differences in Chinese American and European American Children's Drawing Skills over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.; Krieg, Dana Balsink; Luo, Zupei

    2011-01-01

    Parents and early childhood teachers in Chinese societies and the United States have had dissimilar views about appropriate art instruction for young children. The Chinese view is that creativity will emerge after children have been taught essential drawing skills. The American view has been that children's drawing skills emerge naturally and that…

  16. Implications of Rural Environmental Variables Associated with the Participation of Children in Farming Activities: A Lesson from Rural Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, A. O.; Jibowo, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between the participation of rural children in farming activities and selected social, school, and physical environment related variables. Data were collected from four hundred and fifty eight children selected through stage-wise random sampling procedure from the four agricultural zones in Oyo…

  17. Eye movements characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children in picture searching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xu; JING Jin; ZOU Xiao-bing; WANG Meng-long; LI Xiu-hong; LIN Ai-hua

    2008-01-01

    Background Reading Chinese,a kind of ideogram,relies more on visual cognition.The visuospatial cognitive deficit of Chinese dyslexia is an interesting topic that has received much attention.The purpose of current research was to explore the visuopatial cognitive characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children by studying their eye movements via a picture searching test.Methods According to the diagnostic criteria defined by ICD-10,twenty-eight dyslexic children (mean age (10.12+1.42)years) were enrolled from the Clinic of Children Behavioral Disorder in the third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.And 28 normally reading children (mean age (10.06±1.29) years),1:1 matched by age,sex,grade and family condition were chosen from an elementary school in Guangzhou as a control group.Four groups of pictures (cock,accident,canyon,meditate) from Picture Vocabulary Test were chosen as eye movement experiment targets.All the subjects carried out the picture searching task and their eye movement data were recorded by an Eyelink Ⅱ High-Speed Eye Tracker.The duration time,average fixation duration,average saccade amplitude,fixation counts and saccade counts were compared between the two groups of children.Results The dyslexic children had longer total fixation duration and average fixation duration (F=7.711,P<0.01;F=4.520,P<0.05),more fixation counts and saccade counts (F=7.498,P<0.01;F=11.040,P<0.01),and a smaller average saccade amplitude (F=29.743,P<0.01) compared with controls.But their performance in the picture vocabulary test was the same as those of the control group.The eye movement indexes were affected by the difficulty of the pictures and words,all eye movement indexes,except saccade amplitude,had a significant difference within groups (P<0.05).Conclusions Chinese dyslexic children have abnormal eye movements in picture searching,applying slow fixations,more fixations and small and frequent saccades.Their abnormal eye movement mode reflects the

  18. The Family-Home Nutrition Environment and Dietary Intake in Rural Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Jennifer A.; Ellen Smit; Manore, Melinda M.; Deborah John; Katherine Gunter

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and food insecurity rates are higher among rural compared to non-rural populations. Little is known, however, about how family-home environments influence childhood obesity-related behaviors, particularly in rural settings. This study examined associations between the family-home nutrition (FN) environment, food insecurity, and dietary intake (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy, protein foods, and added sugars) in rural elementary school-age children (grades K-5/6; n = 102). Pare...

  19. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Measurement in Predicting Fat-Free Mass of Chinese Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen; Wong, Stephen Heung-sang

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study aimed to examine the validity of various published bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations in estimating FFM among Chinese children and adolescents and to develop BIA equations for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate for Chinese children and adolescents. Material/Methods A total of 255 healthy Chinese children and adolescents aged 9 to 19 years old (127 males and 128 females) from Tianjin, China, participated in the BIA measurement at 50 kHz...

  20. The Intergenerational Transmission of the Value of Children in Contemporary Chinese Families: Taiwan and Mainland China Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chun Yi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag liegt nur in englischer Sprache vor.While fertility has been drastically declining in East Asia, mechanisms accounting for the current trend vary. One noticeable mechanism documented is that the changing value of children affects couples’ fertility decisions which in turn affect their subsequent fertility behaviour. This study will examine the intergenerational transmission of the value of children (VOC among grandmothers, mothers and teenagers in two Chinese societies: Taiwan and Mainland China. We assume that cultural homogeneity interacts with political and social heterogeneity and may result in different values regarding having or not having children. Data are taken from two corresponding VOC surveys from Taiwan (2005-2007 and from Mainland China (2002-2003. We first compare the value of children for Taiwan and Mainland China with special attention to cultural aspects. Two identified factor solutions are generated for both positive (traditional and emotional and negative (emotional/psychological and familial/social VOC. Analyses show that intergenerational transmission of the VOC among three generations is more likely to occur for a positive VOC in the Chinese Mainland sample. We suspect that actual fertility experience results in greater resemblance on the VOC between grandmothers and mothers in both research settings. Among selected structural mechanisms, only rural-urban background has an effect on patterns of intergenerational transmission. The paper ends with a discussion on the importance of culture in explaining the intergenerational transmission of the VOC in Chinese societies.

  1. Tracking blood glucose and predicting prediabetes in Chinese children and adolescents: a prospective twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoying Wang

    Full Text Available We examined the tracking of blood glucose, the development of prediabetes, and estimated their genetic contributions in a prospective, healthy, rural Chinese twin cohort. This report includes 1,766 subjects (998 males, 768 females aged 6-21 years at baseline who completed a 6-year follow-up study. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed for all subjects at both baseline and follow-up. We found that subjects with low fasting plasma glucose (FPG or 2 h post-load glucose (PG levels at baseline tended to remain at the low level at follow-up. Subjects in the top tertile of baseline plasma glucose tended to have a higher risk of developing prediabetes at follow-up compared to the low tertile: in males, 37.6% vs. 27.6% for FPG and 37.2% vs. 25.7% for 2hPG, respectively; in females, 31.0% vs. 15.4% for FPG and 28.9% vs. 15.1% for 2 h PG, respectively. Genetic factors explained 43% and 41% of the variance of FPG, and 72% and 47% for impaired fasting glucose for males and females, respectively; environmental factors substantially contribute to 2hPG status and impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, in this cohort of healthy rural Chinese children and adolescents, we demonstrated that both FPG and 2hPG tracked well and was a strong predictor of prediabetes. The high proportion of children with top tertile of blood glucose progressed to prediabetes, and the incidence of prediabetes has a male predominance. Genetic factors play more important role in fasting than postload status, most of which was explained by unique environmental factors.

  2. The Problems in Rural English Teaching and the Optimization Path: A Study Based on the Chinese General Social Survey Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The new curriculum, new ideas and new requirements concerning English teaching have made the rural English teaching face unprecedented challenges. There are many problems contributing to the poor effect of rural English teaching, such as outdated teaching equipment, unreasonable curriculum design, insufficient teaching staff, asymmetrical teaching content, family education and students' personal problems. Based on the Chinese General Social Survey data, it is found that in terms of English re...

  3. Recognition of depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse in a Chinese rural sample: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yu; Hu, Mi; Liu, Zi-wei; Liu, Hui-ming; Yang, Joyce P; Liang ZHOU; Xiao, Shui-yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Under-utilization of mental health services is a global health issue. Recognition of mental disorders, as the first step to seeking help from professional sources, has been well studied in developed countries, yet little is known about the situation in rural areas of developing countries like China. The purpose of the study is to understand the recognition of depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse and its predictive factors in a Chinese rural sample Methods Face-to-face interviews ...

  4. Rural/urban Background, Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Chinese College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Heng; Jian LI; Loerbroks, Adrian; Wu, Jiao; Chen, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine, first, the relationship of having a rural vs. urban background with suicidal ideation in Chinese college students, and second, whether a potential relationship was mediated by depression. Methods A survey was conducted among 1,145 undergraduate students at a university in China. Suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms were measured by the revised Hopkins’ Symptom checklist (SCL-90-R). Associations between rural vs. urban background, dep...

  5. Diarrhoeal diseases in rural Malaysia: risk factors in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, M S

    1984-04-01

    A survey was conducted in six selected rural villages to obtain baseline data on socioeconomic status, nutrition, environmental sanitation and behavioural aspects in relation to diarrhoeal diseases, using a standard questionnaire. Subsequent to this, children 0-4 years of age were followed weekly for six months for diarrhoeal disease. Eleven variables representing socioeconomic status, nutritional status, housing condition, environmental sanitation, mother's knowledge and beliefs were investigated using stepwise logistic regression to determine significant predictors of diarrhoeal disease. Children who were below two years of age, living in conditions of poor sanitation and poor quality water supply, whose houses were prone to flooding and who had mothers whose sanitary habits were not influenced by their religious beliefs, were at significantly greater risk of diarrhoeal disease. PMID:6497315

  6. Animal Bites and Rabies Prophylaxis in Rural Children: Indian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Moumita; Mondal, Rakesh; Shah, Ankit; Hazra, Avijit; Ray, Somosri; Dhar, Goutam; Biswas, Rupa; Sabui, Tapas Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Dibyendu; Chatterjee, Kaushani; Kundu, Chanchal; Sarkar, Sumantra

    2016-02-01

    A prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital to study clinicoepidemiological profile of potentially rabid animal bite cases from rural India. Total of 308 children (median age 6 years) admitted to hospital, were recruited over 1 year and followed up till completion of antirabies vaccine course. Dog was the commonest (77.27%) offending animal. Of the exposures, 66.88% were scratches, 88.96% were unprovoked and 27.27% were categorized as Class III. The median times to wound toileting and reporting to health facility were 1 and 6 h, respectively. Majority received prompt PEP in hospital, and RIG was administered in 34.55% of Class II and 90.48% of Class III exposures. Compared with their older counterparts, children aged rabies prophylaxis scenario is encouraging, when compared with earlier studies, but there are gaps to be addressed. PMID:26510700

  7. A model of expanding HIV/AIDS education in Chinese rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q; Liu, G-T; Wang, L-R; Wu, Y-F; Wang, X-L

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore an effective model of HIV/AIDS health education for a rural Chinese population. Students in two middle schools were given HIV/AIDS health education. The education in Tiechang town was carried out in the form of delivering multimedia lectures, video tapes and brochures, while in Daping town brochures were distributed to students. After receiving health education, each student extended the health education to three peasants who were their relatives or neighbours. After the education was provided, the test scores of AIDS knowledge increased significantly in the students of Tiechang town (0.50 baseline, 0.69 post-test1, 0.68 post-test2). For the expansion subjects, the scores increased significantly (0.56 baseline versus 0.74 post-test) in the Tiechang group, and also increased mildly (0.52 baseline versus 0.59 post-test) in the Daping group. Empowering secondary school students to teach others about AIDS was a highly effective model for spreading AIDS prevention knowledge among the rural Chinese population. PMID:19933206

  8. Psychological Development and Educational Problems of Left-Behind Children in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojun; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Yongxin; Xie, Xiaochun; Heath, Melissa A.; Zhou, Zongkui

    2015-01-01

    With China's rapidly developing economy and increasing urbanization, many adults from rural areas migrate to urban areas for better paid jobs. A side effect of this migration is that parents frequently leave their children behind (left-behind children). This research investigated left-behind children's and non-left-behind children's psychological,…

  9. Evaluating Physical and Perceptual Responses to Exergames in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. C. Lau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether exergames could help children reach the recommendations for PA and cardiorespiratory fitness regarding exercise intensity. Differences in perceived physical exertion, EE, VO2, and HR between normal weight (NW and overweight (OW children participating in exergames were also examined. Methods: Twenty-one children (age: 10.45 ± 0.88 were assessed for EE, VO2 and HR during rest, in a maximal treadmill test, and while playing different exergames. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE (category range: 0 to 10 were also measured during exergaming. Three types of exergames were examined: running, table tennis, and dancing. These games were either performed on a Chinese game console, I-Dong, or another well-developed Western game console (Sony PlayStation 3 or Nintendo Wii. Results: Exergaming resulted in EE (kcal/min from 2.05–5.14, VO2 (mL/kg/min from 9.98–25.54, and HR (beats per minute from 98.05–149.66. Children reported RPE ranging from 1.29 to 5.29. The Chinese exergame, I-Dong Running, was the only game in which children reached a moderate intensity and met the recommended minimum VO2reserve (50% for cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion: Exergames could provide alternative opportunities to enhance children’s physical activity. They could be used as light-to-moderate PA, and with exergames, children can even reach the recommended intensity for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness.

  10. Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error and other eye problems among urban and rural school children

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    Padhye Amruta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncorrected refractive error is an avoidable cause of visual impairment. Aim: To compare the magnitude and determinants of uncorrected refractive error, such as age, sex, family history of refractive error and use of spectacles among school children 6-15 years old in urban and rural Maharashtra, India. Study Design: This was a review of school-based vision screening conducted in 2004-2005. Materials and Methods: Optometrists assessed visual acuity, amblyopia and strabismus in rural children. Teachers assessed visual acuity and then optometrists confirmed their findings in urban schools. Ophthalmologists screened for ocular pathology. Data of uncorrected refractive error, amblyopia, strabismus and blinding eye diseases was analyzed to compare the prevalence and risk factors among children of rural and urban areas. Results: We examined 5,021 children of 8 urban clusters and 7,401 children of 28 rural clusters. The cluster-weighted prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban and rural children was 5.46% (95% CI, 5.44-5.48 and 2.63% (95% CI, 2.62-2.64, respectively. The prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism in urban children was 3.16%, 1.06% and 0.16%, respectively. In rural children, the prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism was 1.45%, 0.39% and 0.21%, respectively. The prevalence of amblyopia was 0.8% in urban and 0.2% in rural children. Thirteen to 15 years old children attending urban schools were most likely to have uncorrected myopia. Conclusion: The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error, especially myopia, was higher in urban children. Causes of higher prevalence and barriers to refractive error correction services should be identified and addressed. Eye screening of school children is recommended. However, the approach used may be different for urban and rural school children.

  11. Parenting Styles and Practices among Chinese Immigrant Mothers with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li; Chen, Tianying; Zheng, Xiao Xian

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how Chinese immigrant mothers in the USA make meaning of their parenting styles and practices in rearing their young children (aged two to six). Twelve Chinese immigrant mothers were interviewed. A key finding reveals that the Chinese immigrant mothers' parenting practices reflected the indigenous concept of jiaoyang in the…

  12. Copying Skills in Relation to Word Reading and Writing in Chinese Children with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Chung, Kevin K. H.; Tong, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    Because Chinese character learning typically relies heavily on rote character copying, we tested independent copying skill in third- and fourth-grade Chinese children with and without dyslexia. In total, 21 Chinese third and fourth graders with dyslexia and 33 without dyslexia (matched on age, nonverbal IQ, and mother's education level) were given…

  13. Paragonimiasis in Chinese Children: 58 Cases Analysis

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    Hong Zhen Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the clinical and radiological features of paragonimiasis in children and raise the awareness of this disease.Methods: A total of 58 paragonimiasis patients were reviewed. They were 42 boys and 16 girls aged 2.0 to 15.3 years.Findings: Among these patients, 20 were diagnosed in the recent 5 years, 46 with a history of raw water or food ingestion. Except 2 patients without any complaint, the most common features involved the systemic (41, 70.7% and respiratory systems (43, 74.1%, followed by abdominal, cardiac and nervous systems, with rash and mass. Eosinophilia was noted in 46 (79.3% patients, granulocytosis in 45 (77.6%, anemia in 14 (24.1%, and thrombocytopenia in 3. Imageology showed pneumonia in 26 (44.8% patients, pleurisy in 28 (48.3%, hydropericardium in 17 (29.3%, ascites in 16 (27.6%, and celiac lymphadenitis in 13 (22.4%. Besides hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, calcification and multiple lamellar low echogenic areas in the liver were noted, each in one patient. Abnormal brain imaging was noted in 4 of 10 patients. Karyocyte hyperplasia with eosinophilia was noted in all the 19 patients who received bone marrow puncture.Conclusion: Paragonimiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with multiple organs or system lesions, especially those with eosinophilia, serous cavity effusion, respiratory, cardiac, digestive system, nervous system abnormality, and/or mass. Healthy eating habit is helpful for paragonimiasis prevention.

  14. Prevalence and Treatment of Children's Asthma in Rural Areas Compared with Urban Areas in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Jing Zhu; Hai-Xia Ma; Hui-Ying Cui; Xu Lu; Ming-Jun Shao; Shuo Li; Yan-Qing Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background:The prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing in China.This study aimed to compare the prevalence,diagnosis,and treatment of asthmatic children from urban and rural areas in Beijing,China.Methods:Schools,communities,and kindergartens were randomly selected by cluster random sampling from urban and rural areas in Beijing.Parents were surveyed by the same screening questionnaires.On-the-spot inquiries,physical examinations,medical records,and previous test results were used to diagnose asthmatic children.Information on previous diagnoses,treatments,and control of symptoms was obtained.Results:From 7209 children in rural areas and 13,513 children in urban areas who completed screening questionnaires,587 children were diagnosed as asthma.The prevalence of asthma in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (1.25% vs.3.68%,x2 =100.80,P < 0.001).The diagnosis of asthma in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (48.9% vs.73.9%,x2 =34.6,P < 0.001).Compared with urban asthmatic children (56.5%),only 35.6% of rural asthmatic children received inhaled corticosteroids (P < 0.05).The use ofbronchodilators was also lower in rural areas than in urban areas (56.5% vs.66.4%,x2 =14.2,P < 0.01).Conclusion:The prevalence of asthma in children was lower in rural areas compared with children in the urban area of Beijing.A considerable number of children were not diagnosed and inadequately treated in rural areas.

  15. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

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    Zhang Biyun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC and the Children’s Loneliness Scale (CLS. Results: (1 The learning motivation of the left-behind children in rural primary school is in a slightly higher medium level. Social anxiety is significantly higher than normal level in Chinese city, and the level of loneliness of about 1/5 of the left-behind children is relatively high. (2 The score of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children in the level of knowledge learning has significant grade differences, without significant gender differences. (3 The level of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children is slightly higher than that of non-left-behind children, but both differences are not significant.

  16. 中国部分地区农村≤7岁留守儿童的看护人看护意愿及其影响因素研究%Study on the willingness of care and related influencing factors among caregivers of those stranded children under 7 years in Chinese rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗家有; 李曼丽; 曾嵘; 张少军; 尹逊强; 龚雯洁

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨中国部分地区农村≤7岁留守儿童看护人看护意愿及其影响因素.方法 采用多阶段整群随机抽样方法,对随机选择的7585名≤7岁农村留守儿童看护人进行问卷调查,并采用多因素有序多分类logistic回归分析筛选看护意愿的影响因素.结果 单亲外出组看护人看护意愿为非常愿意、愿意、不愿意的比例分别为41.1%、55.4%和3.5%,双亲外出组分别为19.5%、71.4%和9.1%.多因素有序多分类logistic回归分析表明:看护人年龄、家庭年人均收入、社会关系和母亲外出务工时间、抚养费以及留守儿童年龄、生活方式、是否为独生子女、父母外出务工时留守儿童年龄等与看护意愿有关.结论 留守儿童看护人看护意愿有待提高,应关注其影响因素,必要时进行干预.%Objective To explore the willingness of care and related influencing factors among caregivers of those 'left at hometown' children under 7 years in Chinese rural areas.Methods Questionnaires were used to survey caregivers (n=7585) who were identified by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. Multi-factor ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to screen the influencing factors on the willingness of care among them. Results The percentage on 3.5% respectively in the group with single parent while 19.5%, 71.4% and 9.1% respectively in the group of both parents having left home. Data from the multi-factor ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that factors including the age of the caregiver, annual per capita income for caregivers'families, social connections and the length of children' s mother being absent, amount of fees for living provided by parent/parents, and the child' s age and lifestyle, being the only child or not, and the age of the child when the parent/parents left the residence etc, were related to the willingness of care of the givers. Conclusion Willingness of care calls for attention and urgent improvement

  17. Communicative Development in Bilingually Exposed Chinese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetzke, Rachel; Zou, Xiaobing; Sheng, Li; Katsos, Napoleon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the association of bilingual exposure with structural and pragmatic language development in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Method: The parents of 54 children with ASD exposed to 1 (n = 31) or 2 (n = 23) Chinese languages completed (a) a questionnaire to evaluate their child's competence in structural…

  18. Affect and Maternal Parenting as Predictors of Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Xinyin; Chen, Huichang; Cui, Liying; Li, Miao

    2006-01-01

    Emotional control has traditionally been emphasized in Chinese culture. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the relevance of early affect to social functioning in Chinese children. A sample of children, initially at two years of age, and their mothers in the People's Republic of China participated in this two-year longitudinal study.…

  19. American and Chinese Children's Understanding of Basic Relational Concepts in Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Boehm, Ann E.

    2004-01-01

    Two hundred first- and second-grade Chinese children's knowledge of basic relational concepts in following directions was assessed on the "Applications Booklet" of the "Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised" (BTBC-R, 1986). Chinese children's performance was then compared with that of the standardization sample of the BTBC-R. Results indicated that…

  20. "What Makes You Shy?": Understanding Situational Elicitors of Shyness in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on two exploratory studies of situations that elicit shyness in Mainland Chinese children. In Study 1 (N = 100; M[subscript age] = 10.42) interviews with Chinese children identified three kinds of shyness-eliciting situations: social novelty; negative social evaluation; and public attention. In Study 2 (N = 162, M[subscript age]…

  1. Chinese and European American Mothers' Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Children's School Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    1996-01-01

    Compared 48 immigrant Chinese and 50 European American mothers of preschool-age children on their perspectives on the role of parenting in their children's school success. Findings reveal Chinese immigrants have a high regard for education and a belief in a strong parental role, while European Americans regard social skills and self-esteem of…

  2. Family Involvement in Children's Mathematics Education Experiences: Voices of Immigrant Chinese American Students and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Senfeng

    2013-01-01

    This study examines ways in which Chinese immigrant families are involved in their children's mathematics education, particularly focusing on how different types of families utilize different forms of capital to support their children's mathematics education. The theoretical framework defines four types of Chinese immigrant families--working…

  3. Work Ethic, Motivation, and Parental Influences in Chinese and North American Children Learning to Play the Piano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Gilles; Huta, Veronika; Liu, YiFei

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 50 Chinese and 100 North American Caucasian children aged 6 to 17 who were learning piano, in terms of their work ethic, motivation, and parental influences. Compared to North American Caucasians, Chinese children and parents believed more strongly that musical ability requires hard work, and Chinese children were more…

  4. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao

    2001-01-01

    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  5. The Problems in Rural English Teaching and the Optimization Path: A Study Based on the Chinese General Social Survey Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; TAN

    2014-01-01

    The new curriculum,new ideas and new requirements concerning English teaching have made the rural English teaching face unprecedented challenges. There are many problems contributing to the poor effect of rural English teaching,such as outdated teaching equipment,unreasonable curriculum design,insufficient teaching staff,asymmetrical teaching content,family education and students’ personal problems. Based on the Chinese General Social Survey data,it is found that in terms of English reading,English speaking or English writing,the current English level of China’s rural residents is lagging behind. From the average,the reading level of rural residents is better than the speaking and writing level,but the paired T-test results show that there are no significant differences between them,suggesting that under the current system of rural English teaching,the English level of rural residents is constrained to a low level. To improve the rural English teaching in the future,it is necessary to pay close attention to the following aspects: stabilizing the investment in rural education; optimizing the English teaching content; converting the philosophy of education; increasing teacher training; establishing the new linkage system.

  6. Is Rural School-aged Children's Quality of Life Affected by Their Responses to Asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Sharon D.; Brown, Sharon A.; Walker, Veronica García

    2011-01-01

    The unpredictable nature of asthma makes it stressful for children and can affect their quality of life. An exploratory analysis of 183 rural school-aged children's data was conducted to determine relationships among demographic factors, children's responses to asthma (coping, asthma self-management), and their quality of life (QOL). Coping frequency, asthma severity, and race/ethnicity significantly predicted children's asthma-related QOL. Children reported more frequent coping as asthma-rel...

  7. Rural Area Deprivation and Hospitalizations Among Children for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Nathan; Probst, Janice; Robertson, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the intersection of rurality and community area deprivation using a nine-state sample of inpatient hospitalizations among children (interaction of rurality and area deprivation. The study found rural counties are disproportionality represented among the most deprived. Within the least deprived counties, the likelihood of an ACSC hospitalization was significantly lower in rural than among their urban counterparts. However, this rural advantage declines as the level of deprivation increases, suggesting the effect of rurality becomes more important as social and economic advantage deteriorates. We also found ACSC hospitalization to be much higher among racial/ethnic minority children and those with Medicaid or self-pay as an anticipated source of payment. These findings further contribute to the existing body of evidence documenting racial/ethnic disparities in important health related outcomes. PMID:26516019

  8. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  9. Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Kang, Yijun; Yang, Yang; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Gender disparities in China are concentrated in poor rural areas and among poor households. The difference in intelligence between boys and girls is less clear in rural China. The purpose of this paper was to assess sex differences in the intellectual function of early school-aged children in rural China. Methods One thousand seven hundred forty four early school-aged offspring of women who had participated in a prenatal supplementation trial with different combinations of micronut...

  10. Rural Dispositions of Floating Children within the Field of Beijing Schools: Can Disadvantaged Rural Habitus Turn into Recognised Cultural Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Guanglun Michael; Jia, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The rapid pace of urbanisation in China has seen a massive increase in the movement of the rural population to work and live in urban regions. In this large-scale migration context, the educational, health, and psychological problems of floating children are becoming increasingly visible. Different from extant studies, we focus our investigation…

  11. Post-marketing Surveillance for Combined Oral Contraceptive Containing Desogestrel (Marvelon?) in Chinese Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the side effects and the continuation rate of combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing desogestrel (Marvelon ) during 12 months. Methods This was a post-marketing surveillance study on Marvelon COC among 870 healthy rural women in 5 different counties of Jiangsu Province during 12 months. Results About 24.02% of the women who used Marvelon COC experienced side effects during 12 months. Gastrointestinal disorder, bleeding/spotting and chloasma were ranked the first three in the side effects. The rate of side effects of Marvelon COC users during the first 3 months in southern area of Jiangsu was significantly higher than that of users in northern area of Jiangsu. Most of the users did not experience obvious weight changes i.e., loss or increase in weight of more than 5 kg during 12 months. Blood pressure and biochemical indicators of almost 99% among users were within the normal range. The gross cumulative continuation rate for 12 months was 83.14%; the most common medical reason for discontinuation was gastrointestinal disorder. There was an increased risk of discontinuation use among women with lower educational level.Conclusion Marvelon COC brought fewer side effects and was well accepted when applied in Chinese rural women.

  12. Physical activity levels and obesity status of Oregon Rural Elementary School children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine B. Gunter

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Children are not meeting minimum MVPA recommendations (60 min/d during school hours. Efforts to promote PA for obesity prevention in rural elementary schools should focus on increasing opportunities for MVPA.

  13. Unmet needs in continuing medical education programs for rural Chinese township health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Yi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to describe the system of continuing medical education (CME in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and to ascertain the perceived needs related to that system, in order to improve the performance of health professionals in Chinese township health centers (THCs. Methods: In-depth key informant interviews were conducted to gain insights into the current CME system. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire was also carried out from March to August 2014 in order to identify perceived needs among THC personnel in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Logistic regression was used to identify factors related to respondents’ interest in pursuing different levels of degree study. Results: The areas of need perceived by the respondents included general clinical competence and emergency or first aid knowledge. Most respondents wanted to study at medical colleges in order to obtain a higher degree. Respondents aged below 45 years with neutral or positive attitudes about the benefit of degree study for the licensure examination were more likely to attend a bachelor-level CME program than their older peers and respondents with negative attitudes towards degree study. Female respondents and respondents aged below 45 years were more likely to attend a junior college CME program than males and older respondents, respectively. Conclusion: It is necessary to develop degree-linked CME programs to meet the need for young health professionals in Chinese THCs; therefore, this programs can improve the expertise of poorly educated young health workers, who overwhelm rural Chinese heath systems.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infection among rural Malay children

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Boon Huat; Mitra, Amal K; Noor Izani Noor Jamil; Pim Chau Dam; Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed; Wan Abdul Manan Wan Muda

    2012-01-01

    Background: Soil-transmitted intestinal helminth infection is prevalent in rural communities of Malaysia. Risk factors contributing to helminth infections are largely unknown in the country. Aim: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children in Beris Lalang, a rural Muslim community of Malaysia. Settings and Design : In this cross-sectional study, children aged 7-9 years were recruited during the mass Friday prayer at Beris Lalang mosque by trai...

  15. Rural/urban background, depression and suicidal ideation in Chinese college students: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Meng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine, first, the relationship of having a rural vs. urban background with suicidal ideation in Chinese college students, and second, whether a potential relationship was mediated by depression. METHODS: A survey was conducted among 1,145 undergraduate students at a university in China. Suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms were measured by the revised Hopkins' Symptom checklist (SCL-90-R. Associations between rural vs. urban background, depression and suicidal ideation were estimated by multivariable linear regression-based β coefficients, logistic regression-based odds ratios (ORs, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs. The magnitude of indirect effect and bias-corrected 95% CIs were obtained through bootstrap techniques. RESULTS: Rural background was positively associated with depression, which was in turn associated with suicidal ideation. The OR for rural status and suicidal ideation equaled 2.15 (95% CI = 1.36-3.41. This OR was slightly, though significantly (p<0.05 attenuated by additional adjustment for depressive symptoms (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.15-3.44. CONCLUSION: Having a rural background is a determinant of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students. Depression may only marginally mediate this association.

  16. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in children living in city and rural residences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    AIMS: The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences. METHODS: 103 children living in Copenhagen and 101 children living in rural residences of Denmark...... collected urine samples Monday to Friday morning. Each day, the family filled in a printed diary that included questions about the time and activity patterns of the child. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictors of the excreted 1-hydroxypyrene level. RESULTS: During the week, the...

  17. Seasonal rural residence of Icelandic children Sendur í sveit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónína Einarsdóttir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research that focuses on children who migrate without a parent or legal guardian is most often carried out in low-income countries. Such migration is increasingly associated with child trafficking. In this article the Icelandic custom to send children to the country during the summer months in the last century will be examined. It is based on secondary documents such as journals, magazines, documents and reports from child protection authorities. The Icelandic population shared the opinion that seasonal rural residence for urban children was beneficial for the nation, the family and the child. In the country, the children would enjoy unspoiled nature, clean mountain air and nutritious food. In addition, they would learn to attend animals and proper work. Individuals, associations, charities and child protection authorities collaborated in an effort to organise rural residence for children during the summer months, either at farms or particular summer camps. Rural residence was considered to be particularly important for delinquent children, but also those who suffered from poverty, irresponsible parental behaviour and poor health. Data is lacking on the number of children sent to the country and their experiences however it is known to have varied greatly. Likewise, little is known about the considerations of the farmers who hosted the children and the children’s parents. This custom is typically per definition child migration without a parent or legal guardian. Care should be taken not to classify such customs routinely as child trafficking wherever they are practiced.Rannsóknir á búferlaflutningi barna til lengri eða skemmri tíma án samfylgdar foreldris eða löggilds forráðamanns beinast oftast að börnum sem flytja úr einum stað í annan innan eða milli lágtekjulanda. Slíkur flutningur er oft bendlaður við mansal. Hér er skoðaður siðurinn að senda íslensk börn í sveit þar sem þau dvöldu að sumri til hjá venslaf

  18. La desnutrición infantil en el medio rural mexicano Children malnutrition in rural Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABELARDO AVILA-CURIEL

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer la situación nutricional de la población infantil del medio rural mexicano, comparándola con la situación previa y localizando las zonas más afectadas. Material y métodos. La muestra estuvo conformada por 38 232 familias, pertenecientes a 855 localidades, seleccionadas probabilísticamente. Se tomaron medidas antropométricas a 31 601 menores de cinco años. El análisis se realizó en consideración a la población de referencia peso/edad, peso/talla y talla/edad. Resultados. La desnutrición global afecta a 42.7% de los niños de acuerdo con el indicador peso/edad (IC= 1.9%; hace 22 años las formas de desnutrición moderada y severa eran de 17.4% y actualmente son de 19.3%. Respecto a talla/edad afecta a 55.9% (IC= 1.9%, y a peso/talla a 18.9%. Conclusiones. La ENAL96 muestra que la desnutrición sigue siendo un problema muy grave, que no se ha solucionado y que sigue afectando a las regiones del sur en donde hay mayor prevalencia de grupos indígenas.Objective. To evaluate the nutritional status of the infantile population in rural Mexico, compare it with previous data and situate the most affected areas. Material and Methods. The sample consisted of 38 232 families, from 855 randomly selected communities. Anthropometry was obtained from 31 601 children under five years of age and analysis was performed considering the reference values of weight/age, weight/height and height/age. Results. Overall malnutrition affects 42.7 of children according to weight/age indicator (CI= 1.9%. Moderate and severe malnutrition 22 years ago was 17.4% and now these affect 19.3%. Further data show that 55.9% are malnourished according to height/age, and 18.9% according to weight/height. Conclusions. The ENAL 96 shows that malnutrition is still a severe national problem which has not improved in the last 22 years. The areas of highest prevalence are the southern states which have mostly Indian population.

