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Sample records for chinese pidgeon process

  1. The Pidgeon Process in China and Its Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jing Chun; Ding, Weinan

    Magnesium production in China has been growing steadily over the past 10 years. Most of the metal has been produced by the Pidgeon process. This process uses horizontal steel tubes called retorts, in furnaces and under vacuum. In the retorts mixtures of finely ground calcined dolomite and ferrosilicon formed into briquettes react to form magnesium vapors which are condensed and later remelted into ingots. The Pidgeon process was long thought to be uneconomic and obsolete. The Chinese have used the advantages of excellent raw material, location, large skilled labor supply, and low capital costs to produce magnesium by this process. The Chinese magnesium is being sold at the lowest prices in the world and lower than aluminum on a pound for pound basis.

  2. Assessing environmental impact of magnesium production using Pidgeon process in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; NIE Zuo-ren; WANG Zhi-hong; GONG Xian-zheng; ZUO Tie-yong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the practice of magnesium production in China,a quantitative evaluation of the environment impact was carried out according to the theory and framework of life cycle assessment (LCA) study.The major gaseous pollutants including CO2,SO2,NOx,CH4,HF and particulates were calculated.The accumulative environmental performances of different energy use strategies and the characterization results,including abiotic depletion potential (ADP),global warming potential (GWP),acidification potential (AP) and human-toxicity potential (HTP) were compared.The results show that the direct emission of fuel combustion in the process is the major contributor to the pollutants emission of magnesium production.Global warming potential and acidification potential make the main contribution to the accumulative environmental impact.The different fuel use strategies in the practice of magnesium production cause much different impacts on the environmental performance.The accumulative environmental impact of coal burned directly is the highest,and that of producer-gas comes to the next,while that of coke-oven gas is the lowest.

  3. Smelting Magnesium Metal using a Microwave Pidgeon Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yuji; Fujii, Satoshi; Suzuki, Eiichi; Maitani, Masato M.; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Chonan, Satoshi; Fukui, Miho; Inazu, Naomi

    2017-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a lightweight metal with applications in transportation and sustainable battery technologies, but its current production through ore reduction using the conventional Pidgeon process emits large amounts of CO2 and particulate matter (PM2.5). In this work, a novel Pidgeon process driven by microwaves has been developed to produce Mg metal with less energy consumption and no direct CO2 emission. An antenna structure consisting of dolomite as the Mg source and a ferrosilicon antenna as the reducing material was used to confine microwave energy emitted from a magnetron installed in a microwave oven to produce a practical amount of pure Mg metal. This microwave Pidgeon process with an antenna configuration made it possible to produce Mg with an energy consumption of 58.6 GJ/t, corresponding to a 68.6% reduction when compared to the conventional method.

  4. 高硅白云石皮江法炼镁实验%High Silica Dolomite Pidgeon Smelt Magnesium Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 褚丙武

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium smelting by Pidgeon process requirements SiO2 should be less than 0 .5% in dolomite . Previous studies that SiO2 with MgO style in the high temperature generated 2MgO.SiO2 , It's a kind of low melting point compound . It can make the dolomite sintering . It lets the calcined dolomite could not reach the requirements of smelting magnesium , a certain extent , reduce the yield .This paper studies the reason of low yield in magnesium smelting by Pidgeon process used high silica ( SiO 2 4 .51% ) dolomite . And proposed and verified by the experimental it can achieve high magnesium yield high by Pidgeon process used high silica ( SiO2 4 .51% ) dolomite . It is possible of magnesium smelting by Pidgeon process used high silica dolomite .%皮江法炼镁要求白云石中SiO2应小于0.5%。前人研究认为SiO2在高温时与MgO生成2M gO · SiO2,这是一种低熔点化合物,它会使白云石烧结,使煅烧后的白云石达不到炼镁的要求,在一定程度上降低收得率。本文研究了高硅(SiO2为4.51%)白云石皮江法炼镁镁收率低的原因,提出并通过实验验证了高硅白云石采用皮江法炼镁,也可以达到高的镁收率。使高硅白云石采用皮江法炼镁成为可能。

  5. Perspectives on the ‘lens of risk’ interview series: interview with Nick Pidgeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyman, B.; Brown, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is the first in a series which will appear in 2012 in the special issue series Health Care Through the `Lens of Risk'. It provides a quasi-verbatim transcript of an interview with Nick Pidgeon, one of the main contributors to the social science component of The Royal Society Risk Report

  6. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  7. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  8. Chinese Information Processing and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Li; Tie-Jun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents some main progresses and achievements in Chinese information processing. It focuses on six aspects, I.e., Chinese syntactic analysis, Chinese semantic analysis, machine translation, information retrieval, information extraction, and speech recognition and synthesis. The important techniques and possible key problems of the respective branch in the near future are discussed as well.

  9. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  10. The largest table in Chinese restaurant processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate the expectation of the size of the largest table in an(α,θ)-Chinese restaurant process by using and developing an idea originated in the work by Shepp,which discusses random permutation.

  11. Meaning Inhibition and Sentence Processing in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the inhibitory processes of spoken word recognition of Chinese homophones during sentence processing, using a standard cross-modal naming experiment with an innovative design and materials construction. Results confirmed that (1) preceding sentence context has exerted an early effect on disambiguating among different…

  12. Chinese word processing in nonfluent aphasic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-bing; ZHANG Tong; SONG Lu-ping; YANG Jie; FENG Hong

    2009-01-01

    Background Chinese nonfluent aphasic patients experience apparent speech production deficit,but it remains less known in which part of Chinese speech production this deficit occurs.The present study aimed to examine the ability of nonfluent aphasic patients in Chinese orthography,phonological and semantic processing via two experiments.Experiment Ⅰ disclosed the general pattem of deficit of Chinese nonfluent aphasic patients in speech production.Experiment Ⅱ tested whether this deficit occurs in orthography,phonological or semantic processing.Methods The present study adopted neuropsychological testing methods to compare speech production and Chinese word processing between nonfluent aphasic patients (the patient group) and normal individuals (the control group).Character reading and word reading tasks were used to test speech production.Chinese radical decision,rhyme decision and semantic decision tasks were used to examine word processing.Reaction time and the correct answer rate were collected.Results The patient group had a longer reaction time and was more prone to errors in both character reading and word reading tasks than was the control group.For the patient group,there was no difference between the reaction time of character reading and word reading,the error rate of the former was higher than the latter.In radical decision task the decision task,the reaction time and error rate to the rhyme "ang" were higher for the aphasic patients.In the semantic decision task the reaction time to characters in the category of animals was higher for the aphasic patients,yet the error rate was not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusions Nonfluent aphasic patients seemingly have decreased speed of speech production and an increased error rate.There is a deficit in phonological processing of aphasic patients while their semantic processing may remain intact.

  13. Cognitive Processing Skills and Developmental Dyslexia in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Li, Qing

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to examine the extent to which Chinese dyslexic children experience deficits in phonological and orthographic processing skills and (b) to examine if Chinese dyslexia is associated with deficits in Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) processing. A total of 27 Grade 4 children…

  14. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars, especial

  15. Representation and Processing of Chinese Nominals and Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    reflected by experi- ments done on Spanish, English and Chinese, with a large scale application on Spanish. The multilingual dictionaries making process...from a monolingual viewpoint. We applied the same methodology to Chinese. The rules are language independent, what is language de- pendent is the

  16. Illustrated glossary of process equipment. Chinese/English/French edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paruit, B.

    1984-01-01

    Here is a volume of process equipment and terms in standard Mandarin Chinese, English, and French. As with the English/French/Spanish edition, each page illustrates a particular piece of equipment, with captions identifying the key components. Glossaries at the end of each major section include the Romanized pronunciation of the Chinese.

  17. General Auditory Processing, Chinese Tone Processing, English Phonemic Processing and English Reading Skill: A Comparison between Chinese-English and Korean-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Anderson, Alida; Cheng, Chenxi; Park, Yoonjung; Thomson, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between general auditory processing, Chinese tone processing, English phonemic processing and English reading skill in a group of Chinese-English bilingual children with a tonal L1 and Korean-English counterparts with a non-tonal L1. We found that general auditory processing contributed to…

  18. Processing Dependencies between Segmental and Suprasegmental Features in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yunxia; Francis, Alexander L.; Gandour, Jackson T.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine processing interactions between segmental (consonant, vowel) and suprasegmental (tone) dimensions of Mandarin Chinese. Using a speeded classification paradigm, processing interactions were examined between each pair of dimensions. Listeners were asked to attend to one dimension while ignoring the variation…

  19. Post processing for offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YanWei; Ding, XiaoQing; Liu, ChangSong

    2012-01-01

    Offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition is one of the most important research fields in pattern recognition. Due to the free writing style, large variability in character shapes and different geometric characteristics, Chinese handwritten character string recognition is a challenging problem to deal with. However, among the current methods over-segmentation and merging method which integrates geometric information, character recognition information and contextual information, shows a promising result. It is found experimentally that a large part of errors are segmentation error and mainly occur around non-Chinese characters. In a Chinese character string, there are not only wide characters namely Chinese characters, but also narrow characters like digits and letters of the alphabet. The segmentation error is mainly caused by uniform geometric model imposed on all segmented candidate characters. To solve this problem, post processing is employed to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters. On one hand, multi-geometric models are established for wide characters and narrow characters respectively. Under multi-geometric models narrow characters are not prone to be merged. On the other hand, top rank recognition results of candidate paths are integrated to boost final recognition of narrow characters. The post processing method is investigated on two datasets, in total 1405 handwritten address strings. The wide character recognition accuracy has been improved lightly and narrow character recognition accuracy has been increased up by 10.41% and 10.03% respectively. It indicates that the post processing method is effective to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters.

  20. Basic Auditory Processing and Developmental Dyslexia in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Huss, Martina; Hamalainen, Jarmo A.; Goswami, Usha

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between basic auditory processing of sound rise time, frequency, duration and intensity, phonological skills (onset-rime and tone awareness, sound blending, RAN, and phonological memory) and reading disability in Chinese. A series of psychometric, literacy, phonological, auditory, and character…

  1. Processing Relative Clauses in Chinese as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates second language (L2) learners' processing of four types of Chinese relative clauses crossing extraction types and demonstrative-classifier (DCl) positions. Using a word order judgment task with a whole-sentence reading technique, the study also discusses how psycholinguistic theories bear explanatory power in L2 data. An…

  2. Chinese-English bilinguals processing temporal-spatial metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jin; Yang, Jie; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    The conceptual projection of time onto the domain of space constitutes one of the most challenging issues in the cognitive embodied theories. In Chinese, spatial order (e.g.,/da shu qian/, in front of a tree) shares the same terms with temporal sequence (", /san yue qian/, before March). In comparison, English natives use different sets of prepositions to describe spatial and temporal relationship, i.e., "before" to express temporal sequencing and "in front of" to express spatial order. The linguistic variations regarding the specific lexical encodings indicate that some flexibility might be available in how space-time parallelisms are formulated across different languages. In the present study, ERP (Event-related potentials) data were collected when Chinese-English bilinguals processed temporal ordering and spatial sequencing in both their first language (L1) Chinese (Experiment 1) and the second language (L2) English (Experiment 2). It was found that, despite the different lexical encodings, early sensorimotor simulation plays a role in temporal sequencing processing in both L1 Chinese and L2 English. The findings well support the embodied theory that conceptual knowledge is grounded in sensory-motor systems (Gallese and Lakoff, Cogn Neuropsychol 22:455-479, 2005). Additionally, in both languages, neural representations during comprehending temporal sequencing and spatial ordering are different. The time-spatial relationship is asymmetric, in that space schema could be imported into temporal sequence processing but not vice versa. These findings support the weak view of the Metaphoric Mapping Theory.

  3. Gaussian process style transfer mapping for historical Chinese character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jixiong; Peng, Liangrui; Lebourgeois, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Historical Chinese character recognition is very important to larger scale historical document digitalization, but is a very challenging problem due to lack of labeled training samples. This paper proposes a novel non-linear transfer learning method, namely Gaussian Process Style Transfer Mapping (GP-STM). The GP-STM extends traditional linear Style Transfer Mapping (STM) by using Gaussian process and kernel methods. With GP-STM, existing printed Chinese character samples are used to help the recognition of historical Chinese characters. To demonstrate this framework, we compare feature extraction methods, train a modified quadratic discriminant function (MQDF) classifier on printed Chinese character samples, and implement the GP-STM model on Dunhuang historical documents. Various kernels and parameters are explored, and the impact of the number of training samples is evaluated. Experimental results show that accuracy increases by nearly 15 percentage points (from 42.8% to 57.5%) using GP-STM, with an improvement of more than 8 percentage points (from 49.2% to 57.5%) compared to the STM approach.

  4. Processing Chinese hand-radicals activates the medial frontal gyrus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Lin Wu; Yu-Chen Chan; Joseph P. Lavallee; Hsueh-Chin Chen; Kuo-En Chang; Yao-Ting Sung

    2013-01-01

    Embodied semantics theory asserts that the meaning of action-related words is neural y represented through networks that overlap with or are identical to networks involved in sory-motor processing. While some studies supporting this theory have focused on Chinese cha-racters, less attention has been paid to their semantic radicals. Indeed, there is stil disagreement about whether these radicals are processed independently. The present study investigated whether radicals are processed separately and, if so, whether this processing occurs in sensory-motor gions. Materials consisted of 72 high-frequency Chinese characters, with 18 in each of four ries:hand-action verbs with and without hand-radicals, and verbs not related to hand actions, with and without hand-radicals. Twenty-eight participants underwent functional MRI scans while reading the characters. Compared to characters without hand-radicals, reading characters with hand-radicals activated the right medial frontal gyrus. Verbs involving hand-action activated the left inferior parietal lobule, possibly reflecting integration of information in the radical with the semantic meaning of the verb. The findings may be consistent with embodied semantics theory and suggest that neural representation of radicals is indispensable in processing Chinese characters.

  5. Phonology in the Lexical Processing of Chinese: Priming Tone Neighbors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiaolin

    2000-01-01

    Using both visual-visual and auditory-visual priming lexical decision tasks, this study investigated phonological processing in reading logographic Chinese. Compound words sharing segmental templates but differing in lexical tones were used as primes and targets while their relative frequency was manipulated. It was found that tone neighbours did not prime each other significantly and the SOA of 100 msec in visual-visual priming. When the SOA was increased to 357 msec, or when primes were presented auditorily, the processing of target words was significantly delayed by their tone neighbours. Larger inhibitory effects were observed for low frequency targets with high frequency primes. It was argued that although phonological information is automatically activated and this activation affects access to semantics in reading Chinese,phonological mediation is not the only or the main ~urce of constraints on semantic activation.

  6. A Research on Chinese Thinking Influencing English Writing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪娟

    2008-01-01

    L2 writing process is a bilingual event.L2 writers have both LI and L2 at their disposal when they composing in L2. The tendency of LI occurrence varies with individuals composing activities.L2 Writers are more likely to depend on LI, when they were managing their writing process, generating and organizing ideas; but more likely to depend on L2 when undertaking task--examining and text--generating activities. This paper focuses on the influence of LI on L2, and the purpose is to demonstrate that Chinese thinking decreases with the improvement of English proficiency, but the amount of Chinese thinking decreases by a different margin.

  7. The UNIX* Localization and Chinese Information Processing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉方

    1991-01-01

    To facilitate the wider use of computers all over the world,it is necessary to provide National Language Support in the computer systems.This paper introduces some aspects of design and implementation of the UNIX-based Chinese Information Processing Systems (CIPS). Due to the special nature of the Oriental languages,and in order to be able to share resources and exchange in formation between different countries,it is necessary to create a standard of multilingual information exchange code.The unified Chinese/Japanese/Korean character code,Han Character Collection(HCC),was proposed to ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 by China Computer and Information Processing Standardization Technical Committee.Based on this character set and the corresponding coding system,it is possible to create a true Internationalized UNIX System.

  8. Processes Involved in Chinese and English Writing: A Study of Chinese University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihua Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the writing processes of 20 L1 writers and 20 L2 writers on a course task of writing a narrative in a Chinese university naturalistic setting, as well as the challenges they encountered and their coping strategies during the processes. Analyses of the data collected via questionnaire, journal and semi-structured interviews revealed that (1 both L1 and L2 writing processes were nonlinear and cyclical, involving a constant interplay of thinking, writing, and revising throughout the process, (2 though having a lot in common, the two groups differed in many aspects regarding the foci of concern during the process of writing the narrative, (3 both groups encountered common challenges as well as those peculiar of their own writing during the composing process, and (4 both groups were resourceful learners. Based on these findings, some suggestions are discussed. Keywords: writing process; narrative; L1; L2; challenge; strategy

  9. Auditory pre-attentive processing of Chinese tones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-jun; CAO Ke-li; WEI Chao-gang; LIU Yong-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Background Chinese tones are considered important in Chinese discrimination.However,the relevant reports on auditory central mechanisms concerning Chinese tones are limited.In this study,mismatch negativity (MMN),one of the event related potentials (ERP),was used to investigate pre-attentive processing of Chinese tones,and the differences between the function of oddball MMN and that of control MMN are discussed.Methods Ten subjects (six men and four women) with normal hearing participated in the study.A sequence was presented to these subjects through a loudspeaker,the sequence included four blocks,a control block and three oddball blocks.The control block was made up of five components (one pure tone and four Chinese tones) with equiprobability.The oddball blocks were made up of two components,one was a standard stimulus (tone 1) and the other was a deviant stimulus (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4).Electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded when the sequence was presented and MMNs were obtained from the analysis of the EEG data.Results Two kinds of MMNs were obtained,oddball MMN and control MMN.Oddball MMN was obtained by subtracting the ERP elicited by standard stimulation (tone 1) from that elicited by deviant stimulation (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4) in the oddball block; control MMN was obtained by subtracting the ERP elicited by the tone in control block,which was the same tone as the deviant stimulation in the oddball block,from the ERP elicited by deviant stimulation (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4)in the oddball block.There were two negative waves in oddball MMN,one appeared around 150 ms (oddball MMN 1),the other around 300 ms (oddball MMN 2).Only one negative wave appeared around 300 ms in control MMN,which was corresponding to the oddball MMN 2.We performed the statistical analyses in each paradigm for latencies and amplitudes for oddball MMN 2 in discriminating the three Chinese tones and reported no significant differences.But the latencies and amplitudes

  10. [A new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies: coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-kun; Yang, Ming; Han, Xue; Lin, Jun-zhi; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-08-01

    The stable and controllable quality of decoction pieces is an important factor to ensure the efficacy of clinical medicine. Considering the dilemma that the existing standardization of processing mode cannot effectively eliminate the variability of quality raw ingredients, and ensure the stability between different batches, we first propose a new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies that coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics. In order to explain this thinking, an individual study case about different grades aconite is provided. We hope this strategy could better serve for clinical medicine, and promote the inheritance and innovation of Chinese medicine processing skills and theories.