  19. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. among children in rural Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eibach

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relevance of Cryptosporidium infections for the burden of childhood diarrhoea in endemic settings has been shown in recent years. This study describes Cryptosporidium subtypes among symptomatic and asymptomatic children in rural Ghana to analyse subtype-specific demographic, geographical, seasonal and clinical differences in order to inform appropriate control measures in endemic areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples were collected from 2232 children below 14 years of age presenting with and without gastrointestinal symptoms at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in the rural Ashanti region of Ghana between May 2007 and September 2008. Samples were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR and isolates were classified into subtypes based on sequence differences in the gp60 gene. Subtype specific frequencies for age, sex, location and season have been determined and associations with disease symptoms have been analysed within a case-control study. Cryptosporidium infections were diagnosed in 116 of 2232 (5.2% stool samples. Subtyping of 88 isolates revealed IIcA5G3 (n = 26, 29.6%, IbA13G3 (n = 17, 19.3% and IaA21R3 (n = 12, 13.6% as the three most frequent subtypes of the two species C. hominis and C. parvum, known to be transmitted anthroponotically. Infections peak at early rainy season with 67.9% and 50.0% of infections during the months April, May and June for 2007 and 2008 respectively. C. hominis infection was mainly associated with diarrhoea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-4.9 whereas C. parvum infection was associated with both diarrhoea (OR = 2.6; CI: 1.2-5.8 and vomiting (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5-6.1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cryptosporidiosis is characterized by seasonal anthroponotic transmission of strains typically found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The infection mainly affects young infants, with vomiting and diarrhoea being one of the leading symptoms in C. parvum infection. Combining

  20. Cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Min; McGrath, Colman PJ; Wong, Ricky WK; Hägg, Urban; Yang, Yanqi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children, and to assess these norms with regard to gender, age, ethnicity and other craniofacial structures. METHODS: Lateral cephalograms were obtained from a random sample of 425 12-year-old Chinese children (224 boys and 201 girls) to establish the Chinese norms, and from a matched group of 108 12-year-old Caucasian children (61 boys and 47 girls) as an ethnic comparison. Published data on the upper air...

  1. Eye exercises of acupoints: their impact on refractive error and visual symptoms in Chinese urban children

    OpenAIRE

    LIN Zhong; Vasudevan, Balamurali; Jhanji, Vishal; Gao, Tie Ying; Wang, Ning Li; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Liang, Yuan Bo

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese eye exercises of acupoints involve acupoint self-massage. These have been advocated as a compulsory measure to reduce ocular fatigue, as well as to retard the development of myopia, among Chinese school children. This study evaluated the impact of these eye exercises among Chinese urban children. Methods 409 children (195 males, 47.7%), aged 11.1 ± 3.2 (range 6–17) years, from the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) were recruited. All had completed the eye ...

  2. Sexual violence against women and children in Chinese societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko Ling Chan

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive overview of the reported patterns of sexual violence against women and children in China. It reviews the prevalence of and risk factors for various types of sexual violence and discusses community knowledge and perceptions of these violent acts. It also critically examines three major problems of sexual violence research in China. First, the diversity of findings and study methods reported by surveys and criminal reports reflects the problems in obtaining accurate figures on the scope of the problem. Second, precautions must be taken in reading studies on Chinese culture-specific risk factors for domestic violence. Third, the study of culture-specific factors should not focus solely on cultural factors in a vacuum but rather, should examine traditional culture in the context of modern societies and consensus international standards of human rights. Recommendations for future research are also discussed. PMID:19008337

  3. Rural/Urban Differences in Barriers to and Burden of Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Slifkin, Rebecca T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the barriers and difficulties experienced by rural families of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in caring for their children. Methods: The National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs was used to examine rural-urban differences in types of providers used, reasons CSHCN had unmet health care needs,…

  4. The Deficit Profile of Working Memory, Inhibition, and Updating in Chinese Children with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Sha, Tao; Li, Beilei

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated executive function deficits among Chinese children with reading difficulties. Verbal and numerical measures of working memory, inhibition, updating, and processing speed were examined among children with only reading difficulties (RD), children with reading and mathematics difficulties (RDMD), and typically developing peers…

  5. Discourse-Level Reading Comprehension in Chinese Children: What Is the Role of Syntactic Awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; Shu, Hua; Chan, Shingfong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between syntactic awareness and discourse-level reading comprehension in 136 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children, aged 11, from a longitudinal study, were administered a set of cognitive and linguistic measures. Partial correlational analyses showed that children's performances in two…

  6. Negotiating and Creating Intercultural Relations: Chinese Immigrant Children in New Zealand Early Childhood Education Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Karen; Dalli, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    A multiple-case study investigation of the experiences of eight Chinese immigrant children in New Zealand early childhood centres suggested that the immigrant children's learning experiences in their first centre can be understood as a process of negotiating and creating intercultural relations. The children's use of family cultural tools, such as…

  7. Priming effects in Chinese character recognition for Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuliang Zou; Jing Wang; Hanrong Wu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Dyslexic children exhibit reading ability unmatched to age,although they possess normal intelligence and are well educated.OBJECTIVE:To examine the performance of dyslexic children in Chinese characters visual recognition tasks and to investigate the relationship between priming effect in character recognition and dyslexia.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A case-control study was performed at the Department of Children and Adolescent Health and Maternal Care,School of Public Health,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology between March and June 2007.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 75 primary school students in grades 3 and 5 were selected from two primary schools in Wuhan City,Hubei province,China,and were assigned to three groups.(1) Reading disability (RD,n=25);(2) chronological age (CA) group (n=25 normal readers that were intelligence quotient and age-matched to the RD group);(3) reading level (RL) group (n=25 normal readers that were intelligence quotient and RL-matched to the RD group).All children were right-handed and had normal or corrected-to-normal vision.METHODS:Recognition of target characters was performed in each child using a masked prime paradigm.Recognition speed and accuracy of graphic,phonological,and semantic characters were examined.Simultaneously,data,with respect to response time for each target character and error rate,were recorded to calculate facilitation values (unrelated RT-related RT).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Response time,facilitation,and error rate in Chinese character recognition task were calculated.RESULTS:The baseline-adjusted facilitation of graphic,phonological,and semantic priming for dyslexic children was -0.010,-0.010,and 0.001,respectively.Dyslexic children displayed inhibition in graphic and phonological prime conditions.Facilitations under the three prime conditions were 0.026,0.026,and 0.022 for the CA group.In the RL group,results were 0.062,0.058,and 0.031 respectively.The differences of baseline

  8. Eye Injuries Among Primary School Children in Enugu, Nigeria: Rural vs Urban

    OpenAIRE

    Nonso Ejikeme Okpala; Rich Enujioke Umeh; Ernest Nnemeka Onwasigwe

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of eye injuries among primary school children in two noncontiguous local government areas of Enugu State of Nigeria was undertaken. One of the local government areas was urban, while the other one was rural. Children who were

  9. Access to Dental Care for Rural Children: A Survey of Nebraska General Dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Kimberly K.; Salama, Fouad; Yaseen, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pediatric dentists are too few in number to care for all children. Therefore, the level of pediatric dental services provided by general dentists, especially in rural areas, is crucial to improving the dental health of children. Purpose: The objectives of the study were to establish a baseline in regard to the quantity of pediatric…

  10. Building Interest in Math and Science for Rural and Underserved Elementary School Children Using Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Eric; DeLoach, Scott; Pauly, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    The "Robot Roadshow Program" is designed to increase the interest of elementary school children in technical disciplines, specifically math and science. The program focuses on children from schools categorized as rural or underserved, which often have limited access to advanced technical resources. We developed the program using robots…

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALNUTRITION (UNDER NUTRITION AMONG UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN A SECTION OF RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Phalke

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of malnutrition is very high in India; especially in rural area. A cross sectional study was done in randomly selected six villages to estimate the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomicfactors associated with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition among the under five children was 50.46%.Children from lower socioeconomic status, with low birth weight were significantly malnourished.

  12. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…

  13. Corporal Punishment and Physical Maltreatment against Children: A Community Study on Chinese Parents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine rates and associated factors of parent-to-child corporal punishment and physical maltreatment in Hong Kong Chinese families. Method: Cross-sectional and randomized household interviews were conducted with 1,662 Chinese parents to collect information on demographic characteristics of parents and children,…

  14. Living in Two Worlds: Code-Switching amongst Bilingual Chinese-Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on an analysis of interviews, conducted at three primary schools in Melbourne, which sought to explore the determinants of code-switching between English and Chinese. Specifically, it examined school education and other specific possible determinants of code switching amongst Chinese-Australian bilingual children. The specific…

  15. Perception of Early Intervention Family Outcome: Inside Chinese-American Families Having Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Fang Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether Chinese-American Families having a child with disabilities experience different needs and expected early intervention family outcomes from families from the mainstream culture. The Researcher used different qualitative research techniques to examine Chinese-American Families who have children with…

  16. The Education of New Chinese Immigrant Children in Hong Kong: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Ting, Cynthia Law Man

    2011-01-01

    In describing the current status of the education of new Chinese immigrant children (NCIC) in Hong Kong and to provide data useful for designing new policies, this article highlights the region's rise of new Chinese immigrants and the characteristics of the NCIC. Challenges to improve access to and equity in education in Hong Kong, overall quality…

  17. Guidelines to rational use of antibiotics in acute upper respiratory tract infections in Chinese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) is the most common disease afflicting Chinese children and ranks first in numbers of outpatients, hospitalization and fatality rate. ARTI is also the most frequent reason that antibiotics are prescribed.

  18. A study of rural preschool practitioners' views on young children's mathematical thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunting, Robert P.; Mousley, Judith A.; Perry, Bob

    2012-03-01

    The project Mathematical Thinking of Preschool Children in Rural and Regional Australia: Research and Practice aimed to investigate views of preschool practitioners about young children's mathematical thinking and development. Structured individual interviews were conducted with 64 preschool practitioners from rural areas of three Australian states. The questions focused on five broad themes: children's mathematics learning, support for mathematics teaching, technology and computers, attitudes and feelings, and assessment and record keeping. We review results from the interview data for each of these themes, discuss their importance, and outline recommendations related to teacher education as well as resource development and research.

  19. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk factors in Chinese rural population: the RuralDiab study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaotian; Li, Yuqian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Luning; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhou, Hao; Cui, Lingling; Mao, Zhenxing; Hu, Dongsheng; Wang, Chongjian

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore potential risk factors in rural areas of China. A total of 16413 individuals aged 18–74 years in rural districts were recruited from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study for the epidemiological research. Meanwhile, a meta-analysis including 7 published studies was conducted to validate the result of the cross-sectional study. The rates of crude and age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM were 12.19%, 67.00%, 62.35%, 22.20% and 6.98%, 60.11%, 54.85%, 18.77%, respectively. The prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM displayed increased trends with age (Ptrend < 0.01) and were strongly associated with education, drinking, more vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, family history of diabetes, body mass index (BMI). The results of this meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China countryside were 7.3% (5.3–9.4%), 57.3% (36.9–77.6%), 48.4% (32.4–64.5%) and 21.0% (9.9–32.1%), respectively. The prevalence of T2DM was high with inadequate awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China rural areas. Healthy lifestyles should be advocated to reduce prevalence and improve awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM in Chinese rural residents. PMID:27510966

  20. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk factors in Chinese rural population: the RuralDiab study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaotian; Li, Yuqian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Luning; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhou, Hao; Cui, Lingling; Mao, Zhenxing; Hu, Dongsheng; Wang, Chongjian

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore potential risk factors in rural areas of China. A total of 16413 individuals aged 18-74 years in rural districts were recruited from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study for the epidemiological research. Meanwhile, a meta-analysis including 7 published studies was conducted to validate the result of the cross-sectional study. The rates of crude and age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM were 12.19%, 67.00%, 62.35%, 22.20% and 6.98%, 60.11%, 54.85%, 18.77%, respectively. The prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM displayed increased trends with age (Ptrend education, drinking, more vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, family history of diabetes, body mass index (BMI). The results of this meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China countryside were 7.3% (5.3-9.4%), 57.3% (36.9-77.6%), 48.4% (32.4-64.5%) and 21.0% (9.9-32.1%), respectively. The prevalence of T2DM was high with inadequate awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China rural areas. Healthy lifestyles should be advocated to reduce prevalence and improve awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM in Chinese rural residents. PMID:27510966

  1. Familial Contribution to Chinese American Children's Self-Regulated Learning during the Early School Years

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shuheng

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examined how Chinese American children's everyday family experiences contributed to their self-regulated learning during the early school years. A total of 154 immigrant Chinese parents participated in this study and completed nine sets of multi-point rating questionnaires on a secured website. A series of analysis of covariance and hierarchical regressions were performed. Results provided the first empirical evidence that children's participation in family rituals and routi...

  2. The role of oral language skills in beginning reading development among young Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Yui-chi; 方蕊慈

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the present thesis was to examine whether and how do different aspects of oral language skills have important contribution for the development of reading comprehension among young Chinese children. In Study 1, a three-wave longitudinal study (from K2 to P1) was conducted with 91 Chinese children, to whom measures of oral language (vocabulary, grammar and narrative discourse), word-level skills (phonological, orthographic, and morphological skills), and word reading were ...

  3. Wonderland Kids : a visual art workshop for developing creativity in Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    姚, 璐; 稲蔭, 正彦

    2011-01-01

    What is creativity? Creativity most immediately associates with the characteristics of novelty and originality. It is an indispensible capacity to most people in today's society. In China, creativity as an important issue has been written in national outline. Are Chinese children creative? According to many researches it can be found that the development of creativity in Chinese children is not so optimistic. Therefore, to develop their creativity, I designed a workshop called Wonderland Kids...

  4. Transfer of reading-related cognitive skills in learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese elementary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Keung, YC; Ho, CSH

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated transfer of reading-related cognitive skills between learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese children in Hong Kong. Fifty-three Grade 2 students were tested on word reading, phonological, orthographic and rapid naming skills in Chinese (L1) and English (L2). The major findings were: (a) significant correlations between Chinese and English measures in phonological awareness and rapid naming, but not in orthographic skills; (b) significant unique con...

  5. Selenium level and depressive symptoms in a rural elderly Chinese cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Sujuan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is considered a protective agent against free radicals through the maintenance of better enzyme activity. The few studies examining the relationship between selenium and depression have yielded inconsistent results and none of these studies considered the role of cognitive function in this context. Methods A cross-sectional evaluation of 1737 rural Chinese age 65 and over from two provinces in China was conducted. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. Cognitive function was assessed using various cognitive instruments. Selenium measures were obtained from nail samples. Other information collected included demographic characteristics and medical history. Analysis of covariance models were used to identify factors associated with GDS score. Results Higher selenium levels were associated with lower GDS scores adjusting for demographic and medical conditions (p = 0.0321. However, the association between selenium and depressive symptoms was no longer significant when cognitive function score was adjusted in the model (p = 0.2143. Conclusions Higher selenium level was associated with lower depressive symptoms without adjusting for cognition in this cohort. However, after cognition was adjusted in the model the association between selenium and depressive symptoms was no longer significant, suggesting that selenium’s association with depressive symptoms may be primarily through its association with cognitive function.

  6. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. in Rural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tsung Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis.

  7. Impact of Low Blood Lead Concentrations on IQ and School Performance in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jianghong Liu; Linda Li; Yingjie Wang; Chonghuai Yan; Xianchen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance. Participants and Methods Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls) from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3–5 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assesse...

  8. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jubin Varghese; Nathan Grills; Kaaren Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intell...

  9. Asthma and Farm Exposures in a Cohort of Rural Iowa Children

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, James A.; Allison L Naleway; Erik R. Svendsen; Kelly, Kevin M.; Burmeister, Leon F.; Stromquist, Ann M.; Taylor, Craig D.; Thorne, Peter S.; Reynolds, Stephen J.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of farm children are of international interest because farm children are less often atopic, have less allergic disease, and often have less asthma than do nonfarm children—findings consistent with the hygiene hypothesis. We studied a cohort of rural Iowa children to determine the association between farm and other environmental risk factors with four asthma outcomes: doctor-diagnosed asthma, doctor-diagnosed asthma/medication for wheeze, current wheeze, and cough with ex...

  10. Children of Drought: Rainfall Shocks and Early Child Health in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar; Ramona Molitor; Sebastian Vollmer

    2014-01-01

    Barker's fetal origins hypothesis suggests a strong relationship between in utero conditions, health, and overall child development after birth. Using a nationally representative population survey, this paper analyzes the impact of rainfall on early child health in rural India. We find that drought experienced in utero has detrimental effects on the nutritional status of children. Effects appear to be stronger for boys, low caste children, and children exposed to drought in the first trimeste...

  11. Antibiotic prescribing of village doctors for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections in rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixia; Zhan, Xingxin; Zhou, Hongjun; Sun, Fang; Zhang, Heng; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Liu, Qian; Li, Yingxue; Yan, Weirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of village doctors regarding the prescribing of antibiotics for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in rural China. Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Xianning, a prefecture-level city in rural China, during December 2014. We conducted 6 FGDs with 35 village doctors, 3 with 13 primary caregivers (11 parents), and 3 with 17 directors of township hospitals, county-level health bureaus, county-level Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or county-level Chinese Food and Drug Administration offices. Audio records of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. Participants believed that unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for children under 15 years with The occurrence of URTIs was a problem in village clinics in rural China. The discussions revealed that most of the village doctors had inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about antibiotic use, which was an important factor in the unnecessary prescribing. Village doctors and directors reported that the doctors’ fear of complications, the primary caregivers’ pressure for antibiotic treatment, and the financial considerations of patient retention were the main factors influencing the decision to prescribe antibiotics. Most of the primary caregivers insisted on antibiotics, even when the village doctors were reluctant to prescribe them, and they preferred to go to see those village doctors who prescribed antibiotics. The interviewees also gave their opinions on what would be the most effective measures for optimizing antibiotic prescriptions; these included educational/training campaigns, strict regulations on antibiotic prescription, and improved supervision. Findings emphasized the need to improve the dissemination of information and training/education, and implement legislation on the rational use of antibiotics. And it

  12. Cognition in Chinese children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinjie; Zhang, Xiaoli; Han, Qizheng; Guo, Jing; Wang, Chunting

    2012-01-17

    Most studies about cognitive functions in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) have been conducted with alphabetic writing background subjects, however deficits observed might therefore potentially differ in a Chinese language environment. This study was designed to evaluate the intelligence quotient (IQ) profiles, especially the language abilities, in Chinese children with BCECTS and to investigate whether there is a relationship between clinical factors and disorders of cognitive functions. There are selective cognitive deficits in Chinese children with BCECTS, although the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient is within the normal range. There was a correlation between spike wave index (SWI) and language deficits in children with BCECTS, but the deficits are not dependent on age of onset, disease course, seizure frequency, spike location or seizure type. It is important that children with typical BCECTS undergo regular clinical investigations about language performance in order to start necessary interventions as early as possible. PMID:22020258

  13. Eye-movement study during visual search in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiu-hong; JING Jin; YANG De-sheng; WANG Hui; WANG Qing-xiong; SONG Shan-shan; FAN Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a disorder in which children with normal intelligence and sensory abilities show learning deficits in reading.Abnormal eye movements have been found in DD.However,eye-movement abnormalities during visual search among Chinese children with DD remain unknown.We aimed to identify the eyemovement characteristics and search efficiency of Chinese children with DD during visual search for targets of different conceptual categories,under same-category conditions.Methods We compared 32 Chinese dyslexic children and 39 non-dyslexic children in visual search tasks,which were assessed using EyeLink Ⅱ High-Speed Eye Tracker (SR Research Ltd.,Canada).Letters,single Chinese characters,digits,Chinese phrases,figures and facial expressions were used as stimuli.Targets were similar to distractors in meaning,phonology and/or shape.Results A main effect of task on visual search scores and all eye-movement parameters were found.Search scores,average saccade amplitude and saccade distance were significantly smaller in the DD group than in the controls.An interaction between group and task was found for pupil diameter.Conclusions Unlike normal readers,children with DD had a reduction in the visual attention span and search accuracy.Besides,children with DD could not increase their mental workload with increase in task difficulty.The conceptual category of the stimulus materials significantly impacts search speed,accuracy and eye-movement parameters.

  14. Prevalence and Treatment of Children's Asthma in Rural Areas Compared with Urban Areas in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Jing Zhu; Hai-Xia Ma; Hui-Ying Cui; Xu Lu; Ming-Jun Shao; Shuo Li; Yan-Qing Luo; Qiang Wang; Chun-Yu Xu; Dong-Qun Xu; Chuan-He Liu; Yu-Zhi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing in China. This study aimed to compare the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of asthmatic children from urban and rural areas in Beijing, China. Methods: Schools, communities, and kindergartens were randomly selected by cluster random sampling from urban and rural areas in Beijing. Parents were surveyed by the same screening questionnaires. On-the-spot inquiries, physical examinations, medical records, and previous test resu...

  15. Auditory and speech processing and reading development in Chinese school children: behavioural and ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Sai, Xiaoguang; Wang, Cixin; Wang, Jue; Sha, Shuying; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2005-11-01

    By measuring behavioural performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) this study investigated the extent to which Chinese school children's reading development is influenced by their skills in auditory, speech, and temporal processing. In Experiment 1, 102 normal school children's performance in pure tone temporal order judgment, tone frequency discrimination, temporal interval discrimination and composite tone pattern discrimination was measured. Results showed that children's auditory processing skills correlated significantly with their reading fluency, phonological awareness, word naming latency, and the number of Chinese characters learned. Regression analyses found that tone temporal order judgment, temporal interval discrimination and composite tone pattern discrimination could account for 32% of variance in phonological awareness. Controlling for the effect of phonological awareness, auditory processing measures still contributed significantly to variance in reading fluency and character naming. In Experiment 2, mismatch negativities (MMN) in event-related brain potentials were recorded from dyslexic children and the matched normal children, while these children listened passively to Chinese syllables and auditory stimuli composed of pure tones. The two groups of children did not differ in MMN to stimuli deviated in pure tone frequency and Chinese lexical tones. But dyslexic children showed smaller MMN to stimuli deviated in initial consonants or vowels of Chinese syllables and to stimuli deviated in temporal information of composite tone patterns. These results suggested that Chinese dyslexic children have deficits in auditory temporal processing as well as in linguistic processing and that auditory and temporal processing is possibly as important to reading development of children in a logographic writing system as in an alphabetic system. PMID:16355749

  16. A Meta-analysis of Executive Functioning in Chinese and North American Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jiechao

    2013-01-01

    ​This study synthesizes findings from North American and Chinese studies that compare the performance of children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on executive function tasks. The relationship between the executive functions and ADHD in Chinese and North American children are found to be best described by multimodal model. The magnitude of average performance differences between Chinese and North American children with and without ADHD on each executive functio...

  17. The Major Problems and the Governmental Role in Chinese Rural Land Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of clarifying and defining rural land transfer, the necessity of rural land transfer is analyzed. Land transfer is the necessity in terms of promoting agricultural scale operation and improving production efficiency; proving opportunities for narrowing urban and rural gap; realizing rural surplus labor transfer and facilitating urbanization. Major problems in the existing rural land transfer are analyzed:unclear laws and regulations and rural land transfer lacks relevant legal protection;rural social security system is imperfect and can not solve farmers’ worries after land transfer; farmers and local governments are restricted by traditional ideas and it is hard to carry out the land transfer policies; rural system construction is relatively backward and the rural land transfer market is immature. Countermeasures on the governmental behaviors in rural land transfer are put forward: stipulating relevant administrative laws and regulations and perfecting the political system of rural land transfer; perfecting rural social security system and solving farmers’ worries after land transfer; changing the ideas and working style of local officials and leading farmers to form the scientific land transfer outlook;and vigorously promoting the construction of system and positively cultivating rural land transfer market.

  18. Association between the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype, Prediabetes, and Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Chinese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to evaluate the association of the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW phenotype with prediabetes and diabetes (DM in rural Chinese population. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 11,579 adults (5361 men and 6218 women aged 35 years or older were recruited from rural areas of China. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory examinations and self-reported information were collected by trained personnel. The HTGW phenotype was defined as elevated triglycerides and elevated waist circumference. We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the associations of interest. Results: Adults with the HTGW phenotype had a significantly higher prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes than those without the HTGW phenotype. Compared with the normal waist-normal triglycerides (NWNT group, those in the HTGW group had a higher adjusted odds ratio of diabetes (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.62–2.73. The association for diabetes was stronger for men (OR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.52–3.40 than for women (OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.32–2.63. However, multivariate analysis indicated that the HTGW phenotype was not associated with prediabetes. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the HTGW phenotype was associated with diabetes in a large rural Chinese population, and suggested this phenotype as a simple screening tool to identify adults with cardiometabolic conditions.

  19. Urban-Rural Differences in Overweight Status and Physical Inactivity among US Children Aged 10-17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Bennett, Kevin J.; Harun, Nusrat; Probst, Janice C.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among children and adolescents living in rural America. Purpose: We examined urban and rural differences in the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among US children. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2003 National Survey of…

  20. Self-Esteem among Jamaican Children: Exploring the Impact of Skin Color and Rural/Urban Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M. (Anderson); Cramer, Phebe

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which two different models predict the relation of self-esteem to skin color and rural/urban residence among Jamaican children. To explain this relation, Crocker and Major's Self-protective hypothesis and Harter's Additive model were examined among 200 African-Caribbean children from rural (n=85) and urban…

  1. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns

  2. Effects of Rural Mutual Health Care on outpatient service utilization in Chinese village medical institutions: evidence from panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongliang; Gao, Jianmin; Xue, Qinxiang; Yang, Xiaowei; Yan, Ju'e

    2009-07-01

    To solve the problem of 'Kan bing nan, kan bing gui' (medical treatment is difficult to access and expensive), a Harvard-led research team implemented a community-based health insurance scheme known as Rural Mutual Health Care (RMHC) in Chinese rural areas from 2004 to 2006. Two major policies adopted by RMHC included insurance coverage of outpatient services (demand-side policy) and drug policy (supply-side policy). This paper focuses on the effects of these two policies on outpatient service utilization in Chinese village clinics. The data used in this study are from 3-year household follow-up surveys. A generalized negative binomial regression model and a Heckman selection model were constructed using panel data from 2005 to 2007. The results indicate that the price elasticities of demand for outpatient visits and per-visit outpatient expenses were -1.5 and -0.553, respectively. After implementing the supply-side policy, outpatient visits and per-visit outpatient expenses decreased by 94.7 and 55.9%, respectively, controlling for insurance coverage. These findings can be used to make recommendations to the Chinese government on improving the health care system. PMID:19548324

  3. Bicultural Effects on the Creative Potential of Chinese and French Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sing; Cheung, Ping Chung; Lubart, Todd; Tong, Toby M. Y.; Chu, Dennis H. W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined possible bicultural effects on creative potential of children in four groups of Chinese and French children in Hong Kong and Paris. An international battery of widely used divergent measures (Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests; WKCT) and newly constructed divergent-plus-integrative measures (Evaluation of Potential Creativity;…

  4. Social Capital in Promoting the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children: Interaction across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study investigated how the interactions of social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…

  5. What Can Chinese and German Children Tell Us about Their Learning and Play in Kindergarten?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Hong Kong and German children's perceptions of play and learning and their relationships. Forty-eight children (24 German and 24 Chinese) playing and learning in the classroom were observed and videotaped for five consecutive days. They were interviewed 3 times about their kindergarten experiences by using free- and…

  6. Children's Understanding of Television Advertising: A Revisit in the Chinese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; McNeal, James U.

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey of 1,758 elementary school children (6-14 years old) from December 2001, to March 2002, in 3 Chinese cities with different levels of television advertising. The authors used D. R. John's (1999) model of consumer socialization as the theoretical framework for their study. More than half of the children whom the…

  7. A Valuable Experience for Children: The Dim Sum and Chinese Restaurant Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yuen Lai

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Dim Sum and Chinese Restaurant Project undertaken by 6-year-old kindergarten children in Hong Kong. The article discusses the importance of listening, observing, and documenting children's actions to meet their needs and interests. The kindergarten program that participated in this project is a nonprofit kindergarten…

  8. Examining the Text Quality of English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    As a branch of multicultural literature, bilingual children's picture books present a special opportunity for readers to expand their horizons and knowledge of other cultures. The researchers took a closer look at the text quality of 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. These bilingual books were examined on the aspects of the…

  9. Anger Coping Method and Skill Training for Chinese Children with Physically Aggressive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis L. C.; Tsang, Sandra K. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aggression hinders development in the child and creates numerous problems in the family, school and community. An indigenous Anger Coping Training program for Chinese children with aggressive behavior and their parents aimed to help reactively aggressive children in increasing anger coping methods and enhancing problem-solving abilities. This…

  10. Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

  11. Parent Involvement in Children's Education: An Exploratory Study of Urban, Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cheng Shuang; Koblinsky, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the involvement of Chinese immigrant parents in children's elementary and secondary education. Participants were 29 low-income, urban parents of public school children working primarily in the hospitality sector. Parents were interviewed about their academic expectations, knowledge of school performance, parent…

  12. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  13. Popularity and Acceptance as Distinct Dimensions of Social Standing for Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David; Tom, Shelley R.; Chang, Lei; Xu, Yiyuan; Duong, Mylien T.; Kelly, Brynn M.

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to validate distinctions between popularity and social acceptance in the cultural context of Hong Kong. We recruited 280 Chinese children (132 girls, 148 boys, mean age = 9.5) from Hong Kong primary schools. These children completed a peer nomination inventory assessing popularity, social acceptance, social rejection,…

  14. Chinese L1 Children's English L2 Verb Morphology over Time: Individual Variation in Longterm Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Joanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti

    2016-01-01

    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a…

  15. Uncertainty Orientation in Chinese Children: Relations with School and Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengyan; Chen, Xinyin; Sorrentino, Richard; Szeto, Andrew C. H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine uncertainty orientation and its relations with school and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. A sample of elementary school children in P.R. China, aged 10 to 12 years, participated in the study. Data concerning uncertainty orientation, academic performance and socio-emotional adjustment were…

  16. The Enhancement of Community Integration: Coping Strategies of Chinese Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Bernard P. H.; Lam, Shui-fong; Leung, Doris; Ho, Daphne; Au-Yeung, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a collaborative research project by school psychologists and educators in Hong Kong. It investigated the coping strategies used by Chinese parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders ("N"?=?380) to enhance their children's community integration and how these strategies were related to their perceptions of…

  17. Stresses and Coping Strategies of Chinese Families with Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peishi; Michaels, Craig A.; Day, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    Data from 368 families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities in the People's Republic of China were gathered to understand the stresses that families experience and the coping strategies they employ. Chinese families of children with developmental disabilities perceived high levels of stress related to pessimism, child…

  18. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H

    2014-04-01

    Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children. PMID:24041263

  19. Exploring the Eye-Movement Patterns as Chinese Children Read Texts: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minglei; Ko, Hwawei

    2011-01-01

    This study was to investigate Chinese children's eye patterns while reading different text genres from a developmental perspective. Eye movements were recorded while children in the second through sixth grades read two expository texts and two narrative texts. Across passages, overall word frequency was not significantly different between the two…

  20. Chinese Children's Justifications for Sharing Resources: Why Do We Have to Share?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mun

    2011-01-01

    Gilligan argued that Kohlberg's justice-based stage theory of morality reflects only one type of morality and does not consider people's tendency to use care-based moral judgements. This study examines Chinese children's tendency to use justice-based and care-based justifications for moral reasoning. Children's attitudes to conforming to the…

  1. Impact of Immersion Teaching on English Sociopragmatic Awareness of Chinese Kindergarten Children: A Polite Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yan, Rong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of an early partial immersion program as compared to a non-immersion program on English sociopragmatic awareness among Chinese kindergarten children six years of age. Of the 128 children who participated in the experiment involving the use of politeness perception tasks, half received three years…

  2. Interparental Conflict Styles and Parenting Behaviors: Associations with Overt and Relational Aggression among Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Su, Yanjie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interparental conflict styles related to Chinese children's overt and relational aggression directly and indirectly through parenting behaviors. Mothers (n = 670) and fathers (n = 570) reported their overt and covert interparental conflict styles and different parenting behaviors. Children's (n = 671) aggression was…

  3. The Effects of Grandparents on Children's Schooling: Evidence from Rural China*

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Zhen; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Whether or not the social class of grandparents affects grandchildren's socioeconomic outcomes net of the characteristics of the middle generation is much debated in the social mobility literature. Using data from the 2002 Chinese Household Income Project, we investigate the direct effects of grandparents on grandchildren's educational attainment in rural China. We find that the influence of grandparents is contingent on living arrangements. While the educational level of coresident grandpare...

  4. The prevalence of lactase deficiency and lactose intolerance in Chinese children of different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine lactose metabolism and lactase activity in Chinese children of different ages, prevalence of lactase deficiency (LD), and lactose intolerance (LI). Methods All 1168 healthy subjects between 3 and 13 years were recruited from schools in four large cities in China. They were screened by a 25 g lactose tolerance test.Some subjecls were challenged with .50 g milk powder on different days. Both indicators,the expiratory H2 concentration and intolerance symptoms, were analyzed. Results LD occurred in 38.5% of children in the 3-5 year age group, and 87% of the 7-8 year and 11-13 year old groups. The age of occurrence for LD may be at 7-8 years among Chinese children. The prevalence of LI among Chinese children was 12.2% alage 3-5 years, 33.1% at age 7-8 years, and 30.5% al age 11-13 years, respectively. Conclusion The results demonstrate that LD is very common in Chinese children from these four cities. LD and LI have a dose dependent response: lactose absorption and symptorms are based on lactase activity. The relationship between breast feeding history (or the history of cow milk intake) and lactase activity among Chinese children has not been established.