  11. Management and process structure in Chinese Family Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Lingling

    2010-01-01

    In current situation, the management and process structure in Chinese family finns is lack of complete set of rules and sys-tems, low on its specialization level, and informal management. Leadership is another vital influences in family finns. The large power distance make employees hesitate to openly challenge their leaders. Employees and external persons are not able to share any decision - making proces-ses. The finn' s owner makes most of the decisions. Even in management control, it is hard to make objective assessments of employee per-formance.

  12. [Study on sociocultural history of therapeutic efficacy and processing of chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin-Sheng

    2006-10-01

    The historical evolving examples of the confirmation of therapeutic efficacy of some Chinese materia medica, the social fashion of using medicine, and the processing methods of Chinese materia medica indicate that the social trend of thoughts, customs and economic factors in different ages affected the various aspects of Chinese materia medica. So, Chinese materia medica possesses very outstanding social and cultural features. Not all the actions of Chinese materia medica recorded came from the experiences of doctors. The understanding level to the nature in different ages decides what kind of drugs they would accept. There are three kinds of drug processing in ancient times: effective medicinal processing, fantastic Taoist processing and invalid trading processing. Based on the study of sociocultural history of therapeutic efficacy and processing of Chinese materia medica. It is crucial that the history and medical literature research on Chinese materia medica and pharmacy should be raised to the position as important as clinical and experiment researches.

  13. Processing interactions between segmental and suprasegmental information in native speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L; Nusbaum, H C

    1993-02-01

    The processing interactions between segmental and suprasegmental information in native speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese were investigated in a speeded classification task. Since in Chinese, unlike in English, tones convey lexically meaningful information, native speakers of these languages may process combinations of segmental and suprasegmental information differently. Subjects heard consonant-vowel syllables varying on a consonantal (segmental) dimension and either a Mandarin Chinese or constant-pitch (non-Mandarin) suprasegmental dimension. The English listeners showed mutual integrality with the Mandarin Chinese stimuli, but not the constant-pitch stimuli. The native Chinese listeners processed these dimensions with mutual integrality for both the Mandarin Chinese and the constant-pitch stimuli. These results were interpreted in terms of the linguistic function and the structure of suprasegmental information in Chinese and English. The results suggest that the way listeners perceive speech depends on the interaction between the structure of the signal and the processing strategies of the listener.

  14. ERPs reveal sub-lexical processing in Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Mo, Deyuan; Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2012-04-18

    The present study used ERPs and a lexical decision task to explore the roles of position-general and position-specific radicals and their relative time courses in processing Chinese characters. Two types of radical frequency were manipulated: the number of characters containing a specific radical irrespective of position (i.e., radical frequency or RF) and the number of characters containing a specific radical at a particular position (i.e., position-specific radical frequency or PRF). The PRF effect was found to be associated with P150, P200, and N400, whereas the RF effect was associated with P200. These results suggest that both position-general and position-specific radicals could influence character processing, but the effect of position-specific radicals appeared earlier and lasted longer than that of position-general radicals. These findings are interpreted in terms of the specific orthographic properties of the sub-lexical components of Chinese characters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Registered nurses integrate traditional Chinese medicine into the triage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sharon W

    2012-02-01

    People in the United States often consult registered nurses (nurses) for advice when they want to explore alternatives to Western medicine, such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Nurses find themselves confronting dilemmas when they are caught between these radically different worlds of medical cultures and thinking. Twenty Minnesota nurses were interviewed to learn how they integrate TCM into their triage process. Symbolic interactionism was the research framework used, and mixed coding methods facilitated data analysis. Several sociological theories explain the findings. The major finding is that nurses use a four-step triage process that begins from the Western medical perspective and includes consideration of TCM use. Nurses' recommendations are influenced by their situational roles and relationships, and by the cues they read from the person who is asking their advice. The results point to nurses being natural disseminators of TCM information and education in their resource role for others making health care decisions.

  16. [Progress of sulfur fumigation and modern processing technology of Chinese traditional medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Shan, Xin; Li, Lin; Mao, Chun-Qin; Ji, De; Yin, Fang-Zhou; Lang, Yong-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Infestation, moldy and other phenomenon in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines is a problem that faced in the production of Chinese traditional medicine. The low productivity of traditional processing methods can not guarantee the quality of Chinese herbal medicines. Sulfur fumigation is the first choice of grassroots to process the Chinese herbal medicine with its low cost and easy operation. Sulfur fumigation can solve some problems in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines, but modern pharmacological studies show that long-term use of Chinese traditional medicine which is fumigated by sulfur can cause some serious harm to human liver, kidney and other organs. This paper conducts a review about the application history of sulfur fumigation, its influence to the quality of Chinese herbal medicines as well as domestic and foreign limits to sulfur quantity, and a brief introduction of the status of modern processing technologies in the processing of food and some Chinese herbal medicines, the problems ex- isting in the Chinese herbal medicines processing, which can provide a reference basis for the further research, development and application of investigating alternative technologies of sulfur fumigation.

  17. Toward a Dynamic Interactive Model of Non-Native Chinese Character Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Kwan, Joyce Lok Yin; Wong, Denise Wai Man; Lee, Stephen Man Kit; Yip, Joanna Hew Yan

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that word processing in English as a second language (L2) is affected by first language (L1) orthographic features. However, little is known about what affects L2 Chinese character processing in adult Chinese learners with different L1 orthographies such as Japanese, Korean, and English. With a picture-character…

  18. Electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingchun; Hu, Weiping; Fang, Zhuo; Zhang, John X

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word reading using a delayed repetition priming paradigm. Participants were asked to passively view lists of two-character compound words containing prime-target pairs separated by a few items. In a Whole Word repetition condition, the prime and target were the same real words (e.g., , manager-manager). In a Constituent repetition condition, the prime and target were swapped in terms of their constituent position (e.g., , the former is a pseudo-word and the later means nurse). Two ERP components including N200 and N400 showed repetition effects. The N200 showed a negative shift upon repetition in the Whole Word condition but this effect was delayed for the Constituent condition. The N400 showed comparable amplitude reduction across the two priming conditions. The results reveal different aspects of morphological processing with an early stage associated with N200 and a late stage with N400. There was also a possibility that the N200 effect reflect general cognitive processing, i.e., the detection of low-probability stimuli.

  19. Cultural influences, decision making process and consumer behaviour of the Middle Class Chinese Outbound Tourist.

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Luc JJ

    2010-01-01

    The research investigates the consumer behaviour of the emerging “Middle Class Mainland Chinese Outbound Tourist”. With the Chinese outbound tourism market being one of the fastest growing worldwide and poised for exponential growth in years to come, tourism industry professionals would benefit from a deeper understanding. The focus of the thesis considers which cultural influences are important in the decision making process of the Chinese middle class consumer, what are the pre-cons...

  20. Chinese tone and vowel processing exhibits distinctive temporal characteristics: an electrophysiological perspective from classical Chinese poem processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijun; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2014-01-01

    Classical Chinese poems have strict regulations on the acoustic pattern of each syllable and are semantically meaningless. Using such poems, this study characterized the temporal order of tone and vowel processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). The target syllable of the poem was either correct or deviated from the correct syllable at tone, vowel or both levels. Vowel violation elicited a negative effect between 300 and 500 ms regardless of the tone correctness, while tone violation elicited a positive effect between 600 and 1000 ms. The results suggest that the vowel information was available earlier than the tone information. Moreover, there was an interaction between the effect of vowel and tone violations between 600 and 1000 ms, showing that the vowel violation produced a positive effect only when the tone was correct. This indicates that vowel and tone processing interacts in the later processing stage, which involves both error detection and reanalysis of the spoken input. Implications of the present results for models of speech perception are discussed.

  1. Chinese tone and vowel processing exhibits distinctive temporal characteristics: an electrophysiological perspective from classical Chinese poem processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Li

    Full Text Available Classical Chinese poems have strict regulations on the acoustic pattern of each syllable and are semantically meaningless. Using such poems, this study characterized the temporal order of tone and vowel processing using event-related potentials (ERPs. The target syllable of the poem was either correct or deviated from the correct syllable at tone, vowel or both levels. Vowel violation elicited a negative effect between 300 and 500 ms regardless of the tone correctness, while tone violation elicited a positive effect between 600 and 1000 ms. The results suggest that the vowel information was available earlier than the tone information. Moreover, there was an interaction between the effect of vowel and tone violations between 600 and 1000 ms, showing that the vowel violation produced a positive effect only when the tone was correct. This indicates that vowel and tone processing interacts in the later processing stage, which involves both error detection and reanalysis of the spoken input. Implications of the present results for models of speech perception are discussed.

  2. A unique issue in the standardization of Chinese materia medica: processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongzhen; Liang, Zhitao; Chan, Kelvin; Lu, Guanghua; Lee, Eko Lai Mei; Chen, Hubiao; Li, Lin

    2010-12-01

    Processing of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) is a pharmaceutical technique to fulfill the different requirements of therapy, dispensing and making preparations according to traditional Chinese medicine theory. The aims of processing are to enhance the efficacy and/or reduce the toxicity of crude drugs. Those processed products are named as decoction pieces, which are used in clinics. Therefore, there is a close relationship between processing, safety, and efficacy of Chinese medicines. Some toxicity or side effects are caused by improper processing methods and some are due to improper combination of herbal mixtures. Standardization of processing methods for Chinese herbs is as important as authentication to maintain their quality and ensure their safe use. The objective of this paper is to review the literature covering the current situation and problems of CMM processing as well as recent progress in research in this area. A summary of the most urgent work needed is proposed.

  3. The Utility of Chinese Tone Processing Skill in Detecting Children with English Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alida; Wang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The utility of Chinese tone processing skill in detecting children with English reading difficulties was examined through differences in a Chinese tone experimental task between a group of native English-speaking children with reading disabilities (RD) and a comparison group of children with normal reading development (NRD). General auditory…

  4. Sentence integration processes: An ERP study of Chinese sentence comprehension with relative clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, C.L.; Perfetti, C.A.; Liu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to

  5. Sentence Integration Processes: An ERP Study of Chinese Sentence Comprehension with Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin Lung; Perfetti, Charles A.; Liu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to sentence constituent relations, it allows a test of…

  6. Sentence integration processes: An ERP study of Chinese sentence comprehension with relative clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, C.L.; Perfetti, C.A.; Liu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to sen

  7. The Influence of Writing Experiences on Holistic Processing in Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Ricky Van Yip; Au, Terry Kit-Fong; Hsiao, Janet Hui-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Holistic processing has been shown to be a behavioral marker of face recognition and object recognition in experts. In contrast, Hsiao and Cottrell (2009) showed that reduced holistic processing is a marker of visual expertise in Chinese character recognition. Here we tested Chinese-literates who can read and write Chinese characters (Writers) and literates whose reading performance far exceeded their writing ability (Limited-writers). We found that Writers perceived Chinese characters less holistically than Limited-writers. In addition to Hsiao and Cottrell's (2009) findings, our study further showed that such reduction in holistic processing can be explained by writing experience in Chinese. This result may be because Chinese Writers exhibit a better awareness of the orthographic components of Chinese characters than Limited-writers due to their writing experience. This study also showed that Limited-writers are better at recognizing a character embedded in a word of a familiar font than when it is alone or of an unfamiliar font, suggesting that their reading performances depend on both the context and font familiarity. This study is also the first to report on the Chinese reading population that has far poorer writing performance than reading performance.

  8. The Influence of Writing Experiences on Holistic Processing in Chinese Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Van Yip Tso

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Holistic processing has been shown to be a behavioral marker of face recognition and object recognition in experts. In contrast, Hsiao and Cottrell (2009 showed that reduced holistic processing is a marker of visual expertise in Chinese character recognition. Here we tested Chinese-literates who can read and write Chinese characters (Writers and literates whose reading performance far exceeded their writing ability (Limited-writers. We found that Writers perceived Chinese characters less holistically than Limited-writers. In addition to Hsiao and Cottrell's (2009 findings, our study further showed that such reduction in holistic processing can be explained by writing experience in Chinese. This result may be because Chinese Writers exhibit a better awareness of the orthographic components of Chinese characters than Limited-writers due to their writing experience. This study also showed that Limited-writers are better at recognizing a character embedded in a word of a familiar font than when it is alone or of an unfamiliar font, suggesting that their reading performances depend on both the context and font familiarity. This study is also the first to report on the Chinese reading population that has far poorer writing performance than reading performance.

  9. Using a Wiki-Based Collaborative Process Writing Pedagogy to Facilitate Collaborative Writing among Chinese Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanxi; Chu, Samuel Kai Wah; Ki, Wing Wah; Woo, Matsuko

    2012-01-01

    This case study explored collaborative writing in Chinese among 59 primary four Chinese students using a "Wiki-based Collaborative Process Writing Pedagogy" (WCPWP) in Shenzhen, China. It aimed mainly to design and orchestrate a WCPWP in order to facilitate students' Chinese writing. It investigated students' collaborative writing process and…

  10. [Progress and prospects of research on information processing techniques for intelligent diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chang-Le; Zhang, Zhi-Feng

    2006-11-01

    Information processing for intelligent diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an important part of the modernization of Chinese medicine, attracts world wide attention from the science circle. This article presents a systematic introduction to the development of information technology, especially the processing of pulse and tongue images and systems of computer-aided Chinese medical diagnosis. Furthermore, it points out four essential areas of future research, including epistemic logic system of syndrome differentiation, system construction technology, data miming technology and information acquisition and analysis in TCM diagnosis.

  11. Recruitment process of a Chinese immigrant study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of this article were to provide a comprehensive overview of the recruitment experience and participant characteristics in an antihypertensive dietary educational intervention pilot trial among Chinese Canadians. The recruitment was conducted in a community centre. Two recruitment approaches, self-referral and proactive recruitment, were used. Among 618 Chinese Canadians in the blood pressure screening, 105 (17.0%) individuals were eligible to participate in this trial. Of the 105 eligible individuals, 45 (42.9%) declined enrollment and 60 (57.1%) consented to participate in the trial and were recruited. The most common reason for refusal was being unable to access to the education location (n=19, 42.2%) followed by being too busy to participate (n=18, 40.0%). All participants were Chinese immigrants and the mean number of years living in Canada was 9.2. Most participants had low English proficiency, accepted Chinese culture more than Western culture, and had strong traditional health beliefs. It is concluded that both self-referral and proactive recruitment approaches were effective. Home-based interventions using Internet and telephone should be used as alternative delivery approaches to improve recruitment rate and facilitate participation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Optimization of processing technology for pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bo; Ma, Xiao-Li; Hao, Li-Jing; Zhao, Qing; Cao, Song-Yun

    2012-06-01

    To optimize the best gradient drying technology of pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam, and provide technique parameter for processing of pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam. Determined the content of polysaccharide by UV and the content of allantoin by HPLC. The optimum gradient drying technology of pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam was investigated by orthogonal experiment and single factor experiment and the contents of polysaccharide and allantoin were regarded as the investigated indexes. The optimum processing technology of first gradient drying stage was A2B2, that was drying for 60 min at 115 degrees C; The optimum drying temperature of second drying stage was 65 degrees C. The optimum technology is stable and feasible for the processing of pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam.

  13. Computerized simulation of TRPO extraction process treating Chinese high level waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈靖; 王建晨; 等

    1996-01-01

    The dependence of main process parameters on each other in TRPO extraction process treating Chinese high level waste has been discussed by computer simulation.A group[ of satisfying process parameters has been obtained and the allowable change ranges have been determined.

  14. Neural basis of Chinese phonological processing under picture stimulus A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfei Liu; Shiwen Feng; Wei Song; Liang Yu; Haijiang Cui; Yiming Yang

    2011-01-01

    Studies concerning phonological processing mainly use written stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the brain regions related to the phonological processing under the picture stimulus in the rhyme task of Chinese language. Results of the test in 13 healthy college students whose native language is Chinese showed the extensive activation in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and the occipitotemporal cortex, including the inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus and medial occipitotemporal gyrus under the picture stimuli. Moreover, phonological processing induced activation in the superior temporal gyrus (BA 22) under the picture stimuli, but activation was not found in the middle temporal gyrus.