  5. Picture perception in Chinese dyslexic children: an eye-movement study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiu-hong; JING Jin; ZOU Xiao-bing; HUANG Xu; JIN Yu; WANG Qing-xiong; CHEN Xue-bin; YANG Bin-rang; YANG Si-yuan

    2009-01-01

    Background Currently, whether or not there is visuospatial impairments in Chinese dyslexic children is still a matter of discussion. The relatively recent application of an eye-tracking paradigm may offer an opportunity to address this issue. In China, in comparison with reading studies, there have not been nearly as many eye movement studies dealing with nonreading tasks such as picture identification and whether Chinese children with dyslexia have a picture processing deficit is not clear. The purposes of the present study were to determine whether or not there is visuospatial impairments in Chinese dyslexic children. Moreover, we attempted to discuss whether or not the abnormal eye movement pattern that dyslexic subjects show during reading of text appropriate for their age is a consequence of their linguistic difficulties.Methods An eye-link Ⅱ High-Speed Eye Tracker was used to track the series of eye-movement of 19 Chinese dyslexic children and 19 Chinese normal children. All of the subjects were presented with three pictures for this eye-tracking task and 6 relative eye-movement parameters, first fixation duration, average fixation duration, average saccade amplitude, mean saccade distance, fixation frequency and saccade frequency were recorded for analysis.Results Analyzing the relative parameter among three pictures, except for the fixation frequency and the saccade frequency, other eye-movement parameters were significantly different among the three pictures (P 0.05).Conclusions The characteristics of the pictures can significantly influence the visuospatial cognitive processing capability of the Chinese children. There is a detectable disability for the Chinese dyslexic children in the visuospatial cognitive processing: their saccade amplitude and mean saccade distance are shorter, which may be interpreted as specific for their reading disability.

  6. Chinese Rural Reform in 30 Years: An Analysis in Terms of Institutional Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Cai

    2010-01-01

    Both from history and logic, the rural reform is the starting point for China’s overall economic reform. The gradualism, inherent logical evolution and interest conflict of reform in China all have their origins in rural reform. The thirty-year’s rural reform can be viewed as the adjustment of urban-rural relations by different period. This study adopts the analytical framework of institutional economics to clearly demonstrate the whole logic process of institutional transition, then from the...

  7. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Chen; Colin W. Binns; Bruce Maycock; Yi Liu; Yuexiao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and Chi...

  8. The Socialization of Home-Schooled Children in Rural Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Mecham, Neil A.

    2004-01-01

    Concern over the social development of children who are home schooled has caused parents and educators to question the wisdom of this practice. A review of home-schooling research has not revealed whether a difference exists between the social skills of homeschooled children and children who attend public schools. This study explored the socialization of home-schooled children by comparing Social Skills Rating System scores of home-schooled children with the scores of their mothers and a comp...

  9. Rural and suburban 5-8 year old children: Gun-injury risks and crisis responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has provided empirical support for counseling guidelines for pediatric gun safety and has demonstrated that some parental behaviors increase children's risk of gun injury. However, few data exist on patterns of gun-injury risks, especially for children younger than age 10, children from middle-class and non-urban families, and children of non-gun-owning vs. gun-owning parents. Part I of the study presents data on gun injury risks in a middle-SES sample of rural and suburban gu...

  10. The Relations Among Multiple Risks, Parenting Styles, and Chinese American Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Xiao Tong

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prospective effects of multiple risks on the internalizing and externalizing problems of 258 1st and 2nd generation Chinese American school-aged children, as well as the mediating and moderating roles of parenting styles. When examining the relations between risk domains and children's behavioral adjustment, children's low self-regulation and negative emotionality, single-parent family structure, and gaps in parent-child cultural orientations were found to be unique pr...

  11. Chinese parenting and children's compliance to adults: a cross-cultural comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ching-Yu Soar

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the parenting beliefs and practices of Taiwanese, Chinese immigrant (all first-generation immigrants in the UK) and English mothers, and the compliance of their young children (aged 5?7), in order to elucidate the effects of child temperament, culture and acculturation strategies on reported parenting beliefs and practices, observed parental behaviour, child behaviour, mother?child interaction dynamics and children?s compliance. The data were colle...

  12. PREVALENCE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES AMONG ANGANWADI SCHOOL CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS OF THIRUVALLUR DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram Chandramohan; Priyanka Mandava

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) among Anganwadi school children in rural areas of Thiruvallur district. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carries out among 75, 24-72 months old children attending various Anganwadi centers in Thiruvallur district were selected. Caries experience was recorded using DMFT index & crude odds ratio has been reported and considered null hypothesis to be significant if P- Value is < 0.05 which is level...

  13. Women's decision-making autonomy and children's schooling in rural Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Luz; Victor Agadjanian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women's decision-making autonomy in developing settings has been shown to improve child survival and health outcomes. However, little research has addressed possible connections between women's autonomy and children's schooling. Objective: To examine the relationship between rural women's decision-making autonomy and enrollment status of primary school-age children living in their households and how this relationship differs by child's gender. Methods: The analysis uses data...

  14. Epidemiological correlates of nutritional anemia among children (6-35 months) in rural Wardha, Central India

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha N; Deshmukh P; Garg B

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives : Nutritional anemia is associated with impaired performance of a range of mental and physical functions in children, along with increased morbidity. Iron supplementation at a later age may not reverse the adverse effects. National Nutritional Anemia Control Program was launched in India in 1970, but it failed to make any impact. The present study was undertaken to find out prevalence of anemia and its correlates in rural Wardha in children 6-35 months of age. Materi...

  15. Exposure to organophosphate and cognitive performance in chilean rural school children: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    María T. Muñoz Q; Verónica P. Iglesias Á; Boris A. Lucero M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the presence of organophosphate metabolites (OP) in the urine of rural schoolchildren and estimate its association with their cognitive performance. Methodology: a cross-sectional exploratory study in which a total of 25 children were assessed. Cognitive functioning was measured using the WISC-III intelligence test. Additionally, the concentration of OP metabolites in their urine was tested. Results: 56% of the children had concentration levels above the detection limit...

  16. Synopsis: Agricultural production and children’s diets: Evidence from rural Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, Kalle; Hoddinott, John F.

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pre-school children’s food consumption and household agricultural production. Using a large household survey from rural Ethiopia, we find that increasing household production diversity leads to considerable improvements in children’s diet diversity. However, we also document how this non-separability of consumption and production does not hold for households that have access to food markets. These findings imply that nutrition-sensitive agricultural inter...

  17. An approach to hygiene education among rural Indian school going children

    OpenAIRE

    AR Dongre; Deshmukh PR; AV Boratne; Thaware P; Garg BS

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the prevalence of intestinal parasites and its epidemiological correlates among rural Indian school going (6-14 years) children and to study the effect of focused, need based child to child hygiene education on personal hygiene of school children. Materials and Methods: In September 2007, the present participatory action research was undertaken at a feasibly selected village Dhotra (Kasar) in Wardha district of central India. A triangulated research design of quantitat...

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF UNDER - NUTRITION IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 0-5 YEARS FROM RURAL AREAS OF DEHRADUN

    OpenAIRE

    Megha Luthra; Surekha Kishore; Kajal Jain

    2010-01-01

    Background: Under nutrition is a major problem in India. This is a study conducted in rural catchment areas of Department of Community Medicine, SGRRMC, Dehradun to asses the same. Objectives: To find out prevalence of under nutrition in children in the age group of 0-5 years and also to study its epidemiological correlates. Methods :All registered children of RHTC Mothrowala during October to December2009 were studied. Detailed histories were taken & growth chartingwas done using growth ...

  19. Oral health status of rural-urban migrant children in South China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, XL; McGrath, C; Lin, HC

    2010-01-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2011; 21: 58-67 Background. In China, there is a massive rural-urban migration and the children of migrants are often unregistered residents (a 'floating population').Aim. This pilot study aimed to profile the oral health of migrant children in South China's principal city of migration and identify its socio-demographic/behavioural determinants.Design. An epidemiological survey was conducted in an area of Guangzhou among 5-year-old migrant childre...

  20. Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

  1. Understanding the Culture of Chinese Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ruth; Nelson, Warren; Advincula, Luzelle; Cureton, Virginia Young; Canham, Daryl L.

    2005-01-01

    Providing appropriate health care to a client can be accomplished only in an environment that is sensitive to the cultural values and beliefs of the client. As the population of first-and second-generation Chinese immigrants increases in the United States, the need to develop culturally sensitive health care becomes significant. Chinese immigrants…

  2. Association of the rs3743205 variant of DYX1C1 with dyslexia in Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    Waye Mary MY; Chou Crystal HN; Ho Connie SH; Lim Cadmon KP

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Dyslexia is a learning disability that is characterized by difficulties in the acquisition of reading and spelling skills independent of intelligence, motivation or schooling. Studies of western populations have suggested that DYX1C1 is a candidate gene for dyslexia. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, it is therefore worthwhile to investigate whether there is an association of DYX1C1 in Chinese children with dyslexia. Method and R...

  3. Impact of Community-Based Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Metabolic Syndrome Intervention Technology in Rural Residents in Southern Jiangsu, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuqing; Xie, Bo; Tao, Yanghong; Ma, Yonghua; Zhang, Kaijin

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the feasibility and efficiency of community-based integrated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine metabolic syndrome (MS) intervention in rural residents. Material/Methods The MS intervention was administered to 598 rural community residents aged 45 years and older in Zhoushi from 2011 to 2013. Subjects completed a health examination and health behavior questionnaire before and after the intervention. In the intervention, we designed a “healthy life se...

  4. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Nunes do Nascimento

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb levels (BLLs. Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni in blood and increase of aluminum (Al levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05. Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05. Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.

  5. School snacks containing animal source foods improve dietary quality for children in rural Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, S.P.; Gewa, C.; Liang, L.J.; Grillenberger, M.; Bwibo, N.O.; Neumann, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Provision of a snack at school could help alleviate the micronutrient malnutrition that is common among schoolchildren in developing countries. The Child Nutrition Project was designed to compare the efficacy of three school snacks in improving growth and cognitive function of children in rural Keny

  6. Migration, Remittances, and Children's High School Attendance: The Case of Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a large nationally representative survey data to examine the impact of China's rural-urban migration on high school attendance of left-behind children by disentangling the effect of remittances from that of migration. The results show that the absence of adult household members has a negative impact on the high school attendance of…

  7. The Use of Reinforcement Procedures in Teaching Reading to Rural Culturally Deprived Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Byron

    A group of culturally deprived children with severe reading and behavior problems was systematically given tangible reinforcers while learning to read. Twelve second-grade and 12 third-grade boys from a rural and lower socioeconomic background were taught reading with the use of tangible reinforcers (E group). Four similar control groups (C group)…

  8. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  9. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess body composition in rural Gambian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Hawkesworth, S.; Wright, A.; Fulford, A.J.C.; Jarjou, L.M.A.; Prentice, A.M.; Moore, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To validate the Tanita BC-418MA Segmental Body Composition Analyser and four-site skinfold measurements for the prediction of total body water (TBW), percentage fat-free mass (% FFM) and percentage body fat (%BF) in a population of rural Gambian children. Subjects/Methods: One hundred and

  10. Role of Zinc in Stunting of Infants and Children in Rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.

    2003-01-01

    Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a

  11. Left-Behind Children in Rural Primary Schools: The Case of Sichuan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenyan; Hou, Longlong; Chen, Wentao

    2008-01-01

    During China's economic transformation, much of the rural population migrated to urban areas in search of employment opportunities. "Left-behind children" are the product of this phenomenon and need significant attention. Our study adopted elementary school students in Sichuan province as the subjects. After carefully studying their academic…

  12. Taskforce on Rural and Remote Education, Training, Employment and Children's Services: National Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    This report presents synopses of case studies highlighting workable local strategies to improve employment, education, training, and children's services in rural and remote Australia. Common features of each study include a description of the local context, the targeted group for each program, significant features, sustainability factors, major…

  13. South African AIDS Orphans: Examining Assumptions around Vulnerability from the Perspective of Rural Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Patricia C.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines assumptions circulating in development or interventionist discourse concerning the vulnerabilities of AIDS orphans in South Africa. Ongoing ethnographic research, begun in March 2003, with 31 rural children and youth between the ages of 14 and 22, in Magangangozi, KwaZulu-Natal, points to the ways in which global terms may…

  14. Children of the Land: Adversity and Success in Rural America. Studies on Successful Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Glen H., Jr.; Conger, Rand D.

    Based on the rural life experiences of Iowa children who grew up during the great farm crisis of the 1980s, this book focuses on successful adolescent development and its links to the social resources of families with ties to the land. In 1989, the Iowa Youth and Families Project began a panel study of 451 two-parent families in north central…

  15. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Manuel Ramos; Paula Moles-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinch on

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Results: A total of 324 children were included (59.6%male) whose median age was 16.4 months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 40.0%–50.8%] under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101 (68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46 (31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children (28.7%;95%CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children (16.5%;95%CI:13.0%–21.1%) it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies (n=44, 13.6%;95%CI:10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children (9.9%;95%CI:7.1%–13.3%), of which 23 (71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children (5.9%;95%CI:3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10 (3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea (n = 9; 2.8%), infected wound and ulcer (n=7;2.2%), and burns (n=6;1.9%). Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  16. Parenting style of Chinese fathers in Hong Kong: correlates with children's school-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong. PMID:12723448

  17. Chinese Eye Exercises and Myopia Development in School Age Children: A Nested Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Meng-Tian; Li, Shi-Ming; Peng, Xiaoxia; Li, Lei; Ran, Anran; Meng, Bo; Sun, Yunyun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    Chinese eye exercises have been implemented in China as an intervention for controlling children's myopia for over 50 years. This nested case-control study investigated Chinese eye exercises and their association with myopia development in junior middle school children. Outcome measures were the onset and progression of myopia over a two-year period. Cases were defined as 1. Myopia onset (cycloplegic spherical equivalent ≤ -0.5 diopter in non-myopic children). 2. Myopia progression (myopia shift of ≥1.0 diopter in those who were myopic at baseline). Two independent investigators assessed the quality of Chinese eye exercises performance at the end of the follow-up period. Of 260 children at baseline (mean age was 12.7 ± 0.5 years), 201 were eligible for this study. There was no association between eye exercises and the risk of myopia-onset (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.24-2.21), nor myopia progression (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.41-1.53). The group who performed high quality exercises had a slightly lower myopia progression of 0.15 D than the children who did not perform the exercise over a period of 2 years. However, the limited sample size, low dosage and performance quality of Chinese eye exercises in children did not result in statistical significance and require further studies. PMID:27329615

  18. Sleep Patterns, Sleep Disturbances, and Associated Factors Among Chinese Urban Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Wang, Guanghai; Geng, Li; Luo, Junna; Li, Ningxiu; Owens, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize sleep patterns and disturbances among Chinese urban kindergarten children and examine potentially associated factors. Caregivers of 513 children (47.96% male) aged 3-6 years (mean age = 4.46, SD = 0.9) completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Almost 80% (78.8%) of the children scored above the original CSHQ cutoff point for global sleep disturbance. Regression analysis indicated that child's age, and the presence of emotional problems, hyperactivity and peer problems, cosleeping, and interparental inconsistency of attitudes toward child rearing accounted for significant variance in the CSHQ total score (R(2) = 22%). These findings indicate that there is an apparently high prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese urban kindergarten children; and sleep disturbances are associated with both child-related and parenting practice variables. PMID:25396279

  19. The Changes in the Chinese Rural Residents' Residential Structure: Can People's Livelihood be Really Improved?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Minli; Wang, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    People's livelihood improvement is the prerequisite of social harmony. Food, clothing shelter and transportation are the direct manifestation of the people's livelihood. In China's vast rural areas, the most significant manifestation of people's livelihood improvement is the improvement of living conditions. Based on the data on two censuses, this paper analyzes the degree of improvement of rural residents' living conditions from the changes in the rural residents' residential structure. Fina...

  20. Longitudinal Predictors of Spelling and Reading Comprehension in Chinese as an L1 and English as an L2 in Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Predictors of age 10 spelling and reading comprehension skills in both Chinese and English from vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and word reading at age 8 were tested in this longitudinal study of 141 Hong Kong Chinese children learning to read English as a second language. The correlation between…

  1. A Corpus-Based Study on Use of Copular Verbs by Chinese School Children Learning English in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ailing

    2011-01-01

    By adopting corpus-based approach in this research study, the authors examined the various aspects of the copular verbs used by Chinese school children learning English. This study revealed that Chinese school children use copular verbs less frequently than native English speakers; they select a limited variety of copular verbs and less often use…

  2. Self-Management Training for Chinese Obese Children at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome: Effectiveness and Implications for School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; Anderson, Laura M.; Ji, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a school-based self-management intervention for Chinese obese children at risk for metabolic syndrome. Twenty-eight Chinese obese children (M age?=?10 years) and their parents participated in the study. Metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured pre- and post-intervention. The risk factors included Body Mass…

  3. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy

    OpenAIRE

    Yanwei Li; Dongchuan Yu

    2015-01-01

    Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC) has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words) in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese). Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interactio...

  4. [Assessment of food intake in rural area school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrei, L L; Albu, Adriana; Albu, M; Dănilă, Lorena; Foia, Iolanda

    2003-01-01

    Children food intake is influenced by family nutritional habits and economic status. According to the results of our survey, only 54.8% of the children have taken their breakfast, although all of them recognize the importance of this meal. 9.6% of the children are not using fresh fruits and vegetables in their diets, even if these are the main sources of vitamin C. Regarding the milk consumption, most of the children use this food item once (35.5%) or twice (19.4%) a day and only 16.1% occasionally. Although most of the children (93.5%) know that excessive salt intake represents a risk factor for their health, 87.1% have preferences for salted and spiced foods. Under the influence of advertising, certain changes in the nutritional habits have been noticed; instead of traditional snacks, children are more attracted to fast-food type snacks. PMID:14756073

  5. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  6. A STUDY ON GROWTH STATUS OF HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN IN RURAL SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahes h waran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE : To assess the growth status of High school children in Rural Primary health centre area of South India. METH ODS: C hildren from various High schools aged between 13 to 16 years belonging to a PHC area were surveyed in a School Health Program. Height and weight was measured following standard procedures. General nutritional status was assed clinically. SPSS Versio n 16 was used to analyze the data. R ESULTS: 630 students were examined. The overall prevalence of stunting was 44.6%. It was significantly higher in boys (47.7 than girls (41.6. Around 71% of the students were underweight, Boys (77.3% were significantly underweight as compared to girls (64.6. 21% of the children showed signs of malnutrition. CONCLUSION: The nutritional status of high school children in Rural Field Practice area is poor compared to many other studies

  7. The Chinese Urban-rural Dual Economic Structure Model and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuchuan; XU; Shengping; SHI; Qinghua; HUANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of urban-rural dual economic structure in China,we build a dynamic endogenous urban-rural dual economic model closely linked to China’s reality,and carry out mathematical economics analysis of optimized conditions for urban and rural sectors. The main results show that:(i) The labor growth rate of urban-rural sectors must be greater than the time discount rate,or else there would be a vicious cycle of diminishing returns in the sectors;(ii) The accumulation rate of physical capital and human capital of urban-rural sectors,and the rate of technological progress,need to be greater than the corresponding depreciation rate plus the time discount rate,otherwise there would be a vicious cycle of diminishing returns in the sectors;(iii) The low accumulation rate in the rural sector,and the occurrence of labor outflow,human capital loss and lack of investment,will expand income gap between urban and rural areas,which is a reason for solidification of urban-rural dual economic structure.

  8. Overview of Research on Relationship between Income Level and Happiness of Chinese Rural Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By conducting meta-analysis on the researches of relationship between income level and happiness at home and abroad,this paper researches the relationship between income level and happiness.The results show that the relationship between income level and happiness takes on U-shape curve,and it can be explained from adaptation,social comparison and psychological expectation.Finally,in order to promote rural residents’ income level and strengthen rural residents’ happiness in China,corresponding policy suggestions are put forward as follows:bridge gap of urban-rural residents’ income distribution;dilute the competitions for money and status among people;perfect rural social security system;endeavor to create a situation in which all rural residents do their best.

  9. The Association of Overweight and Obesity with Blood Pressure among Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bin; MA Jun; WANG Hai Jun; WANG Zhi Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between obesity and high blood pressure (BP) in Chinese children and adolescents. Methods Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure measurements of 197 191 children aged 7-17 years were obtained from a Chinese national survey in 2010. Obesity and high BP were defined according to the reference values for Chinese children. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95%confidence intervals (CIs) of different BMI categories for high BP, as well as the population attributable risk percent (PAR%), were also calculated. Results The prevalence of high BP was 16.1% for boys and 12.9%for girls in 2010. Overweight and obese children had a significantly higher prevalence of high BP than non-overweight children in both boys and girls in each age group. ORs (95%CI) for high BP were 4.1 (3.9, 4.4) in obese boys and 4.0 (3.7, 4.3) in obese girls. The overall PAR%for high BP due to overweight and obesity was 14.4%. Conclusion Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher risk of high BP than non-overweight children. Eliminating overweight and obesity could reduce 14.4%of high BP cases.

  10. SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  11. Perceived discrimination, schooling arrangements and psychological adjustments of rural-to-urban migrant children in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lihua; Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Lin, Danhua

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The global literature has revealed potential negative impacts of migration and discrimination on individual's psychological adjustments. However, the psychological adjustments among internal migrant children in developing countries are rarely assessed. This study simultaneously examines perceived discrimination and schooling arrangements in relation to psychological adjustments among rural-to-urban migrant children in China. Methods: A sample of 657 migrant children was recruited ...

  12. Rural and urban Ugandan primary school children's alternative ideas about animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaala, Justine

    This study examined rural and urban Ugandan primary children's alternative ideas about animals through the use of qualitative research methods. Thirty-six children were selected from lower, middle, and upper primary grades in two primary schools (rural and urban). Data were collected using interview-about-instance technique. Children were shown 18 color photographs of instances and non-instances of familiar animals and asked to say if the photographed objects were animals or not. They were then asked to give reasons to justify their answers. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The results indicate that children tended to apply the label "animal" to large mammals, usually found at home, on the farm, in the zoo, and in the wild. Humans were not categorized as animals, particularly by children in the lower grades. Although the children in upper grades correctly identified humans as animals, they used reasons that were irrelevant to animal attributes and improperly derived from the biological concept of evolution. Many attributes children used to categorize instances of animals were scientifically unacceptable and included superficial features, such as body outline, anatomical features (body parts), external features (visual cues), presence or absence and number of appendages. Movement and eating (nutrition) were the most popular attributes children used to identify instances of animals. The main differences in children's ideas emanated from the reasons used to identify animals. Older rural children drew upon their cultural and traditional practices more often than urban children. Anthropomorphic thinking was predominant among younger children in both settings, but diminished with progression in children's grade levels. Some of the implications of this study are: (1) teachers, teacher educators and curriculum developers should consider learners' ideas in planning and developing teaching materials and interventions. (2) Teachers should relate humans to other

  13. The Characteristics,Structure and Trend of the Chinese Urban and Rural Residents’ Clothing Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; ZHANG; Haifeng; XIAO

    2014-01-01

    As one of the necessities of life,clothing is on the important position in the daily life of urban and rural residents. Firstly,the paper carries out the descriptive statistical analysis about clothing consumption expenditures of urban and rural residents; secondly,based on questionnaires of 543 urban and rural residents in 16 provinces,this paper analyses structure and trend of urban and rural residents’ clothing consumption. The results show that per capita clothing consumption expenditure of urban and rural residents present growth on the whole,but the gap between the two is gradually expanding; clothing consumption expenditure have differences in different regions; the differences of different income levels are also obvious; urban and rural residents’ clothing consumption structure tends to be more diversified,cotton goods and chemical fiber goods is the main variety of clothing consumption,including down feather,cotton and chemical fiber is the main variety of coat,and cotton,chemical fiber and wool is the main variety of suit and knitwear; cotton goods,down goods and woolen goods will be the fiber goods that urban and rural residents buy more in the future; clothing consumption demand will pursue for band,comfort and personality; female residents will still be the main force of clothing consumption. Finally,the paper puts forward some recommendations on the basis of analysis results.

  14. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hexing; Ying ZHOU; Tang, Chuanxi; He, Yanhong; Wu, Jingui; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2013-01-01

    Background Lab studies have suggested that ubiquitous phthalate exposures are related to obesity, but relevant epidemiological studies are scarce, especially for children. Objective To investigate the association of phthalate exposures with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in Chinese school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three primary and three middle schools randomly selected from Changning District of Shanghai City of China in 2011–2012. Accordi...

  15. The Influences of the Chinese Modern Family Changes on the Socialization of Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chenggang; Liu Dan

    2006-01-01

    This article mainly introduces the contemporary changes in Chinese family and especially analyses the transformation of family structure and type,family housing conditions,family relationship network.the relationship between husband and wife and parenthood.In addition,it discusses the influence of family changes in the soeialization of children.Then it expounds the new transformation in children's socialization because of family,school,mass media,etc.Finally,it discusses its challenge and reflection to family and pedagogue.

  16. The Association of Thyroid Nodule with Non-Iodized Salt among Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Weimin; Chen, Zexin; Liu, Hui; Huo, Liangliang; Huang, Yangmei; Jin, Xingyi; Deng, Jin; Zhu, Sujuan; Jin, Wen; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Objective The controversy that iodized salt may increase the risk of thyroid disorders has been aroused in China during the past decade. Most of studies focused on adult rather than children. We aimed to explore whether iodized salt was associated with an increased risk of thyroid nodule in Chinese children. Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted in Hangzhou, China, in 2010. Iodized salt intake, urine iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid nodule (by ultrasonography) were measured in...

  17. Predicting Internalizing Problems in Chinese Children: the Unique and Interactive Effects of Parenting and Child Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing ...

  18. An Interactive Teaching – Learning Tool for Underprivileged Children in Rural Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Vignesh Ramamoorthy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In a country like India, there are children who starve for food, water and cannot spend time for studying and they have to work hard, to get one meal a day. The dropouts in schools are high because of various reasons. Education is not at affordable cost, government must bring some schemes. 80% schools suffer from shortage of teachers, infrastructural gaps and several habitations. There are also frequent allegations of government schools being riddled with absenteeism and mismanagement and appointments are based on political convenience. Despite the allure of free lunch-food in the government schools, many parents send their children to private schools. As a result, proponents of low cost private schools, critiqued government schools as being poor value for money. Furthermore, many international schools with most modern Information Communication Technology (ICT tools are mushrooming even in remote villages because the rural elites who are able to afford school fees in a country where large number of families live in absolute poverty. The major objective of this paper is to develop an interactive teaching-learning tool with multimedia applications for underprivileged children in rural schools. This tool will help the rural school children to have quality education at an affordable cost.

  19. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG RURAL PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN OF MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Arlappa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia continues to be a severe public health nutritional problem in India affecting all physiological groups, even after the National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme has been in operation for more than three decades. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anaemia among rural pre-school (1-5-years children of Maharashtra. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB covering a total of 404 (Boys-243; Girls-161 pre-school children. Information of socio-demographic particulars was obtained and the finger prick blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin levels by cyanmethmoglobin method. Results: The result shows that 59.2 % (CI: 54.4-64.0 of the rural pre-school children of Maharashtra were anaemic, and the prevalence was significantly (p40% among rural pre-school children of Maharashtra. Therefore, appropriate intervention measures such as supplementary iron & folic acid, periodic deworming and health & nutrition education should be strengthened. The community needs to be encouraged to diversify their diets by consuming iron rich foods.

  20. The Impact of Life Skills Training on Behavior Problems in Left-Behind Children in Rural China: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Shan; Yan, Jin; Lee, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda

    2016-01-01

    A randomized controlled experimental pilot study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of life skills training on behavior problems in left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Sixty-eight LBC were recruited from a middle school in rural China. The intervention group took a ten-week-long life skills training course. The Child Behavior…

  1. To have or to learn? The effects of materialism on British and Chinese children's learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lisbeth; Dittmar, Helga; Banerjee, Robin

    2014-05-01

    This article presents a systematic attempt to examine the associations of materialism with learning in 9- to 11-year-old children in 2 countries of similar economic development but different cultural heritage. Using cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental methods, we test a theoretically driven model of associations among materialism, learning motivations, and learning outcomes. Convergent findings suggest that a materialist orientation in elementary school children lowers intrinsic learning motivations, fosters extrinsic learning motivations, and leads to poorer learning outcomes. Materialism was linked directly to lower exam performance, and this link was mediated by lower mastery and heightened performance goals, with patterns not differing between British and Hong Kong Chinese children (Study 1). A follow-up showed that initial materialism predicted worse exam grades 1 year later, suggesting a detrimental long-term effect on Chinese children's school performance (Study 2). We then tested relationships between materialism and learning experimentally, by priming a momentary (state) orientation toward materialism. Writing about material possessions and money affected Chinese children's learning motivations, so that they endorsed lower mastery and higher performance goals (Study 3). A video-diary materialism prime had significant effects on actual learning behaviors, leading British children to (a) choose a performance-oriented learning task over a mastery-oriented task and (b) give up on the task more quickly (Study 4). This research has important implications for personality psychology, educational policy, and future research. PMID:24749823

  2. The effect of magnocellular-based visual-motor intervention on Chinese children with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Magnocellular (M) deficit theory points out that the core deficit of developmental dyslexia (DD) is the impairment in M pathway, which has been evidenced in many previous studies. Based on the M deficit, some researchers found that visual intervention focusing on M deficit improved dyslexics' M function as well as reading abilities. However, the number and reliability of these training studies were limited. Therefore, the present study conducted an M-based visual-motor intervention on Chinese children with DD to investigate the relationship between M deficit and Chinese DD. Intervention programs included coherent motion detection, visual search, visual tracking, and juggling, which were related to M function. The results showed that M function and phonological awareness of training dyslexic group were improved to a normal level as age-matched normal children after intervention, while non-training dyslexics did not. It supported M deficit theory, and suggested M deficit might be the core deficit of Chinese DD. PMID:26500587

  3. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubin Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.

  4. Three-dimensional facial analysis of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Siti Adibah; Aidil Koay, Noor Airin

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the facial features of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a normal control group using a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry camera. This cross-sectional study examined 3D measurements of the facial surfaces of 20 Chinese children with repaired UCLP and 40 unaffected Chinese children aged 7 to 12 years old, which were captured using the VECTRA 3D five-pod photosystem and analyzed using Mirror software. Twenty-five variables and two ratios were compared between both groups using independent t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using ten randomly selected images and analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC). The level of significance was set at p < 0.0018. Intra- and inter-observers' reliability was considered fair to excellent with an ICC value ranging from 0.54 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0018) were found mainly in the nasolabial region. The cleft group exhibited wider alar base root width, flattened nose and broader nostril floor width on the cleft side. They tended to have shorter upper lip length and thinner upper vermillion thickness. Faces of Chinese children with repaired UCLP displayed meaningful differences when compared to the normal group especially in the nasolabial regions. PMID:27507713

  5. The Development of Young Chinese Children's Morphological Awareness: The Role of Semantic Relatedness and Morpheme Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Meiling; Chen, Xi; Dronjic, Vedran; Shu, Hua; Anderson, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The research reported in this paper investigated the effects of semantic relatedness of words (closely related vs. distantly related) and morpheme type (free morpheme vs. bound morpheme) on young Chinese children's homophone awareness, an aspect of morphological awareness, in two experiments. The first experiment was a cross-sectional study…

  6. Predictive Relations between Peer Victimization and Academic Achievement in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore longitudinal associations between peer victimization and academic achievement in Chinese children. Participants were N = 805 3rd-grade students (486 boys, 319 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.5 years, SD = 3 months) attending primary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. At Time 1 and Time 2 (2 years…

  7. Relations of Perceived Maternal Parenting Style, Practices, and Learning Motivation to Academic Competence in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…

  8. Bilingual Chinese, Malay and Tamil Children's Language Choices in a Multi-lingual Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    1999-01-01

    Examined language choice for three bilingual families in the context of Singapore's bilingual policy for preschool children. Found that Chinese families prefer English for all activities; Malay families prefer the Malayan language for worship and interaction with family; and Tamil families choose the Tamil language for worship but prefer English…

  9. Accommodations for Assimilation: Supporting Newly Arrived Children from the Chinese Mainland to Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Yuen, Mantak

    2001-01-01

    Highlights the ways in which immigrant children from the Chinese mainland are helped to assimilate into Hong Kong society. Discusses programs to meet the challenges of securing age-appropriate school placements; adjusting to a new education system and curricula; adapting to a new school and social environment; facing segregation, prejudice, and…

  10. Weaknesses in semantic, syntactic and oral language expression contribute to reading difficulties in Chinese dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-Yun; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined the role of weaknesses in some language skills for the reading difficulties among Chinese dyslexic children. Thirty Chinese dyslexic children were compared with 30 chronological age (CA) controls and 30 reading-level (RL) controls on a number of language and reading measures. The results showed that Chinese dyslexic children performed significantly worse than the CA controls but similarly to the RL controls in many of the linguistic measures except that the dyslexic group also performed significantly less well than the RL group in semantic skills and syntactic skills on multiple modifiers. The dyslexic children were found to have difficulties in semantic processing, syntactic skills and oral language expression as compared with the CA controls, which were also found to predict their performance in word recognition and/or sentence comprehension. In addition, measures of semantic discrimination, advanced syntactic word order, and oral narrative also significantly predicted the group membership of having or not having dyslexia. These findings suggest that weaknesses in some semantic and advanced syntactic skills are the potential source of poor word and sentence reading in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Implications of the present findings for the identification of dyslexia were discussed. PMID:23904231

  11. Dialogic Reading and Morphology Training in Chinese Children: Effects on Language and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Chow, Celia Sze-Lok

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of parent-child shared book reading and metalinguistic training on the language and literacy skills of 148 kindergartners in Hong Kong. Children were pretested on Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, morphological awareness, and reading interest and then assigned randomly to 1 of 4 conditions: the dialogic…

  12. Coping and Psychological Distress of Chinese Parents of Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Paul; Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    1995-01-01

    Coping and correlates of psychological distress of 174 Chinese parents of children with Down's syndrome, language delays, or no disabilities were compared. Down's syndrome parents more frequently used avoidance coping style. No differences were observed between Down's syndrome and language delay parents on psychological distress, optimism,…

  13. Concurrent and Longitudinal Effects of Morphological Awareness on Reading Comprehension among Chinese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haomin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the concurrent and longitudinal effects of morphological awareness on the development of reading comprehension among Chinese-speaking children (N = 123, mean[subscript age] = 8.1 at Time 2). Drawing upon multivariate analyses, the study found that morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability were intertwined together…

  14. The construction of an urban underclass : a cultural study of Chinese rural-urban migrant workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Ting; 吳婷

    2015-01-01

    Sitting on the throne of the world’s second largest economy, China’s swift turnaround has surprised both international and internal audiences. However, few have truly questioned the human costs that the country has endured to achieve such glory. The exploitation and oppression of rural-urban migrant workers are the main human costs that paved the way for the country’s wealth and prosperity. This thesis intends to differentiate from previous studies, which generally discuss the topic of rural-...

  15. Overview of Research on Relationship between Income Level and Happiness of Chinese Rural Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Hongbing

    2011-01-01

    By conducting meta-analysis on the researches of relationship between income level and happiness at home and abroad, this paper researches the relationship between income level and happiness. The results show that the relationship between income level and happiness takes on U-shape curve, and it can be explained from adaptation, social comparison and psychological expectation. Finally, in order to promote rural residents' income level and strengthen rural residents' happiness in China, corres...

  16. Differences in lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiaofan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric obesity has become a global public health problem. Data on the lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors of overweight and obese children and adolescents are limited. The present study aims to compare health-related factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study consisted of 4262 children and adolescents aged 5–18 years old from rural areas of the northeast China. Anthropometric measurements and self-reported information on health-related variables, such as physical activities, sleep duration, dietary habits, family income, and recognition of weight status from the views of both children and parents, were collected by trained personnel. Results The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 15.3 and 6.4%, respectively. Compared to girls, boys were more commonly overweight (17.5% vs. 12.9% and obese (9.5% vs. 3.1%. Approximately half of the parents with an overweight or obese child reported that they failed to recognize their child’s excess weight status, and 65% of patients with an overweight child reported that they would not take measures to decrease their child’s body weight. Obese children and adolescents were more likely to be nonsnackers [odds ratio (OR: 1.348; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.039–1.748] and to have a family income of 2000 CNY or more per month (OR: 1.442; 95% CI: 1.045–1.99 and less likely to sleep longer (≥7.5 h (OR: 0.475; 95% CI: 0.31–0.728 than the normal-weight participants. Conclusions Our study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large Chinese pediatric population. Differences in sleep duration, snacking, family income, and parental recognition of children’s weight status among participants in different weight categories were observed, which should be considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.

  17. Relations between aggression and adjustment in chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between aggressive behavior and social and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. A sample of children (N = 1,171; 591 boys, 580 girls; initial M age = 9 years) in China participated in the study. Two waves of longitudinal data were collected in Grades 3 and 4 from multiple sources including peer nominations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. The results indicated that the main effects of aggression on adjustment were more evident than those of adjustment on aggression. Moreover, aggression was negatively associated with later leadership status and positively associated with later peer victimization, mainly for high-achieving children. The results suggested that consistent with the resource-potentiating model, academic achievement served to enhance the positive development of children with low aggression. On the other hand, although the findings indicated fewer main effects of adjustment on aggression, loneliness, depression, and perceived social incompetence positively predicted later aggression for low-achieving, but not high-achieving, children, which suggested that consistent with the stress-buffering model, academic achievement protected children with psychological difficulties from developing aggressive behavior. The results indicate that academic achievement is involved in behavioral and socioemotional development in different manners in Chinese children. Researchers should consider an integrative approach based on children's behavioral, psychological, and academic functions in designing prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23557214

  18. Adaptive behavior in Chinese children with Williams syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by compelling psychological phenotypes. The symptoms span multiple cognitive domains and include a distinctive pattern of social behavior. The goal of this study was to explore adaptive behavior in WS patients in China. Methods We conducted a structured interview including the Infants-Junior Middle School Students Social-life Abilities Scale in three participant groups: children with WS (n = 26), normally-developing children matched for mental age (MA, n = 30), and normally-developing children matched for chronological age (CA, n = 40). We compared the mean scores for each domain between the three groups. Results Children with WS had more siblings than children in the two control groups. The educational level of the caregivers of WS children was lower than that of the control children. We found no differences in locomotion, work skill, socialization, or self-management between the WS and MA groups. WS children obtained higher scores of self-dependence (df = 54, Z = −2.379, p = 0.017) and had better communication skills (df = 54, Z = −2.222, p = 0.026) compared with MA children. The CA children achieved higher scores than the WS children for all dimensions of adaptive behavior. Conclusions WS children have better adaptive behavior skills regarding communication and self-dependence than normal children matched for mental age. Targeted intervention techniques should be designed to promote social development in this population. PMID:24708693

  19. Holding Memories, Shaping Dreams: Chinese Children's Writers' Notebooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Maureen

    1998-01-01

    Describes how the author used writers' notebooks with her students (grades 6-8), all Chinese immigrants, to find and express their memories and dreams, to find meaning in their experiences of change and loss; develop voice and a sense of audience; develop fluency in English; and find a growing sense of control over their new language and their new…

  20. Facets of Loneliness and Depression among Chinese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sing; Chan, Dennis W. K.; Lau, Patrick S. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between loneliness and depression among 6,356 Chinese students from grades 4 through 9. Reports a close relationship between loneliness and depression. Peer-related loneliness and aloneness were more predictive than parent-related, and among primary students loneliness was more predictive of overall depression. Includes…

  1. A Model of Reading Comprehension in Chinese Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Wong, Yau-kai

    2013-01-01

    The relationships of reading-related skills (rapid naming, morphological awareness, syntactic skills, discourse skills, and verbal working memory) and word reading to reading comprehension were examined among 248 Chinese fourth graders in Hong Kong. Multiple regression analysis results showed that syntactic skills (word order knowledge,…

  2. Bushmeat consumption among rural and urban children from Province Orientale, Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie; Nebesse, Casimir; Nasi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the importance of bushmeat consumption for household nutrition, both in rural and urban settings, is critical to developing politically acceptable ways to reduce unsustainable exploitation. This study provides insights into bushmeat consumption patterns relative to the consumption of...... other meat (from the wild, such as fish and caterpillars, or from domestic sources, such as beef, chicken, pork, goat and mutton) among children from Province Orientale, Democratic Republic of Congo. Our results show that urban and rural households consume more meat from the wild than from domestic...... sources. Of the various types of wild meat, bushmeat and fish are the most frequently consumed by children from Kisangani and fish is the most frequently consumed in villages. Poorer urban households eat meat less frequently but consume bushmeat more frequently than wealthier households. In urban areas...

  3. La desnutrición infantil en el medio rural mexicano Children malnutrition in rural Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    ABELARDO AVILA-CURIEL; TERESA SHAMAH-LEVY; CARLOS GALINDO-GÓMEZ; GERARDO RODRÍGUEZ-HERNÁNDEZ; LINDA M BARRAGÁN-HEREDIA

    1998-01-01

    Objetivo. Conocer la situación nutricional de la población infantil del medio rural mexicano, comparándola con la situación previa y localizando las zonas más afectadas. Material y métodos. La muestra estuvo conformada por 38 232 familias, pertenecientes a 855 localidades, seleccionadas probabilísticamente. Se tomaron medidas antropométricas a 31 601 menores de cinco años. El análisis se realizó en consideración a la población de referencia peso/edad, peso/talla y talla/edad. Resultados. La d...

  4. Evaluating Physical and Perceptual Responses to Exergames in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick W.C. Lau; Yan Liang; Lau, Erica Y.; Choung-Rak Choi; Chang-Gyun Kim; Myung-Soo Shin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether exergames could help children reach the recommendations for PA and cardiorespiratory fitness regarding exercise intensity. Differences in perceived physical exertion, EE, VO2, and HR between normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) children participating in exergames were also examined. Methods: Twenty-one children (age: 10.45 ± 0.88) were assessed for EE, VO2 and HR during rest, in a maximal treadmill test, and while playing d...

  5. Rural Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As the Chinese economy soars ahead in the wake of the international financial crisis, more attention is being given to the country’s indus-trial, financial, investment and trade figures. But the Central Rural Work

  6. Contribution of malnutrition and malaria to anemia in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Favour Osazuwa; Oguntade Michael Ayo

    2010-01-01

    Background : The most common cause of anemia is an iron deficiency; however, the condition may also be caused by deficiencies in folate, vitamin B 12 and protein. Some anemia is not caused by nutritional factors, but by congenital factors and parasitic diseases such as malaria. Aim: This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of anemia among children in three rural communities of the Ovia North East Local government area, and to determine whether its cause was nutritional or could be attr...

  7. Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error and other eye problems among urban and rural school children

    OpenAIRE

    Padhye Amruta; Khandekar Rajiv; Dharmadhikari Sheetal; Dole Kuldeep; Gogate Parikshit; Deshpande Madan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Uncorrected refractive error is an avoidable cause of visual impairment. Aim: To compare the magnitude and determinants of uncorrected refractive error, such as age, sex, family history of refractive error and use of spectacles among school children 6-15 years old in urban and rural Maharashtra, India. Study Design: This was a review of school-based vision screening conducted in 2004-2005. Materials and Methods: Optometrists assessed visual acuity, amblyopia and strabismus ...

  8. Incidence of Caries in Children of Rural and Subrural Areas in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Jurić, Hrvoje; Klarić, Tatjana; Žagar, Maja; Buković Jr., Dino; Janković, Bernard; Špalj, Stjepan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine certain regularities in caries incidence in children in primary and permanent dentition in respect of clinical and non-clinical variables that can be collected in everyday dental practice. This way it could be easier for the operator to adjust individual preventive therapy of patients. The study was conducted on 301 subjects, aged 3–6 (74 subjects) and 11–14 (227 subjects) inhabitants of Petrinja and Topusko, postwar rural and subrural areas ...

  9. How does credit access affect children's time allocation? Evidence from rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Fuwa Nobuhiko; Ito Seiro; Kubo Kensuke; Kurosaki Takashi; Sawada Yasuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Using a unique dataset obtained from rural Andhra Pradesh, India that contains direct observations of household access to credit and detailed time use, results of this study indicate that credit market failures lead to a substantial reallocation of time used by children for activities such as schooling, household chores, remunerative work, and leisure. The negative effects of credit constraints on schooling amount to a 60% decrease of average schooling time. However, the magnitude of decrease...

  10. Parental Attitudes toward Children and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Shunsuke Sakamoto

    2006-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the determinants of child labor in rural India using household survey data. While a growing number of empirical studies have shown that child labor in developing countries is associated with a variety of factors, such as household poverty, low parental educational attainment, and the absence of schools, this study pays particular attention to parents' attitudes toward children in the household as a crucial determinant of child labor. In order to examine the...

  11. Risk factors for overweight and overfatness in rural South African children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, E; Reilly, J J; Bland, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine risk factors for overweight/overfatness in children and adolescents from rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods Anthropometric data were collected from a cross-sectional sample (n = 1519, ages 7, 11 and 15 years) and linked to demographic information (n = 1310 and n = 1317 in overweight and overfat analyses, respectively). Candidate risk factors for overweight/overfatness were identified and tested for associations with overweight (BMI-for-age >+1SD, WHO reference)...

  12. Risk factors for overweight and overfatness in rural South African children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, E; Reilly, J J; Bland, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine risk factors for overweight/overfatness in children and adolescents from rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods Anthropometric data were collected from a cross-sectional sample (n = 1519, ages 7, 11 and 15 years) and linked to demographic information (n = 1310 and n = 1317 in overweight and overfat analyses, respectively). Candidate risk factors for overweight/overfatness were identified and tested for associations with overweight (BMI-for-age >+1SD, WHO ref...

  13. The association of thyroid nodule with non-iodized salt among Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Xu

    Full Text Available The controversy that iodized salt may increase the risk of thyroid disorders has been aroused in China during the past decade. Most of studies focused on adult rather than children. We aimed to explore whether iodized salt was associated with an increased risk of thyroid nodule in Chinese children.The cross-sectional study was conducted in Hangzhou, China, in 2010. Iodized salt intake, urine iodine concentration (UIC and thyroid nodule (by ultrasonography were measured in 3026 children. The associations of iodized salt with thyroid nodule were evaluated using multiple logistic regression models.The prevalence of thyroid nodule was 10.59% among Chinese children. Girls (11.89% had higher prevalence of thyroid nodule than boys (9.26%. No significant association was observed between type of salt and thyroid nodule in pooled samples, boys and girls, respectively. Similar associations were observed between UIC and thyroid nodule. There was no significant association between milk consumption and thyroid nodule as well.The present study indicated that non-iodized salt may not increase the risk of thyroid nodules among Chinese children. Similar associations were observed between milk consumption, UIC and thyroid nodules.

  14. Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. DESIGN: The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children's adjustment was measured with parents', teachers', and peers' or children's reports. RESULTS: Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children's externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child's adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes. PMID:23226715

  15. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays. PMID:24256420

  16. American and Chinese children's evaluations of personal domain events and resistance to parental authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Wong, Mun; Ball, Courtney; Yau, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A total of 267 five-, seven-, and ten-year-olds (M = 7.62), 147 in Hong Kong and 120 in the United States, evaluated hypothetical personal (and moral) events described as either essential or peripheral to actors' identity. Except for young Chinese in the peripheral condition, straightforward personal events were overwhelmingly evaluated as acceptable based on personal justifications. Children primarily endorsed compliance, but attributed negative emotions to actors when mothers forbade personal choices, especially when described as essential to identity. Conventional justifications declined among Chinese children and pragmatic justifications for these judgments increased with age for all children, as did judgments that personal events were up to the child. Rules were seen as more legitimate and events were seen as more up to mothers to decide for moral than personal events. PMID:23865637

  17. A Review of Children's Literature about Farming and Rural Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Nancy L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews children's books suitable for preschool to secondary students concerning life on a farm, farm animals, various crops, regional differences, farming methods, farm machinery, livestock care, veterinary science, the history of farming, difficulties with farm life, and poetry about farm life. (KS)

  18. Chinese Mothers and Adolescents' Views of Authority and Autonomy: A Study of Parent-Adolescent Conflict in Urban and Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Gaddini, Min

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-five dyads of eighth-grade adolescents (mean age = 14.15 years, SD = 0.39) and their mothers in China (30 dyads from urban one-child families, 27 from urban multiple-children families, and 28 from rural multiple-children families) were interviewed individually. They described daily parent-adolescent conflicts, justified their perspectives…

  19. Correlation of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytemia with complement component titers in rural Nigerian school children.

    OpenAIRE

    Ade-Serrano, M A; Ejezie, G C; Kassim, O O

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between Plasmodium falciparum gametocytemia and the complement components C3, C4, and C3b was investigated in 141 ambulant rural Nigerian school children. Three groups were studied. Group 1 included 42 children with circulating P. falciparum gametocytemia in which the mean titers of C3, C4, and C3b were 145.4 +/- 22.6 mg/100 ml (72%), 60.5 +/- 0.2 mg/100 ml (149%), and 64.0 +/- 5.9 mg/liter (65%), respectively. These findings indicated marked C3b hypocomplementemia. Group 2 i...

  20. Association of the rs3743205 variant of DYX1C1 with dyslexia in Chinese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waye Mary MY

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslexia is a learning disability that is characterized by difficulties in the acquisition of reading and spelling skills independent of intelligence, motivation or schooling. Studies of western populations have suggested that DYX1C1 is a candidate gene for dyslexia. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, it is therefore worthwhile to investigate whether there is an association of DYX1C1 in Chinese children with dyslexia. Method and Results Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped from three hundred and ninety three individuals from 131 Chinese families with two which have been reported in the literature and six tag SNPs at DYX1C1. Analysis for allelic and haplotypic associations was performed with the UNPHASED program and multiple testing was corrected using false discovery rates. We replicated the previously reported association of rs3743205 in Chinese children with dyslexia (pcorrected = 0.0072. This SNP was also associated with rapid naming, phonological memory and orthographic skills in quantitative trait analysis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that DYX1C1 is associated with dyslexia in people of Chinese ethnicity in Hong Kong.

  1. Comparison of body composition among rural preschool children of Purulia, West Bengal, using two different equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subal Das

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Body composition is an important factor in identifying populations at risk of metabolic disease including type-2 diabetes in South Asian children. Many equations for calculating body-fat percentage (BF % from anthropometric methods have been developed among South-Asian children. The objective of this study was to compare the BF % derived from two different methods obtained from skinfold equations in Santal tribal and Bauri caste preschool children. In Purulia, 1012 (480 girls, 532 boys rural children aged 2-6 years underwent anthropometric measurements. We conducted anthropometry, including biceps, triceps, sub-scapular, suprailiac and medial-calf skinfold thicknesses. Two previously published equations (Shaikh and Mahalanabis and Slaughter et al., were used to calculate BF % from anthropometric data. There was poor agreement between the two BF % values. The former equation over estimated the BF (% while the latter equation tended to under-estimate BF (%. Thus, currently available skinfold equations do not accurately predict BF % in rural preschool children of Purulia, West Bengal, India. Further studies are needed using direct methods of determining body fat. Subsequently, validation studies using skinfolds should be undertaken to determine the sex and ethnic specific equations.

  2. The prevention of depressive symptoms in rural school children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Clare; Kane, Robert; Thomson, Helen; Bishop, Brian; Hart, Bret

    2003-06-01

    A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate a prevention program aimed at reducing depressive and anxious symptoms in rural school children. Seventh-grade children with elevated depression were selected. Nine primary schools (n = 90) were randomly assigned to receive the program, and 9 control schools (n = 99) received their usual health education classes. Children completed questionnaires on depression, anxiety, explanatory style, and social skills. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (T. M. Achenbach, 1991). No intervention effects were found for depression. Intervention group children reported less anxiety than the control group after the program and at 6-month follow-up and more optimistic explanations at postintervention. Intervention group parents reported fewer child internalizing and externalizing symptoms at postintervention only. PMID:12795585

  3. Copying skills in relation to word reading and writing in Chinese children with and without dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Chung, Kevin K H; Tong, Xiuhong

    2011-11-01

    Because Chinese character learning typically relies heavily on rote character copying, we tested independent copying skill in third- and fourth-grade Chinese children with and without dyslexia. In total, 21 Chinese third and fourth graders with dyslexia and 33 without dyslexia (matched on age, nonverbal IQ, and mother's education level) were given tasks of copying unfamiliar print in Vietnamese, Korean, and Hebrew as well as tests of word reading and writing, morphological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and orthographic processing. All three copying tasks distinguished dyslexic children from nondyslexic children with moderate effect sizes (.67-.80). Zero-order correlations of the three copying tasks with dictation and reading ranged from .37 to .58. With age, Raven's, group status, RAN, morphological awareness, and orthographic measures statistically controlled, the copying tasks uniquely explained 6% and 3% variance in word reading and dictation, respectively. Results suggest that copying skill itself may be useful in understanding the development and impairment of literacy skills in Chinese. PMID:21641000

  4. Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwynn Josephine D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04 years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day, over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI, calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls, and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL. Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods.

  5. Association of tag SNPs of GPx-3 with essential hypertension in rural Han Chinese in Fuxin, Liaoning, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Ying; LI Hong; SUN Ying-xian; WU Bao-gang; SHI Jin; CHEN Yan-li; SUN Zhao-qing; ZHENG Li-qiang; ZHANG Xin-gang; GENG Ning; LI Tie-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic mechanisms contribute to blood pressure regulation. This study investigated whether glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3) tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with hypertension in the rural areas of Fuxin county, Liaoning province, China.Methods Indigenous Fuxin Han people participated, 523 unrelated hypertensives and 547 controls were recruited. All tag SNPs of GPx-3 gene were selected. We estimated SNP allele frequency in DNA pools with pyrosequencing.Results Before Bonferroni correction, C allele frequency for rs8177417 was significantly higher in hypertensives than those in controls (23.4% vs. 19.3%, P=0.014); T allele frequency for rs3828599 was significantly lower in hypertensives than those in controls (35.6% vs. 40.8%,P=0.009). However, when a Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied, only the polymorphisms rs3828599 of GPx-3 gene was associated with hypertension (P=0.045, OR: 0.833, 95%CI: 0.695-0.998).Conclusion The polymorphism of rs3828599 of GPx-3 gene might be associated with hypertension in rural Han Chinese from Fuxin, Liaoning.

  6. Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3–18 Months Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Laura H.; Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J.; Unicomb, Leanne; Davis, Jennifer; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We conducted a five-hour structured observation of the mouthing behaviors of 148 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3–18 months. We modeled mouthing frequencies using 2-parameter Weibull distributions to compare the modeled medians with those of U.S. children. In Bangladesh the median frequency of hand-mouthing was 37.3 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 34.4 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 29.7 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. The median frequency of object-mouthing was 23.1 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 29.6 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 15.2 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. At all ages both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher than those of U.S. children. Mouthing frequencies were not associated with child location (indoor/outdoor). Using hand- and object-mouthing exposure models from U.S. and other high-income countries might not accurately estimate children’s exposure to environmental contaminants via mouthing in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:27271651

  7. Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3–18 Months Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H. Kwong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We conducted a five-hour structured observation of the mouthing behaviors of 148 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3–18 months. We modeled mouthing frequencies using 2-parameter Weibull distributions to compare the modeled medians with those of U.S. children. In Bangladesh the median frequency of hand-mouthing was 37.3 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 34.4 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 29.7 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. The median frequency of object-mouthing was 23.1 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 29.6 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 15.2 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. At all ages both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher than those of U.S. children. Mouthing frequencies were not associated with child location (indoor/outdoor. Using hand- and object-mouthing exposure models from U.S. and other high-income countries might not accurately estimate children’s exposure to environmental contaminants via mouthing in low- and middle-income countries.

  8. Maternal resources, parenting, and dietary patterns among rural African American children in single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Juanita; McBride Murry, Velma; Brody, Gene; Parker, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    A correlation study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal education, perceived family resources, and the importance of family routines would be related to children's dietary patterns. Additionally, the study examined the hypothesis that dietary patterns would be associated with children's cognitive and physical abilities. The sample for this study included 159 African American single-mother families with a 6- to 9-year-old child living in rural areas, most of whom lived in poverty. Children's eating patterns were assessed using a self-report questionnaire administered to the mother in an interview format. Children's cognitive ability was measured by several subscales from the Woodcock Johnson Psycho-Educational Instrument and the Harter Perceived Competence Scale for children. For male children, the mother's higher education was related to more adequate eating patterns at home, and more perceived family resources were related to the likelihood of taking vitamin supplements. For female children, greater milk intake was positively related to cognitive outcomes, including applied problem, passage comprehension, calculation, synonym identification, antonym identification, and quantitative concept scores. Milk intake was clearly related to more optimal cognitive development. The results of this study support the literature related to the importance of nutrition for cognitive and physical abilities in children. PMID:11860595

  9. Children's height and weight in rural and urban populations in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J Paciorek, PhD; Gretchen A Stevens, DSc; Mariel M Finucane, PhD; Prof. Majid Ezzati, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urban living affects children's nutrition and growth, which are determinants of their survival, cognitive development, and lifelong health. Little is known about urban–rural differences in children's height and weight, and how these differences have changed over time. We aimed to investigate trends in children's height and weight in rural and urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, and to assess changes in the urban–rural differentials in height and weight over t...

  10. Children exposure to indoor ultrafine particles in urban and rural school environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro Rufo, João; Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Slezakova, Klara; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Aguiar, Lívia; Teixeira, João Paulo; Moreira, André; Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    Extended exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) may lead to consequences in children due to their increased susceptibility when compared to older individuals. Since children spend in average 8 h/day in primary schools, assessing the number concentrations of UFPs in these institutions is important in order to evaluate the health risk for children in primary schools caused by indoor air pollution. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess and determine the sources of indoor UFP number concentrations in urban and rural Portuguese primary schools. Indoor and outdoor ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations were measured in six urban schools (US) and two rural schools (RS) located in the north of Portugal, during the heating season. The mean number concentrations of indoor UFPs were significantly higher in urban schools than in rural ones (10.4 × 10(3) and 5.7 × 10(3) pt/cm(3), respectively). Higher UFP levels were associated with higher squared meters per student, floor levels closer to the ground, chalk boards, furniture or floor covering materials made of wood and windows with double-glazing. Indoor number concentrations of ultrafine-particles were inversely correlated with indoor CO2 levels. In the present work, indoor and outdoor concentrations of UFPs in public primary schools located in urban and rural areas were assessed, and the main sources were identified for each environment. The results not only showed that UFP pollution is present in augmented concentrations in US when compared to RS but also revealed some classroom/school characteristics that influence the concentrations of UFPs in primary schools. PMID:27040535

  11. Impact of low blood lead concentrations on IQ and school performance in Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghong Liu

    Full Text Available Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ and school performance.Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3-5 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assessed by standardized city tests on 3 major subjects (Chinese, Math, and English [as a foreign language] when children were age 8-10 years.Mean blood lead concentration was 6.43 µg/dL (SD = 2.64. For blood lead concentrations, 7.8% of children (n = 105 had ≥10.0 µg/dL, 13.8% (n = 185 had 8.0 to <10.0 µg/dL, and 78.4% (n = 1051 had <8.0 µg/dL. Compared to children with blood lead concentrations <8 µg/dL, those with blood lead concentrations ≥8 µg/dL scored 2-3 points lower in IQ and 5-6 points lower in school tests. There were no significant differences in IQ or school tests between children with blood lead concentrations groups 8-10 and ≥10 µg/dL. After adjustment for child and family characteristics and IQ, blood lead concentrations ≥10 µg/dL vs <8 µg/dL at ages 3-5 years was associated with reduced scores on school tests at age 8-10 years (Chinese, β = -3.54, 95%CI = -6.46, -0.63; Math, β = -4.63, 95%CI = -7.86, -1.40; English, β = -4.66, 95%CI = -8.09, -1.23. IQ partially mediated the relationship between elevated blood lead concentrations and later school performance.Findings support that blood lead concentrations in early childhood, even <10 µg/dL, have a long-term negative impact on cognitive development. The association between blood lead concentrations 8-10 µg/dL and cognitive development needs further study in Chinese children and children from other developing countries.

  12. Going Rural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Foreign banks are beginning to invest in China's rural financial system, helping to meet a strong need for capital As Chinese commercial banks retreat from the rural market, foreign banks appear ready to jump into a sector with a strong thirst for capital. In July, Rabobank Group, the International Finance Corp. and the United

  13. Performance in a Visual Search Task Uniquely Predicts Reading Abilities in Third-Grade Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Chen, Xi; Chung, Kevin K. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the performance in a visual search task and reading ability in 92 third-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. The visual search task, which is considered a measure of visual-spatial attention, accounted for unique variance in Chinese character reading after controlling for age, nonverbal intelligence,…

  14. A Parent Education Program for Parents of Chinese American Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a parent education program on decreasing parenting stress and increasing parental confidence and quality of life in parents of Chinese American children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A pre-, posttest group design was used in this study. A total of nine families of Chinese American…

  15. "Theory of mind and executive function in Chinese preschool children": Correction to Duh et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Reports an error in "Theory of Mind and Executive Function in Chinese Preschool Children" by Shinchieh Duh, Jae H. Paik, Patricia H. Miller, Stephanie C. Gluck, Hui Li and Igor Himelfarb (Developmental Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Feb 4, 2016, np). In the article, there were two errors in Table 6. The coefficient between WM and Age was incorrectly set as .46; it should have been .46. Further, the coefficient between WM and Gender should be .00 instead of .00. The correct version is provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-05744-001.) Cross-cultural research on children's theory of mind (ToM) understanding has raised questions about its developmental sequence and relationship with executive function (EF). The current study examined how ToM develops (using the tasks from Wellman & Liu, 2004) in relation to 2 EF skills (conflict inhibition, working memory) in 997 Chinese preschoolers (ages 3, 4, 5) in Chengdu, China. Compared with prior research with other Chinese and non-Chinese children, some general patterns in development were replicated in this sample. However, the children showed culture-specific reversals in the developmental sequence of ToM. For example, Chengdu children performed differently on the 2 false-belief tasks that were thought to be equivalent. Furthermore, conflict inhibition as well as working memory uniquely predicted ToM performance. We discuss the issues of ToM development as they relate to test items and cross-cultural-and subcultural-differences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27010231

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from rural household biomass burning in a typical Chinese village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HaiLin; ZHUANG YaHui; HAO ZhengPing; CAO MeiQiu; ZHONG JinXian; WANG XiaoKe; NGUYEN Thi Kim Oanh

    2008-01-01

    Biomass energy sources are still popular in the rural areas of developing countries for cooking and space heating. Since the incomplete combustion of agricultural residues in home-made ranges might lead to both outdoor and indoor air pollution and cause potential health threat to the rural population,we monitored the ambient levels of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a typical rural site. Ambient particulate PAH samples (PM2.5 and PM10) were taken during both cooking and non-cooking periods. Source emission monitoring was also conducted for both improved and traditional cooking stoves used in the area. Ambient PAHs had a significant increase during the cooking periods and varied from 72.1 to 554.4 ng/m3. The highest total PAH levels were found during the supper cooking time,in which five- and six-ring species accounted for a large proportion. The observed PAH levels during cooking periods at this rural site were even higher than those in urban areas. A good correlation was found between the benzo[a]pyrene level and the total PAH concentration (r=0.98),making benzo[a]pyrene a potential molecular marker for PAH pollution in the rural areas,where biomass burning is typical. The profiles of the particulate PAHs in both ambient air and source emissions showed a high proportion of high molecular-mass PAHs. In addition,emission factors of 16 PAHs from an improved household stove were found to be significantly lower than those from traditional stoves used in China and in other Asian countries.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from rural household biomass burning in a typical Chinese village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGUYEN; Thi; Kim; Oanh

    2008-01-01

    Biomass energy sources are still popular in the rural areas of developing countries for cooking and space heating. Since the incomplete combustion of agricultural residues in home-made ranges might lead to both outdoor and indoor air pollution and cause potential health threat to the rural population, we monitored the ambient levels of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a typical rural site. Ambient particulate PAH samples (PM2.5 and PM10) were taken during both cooking and non-cooking periods. Source emission monitoring was also conducted for both improved and tra- ditional cooking stoves used in the area. Ambient PAHs had a significant increase during the cooking periods and varied from 72.1 to 554.4 ng/m3. The highest total PAH levels were found during the supper cooking time, in which five- and six-ring species accounted for a large proportion. The observed PAH levels during cooking periods at this rural site were even higher than those in urban areas. A good correlation was found between the benzo[a]pyrene level and the total PAH concentration (r=0.98), making benzo[a]pyrene a potential molecular marker for PAH pollution in the rural areas, where bio- mass burning is typical. The profiles of the particulate PAHs in both ambient air and source emissions showed a high proportion of high molecular-mass PAHs. In addition, emission factors of 16 PAHs from an improved household stove were found to be significantly lower than those from traditional stoves used in China and in other Asian countries.

  18. Evaluation of tracheal bronchus in Chinese children using multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Zhu; Lin, Zhang [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-12-15

    Tracheal bronchus is a congenital bronchial anomaly. The diagnosis should be considered early in intubated patients. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is the newest modality for evaluating tracheal bronchus. To evaluate the utility of 16-slice MDCT in children with tracheal bronchus and to characterize the frequency of tracheal bronchus in children with congenital heart disease. From June 2005 to May 2007, 3,187 consecutive children (1,124 with congenital heart disease and 2,063 without congenital heart disease) underwent MDCT examination. Minimum-intensity projection reconstruction was performed to show the tracheobronchial tree in every case. Tracheal bronchus was found in 42 children (3.74%) with congenital heart disease but in only 6 children (0.29%) without congenital heart disease. Among the 48 children with tracheal bronchus, 45 had right-side tracheal bronchus and 3 had bilateral tracheal bronchi with heterotaxy syndrome. The diagnostic sensitivity of MDCT was 100% (48/48). MDCT is a reliable imaging technique for the diagnosis of tracheal bronchus. Our data showed that right-side tracheal bronchus was more common and bilateral tracheal bronchi usually occurred with heterotaxy syndrome. In addition, tracheal bronchus often occurred with congenital heart disease. The angle between the tracheal bronchus and the trachea is important and should be measured. (orig.)