  15. Review on Study on Major Social Issues and Solutions in Chinese Urbanization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Jiayan; Li; Caige

    2015-01-01

    Study on Major Social Issues and Solutions in Chinese Urbanization ProcessAuthor:Li Qiang et al.Year:2009Publisher:Economic Science Press ISBN:9787505878570(360 pages,in Chinese)Since the late 1990s,China has entered a stage of rapid urbanization.Unlike the relatively slow urbanization process in European countries and America,China’s urbanization is characterized by a"burst"of urban expansion in a short time.Such a large-scale,rapid,and profound urbanization process has not only brought

  16. Examining the Effects of PASS Cognitive Processes on Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive) processes to Chinese reading accuracy and fluency. One-hundred-forty Grade 3 to 5 Mandarin-speaking children were assessed on measures of PASS processes, phonological awareness, and orthographic knowledge. A year later they were…

  17. Examining the Effects of PASS Cognitive Processes on Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive) processes to Chinese reading accuracy and fluency. One-hundred-forty Grade 3 to 5 Mandarin-speaking children were assessed on measures of PASS processes, phonological awareness, and orthographic knowledge. A year later they were…

  18. Auditory and speech processing and reading development in Chinese school children: behavioural and ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Sai, Xiaoguang; Wang, Cixin; Wang, Jue; Sha, Shuying; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2005-11-01

    By measuring behavioural performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) this study investigated the extent to which Chinese school children's reading development is influenced by their skills in auditory, speech, and temporal processing. In Experiment 1, 102 normal school children's performance in pure tone temporal order judgment, tone frequency discrimination, temporal interval discrimination and composite tone pattern discrimination was measured. Results showed that children's auditory processing skills correlated significantly with their reading fluency, phonological awareness, word naming latency, and the number of Chinese characters learned. Regression analyses found that tone temporal order judgment, temporal interval discrimination and composite tone pattern discrimination could account for 32% of variance in phonological awareness. Controlling for the effect of phonological awareness, auditory processing measures still contributed significantly to variance in reading fluency and character naming. In Experiment 2, mismatch negativities (MMN) in event-related brain potentials were recorded from dyslexic children and the matched normal children, while these children listened passively to Chinese syllables and auditory stimuli composed of pure tones. The two groups of children did not differ in MMN to stimuli deviated in pure tone frequency and Chinese lexical tones. But dyslexic children showed smaller MMN to stimuli deviated in initial consonants or vowels of Chinese syllables and to stimuli deviated in temporal information of composite tone patterns. These results suggested that Chinese dyslexic children have deficits in auditory temporal processing as well as in linguistic processing and that auditory and temporal processing is possibly as important to reading development of children in a logographic writing system as in an alphabetic system.

  19. The application of business process re-engineering in Chinese enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全顺; 刘利军; 关小吉

    2002-01-01

    After joining in WTO,Chinese enterprises face more intense competitive environments. The problems, such as many foreign capital enterprises swarming into China, increasing market competitive ability, keeping on national and international market, have become more serious to enterprises decision-maker. At the same time, the information technology is developing quickly, then business process re-engineering will become valid path for enterprise increasing market competitive ability. As a case study, this paper applies Business Process Re-engineering(BPR) approach to analyze a Chinese company.

  20. Auditory Perception, Suprasegmental Speech Processing, and Vocabulary Development in Chinese Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan S; Chen, I-Chen; Chiang, Chun-Han; Lai, Ying-Hui; Tsao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between basic auditory perception, speech prosodic processing, and vocabulary development in Chinese kindergartners, specifically, whether early basic auditory perception may be related to linguistic prosodic processing in Chinese Mandarin vocabulary acquisition. A series of language, auditory, and linguistic prosodic tests were given to 100 preschool children who had not yet learned how to read Chinese characters. The results suggested that lexical tone sensitivity and intonation production were significantly correlated with children's general vocabulary abilities. In particular, tone awareness was associated with comprehensive language development, whereas intonation production was associated with both comprehensive and expressive language development. Regression analyses revealed that tone sensitivity accounted for 36% of the unique variance in vocabulary development, whereas intonation production accounted for 6% of the variance in vocabulary development. Moreover, auditory frequency discrimination was significantly correlated with lexical tone sensitivity, syllable duration discrimination, and intonation production in Mandarin Chinese. Also it provided significant contributions to tone sensitivity and intonation production. Auditory frequency discrimination may indirectly affect early vocabulary development through Chinese speech prosody.

  1. Age of acquisition affects early orthographic processing during Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoguo; Dent, Kevin; You, Wenping; Wu, Guolai

    2009-03-01

    Three experiments investigated age of acquisition (AoA) effects on early orthographic processing during Chinese character recognition. In Experiment 1, we measured the accuracy of identification of brief masked characters, accuracy was higher for early compared to late acquired characters. In Experiment 2, the visual duration threshold (VDT) was measured for both early and late acquired Chinese characters. The results showed that early acquired characters were successfully identified at shorter display durations than late acquired characters. Significant AoA effects were also found in Experiment 3, using a lexical decision task requiring mainly orthographic processing (discriminating real Chinese characters from orthographically illegal and unpronounceable characters). In summary, three experiments provide converging empirical evidence, for AoA effects on the early orthographic processing stages of Chinese character recognition. These results suggest that AoA effects during word identification go beyond the phonological or semantic processing stages. These results aslo provide cross-linguistic evidence for an AoA effect on early perceptual processing during identification.

  2. An Examination of Individual Level Factors in Stress and Coping Processes: Perspectives of Chinese International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2011-01-01

    No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…

  3. An Examination of Individual Level Factors in Stress and Coping Processes: Perspectives of Chinese International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2011-01-01

    No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…

  4. The purposes and processes of master's thesis supervision : A comparison of Chinese and Dutch supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Yanjuan; van der Rijst, Roeland Matthijs; van Veen, Klaas; Verloop, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The number of international Chinese students enrolled in research programmes in Western universities is growing. To provide effective research supervision to these students, it is helpful to understand the similarities and differences in the supervision process between the host country and their hom

  5. General Auditory Processing, Speech Perception and Phonological Awareness Skills in Chinese-English Biliteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the associations of general auditory processing, speech perception, phonological awareness and word reading in Cantonese-speaking children from Hong Kong learning to read both Chinese (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). Children in Grades 2--4 ("N" = 133) participated and were administered…

  6. The Purposes and Processes of Master's Thesis Supervision: A Comparison of Chinese and Dutch Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjuan; van der Rijst, Roeland Matthijs; van Veen, Klaas; Verloop, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The number of international Chinese students enrolled in research programmes in Western universities is growing. To provide effective research supervision to these students, it is helpful to understand the similarities and differences in the supervision process between the host country and their home country. We explored which learning outcomes…

  7. The purposes and processes of master's thesis supervision : A comparison of Chinese and Dutch supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Yanjuan; van der Rijst, Roeland Matthijs; van Veen, Klaas; Verloop, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The number of international Chinese students enrolled in research programmes in Western universities is growing. To provide effective research supervision to these students, it is helpful to understand the similarities and differences in the supervision process between the host country and their

  8. The Purposes and Processes of Master's Thesis Supervision: A Comparison of Chinese and Dutch Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjuan; van der Rijst, Roeland Matthijs; van Veen, Klaas; Verloop, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The number of international Chinese students enrolled in research programmes in Western universities is growing. To provide effective research supervision to these students, it is helpful to understand the similarities and differences in the supervision process between the host country and their home country. We explored which learning outcomes…

  9. The purposes and processes of master's thesis supervision : A comparison of Chinese and Dutch supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Yanjuan; van der Rijst, Roeland Matthijs; van Veen, Klaas; Verloop, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The number of international Chinese students enrolled in research programmes in Western universities is growing. To provide effective research supervision to these students, it is helpful to understand the similarities and differences in the supervision process between the host country and their hom

  10. On Chinese earthquake history - An attempt to model an incomplete data set by point process analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W.H.K.; Brillinger, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Since the 1950s, the Academia Sinica in Peking, People's Republic of China, has carried out extensive research on the Chinese earthquake history. With a historical record dating back some 3000 years, a wealth of information on Chinese earthquakes exists. Despite this monumental undertaking by the Academia Sinica, much work is still necessary to correct the existing earthquake data for historical changes in population, customs, modes of communication, and dynasties. In this paper we report on the status of our investigation of Chinese earthquake history and present some preliminary results. By applying point process analysis of earthquakes in 'Central China', we found suggestions of (1) lower earthquake activity at intervals of about 175 years and 375 years, and (2) higher earthquake activity at an interval of about 300 years. ?? 1979 Birkha??user Verlag.

  11. Similar alterations in brain function for phonological and semantic processing to visual characters in Chinese dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Wenjing; You, Wenping; Li, Yi; Awati, Neha; Zhao, Xu; Booth, James R.; Peng, Danling

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia in alphabetic languages has been extensively investigated and suggests a central deficit in orthography to phonology mapping in the left hemisphere. Compared to dyslexia in alphabetic languages, the central deficit for Chinese dyslexia is still unclear. Because of the logographic nature of Chinese characters, some have suggested that Chinese dyslexia should have larger deficits in the semantic system. To investigate this, Chinese children with reading disability (RD) were compared to typically developing (TD) children using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on a rhyming judgment task and on a semantic association judgment task. RD children showed less activation for both tasks in right visual (BA18, 19) and left occipito-temporal cortex (BA 37), suggesting a deficit in visuo-orthographic processing. RD children also showed less activation for both tasks in left inferior frontal gyrus (BA44), which additionally showed significant correlations with activation of bilateral visuo-orthographic regions in the RD group, suggesting that the abnormalities in frontal cortex and in posterior visuo-orthographic regions may reflect a deficit in the connection between brain regions. Analyses failed to reveal larger differences between groups for the semantic compared to the rhyming task, suggesting that Chinese dyslexia is similarly impaired in the access to phonology and to semantics from the visual orthography. PMID:22698991

  12. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process-based Chinese Resident Best Fitness Behavior Method Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    With explosive development in Chinese economy and science and technology, people's pursuit of health becomes more and more intense, therefore Chinese resident sports fitness activities have been rapidly developed. However, different fitness events popularity degrees and effects on body energy consumption are different, so bases on this, the paper researches on fitness behaviors and gets Chinese residents sports fitness behaviors exercise guide, which provides guidance for propelling to national fitness plan's implementation and improving Chinese resident fitness scientization. The paper starts from the perspective of energy consumption, it mainly adopts experience method, determines Chinese resident favorite sports fitness event energy consumption through observing all kinds of fitness behaviors energy consumption, and applies fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to make evaluation on bicycle riding, shadowboxing practicing, swimming, rope skipping, jogging, running, aerobics these seven fitness events. By calculating fuzzy rate model's membership and comparing their sizes, it gets fitness behaviors that are more helpful for resident health, more effective and popular. Finally, it gets conclusions that swimming is a best exercise mode and its membership is the highest. Besides, the memberships of running, rope skipping and shadowboxing practicing are also relative higher. It should go in for bodybuilding by synthesizing above several kinds of fitness events according to different physical conditions; different living conditions so that can better achieve the purpose of fitness exercises.

  13. The Neural Correlates of the Interaction between Semantic and Phonological Processing for Chinese Character Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Rong; Zevin, Jason D.; Yang, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Visual word recognition involves mappings among orthographic, phonological, and semantic codes. In alphabetic languages, it is hard to disentangle the effects of these codes, because orthographically well-formed words are typically pronounceable, confounding orthographic and phonological processes, and orthographic cues to meaning are rare, and where they occur are morphological, confounding orthographic and semantic processes. In Chinese character recognition, it is possible to explore orthography to phonology (O-P) and orthography to semantics (O-S) processes independently by taking advantage of the distinct phonetic and semantic components in Chinese phonograms. We analyzed data from an fMRI experiment using lexical decision for Chinese characters to explore the sensitivity of areas associated with character recognition to orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing. First, a correlation approach was used to identify regions associated with reaction time, frequency, consistency and visual complexity. Then, these ROIs were examined for their responses to stimuli with different types of information available. These results revealed two neural pathways, one for O-S processing relying on left middle temporal gyrus and angular gyrus, and the other for O-P processing relying on inferior frontal gyrus and insula. The two neural routes form a shared neural network both for real and pseudo-characters, and their cooperative division of labor reflects the neural basis for processing different types of characters. Results are broadly consistent with findings from alphabetic languages, as predicted by reading models that assume the same general architecture for logographic and alphabetic scripts. PMID:27445914

  14. Cultural Consumption of the Overseas Chinese Garden in the Process of Cross-cultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, L.

    2015-08-01

    When referring to the tangible cultural heritage, people tend to concern more about the conservation and research of the entity of the tangible heritage than the cross-cultural communication of the cultural heritage which is also one of the most important components of the preservation of the cultural heritage. As an exotic new born of the cultural heritage, the entity born from the cross-cultural communication inherits the properties of the cultural heritage on the one hand, and on the other hand generates diversities as a result of the differences based on social, cultural and environment. And the business model is one of the most important reasons for the production of diversities. There's no doubt that a good form of business model makes great significance to the cross-cultural communication. Therefore, the study of the business model of cultural heritage in the process of cross-cultural communication will not only contributes to the deeper understanding towards the phenomenon of the cultural heritage's cross-cultural communication, but also leads to the introspection to the tangible cultural heritage itself. In this way, a new kind of conservative notion could take form, and the goal of protecting cultural heritage could be achieved. Thus the Chinese Garden is a typical representation of the cultural heritage which makes great sense in the cross-cultural communication. As a kind of tangible cultural heritage, the Chinese gardens are well preserved in different regions in China. While the spirits of the Chinese garden carry forward through the construction of the Chinese gardens abroad during the cross-cultural communication. As a new kind of form of the cross-cultural communication of the cultural heritage, on the one hand, the Chinese gardens overseas built ever since China's Reform and Opening express creatively of the materialist and the spirituality of the traditional Chinese Garden, and on the other hand, those Chinese gardens overseas face all kinds of

  15. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  16. An event-related potential observation of preposition processing in Chinese Is N280 a specific component for Chinese prepositions?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongping Zhang; Huanhai Fang; Qifeng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that closed-class words, such as preposititions and conjunctions, induce a left anterior negativity (N280), indicating that N280 should be a specific component of the word category. OBJECTIVE: To observe if Chinese prepositions and verbs exhibit different linguistic functions, to determine whether they are processed by different neural systems, and to verify that N280 is a specific component. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The observed neurolinguistics experiment was performed at Xuzhou Normal University between November and December 2006. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen undergraduate students, comprising 8 females and 8 males, with no mental or neuropathological history, were selected. METHODS: A total of 15 verbs and prepositions were used as linguistic stimuli, and each verb and preposition was combined to produce four correct phrase collocations and four incorrect ones. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Event-related potentials were recorded in the subjects while they read correct or incorrect phases flashed upon a video screen. RESULTS: Both verbs and prepositions elicited negativity at the frontal site in a 230-330 ms window, as well as at the fronto-temporal and central sites in a 350-500 ms window. Neither exhibited significant differences in peak [F(1, 15) = 0.144, P= 0.7101 and latency IF(1, 15) = 0.144, P= 0.7101. Both verbs and prepositions elicited negativity at the left and right hemisphere in a 270-400 ms window. CONCLUSION: There was no significant diffence between Chinese prepositions and verbs in the neural system process and N280 was not the specific component for closed-class words.

  17. INTEGRATION OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE WRITING AND PROCESS WRITING APPROACHES IN TEACHING EFL WRITING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper adopts a pedagogical approach to theteaching of English writing to EFL learners of interme-diate or advanced level in China.The teaching ofwriting has been a problem to Chinese EFL teachers fora long time.On the one hand,they want to make anattempt to adopt fashionable and effective Englishwriting approaches,like process writing.On the otherhand,they are frustrated by the traditional Chinesewriting method.Some of our language educators arealways struggling against the influence of our tradi-tional Chinese writing method.A negative attitudetowards our mother tongue writing approach has beenestablished or accepted by most of our EFL teachers,which result in the EFL learners’panic in their Eng-lish writing course because they are afraid of being ac-cused of writing a Chinese composition in Englishwords.Needless to say,this kind of teaching stylecannot be effective and is frustrating instead.The au-thor presents an integrated and practical solution tothis problem and discusses the applicability of the ap-proach.The author discusses how we can effectivelyintegrate the traditional Chinese writing method andthe popular process writing approach in teaching Eng-lish writing.

  18. Numerical Simulation and Innovation on Magnesium Reduction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehong XIA; Gang ZHANG; Liang GUO

    2006-01-01

    The thermal process of L.M.Pidgeon's reduction art, widely used in magnesium production, is numerically simulated. It is shown that the thermal efficiency will be highly enhanced with the increase of heat-exchange area or the intensification of heat exchange between flame and the outer surface of the reduction jars. An innovation has been made by fuel-shifting (from coal to Coal-Water Mixture), up-draft reduction furnace configuration,multi-layer jars installation and waste heat recovery. A bench scale furnace has been constructed and put into operation to identify the simulation and new design.

  19. Phonological Processing Skills and Early Reading Abilities in Hong Kong Chinese Kindergarteners Learning to Read English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Burgess, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The present 9-month longitudinal study investigated relations between Chinese native language phonological processing skills and early Chinese and English reading abilities among 227 kindergarteners in Hong Kong. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and short-term verbal memory differed in their relations to concurrent and subsequent…

  20. Word Reading in L1 and L2 Learners of Chinese: Similarities and Differences in the Functioning of Component Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the similarities and differences in the functioning of component processes underlying first language (L1) and second language (L2) word reading in Chinese. Fourth-grade Chinese children in Singapore were divided into L1 and L2 reader groups based on whether they used Mandarin or English as their home language. Both groups were…

  1. Morphological Structure Processing during Word Recognition and Its Relationship to Character Reading among Third-Grade Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject…

  2. The Effects of Wiki-Based Recursive Process Writing on Chinese Narrative Essays for Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) Students in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chee Kuen; Gong, Cheng; Tay, Boon Pei

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of using wiki-based process writing in Singapore's Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) scenarios. A group of 32 Secondary 1 (Seventh Grade) students ("Students") received various forms of online scaffolding at different steps of the writing process over two years. A whole set of teaching materials on 45…

  3. A morphometric study of the lumbar spinous process in the Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to analyze the anatomical parameters of the lumbar spine spinous process for an interspinous stabilization device designed for the Chinese population and to offer an anatomical basis for its clinical application. The posterior lumbar spines (T12-S1 of 52 adult cadavers were used for measuring the following: distance between two adjacent spinous processes (DB, distance across two adjacent spinous processes (DA, thickness of the central spinous processes (TC, thickness of the superior margin of the spinous processes (TS, thickness of the inferior margin of the spinous processes (TI, and height of the spinous processes (H. Variance and correlation analyses were conducted for these data, and the data met the normal distribution and homogeneity of variance. DB decreased gradually from L1-2 to L5-S1. DA increased from T12-L1 to L2-3 and then decreased from L2-3 to L4-5. The largest H in males was noted at L3 (25.45±5.96 mm, whereas for females the largest H was noted at L4 (18.71±4.50 mm. Usually, TS of the adjacent spinous process was lower than TI. Based on the anatomical parameters of the lumbar spinous processes obtained in this study, an “H”-shaped coronal plane (posterior view was proposed as an interspinous stabilization device for the Chinese population. This study reports morphometric data of the lumbar spinous processes in the Chinese population, which provides an anatomical basis for future clinical applications.

  4. Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

    2006-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (preading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

  5. [Investigation on production process quality control of traditional Chinese medicine--Banlangen granule as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Manrong; Yan, Dan; Qiu, Lingling; Chen, Longhu; Yan, Yan; Jin, Cheng; Li, Hanbing; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2012-04-01

    For the quality management system of herbal medicines, intermediate and finished products it exists the " short board" effect of methodologies. Based on the concept of process control, new strategies and new methods of the production process quality control had been established with the consideration of the actual production of traditional Chinese medicine an the characteristics of Chinese medicine. Taking Banlangen granule as a practice example, which was effective and widespread application, character identification, determination of index components, chemical fingerprint and biometrics technology were sequentially used respectively to assess the quality of Banlangen herbal medicines, intermediate (water extraction and alcohol precipitation) and finished product. With the transfer rate of chemical information and biological potency as indicators, the effectiveness and transmission of the above different assessments and control methods had been researched. And ultimately, the process quality control methods of Banlangen granule, which were based on chemical composition analysis-biometric analysis, had been set up. It can not only validly solute the current status that there were many manufacturers varying quality of Banlangen granule, but also ensure and enhance its clinical efficacy. Furthermore it provided a foundation for the construction of the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine production process.

  6. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes of Chinese Compound Words in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hong-Wen; Yang, Ke-Yu; Yan, Hong-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Character order information is encoded at the initial stage of Chinese word processing, however, its time course remains underspecified. In this study, we assess the exact time course of the character decomposition and transposition processes of two-character Chinese compound words (canonical, transposed, or reversible words) compared with pseudowords using dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli appearing at 30 ms per character with no inter-stimulus interval. The results indicate that Chinese readers can identify words with character transpositions in rapid succession; however, a transposition cost is involved in identifying transposed words compared to canonical words. In RSVP reading, character order of words is more likely to be reversed during the period from 30 to 180 ms for canonical and reversible words, but the period from 30 to 240 ms for transposed words. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that the holistic representation of the base word is activated, however, the order of the two constituent characters is not strictly processed during the very early stage of visual word processing.

  7. Mapping cortical areas associated with Chinese word processing using functiona l magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马林; 唐一源; 王岩; 李德军; 翁旭初; 张武田; 庄建程; 胡小平

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To identify the cortical areas engaged during Chinese word processing using func tional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and to examine the reliability and repr oducibility of fMRI for localization of functional areas in the human brain.Methods FMRI data were collected on 8 young, right-handed, native Chinese speakers duri ng performance of Chinese synonym and homophone judgment tasks on two different clinical MRI systems (1.5 T GE Signa Horizon and 1.5 T Siemens Vision). A cro ss correlation analysis was used to statistically generate the activation map.Results Broca's area, Wernicke's area, bilateral extrastriate, and ventral tempo ral cortex were significantly activated during both the synonym and homophone activities. There was essentially no difference between results acquired on two different MRI systems.Conclusions FMRI can be used for localizing cortical areas critical to Chinese language proc essing in the human brain. The results are reliable and well reproducible acros s different clinical MRI systems.

  8. Optimizing Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Unstable Angina Based on Partially Observable Markov Decision Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Initial optimized prescription of Chinese herb medicine for unstable angina (UA. Methods. Based on partially observable Markov decision process model (POMDP, we choose hospitalized patients of 3 syndrome elements, such as qi deficiency, blood stasis, and turbid phlegm for the data mining, analysis, and objective evaluation of the diagnosis and treatment of UA at a deep level in order to optimize the prescription of Chinese herb medicine for UA. Results. The recommended treatment options of UA for qi deficiency, blood stasis, and phlegm syndrome patients were as follows: Milkvetch Root + Tangshen + Indian Bread + Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (ADR=0.96630; Danshen Root + Chinese Angelica + Safflower + Red Peony Root + Szechwan Lovage Rhizome Orange Fruit (ADR=0.76; Snakegourd Fruit + Longstamen Onion Bulb + Pinellia Tuber + Dried Tangerine peel + Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome + Platycodon Root (ADR=0.658568. Conclusion. This study initially optimized prescriptions for UA based on POMDP, which can be used as a reference for further development of UA prescription in Chinese herb medicine.

  9. Optimizing prescription of chinese herbal medicine for unstable angina based on partially observable markov decision process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Xuezhong; Wang, Yixin; Xu, Hao; Liu, Baoyan

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Initial optimized prescription of Chinese herb medicine for unstable angina (UA). Methods. Based on partially observable Markov decision process model (POMDP), we choose hospitalized patients of 3 syndrome elements, such as qi deficiency, blood stasis, and turbid phlegm for the data mining, analysis, and objective evaluation of the diagnosis and treatment of UA at a deep level in order to optimize the prescription of Chinese herb medicine for UA. Results. The recommended treatment options of UA for qi deficiency, blood stasis, and phlegm syndrome patients were as follows: Milkvetch Root + Tangshen + Indian Bread + Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (ADR = 0.96630); Danshen Root + Chinese Angelica + Safflower + Red Peony Root + Szechwan Lovage Rhizome Orange Fruit (ADR = 0.76); Snakegourd Fruit + Longstamen Onion Bulb + Pinellia Tuber + Dried Tangerine peel + Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome + Platycodon Root (ADR = 0.658568). Conclusion. This study initially optimized prescriptions for UA based on POMDP, which can be used as a reference for further development of UA prescription in Chinese herb medicine.

  10. Electrophysiological evidence of sublexical phonological access in character processing by L2 Chinese learners of L1 alphabetic scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Yen Na; Law, Sam-Po; Mo, Kwan Nok; Lau, Dustin; Su, I-Fan; Shum, Mark S K

    2016-04-01

    While Chinese character reading relies more on addressed phonology relative to alphabetic scripts, skilled Chinese readers also access sublexical phonological units during recognition of phonograms. However, sublexical orthography-to-phonology mapping has not been found among beginning second language (L2) Chinese learners. This study investigated character reading in more advanced Chinese learners whose native writing system is alphabetic. Phonological regularity and consistency were examined in behavioral responses and event-related potentials (ERPs) in lexical decision and delayed naming tasks. Participants were 18 native English speakers who acquired written Chinese after age 5 years and reached grade 4 Chinese reading level. Behaviorally, regular characters were named more accurately than irregular characters, but consistency had no effect. Similar to native Chinese readers, regularity effects emerged early with regular characters eliciting a greater N170 than irregular characters. Regular characters also elicited greater frontal P200 and smaller N400 than irregular characters in phonograms of low consistency. Additionally, regular-consistent characters and irregular-inconsistent characters had more negative amplitudes than irregular-consistent characters in the N400 and LPC time windows. The overall pattern of brain activities revealed distinct regularity and consistency effects in both tasks. Although orthographic neighbors are activated in character processing of L2 Chinese readers, the timing of their impact seems delayed compared with native Chinese readers. The time courses of regularity and consistency effects across ERP components suggest both assimilation and accommodation of the reading network in learning to read a typologically distinct second orthographic system.

  11. Processing of acoustic and phonological information of lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese revealed by mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keke; Wang, Ruiming; Li, Li; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The accurate perception of lexical tones in tonal languages involves the processing of both acoustic information and phonological information carried by the tonal signal. In this study we evaluated the relative role of the two types of information in native Chinese speaker's processing of tones at a preattentive stage with event-related potentials (ERPs), particularly the mismatch negativity (MNN). Specifically, we distinguished the acoustic from the phonological information by manipulating phonological category and acoustic interval of the stimulus materials. We found a significant main effect of phonological category for the peak latency of MMN, but a main effect of both phonological category and acoustic interval for the mean amplitude of MMN. The results indicated that the two types of information, acoustic and phonological, play different roles in the processing of Chinese lexical tones: acoustic information only impacts the extent of tonal processing, while phonological information affects both the extent and the time course of tonal processing. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of neurocognitive processes of phonological processing.

  12. How perceptual processes help to generate new meaning: An EEG study of chunk decomposition in Chinese characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.L.; Knoblich, G.K.; Wei, G.X.; Luo, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chunk decomposition has been regarded as an important process in problem solving that helps problem solvers to generate new solution paths through changing inappropriate problem representations. We studied the neural bases of chunk decomposition in Chinese characters using the electroencephalogram

  13. Extracting important information from Chinese Operation Notes with natural language processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Weide; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Zuofeng; Feng, Kaiyan; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Extracting information from unstructured clinical narratives is valuable for many clinical applications. Although natural Language Processing (NLP) methods have been profoundly studied in electronic medical records (EMR), few studies have explored NLP in extracting information from Chinese clinical narratives. In this study, we report the development and evaluation of extracting tumor-related information from operation notes of hepatic carcinomas which were written in Chinese. Using 86 operation notes manually annotated by physicians as the training set, we explored both rule-based and supervised machine-learning approaches. Evaluating on unseen 29 operation notes, our best approach yielded 69.6% in precision, 58.3% in recall and 63.5% F-score. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in Arithmetic Performance between Chinese and German Children Are Accompanied by Differences in Processing of Symbolic Numerical Magnitude

    OpenAIRE

    Lonnemann, Jan; Linkersdörfer, Janosch; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lindberg, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills are assumed to be fundamental to arithmetic learning. It is, however, still an open question whether better arithmetic skills are reflected in symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills. To address this issue, Chinese and German third graders were compared regarding their performance in arithmetic tasks and in a symbolic numerical magnitude comparison task. Chinese children performed better in the arithmetic tasks and were faster in deciding ...

  15. Gender and number processing in Chinese learners of Spanish - evidence from Event Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowens, Margaret Gillon; Guo, Taomei; Guo, Jingjing; Barber, Horacio; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Traditionally, age of acquisition (AoA) has been considered the single most important factor in second language (L2) acquisition and processing, particularly in the area of syntax processing. However, there is now growing evidence of the importance of other factors, such as the level of proficiency attained and the degree of overlap or similarity between the first language (L1) and L2 structures and possibility of transfer of features and/or processing routines. However, the relative importance of these factors and the nature of L1-L2 transfer are still unclear. To shed light on these issues, we recorded the electrical brain activity of a group of Chinese proficient late learners of Spanish, using the Event Related Potentials technique, while they read Spanish sentences containing violations of number and grammatical gender agreement (adjective-noun agreement and article-noun agreement). Unlike Spanish, Mandarin Chinese is an isolating language in which morphosyntactic features such as gender and number are not computed and so the ERP results from this group can help to clarify the role of L1-L2 transfer in morpho-syntax processing routines. The results included P600 effects for both gender and number agreement violations, with no differences between these disagreement conditions. These results are taken to support second language acquisition models which stress the roles of proficiency and L1-L2 transfer in L2 syntax processing.

  16. The Effects of Wiki-based Recursive Process Writing on Chinese Narrative Essays for Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) Students in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Chee Kuen Chin; Cheng Gong; Boon Pei Tay

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of using wiki-based process writing in Singapore’s Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) scenarios. A group of 32 Secondary 1 (Seventh Grade) students (“Students”) received various forms of online scaffolding at different steps of the writing process over two years. A whole set of teaching materials on 45 writing skills was developed and uploaded to the Wiki platform through five recursive cycles. In each cycle, the students were encouraged to app...

  17. Seeking and processing information for health decisions among elderly Chinese Singaporean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Leanne; Basnyat, Iccha; Teo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Information behavior includes activities of active information seeking, passive acquisition of information, and information use. Guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model, this study explored elderly Singaporean women's health information behavior to understand how they sought, evaluated, and used health information in everyday lives. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with elderly Chinese women aged 61 to 79. Qualitative analysis of the interview data yielded three meta-themes: information-seeking patterns, trustworthiness of health information, and peripheral route of decision making. Results revealed that elderly women took both systematic and heuristic approaches to processing information but relied on interpersonal networks to negotiate health choices.

  18. Modification of Chinese fir with alkyl ketene dimer (AKD: Processing and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengqian Shi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A process for the chemical modification of Chinese fir with alkyl ketene dimer (AKD was studied. The hydrophobicity of the resulting products was evaluated by characterization of the equilibrium moisture content, water-surface contact angle, water absorption coefficient, and anti-swelling efficiency. The results indicated that when 5% AKD solution was used, the modified wood generally showed good hydrophobicity and improved dimensional stability. The result of boiling water and hexane extraction tests showed that the modified fir possessed very stable hydrophobicity.

  19. The time course of morphological processing during spoken word recognition in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Qu, Qingqing; Ni, Aiping; Zhou, Junyi; Li, Xingshan

    2017-03-30

    We investigated the time course of morphological processing during spoken word recognition using the printed-word paradigm. Chinese participants were asked to listen to a spoken disyllabic compound word while simultaneously viewing a printed-word display. Each visual display consisted of three printed words: a semantic associate of the first constituent of the compound word (morphemic competitor), a semantic associate of the whole compound word (whole-word competitor), and an unrelated word (distractor). Participants were directed to detect whether the spoken target word was on the visual display. Results indicated that both the morphemic and whole-word competitors attracted more fixations than the distractor. More importantly, the morphemic competitor began to diverge from the distractor immediately at the acoustic offset of the first constituent, which was earlier than the whole-word competitor. These results suggest that lexical access to the auditory word is incremental and morphological processing (i.e., semantic access to the first constituent) that occurs at an early processing stage before access to the representation of the whole word in Chinese.

  20. Development of brain networks involved in spoken word processing of Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fan; Khaild, Kainat; Lee, Rebecca; Brennan, Christine; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Kuncheng; Bolger, Donald J.; Booth, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental differences in phonological and orthographic processing of Chinese spoken words were examined in 9-year-olds, 11-year-olds and adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Rhyming and spelling judgments were made to two-character words presented sequentially in the auditory modality. Developmental comparisons between adults and both groups of children combined showed that age-related changes in activation in visuo-orthographic regions depended on task. There were developmental increases in left inferior temporal gyrus and right inferior occipital gyrus in the spelling task, suggesting more extensive visuo-orthographic processing in a task that required access to these representations. Conversely, there were developmental decreases in activation in left fusiform gyrus and left middle occipital gyrus in the rhyming task, suggesting that the development of reading is marked by reduced involvement of orthography in a spoken language task that does not require access to these orthographic representations. Developmental decreases may arise from the existence of extensive homophony (auditory words that have multiple spellings) in Chinese. In addition, we found that 11-year-olds and adults showed similar activation in left superior temporal gyrus across tasks, with both groups showing greater activation than 9-year-olds. This pattern suggests early development of perceptual representations of phonology. In contrast, 11-year-olds and 9-year-olds showed similar activation in left inferior frontal gyrus across tasks, with both groups showing weaker activation than adults. This pattern suggests late development of controlled retrieval and selection of lexical representations. Altogether, this study suggests differential effects of character acquisition on development of components of the language network in Chinese as compared to previous reports on alphabetic languages. PMID:20884355

  1. An integrated image processing platform designed for Chinese GF-1 wide field view data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhishan; Shi, Runhe; Liu, Chaoshun; Chen, Maosi

    2016-09-01

    The Wide Field View (WFV), a space borne multi-spectral sensor onboard the Chinese GaoFen-1 (GF-1) satellite from the China High-resolution Earth Observation System, is operating in orbit dedicating to providing Earth observation with decametric spatial resolution, high temporal resolution and wide coverage for environment monitoring purpose. The objective of this study is to present an integrated image processing and environment monitoring platform specifically for GF-1 WFV data. The platform is developed with a multi-layer architecture and C/S structure, which primarily consists of image pre-processing, environment monitoring, data visualization, and results output modules. The client application was created by using C# whereas IDL was used to develop image processing and other relevant algorithms. This paper focuses mainly on the overall design of the platform and related key techniques. The platform has been implemented as a stand-alone application, and successfully implemented in real world environment monitoring studies.

  2. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M L; Yu, Y; Ramaswamy, H S; Zhu, S M

    2017-01-06

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products.

  3. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products.