  19. Interdependence, Garbage Dumping, and Feral Dogs: Exploring Three Lifeworld Resources of Young Children in a Rural School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy Suzanne; Baker, Allison; Bruer, Laura

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we concentrate upon the lifeworld resources that comprise the funds of knowledge for children living in a rural community in the southeastern United States. Through interview conversations with a group of third grade children, we identified three lifeworld resources--interdependence, garbage dumping, and feral dogs--that rural…

  20. Reliability and Validity of Simplified Chinese Version of Roland-Morris Questionnaire in Evaluating Rural and Urban Patients with Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziqiang; Wang, Xinhui; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jiayu; Zhang, Diqing; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective The causes of low back pain in China and Western countries are extremely different. We attempted to analyze the risk factors of low back pain in urban and rural patients under the dual economy with the simplified Chinese version of Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (SC-RMDQ) to demonstrate that SC-RMDQ could evaluate patients with low back pain arising from different causes. Methods Roland-Morris disability questionnaire was translated into SCRMDQ according to international guidelines for questionnaire adaptation. In this study, causes of low back pain of 187 outpatients and inpatients (99 urban patients and 88 rural patients) were analyzed. All patients underwent simplified Chinese version of Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (SC-RMDQ), simplified Chinese Oswestry disability index (SCODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Reliability was tested using reproducibility (intraclass coefficient of correlation – ICC) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). Validity was tested using Pearson correlation analysis. Results The leading causes for low back pain were sedentariness (38.4%) and vibration (18.1%) in urban patients and waist bending (48.9%) and spraining (25%) in rural patients. Although causes of low back pain in the two groups of population were completely different, SCRMDQ had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α value of 0.874 in urban patients and 0.883 in rural patients) and good reproducibility (ICC value of .952 in urban patients and 0.949 in rural patients, P<0.01). SCRMDQ also showed significant correlation with Simplified Chinese version of Oswestry disability index (SCODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) in rural areas (SCRMDQ-SCODI r = 0.841; SCRMDQ -VAS: r = 0.685, P<0.01) and in urban areas (SCRMDQ-SCODI: r = 0.818, P<0.01; SCRMDQ –VAS: r = 0.666, P<0.01). Conclusions Although causes of low back pain are completely different in rural and urban patients, SCRMDQ has a good reliability and validity, which

  1. Eye Injuries Among Primary School Children in Enugu, Nigeria: Rural vs Urban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Nonso Ejikeme; Umeh, Rich Enujioke; Onwasigwe, Ernest Nnemeka

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of eye injuries among primary school children in two noncontiguous local government areas of Enugu State of Nigeria was undertaken. One of the local government areas was urban, while the other one was rural. Children who were corporal punishment. Corporal punishment-related eye injury, according to this study, appears to be common in the rural area and affects boys predominantly. Other human intermediary agents that cause an eye injury include passersby (2.04%), RTA (2.04%), siblings (2.04%), and others (1.02%). The primary agents that caused an eye injury were sticks/wood, 29 (29.60%); stone, 21 (21.43%); pieces of metal, 19 (19.39%); fall, 10 (10.20%); fight/fist blow, 9 (9.918%); plastic, 2 (2.04%); fingernails, 2 (2.04%); farm tools/fruits, 2 (2.04%); and RTA, glass, and headbutt, each 1.02%. Farm implements/fruits as well as fingernails appear to be fairly common primary agents that cause an eye injury in the rural Enugu, Nigeria. In terms of prevalence, there was no significant difference between the urban and rural areas. The findings from this study showed a high prevalence of eye injury among primary school children. In terms of treatment, 58.16% of the children with an eye injury had no form of treatment for it. The children from this study with monocular blindness did not receive adequate medical treatment. Treatment of an eye injury, according to this study, was sought from chemists (19.39%), at hospital/health centers (16.33%), at home (3.06%), and from traditional healers (3.06%). The persons who treated an eye injury, as observed from this study, were doctors (14.29%), nurses (4.08%), chemists (17.35%), and traditional healers and fathers (3.06% each). The frequency of noninjury-related diagnosis made in this study was refractive error, 4.85%; allergic conjunctivitis, 1.94%; oculocutaneous albinism, 0.24%; prepapillary vascular loops, 0.40%; and then ptosis, exotropia, stye, corneal opacity, and retinitis

  2. Writing Quality in Chinese Children: Speed and Fluency Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Cathy Ming Wai; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wagner, Richard K.; Zhang, Juan; Wong, Anita M. Y.; Shu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    There were two goals of the present study. The first was to create a scoring scheme by which 9-year-old Chinese children’s writing compositions could be rated to form a total score for writing quality. The second was to examine cognitive correlates of writing quality at age 9 from measures administered at ages 6–9. Age 9 writing compositions were scored using a 7-element rubric; following confirmatory factor analyses, 5 of these elements were retained to represent overall writing quality for ...

  3. Acceptability and Applicability of an American Health Videogame with Story for Childhood Obesity Prevention Among Hong Kong Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jingjing; Baranowski, Tom; Patrick W.C. Lau; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane; Buday, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of “Escape from Diab” (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese children as interesting has not been explored. This study assessed the acceptability and applicability of Diab among Hong Kong Chinese children, whether the Diab story was understood by ...

  4. Training by visual identification and writing leads to different visual word expertise N170 effects in preliterate Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Zhao; Su Li; Jing Zhao; Gaspar, Carl M.; Xuchu Weng

    2015-01-01

    The N170 component of EEG evoked by visual words is an index of perceptual expertise for the visual word across different writing systems. In the present study, we investigated whether these N170 markers for Chinese, a very complex script, could emerge quickly after short-term learning (∼100 min) in young Chinese children, and whether early writing experience can enhance the acquisition of these neural markers for expertise. Two groups of preschool children received visual identification and ...

  5. Risk Factors for Obesity and High Blood Pressure in Chinese American Children: Maternal Acculturation and Children’s Food Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Weiss, Sandra; Heyman, Melvin B.; Lustig, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore risk factors associated with overweight and high blood pressure in Chinese American children. Students and their parents were recruited from Chinese language schools in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data were collected on 67 children and their mothers, and included children’s weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, level of physical activity, dietary intake, usual food choice, knowledge about nutrition and physical activity, and se...

  6. Insulin resistance determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and associations with metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Jinhua; Li, Ming; Xu, Lu; Wang, Ying; Cheng, Hong; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to assess the association between the degree of insulin resistance and the different components of the metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and adolescents. Moreover, to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at MS risk. Methods 3203 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years were recruited. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was identified by a modified Adult ...

  7. Environmental influences on children's physical activity and eating habits in a rural Oregon County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthy eating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions. PMID:22040399

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infection among rural Malay children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boon Huat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil-transmitted intestinal helminth infection is prevalent in rural communities of Malaysia. Risk factors contributing to helminth infections are largely unknown in the country. Aim: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children in Beris Lalang, a rural Muslim community of Malaysia. Settings and Design : In this cross-sectional study, children aged 7-9 years were recruited during the mass Friday prayer at Beris Lalang mosque by trained imams (religious leaders. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic profile, daily hygienic practices, and history of helminth infection. Results: Out of 79 samples, 29 (37% were positive for helminthic ova, of which 24 were ova of Trichuris trichiura. Poor education of the mother (primary education or less (P=0.015, eating raw salad (P=0.03, and no physical activities (P=0.03 were found independent risk factors for the child′s helminth infections in univariate analysis. A higher proportion of children with helminth infections complained of tiredness and fatigue compared to those without such infections (36% vs. 12%, P=0.019. In a multivariate analysis of predictors of helminth infection, poor education of the mother (P=0.02 and eating raw salad (P=0.04 remained statistically significant, after controlling for several other potential risk factors. Conclusions : T. trichiura was the most prevalent intestinal helminth infection in children in rural Malaysia. Risk factors of helminth infection included mother′s poor education and eating raw salad and vegetables.

  9. Working-memory training improves developmental dyslexia in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Jing; Wu, Hanrong; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhang, Yu

    2013-02-15

    Although plasticity in the neural system underlies working memory, and working memory can be improved by training, there is thus far no evidence that children with developmental dyslexia can benefit from working-memory training. In the present study, thirty dyslexic children aged 8-11 years were recruited from an elementary school in Wuhan, China. They received working-memory training, including training in visuospatial memory, verbal memory, and central executive tasks. The difficulty of the tasks was adjusted based on the performance of each subject, and the training sessions lasted 40 minutes per day, for 5 weeks. The results showed that working-memory training significantly enhanced performance on the nontrained working memory tasks such as the visuospatial, the verbal domains, and central executive tasks in children with developmental dyslexia. More importantly, the visual rhyming task and reading fluency task were also significantly improved by training. Progress on working memory measures was related to changes in reading skills. These experimental findings indicate that working memory is a pivotal factor in reading development among children with developmental dyslexia, and interventions to improve working memory may help dyslexic children to become more proficient in reading. PMID:25206687

  10. Prevalence of pediculosis capitis in children from a rural school in Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Manrique-Saide

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an analytical cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with active head lice infestation. In total 140 children, aged 6 to 16-years, from a public school in rural Yucatan, Mexico, were examined by wet-combing. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on individuals and the conditions in the surrounding environment. Head lice infestation was found in 19 out of the 140 children tested (13.6% and this was associated with both lower income (OR 9.9, 95% CI 2.15-45.79, p = 0.003 and a higher frequency of hair washing (OR 8, 95% CI 1.58-50, p = 0.012. Intersectoral control programs that take into account the socioeconomic differences of children should be implemented.

  11. "Growth Chart Study in Children Under 5 Years Old in Rural Area of Khoramabad Province"

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    F Majlesi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth chart is the best measure for weight monitoring of children. Most factors that affect child heath show their effect on child weight. This cross sectional and descriptive analytical study was achieved to estimate malnutrition prevalence and effective factors in children under 5 years old in rural area of Khoramabad province. 555 girls and 570 boys were chosen from health houses by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through questionnaires. verbal interviews and child weighing. Nutritional status was estimated via weight/age index and the data were analysed by chi-square test. The results show 7.7% malnutrition among the children in this area. Factors that influence the nutritional status were: Frequency of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, birth weight, duration of breast feeding and milk formula.

  12. Limits on efficient human mindreading: convergence across Chinese adults and Semai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Hadi, Nur Shafiqah Abdul; Low, Jason

    2015-11-01

    We tested Apperly and Butterfill's (2009, Psychological Review, 116, 753) theory that humans have two mindreading systems whereby the efficient-system guiding anticipatory glances displays signature limits that do not apply to the flexible system guiding verbal predictions. Experiments 1 and 2 tested urban Mainland-Chinese adults (n = 64) and Experiment 3 tested Semai children living in the rainforests of Peninsular Malaysia (3- to 4-year-olds, n = 60). Participants - across different ages, groups and methods - anticipated others' false-beliefs about object-location but not object-identity. Convergence in signature limits signalled that the early-developing efficient system involved minimal theory-of-mind. Chinese adults and older Semai children showed flexibility in their direct predictions. The flexible mindreading system in ascribing others' beliefs as such was task-sensitive and implicated maturational and cultural contributions. PMID:25631400

  13. Maternal education and micro-geographic disparities in nutritional status among school-aged children in rural northwestern China.

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    Cuili Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas in a Chinese minority area. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nutritional status was measured by height-for-age z scores (HAZ. Linear mixed models were used to examine its association with place of residence and maternal education. RESULTS: Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status and the level of socioeconomic composition were found. Children living in mountain areas had poorer nutritional status, even after adjusting for demographic (plain versus mountain, β = 0.16, P = 0.033; edge versus mountain, β = 0.29, P = 0.002 and socioeconomic factors (plain versus mountain, β = 0.12, P = 0.137; edge versus mountain, β = 0.25, P = 0.009. The disparities significantly widened with increasing years of mothers' schooling (maternal education*plain versus mountain: β = 0.06, P = 0.007; maternal education*edge versus mountain: β = 0.07, P = 0.005. Moreover, the association between maternal education and child nutrition was negative (β = -0.03, P = 0.056 in mountain areas but positive in plain areas (β = 0.02, P = 0.094 or in the edge areas (β = 0.04, P = 0.055. CONCLUSIONS: Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status increase with increasing level of maternal education and the effect of maternal education varies by micro-geographic locations, which exacerbates child health inequity. Educating rural girls alone is not sufficient; improving unfavorable conditions in mountain areas might make such investments more effective in promoting child health. Nutrition programs targeting to the least

  14. Zinc, iron and calcium are major limiting nutrients in the complementary diets of rural Kenyan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Elaine; Chege, Peter; Kimiywe, Judith; Wiesmann, Doris; Hotz, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Poor quality infant and young child (IYC) diets contribute to chronic under-nutrition. To design effective IYC nutrition interventions, an understanding of the extent to which realistic food-based strategies can improve dietary adequacy is required. We collected 24-h dietary recalls from children 6-23 months of age (n = 401) in two rural agro-ecological zones of Kenya to assess the nutrient adequacy of their diets. Linear programming analysis (LPA) was used to identify realistic food-based recommendations (FBRs) and to determine the extent to which they could ensure intake adequacy for 12 nutrients. Mean nutrient densities of the IYC diets were below the desired level for four to nine of the 10 nutrients analysed, depending on the age group. Mean dietary diversity scores ranged from 2.1 ± 1.0 among children 6-8 months old in Kitui County to 3.7 ± 1.1 food groups among children 12-23 months old in Vihiga County. LPA confirmed that dietary adequacy for iron, zinc and calcium will be difficult to ensure using only local foods as consumed. FBRs for breastfed children that promote the daily consumption of cows'/goats' milk (added to porridges), fortified cereals, green leafy vegetables, legumes, and meat, fish or eggs, 3-5 times per week can ensure dietary adequacy for nine and seven of 12 nutrients for children 6-11 and 12-23 months old, respectively. For these rural Kenyan children, even though dietary adequacy could be improved via realistic changes in habitual food consumption practices, alternative interventions are needed to ensure dietary adequacy at the population level. PMID:26778799

  15. Normative Data for Neuropsychological Tests in a Rural Elderly Chinese Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Lili; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Jin, Yinlong; Hendrie, Hugh C.; Liang, Chaoke; Hall, Kathleen S.; Cao, Jingxiang; Ma, Feng; Murrell, Jill R.; Cheng, Yibin; Li, Ping; Bian, Jianchao; Gao, Sujuan

    2012-01-01

    Normative information is important for appropriate interpretation of cognitive test scores as a critical component of dementia diagnosis in the elderly population. A cross-sectional evaluation of 1826 participants aged 65 years and older from four rural counties in China was conducted using six cognitive instruments including tests of global cognitive function (the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia), Memory (Word List Learning and Recall tasks from the Consortium to Establish a Regi...

  16. Is a decentralized continuing medical education program feasible for Chinese rural health professionals?

    OpenAIRE

    Guijie Hu; Yanhua Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Rural health professionals in township health centers (THCs) tend to have less advanced educational degrees. This study aimed to ascertain the perceived feasibility of a decentralized continuing medical education (CME) program to upgrade their educational levels. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of THC health professionals was conducted using a self-administered, structured questionnaire in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Results: The health professionals in the THCs were o...

  17. Healthy-lifestyle behaviors associated with overweight and obesity in US rural children

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    Tovar Alison

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are disproportionately higher rates of overweight and obesity in poor rural communities but studies exploring children’s health-related behaviors that may assist in designing effective interventions are limited. We examined the association between overweight and obesity prevalence of 401 ethnically/racially diverse, rural school-aged children and healthy-lifestyle behaviors: improving diet quality, obtaining adequate sleep, limiting screen-time viewing, and consulting a physician about a child’s weight. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of school-aged children (6–11 years in rural regions of California, Kentucky, Mississippi, and South Carolina participating in CHANGE (Creating Healthy, Active, and Nurturing Growing-up Environments Program, created by Save the Children, an independent organization that works with communities to improve overall child health, with the objective to reduce unhealthy weight gain in these school-aged children (grades 1–6 in rural America. After measuring children’s height and weight, we17 assessed overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile associations with these behaviors: improving diet quality18 (≥ 2 servings of fruits and vegetables/day, reducing whole milk, sweetened beverage consumption/day; obtaining19 adequate night-time sleep on weekdays (≥ 10 hours/night; limiting screen-time (i.e., television, video, computer,20 videogame viewing on weekdays (≤ 2 hours/day; and consulting a physician about weight. Analyses were adjusted 21 for state of residence, children's race/ethnicity, gender, age, and government assistance. Results Overweight or obesity prevalence was 37 percent in Mississippi and nearly 60 percent in Kentucky. Adjusting for covariates, obese children were twice as likely to eat ≥ 2 servings of vegetables per day (OR=2.0,95% CI 1.1-3.4, less likely to consume whole milk (OR=0.4,95% CI 0.2-0.70, Their parents are more likely to

  18. Perception of parental control and its role in Chinese children's academic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Fok, Yam Kate, Andrea; 霍蔭芪

    2014-01-01

    The construct of parental control and its role in influencing children’s motivation in collectivistic cultures have been hotly debated. Two studies examined Hong Kong Chinese children’s perception of parental control and its relation with their academic motivation with sociocultural considerations. In Study 1, children (n = 24) were invited to participate in a focus group to report what parental control meant to them. The qualitative data obtained in the discussion were then used to construct...

  19. Temporal trends and recent correlates in sedentary behaviours in Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    Dibley Michael J; Hardy Louise L; Cui Zhaohui; Bauman Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Sedentary behaviours (television, video and computer) are related to health outcomes independent of physical activity. Few studies have examined trends and correlates of sedentary behaviours among youth in developing nations. The current study is to examine temporal trends in sedentary behaviours and recent correlates of screen use in Chinese children during a period of economic transition. Methods Secondary analysis of China Health and Nutrition Surveys. Cross-sectional d...

  20. Unmet needs in continuing medical education programs for rural Chinese township health professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhua Yi; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong; Hutcha Sriplung; Guijie Hu; Edward McNeil; Qiming Feng; Hongxia Zhou; Bo Wei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to describe the system of continuing medical education (CME) in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and to ascertain the perceived needs related to that system, in order to improve the performance of health professionals in Chinese township health centers (THCs). Methods: In-depth key informant interviews were conducted to gain insights into the current CME system. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire was also carried out from ...

  1. Development and evaluation of a patching treatment questionnaire for Chinese amblyopic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jinling; Lu Qun; Huang Ying; Chen Yuanyuan; Chen Jie; Yu Xinping

    2014-01-01

    Background Amblyopia is a common disease for children.The main treatment approach for amblyopia is to patch the normally sighted eye and force the use of the amblyopic eye.However,patching treatment in children may negatively impact psychological well-being of both the child and family.At present,no specific questionnaire is available to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of amblyopic treatment for children and their families in China.The purpose of our study was to develop a Chinese version of patching treatment questionnaire,and evaluate its reliability and validity.Methods The original patching treatment questionnaire of amblyopia treatment index (ATI) was translated into Chinese.Amblyopic patients aged 4-9 years receiving patching 4-8 hours per day or full-time were recruited.The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the patching treatment questionnaire were determined by internal consistency,test-retest reliability,item-scale correlations,and construct validity.The associated baseline factors and the questionnaire responses were assessed.Results One hundred and nine children with amblyopia treated with patching were enrolled.Distribution of response options for individual items and correlation with the respective subscale were calculated.Factor analysis revealed that 16 of the 21 items were loaded in the three subscales as follows:"adverse effects" of treatment,“difficulties with compliance" and "social stigma" of treatment.Intemal consistency values measured by Cronbach's a coefficient (0.768) and split-half coefficient (0.790) were satisfactory for the total scales.The intra-class correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.998.No significant difference was found between the overall questionnaire scores and children's age,sex,baseline visual acuity of amblyopic eyes,improvement of the amblyopic eye,or patching time.Conclusions We developed a Chinese version of the patching treatment questionnaire with satisfactory

  2. An ethnographic study of Latino preschool children's oral health in rural California: Intersections among family, community, provider and regulatory sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Horton Sarah B; Barker Judith C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Latino children experience a higher prevalence of caries than do children in any other racial/ethnic group in the US. This paper examines the intersections among four societal sectors or contexts of care which contribute to oral health disparities for low-income, preschool Latino1 children in rural California. Methods Findings are reported from an ethnographic investigation, conducted in 2005–2006, of family, community, professional/dental and policy/regulatory sectors or ...

  3. The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan

    2014-09-01

    Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration. PMID:24188543

  4. Relations of parenting style to Chinese children's effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Chang, Lei; Ma, Yue; Huang, Xiaorui

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders' effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children's EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children's internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children's externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children's ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems. PMID:19338693

  5. Theory of Mind and Executive Function in Chinese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Shinchieh; Paik, Jae H.; Miller, Patricia H.; Gluck, Stephanie C.; Li, Hui; Himelfarb, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Cross-cultural research on children's theory of mind (ToM) understanding has raised questions about its developmental sequence and relationship with executive function (EF). The current study examined how ToM develops (using the tasks from Wellman & Liu, 2004) in relation to 2 EF skills (conflict inhibition, working memory) in 997 Chinese…

  6. Working-memory training improves developmental dyslexia in Chinese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Luo; Jing Wang; Hanrong Wu; Dongmei Zhu; Yu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Although plasticity in the neural system underlies working memory, and working memory can be improved by training, there is thus far no evidence that children with developmental dyslexia can were recruited from an elementary school in Wuhan, China. They received working-memory training, including training in visuospatial memory, verbal memory, and central executive tasks. The difficulty of the tasks was adjusted based on the performance of each subject, and the training sessions lasted 40 minutes per day, for 5 weeks. The results showed that working-memory training significantly enhanced performance on the nontrained working memory tasks such as the visuospatial, the verbal domains, and central executive tasks in children with developmental dyslexia. More importantly, the visual rhyming task and reading fluency task were also significantly improved by training. Progress on working memory measures was related to changes in reading skills. These experimental findings indicate that working memory is a pivotal factor in reading development among children with developmental dyslexia, and interventions to improve working memory may help dyslexic children to become more proficient in reading.

  7. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5% and zinc (40.4%, while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2% and fish oil (42.3%. In Australia, “not working”, “never breastfeed”, “higher education level of the mother” and “older age of the child” were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and “having higher household income” were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements.

  8. Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, ...

  9. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6-14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children. PMID:27338457

  10. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children. PMID:27338457

  11. Contribution of malnutrition and malaria to anemia in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

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    Favour Osazuwa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The most common cause of anemia is an iron deficiency; however, the condition may also be caused by deficiencies in folate, vitamin B 12 and protein. Some anemia is not caused by nutritional factors, but by congenital factors and parasitic diseases such as malaria. Aim: This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of anemia among children in three rural communities of the Ovia North East Local government area, and to determine whether its cause was nutritional or could be attributed to malaria. Patients and Methods: A total of 316 children between the ages of 1 and 15 years were included in the study. Children were examined for malaria parasites by microscopy. The World Health Organization (WHO age-adjusted cut-off for hemoglobin was used to classify anemia. Results: 38.6% of the children were anemic, with hemoglobin levels lower than 11g/dL, although parasite prevalence and density were low. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted and 44.0% underweight. Serum ferritin was more sensitive than hemoglobin concentration in detecting anemic children. Anemia was also significantly higher in the Evbuomore village school than in the Ekosodin and Isiohor villages (P0.001. Conclusion: Anemia detected in this population may be due more to malnutrition than to malaria.

  12. Contribution of malnutrition and malaria to anemia in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntade Michael Ayo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common cause of anemia is an iron deficiency; however, the condition may also be caused by deficiencies in folate, vitamin B12 and protein. Some anemia is not caused by nutritional factors, but by congenital factors and parasitic diseases such as malaria. Aim: This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of anemia among children in three rural communities of the Ovia North East Local government area, and to determine whether its cause was nutritional or could be attributed to malaria. Patients and Methods: A total of 316 children between the ages of 1 and 15 years were included in the study. Children were examined for malaria parasites by microscopy. The World Health Organization (WHO age-adjusted cut-off for hemoglobin was used to classify anemia. Results: 38.6% of the children were anemic, with hemoglobin levels lower than 11g/dL, although parasite prevalence and density were low. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted and 44.0% underweight. Serum ferritin was more sensitive than hemoglobin concentration in detecting anemic children. Anemia was also significantly higher in the Evbuomore village school than in the Ekosodin and Isiohor villages (P<0.001. Conclusion: Anemia detected in this population may be due more to malnutrition than to malaria.

  13. I've got a feeling: Urban and rural indigenous children's beliefs about early life mentality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Natalie A; Kelemen, Deborah A

    2015-10-01

    This cross-cultural investigation explored children's reasoning about their mental capacities during the earliest period of human physical existence--the prenatal period. For comparison, children's reasoning about the observable period of infancy was also examined. A total of 283 5- to 12-year-olds from two distinct cultures (urban Ecuador and rural indigenous Shuar) participated. Across cultures, children distinguished the fetal period from infancy, attributing fewer capacities to fetuses. However, for both the infancy and fetal periods, children from both cultures privileged the functioning of emotions and desires over epistemic states (i.e., abilities for thought and memory). Children's justifications to questions about fetal mentality revealed that although epistemic states were generally regarded as requiring physical maturation to function, emotions and desires were seen as functioning as a de facto result of prenatal existence and in response to the prospect of future birth and being part of a social group. These results show that from early in development, children across cultures possess nuanced beliefs about the presence and functioning of mental capacities. Findings converge with recent results to suggest that there is an early arising bias to view emotions and desires as the essential inviolable core of human mentality. The current findings have implications for understanding the role that emerging cognitive biases play in shaping conceptions of human mentality across different cultures. They also speak to the cognitive foundations of moral beliefs about fetal rights. PMID:26047086

  14. Maternal perception of emotional difficulties of preschool children in rural Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquer, Caroline; Grais, Rebecca F; Moro, Marie Rose

    2016-06-01

    Mental health care for infants and young children is often greatly limited in low-resource settings. The purpose of this study was to describe maternal perception of emotional difficulties of preschool children in a rural area of Niger (Maradi). In this context, both mental health awareness and services were scarce. This research was part of a larger cross-cultural validation study of a screening tool for psychological difficulties in children aged 3 to 6 years old. Data collection included group discussion and individual interviews. A total of 10 group interviews and 83 individual interviews were conducted. The results highlight mothers' perceptions concerning their children's psychological difficulties. Sleep difficulties were considered significant by the mothers and were used often as an entry point for further discussion of concerns. Peer and sibling relationships, separation anxiety, and reactions to difficult events were also described. Identification of mothers' perceptions of children's main difficulties through a mixed-method approach shows promise as a way to inform interventions to provide culturally appropriate care for children in need. PMID:27235143

  15. Intestinal parasites prevalence and related factors among school children in the rural area of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambhare, D G; Bharambe, M S; Garg, B S

    2010-12-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and its epidemiological correlates among rural Indian school going children and to find out the effect of hygiene education on personal hygiene of school children at village Karanji (Kaji) in Wardha district of central India. Out of 172, 87 (50.6%) boys and 85 (49.4%) girls were examined. The mean age of the school children was 10.37 +/- 2.71. The prevalence of intestinal parasite infection was 7.56%. The prevalence was significantly high among barefoot children (OR = 8.99; 95% CI: 2.14 - 43.49) followed by those having poor hand washing practices (OR = 4.90; 95% CI: 1.30 - 20.01), not using sanitary latrine (OR = 2.49; 95% CI: 0.6 - 11.91)) and dirty untrimmed nails (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 0.56 - 7.04). One month after hygiene education, there was significant improvement in the key personal hygiene behavior (p practice of hand washing with soap after defecation significantly improved. Health education on personal hygiene to the school children was effective for behavior change. A multisectoral control approach and hygiene education will help health authorities in strategy of control programs for intestinal parasites among school going children. PMID:22471198

  16. Child Development in the Face of Rural-to-Urban Migration in China: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lamei; Mesman, Judi

    2015-11-01

    In the last 30 years, China has undergone one of the largest rural-to-urban migrations in human history, with many children left behind because of parental migration. We present a meta-analytic review of empirical studies on Chinese children's rural-to-urban migration and on rural children left behind because of parental migration. We examine how these events relate to children's emotional, social, and academic developmental outcomes. We include publications in English and in Chinese to uncover and quantify a part of the research literature that has been inaccessible to most Western scholars in the field of child and family studies. Overall, both migrant children and children left behind by migrant parents in China show significantly less favorable functioning across domains than other Chinese children. It appears that, similar to processes found in other parts of the world, the experience of economic and acculturation stress as well as disrupted parent-child relations constitute a risk for nonoptimal child functioning in the Chinese context. Further, we found evidence for publication bias against studies showing less favorable development for migrant children and children left behind. We discuss the results in terms of challenges to Chinese society and to future empirical research on Chinese family life. PMID:26581737

  17. Cross-sectional study on differences in pain perception and behavioral distress during venipuncture between Italian and Chinese children

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    Sofia Bisogni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Venipuncture is perhaps the scariest aspect of hospitalization for children as it causes pain and high levels of behavioral distress. Pain is a complex experience which is also influenced by social factors such as cultural attitudes, beliefs and traditions. Studies focusing on ethnic/cultural differences in pain perception and behavioral distress show controversial results, in particular with regards to children. The aim of this paper is to evaluate differences in pain perception and behavioral manifestations between Italian and Chinese children undergoing a venipuncture, through a cross-sectional study. Behavioral distress and self-reported pain were measured in Chinese and Italian outpatient children during a standardized blood-drawing procedure, using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD and pain scales. We observed 332 children: 93 Chinese and 239 Italian. Chinese children scored higher than Italians on pain scales − mean scores 5.3 (95%CI 4.78-5.81 vs. 3.2 (95%CI 2.86-3.53 − but lower mean OSBD scores − mean 4.1 (95%CI 3.04-5.15 vs. 8.1 (95%CI 7.06-9.14. Our data suggest that Chinese children experience higher levels of pain than their Italian peers, although they show more self-control in their behavioral reaction to pain when experiencing venipuncture.

  18. Cross-sectional study on differences in pain perception and behavioral distress during venipuncture between italian and chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, Sofia; Calzolai, Marta; Olivini, Nicole; Ciofi, Daniele; Mazzoni, Nicola; Caprilli, Simona; Lopez, José Rafael Gonzalez; Festini, Filippo

    2014-08-12

    Venipuncture is perhaps the scariest aspect of hospitalization for children as it causes pain and high levels of behavioral distress. Pain is a complex experience which is also influenced by social factors such as cultural attitudes, beliefs and traditions. Studies focusing on ethnic/cultural differences in pain perception and behavioral distress show controversial results, in particular with regards to children. The aim of this paper is to evaluate differences in pain perception and behavioral manifestations between Italian and Chinese children undergoing a venipuncture, through a cross-sectional study. Behavioral distress and self-reported pain were measured in Chinese and Italian outpatient children during a standardized blood-drawing procedure, using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD) and pain scales. We observed 332 children: 93 Chinese and 239 Italian. Chinese children scored higher than Italians on pain scales - mean scores 5.3 (95%CI 4.78-5.81) vs. 3.2 (95%CI 2.86-3.53) - but lower mean OSBD scores - mean 4.1 (95%CI 3.04-5.15) vs. 8.1 (95%CI 7.06-9.14). Our data suggest that Chinese children experience higher levels of pain than their Italian peers, although they show more self-control in their behavioral reaction to pain when experiencing venipuncture. PMID:25635220

  19. Antibiotic prescribing of village doctors for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections in rural China: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixia; Zhan, Xingxin; Zhou, Hongjun; Sun, Fang; Zhang, Heng; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Liu, Qian; Li, Yingxue; Yan, Weirong

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of village doctors regarding the prescribing of antibiotics for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in rural China. Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Xianning, a prefecture-level city in rural China, during December 2014. We conducted 6 FGDs with 35 village doctors, 3 with 13 primary caregivers (11 parents), and 3 with 17 directors of township hospitals, county-level health bureaus, county-level Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or county-level Chinese Food and Drug Administration offices. Audio records of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. Participants believed that unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for children under 15 years with The occurrence of URTIs was a problem in village clinics in rural China. The discussions revealed that most of the village doctors had inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about antibiotic use, which was an important factor in the unnecessary prescribing. Village doctors and directors reported that the doctors' fear of complications, the primary caregivers' pressure for antibiotic treatment, and the financial considerations of patient retention were the main factors influencing the decision to prescribe antibiotics. Most of the primary caregivers insisted on antibiotics, even when the village doctors were reluctant to prescribe them, and they preferred to go to see those village doctors who prescribed antibiotics. The interviewees also gave their opinions on what would be the most effective measures for optimizing antibiotic prescriptions; these included educational/training campaigns, strict regulations on antibiotic prescription, and improved supervision. Findings emphasized the need to improve the dissemination of information and training/education, and implement legislation on the rational use of antibiotics. And it also provided

  20. Managing iron deficiency anemia in children in Rural Central Africa: a literature review

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    Kendra Elwood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the many micronutrient deficiencies affecting children, iron deficiency remains the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world. Iron deficiency anemia, defined by a hypochromic, microcytic anemia with hemoglobin two standard deviations below the age-specific mean of normal along with depleted iron stores, is both acutely and chronically debilitating to children. Impaired physical and cognitive development is present and implicated in life-long increased risks of morbidity. The developing countries of rural central Africa are at risk given the relative deficiency of iron rich foods and supplements, and concomitant infections. Children in particular suffer the consequences as their increased rates of growth are not met by depleted iron stores. The WHO has recommended a multi-faceted approach to the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia, including increased iron intake, improved nutrition, and control of infections. In this article, we review fundamental information about the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia, its contributing factors, and highlight the management of iron deficiency through point of care treatment and intermittent supplementation in rural central Africa.

  1. Adaptive behavior in Chinese children with Williams syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Chai; Yao, Dan; Chen, Weijun; Li, Mingyan; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2014-01-01

    Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by compelling psychological phenotypes. The symptoms span multiple cognitive domains and include a distinctive pattern of social behavior. The goal of this study was to explore adaptive behavior in WS patients in China. Methods We conducted a structured interview including the Infants-Junior Middle School Students Social-life Abilities Scale in three participant groups: children with WS (n = 26), normally-developi...

  2. CLINICAL PROFILE OF MEASLES IN CHILDREN ADMITTED TO A RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Measles affects about 20 million people a year. Even with greater than 80% immunization cover, the number of children with measles has registered a steep rise. A retrospective chart review was carried out on all cases of measles admitted to the paediatric wards of a tertiary care medical college hospital in a rural area in north Kerala. A total of 31 cases of measles (n=31) were admitted to the paediatric ward. Age at admission of 67.8% of the patients was above 6 years. ...

  3. Role of Zinc in Stunting of Infants and Children in Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Umeta, M.

    2003-01-01

    Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a cross-sectional study of 305 breastfed infants aged 5-11 mo and their mothers; a double-blind randomised controlled zinc supplementation trial on growth of 200 breastfed infants aged 6-12 mo for 6...