  4. Chinese translation and validation of the questionnaire on the process of recovery in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai Tong; Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2013-08-01

    Individuals recovering from schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders who have residual symptoms can achieve relatively normal work and social functioning in the community. This research aimed to test the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the 22-item Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery. The translated Chinese QPR had satisfactory semantic equivalence with the original scale and high Cronbach alpha coefficients and test-retest stability at a 2-week interval. When tested in 300 outpatients with psychosis, the Chinese version was found to consist of three factors (Self-Empowerment, Rebuilding Life, and Effective Interpersonal Relationships) with satisfactory correlations with patients' quality of life, self-efficacy, and functioning. The Chinese version appears reliable and valid as a measure of psychotic patients' perceived levels of recovery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Building high-performance system for processing a daily large volume of Chinese satellites imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huawu; Huang, Shicun; Wang, Qi; Pan, Zhiqiang; Xin, Yubin

    2014-10-01

    The number of Earth observation satellites from China increases dramatically recently and those satellites are acquiring a large volume of imagery daily. As the main portal of image processing and distribution from those Chinese satellites, the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA) has been working with PCI Geomatics during the last three years to solve two issues in this regard: processing the large volume of data (about 1,500 scenes or 1 TB per day) in a timely manner and generating geometrically accurate orthorectified products. After three-year research and development, a high performance system has been built and successfully delivered. The high performance system has a service oriented architecture and can be deployed to a cluster of computers that may be configured with high end computing power. The high performance is gained through, first, making image processing algorithms into parallel computing by using high performance graphic processing unit (GPU) cards and multiple cores from multiple CPUs, and, second, distributing processing tasks to a cluster of computing nodes. While achieving up to thirty (and even more) times faster in performance compared with the traditional practice, a particular methodology was developed to improve the geometric accuracy of images acquired from Chinese satellites (including HJ-1 A/B, ZY-1-02C, ZY-3, GF-1, etc.). The methodology consists of fully automatic collection of dense ground control points (GCP) from various resources and then application of those points to improve the photogrammetric model of the images. The delivered system is up running at CRESDA for pre-operational production and has been and is generating good return on investment by eliminating a great amount of manual labor and increasing more than ten times of data throughput daily with fewer operators. Future work, such as development of more performance-optimized algorithms, robust image matching methods and application

  6. The SNARC Effect in Chinese Numerals: Do Visual Properties of Characters and Hand Signs Influence Number Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenkamp, Christian; Eloka, Owino; Schiller, Florian; Kao, Chung-Shan; Wu, Chaohua; Gao, Xiaorong; Franz, Volker H.

    2016-01-01

    The SNARC effect refers to an association of numbers and spatial properties of responses that is commonly thought to be amodal and independent of stimulus notation. We tested for a horizontal SNARC effect using Arabic digits, simple-form Chinese characters and Chinese hand signs in participants from Mainland China. We found a horizontal SNARC effect in all notations. This is the first time that a horizontal SNARC effect has been demonstrated in Chinese characters and Chinese hand signs. We tested for the SNARC effect in two experiments (parity judgement and magnitude judgement). The parity judgement task yielded clear, consistent SNARC effects in all notations, whereas results were more mixed in magnitude judgement. Both Chinese characters and Chinese hand signs are represented non-symbolically for low numbers and symbolically for higher numbers, allowing us to contrast within the same notation the effects of heavily learned non-symbolic vs. symbolic representation on the processing of numbers. In addition to finding a horizontal SNARC effect, we also found a robust numerical distance effect in all notations. This is particularly interesting as it persisted when participants reported using purely visual features to solve the task, thereby suggesting that numbers were processed semantically even when the task could be solved without the semantic information. PMID:27684956

  7. Instructing Mini-saga with Process Genre Approach in Chinese College EFL Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Jun-feng

    2015-01-01

    Mini-saga, a brand-new writing genre, is a short story with exactly 50 words, which can be instructed with process genre approach in Chinese college EFL writing classes. Process genre approach emphasizes both the knowledge of context, espe⁃cially the purpose for writing and skills in using language. Guided by the approach, students need to consider how to achieve cer⁃tain social purposes in context with appropriate language and structure while composing mini-sagas. Detailed instruction proce⁃dures can be designed to instruct students to work out mini-sagas, which can arouse their interest and motivation in English writ⁃ing, encourage their writing innovation and originality, develop their writing skills, and dig their writing potentials.

  8. Assessment on Application of Chinese Herbal Medicine in the Process of Corticosterone Reduction in Nephrotic Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the process of corticosterone (CS) reduction in nephrotic syndrome. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome sensitive to prednisone treatment were divided into two groups randomly. The dosage of prednisone used was conventionally reduced in both groups but CHM herbal treatment was added to the treated group in the period of prednisone reduction. The effect of CHM was estimated by observing the recurrence rate of disease and side-effects of prednisone. Results: The recurrence rate of disease and the occurrence rate of side-effects of prednisone in the treated group were less than those in the control group significantly (P<0.01). Conclusion: Additional CHM in the process of CS reduction in treating CS sensitive nephrotic syndrome could markedly abate the recurrence rate of disease and the side-effect of CS reduction.

  9. Developmental differences in the influence of phonological similarity on spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malins, Jeffrey G; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S

    2014-11-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N=17; mean age 10; 5) and adults (N=17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition.

  10. Selective Acculturation and the Dating Process: The Patterning of Chinese -Caucasian Interracial Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Melford S.

    1970-01-01

    Divergent expectations between Chinese American boys and girls may be related to: (1) influence of American racial stereotyping; (2) Chinese American interpersonal relationships in American society; (3) sex linked socialization practices; and (4) the closed nature of the Chinese community. Presented at American Anthropological Association,…

  11. English Word Reading Difficulties and Orthographic Processing Weaknesses in Chinese English Bilingual Adolescents with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Is dyslexia in Chinese for Chinese-English bilinguals associated with difficulties in reading English, given differences in L1 and L2 orthographies? Among 11 Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with dyslexia, who were diagnosed by professional psychologists using the diagnostic criteria set out in a standardized test, and 14 adolescents without…

  12. Processing the Chinese reflexive ‘ziji’: Effects of featural constraints on anaphor resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao eHe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present three self-paced reading experiments that investigate the reflexive ziji ‘self’ in Chinese – in particular, we tested whether and how person-feature-based blocking guides comprehenders’ real-time processing and final interpretation of ziji. Prior work claims that in Chinese sentences like John thought that {I/you/Bill} did not like ZIJI, (i the reflexive ziji can refer to the matrix subject John if the intervening subject is also a third person entity (e.g. Bill, but that (ii an intervening first or second person pronoun blocks reference to the matrix subject, causing ziji to refer to the first or second person pronoun. However, native speakers’ judgments regarding the accessibility of long-distance antecedents are rather unstable, and researchers also disagree on what the exact configurations are that allow blocking. In addition, many open questions persist regarding the real-time processing of reflexives more generally, in particular regarding the accessibility (or lack thereof of structurally unlicensed antecedents. We conducted three self-paced reading studies where we recorded people’s word-by-word reading times and also asked questions that probed their off-line interpretation of the reflexive ziji. People’s answers to the off-line questions show that blocking is not absolute: Comprehenders do allow significant numbers of non-local choices in both the first and the second person blocking conditions, albeit in small numbers. At the same time, the reading time data, particularly those from Experiments 2 and 3, show that comprehenders use person feature cues to quickly filter out inaccessible long-distance referents. The difference between on-line and off-line patterns points to the possibility that the interpretation of ziji unfolds over time: it seems that initially, during real-time processing, person-feature cues weigh more heavily and constrain what antecedent candidates get considered, but that at some later

  13. Differences in arithmetic performance between Chinese and German children are accompanied by differences in processing of symbolic numerical magnitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lonnemann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills are assumed to be fundamental to arithmetic learning. It is, however, still an open question whether better arithmetic skills are reflected in symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills. To address this issue, Chinese and German third graders were compared regarding their performance in arithmetic tasks and in a symbolic numerical magnitude comparison task. Chinese children performed better in the arithmetic tasks and were faster in deciding which one of two Arabic numbers was numerically larger. The group difference in symbolic numerical magnitude processing was fully mediated by the performance in arithmetic tasks. We assume that a higher degree of familiarity with arithmetic in Chinese compared to German children leads to a higher speed of retrieving symbolic numerical magnitude knowledge.

  14. 橄榄加工技术和综合利用研究进展%Advances in Processing Technology and Integrated Utilization of Chinese Olive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任思琪; 蒋璇靓; 林艺芬; 张珅; 林河通

    2015-01-01

    Chinese olive [Canarium album (Lour.)Raeusch],a special subtropical fruit in South China, has high nutritional and medicinal values.In order to promote the development of Chinese olive industry,and improved the standard of processing technology and integrated utilization of Chinese olive.The cultivation and distribution,fruit quality characteristics of Chinese olive,traditional processing products of Chinese olive fruit including salted Chinese olive and Chinese olive preserved fruit,new types of processing products of Chinese olive fruit like Chinese olive juice,Chinese olive-tea,Chinese olive oral liquid and Chinese olive chewable tab-let,functional components of Chinese olive including polyphenol,flavonoid and fatty acid,and the by-product development of Chinese olive leaf and Chinese olive nucleolus are comprehensively introduced in this paper.%橄榄是中国南方特色亚热带水果,具有丰富的营养价值和药用价值。为促进橄榄产业发展,提高橄榄加工技术和综合利用水平,就橄榄生产分布与果实品质特性,咸橄榄、橄榄蜜饯等传统橄榄加工产品,橄榄汁、橄榄茶、橄榄口服液、橄榄咀嚼片等橄榄新型加工产品,橄榄多酚、类黄酮、脂肪酸等功能性成分及橄榄叶、橄榄核仁等副产物开发利用的研究进展进行综述。

  15. HTRDP evaluations on Chinese information processing and intelligent human-machine interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qun; LIN Shouxun; QIAN Yueliang; WANG Xiangdong; LIU Hong; SUN Le; TANG Sheng; XIONG Deyi; HOU Hongxu; LV Yuanhua; LI Wenbo

    2007-01-01

    From 1991 to 2005,China's High Technology Research and Development Program (HTRDP)sponsored a series of technology evaluations on Chinese information processing and intelligent human-machine interface,which is called HTRDP evaluations,or "863" evaluations in brief.This paper introduces the HTRDP evaluations in detail.The general information of the HTRDP evaluation is presented first,including the history,the concerned technology categories,the organizer,the participants,and the procedure,etc.Then the evaluations on each technology are described in detail respectively,covering Chinese word segmentation,machine translation,acoustic speech recognition,text to speech,text summarization,text categorization,information retrieval,character recognition,and face detection and recognition.For the evaluations on each technology categories,the history,the evaluation tasks,the data,the evaluation method,etc.,are given.The last section concludes the paper and discusses possible future work.

  16. Characterization and antioxidative activities of polysaccharide in Chinese angelica and its processed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Wei, Yanming; Xue, Wenxin; Hua, Yongli; Zhang, Man; Sun, Hongguo; Song, Zhixue; Zhang, Ling; Li, Jinxia; Zhao, Haifu; Zhang, Wenquan

    2014-06-01

    Five polysaccharides from unprocessed Chinese angelica (UCAP), parched one with alcohol (ACAP), soil (SCAP), sesame oil (OCAP) and parched into charred (CCAP) were extracted and purified. Their structures were identified by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and antioxidative activities were compared by determining MDA contents and SOD activities of liver tissue in mice damaged with CCl4 after gavage. The results showed that the FT-IR spectra of CCAP and OCAP displayed lower transmittance at around 1050cm(-1) in comparison with that of UCAP. Five polysaccharides were all composed of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose. In CCAP, ACAP, OCAP and SCAP, the proportions of arabinose were significantly increased in comparison with that of UCAP. The SOD activities in CCAP and SCAP groups were significantly enhanced, and MDA contents in CCAP, OCAP and SCAP groups were significantly decreased as compared with UCAP group. This indicated that processing could change the structure, composition and enhance antioxidative activity of polysaccharide in Chinese angelica, and CCAP possessed the strongest antioxidative activity.

  17. Does N200 reflect semantic processing?--An ERP study on Chinese visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingchun; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, John X

    2014-01-01

    Recent event-related potential research has reported a N200 response or a negative deflection peaking around 200 ms following the visual presentation of two-character Chinese words. This N200 shows amplitude enhancement upon immediate repetition and there has been preliminary evidence that it reflects orthographic processing but not semantic processing. The present study tested whether this N200 is indeed unrelated to semantic processing with more sensitive measures, including the use of two tasks engaging semantic processing either implicitly or explicitly and the adoption of a within-trial priming paradigm. In Exp. 1, participants viewed repeated, semantically related and unrelated prime-target word pairs as they performed a lexical decision task judging whether or not each target was a real word. In Exp. 2, participants viewed high-related, low-related and unrelated word pairs as they performed a semantic task judging whether each word pair was related in meaning. In both tasks, semantic priming was found from both the behavioral data and the N400 ERP responses. Critically, while repetition priming elicited a clear and large enhancement on the N200 response, semantic priming did not show any modulation effect on the same response. The results indicate that the N200 repetition enhancement effect cannot be explained with semantic priming and that this specific N200 response is unlikely to reflect semantic processing.

  18. The Research on Chinese Lexical Processing Mental Process%汉语词汇加工心理过程的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋雪; 马英雪; 李莹; 纪雅婷; 梁小童

    2014-01-01

    Language is a human-specific higher psychological function .The basic material of language is word .Word research is one of the most active and fruitful field in linguistics research .Word recognition is also the important problem of modern cognitive psychology and psychological linguistics research .In the current study ,several kinds of representation and processing mechanism of Chinese lexes are still contro-versial ,in addition the research on transverse longitudinal of Chinese lexes is quite quickly .From past re-search ,we can find that Chinese word research mainly focus on the research of using frequency of Chinese words with two characters ,on the research of the semantic role of Chinese words with two characters ,on the research of Chinese compound words with two characters ,and on the research of Chinese idioms .At last ,the paper thinks that the important point of Chinese words processing is to find the law of Chinese words ac-cess ,the mechanism of eye movement and brain during word access and to establish cognition processing model of Chinese words recognition .%语言是人类特有的高级心理机能,其基本材料是词。词汇是目前语言学研究最活跃、最富有成果的领域之一,词汇识别也是现代认知心理学和心理语言学研究的重要问题。在目前的研究中,汉语词汇的几种表征与加工机制仍然存在争议,并且汉语词汇的横向、纵向研究发展迅速。回顾以往研究我们发现,汉语词汇的研究主要集中在:汉语双字词使用频率的研究、汉语双字词语义作用的研究、汉语合成双字词的研究,以及汉语成语加工的研究。今后汉语词汇加工研究的重点是:寻找出汉语词汇通达的规律以及通达过程中的眼动机制和脑机制,建立汉语词汇识别的认知加工模型。

  19. A new similarity computing method based on concept similarity in Chinese text processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jing; YANG DongQing; TANG ShiWei; WANG TengJiao; GAO Jun

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a new text similarity computing method based on concept similarity in Chinese text processing. The new method converts text to words vec-tor space modet al first, and then splits words into a set of concepts. Through computing the inner products between concepts, it obtains the similarity between words. The new method computes the similarity of text based on the similarity of words at last. The contributions of the paper include: 1) propose a new computing formula between words; 2) propose a new text similarity computing method based on words similarity; 3) successfully use the method in the application of similarity computing of WEB news; and 4) prove the validity of the method through extensive experiments.

  20. A class-based link prediction using Distance Dependent Chinese Restaurant Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andalib, Azam; Babamir, Seyed Morteza

    2016-08-01

    One of the important tasks in relational data analysis is link prediction which has been successfully applied on many applications such as bioinformatics, information retrieval, etc. The link prediction is defined as predicting the existence or absence of edges between nodes of a network. In this paper, we propose a novel method for link prediction based on Distance Dependent Chinese Restaurant Process (DDCRP) model which enables us to utilize the information of the topological structure of the network such as shortest path and connectivity of the nodes. We also propose a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for computing the posterior distribution of the hidden variables based on the training data. Experimental results on three real-world datasets show the superiority of the proposed method over other probabilistic models for link prediction problem.

  1. Underlying Skills of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency in Chinese: Perspective of Visual Rapid Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Kwok, Rosa K. W.; Liu, Menglian; Liu, Hanlong; Huang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Reading fluency is a critical skill to improve the quality of our daily life and working efficiency. The majority of previous studies focused on oral reading fluency rather than silent reading fluency, which is a much more dominant reading mode that is used in middle and high school and for leisure reading. It is still unclear whether the oral and silent reading fluency involved the same underlying skills. To address this issue, the present study examined the relationship between the visual rapid processing and Chinese reading fluency in different modes. Fifty-eight undergraduate students took part in the experiment. The phantom contour paradigm and the visual 1-back task were adopted to measure the visual rapid temporal and simultaneous processing respectively. These two tasks reflected the temporal and spatial dimensions of visual rapid processing separately. We recorded the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task, as well as reaction time and accuracy in the visual 1-back task. Reading fluency was measured in both single-character and sentence levels. Fluent reading of single characters was assessed with a paper-and-pencil lexical decision task, and a sentence verification task was developed to examine reading fluency on a sentence level. The reading fluency test in each level was conducted twice (i.e., oral reading and silent reading). Reading speed and accuracy were recorded. The correlation analysis showed that the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task did not correlate with the scores of the reading fluency tests. Although, the reaction time in visual 1-back task correlated with the reading speed of both oral and silent reading fluency, the comparison of the correlation coefficients revealed a closer relationship between the visual rapid simultaneous processing and silent reading. Furthermore, the visual rapid simultaneous processing exhibited a significant contribution to reading fluency in silent mode but not in oral reading mode. These

  2. Underlying Skills of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency in Chinese: Perspective of Visual Rapid Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Kwok, Rosa K W; Liu, Menglian; Liu, Hanlong; Huang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is a critical skill to improve the quality of our daily life and working efficiency. The majority of previous studies focused on oral reading fluency rather than silent reading fluency, which is a much more dominant reading mode that is used in middle and high school and for leisure reading. It is still unclear whether the oral and silent reading fluency involved the same underlying skills. To address this issue, the present study examined the relationship between the visual rapid processing and Chinese reading fluency in different modes. Fifty-eight undergraduate students took part in the experiment. The phantom contour paradigm and the visual 1-back task were adopted to measure the visual rapid temporal and simultaneous processing respectively. These two tasks reflected the temporal and spatial dimensions of visual rapid processing separately. We recorded the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task, as well as reaction time and accuracy in the visual 1-back task. Reading fluency was measured in both single-character and sentence levels. Fluent reading of single characters was assessed with a paper-and-pencil lexical decision task, and a sentence verification task was developed to examine reading fluency on a sentence level. The reading fluency test in each level was conducted twice (i.e., oral reading and silent reading). Reading speed and accuracy were recorded. The correlation analysis showed that the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task did not correlate with the scores of the reading fluency tests. Although, the reaction time in visual 1-back task correlated with the reading speed of both oral and silent reading fluency, the comparison of the correlation coefficients revealed a closer relationship between the visual rapid simultaneous processing and silent reading. Furthermore, the visual rapid simultaneous processing exhibited a significant contribution to reading fluency in silent mode but not in oral reading mode. These

  3. Statistical modeling methods to analyze the impacts of multiunit process variability on critical quality attributes of Chinese herbal medicine tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fei Sun,1 Bing Xu,1,2 Yi Zhang,1 Shengyun Dai,1 Chan Yang,1 Xianglong Cui,1 Xinyuan Shi,1,2 Yanjiang Qiao1,2 1Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine Information Engineering, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 2Key Laboratory of Manufacture Process Control and Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The quality of Chinese herbal medicine tablets suffers from batch-to-batch variability due to a lack of manufacturing process understanding. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS immediate release tablet was taken as the research subject. By defining the dissolution of five active pharmaceutical ingredients and the tablet tensile strength as critical quality attributes (CQAs, influences of both the manipulated process parameters introduced by an orthogonal experiment design and the intermediate granules’ properties on the CQAs were fully investigated by different chemometric methods, such as the partial least squares, the orthogonal projection to latent structures, and the multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS. By analyzing the loadings plots and variable importance in the projection indexes, the granule particle sizes and the minimal punch tip separation distance in tableting were identified as critical process parameters. Additionally, the MBPLS model suggested that the lubrication time in the final blending was also important in predicting tablet quality attributes. From the calculated block importance in the projection indexes, the tableting unit was confirmed to be the critical process unit of the manufacturing line. The results demonstrated that the combinatorial use of different multivariate modeling methods could help in understanding the complex process relationships as a whole. The output of this study can then be used to define a control strategy to improve the quality of the PNS immediate release tablet. Keywords: Panax

  4. Processing rhythmic pattern during Chinese sentence reading: An eye movement study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyi eLuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010. Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2+1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1+1] or [2+2]. This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader’s eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed, less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis

  5. Re-examination of Chinese semantic processing and syntactic processing: evidence from conventional ERPs and reconstructed ERPs by residue iteration decomposition (RIDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Ouyang, Guang; Zhou, Changsong; Wang, Suiping

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the time course of Chinese semantic and syntactic processing. However, whether syntactic processing occurs earlier than semantics during Chinese sentence reading is still under debate. To further explore this issue, an event-related potentials (ERPs) experiment was conducted on 21 native Chinese speakers who read individually-presented Chinese simple sentences (NP1+VP+NP2) word-by-word for comprehension and made semantic plausibility judgments. The transitivity of the verbs was manipulated to form three types of stimuli: congruent sentences (CON), sentences with a semantically violated NP2 following a transitive verb (semantic violation, SEM), and sentences with a semantically violated NP2 following an intransitive verb (combined semantic and syntactic violation, SEM+SYN). The ERPs evoked from the target NP2 were analyzed by using the Residue Iteration Decomposition (RIDE) method to reconstruct the ERP waveform blurred by trial-to-trial variability, as well as by using the conventional ERP method based on stimulus-locked averaging. The conventional ERP analysis showed that, compared with the critical words in CON, those in SEM and SEM+SYN elicited an N400-P600 biphasic pattern. The N400 effects in both violation conditions were of similar size and distribution, but the P600 in SEM+SYN was bigger than that in SEM. Compared with the conventional ERP analysis, RIDE analysis revealed a larger N400 effect and an earlier P600 effect (in the time window of 500-800 ms instead of 570-810ms). Overall, the combination of conventional ERP analysis and the RIDE method for compensating for trial-to-trial variability confirmed the non-significant difference between SEM and SEM+SYN in the earlier N400 time window. Converging with previous findings on other Chinese structures, the current study provides further precise evidence that syntactic processing in Chinese does not occur earlier than semantic processing.

  6. [Process on researching methods of ecology of Chinese traditional medicine resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingqun; Cao, Hailu; Zhao, Runhuai; Chen, Shilin

    2011-02-01

    Though the study on ecology of Chinese traditional medicinal resources methods has achieved great progress in recent years, it is not able to catch the pace of the development of ecology science. Based on the analysis of recent literatures about ecology development trend and Chinese traditional medicinal ecology methods, the progress of Chinese traditional medicinal ecology methods was reviewed, and future study trend was discussed.

  7. Parafoveal Processing in Silent and Oral Reading: Reading Mode Influences the Relative Weighting of Phonological and Semantic Information in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinger; Laubrock, Jochen; Yan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We examined how reading mode (i.e., silent vs. oral reading) influences parafoveal semantic and phonological processing during the reading of Chinese sentences, using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm. In silent reading, we found in 2 experiments that reading times on target words were shortened with semantic previews in early and late…

  8. Personality, Career Decision Self-Efficacy and Commitment to the Career Choices Process among Chinese Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Leili; Watkins, David; Yuen, Mantak

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the mediating effect of career decision self-efficacy on the relationship between the Five-Factor Model of personality and the career commitment process (i.e., vocational commitment and the tendency to foreclose) in a sample of 785 Chinese graduate students. The multiple regression analyses showed that neuroticism and…

  9. Learning Process and Learning Outcomes of Video Podcasts Including the Instructor and PPT Slides: A Chinese Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Zhongling; Hong, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Video podcasts have become one of the fastest developing trends in learning and teaching. The study explored the effect of the presenting mode of educational video podcasts on the learning process and learning outcomes. Prior to viewing a video podcast, the 94 Chinese undergraduates participating in the study completed a demographic questionnaire…

  10. Critical and Creative Thinking as Learning Processes at Top-Ranking Chinese Middle Schools: Possibilities and Required Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. K.; He, J.; Li, B.

    2015-01-01

    Fostering and enabling critical and creative thinking of students is considered an important goal, and it is assumed that in particular, talented students have considerable potential for applying such high-level cognitive processes for learning in classrooms. However, Chinese students are often considered as rote learners, and that learning…

  11. Innovation Chinese rice wine brewing technology by bi-acidification to exclude rice soaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao Lu; Liu, Shuang Ping; Yu, Jian Shen; Yu, Yong Jian; Zhu, Sheng Hu; Zhou, Zhi Lei; Hu, Jian; Mao, Jian

    2017-04-01

    As a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage of China, Chinese rice wine (CRW) had a long history of more than 5000 years. Rice soaking process was the most crucial step during CRW brewing process, because rice soaking quality directly determined the quality of CRW. However, rice soaking water would cause the eutrophication of water bodies and waste of water. The longer time of rice soaking, the higher the content of biogenic amine, and it would have a huge impact on human health. An innovation brewing technology was carried out to exclude the rice soaking process and the Lactobacillus was added to make up for the total acid. Compared to the traditional brewing technology, the new technology saved water resources and reduced environmental pollution. The concentration of biogenic amine was also decreased by 27.16%, which improving the security of the CRW. The esters increased led to more soft-tasted CRW and less aging time; the quality of CRW would be improved with less alcohol.

  12. THE VIBRATIONAL PROPERTIES OF CHINESE FIR WOOD DURING MOISTURE SORPTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Jiang,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The vibrational properties of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata wood were investigated in this study as a function of changes in moisture content (MC and grain direction. The dynamic modulus of elasticity (DMOE and logarithmic decrement (δ were examined using a cantilever beam vibration testing apparatus. It was observed that DMOE and δ of wood varied widely during moisture adsorption and desorption. The DMOE of wood conditioned by the adsorption process showed significant increases during the later stages of conditioning when the MC scarcely changed. However, with the desorption process, the DMOE did not increase as much during the later stages of conditioning, though they increased during the early stages of conditioning when the MC greatly decreased. These results suggest that wood in an unstable state, caused via the existing state of moisture, shows different vibrational behaviors. Furthermore, the parallel to grain direction showed much higher DMOE and lower δ when compared to the perpendicular to grain direction. The variation of vibrational properties between parallel and perpendicular to grain direction under constant MC and during moisture adsorption process could be attributed due to the microscopic, macroscopic molecular, as well as chemical constituents of wood.

  13. Processing the Chinese Reflexive “ziji”: Effects of Featural Constraints on Anaphor Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao; Kaiser, Elsi

    2016-01-01

    We present three self-paced reading experiments that investigate the reflexive ziji “self” in Chinese—in particular, we tested whether and how person-feature-based blocking guides comprehenders' real-time processing and final interpretation of ziji. Prior work claims that in Chinese sentences like “John thought that {I/you/Bill} did not like ZIJI,” (i) the reflexive ziji can refer to the matrix subject John if the intervening subject is also a third person entity (e.g., Bill), but that (ii) an intervening first or second person pronoun blocks reference to the matrix subject, causing ziji to refer to the first or second person pronoun. However, native speakers' judgments regarding the accessibility of long-distance antecedents are rather unstable, and researchers also disagree on what the exact configurations are that allow blocking. In addition, many open questions persist regarding the real-time processing of reflexives more generally, in particular regarding the accessibility (or lack thereof) of structurally unlicensed antecedents. We conducted three self-paced reading studies where we recorded people's word-by-word reading times and also asked questions that probed their off-line interpretation of the reflexive ziji. People's answers to the off-line questions show that blocking is not absolute: Comprehenders do allow significant numbers of non-local choices in both the first and the second person blocking conditions, albeit in small numbers. At the same time, the reading time data, particularly those from Experiments 2 and 3, show that comprehenders use person feature cues to quickly filter out inaccessible long-distance referents. The difference between on-line and off-line patterns points to the possibility that the interpretation of ziji unfolds over time: it seems that initially, during real-time processing, person-feature cues weigh more heavily and constrain what antecedent candidates get considered, but that at some later point, other kinds of

  14. Design of an FT-NIR spectrometer for online quality analysis of traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ren; Wu, Lan; Wang, Shiming; Ye, Linhua; Ding, Zhihua

    2008-03-01

    As a fast, non-destructive analysis method, Fourier transform (FT) near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is very suitable and effective for online quality analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) manufacturing process. In this thesis, the theoretics of FT-NIRS was analyzed and an FT-NIR spectrometer with 4 cm -1 resolution in the 12500-5000 cm -1 frequency range was designed. The spectrometer was based on a Michelson interferometer with Bromine tungsten lamp as the NIR light source and InGaAs detector to collect the interference signal. Each element was designed and chosen to provide maximum sensitivity in the NIR spectral region. A fiber-optic flow cell system was used to realize online analysis of traditional Chinese medicine. The performance of the spectrometer was evaluated and the feasibility of using FT-NIR spectrometer to get absorption spectra of traditional Chinese medicine was demonstrated.

  15. Ground-level ozone in four Chinese cities: precursors, regional transport and heterogeneous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Xue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed measurements of ozone (O3 and its precursors made at rural/suburban sites downwind of four large Chinese cities – Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, to elucidate their pollution characteristics, regional transport, in situ production, and impacts of heterogeneous processes. The same measurement techniques and observation-based model were used to minimize uncertainties in comparison of the results due to difference in methodologies. All four cities suffered from serious O3 pollution but showed different precursor distributions. The model-calculated in situ O3 production rates were compared with the observed change rates to infer the relative contributions of on-site photochemistry and transport. At the rural site of Beijing, export of the well-processed urban plumes contributed to the extremely high O3 levels (up to an hourly value of 286 ppbv, while the O3 pollution observed at suburban sites of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou was dominated by intense in-situ production. The O3 production was in a VOCs-limited regime in both Shanghai and Guangzhou, and a NOx-controlled regime in Lanzhou. The key VOC precursors are aromatics and alkenes in Shanghai, and aromatics in Guangzhou. The potential impacts on O3 production of several heterogeneous processes, namely, hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5, uptake of hydro peroxy radical (HO2 on particles and surface reactions of NO2 forming nitrous acid (HONO, were assessed. The analyses indicate the varying and considerable impacts of these processes in different areas of China depending on the atmospheric abundances of aerosol and NOx, and suggest the urgent need to better understand these processes and represent them in photochemical models.

  16. Brain Bases of Morphological Processing in Chinese-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Ka I; Hsu, Lucy Shih-Ju; Arredondo, Maria M.; Tardif, Twila; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Can bilingual exposure impact children's neural circuitry for learning to read? To answer this question, we investigated the brain bases of morphological awareness, one of the key spoken language abilities for learning to read in English and Chinese. Bilingual Chinese-English and monolingual English children (N = 22, ages 7-12) completed…

  17. Transcriptomic analyses of nitrogen assimilation processes in a Chinese strain of Aureococcus anophagefferens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aureococcus anophagefferens is a harmful alga that dominates plankton communities during brown tides in North America, Africa, and Asia. In order to figure out the processes of nitrogen assimilation in a Chinese strain of A. anophagefferens, RNA-seq technology was used to examine transcriptomic differences in A. anophagefferens that was grown on urea, nitrate, or a mixture of urea and nitrate, and that was under N-replete, limited and recovery conditions. We noted that transcripts upregulated by nitrate and N-limitation included those encoding proteins involved in amino acid, nucleotide and aminosugar transport, degradation of amides and cyanates, and nitrate assimilation pathway. The data suggest that A. anophagefferens possesses an ability to utilize a variety of dissolved organic nitrogen. Moreover, transcripts for synthesis of proteins, glutamate-derived amino acids, spermines and sterols were upregulated by urea. Transcripts encoding key enzymes that are involved in the ornithine–urea cycle (OUC and TCA cycle were differentially regulated by urea and nitrogen concentration, which suggests that the OUC may be linked to the TCA cycle and involved in reallocation of intracellular carbon and nitrogen. These genes regulated by urea may be crucial for the rapid proliferation of A. anophagefferens when urea is provided as the N source. Here, we provide the experimental procedures and analytical processes in detail. The data set is deposited in GEO with the accession number GSE60576.

  18. Lipolysis and lipid oxidation during processing of Chinese traditional smoke-cured bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yechuan; Li, Hongjun; Huang, Tian; Li, Feng; Sun, Juan

    2014-04-15

    Lipolysis and lipid oxidation as well as the relationship between them during processing of Chinese traditional smoke-cured bacon were studied by evaluating the changes in physicochemical parameters, lipase and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, lipid content, fatty acid composition, peroxide value (POV), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Besides phospholipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) were an important source of free fatty acids in bacon, resulting in an increase in free fatty acid content in the mid-late stage of processing, whilst phospholipids hydrolysed intensely in the early stage. Preferential lipolysis was observed for polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids and for linoleic and palmitic acids in TAG. The lipolysis of TAG and phospholipids was independent and catalysed by acid lipase and phospholipase, respectively. ANOVA-partial least squares regression (APLSR) analysis showed that POV and TBARS were poorly related to LOX and closely associated with phospholipid degradation. Therefore, autoxidation may be the main cause of muscle lipid oxidation in smoke-cured bacon, which was promoted by phospholipid hydrolysis.

  19. Research Overview on Traditional Chinese Medicine Processed With Vinegar%中药醋制研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新梅; 徐溢明

    2016-01-01

    本文对中药醋制的研究新进展进行综述。对中药醋制的历史、分类、方法、醋制前后化学成分的变化、药理变化等方面进行介绍。中药醋制对于中药的临床应用具有极其重要的意义。%The latest progress on traditional Chinese medicine processed with vinegar was reviewed .History, classification , technology , chemical constituents changes before and after processed with vinegar were introduced .The process with vinegar was of vital importance for clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine .

  20. Conformity with nature: a theory of Chinese American elders' health promotion and illness prevention processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y L

    1996-12-01

    Grounded theory methodology was used to generate a substantive theory that describes and explains the beliefs and behaviors regarding health promotion and illness prevention among Chinese elders in the United States. On the basis of data collected from 21 Chinese elders, the theory, conformity with nature, emerged. Three interrelated subprocesses--harmonizing with the environment, following bliss, and listening to heaven--were identified. This theory facilitates an understanding of ways to promote health and prevent illness and offers a guide for providing quality health care to Chinese elders in the United States.

  1. 加工炮制对中药剂量的影响%The Influence of Chinese Traditional Medicine Processing and Processing of Dose and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine processing is an organic part of Chinese medicine,has a long history and rich in content.Processing is the process of traditional Chinese medicine,drug before application or made into a dosage form so,before preparation dosage form,according to the medical and formulation requirements,combined with the characteristics of medicinal materials,processing specific processing,give ful play to its effect and avoid or reduce the occurrence of adverse reactions,the maximum extent to meet the clinical medication the purpose and improve the curative effect.%中药炮制是中医的一个有机组成部分,历史悠久并且内容丰富。加工炮制是药物在中药应用或制成剂型之前的处理过程,因此,在制备剂型前,需根据医疗及制剂的要求,结合药材的特点,进行特定的加工炮制处理,使其充分发挥疗效的同时避免或降低不良反应的发生,最大程度地满足临床用药的需要并提高其疗效。

  2. [Process and key points of clinical literature evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The clinical literature evaluation of the post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine is a comprehensive evaluation by the comprehensive gain, analysis of the drug, literature of drug efficacy, safety, economy, based on the literature evidence and is part of the evaluation of evidence-based medicine. The literature evaluation in the post-marketing Chinese medicine clinical evaluation is in the foundation and the key position. Through the literature evaluation, it can fully grasp the information, grasp listed drug variety of traditional Chinese medicines second development orientation, make clear further clinical indications, perfect the medicines, etc. This paper discusses the main steps and emphasis of the clinical literature evaluation. Emphasizing security literature evaluation should attach importance to the security of a comprehensive collection drug information. Safety assessment should notice traditional Chinese medicine validity evaluation in improving syndrome, improveing the living quality of patients with special advantage. The economics literature evaluation should pay attention to reliability, sensitivity and practicability of the conclusion.