  4. Is a decentralized continuing medical education program feasible for Chinese rural health professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Rural health professionals in township health centers (THCs) tend to have less advanced educational degrees. This study aimed to ascertain the perceived feasibility of a decentralized continuing medical education (CME) program to upgrade their educational levels. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of THC health professionals was conducted using a self-administered, structured questionnaire in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Results: The health professionals in the THCs were overwhelmingly young with low education levels. They had a strong desire to upgrade their educational degrees. The decentralized CME program was perceived as feasible by health workers with positive attitudes about the benefit for license examination, and by those who intended to improve their clinical diagnosis and treatment skills. The target groups of such a program were those who expected to undertake a bachelor’s degree and who rated themselves as “partially capable” in clinical competency. They reported that 160-400 USD annually would be an affordable fee for the program. Conclusion: A decentralized CME program was perceived feasible to upgrade rural health workers’ education level to a bachelor’s degree and improve their clinical competency. PMID:27134005

  5. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  6. Acceptability and Applicability of an American Health Videogame with Story for Childhood Obesity Prevention Among Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Baranowski, Tom; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane; Buday, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of “Escape from Diab” (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese children as interesting has not been explored. This study assessed the acceptability and applicability of Diab among Hong Kong Chinese children, whether the Diab story was understood by them, and whether it had potential to influence them both during the game and afterward. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-four students (21 males, 13 females) 9–12 years of age were included. Upon completion of all the Diab episodes, children completed an immersion scale with 18 items, as well as an individual interview with 10 open-ended questions. Results: Children achieved average immersion after playing Diab with the mean score at 39.1 (standard deviation = 9.0), higher than the median (36) of possible scores (range, 18–54). Four themes using framework analysis emerged from the interviews, including intuitive feelings about the interface, playing experience, perception of the effect of Diab on behavior change, and the applicability of Diab to Hong Kong children. The story and game developed for American children were found acceptable and applicable to Hong Kong Chinese children. Conclusions: The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods confirmed the acceptability and applicability of Diab to Hong Kong Chinese children. PMID:26382015

  7. Maternal Discussions of Mental States and Behaviors: Relations to Emotion Situation Knowledge in European American and Immigrant Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N.; Wang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the…

  8. What Works for Parents: How Parents Support Their Children with Math Homework in Rural Ghana

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    Vivian Tackie-Ofosu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS programs target families in deprived rural and urban communities with the objective of equipping them with skills to improve family well-being, education, and relationships. In recent years, the focus of FCS in Ghana has been on parental styles and education that foster parents’ involvement in their children's school work. Using a child-parent interactive model, a series of math activities were delivered to children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Group activities were also facilitated by the FCS staff. Parents used local materials, such as small empty cans, bottles, leaves, stones, sticks, old newspapers, and sand, to explain math concepts. Staff, parents, and children used fun activities and role plays to demonstrate developmental processes that enhance effective child development. The lessons identified were tied to the understanding of appropriate parenting styles that foster acquisition of skills for basic math concepts. At the end of the 12-week program, parents reported increased interest and confidence in math and were more proactive in supervising their children to complete their homework. The importance of the model lies in its simplicity in conveying fundamental knowledge that relates to the interwoven aspect of developmental domains to ensure children experience maximal success with math-related activities. The model also promotes acquisition of basic math skills in a naturalistic setting.

  9. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children in rural Panama: role of subsistence agricultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity. PMID:27000494

  10. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool-aged children in Sahelian rural communities in Mali

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    Doumbo Ogobara K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass chemotherapy with praziquantel is the main control strategy for schistosomiasis in Mali. However, in the national control programme for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, infants and preschool-aged children are overlooked in preventive chemotherapy campaigns. We therefore determined the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis in children between the ages 1-4 years in three villages across Diema health district, a rural community with endemic schistosomiasis in Mali. For Schistosoma haematobium diagnosis, a single urine sample of 10 ml obtained from each child was subjected to the standard urine filtration method. Results Of the 338 children examined 173 (51.2% were infected. Both prevalence and intensity of infection varied significantly between communities (p Conclusion Our study showed that preschool children living closely to lakes across in Mali are at high risk to be infected by schistosomiasis and contributed largely to the transmission; therefore schistosomiasis control interventions should also target infants in addition to school children and adults in endemic areas.

  11. Malnutrition, Overweight, and Obesity among Urban and Rural Children in North of West Azerbijan, Iran

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    Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malnutrition is one of the most important causes for improper physical and mental development of children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide public health problem. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has become a growing matter of public health concern worldwide. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and obesity in children under 5 years old in Salmas district. Methods. The current study is a cross-sectional study conducted on 902 of children under 5 years old to assess the nutritional status in Salmas district and performed from 16 until 30 October, 2011, with the cooperation of the Office of Community Nutrition Improvement and the United Nations Children’s Fund. ENA (Emergency Nutrition Assessment and Spss software were used for data analysis. Results. 49.6% of children were boys and 50.4% were girls. The prevalence of malnutrition based on underweight, stunting, and wasting was estimated to be 2.3%, 7.3%, and 1.4% among children, respectively. Stunting was more common in rural areas and this difference was significant (P<0.001. Conclusion. In this area stunting, overweight and obesity were the most important priorities that health officials must pay more attention to. ENA software has a special ability to determine the samples and clusters and is a simple, rapid, and accurate method, especially in epidemiological studies in the country, and can be a convenient tool and its use is suggested for the same studies.

  12. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF IRON DEFICIENCY OF ANEMIA IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN RURAL INDIA

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    Vidya P.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Micro nutritional deficiencies are common in developing countries like India. Nutritional deficiency anemia is more prevalent in children and young adolescent male and females. The objective of present study was to determine the prevalence of Iron deficiency anemia in children age group 8 – 12 years in our locality. AIM: to estimate the prevalence of IDA in Bhojapur, Taluka Sinnar of Maharashtra. METHODS: this Cross Sectional study was conducted in school going children of Bhojapur, Taluka Sinnar of Maharashtra, age group 8 – 12 year boys and girls. Hemoglobin, Serum Ferritin, Total Iron Binding Capacity [TIBC] and Transferrin levels were analyzed. RESULTS: 185 males and 174 female school going children were examined, IDA was prevalent in 58.9% of males and 63.2 % in females, there was significant decrease in parameters of Hemoglobin, Serum Ferritin and Transferrin saturation and increase in Total Iron Binding Capacity in this group of population indicating prevalence of the Iron deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: within limitations of the present study it was found that Iron deficiency anemia was common in children in rural India. IDA was slightly more prevalent in girls of the same age group as compared to boys. Lower socioeconomic status was linked with decreased Hemoglobin levels probably due to nutritional deficiencies. This calls for a comprehensive micro nutritional policy in addition to food security to address the problem.

  13. Coping styles of mothers with disabled children at rural community rehabilitation centres in Muar, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Zaidah, A H; Khairani, O; Normah, C D

    2004-08-01

    Chronic disability in children imposes great strains on a family. The responsibility of mothering disabled children may be detrimental to the well-being of mothers. This study aims to assess the different types of coping styles of mothers with disabled children and its influencing factors. It is a cross-sectional study using Coping Inventory Stressful Situation (CISS) scale to determine the mothers' coping styles. A sample of 81 mothers with disabled children attending two rural Community Rehabilitation Centres, were included in the study. Overall, the mothers were using a mixture of coping strategies. However, they scored more in the task-oriented (mean T score = 52.88) and emotion-oriented (mean T score = 50.52) coping styles, while the other subscales of coping styles, namely avoidance, distraction and social diversion were below average (mean T score < 50). Divorced mothers (p=0.04) and those with low educational level (p=0.00) were more inclined to use emotion-oriented coping strategies while mothers with younger children (< 5 years old) used more avoidance coping strategies (p=0.01). There were no significant difference of coping styles in association with the mothers' age, ethnicity, duration of marriage, number of siblings, child's birth order or gender. By understanding the mothers' coping styles, health care workers would be able to educate the mothers with effective coping strategies and consequently reduce their psychological distress. PMID:15727385

  14. Applying Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model to Identify the Negative Influences Facing Children with Physical Disabilities in Rural Areas in Kwa-Zulu Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Brenda; Nel, Norma

    2013-01-01

    Children with visible physical disabilities (CWPDs) living in rural areas of South Africa are a matter of particular concern. While all children living in rural areas face negative influences such as poverty and the high incidence of HIV/AIDS, this situation is exacerbated for CWPDs who are more vulnerable to these influences (Human Sciences…

  15. The risk and protective factors in the development of childhood social anxiety symptoms among Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Le; Zhao, Xue; Li, Yi-Feng; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Hui-Yun; Bi, Peng; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2016-06-30

    The aim of this study was to explore the change and associated risk and protective factors of social anxiety symptoms among Chinese children. A 2-year longitudinal study was performed in a general primary and secondary school population in Anhui Province, China including 816 children in grades 3, 4, and 7. Children's social anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Social Anxiety Scales for Children (SASC) at three assessments. The overall prevalence of children's elevated social anxiety symptoms ranged from 15.2% to 16.4% across three assessments. Children's overall mean SASC scores were 5.6 (SD =3.7), 5.3 (SD =3.8), and 5.3 (SD =4.1) at three assessments, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, children's social anxiety symptom levels and change among different subgroups was not stable across 2-year follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that age, severe family dysfunction, quality of life, positive coping, negative coping, depressive symptoms and self-esteem were predictive factors for childhood elevated social anxiety symptoms. The findings suggested that the overall social anxiety symptoms showed a relatively stable pattern over time. The identified risk and protective factors may provide scientific evidence for school, family, and health authorities to conduct necessary intervention. PMID:27092863

  16. [Enteroparasitoses in the V Region, Chile. A study of rural school children from Santo Domingo, 1987].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, P; Muñoz, N; Carabelli, M; Subercaseaux, B; Tardío, M T; Villalón, L; Herrera, G

    1990-01-01

    The results of a new enteroparasitological survey carried out by the authors are analyzed with the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the situation of these infections in the V Region, Chile. In 1987 the children of five rural schools of Santo Domingo were studied by means of the modified Telemann method, the Ziehl-Neelsen stain and seried Graham test. The parasites more frequently found were: E. vermicularis (50.4%) and G. lamblia (10.8%). No E. histolytica was found in these children. The most frequent commensal was E. nana (21.9%). Cryptosporidium sp. presented a low frequency (0.9%), a figure that in these asymptomatic subjects is in accordance with that found in outpatients with chronic diarrhea in Valparaíso, V Region. PMID:1726862

  17. The effect of magnocellular-based visual-motor intervention on Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

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    Yi eQian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnocellular(M deficit theory points out that the core deficit of developmental dyslexia (DD is the impairment in M pathway, which has been evidenced in many previous studies. Based on the M deficit, some researchers found that visual intervention focusing on M deficit improved dyslexics’ M function as well as reading abilities. However, the number and reliability of these training studies were limited. Therefore, the present study conducted an M-based visual-motor intervention on Chinese children with DD to investigate the relationship between M deficit and Chinese DD. Intervention programs included coherent motion detection, visual search, visual tracking and juggling, which were related to M function. The results showed that M function and phonological awareness of training dyslexic group were improved to a normal level as age-matched normal children after intervention, while non-training dyslexics did not. It supported M deficit theory, and suggested M deficit might be the core deficit of Chinese DD.

  18. Candidate Gene Association Analysis of Neuroblastoma in Chinese Children Strengthens the Role of LMO1.

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    Jie Lu

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in children and the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the first year of life. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS of Caucasian and African populations have shown that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in several genes are associated with the risk of developing NB, while few studies have been performed on Chinese children. Herein, we examined the association between the genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes and the risk of NB in Chinese children. In total, 127 SNPs in nine target genes, revealed by GWAS studies of other ethnic groups and four related lincRNAs, were genotyped in 549 samples (244 NB patients and 305 healthy controls. After adjustment for gender and age, there were 21 SNPs associated with NB risk at the two-sided P < 0.05 level, 11 of which were located in LMO1. After correction for multiple comparisons, only rs204926 in LMO1 remained significantly different between cases and controls (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.31-0.65, adjusted P = 0.003. In addition, 16 haplotypes in four separate genes were significantly different between case and control groups at an unadjusted P value < 0.05, 11 of which were located in LMO1. A major haplotype, ATC, containing rs204926, rs110420, and rs110419, conferred a significant increase in risk for NB (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.41-2.36, adjusted P < 0.001. The major finding of our study was obtained for risk alleles within the LMO1 gene. Our data suggest that genetic variants in LMO1 are associated with increased NB risk in Chinese children.

  19. Candidate Gene Association Analysis of Neuroblastoma in Chinese Children Strengthens the Role of LMO1

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    Wang, Huanmin; Jin, Yaqiong; Han, Shujing; Han, Wei; Tai, Jun; Guo, Yongli; Ni, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in children and the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the first year of life. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Caucasian and African populations have shown that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes are associated with the risk of developing NB, while few studies have been performed on Chinese children. Herein, we examined the association between the genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes and the risk of NB in Chinese children. In total, 127 SNPs in nine target genes, revealed by GWAS studies of other ethnic groups and four related lincRNAs, were genotyped in 549 samples (244 NB patients and 305 healthy controls). After adjustment for gender and age, there were 21 SNPs associated with NB risk at the two-sided P < 0.05 level, 11 of which were located in LMO1. After correction for multiple comparisons, only rs204926 in LMO1 remained significantly different between cases and controls (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.31–0.65, adjusted P = 0.003). In addition, 16 haplotypes in four separate genes were significantly different between case and control groups at an unadjusted P value < 0.05, 11 of which were located in LMO1. A major haplotype, ATC, containing rs204926, rs110420, and rs110419, conferred a significant increase in risk for NB (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.41–2.36, adjusted P < 0.001). The major finding of our study was obtained for risk alleles within the LMO1 gene. Our data suggest that genetic variants in LMO1 are associated with increased NB risk in Chinese children. PMID:26030754

  20. Rural-Urban Differences in Household Treatment-Seeking Behaviour for Suspected Malaria in Children at Bata District, Equatorial Guinea.

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    Maria Romay-Barja

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years old in Equatorial Guinea. However, little is known about the community management of malaria and treatment-seeking patterns. We aimed to assess symptoms of children with reported malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour of their caretakers in rural and urban areas in the Bata District.A cross-sectional study was conducted in the district of Bata and 440 houses were selected from 18 rural villages and 26 urban neighbourhoods. Differences between rural and urban caregivers and children with reported malaria were assessed through the chi-squared test for independence of categorical variables and the t-Student or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test for normally or not-normally distributed continuous variables, respectively.Differences between rural and urban households were observed in caregiver treatment-seeking patterns. Fever was the main symptom associated with malaria in both areas. Malaria was treated first at home, particularly in rural areas. The second step was to seek treatment outside the home, mainly at hospital and Health Centre for rural households and at hospital and private clinic for urban ones. Artemether monotherapy was the antimalarial treatment prescribed most often. Households waited for more than 24 hours before seeking treatment outside and delays were longest in rural areas. The total cost of treatment was higher in urban than in rural areas in Bata.The delays in seeking treatment, the type of malaria therapy received and the cost of treatment are the principal problems found in Bata District. Important steps for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in this area are to provide sufficient supplies of effective antimalarial drugs and to improve malaria treatment skills in households and in both public and private sectors.

  1. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

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    Yanwei Li

    Full Text Available Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese. Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old. Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old; and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old, then

  2. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults.

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    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-08-01

    Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ≥50 and women ≥60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 northern provinces in China. Healthy salt intake behavior was defined as either not eating pickled foods or not adding pickles/soy sauce/salt when food was not salty enough in prior 3 months.There were 81% participants having healthy salt intake behavior. Healthy salt intake behavior was more common among women (P < 0.01) and was positively associated with age (P < 0.01) and poorer health status (P < 0.01), but negatively associated with years in school (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, years in school, and health status, participants who believed in the harm of high salt intake were more likely to have healthy salt intake behavior, compared with those who did not believe (Odds Ratio = 1.6, P < 0.001). Knowledge of salt intake was not significantly related to healthy salt intake behavior.Our study demonstrated that belief in the harm of high salt intake rather than knowledge about salt and health was associated with healthy salt intake behavior, independent of age, sex, years in school, and health status. Future population salt reduction programs should place more emphasis on establishing health beliefs rather than only delivering salt-related knowledge.Clinical trial registration number of the study is NCT01259700. PMID:27495056

  3. Mismatch negativity (MMN latency as a biomarker of amnestic mild cognitive impairment in Chinese rural elders

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    Guo Hua Lu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the Mismatch Negativity (MMN component, a correlate of the automatic detection of changes in the acoustic environment, in healthy adults and adults with aMCI. 43 mild amnestic cognitive impairment (aMCI subjects and 43 healthy Chinese older adults were arranged into experimental group and control group respectively. Their MMN amplitude and latency were measured at the FZ, FCZ and CZ electrode sites under a passive auditory oddball task. The results showed that the latencies obtained from the FZ, FCZ and CZ electrode sites were significantly longer in the aMCI adults than in the control adults (P<0.01 while there were no significant differences in MMN amplitude between two groups(P>0.05. The MMN latency was found to be a sensitive and specific biomarker of aMCI.

  4. Exposure to organophosphate and cognitive performance in chilean rural school children: an exploratory study

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    María T. Muñoz Q

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the presence of organophosphate metabolites (OP in the urine of rural schoolchildren and estimate its association with their cognitive performance. Methodology: a cross-sectional exploratory study in which a total of 25 children were assessed. Cognitive functioning was measured using the WISC-III intelligence test. Additionally, the concentration of OP metabolites in their urine was tested. Results: 56% of the children had concentration levels above the detection limit for dimethylphosphate (DMP and dimethyltiophosphate (DMTP. Moreover, 92% of them had the metabolite diethylphosphate (DEP values on this limit. Regarding the WISC-III, the intelligence quotient (IQ values below the average (IQ ˃ 90 correspond to: Total IQ = 60% performance IQ = 64%, verbal IQ = 52%, perceptual organization IQ = 60%, processing speed IQ = 95%, and freedom from distractibility IQ = 64%. An inverse association was found between the processing speed factor and DMTP (rs = -0.44, p = 0.014. Conclusions: results indicate that the rural schoolchildren whose urine was measured with OP metabolite biomarkers had been exposed to OP pesticides. A relationship was observed between the presence of OP metabolites and the cognitive performance factor of the WISC-III test. We believe it is appropriate to evaluate the effects of the presence of OP metabolites on cognitive functioning in a larger sample, while considering other exposure variables.

  5. An approach to hygiene education among rural Indian school going children

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    Dongre AR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To find out the prevalence of intestinal parasites and its epidemiological correlates among rural Indian school going (6-14 years children and to study the effect of focused, need based child to child hygiene education on personal hygiene of school children. Materials and Methods: In September 2007, the present participatory action research was undertaken at a feasibly selected village Dhotra (Kasar in Wardha district of central India. A triangulated research design of quantitative (survey and qualitative (transect walk & pile sorting methods was used for the needs assessment before initiating formal hygiene education. Out of enlisted 172 children, data of 118 children with complete information was used for final analysis. The quantitative and qualitative data was entered and analyzed using the Epi Info 6.04 software and Anthropac 4.98.1/X software package respectively. School based participatory life skills based child to child hygiene education was undertaken for message dissemination and behavior change. The effect of this hygiene education on identified key behaviors was assessed after one month Results: Out of the 118 (50 male and 68 female subjects examined 21 (17.8%, 95%CI, 11.4 – 25.9% had intestinal parasite infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was significantly high among children having dirty untrimmed nails (47.4%, 95%CI, 30.9 – 64.1% followed by those having poor hand washing practices (37.2%, 95%CI, 22.9 – 53.2%. One month after hygiene education, the proportion of children having practice of hand washing with soap after defecation significantly improved from 63.6 % to 78%. The proportion of clean and cut nails also improved from 67.8% to 80 % (p<0.05. Conclusions: The need based, focused, life skills based child to child hygiene education was effective for behavior change. An integrated approach of drug treatment and focused participatory hygiene education is required to control parasite

  6. INTESTINAL PARASITIC PREVALENCE IN RURAL AREA CHILDREN MOBARAKEH-ISFAHAN -1997

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    M BAGHAEI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: intestinal parasitic infection is considered as one of the important health indices and the differences in it"s prevalence in different communities, explain the need for the periodical study of the prevalence inorder to organize, convenient preventative programs. previous studies have shown that prevalence of parasitic infection in rural areas is higher than urban areas. Therefore in this survey for the first time, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to some of the demographic parameters was studied in rural areas of the city of mobarakeh of Isfahan province in 1997. Methods: Two methods were used to detect the presence of intestinal parasites; direct exam and fecalcontrate system: formalin ethyl acetate method. The scotch tape method was used to examin for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 51.9 percent of the studied children were infected by one or several intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite was Giardia lamblia (29.8 percent, Entamoeba coli (17.1 percent and Enterobius vermicularis(16.3 percent respectively. A significant relation was found between age, level of education of mother and father, weight at birth, number of children in the family, and parasitic infections (P< percentS. No significant relationship was observed between sex and parasitic infections (P> percentS. Discussion: A comparison between the present results and those reported previously indicates that there is not a significant differences between the prevalence of parasitic infection in rural and urban parts of Isfahan province. Intestinal parasitic infections is still an important health problem in the region and the control and prevention demands more consideration of authorities.

  7. Efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in school-aged children: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Shi-Ming Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in children by a randomized, double-blinded controlled trial.A total of 190 children aged 10 to 14 years with emmetropia to moderate myopia were included. They were randomly allocated to three groups: standard Chinese eye exercises group (trained for eye exercises by doctors of traditional Chinese medicine; sham point eye exercises group (instructed to massage on non-acupoints; and eyes closed group (asked to close their eyes without massage. Primary outcome was change in accommodative lag immediately after intervention. Secondary outcomes included changes in corrected near and distant visual acuity, and visual discomfort score.Children in the standard Chinese eye exercises group had significantly greater alleviation of accommodative lag (-0.10 D than those in sham point eye exercises group (-0.03 D and eyes closed group (0.07 D (P = 0.04. The proportion of children with alleviation of accommodative lag was significantly higher in the standard Chinese eye exercises group (54.0% than in the sham point eye exercises group (32.8% and the eyes closed group (34.9% (P = 0.03. No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes.Chinese eye exercises as performed daily in primary and middle schools in China have statistically but probably clinically insignificant effect in reducing accommodative lag of school-aged children in the short-term. Considering the higher amounts of near work load of Chinese children, the efficacy of eye exercises may be insufficient in preventing myopia progression in the long-term.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01756287.

  8. Rurality and Ethnicity in Adolescent Physical Illness: Are Children of the Growing Rural Latino Population at Excess Health Risk?

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    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Elder, Glen H.; Abraham, W. Todd

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: This study's objectives are to: investigate potential additive and multiplicative influences of rurality and race/ethnicity on chronic physical illness in a nationally representative sample of youth; and examine intra-Latino processes using a Latino sub-sample. Specifically, we examine how rurality and individual psychosocial…

  9. Predicting internalizing problems in Chinese children: the unique and interactive effects of parenting and child temperament.

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    Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-08-01

    The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children's internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (aged 6-9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children's internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that the main effect of authoritative parenting and the interactions of Authoritarian Parenting × Effortful Control and Authoritative Parenting × Anger/Frustration (parents' reports only) prospectively and uniquely predicted internalizing problems. The above results did not vary by child sex and remained significant after controlling for co-occurring externalizing problems. These findings suggest that (a) children with low effortful control may be particularly susceptible to the adverse effect of authoritarian parenting and (b) the benefit of authoritative parenting may be especially important for children with high anger/frustration. PMID:23880383

  10. HOSPITAL BASED SURVEILLANCE OF ENTERIC PARASITES AN D COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECT IONS IN THE HOSPITAL CHILDREN WITH RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN AT KANCHEEPURAM

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    Kumudavathi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are prevalent in developing countries like India and have been the important cau se of morbidity and mortality especially in children. OBJECTIVES: Estimate prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in hospital as well as in rural school children to obtain an ac curate understanding of the burden and cause of intestinal parasitic infections in Kancheepuram. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2654 stool samples were collected, processed, and mic roscopically examined for intestinal parasites. 2267 were adults and remaining 387 were c hildren. In addition, 314 rural school children were also included in the study. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of IPIs was estimated as 32.59% (739/2267 in hospital adults an d 55.50% (215/387 in hospital children and 56.68% (178/314 in rural school children; high prevalence rate was found among hospital children and in school children when compared to adu lts. Among the protozoans E. histolytica was the highest, followed by Giardia and among the helminths hookworm was highest followed by Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, H ymenolepis nana and Strongoloides larvae respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal parasitic infections spreads due to low s tandards of personal hygiene, poor sanitation, open air defecatio n and an illiterate population, thus suggesting need for regular surveys to minimize the IPIs rate in the community.

  11. AWARENESS OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR RISK FACTORS AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Siddharudha Shivalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral interventions for Non Communicable Diseases (NCD abeyance would profit the most, if initiated at an early age. Major risk factors of NCDs are changing life style and behavior pattern which are largely due to practices adopted in younger age. Students' awareness about NCDs and their risk factors is an important part of population based prevention strategy. Objective: To assess the awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among rural intermediate school children. Methodology: A School based cross sectional study was conducted in Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi from July - Aug 2010. Intermediate school children from eight inter-colleges of Chiraigaon development block were the study subjects. Pretested questionnaire was used in the study and frequency and proportions were used to analyze the data. Results: Less than one third of the children were aware about Diabetes and Hypertension (27% and 31% respectively. Only 18% knew about Body Mass Index (BMI as an indicator of obesity. In general awareness of NCDs was more in boys than girl. Conclusion: Over all awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among students was not satisfactory. There is a need and scope for health education activity regarding NCDs and their risk factors to promote healthy life style among these school children.

  12. Factors influencing psychosocial development of preschool children in a rural area of Haryana, India.

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    Kumar, R; Aggarwal, A K; Kaur, M; Iyengar, S D

    1997-12-01

    In a cross-sectional survey, 3746 children aged less than 6 years residing in 47 randomly selected villages of district Ambala (India), were studied to find out the environmental risk factors influencing psychosocial development. A culture appropriate test battery comprising 67 test items was administered, and psychosocial development score of each child was computed by scoring each test item passed as 1 and failed as 0. At each age level children having score in lower quartile were categorised as having slow psychosocial development and those in upper quartile were labelled as having accelerated development. Logistic regression revealed that per capita income, education of mother, nutritional status of the child, number of rooms and environmental hygiene in the house, presence of a high school within easy travel distance, availability of a caretaker when mother is busy, child attending a nursery (anganwadi), households having access to newspaper, child having toys or toy substitutes, TV, books, story telling by the mother were found to have a significant association with psychosocial development of preschool children. The risk factors identified in this survey can be used for screening families at risk in rural communities and for selection of interventions for promotion of psychosocial development of children. PMID:9476452

  13. Chinese and Australian Year 3 Children's Conceptual Understanding of Science: A multiple comparative case study

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    Tao, Ying; Colette Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady Jane

    2012-04-01

    Children have formal science instruction from kindergarten in Australia and from Year 3 in China. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact that different approaches to primary science curricula in China and Australia have on children's conceptual understanding of science. Participants were Year 3 children from three schools of high, medium and low socio-economic status in Hunan Province, central south China (n = 135) and three schools of similar socio-economic status in Western Australia (n = 120). The students' understanding was assessed by a science quiz, developed from past Trends in Mathematics and Science Study science released items for primary children. In-depth interviews were carried out to further explore children's conceptual understanding of living things, the Earth and floating and sinking. The results revealed that Year 3 children from schools of similar socio-economic status in the two countries had similar conceptual understandings of life science, earth science and physical science. Further, in both countries, the higher the socio-economic status of the school, the better the students performed on the science quiz and in interviews. Some idiosyncratic strengths and weaknesses were observed, for example, Chinese Year 3 children showed relative strength in classification of living things, and Australian Year 3 children demonstrated better understanding of floating and sinking, but children in both countries were weak in applying and reasoning with complex concepts in the domain of earth science. The results raise questions about the value of providing a science curriculum in early childhood if it does not make any difference to students' conceptual understanding of science.

  14. Parental Beliefs on Children's Play: Comparison among Mainland Chinese, Chinese Immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans

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    Jiang, Shan; Han, Myae

    2016-01-01

    The current study surveyed parental play beliefs among the three groups of parents: the mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans. Limited comparison studies on parental play beliefs were previously reported for these three populations in the literature. Two measures, the Chinese child-rearing ideology and parental…

  15. Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children.

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    Abdisalan M Noor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0-4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004, the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005, and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006. The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281; 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131, and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000. The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of

  16. Relationship between resting pulse rate and lipid metabolic dysfunctions in Chinese adults living in rural areas.

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    Chong-jian Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resting pulse rate has been observed to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, its association with lipid metabolic dysfunctions remains unclear, especially resting pulse rate as an indicator for identifying the risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between resting pulse rate and lipid metabolic dysfunctions, and then evaluate the feasibility of resting pulse rate as an indicator for screening the risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed, and 16,926 subjects were included in this study from rural community residents aged 35-78 years. Resting pulse rate and relevant covariates were collected from a standard questionnaire. The fasting blood samples were collected and measured for lipid profile. Predictive performance was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed between resting pulse rate and TC (r = 0.102, P = 0.001, TG (r = 0.182, P = 0.001, and dyslipidemia (r = 0.037, P = 0.008. In the multivariate models, the adjusted odds ratios for hypercholesterolemia (from 1.07 to 1.15, hypertriglyceridemia (1.11 to 1.16, low HDL hypercholesterolemia (1.03 to 1.06, high LDL hypercholesterolemia (0.92 to 1.14, and dyslipidemia (1.04 to 1.07 were positively increased across quartiles of resting pulse rate (P for trend <0.05. The ROC curve indicated that resting pulse rate had low sensitivity (78.95%, 74.18%, 51.54%, 44.39%, and 54.22%, specificity (55.88%, 59.46%, 57.27%, 65.02%, and 60.56%, and the area under ROC curve (0.70, 0.69, 0.54, 0.56, and 0.58 for identifying the risk of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL hypercholesterolemia, high LDL hypercholesterolemia, and dyslipidemia, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fast resting pulse rate was associated with a moderate increased risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions in rural adults. However, resting pulse

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Elevated Blood Pressure in Chinese Children Aged 6-13 Years:a Nationwide School-Based Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Yi; LI Wei Rong; SHEN Chong; Frank QIAN; SHI Xiao Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of elevated blood pressure (EBP) in Chinese children and identify individual and family factors associated with EBP. Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using stratified cluster sampling. Participants’ blood pressure was measured, and their parents completed a questionnaire on personal and family characteristics. Prevalence and correlates of EBP were assessed. Results Among a total of 24,333 participants, 20.2% of boys and 16.3% of girls had EBP. The prevalence of EBP increased with the ascending trend of waist circumference, Waist-to-height ratio, and body mass index. The adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for obese boys and girls were 2.50 and 2.97, respectively. Fewer urban boys (16.2%) had EBP than rural boys (21.7%). Boys with a family history of hypertension were 12%more likely to have EBP. Children whose mothers received a college education tended to have lower likelihood of EBP;with an aPR was 0.85 among boys and 0.78 among girls. Conclusion EBP is common among obese students and those who have a family history of hypertension. A negative association between mothers’ education levels and EBP risk in children was found.

  18. The Family Life Project: an epidemiological and developmental study of young children living in poor rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha

    2013-10-01

    About 20% of children in the United States have been reported to live in rural communities, with child poverty rates higher and geographic isolation from resources greater than in urban communities. There have been surprisingly few studies of children living in rural communities, especially poor rural communities. The Family Life Project helped fill this gap by using an epidemiological design to recruit and study a representative sample of every baby born to a mother who resided in one of six poor rural counties over a 1-year period, oversampling for poverty and African American. 1,292 children were followed from birth to 36 months of age. This monograph described these children and used a cumulative risk model to examine the relation between social risk and children's executive functioning, language development, and behavioral competence at 36 months. Using both the Family Process Model of development and the Family Investment Model of development, observed parenting was examined over time in relation to child functioning at 36 months. Different aspects of observed parenting were examined as mediators/moderators of risk in predicting child outcomes. Results suggested that cumulative risk was important in predicting all three major domains of child outcomes and that positive and negative parenting and maternal language complexity were mediators of these relations. Maternal positive parenting was found to be a buffer for the most risky families in predicting behavioral competence. In a final model using both family process and investment measures, there was evidence of mediation but with little evidence of the specificity of parenting for particular outcomes. Discussion focused on the importance of cumulative risk and parenting in understanding child competence in rural poverty and the implications for possible intervention strategies that might be effective in maximizing the early development of these children. PMID:24147448

  19. Estimation of dental age by Nolla’s method using orthopantomographs among rural free residential school children

    OpenAIRE

    Nandlal B, Karthikeya Patil, Ravi S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Teeth and dental restorations are resistant to destruction by fire and the elements are therefore useful in identification. This permits accurate identification of a missing child or remains. The Rural Residential free school at Suttur houses a large number of inmates and hence dental records are kept for their identification. Objective: Estimation of Age of children. Methods: Orthopantomographs were used to study for estimation of age of children, using a Nolla’s method of den...

  20. The influence of parental education and literacy skill levels on children's achievement in primary school, Moyo district, rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    DRAJEA, ALICE JURUGO

    2015-01-01

    APPROVED This thesis explores how the different levels of parents education and literacy skills influence their primary six children s academic attainment. The interest in this area was derived from endemic poor literacy abilities among universal primary school children in rural Uganda leading to persistent poor school achievement. The study reviews pertinent literature related to parental education and literacy skill practices in the home setting. The focus is on the natur...

  1. Anemia and Related Factors in Preschool Children in the Southern Rural Lao People’s Democratic Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Kounnavong, Sengchanh; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Hashizume, Masahiro; Okumura, Junko; Moji, Kazuhiko; Boupha, Boungnong; Yamamoto, Taro

    2011-01-01

    Anemia is a severe public health problem in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR). Consequently, a new control strategy to reduce the burden of anemia has been introduced for preschool children (aged 6–52 months). The objective of this study was to assess the current prevalence of anemia and related factors in preschool children in southern rural Lao PDR. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in six communities in Songkhone district, Savannakheth province, in February ...

  2. Longitudinal, cross-cohort comparison of physical activity patterns in Chinese mothers and children

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    Dearth-Wesley Tracy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence comparing adult and child physical activity (PA trends and examining parent–child PA associations within a newly industrialized country setting. PA research within a newly industrialized country setting is particularly important given the negative effects of rapid urbanization, socioeconomic growth, and technological advances on PA behaviors. The purpose of our study was to examine trends and associations in PA behaviors in Chinese mother-child pairs and to investigate relationships between PA behaviors and socioeconomic variables in this dyad. Methods We studied PA behaviors in 2 separate cohorts of mother-child pairs (n = 353 followed over a 2–4 year time period using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2000 Cohort: 2000–2004; 2004 Cohort: 2004–2006. Comparable mother-child PA behaviors included total metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-hrs/wk from active commuting, leisure-time sports, and sedentary behaviors. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between mother and child PA and relationships between PA behaviors and socioeconomic variables. Results Children experienced increases in active commuting and leisure-time sports activities with increasing child age, whereas mothers experienced temporal declines in active commuting and minimal change in leisure-time sports activity. Sedentary behavior was high for children and mothers over time. Mother-child associations were positive for active commuting and leisure-time sports activities and negative for sedentary behavior (P P  Conclusion Efforts to reduce sedentary behavior in Chinese mothers and children are imperative. While increased leisure-time and active commuting activities in children is encouraging, continued PA promotion in children and more intensive efforts to promote leisure-time sports and active commuting in mothers is needed.

  3. Deletion analysis of SMN1 and NAIP genes in southern Chinese children with spinal muscular atrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-hua LIANG; Xiao-ling CHEN; Zhong-sheng YU; Chun-yue CHEN; Sheng BI; Lian-gen MAO; Bo-lin ZHOU; Xian-ning ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a disorder characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons and occasionally bulbar motor neurons leading to progressive limb and trunk paralysis as well as muscular atrophy. Three types of SMA are rec-ognized depending on the age of onset, the maximum muscular activity achieved, and survivorship: SMA1, SMA2, and SMA3. The survival of motor neuron (SMN) gene has been identified as an SMA determining gene, whereas the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene is considered to be a modifying factor of the severity of SMA. The main objective of this study was to analyze the deletion of SMN1 and NAIP genes in southern Chinese children with SMA. Here, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was performed to detect the deletion of both exon 7 and exon 8 of SMNI and exon 5 of NAIP in 62 southern Chinese children with strongly suspected clinical symptoms of SMA. All the 32 SMAI patients and 76% (13/17) of SMA2 patients showed homozygous deletions for exon 7 and exon 8, and all the 13 SMA3 patients showed single deletion of SMN1 exon 7 along with 24% (4/17) of SMA2 patients. Eleven out of 32 (34%) SMA1 patients showed NAIP deletion, and none of SMA2 and SMA3 patients was found to have NAIP deletion. The findings of homozygous deletions of exon 7 and/or exon 8 of SMN1 gene confirmed the diagnosis of SMA, and suggested that the deletion of SMN1 exon 7 is a major cause of SMA in southern Chinese children, and that the NA1P gene may be a modifying factor for disease severity of SMA 1. The molecular diagnosis system based on PCR-RFLP analysis can conveniently be applied in the clinical testing, genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and preimplantation genetic diagnosis of SMA.

  4. Diet and Physical Activity in Rural vs Urban Children and Adolescents in the United States: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Lacey Arneson; Meendering, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    Current research suggests that the prevalence of obesity is higher among rural youth than urban youth. Due to the health implications that are associated with child and adolescent obesity, it is critical to understand systematic differences in diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors that may be contributing to this disparity in weight. However, varying definitions of rural and inconsistencies in study tools and methodologies may limit the generalizability of findings from research in this area. The objective of this narrative review was to synthesize and critically evaluate existing literature comparing diet and PA behaviors between rural and urban children and adolescents, providing recommendations for future research. Only five studies were found that reported on measures of diet in rural vs urban youth, whereas 16 were found that reported on measures of PA. Dietary assessment tools were generally standard and acceptable; however, differences existed in how dietary outcomes were defined. Few studies used assessment tools that objectively measured PA, and definitions for meeting PA recommendations varied among studies. Very few studies defined rural using the same criteria. Future research on the rural youth obesity disparity should focus on including a high-quality assessment of both diet and PA (as opposed to one or the other) and on using an appropriate and consistent definition of rural. PMID:26685123

  5. Plasmodium falciparum genotypes diversity in symptomatic malaria of children living in an urban and a rural setting in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konaté Amadou T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical presentation of malaria, considered as the result of a complex interaction between parasite and human genetics, is described to be different between rural and urban areas. The analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity in children with uncomplicated malaria, living in these two different areas, may help to understand the effect of urbanization on the distribution of P. falciparum genotypes. Methods Isolates collected from 75 and 89 children with uncomplicated malaria infection living in a rural and an urban area of Burkina Faso, respectively, were analysed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes to compare P. falciparum diversity. Results The K1 allelic family was widespread in children living in the two sites, compared to other msp1 allelic families (frequency >90%. The MAD 20 allelic family of msp1 was more prevalent (p = 0.0001 in the urban (85.3% than the rural area (63.2%. In the urban area, the 3D7 alleles of msp2 were more prevalent compared to FC27 alleles, with a high frequency for the 3D7 300bp allele (>30%. The multiplicity of infection was in the range of one to six in the urban area and of one to seven in the rural area. There was no difference in the frequency of multiple infections (p = 0.6: 96.0% (95% C.I: 91.6–100 in urban versus 93.1% (95%C.I: 87.6–98.6 in rural areas. The complexity of infection increased with age [p = 0.04 (rural area, p = 0.06 (urban area]. Conclusion Urban-rural area differences were observed in some allelic families (MAD20, FC27, 3D7, suggesting a probable impact of urbanization on genetic variability of P. falciparum. This should be taken into account in the implementation of malaria control measures.

  6. Eye Injuries Among Primary School Children in Enugu, Nigeria: Rural vs Urban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Nonso Ejikeme; Umeh, Rich Enujioke; Onwasigwe, Ernest Nnemeka

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of eye injuries among primary school children in two noncontiguous local government areas of Enugu State of Nigeria was undertaken. One of the local government areas was urban, while the other one was rural. Children who were <15 years in two randomly selected primary schools in the urban area and three randomly selected schools in the rural area were interviewed and examined with Snellen chart, pen torch, head loupe, and direct ophthalmoscope. The findings were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire and the World Health Organization Programme for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) eye examination form. Training on visual acuity measurement was done for each of the class teachers. A total of 1,236 children <15 years of age were studied and analyzed. Slightly more females, 652 (52.8%), than males, 584 (47.2%), constituted the sample population giving a female/male ratio of 1.1:1. A total of 98 (7.93%) children had evidence of injury to the eye or its adnexa. Eyelid scar was the commonest (5.34%) followed by eyebrow scar (2.10%). Canthal scar was the next (0.32%). Two girls had monocular blindness from eye trauma (0.16%). One had leucoma, while the other had a dislocated lens. All the monocular blind children of this study were from the urban area. The home was the commonest environment for an eye injury (69.39%) followed by the school (20.41%). The farm was next in frequency (7.14%), especially among boys in the rural area. The church and the road/street constituted the remainder. Regarding persons causing the injury, the child’s playmate was the commonest (55.10%) followed by self (27.55%). Parents and guardians were the next (9.18%). These were injuries associated with corporal punishment. Corporal punishment-related eye injury, according to this study, appears to be common in the rural area and affects boys predominantly. Other human intermediary agents that cause an eye injury include passersby (2.04%), RTA (2

  7. Scaling-Up Access to Antiretroviral Therapy for Children: A Cohort Study Evaluating Care and Treatment at Mobile and Hospital-Affiliated HIV Clinics in Rural Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, Janneke H.; Moss, William J; Hamangaba, Francis; Munsanje, Bornface; Sutcliffe, Catherine G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Travel time and distance are barriers to care for HIV-infected children in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Decentralization of care is one strategy to scale-up access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), but few programs have been evaluated. We compared outcomes for children receiving care in mobile and hospital-affiliated HIV clinics in rural Zambia. Methods Outcomes were measured within an ongoing cohort study of HIV-infected children seeking care at Macha Hospital, Zambia from 2007 to 201...

  8. Total Energy Expenditure by the doubly labelled water method in rural pre-school children in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labelled water method in nineteen 5 y old children of a rural mountain community in Cuba. Materials and Methods. Ten males and nine females (18.4 and 18.5 kg average weight) with mean BMI values of 16.3 and 16.1 kg/m2 were included in the study. RMR was previously measured in year 2000 by indirect calorimetry in a sample of 11 children and values correlated properly with the estimations using the proposed equations of Henry and Rees. This estimate was used then for the whole group. Energy intake measured by 3-day weighed dietary record was 3.73 MJ/day. Tee was measured by the doubly labelled water method. Results: TEE values of well nourished children were 7.15 and 5.77 MJ/d for boys and girls, respectively. These findings imply that well nourished boys and girls are having a moderate to heavy physical activity requiring 93 and 75 kcal/kg per day. Physical activity of normal Cuban boys and girls living in rural areas was 1.88 and 1.59 METS, which is much higher than those values reported for children from developed countries using DLW. Energy intake was 1639 ± 381 in boys and 1230 ± 355 kcal/d in girls. Conclusions: TEE and physical activity level of rural Cuban children was higher than reported values of children living in developed countries

  9. OVERSEAS CHINESE BANKING CORPORATION CHILDREN DEVELOPMENT CO-SAVINGS (BABY BONUS) ACCOUNT

    OpenAIRE

    Tay, Charles

    2010-01-01

    With effect from 1st August 2008, Overseas Chinese Banking Corporation (“OCBC”) and Standard Chartered Bank Singapore (“Stanchart”) had taken over from Development Bank of Singapore (“DBS”) as the managing agents for the Children Development Co-Savings (Baby Bonus) Accounts. After the concluded transfer exercise in November 2008, OCBC had since been the market leader with 76% of the market share. With the change of managing agents on 1st August 2008, parents had to choose between eithe...

  10. A Case Study: Leadership and Its Effect on Achievement of Children from Poverty in a Rural Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Marilyn Dishman; Martin, Barbara N.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived effectiveness of leadership in a Missouri rural K-8 school with a high incidence of poverty that consistently met federal and state accountability mandates. The concepts of accountability as measured by student achievement, the unique educational needs of children from poverty, and the…

  11. The Role of Internet Use and Parental Mediation on Cyberbullying Victimization among Spanish Children from Rural Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Raúl; Serna, Cristina; Martínez, Verónica; Ruiz-Oliva, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying victimization research on individual and familial correlates is scarce in Spain. By building upon previous studies, this research examines the role of Internet usage and parental mediation in online victimization. Spanish children from rural public schools (10-12 years; n?=?1068) completed a self-report questionnaire which measured…

  12. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjie; Geng, Fengji; Yao, Yuan; Weng, Jian; Hu, Yuzheng; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability) and executive function (e.g. working memory). This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function. PMID:26444689

  13. [Obesity, overweight and anemia in children from a rural area of Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Milton J

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the association between anemia, overweight and obesity in a children population of a rural area in Lima.Demographic, anthropometric and hemoglobin information (from the Information System of Nutritional Status of Children, ISNSC, 2014, of schoolchildren 1-15 attending public schools under the Micro Red Pachacamac jurisdiction) were employed in a cross sectional design. Descriptive statistical and association analysis between anemia and nutritional status were carried out. Logistic regression was used to find significant variables associated to anemia.The prevalence of anemia was 10.8% (CI95% 9.5-12.0), overweight was 17.3% (CI95% 15.8-18.9) and 16.2% of children were obese (CI95% 14.7 - 17.7). No significant association between the diagnosis of anemia, overweight or obesity (chi2 = 1.68, p = 0.432) was found. However, there was an inverse significant association between the diagnosis of anemia and Body Mass Index (BMI) (z =-3.77, p = 0.000); and a higher level of hemoglobin among those over 12 y/o (ANOVA, F = 108.19, p = 0.006). In univariate analysis, only age (OR 1.14, IC95% 1.08-1.20) and IMC (OR 1.08, IC95% 1.04-1.13) were associated to anemia. There is no relationship between nutritional diagnosis of obesity, overweight and anemia in this population. However, children with older age and greater BMI were less likely to present anemia. Public policies in the last five years have focused on reducing this double nutritional problem in children. PMID:26707660

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers regarding diarrhoea among children in a Sudanese rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, I S; Eltom, A R; Karrar, Z A; Gibril, A R

    1994-11-01

    A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers in the rural communities of two villages in Sudan regarding diarrhoeal diseases in children was conducted using a focus group research technique. Seven groups of literate mothers (87 mothers) and 13 groups of illiterate mothers (152 mothers) interviewed comprised 85% of mothers with children under 5 years of age in that community. The study showed that mothers can define and describe diarrhoea, however awareness about the aetiology and the importance of germs in its causation was low. The majority of mothers attributed diarrhoea to teething, milk of pregnant women, hot food and salty water. Less than 40% of mothers identify symptoms and signs of "dehydration" and the need for consultation. Only 10% could relate danger signs to severe dehydration. The ORS use rate was very low (2.1-4.3%). Although awareness about ORS was high (100%), only 25% prepared and used it correctly. However, home made fluids including rice water, custard, pap and tabaladi juice were used by 45% of the mothers. 45% of illiterate mothers stop breast feeding and food during diarrhoea compared to 30% of literate mothers. Harmful practices used in caring for children with diarrhoea included: fumigation (50%), cauterization and removal of teeth buds (45% illiterate mothers, 10% literate), withholding of breast feeding and indiscriminate use of drugs and herbs in 30%. PMID:7859655

  15. Consanguinity among the risk factors for underweight in children under five: a study from rural Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnutrition is a common problem, especially in developing countries. Of the 11 million children under 5 who die each year in the developing countries mainly from preventable causes, the death of about 54% are either directly or indirectly attributable to malnutrition. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and associated factors for underweight in rural Sindh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jhangara Town, located in District Dadu, Sindh. Eight hundred children under 5 years of age were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to elicit required information and anthropometric measurements were made. Results: The overall prevalence for underweight was 54.3% in the study population, which was higher than the prevalence reported by PDHS 1990 - 91. In multivariate analysis, various factors for underweight were consanguinity (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.0 - 2.07), low birth weight (parents perspective) (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.08 - 2.16) and lack of breast-feeding (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.19 - 6.17). Conclusion: Effective strategies to discourage consanguineous marriages between first cousins are required. Promoting breast feeding is another factor that should be incorporated while designing control strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malnutrition in children (<5 years). (author)

  16. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population. PMID:26466436

  17. ATTENTION PROBLEMS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN, IN A RURAL SETTING, IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubeen Taj

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and emotional disorders include internalizing symptoms which affect the self and externalizing symptoms that impact others and the environment. Behavioral and emotional disorders occur frequently in the general population of children. It has been seen that female children had more of internalizing behavior problems whereas male children had more of externalizing symptoms. Psychiatric epidemiological studies from developed countries indicate that more than a quarter of children and adolescents meet lifetime criteria for a mental disorder. Among the behavioral disorders, the presence of attention problems is of importance as they have been shown to be associated with increasing academic difficulties. Among the various scales that have been used to study behavior problems, Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist has been the most widely used and has different versions for parents and teachers so that a complete assessment of a child’s behavior can made with several inputs. This study aimed at assessing attention problems among primary school children, and to study the association between academic performance and attention problems using the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, using class teachers as raters, as interventions to reduce attention problems at an early stage may go a long way in improving the academic performance of the children. In this cross- sectional study, 198 children, 114 boys and 84 girls between 6 and 12 years of age, were rated on Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 6-18years - Teacher Rating Form (TRF, revised 2001, by his/her class teacher. About 25 children had a score of more than 50% on the attention problems scale. No significant differences were found in the attention problem scores between boys and girls in the sample studied. There was no significant association between current academic performance as rated on the TRF and attention problem scores. School teachers, especially in the rural areas where

  18. Effect of lifestyle intervention on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese obese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Lin Wang; Li Liang; Jun-Fen Fu; Chao-Chun Zou; Fang Hong; Jin-Zheng Xue; Jin-Rui Lu; Xiang-Min Wu

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of lifestyle intervention on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)in Chinese obese children.METHODS:Seventy-six obese children aged from 10 to 17 years with NAFLD were enrolled for a one-month intervention and divided randomly into three groups.Group1,consisting of 38 obese children,was an untreated control group without any intervention.Group 2,consisting of 19 obese children in summer camp,was strictly controlled only by life style intervention.Group 3,consisting of 19 obese children,received oral vitamin E therapy at a dose of 100 mg/d.The height,weight,fasting blood glucose(FBG),fasting serum insulin(FINS),plasma alanine aminotransferase(ALT),aspartate aminotransferase(AST),triglyceride(TG),total cholesterol(TCHO)and homeostasis model assentinsulin resistance(HOMA-IR)were measured at baseline and after one month.All patients were underwent to an ultrasonographic study of the liver performed by one operator who was blinded to the groups.RESULTS:The monitor indices of BMI,ALT,AST,TG,TCHO and HOMA-IR were successfully improved except in group 1.BMI and ALT in group 2 were reduced more significantly than in group 3 (2.44±0.82 vs 1.45±0.80,P=0.001;88.58±39.99 vs 63.69±27.05,P=0.040,respectively).CONCLUSION:Both a short-term lifestyle intervention and vitamin E therapy have an effect on NAFLD in obese children.Compared with vitamin E,lifestyle intervention is more effective.Therefore,lifestyle intervention should represent the first step in the management of children with NAFLD.

  19. The Association of Hypertension with Obesity and Metabolic Abnormalities among Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiquan Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 8898 Chinese children (4580 boys and 4318 girls aged 7–13 years in 6 cities of east China were recruited. Data on height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum lipid profiles, glucose, and insulin were collected. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 11.1%. Overweight and obese children had a higher risk of developing hypertension than their counterparts (29.1%, 17.4%, and 7.8%, resp. (P=0.0001. The means levels of triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR (1.0 mmol/L, 4.5 mmol/L, 8.4 mU/mL and 1.7, resp. among hypertensive children were all significantly higher than their normotensive counterparts (0.8 mmol/L, 4.5 mmol/L, 5.9 mU/mL, and 1.2, resp. (P=0.0001. Compared with the healthy children, the risk (odds ratio, OR of having hypertension among children with high triglycerides, hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome was 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.0–2.0, P=0.0334, 1.5 (95% CI: 0.9–2.5, P=0.0890, and 2.8 (95%CI: 1.5–5.4, P=0.0014, respectively, after controlling for age, gender, BMI, income level, parents' education level and puberty. In conclusion, overweight and obese children have higher risk of having hypertension and children with dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome and higher HOMA-IR have higher risk of developing hypertension.

  20. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Chan, Yu.Lung [Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Au, Kit Sum Agnes [James Cook University, Department of Psychology, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Yeung, Ka Wai David; Kwan, Ting Fai; To, Cho Yee

    2005-06-01

    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  1. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  2. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and their relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanna; Cai, Li; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Guo, Li; Jin, Yu; Ma, Yinghua; Chen, Yajun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Chinese children. A total of 234 Chinese schoolchildren aged 8-11 years in Guangdong participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed via a 3-day dietary record. Seven established cardiovascular indicators were analyzed in this study: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Higher dietary GI was significantly associated with higher TG levels (P = 0.037) and lower HDL-C levels (P = 0.005) after adjusting for age, sex, nutritional intake, physical activity, and body mass index z score. LDL-C was found to differ across tertiles of dietary GL. The middle tertile tended to show the highest level of LDL-C. TC, FPG, and blood pressure were independent of both dietary GI and GL. Our findings suggest that higher dietary GI is differentially associated with some CVD risk factors, including lower HDL-C and higher TG, in school-aged children from south China. PMID:26944225

  3. Behavioral pattern in Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Ha; Xu-Qing Zhuge; Qian Zheng; Bing Shi; Cai-Xia Gong; Yan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To obtain descriptive information of behavioral pattern inChinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate.Methods:A total of93 cleft lip and palate patients between the age of6-11 year-old and treated atWestChinaStomatologyHospital were selected.And another 100 unaffected controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited randomly from a common primary school inChengdu.Chart review of medical records was used to obtain psychosocial checklists.Scores were compared with published norms and controls to evaluate the risk of problems, separately for three diagnostic groups.Results:The patients group had lower scores of social and academic competencies, especially those with facial deformity or speech problem. No difference was found in the aspect of activity competency.All patients showed elevations in behavior problems.But the type of behavior problems varied in different genders.Conclusions:Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate are at raised risk for social and academic difficulties.Specific pattern of behavior problems displays differently depending on gender of the patient.

  4. Applicability of various estimation formulas to assess renal function in Chinese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Du; Ting-Ting Sun; Ling Hou; Jin-Jie Guo; Xiu-Li Wang; Yu-Bin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was to evaluate the relative applicability of the most commonly used estimation formulas for renal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of Chinese children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: One hundred CKD patients of less than 17 years old were divided into two groups by sex which was further categorized intofi ve subgroups based on CKD staging according to the "reference" GFR (rGFR) determined by Tc-99m-DTPA renal dynamic imaging. Four GFR markers including serum cystatin C (CysC),β2-microglobulin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were measured. Results: Among all four markers, CysC best refl ected the extent of glomerular damages for CKD stage 1. The value for estimation of GFR (eGFR) was derived from five different formulas either over-estimated or under-estimated GFR as referenced to rGFR, and the extent of deviations was dependent on gender, age and CKD stage. The Counahan-Barratt formula and the Schwartz formula gave the most accurate estimations of GFR for CKD stages 1 and 2-3, respectively regardless of gender and age differences. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that the Counahan-Barratt formula has the highest diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion: The Counahan-Barratt formula provides the best approximation to rGFR, thereby the highest applicability to Chinese children with CKD of different genders, ages and CKD stages.

  5. Characterization of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates causing invasive diseases in Chinese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiang; YAO Kai-hu; XIE Gui-lin; ZHENG YUE-jie; WANG Chuan-qing; SHANG Yun-xiao; WANG Hui-yun

    2013-01-01

    Background Erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that causing invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in Chinese children remain uncharacterized.This study aims to identify the resistance genes associated with erythromycin resistance and to determine the genetic relationships of IPD isolates in Chinese children.Methods A total of 171 S.pneumoniae strains were isolated from 11 medical centers in China from 2006 to 2008.All the isolates were characterized via serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility determination.The erythromycin-resistant isolates were further characterized via ermB and mefA gene detection,multi-locus sequence typing analysis,and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.Results A total of 164 (95.9%) isolates showed resistance to erythromycin,of which 162 strains with high high-level resistance (MIC ≥ 256 μg/ml).A total of 104 (63.4%) isolates carry the ermB gene alone,whereas 59 (36.0%) harbor both ermB and mefA genes.Of the 59 strains,54 were of serotypes 19A and 19F and were identified as highly clonal and related to the Taiwan19F-14 clone.Conclusions The erythromycin resistance rate in IPD isolates is significantly high and is predominantly mediated by the ermB gene.Isolates that carry both ermB and mefA genes are predominantly of serotypes 19A and 19F.

  6. STUDY OF PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF KAKINADA

    OpenAIRE

    Burri; Chinnatambi Narayanan Mohan; Amujuri Krishna; Duggirala; Aruna Kumari

    2016-01-01

    In India the prevalence of asthma has increased over the last two decades, especially in children. There is scarcity of data on prevalence of asthma in school children. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma in school going children aged 9-14 years in the town of Kakinada, East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh and determine the risk factors associated with it. METHODS From the listed many schools of urban and rural areas of Kakinada, 4 schools (i.e...

  7. Knowledge and practice of handwashing among mothers of under five children in rural coastal South India

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    SS Datta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge and practice of handwashing after critical moments among mothers of under five children and to recommend measures for improvement of handwashing practices based on the study findings Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken during February 2010 covering 28 villages around coastal South India. The EPI 30-cluster sampling method was used and 1898 mothers of under five children were interviewed about their knowledge and practice regarding handwashing after critical moments. Results: 83.41% mothers stated handwashing was important for prevention of communicable diseases. 77.82% opined that washing hands with only water was sufficient. 38.88% and 24.92% stated handwashing could prevent diarrhoea and ARI respectively. 80.08% mothers thought handwashing was crucial before eating meals; 56.90%, 41.73% and 40.73% respectively felt that it was important to wash hands after defeacation, before preparing food and feeding child. 73.18% mothers washed hands with soap and water after defeacation and 63.91% after cleaning the child who had defeacated. Majority wash their hands with only water before preparing food (71.86% and feeding the child (67.39%. Mothers with per capita monthly family income of Rs.1001-2000 and more, education of 5-7 standard and above, belonging to a joint family and Christian background had better handwashing practices. However, daily labourer mothers were at highest risk of not washing hands at all critical moments. Conclusion: Knowledge and practice of handwashing is low among rural mothers. Hence there is a need to spread importance of proper and regular handwashing in rural areas through available evidence based BCC strategies and multiple dissemination channels.

  8. Social heterogeneity and children's nutrition in the rural environment La heterogeneidad social y la nutrición infantil en el medio rural A heterogeneidade social e a nutrição infantil no meio rural

    OpenAIRE

    Livia Rocha; Tatiana Engel Gerhardt; Daniel Labernarde dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: this study is inserted in an Interdisciplinary Program of Research and aims to learn about the nutritional situation and life context of children under five in the rural environment of Arambaré/RS, Brazil, through an epidemiological cross-sectional descriptive study. METHOD: the data of anthropometrical assessment (Weight/Age, Age/Height, Weight/Height) expressed in Z scores, whose reference population is that of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) were analyzed in th...

  9. Reliability and Validity of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale for Parents in Mainland Chinese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meifang; Meng, Qingxiao; Liu, Li; Liu, Jintong

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale for Parents (SCAS-P) in 1943 father-mother dyads and 1785 students. Results of confirmatory factor analyses for SCAS-P were in favour of the original model with six correlated factors. The internal consistency of SCAS-P was acceptable (α = .63-.91), and the test-retest reliability was acceptable (r = .46-.72). The convergent and divergent validity of SCAS-P was supported by significant correlations with an internalizing subscale to a greater extent than with an externalizing subscale. Congruent validity was supported by significant correlations between father and mother reports (r = .60-.71) and child and parent reports (r = .25-.42). Significant differences between community and clinical samples supported the discriminant validity. Adolescents showed higher anxiety levels than children, and girls showed higher anxiety levels than boys. Our findings suggest that the SCAS-P is a suitable parent instrument to measure child anxiety symptoms in Mainland Chinese children and adolescents. PMID:26667807

  10. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

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    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  11. Environmental and personal risk factors for toxocariasis in children with diagnosed disease in urban and rural areas of central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawor, Jakub; Borecka, Anna; Zarnowska, Hanna; Marczyńska, Magdalena; Dobosz, Sabina

    2008-08-17

    To investigate the epidemiology of human toxocariasis a field survey was carried out at homes of 194 children (80 of rural and 114 of urban origin) with diagnosed disease from central Poland. A questionnaire referring to the possible risk factors was directed to their parents. Overall contamination rate of soil by Toxocara eggs was 27.5% in rural and 21.1% in urban environment in the households examined, with difference not significant (chi2=1.08, p=0.2986). In rural settlements 29.3% of yards surrounding houses were found contaminated, whereas in urban 25.0% of family gardens, 26.4% of private yards and 10.7% of public sandpits were positive. Frequency of positive samples differs only for rural yards and urban sandpits (chi2=3.85, p=0.0499). The study showed a high risk of reinfection for the ill children in sites of their residence. Despite diagnosed toxocariasis kids were not adequately supervised by their parents with no measures undertaken to avoid further infection. These data present strong need for educational programs which should be implemented for prevention of Toxocara infections in children. PMID:18584968

  12. Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Chinese Children aged 1–7 ys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yifeng; Li, Ping; Tang, Jianping; Han, Xiuping; Zou, Xiaoyan; Xu, Gang; Xu, Zigang; Wei, Fenglei; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Min; Xiao, Fengli; Zong, Wenkai; Shen, Chunping; Li, Jianhong; Liu, Jianzhong; Luo, Yongqi; Chang, Jing; Sheng, Nan; Dong, Chun; Zhang, Duo; Dai, Xing; Zhou, Jinjie; Meng, Chi; Niu, Hongxi; Shi, Xuemei; Zhang, Xinglian; Xiang, Juan; Xu, Haitao; Ran, Qin; Zhou, Yi; Li, Ming; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Ruhong; Gao, Xinghua; Wang, Hua; Gu, Heng; Ma, Lin; Yao, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing worldwide. Up to date, there has been no face-to-face nation-wide study in China. We aim to explore the prevalence of clinical diagnosed AD in children aged 1–7 ys in China. Twelve metropolises were chosen from different areas of China. In each region, we selected 4–10 kindergartens and 2–5 vaccination clinics randomly. A complete history-taking and skin examination were performed by dermatologists. The definite diagnosis of AD and the severity were determined by two or three dermatologists. All criteria concerned in UK diagnosis criteria, characteristic presentation of AD and atypical manifestations were recorded in detail. A total of 13998 children from 84 kindergartens and 40 vaccination clinics were included. The prevalence of AD was 12.94% by clinical diagnosis of dermatologists overall, with 74.6% of mild AD. Comparatively, prevalence of AD based on UK diagnostic criteria was 4.76%. This is the first face-to-face nation-wide study in Chinese children aged 1–7 ys, revealing that the prevalence of AD in children is closer to that of wealthier nations. PMID:27432148

  13. Association of the Resistin Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Kawasaki Disease in Chinese Children

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    Ruixi Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The −420C>G polymorphism located in the resistin gene (RETN promoter has recently been suggested to play a potential role in proinflammatory conditions and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the association of the RETN promoter polymorphism with Kawasaki disease (KD and its clinical parameters in Chinese children. Methods. We compared patients with complete KD to incomplete KD children. Genotyping of the RETN promoter polymorphism was performed using MassARRAY system, and serum resistin levels were estimated using the sandwich enzyme immunoassay method. Results. There was no significant difference in RETN (−420C>G genotypes between KD and control groups. However, the frequency of the G allele was higher in iKD patients than in cKD children due to a significantly increased frequency of the GG genotypes. Serum levels of resistin were significantly higher in KD patients than in controls regardless of the presence of coronary artery lesions (CALs. Conclusion. The present findings suggest that while resistin may play a role in the pathogenesis of KD, there is no apparent association between CAL and the RETN (−420C>G gene polymorphism in KD children. However, the diagnosis of iKD is challenging but can be supported by the presence of the G allele and the GG genotypes.

  14. Epidemiological correlates of nutritional anemia among children (6-35 months in rural Wardha, Central India

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    Sinha N

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Nutritional anemia is associated with impaired performance of a range of mental and physical functions in children, along with increased morbidity. Iron supplementation at a later age may not reverse the adverse effects. National Nutritional Anemia Control Program was launched in India in 1970, but it failed to make any impact. The present study was undertaken to find out prevalence of anemia and its correlates in rural Wardha in children 6-35 months of age. Materials and Methods : Seven hundred seventy-two children between 6 months and 35 months of age were studied for anemia by cluster-sampling method. The hemoglobin was estimated in the child by ′Filter paper cyanmethemoglobin method.′ Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and other variables. Data was analyzed by SPSS 12.0.1. Results : Mean hemoglobin level was 98.5 ± 12.9 gm/L. Prevalence of anemia was 80.3%. Only 1.3% children had severe anemia (hemoglobin < 70 gm/L. The univariate analysis showed that anemia is significantly associated with age of the child, education of mother and father, occupation of father, socioeconomic status, birth order and nutritional status as measured by weight for age. The final model suggested that only educational status of the mother, occupation of the father, birth order and nutritional status of the child were significantly associated with anemia. Interpretation and Conclusion : For short-term impact, appropriate nutritional interventions remain the only operational intervention as only the nutritional status (weight for age is a modifiable factor. But for long-term sustained impact, policy makers need to focus on improving maternal education and reducing family size.

  15. Population pharmacokinetics of ciclosporin in Chinese children with aplastic anemia: effects of weight, renal function and stanozolol administration

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Shao-qing; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Jue; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu-Qing; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Zhao, Zheng-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for the immunosuppressant ciclosporin in Chinese children with aplastic anemia and to identify covariates influencing ciclosporin pharmacokinetics. Methods: A total of 102 children with either acquired or congenital aplastic anemia aged 8.8±3.6 years (range 0.9–17.6 years) were included. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data for ciclosporin were collected. The population pharmacokinetic model of ciclosporin was described using the nonlinear ...

  16. Sleep Duration, Schedule and Quality among Urban Chinese Children and Adolescents: Associations with Routine After-School Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Hardy, Louise L.; Baur, Louise A; Ding, Ding; Wang, Ling; Shi, Huijing

    2015-01-01

    Background With rapid urbanization accompanied by lifestyle changes, children and adolescents living in metropolitan areas are faced with many time use choices that compete with sleep. This study reports on the sleep hygiene of urban Chinese school students, and investigates the relationship between habitual after-school activities and sleep duration, schedule and quality on a regular school day. Methods Cross-sectional, school-based survey of school children (Grades 4–8) living in Shanghai, ...

  17. Reading Performance Is Enhanced by Visual Texture Discrimination Training in Chinese-Speaking Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangzhi Meng; Ou Lin; Fang Wang; Yuzheng Jiang; Yan Song

    2014-01-01

    Background High order cognitive processing and learning, such as reading, interact with lower-level sensory processing and learning. Previous studies have reported that visual perceptual training enlarges visual span and, consequently, improves reading speed in young and old people with amblyopia. Recently, a visual perceptual training study in Chinese-speaking children with dyslexia found that the visual texture discrimination thresholds of these children in visual perceptual training signif...