  3. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0.05) in the fifth year. On the contrary, a significant increase was observed in propionic acid, furfural and phenylethanol. Ethyl lactate was found to be the most stable aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products. PMID:28059090

  4. Automatic Processing of Chinese GF-1 Wide Field of View Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Wan, Y.; Wang, B.; Kang, Y.; Xiong, J.

    2015-04-01

    The wide field of view (WFV) imaging instrument carried on the Chinese GF-1 satellite includes four cameras. Each camera has 200km swath-width that can acquire earth image at the same time and the observation can be repeated within only 4 days. This enables the applications of remote sensing imagery to advance from non-scheduled land-observation to periodically land-monitoring in the areas that use the images in such resolutions. This paper introduces an automatic data analysing and processing technique for the wide-swath images acquired by GF-1 satellite. Firstly, the images are validated by a self-adaptive Gaussian mixture model based cloud detection method to confirm whether they are qualified and suitable to be involved into the automatic processing workflow. Then the ground control points (GCPs) are quickly and automatically matched from the public geo-information products such as the rectified panchromatic images of Landsat-8. Before the geometric correction, the cloud detection results are also used to eliminate the invalid GCPs distributed in the cloud covered areas, which obviously reduces the ratio of blunders of GCPs. The geometric correction module not only rectifies the rational function models (RFMs), but also provides the self-calibration model and parameters for the non-linear distortion, and it is iteratively processed to detect blunders. The maximum geometric distortion in WFV image decreases from about 10-15 pixels to 1-2 pixels when compensated by self-calibration model. The processing experiments involve hundreds of WFV images of GF-1 satellite acquired from June to September 2013, which covers the whole mainland of China. All the processing work can be finished by one operator within 2 days on a desktop computer made up by a second-generation Intel Core-i7 CPU and a 4-solid-State-Disk array. The digital ortho maps (DOM) are automatically generated with 3 arc second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The geometric accuracies of the

  5. An Investigation of Chinese Students’ Acquisition of Oral and Written English through the Measurement of Processability Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Processability Theory (PT believes that L2 learner can not understand and produce those linguistic forms which are beyond the current stage of the language processor (Pienemann, 2007. Based on the understanding of the architecture of the language processor and how L2 is acquired under it, teachers can not only better predict the learners’ L2 developmental stages, explain the learners’ acquiring variations, but also indicate some constructive and objective guidelines for L2 teaching. So this study adopts the hierarchy of processing procedures applied to English (Pienemann, 1998 as the instrument to explore the two aspects of the English language acquisition. The final results support that Chinese college students’ written English is better than their oral English. Besides, there is indeed a positive relationship between Chinese college students’ written and oral English.

  6. Mechanisms underlying syntactic and semantic processing of Chinese simple sentences Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanhai Fang; Ming Zhao

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to test the processing of three types of sentences in Chinese, as correct sentences, semantic violation sentences, and sentences containing semantic and syntactic violations, based on the following sentence pattern: "subject (noun) + yi/gang/zheng + predicate (verb)". Event-related potentials on the scalp were recorded using 32-channel electroencephalography. Compared with correct sentences, target words elicited an early left anterior negativity (N400) and a later positivity (P600) over frontal, central and temporal sites in sentences involving semantic violations. In addition, when sentences contained both semantic and syntactic violations, the target words elicited a greater N400 and P600 distributed in posterior brain areas. These results indicate that Chinese sentence comprehension involves covert grammar processes.

  7. [Analysis of projects funded by NSFC in field of processing Chinese materia medica in recent five years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Xia, Xing; He, Bo-sai; Hah, Li-wei

    2015-05-01

    The general situation of the approved and concluded projects of National Natural Science Foundation of China in the field of processing Chinese Materia Medica in recent five years has been reviewed. The progresses and achievements of some projects have been summarized in accordance with research area such as the processing principle, the processing technology, quality evaluation, toxicity and safety evaluation, etc. The researchers and project support units of the funded projects have been analyzed, and the problems of the applications have been also summarized.

  8. [Discussion on research and development of new traditional Chinese medicine preparation process based on idea of QbD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Hong, Yan-Long; Xian, Jie-Chen; Du, Ruo-Fei; Zhao, Li-Jie; Shen, Lan

    2014-09-01

    Traditional processes are mostly adopted in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation production and the quality of products is mostly controlled by terminal. Potential problems of the production in the process are unpredictable and is relied on experience in most cases. Therefore, it is hard to find the key points affecting the preparation process and quality control. A pattern of research and development of traditional Chinese medicine preparation process based on the idea of Quality by Design (QbD) was proposed after introducing the latest research achievement. Basic theories of micromeritics and rheology were used to characterize the physical property of TCM raw material. TCM preparation process was designed in a more scientific and rational way by studying the correlation among enhancing physical property of raw material, preparation process and product quality of preparation. So factors affecting the quality of TCM production would be found out and problems that might occur in the pilot process could be predicted. It would be a foundation for the R&D and production of TCM preparation as well as support for the "process control" of TCMIs gradually realized in the future.

  9. Processing Interrogative Sentence Mood at the Semantic-Syntactic Interface: An Electrophysiological Research in Chinese, German, and Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Shan; Dietrich, Rainer; Sommer, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Background Languages differ in the marking of the sentence mood of a polar interrogative (yes/no question). For instance, the interrogative mood is marked at the beginning of the surface structure in Polish, whereas the marker appears at the end in Chinese. In order to generate the corresponding sentence frame, the syntactic specification of the interrogative mood is early in Polish and late in Chinese. In this respect, German belongs to an interesting intermediate class. The yes/no question is expressed by a shift of the finite verb from its final position in the underlying structure into the utterance initial position, a move affecting, hence, both the sentence's final and the sentence's initial constituents. The present study aimed to investigate whether during generation of the semantic structure of a polar interrogative, i.e., the processing preceding the grammatical formulation, the interrogative mood is encoded according to its position in the syntactic structure at distinctive time points in Chinese, German, and Polish. Methodology/Principal Findings In a two-choice go/nogo experimental design, native speakers of the three languages responded to pictures by pressing buttons and producing utterances in their native language while their brain potentials were recorded. The emergence and latency of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) in nogo conditions, in which speakers asked a yes/no question, should indicate the time point of processing the interrogative mood. The results revealed that Chinese, German, and Polish native speakers did not differ from each other in the electrophysiological indicator. Conclusions/Significance The findings suggest that the semantic encoding of the interrogative mood is temporally consistent across languages despite its disparate syntactic specification. The consistent encoding may be ascribed to economic processing of interrogative moods at various sentential positions of the syntactic structures in languages or, more

  10. Processing interrogative sentence mood at the semantic-syntactic interface: an electrophysiological research in Chinese, German, and Polish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Shan Kao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Languages differ in the marking of the sentence mood of a polar interrogative (yes/no question. For instance, the interrogative mood is marked at the beginning of the surface structure in Polish, whereas the marker appears at the end in Chinese. In order to generate the corresponding sentence frame, the syntactic specification of the interrogative mood is early in Polish and late in Chinese. In this respect, German belongs to an interesting intermediate class. The yes/no question is expressed by a shift of the finite verb from its final position in the underlying structure into the utterance initial position, a move affecting, hence, both the sentence's final and the sentence's initial constituents. The present study aimed to investigate whether during generation of the semantic structure of a polar interrogative, i.e., the processing preceding the grammatical formulation, the interrogative mood is encoded according to its position in the syntactic structure at distinctive time points in Chinese, German, and Polish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a two-choice go/nogo experimental design, native speakers of the three languages responded to pictures by pressing buttons and producing utterances in their native language while their brain potentials were recorded. The emergence and latency of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP in nogo conditions, in which speakers asked a yes/no question, should indicate the time point of processing the interrogative mood. The results revealed that Chinese, German, and Polish native speakers did not differ from each other in the electrophysiological indicator. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that the semantic encoding of the interrogative mood is temporally consistent across languages despite its disparate syntactic specification. The consistent encoding may be ascribed to economic processing of interrogative moods at various sentential positions of the syntactic structures in

  11. Processing interrogative sentence mood at the semantic-syntactic interface: an electrophysiological research in Chinese, German, and Polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Shan; Dietrich, Rainer; Sommer, Werner

    2010-09-29

    Languages differ in the marking of the sentence mood of a polar interrogative (yes/no question). For instance, the interrogative mood is marked at the beginning of the surface structure in Polish, whereas the marker appears at the end in Chinese. In order to generate the corresponding sentence frame, the syntactic specification of the interrogative mood is early in Polish and late in Chinese. In this respect, German belongs to an interesting intermediate class. The yes/no question is expressed by a shift of the finite verb from its final position in the underlying structure into the utterance initial position, a move affecting, hence, both the sentence's final and the sentence's initial constituents. The present study aimed to investigate whether during generation of the semantic structure of a polar interrogative, i.e., the processing preceding the grammatical formulation, the interrogative mood is encoded according to its position in the syntactic structure at distinctive time points in Chinese, German, and Polish. In a two-choice go/nogo experimental design, native speakers of the three languages responded to pictures by pressing buttons and producing utterances in their native language while their brain potentials were recorded. The emergence and latency of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) in nogo conditions, in which speakers asked a yes/no question, should indicate the time point of processing the interrogative mood. The results revealed that Chinese, German, and Polish native speakers did not differ from each other in the electrophysiological indicator. The findings suggest that the semantic encoding of the interrogative mood is temporally consistent across languages despite its disparate syntactic specification. The consistent encoding may be ascribed to economic processing of interrogative moods at various sentential positions of the syntactic structures in languages or, more generally, to the overarching status of sentence mood in the semantic

  12. The First"Yeong Guan Cup"Foundry Process Design Competition for Chinese University Students-Prize Evaluation and Award Ceremony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The curtain has finally fallen on the activity of the First"Yeong Guan Cup"Foundry Process Design Competition for Chinese University Students,which started from October 2009,lasting about half a year.

  13. Chinese Character and English Word processing in children's ventral occipitotemporal cortex: fMRI evidence for script invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafnick, Anthony J; Tan, Li-Hai; Flowers, D Lynn; Luetje, Megan M; Napoliello, Eileen M; Siok, Wai-Ting; Perfetti, Charles; Eden, Guinevere F

    2016-06-01

    Learning to read is thought to involve the recruitment of left hemisphere ventral occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) by a process of "neuronal recycling", whereby object processing mechanisms are co-opted for reading. Under the same theoretical framework, it has been proposed that the visual word form area (VWFA) within OTC processes orthographic stimuli independent of culture and writing systems, suggesting that it is universally involved in written language. However, this "script invariance" has yet to be demonstrated in monolingual readers of two different writing systems studied under the same experimental conditions. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined activity in response to English Words and Chinese Characters in 1st graders in the United States and China, respectively. We examined each group separately and found the readers of English as well as the readers of Chinese to activate the left ventral OTC for their respective native writing systems (using both a whole-brain and a bilateral OTC-restricted analysis). Critically, a conjunction analysis of the two groups revealed significant overlap between them for native writing system processing, located in the VWFA and therefore supporting the hypothesis of script invariance. In the second part of the study, we further examined the left OTC region responsive to each group's native writing system and found that it responded equally to Object stimuli (line drawings) in the Chinese-reading children. In English-reading children, the OTC responded much more to Objects than to English Words. Together, these results support the script invariant role of the VWFA and also support the idea that the areas recruited for character or word processing are rooted in object processing mechanisms of the left OTC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chinese Character and English Word processing in children’s ventral occipitotemporal cortex: fMRI evidence for script invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafnick, Anthony J.; Tan, Li-Hai; Flowers, D. Lynn; Luetje, Megan M.; Napoliello, Eileen M.; Siok, Wai-Ting; Perfetti, Charles; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2016-01-01

    Learning to read is thought to involve the recruitment of left hemisphere ventral occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) by a process of “neuronal recycling”, whereby object processing mechanisms are co-opted for reading. Under the same theoretical framework, it has been proposed that the visual word form area (VWFA) within the OTC processes orthographic stimuli independent of culture and writing systems, suggesting that it is universally involved in written language. However, this “script invariance” has yet to be demonstrated in monolingual readers of two different writing systems studied under the same experimental conditions. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined activity in response to English Words and Chinese Characters in 1st graders in the United States and China, respectively. We examined each group separately and found the readers of English as well as the readers of Chinese to activate the left ventral OTC for their respective native writing systems (using both a whole-brain and a bilateral OTC-restricted analysis). Critically, a conjunction analysis of the two groups revealed significant overlap between them for native writing system processing, located in the VWFA and therefore supporting the hypothesis of script invariance. In the second part of the study, we further examined the left OTC region responsive to each group’s native writing system and found it responded equally to Object stimuli (line drawings) in the Chinese-reading children. In English-reading children, the OTC responded much more to Objects than to English Words. Together, these results support the script invariant role of the VWFA and also support the idea that the areas recruited for character or word processing are rooted in object processing mechanisms of the left OTC. PMID:27012502

  15. Research on Chinese Antarctic Data Directory System I——Collecting, processing, examining and submitting data directory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the general framework of ADDS (Antarctic Data Directory System) established by SCAR-COMNAP ad hoc Planning Group on Antarctic data management, the CN—ADDS (Chinese Antarctic Data Directory System ) project is going on, of which the research and activity keeps to the available method and technique in ADDS development and allows for the Chinese specific status in Antarctic data management as well. At present, authoring and submitting timely Antarctic data directory in China is one of the key issues that is to be dealt with necessarily. This paper aims at studying the technical procedure in collecting, processing, examining and submitting data directory. In additional, it also discusses the efficient collection of data directory, which needs the effort of administrative and technical support

  16. Implementation and Process Issues in Using Group Triple P with Chinese Parents: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisante, Lea; Ng, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Implements and evaluates a positive parenting program intervention with Chinese parents. Results reveal significant improvements on the Prosocial Behavior Score. Given the unwillingness of some parents to complete questionnaires, the difficulties encountered in conducting evaluation in cross-cultural contexts are discussed, along with…

  17. Motivations and Decision-Making Processes of Mainland Chinese Students for Undertaking Master's Programs Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Mobility of mainland Chinese students across national borders has become common worldwide; however, the underlying reasons that motivate these students to pursue postgraduation abroad and why these factors are influential are not sufficiently studied. By analyzing the results of a case study performed at three British universities, we examine the…

  18. Consequences of hyperconcentrated flow for process-based soil erosion modelling on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, R.

    2006-01-01

    High sediment concentrations in runoff are a characteristic feature of the Chinese Loess Plateau, and are probably caused by factors such as the occurrence of erodible materials on steep slopes, the characteristics of the loess and the harsh climate that results in low plant cover. When sediment con

  19. Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming…

  20. Quantifying nitrous oxide emissions from Chinese grasslands with a process-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the largest land cover types, grassland can potentially play an important role in the ecosystem services of natural resources in China. Nitrous oxide (N2O is a major greenhouse gas emitted from grasslands. Current N2O inventory at a regional or national level in China relies on the emission factor method, which is based on limited measurements. To improve the accuracy of the inventory by capturing the spatial variability of N2O emissions under the diverse climate, soil and management conditions across China, we adopted an approach by utilizing a process-based biogeochemical model, DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC, to quantify N2O emissions from Chinese grasslands. In the present study, DNDC was tested against datasets of N2O fluxes measured at eight grassland sites in China with encouraging results. The validated DNDC was then linked to a GIS database holding spatially differentiated information of climate, soil, vegetation and management at county-level for all the grasslands in the country. Daily weather data for 2000–2007 from 670 meteorological stations across the entire domain were employed to serve the simulations. The modelled results on a national scale showed a clear geographic pattern of N2O emissions. A high-emission strip showed up stretching from northeast to central China, which is consistent with the eastern boundary between the temperate grassland region and the major agricultural regions of China. The grasslands in the western mountain regions, however, emitted much less N2O. The regionally averaged rates of N2O emissions were 0.26, 0.14 and 0.38 kg nitrogen (N ha−1 y−1 for the temperate, montane and tropical/subtropical grasslands, respectively. The annual mean N2O emission from the total 337 million ha of grasslands in China was 76.5 ± 12.8 Gg N for the simulated years.

  1. Serendipity in relationship: A tentative theory of the cognitive process of yuanfen and its psychological constructs in Chinese cultural societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ping eHsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen, relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  2. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  3. The Effects of Wiki-based Recursive Process Writing on Chinese Narrative Essays for Chinese as a Second Language (CSL Students in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Kuen Chin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the effects of using wiki-based process writing in Singapore’s Chinese as a Second Language (CSL scenarios. A group of 32 Secondary 1 (Seventh Grade students (“Students” received various forms of online scaffolding at different steps of the writing process over two years. A whole set of teaching materials on 45 writing skills was developed and uploaded to the Wiki platform through five recursive cycles. In each cycle, the students were encouraged to apply skills they learned via Wiki platform in their writing and afterwards work as a team in the platform to peer-review each other’s first draft. With feedback received from peer revision, students proceeded to edit their first draft, focusing on the content of narratives and the appropriateness on their use of micro writing skills. The scaffolding decreased as the project progressed. Students’ pre-, mid- and post-writing tests were marked and compared. The authors analyzed the impact that the feedback in the process had towards the students’ overall writing performance. It was discovered that students' quality of written products was improved in general. It was also discovered that students benefited the most from giving remarks to their peers’ writing. The revision patterns of high, medium and low language ability students were also compared. It was found that the higher the language ability of the students, the more concerned they were with macro level for their revisions. ICT-mediated process writing has not garnered much attention in the field of CSL. The study hopes to contribute to the literature of ICTmediated writing instruction in the field of CSL.