  18. Prevalence of obesity and overweight among Chinese children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a survey in Zhejiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Rongwang; Mao, Shujiong; Zhang, Suhan; Li, Rong; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with psychiatric and developmental disorders. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Chinese children with ADHD, and to explore which subtypes of the disorder may specifically be associated with obesity/overweight. Methods Children meeting the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were enrolled in the study. Weight, weight z-score, height, height z-score, BMI, and BMI z-score were used to e...

  19. BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p children and adolescents aged 7–18 years, which can be adopted in future researches. Large longitudinal study is still needed to reveal the childhood growth pattern and validate the inconsistence between different percentile studies

  20. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 μg m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

  1. Association of the Common Genetic Variant Upstream of INSIG2 Gene with Obesity Related Phenotypes in Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-JUN WANG; HENG ZHANG; SHI-WEI ZHANG; YONG-PING PAN; JUN MA

    2008-01-01

    To study the association between the rs7566605 variant of INSIG2 and obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese children and adolescents.Methods The study sample consisted of two independent cohorts of Chinese children and adolescents.Anthropometric indices,lipids,blood pressure,fasting glucose,insulin and percentage of fat mass were determined.PCR with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed for genotyping the rs7566605 variant.Results In each of the two independent cohorts,no significant association was observed between rs7566605 and obesity under additive,dominant or recessive model.We also did not detect any difference in the genotype frequency between all the obese children and controls.Furthermore,we did not find evidence of an association between body composition indices and metabolic phenotypes in all children.However,the triglyceride level of CC homozygotes was significantly higher than that of GG+GC genotypes in obese children (P=0.022).Additionally,we observed a non-significant trend of severe obesity in a post-hoc test.Conclusion INSIG2 rs7566605 variant is not associated Chinese childhood obesity in two independent cohorts.Further study is needed to verify the effect of rs7566605 on triglyceride in obese children.

  2. Differences in Arithmetic Performance between Chinese and German Children Are Accompanied by Differences in Processing of Symbolic Numerical Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnemann, Jan; Linkersdörfer, Janosch; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lindberg, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills are assumed to be fundamental to arithmetic learning. It is, however, still an open question whether better arithmetic skills are reflected in symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills. To address this issue, Chinese and German third graders were compared regarding their performance in arithmetic tasks and in a symbolic numerical magnitude comparison task. Chinese children performed better in the arithmetic tasks and were faster in deciding which one of two Arabic numbers was numerically larger. The group difference in symbolic numerical magnitude processing was fully mediated by the performance in arithmetic tasks. We assume that a higher degree of familiarity with arithmetic in Chinese compared to German children leads to a higher speed of retrieving symbolic numerical magnitude knowledge.

  3. CLINICAL PROFILE OF MEASLES IN CHILDREN ADMITTED TO A RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Deepa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles affects about 20 million people a year. Even with greater than 80% immunization cover, the number of children with measles has registered a steep rise. A retrospective chart review was carried out on all cases of measles admitted to the paediatric wards of a tertiary care medical college hospital in a rural area in north Kerala. A total of 31 cases of measles (n=31 were admitted to the paediatric ward. Age at admission of 67.8% of the patients was above 6 years. The average age of the sample was 7.52 years (S. D = 3.19. Amongst the clinical features, fever and rash were seen in 100%, coryza in 83.8% and conjunctivitis in 67.7%. Koplik spots, pathognomonic of measles were seen only in 32.3%. About 61.3% of those with measles were previously immunized. Regarding the vitamin A supplementation status , only 19.4% of the childr en were administered vitamin A. The fact that 61% of children who developed measles had actually received measles vaccination during infancy , and that majority (67% of them were >6 years at the time of presentation , points to the drop in the protective im munity , after a single dose of measles vaccine, as age advances. To conclude , Measles is now a re - emerging infectious disease and a second dose of measles vaccine to boost up the existing immunity would turn out to be a corner stone in subsequent measles e limination.

  4. Content Analysis of Free-Response Narratives to Personal Meanings of Death among Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu Ching; Chen, Shih-Fen

    2006-01-01

    The study explores development of the concept of death among 204 Chinese children and adolescents and analyzes the relationships between death concept development and background variables. A coding manual for content analysis of death constructs adapted from R. A. Neimeyer et al. (1983) was used to classify each construct in the paragraphs written…

  5. The Significance of Bilingual Chinese, Malay, and Tamil Children's English Network Patterns on Community Language Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed groups of Chinese, Malay and Tamil families, their use of community languages or mother tongue, and their speaking, reading, and writing proficiency. Found that when parents' community language proficiency in speaking is lower they tend to choose English as preferred language. Children's language confidence affected their language choice.…

  6. Associations between Maternal Physical Discipline and Peer Victimization among Hong Kong Chinese Children: The Moderating Role of Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Mylien T.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Kelly, Brynn M.; Tom, Shelley R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between maternal physical discipline and victimization by peers, as moderated by child aggression. The sample consisted of 211 Hong Kong Chinese children (98 boys, 113 girls; average age of 11.9). Physical discipline was assessed with a questionnaire completed by mothers, and victimization by peers and aggression…

  7. The Study of Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviours in Greek, Russian, Indian, and Chinese Children Using the Fairy Tale Test

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    Savina, Elena; Coulacoglou, Carina; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated externalizing and internalizing behaviours in Greek (n = 599), Russian (n = 596), Indian (n = 571), and Chinese (n = 376) 7- to 12-year-old children. The Fairy Tale Test was used to measure impulsive and motivated aggression, fear of aggression, anxiety, and depression. The results indicated culture-specific patterns…

  8. A National Survey of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior of Chinese City Children and Youth Using Accelerometers

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    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to objectively assess levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) of Chinese city children and youth aged 9 to 17 years old using accelerometers and to examine their differences by gender, age, grade, and weight status. Method: The PA and SB of 2,163 students in 4th grade through 11th grade…

  9. What Strategies Do Chinese Immigrant Parents Use to Send Their Children to High-Performing Public School Districts?

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    Liang, Senfeng

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examines how Chinese immigrant parents perceive the importance of sending their children to a "good" school district and analyzes their strategies in doing so. Nine families from different economic and educational backgrounds participated in the study. Results show that some parents were not satisfied with…

  10. Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippo, Carlotta; Cavalieri, Duccio; Di Paola, Monica; Ramazzotti, Matteo; Poullet, Jean Baptiste; Massart, Sebastien; Collini, Silvia; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Lionetti, Paolo

    2010-08-17

    Gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown. In this work, we compared the fecal microbiota of European children (EU) and that of children from a rural African village of Burkina Faso (BF), where the diet, high in fiber content, is similar to that of early human settlements at the time of the birth of agriculture. By using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing and biochemical analyses, we found significant differences in gut microbiota between the two groups. BF children showed a significant enrichment in Bacteroidetes and depletion in Firmicutes (P fibers while also protecting them from inflammations and noninfectious colonic diseases. This study investigates and compares human intestinal microbiota from children characterized by a modern western diet and a rural diet, indicating the importance of preserving this treasure of microbial diversity from ancient rural communities worldwide. PMID:20679230

  11. Do Children in Rural Areas Still Have Different Access to Health Care? Results from a Statewide Survey of Oregon's Food Stamp Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoe, Jennifer E.; Krois, Lisa; Stenger, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if rural residence is independently associated with different access to health care services for children eligible for public health insurance. Methods: We conducted a mail-return survey of 10,175 families randomly selected from Oregon's food stamp population (46% rural and 54% urban). With a response rate of 31%, we used a…

  12. Do Children in Rural Areas Still Have Different Access to Health Care? Results from a Statewide Survey of Oregon’s Food Stamp Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Krois, Lisa; Stenger, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine if rural residence is independently associated with different access to health care services for children eligible for public health insurance. Methods We conducted a mail-return survey of 10,175 families randomly selected from Oregon’s food stamp population (46% rural and 54% urban). With a response rate of 31%, we used a raking ratio estimation process to weight results back to the overall food stamp population. We examined associations between rural residence and access to health care (adjusting for child’s age, child’s race/ethnicity, household income, parental employment, and parental and child’s insurance type). A second logistic regression model controlled for child’s special health care needs. Findings Compared with urban children (reference = 1.00), rural children were more likely to have unmet medical care needs (odds ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–2.04), problems getting dental care (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03–1.79), and at least one emergency department visit in the past year (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10–1.81). After adjusting for special health care needs (more prevalent among rural children), there was no rural-urban difference in unmet medical needs, but physician visits were more likely among rural children. There were no statistically significant differences in unmet prescription needs, delayed urgent care, or having a usual source of care. Conclusions These findings suggest that access disparities between rural and urban low-income children persist, even after adjusting for health insurance. Coupled with continued expansions in children’s health insurance coverage, targeted policy interventions are needed to ensure the availability of health care services for children in rural areas, especially those with special needs. PMID:19166555

  13. Reading performance is enhanced by visual texture discrimination training in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia.

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    Xiangzhi Meng

    Full Text Available High order cognitive processing and learning, such as reading, interact with lower-level sensory processing and learning. Previous studies have reported that visual perceptual training enlarges visual span and, consequently, improves reading speed in young and old people with amblyopia. Recently, a visual perceptual training study in Chinese-speaking children with dyslexia found that the visual texture discrimination thresholds of these children in visual perceptual training significantly correlated with their performance in Chinese character recognition, suggesting that deficits in visual perceptual processing/learning might partly underpin the difficulty in reading Chinese.To further clarify whether visual perceptual training improves the measures of reading performance, eighteen children with dyslexia and eighteen typically developed readers that were age- and IQ-matched completed a series of reading measures before and after visual texture discrimination task (TDT training. Prior to the TDT training, each group of children was split into two equivalent training and non-training groups in terms of all reading measures, IQ, and TDT. The results revealed that the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT were significantly higher for the children with dyslexia than for the control children before training. Interestingly, training significantly decreased the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT for both the typically developed readers and the children with dyslexia. More importantly, the training group with dyslexia exhibited significant enhancement in reading fluency, while the non-training group with dyslexia did not show this improvement. Additional follow-up tests showed that the improvement in reading fluency is a long-lasting effect and could be maintained for up to two months in the training group with dyslexia.These results suggest that basic visual perceptual processing/learning and reading ability in Chinese might at least partially rely on

  14. Caregivers’ Knowledge and Use of Fermented Foods for Infant and Young Children Feeding in a Rural Community of Odi, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chelule, Paul K.; Mokgatle, Mathildah M; Zungu, Lindiwe I.; Armelia Chaponda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fermented foods have positive health effects in adults and children if consumed regularly. However, lack of knowledge and perceptions to-wards fermented foods may limit their usage. This study aimed to assess the caregivers’ awareness and usage of fermented foods for feeding children in peri-urban/rural communities of Gauteng Province. Methods: A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in June, 2012, in a peri-urban/rural community to assess the awareness and use of fermented ...

  15. Organophosphate pesticides exposure bring out neurological symptoms in the children of agriculture workers in rural India: A community based cross-sectional study from Maharashtra.

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhsohale ND; Sawant PR; Thakre SS; Khamgaonkar MB; Agrawal SB

    2013-01-01

    Background: In rural areas of developing countries, children of agricultural workers have a high potential for exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. This puts them at an increased risk of damage to neurobehavioural performance, cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. The main objective of this study was to assess the neurological risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers in rural India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study wa...

  16. Exploring Chinese Teachers' Commitment to Being a Cooperating Teacher in a University-Government-School Initiative for Rural Practicum Placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijie, Lu; Fang, Wang; Yunpeng, Ma; Clarke, Anthony; Collins, John

    2016-01-01

    Faced with urban schools' reluctance to host student teachers on practicum because "student teachers disturb their teaching order," Northeast Normal University in Changchun, China, collaborated with four rural provinces to develop a University-Government-School (UGS) initiative for rural practicum placements. To understand the teachers'…

  17. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children

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    Dunger David B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those 2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those ≥ 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of ≥ 94 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. Results About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. Conclusions The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile

  18. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children

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    Shalaby NM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Naglaa M Shalaby,1 Nehad M Shalaby2 1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Mansoura University Children Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Abstract: Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-4 (IL-4, and interleukin-5 (IL-5 in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (P<0.01 between A. lumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5.Keywords: Ascaris lumbricoides, children, rural, Egypt, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α

  19. Parasitic infections, anemia and malnutrition among rural settled and mobile pastoralist mothers and their children in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Hamit, M A; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2012-06-01

    Malnutrition, resulting from various etiologies, is common in rural Chadian women and children. This cross-sectional study assessed the spectrum of parasitic infection and level of anemia and their effect on nutritional status in settled and mobile pastoral mothers and children near Lake Chad. Intestinal parasites were evaluated using direct fecal smears and the Kato-Katz technique. Malaria status was determined using Paracheck-Pf(®) rapid diagnostic test, and anemia was assessed with the Hemocue photometer. Nutritional status was evaluated using anthropometric parameters. At the end of the 2008 wet season, the prevalence of malnutrition was 36% [confidence interval (CI) 30-42] among women and 15% (CI 11-18) among children. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 75% (CI 68-83) among women and 60% (CI 53-66) among children. The predominant helminth species was Ascaris lumbricoides while Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the most common protozoan. The hookworm prevalence was 14% (CI 8-20) in women and 18% (CI 13-23) in children. Malaria prevalence was low among women (1%, CI 0.5-2) and children (3% CI 2-5). No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of parasitic infection between the mobile pastoralist and rural sedentary populations. Thirty-four percent (CI 27-40) of nonpregnant women, 53% (CI 34-72) of pregnant women, and 27% (CI 23-32) of children were anemic. In subjects infected with Plasmodium, all women and 54% (CI 22-85) of children were anemic. Malnutrition was significantly associated with anemia in mothers and with selected intestinal parasites, anemia and age in their children. PMID:22160444

  20. The Prevalence of anemia among informal primary school children: a community based study in Rural Upper Egypt

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    Rasha Aziz Salama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Background: Anemia has been recognized as a major public health problem in developing countries. The magnitude of anemia among school children has received less attention compared with that in preschoolers and pregnant women. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of anemia and to assess its associated factors among informal school children in rural Upper Egypt.Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in a randomly selected Girls Education initiative schools in three Egyptian governorates for duration of 11 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data from 2826 children aged 6-19 years. Hemoglobin concentration and anthropometric indicators were assessed using the World Health Organization guidelines. Stool samples were examined for parasitic infestations, using the Kato Katz technique. The objective of the study was adequately explained to participants’ guardian and their consensus was obtained with assured confidentiality.Results: the prevalence of anemia among these children was 59.3%, out of which, 82.5% had mild anemia and 17.4% of them had moderate anemia. It was significantly higher among 64% of children in age group 6-9years and 61.3% of females. The majority of underweight children (75.8% and 66.4% of children with parasitic infestation were anemic.Conclusions: Anemia remains a common problem among GEI School particularly the young children and girls of low income household. School children should be screened periodically and appropriate measures should be taken in order to promote health and guide effective education sector reform initiatives. Keywords: Anemia, GEI schools, Rural Upper Egypt  

  1. Weight status and bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou

    2016-02-01

    This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender. PMID:26773898

  2. Endotoxin as a determinant of asthma and wheeze among rural dwelling children and adolescents: A case–control study

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    Lawson Joshua A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between endotoxin exposure and asthma is complex and has been associated with rural living. We examined the relationship between domestic endotoxin and asthma or wheeze among rural school-aged children (6–18 years and assessed the interaction between endotoxin and other characteristics with these outcomes. Methods Between 2005 and 2007 we conducted a case–control study of children 6–18 years in the rural region of Humboldt, Canada. Cases (n = 102 reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or wheeze in the past year. Controls (n = 208 were randomly selected from children without asthma or wheeze. Data were collected to ascertain symptoms, asthma history and indoor environmental exposures (questionnaire, endotoxin (dust collection from the play area floor and child’s mattress, and tobacco smoke exposure (saliva collection. Statistical testing was completed using multiple logistic regression to account for potential confounders and to assess interaction between risk factors. A stratified analysis was also completed to examine the effect of personal history of allergy. Results Among children aged 6–12 years, mattress endotoxin concentration (EU/mg and load (EU/m2 were inversely associated with being a case [odds ratio (OR = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.20-0.98; and OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.20-0.75, respectively]. These associations were not observed in older children or with play area endotoxin. Conclusions Our results suggest that endotoxin exposure might be protective for asthma or wheeze. The protective effect is found in younger school-aged, non-allergic children. These results may help explain the inconsistencies in previous studies and suggest that the protective effects of endotoxin in the prevention of atopy and asthma or wheeze are most effective earlier in life.

  3. 加拿大华人儿童的母语传承%Sino-Canadian Children's Chinese Literacy Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹青; Mary Clare Courtland

    2005-01-01

    本文旨在调查与记录生活在加拿大的华人移民家庭对于使用中文的态度、影响华人子女中文能力的因素以及华人父母为此所采用的方法.这项研究在加拿大一座华人移民总数约为300人的城区完成.研究显示,在华人移民稀少的地区,中国语言与文化的教育主要是在家庭内部或小规模华人团体的努力下得以维持.在这种情况下,华人父母对于母语传承的认识与观念显得至为重要.%This paper describes Sino-Canadian parents' perceptions of Chinese language maintenance, factors which influence their children's Chinese literacy development, and the strategies they used to maintain family literacy. The study was conducted in a Canadian urban community where the population of Chinese immigrants is approximately 300 members. The findings suggest that in Chinese communities of sparse population, the support for language and culture maintenance comes primarily from within the family and extended family units. Parents awareness of and attitudes to the mother tongue maintenance are decisive in their children' Chinese literacy development.

  4. An ethnographic study of Latino preschool children's oral health in rural California: Intersections among family, community, provider and regulatory sectors

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    Horton Sarah B

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latino children experience a higher prevalence of caries than do children in any other racial/ethnic group in the US. This paper examines the intersections among four societal sectors or contexts of care which contribute to oral health disparities for low-income, preschool Latino1 children in rural California. Methods Findings are reported from an ethnographic investigation, conducted in 2005–2006, of family, community, professional/dental and policy/regulatory sectors or contexts of care that play central roles in creating or sustaining low income, rural children's poor oral health status. The study community of around 9,000 people, predominantly of Mexican-American origin, was located in California's agricultural Central Valley. Observations in homes, community facilities, and dental offices within the region were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 30 key informants (such as dental professionals, health educators, child welfare agents, clinic administrators and regulatory agents and 47 primary caregivers (mothers of children at least one of whom was under 6 years of age. Results Caregivers did not always recognize visible signs of caries among their children, nor respond quickly unless children also complained of pain. Fluctuating seasonal eligibility for public health insurance intersected with limited community infrastructure and civic amenities, including lack of public transportation, to create difficulties in access to care. The non-fluoridated municipal water supply is not widely consumed because of fears about pesticide pollution. If the dentist brought children into the clinic for multiple visits, this caused the accompanying parent hardship and occasionally resulted in the loss of his or her job. Few general dentists had received specific training in how to handle young patients. Children's dental fear and poor provider-parent communication were exacerbated by a scarcity of dentists willing to serve rural

  5. Association of iodine status with IQ level and academic achievement of rural primary school children in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Koushik Bhowal; Indrani Mukherjee; Debnath Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Iodine being an integral component of the thyroid hormones is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine status & intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion, as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. Aims &Objectives: To investigate the body Iodine status of rural primary school children and its association with their intelligence level (IQ) & academic achievement. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional ana...

  6. STUDY OF PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF KAKINADA

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    Burri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In India the prevalence of asthma has increased over the last two decades, especially in children. There is scarcity of data on prevalence of asthma in school children. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma in school going children aged 9-14 years in the town of Kakinada, East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh and determine the risk factors associated with it. METHODS From the listed many schools of urban and rural areas of Kakinada, 4 schools (i.e. 2 urban schools, 2 rural schools were selected randomly. Total of 1117 students were thus selected from the four schools and the questionnaires were distributed to all of them, among them parents of 997 children responded. The questionnaire included the validated ISAAC screening questions and some other questions related to risk factors of asthma. RESULTS Overall, prevalence of bronchial asthma in this study was 15%. The prevalence of asthma in urban and rural areas was 16.8% and 13.4% respectively. The prevalence of asthma in boys and girls was 17.7% and 12.6% respectively. The prevalence of bronchial asthma in age group 9-11 years was 21.1% and in age group 12-14 years was 9%. The risk factors significantly associated with asthma were family history of asthma and tobacco smoking, personal history of allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis. CONCLUSIONS Urban areas had higher prevalence compared to rural areas. Boys (17.7% had higher prevalence compared to girls (12.6%. Significant inverse linear association was found with increasing age as prevalence of asthma in age group 9-11 years (21.1% was higher than 12-14 years’ age group (9%.

  7. Assessment of Nutrition of Obese Primary Schools Children in Urban and Rural Area in El Bihera Governorate- Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaa H. Elsayed, Sahar Khairy, Mohamed K Abd El- Rahman and Effat A. Afifi

    2010-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in both developed and developing countries. Obesity is associated with increased risks of many diseases. Obesity significantly affects the quality of life and reduces the average life expectancy. Objective: Investigate effect of different environment urban and rural areas in El Bihera governorate on blood glucose level and obesity of children aged 6-12 years to know possible associated risk factors. Study design: This study of a representati...

  8. Near Work Related Parameters and Myopia in Chinese Children: the Anyang Childhood Eye Study.

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    Shi-Ming Li

    Full Text Available To examine the associations of near work related parameters with spherical equivalent refraction and axial length in Chinese children.A total of 1770 grade 7 students with mean age of 12.7 years were examined with cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length. Questions were asked regarding time spent in near work and outdoors per day, and near work related parameters.Multivariate models revealed the following associations with greater odds of myopia: continuous reading (> 45min, odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.8; close television viewing distance (≤ 3m, OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3; head tilt when writing, OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7, and desk lighting using fluorescent vs. incandescent lamp, OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0. These factors, together with close reading distance and close nib-to-fingertip distance were significantly associated with greater myopia (P<0.01. Among near work activities, only reading more books for pleasure was significantly associated with greater myopia (P=0.03. Television viewing distance (≤ 3 m, fluorescent desk light, close reading distance (≤20 cm and close nib-to-fingertip distance (≤ 2 cm were significantly associated with longer axial length (P<0.01. Reading distance, desk light, and reading books for pleasure had significant interaction effects with parental myopia.Continuous reading, close distances of reading, television viewing and nib-to-fingertip, head tilt when writing, reading more books for pleasure and use of fluorescent desk light were significantly associated with myopia in 12-year-old Chinese children, which indicates that visual behaviors and environments may be important factors mediating the effects of near work on myopia.

  9. Age and Sex-Specific Relationships between Phthalate Exposures and Obesity in Chinese Children at Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Lifang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Luxi; Shi, Huijing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the age and sex-specific associations of urine levels of six mono-phthalates with body size and fat distribution in Chinese children at puberty. Materials and Methods Four hundred and ninety-three school-aged children (247 boys, 246 girls) were recruited. Obesity related anthropometric indices were measured and body fat proportion (BF%) was calculated. Spot urine samples were collected and phthalate monoesters were detected by an API 2000 electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS). Associations between phthalate exposure and overweight/obesity measures and their trends were examined by multiple linear regression and Logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites and monobutyl phthalate (MBP) were found to be the most detectable chemicals. In 8–10 years (yrs) group, concentrations of MEHP and MBP were significantly higher in girls than those in boys. However, concentrations of all phthalate monoesters, except for MEP and MEHP, in 11–13 yrs boys were significantly higher than those in girls. After adjusting for confounders including puberty onset, urinary concentrations of MBP and sum of low molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (∑LMP) were positively associated with boys' obesity in a concentration-effect manner, while concentrations of MEHP, MEHHP and sum of DEHP metabolites (∑MEHP) were negatively associated with girls' obesity. Associations between phthalate exposure levels and BMI z-score changes were age- and sex-specific in school-age children. Conclusion There are age and sex-specific concentration-effect associations between phthalate exposure and fat distribution in Chinese children. Urinary phthalate levels in 11–13 yrs boys were about 30 percent higher than those in girls, and ∑MEHP levels in younger boys (10 yrs). Associations were positive for MBP and ∑LMP with both BMI z-score and fat distribution in boys >10 years of age, and negative for

  10. Treatment choices for fevers in children under-five years in a rural Ghanaian district

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    Gyapong Margaret

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care demand studies help to examine the behaviour of individuals and households during illnesses. Few of existing health care demand studies examine the choice of treatment services for childhood illnesses. Besides, in their analyses, many of the existing studies compare alternative treatment options to a single option, usually self-medication. This study aims at examining the factors that influence the choices that caregivers of children under-five years make regarding treatment of fevers due to malaria and pneumonia in a rural setting. The study also examines how the choice of alternative treatment options compare with each other. Methods The study uses data from a 2006 household socio-economic survey and health and demographic surveillance covering caregivers of 529 children under-five years of age in the Dangme West District and applies a multinomial probit technique to model the choice of treatment services for fevers in under-fives in rural Ghana. Four health care options are considered: self-medication, over-the-counter providers, public providers and private providers. Results The findings indicate that longer travel, waiting and treatment times encourage people to use self-medication and over-the-counter providers compared to public and private providers. Caregivers with health insurance coverage also use care from public providers compared to over-the-counter or private providers. Caregivers with higher incomes use public and private providers over self-medication while higher treatment charges and longer times at public facilities encourage caregivers to resort to private providers. Besides, caregivers of female under-fives use self-care while caregivers of male under-fives use public providers instead of self-care, implying gender disparity in the choice of treatment. Conclusions The results of this study imply that efforts at curbing under-five mortality due to malaria and pneumonia need to take into

  11. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    OpenAIRE

    Devanand Gupta; Rizwan K Momin; Ayush Mathur; Kavuri Teja Srinivas; Ankita Jain; Neelima Dommaraju; Deepak Ranjan Dalai; Rajendra Kumar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Chil...

  12. Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa

    OpenAIRE

    C. De Filippo; Cavalieri, D.; M. Di Paola; M. Ramazzotti; Poullet, J.B.; Massart, Sébastien; Collini, S.; Pieraccini, G; Lionetti, P.

    2010-01-01

    Gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown. In this work, we compared the fecal microbiota of European children (EU) and that of children from a rural African village of Burkina Faso (BF), where the diet, high in fiber content, is similar to that of early human settlements at the time of the birth of agriculture. By using high-th...

  13. The Joint Effects of Risk Status, Gender, Early Literacy and Cognitive Skills on the Presence of Dyslexia among a Group of High-Risk Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W. F.; Doo, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by…

  14. Measures of Implicit Gender Attitudes May Exaggerate Differences in Underlying Associations among Chinese Urban and Rural Women

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    Zhen Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oppression of women in rural China is more severe than in urban China, not only because the two areas differ in terms of social hierarchy, but also because urban women are more likely to fight against their subordination, which is endorsed by conventional social views on gender. To independently assess these relationships, we applied the Quadruple Process model to measure the processes underlying implicit gender attitudes in a sample of urban and rural females. The results indicated that the urban women had higher in-group favoritism than did the rural women. Application of the Quad model, however, showed that pro-women associations were similarly activated among urban and rural women, but that women in rural settings more effectively inhibited activated associations. Differences in inhibition, rather than in activated associations, appear to account for the less favorable attitudes among rural women. Thus, the differences in attitudinal responses among urban and rural women exaggerate the differences in underlying evaluative associations with respect to gender and conceal differences in self-regulating the expression of those associations.

  15. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY FROM VARANASI

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    Amit Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the nutritional status of primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what factors are associated with malnutrition? Objective: To assess the nutritional status of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates of nutritional status. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were involved in the study. Results: Out of total 816 study subjects 429 or 52.6% (201 boys and 228 girls were underweight and 75 or 9.2% (39 boys and 36 girls were stunted. Educational status of the parents was found to be significantly associated with the nutritional status of school children Conclusion: As the literacy status of the parents has been revealed to be strongly associated with nutritional status of children, there is an increasing need to focus the efforts towards the parents to improve the nutritional status of primary school children.

  16. Use of traditional Chinese medicine in Singapore children: perceptions of parents and paediatricians.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Loh, C H

    2009-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: In a country dominated by western healthcare, interest in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is growing. The increasing popularity of TCM, occasionally used with conventional medicine, needs to be assessed, especially in a vulnerable paediatric population. This paper sought to evaluate the use of TCM in children, mainly to determine the common conditions they seek TCM, the pattern of acupuncture or herbal usage for various age groups, the extent of concurrent usage of TCM and conventional medicine, and the reasons for TCM use. Paediatricians\\' perceptions of TCM will allow us to gauge the acceptability of TCM by those who practise conventional medicine. These are assessed in another arm of this study, with a set of predictive characteristics for their personal TCM use, their perceptions of herb\\/acupuncture safety, and their own referral to TCM eventually determined. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was administered on 300 parents awaiting consultation at a large TCM clinic. Next, a separate qualitative questionnaire survey form was posted to 100 paediatricians. RESULTS: Herb usage in children is very common (84.3 percent) and 80 percent of parents admitted concurrent usage of TCM and conventional medicine for their children. Drug-herb interactions was an issue of concern for paediatricians. Paediatricians with a higher level of self-reported TCM knowledge were more likely to refer for a cure. CONCLUSION: This was the first study to determine the characteristics of children attending a large TCM clinic in a country which is dominated by western healthcare. It also provided insight into the perceptions of TCM among paediatricians in Singapore. Specifically, it gave us an idea of the predictor traits that determine their referral patterns to TCM and their perceptions of herb and acupuncture safety.

  17. Impact of Rural-Urban Labour Migration on Education of Children: A Case Study of Left Behind and Accompanied Migrant Children in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Archana K Roy; Pappu Singh; Prof. UN RoyῙ

    2015-01-01

    In developing countries, seasonal labour migration from rural to urban or from backward to developed region is a household livelihood strategy to cope with poverty. In this process, the children of those migrants are the worst affected whether they accompany their parents or are left behind in the villages. The present paper explores the impact of temporary labour migration of parent(s) on school attendance of the children between 6–14 years and their dropping out from the school through an a...

  18. Knowledge of malaria prevention among pregnant women and female caregivers of under-five children in rural southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji M. Adebayo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The morbidity and mortality from malaria are still unacceptably high in the developing countries, especially among the vulnerable groups like pregnant women and under-five children, despite all control efforts. The knowledge about the preventive measures of malaria is an important preceding factor for the acceptance and use of malaria preventive measures like Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN by community members. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of malaria prevention among caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. Methodology. This is part of a larger malaria prevention study in rural Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women and caregivers of under-five children in Igbo-Ora, a rural town in Southwest Nigeria using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was obtained on knowledge of malaria prevention, and overall composite scores were computed for knowledge of malaria prevention and ITN use. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square with the level of statistical significance set at 5%. Results. Of the 631 respondents, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children and 67.7% were married. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% aged between 20 and 29 years. Majority (91.1% had at least primary school education and 60.2% were traders. Overall, 57.7% had poor knowledge of malaria prevention. A good proportion (83.5% were aware of the use of ITN for malaria prevention while 30.6% had poor knowledge of its use. Respondents who were younger (<30 years, had at least primary education and earn <10,000/per month had significantly poor knowledge of ITN use in malaria prevention. Majority (60.0% respondents had poor attitude regarding use of ITNs. Conclusion. This study showed that the knowledge of malaria prevention is still low among

  19. Knowledge of malaria prevention among pregnant women and female caregivers of under-five children in rural southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Ayodeji M; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun O; Cadmus, Eniola O

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The morbidity and mortality from malaria are still unacceptably high in the developing countries, especially among the vulnerable groups like pregnant women and under-five children, despite all control efforts. The knowledge about the preventive measures of malaria is an important preceding factor for the acceptance and use of malaria preventive measures like Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) by community members. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of malaria prevention among caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. Methodology. This is part of a larger malaria prevention study in rural Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women and caregivers of under-five children in Igbo-Ora, a rural town in Southwest Nigeria using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was obtained on knowledge of malaria prevention, and overall composite scores were computed for knowledge of malaria prevention and ITN use. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square with the level of statistical significance set at 5%. Results. Of the 631 respondents, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children and 67.7% were married. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% aged between 20 and 29 years. Majority (91.1%) had at least primary school education and 60.2% were traders. Overall, 57.7% had poor knowledge of malaria prevention. A good proportion (83.5%) were aware of the use of ITN for malaria prevention while 30.6% had poor knowledge of its use. Respondents who were younger (<30 years), had at least primary education and earn <10,000/per month had significantly poor knowledge of ITN use in malaria prevention. Majority (60.0%) respondents had poor attitude regarding use of ITNs. Conclusion. This study showed that the knowledge of malaria prevention is still low among under

  20. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and correlated risk factors in preschool and school-aged children in rural Southwest China.

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    Xiaobing Wang

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of 1707 children in 141 impoverished rural areas of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces in Southwest China. Kato-Katz smear testing of stool samples elucidated the prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections in pre-school and school aged children. Demographic, hygiene, household and anthropometric data were collected to better understand risks for infection in this population. 21.2 percent of pre-school children and 22.9 percent of school aged children were infected with at least one of the three types of STH. In Guizhou, 33.9 percent of pre-school children were infected, as were 40.1 percent of school aged children. In Sichuan, these numbers were 9.7 percent and 6.6 percent, respectively. Number of siblings, maternal education, consumption of uncooked meat, consumption of unboiled water, and livestock ownership all correlated significantly with STH infection. Through decomposition analysis, we determined that these correlates made up 26.7 percent of the difference in STH infection between the two provinces. Multivariate analysis showed that STH infection is associated with significantly lower weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores; moreover, older children infected with STHs lag further behind on the international growth scales than younger children.