  4. Data Processing and Primary results of Lunar Penetrating Radar on Board the Chinese Yutu Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Xing, Shuguo; Feng, Jianqing; Dai, Shun; Ding, Chunyu; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhao, Shu; Xue, Xiping; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Li, Chunlai

    2015-04-01

    Radar is an attractive and powerful technique to observe the Moon. Radar mapping of the Moon's topography was first done by the Arecibo telescope at a wave- length of 70 cm in 1964 (Thompson & Dyce 1966). Chang'e-3 (CE-3) was successfully launched on 2013 December 2, and the landing place is in Mare Imbrium, about 40km south of the 6km diameter Laplace F crater, at 44.1214ON, 19.5116OW. The Lunar ground-Penetrating Radar (LPR) is one of scientific payloads of the Yutu rover, aiming to achieve the first direct measurements and explore the lunar subsurface structure. Compared with ALSE and LRS, LPR works at higher frequencies of 60 MHz and 500 MHz. Thus it can probe regions with shallower depth including the regolith and lunar crust at higher range resolution. The LPR uses one transmitting and one receiving dipole antenna for 60 MHz which are installed at the back of the rover. For 500 MHz, one transmitting and two bow-tie receiving antennas are attached to the bottom of the rover. It transmits a pulsed signal and receives the radar echo signal along the path that the Yutu rover traverses. The free space range resolutions are ~ 50 cm and ~ 25 m for 60 MHz and 500 MHz respectively. The radar data stop being sampled and are sent back to Earth when Yutu is stationary. Observations are simultaneously carried out at frequencies of 60 MHz and 500 MHz. Since the Yutu rover had severe problems during its second lunar day, it is pity that the Yutu rover only transversed a limited distance of 114.8m. In total, 566 MB of data were obtained. The scientific data are archived and distributed by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Data processing has been done in order to eliminate the effect of the instrument. To obtain clear radar images, more data processing need to be applied such as coordinate transformation, data editing, background removal, the operations of smoothing and gain resetting. The radar signal could detect hundreds of meters deep at

  5. Family Processes and Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Y. C. L. Kwok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the responses of 5,557 Chinese secondary students in Hong Kong, the relationships between perceived family functioning (systemic correlate, parent-adolescent communication (dyadic correlate, and suicidal ideation were examined in this study. Results showed that suicidal ideation was negatively related to global family functioning and parent-adolescent communication. Regression analyses indicated that the dyadic and systemic factors had similar importance in predicting suicidal ideation. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. [Research on Zhang's collated edition of Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li

    2010-05-01

    Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica) collated by Zhang Ji, and printed by Zhang's Yisheng Tang in Chengdu in 1932 was the first collated edition. Its original edition was not Jing shi zheng lei bei ji ben cao (Classified Materia Medica from Historical Classics for Emergency) of the Song Dynasty, but was Xiu shi zhi nan (Instruction for Drug Processing) and Lei gong pao zhi yao xing jie (Explanation on Master Lei's Properties of Drugs Processing) of the Qing Dynasty. The contents of this collated edition was far from Lei gong pao zhi lun with many mistakes, and was not the best edition to study Lei gong pao zhi lun.

  7. Static headspace-multicapillary column with gas chromatography coupled to ion mobility spectrometry as a simple approach for the discrimination of crude and processed traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Shou, Qiyang; Li, Qinglin; Jiang, Jianping; Chen, Xiaocheng

    2014-11-01

    The processing procedure can alter the nature and chemical transformation of traditional Chinese medicine to accommodate different clinical dispensing and preparation requirements. In this study, static headspace-multicapillary column with gas chromatography coupled to ion mobility spectrometry was developed for the rapid and sensitive discrimination of crude and processed traditional Chinese medicine. Using Radix Paeoniae Alba as a traditional Chinese medicine model, the combined power of this approach was illustrated by classifying the crude and processed Radix Paeoniae Alba samples into two main categories. The contents of the main components in Radix Paeoniae Alba varied significantly. The established method could promote the use of ion mobility spectrometry in intrinsic quality control and differentiation of herbal medicines from other processed products or preparations.

  8. Comparison of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Hong; Zhang, Qinglin; Tu, Shen; Yu, Caiyun; Qiu, Jiang

    2010-04-01

    Most Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. The semantic radical provides the semantic information; the phonetic radical provides information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. The pseudo-characters in the study consisted of different sub-lexical parts of real Chinese characters and consequently they also had the semantic radical and the phonetic radical. But they were not readable and had no actual meaning. In order to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical activation patterns underlying the orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters when 14 healthy Chinese college students viewed the characters passively. Results showed that both Chinese characters and pseudo-characters elicited an evident negative potential peaking around 120 ms (N120), which appeared to reflect initial orthographic distinction and evaluation. Then, Chinese pseudo-characters elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P220) than did Chinese characters 200-250 ms after onset of the stimuli. It was similar to the recognition potential (RP) and might reflect the integration processes of phonological and semantic processing on the basis of early orthographic information. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (pseudo-characters minus characters) indicated that a generator localized in the left temporal-occipital junction contributed to this effect, which was possibly related to phonological and perceptual-semantic information integration. Between 350-450 ms, a greater negativity (N360) in pseudo-characters as compared to characters was found over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole analysis localized the generator of N360 in the right parahippocampal cortex. Therefore, the N360 might be an N400 component and reflect the higher-level semantic activation on the

  9. Beyond Phonological and Morphological Processing: Pure Copying as a Marker of Dyslexia in Chinese but Not Poor Reading of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalindi, Sylvia Chanda; McBride, Catherine; Tong, Xiuhong; Wong, Natalie Lok Lee; Chung, Kien Hoa Kevin; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    To examine cognitive correlates of dyslexia in Chinese and reading difficulties in English as a foreign language, a total of 14 Chinese dyslexic children (DG), 16 poor readers of English (PE), and 17 poor readers of both Chinese and English (PB) were compared to a control sample (C) of 17 children, drawn from a statistically representative sample…

  10. Beyond Phonological and Morphological Processing: Pure Copying as a Marker of Dyslexia in Chinese but Not Poor Reading of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalindi, Sylvia Chanda; McBride, Catherine; Tong, Xiuhong; Wong, Natalie Lok Lee; Chung, Kien Hoa Kevin; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    To examine cognitive correlates of dyslexia in Chinese and reading difficulties in English as a foreign language, a total of 14 Chinese dyslexic children (DG), 16 poor readers of English (PE), and 17 poor readers of both Chinese and English (PB) were compared to a control sample (C) of 17 children, drawn from a statistically representative sample…

  11. Statistical modeling methods to analyze the impacts of multiunit process variability on critical quality attributes of Chinese herbal medicine tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Shengyun; Yang, Chan; Cui, Xianglong; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    The quality of Chinese herbal medicine tablets suffers from batch-to-batch variability due to a lack of manufacturing process understanding. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) immediate release tablet was taken as the research subject. By defining the dissolution of five active pharmaceutical ingredients and the tablet tensile strength as critical quality attributes (CQAs), influences of both the manipulated process parameters introduced by an orthogonal experiment design and the intermediate granules' properties on the CQAs were fully investigated by different chemometric methods, such as the partial least squares, the orthogonal projection to latent structures, and the multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS). By analyzing the loadings plots and variable importance in the projection indexes, the granule particle sizes and the minimal punch tip separation distance in tableting were identified as critical process parameters. Additionally, the MBPLS model suggested that the lubrication time in the final blending was also important in predicting tablet quality attributes. From the calculated block importance in the projection indexes, the tableting unit was confirmed to be the critical process unit of the manufacturing line. The results demonstrated that the combinatorial use of different multivariate modeling methods could help in understanding the complex process relationships as a whole. The output of this study can then be used to define a control strategy to improve the quality of the PNS immediate release tablet.

  12. Processing emotional words in two languages with one brain: ERP and fMRI evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiyao; Lin, Jie; Chen, Bingle; Lu, Chunming; Guo, Taomei

    2015-10-01

    Emotional words in a bilingual's second language (L2) seem to have less emotional impact compared to emotional words in the first language (L1). The present study examined the neural mechanisms of emotional word processing in Chinese-English bilinguals' two languages by using both event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results show a robust positive word processing advantage in L1 such that responses to positive words were faster and more accurate compared to responses to neutral words and negative words. In L2, emotional words only received higher accuracies than neutral words. In ERPs, positive words elicited a larger early posterior negativity and a smaller late positive component than neutral words in L1, while a trend of reduced N400 component was found for positive words compared to neutral words in L2. In fMRI, reduced activation was found for L1 emotional words in both the left middle occipital gyrus and the left cerebellum whereas increased activation in the left cerebellum was found for L2 emotional words. Altogether, these results suggest that emotional word processing advantage in L1 relies on rapid and automatic attention capture while facilitated semantic retrieval might help processing emotional words in L2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Vinegar and Wine Processing on the Alkaloid Content and Composition of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Corydalis Rhizoma (Yanhusuo

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    Hongwei Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Corydalis Rhizoma is the dried tuber of Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang which is used in traditional Chinese medicine for pain relief and blood activation. Before being used in the clinics, C. yanhusuo is traditionally processed through dry-frying or frying with vinegar, wine or salt. In this study, eleven alkaloids from Corydalis Rhizoma, namely protopine (1, α-allocryptopine (2, tetrahydrocolumbamine (3, coptisine (4, palmatine (5, berberine (6, dehydrocorydaline (7, d,l-tetrahydropalmatine (8, tetrahydroberberine (9, corydaline (10 and tetrahydrocoptisine (11 were simultaneously quantified using a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD method. The influence of vinegar and wine processing on the content of the main alkaloids of Corydalis Rhizoma was investigated. For this purpose, two common formulations with clinical application, namely the water decoction of Corydalis Rhizoma and its formula Jin Ling Zi San (combination of Corydalis Rhizoma and Toosendan Fructus were studied. In the two water decoctions, wine and vinegar processing increased the amount of tertiary alkaloids. The differences were more pronounced for Jin Ling Zi San, in which case the content of all tertiary alkaloids (compounds 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11 was increased by wine processing.

  14. Near-infrared Spectroscopy as a Process Analytical Technology Tool for Monitoring the Parching Process of Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on Two Kinds of Chemical Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiyue; Wang, Weiying; Liu, Yanping; Jiang, Su; Huang, Guo; Ye, Liming

    2017-01-01

    The active ingredients and thus pharmacological efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) at different degrees of parching process vary greatly. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used to develop a new method for rapid online analysis of TCM parching process, using two kinds of chemical indicators (5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural [5-HMF] content and 420 nm absorbance) as reference values which were obviously observed and changed in most TCM parching process. Three representative TCMs, Areca (Areca catechu L.), Malt (Hordeum Vulgare L.), and Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.), were used in this study. With partial least squares regression, calibration models of NIR were generated based on two kinds of reference values, i.e. 5-HMF contents measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 420 nm absorbance measured by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis), respectively. In the optimized models for 5-HMF, the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) for Areca, Malt, and Hawthorn was 0.0192, 0.0301, and 0.2600 and correlation coefficients (Rcal) were 99.86%, 99.88%, and 99.88%, respectively. Moreover, in the optimized models using 420 nm absorbance as reference values, the RMSEP for Areca, Malt, and Hawthorn was 0.0229, 0.0096, and 0.0409 and Rcal were 99.69%, 99.81%, and 99.62%, respectively. NIR models with 5-HMF content and 420 nm absorbance as reference values can rapidly and effectively identify three kinds of TCM in different parching processes. This method has great promise to replace current subjective color judgment and time-consuming HPLC or UV/Vis methods and is suitable for rapid online analysis and quality control in TCM industrial manufacturing process. Near-infrared spectroscopy.(NIR) was used to develop a new method for online analysis of traditional Chinese medicine.(TCM) parching processCalibration and validation models of Areca, Malt, and Hawthorn were generated by partial least squares regression using 5.(hydroxymethyl

  15. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  16. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…

  17. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  18. Morphologic evaluation of Chinese cervical endplate and uncinate process by three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions for helping design cervical disc prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hang Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: There is a morphologic discrepancy in dimensions of cervical vertebrae regarding sexes, bilateral sides, vertebral segments, and different populations. It is essential to design cervical disc prostheses suited specifically for Chinese patients, for whom the morphometric parameters in our study concerning the cervical endplate and uncinate process can be utilized.

  19. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…

  20. [Impact on evaluation of clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine for level in soft targets of processing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ming-Yi; Wei, Ming; Yan, Bo-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a very practical subject, which has its unique theoretical system and clinical characteristics. In the course of clinical practice, the exact clinical efficacy is the key of existence and development. But the existing evaluation system is difficult to objectively evaluate the clinical efficacy of TCM. Therefore, how to objectively evaluate the clinical efficacy and get definitive evidence is the focus of the evaluation of clinical efficacy of TCM. Relative to modern medicine, TCM is more concerned about the changes of feelings and clinical symptoms of the patient in the course of the evolution of the disease. Soft targets mainly used for the evaluation of the clinical efficacy of symptoms and functional activity of the disease. The level in soft targets of processing technology is often used methods in clinical evaluation. But it has often produced the phenomenon which the results of the evaluation is mutual contradiction, which will ultimately affect the effect of evaluation of clinical efficacy of TCM. In order to better evaluate the clinical efficacy of TCM, in the process of adoption of soft targets, it clearly identify it's role, highlighting the characteristics of interventions on disease, and as much as possibly avoid the level in soft targets of processing technology to real assess clinical efficacy of TCM.

  1. The Comparison of Chinese Pickle, Japanese Pickle and Kimchi Processing Technology%中、日、韩三国泡菜加工工艺的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢沿钢; 董全

    2011-01-01

    This paper researched comparatively on the sort, the processing technology, the operation points, the production feature of Chinese pickle, kimchi and Japanese pickle. According to comparison, this paper also made some suggestions for the development of Chinese pickle.%对目前中、日、韩三国泡菜的加工工艺、操作要点和产品特色进行了对比研究,并由此对中国泡菜的发展提出了一些建议.

  2. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based practice utilizing an iterative stakeholder process and theoretical framework: problem solving therapy for Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Joyce P; Huynh, Loanie; Areán, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Main objectives were to familiarize the reader with a theoretical framework for modifying evidence-based interventions for cultural groups, and to provide an example of one method, Formative Method for Adapting Psychotherapies (FMAP), in the adaptation of an evidence-based intervention for a cultural group notorious for refusing mental health treatment. Provider and client stakeholder input combined with an iterative testing process within the FMAP framework was utilized to create the Problem Solving Therapy--Chinese Older Adult (PST-COA) manual for depression. Data from pilot-testing the intervention with a clinically depressed Chinese elderly woman are reported. PST-COA is categorized as a 'culturally-adapted' treatment, where core mediating mechanisms of PST were preserved, but cultural themes of measurement methodology, stigma, hierarchical provider-client relationship expectations, and acculturation enhanced core components to make PST more understandable and relevant for Chinese elderly. Modifications also encompassed therapeutic framework and peripheral elements affecting engagement and retention. PST-COA applied with a depressed Chinese older adult indicated remission of clinical depression and improvement in mood. Fidelity with and acceptability of the treatment was sufficient as the client completed and reported high satisfaction with PST-COA. PST, as a non-emotion-focused, evidence-based intervention, is a good fit for depressed Chinese elderly. Through an iterative stakeholder process of cultural adaptation, several culturally-specific modifications were applied to PST to create the PST-COA manual. PST-COA preserves core therapeutic PST elements but includes cultural adaptations in therapeutic framework and key administration and content areas that ensure greater applicability and effectiveness for the Chinese elderly community. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Is processing of symbols and words influenced by writing system? Evidence from Chinese, Korean, English, and Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altani, Angeliki; Georgiou, George K; Deng, Ciping; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Katopodi, Katerina; Wei, Wei; Protopapas, Athanassios

    2017-12-01

    We examined cross-linguistic effects in the relationship between serial and discrete versions of digit naming and word reading. In total, 113 Mandarin-speaking Chinese children, 100 Korean children, 112 English-speaking Canadian children, and 108 Greek children in Grade 3 were administered tasks of serial and discrete naming of words and digits. Interrelations among tasks indicated that the link between rapid naming and reading is largely determined by the format of the tasks across orthographies. Multigroup path analyses with discrete and serial word reading as dependent variables revealed commonalities as well as significant differences between writing systems. The path coefficient from discrete digits to discrete words was greater for the more transparent orthographies, consistent with more efficient sight-word processing. The effect of discrete word reading on serial word reading was stronger in alphabetic languages, where there was also a suppressive effect of discrete digit naming. However, the effect of serial digit naming on serial word reading did not differ among the four language groups. This pattern of relationships challenges a universal account of reading fluency acquisition while upholding a universal role of rapid serial naming, further distinguishing between multi-element interword and intraword processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling of two-phase anaerobic process treating traditional Chinese medicine wastewater with the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaobo; Hu, Dongxue; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Ren, Nanqi; Zhu, Haibo

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to implement a mathematical model to simulate two-phase anaerobic digestion (TPAD) process which consisted of an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor in series treating traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater. A model was built on the basis of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) while considering complete mixing model for the CSTR, and axial direction discrete model and mixed series connection model for the UASB. The mathematical model was implemented with the simulation software package MATLABTM/Simulinks. System performance, in terms of COD removal, volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation and pH fluctuation, was simulated and compared with the measured values. The simulation results indicated that the model built was able to well predict the COD removal rate (-4.8-5.0%) and pH variation (-2.9-1.4%) of the UASB reactor, while failed to simulate the CSTR performance. Comparing to the measured results, the simulated acetic acid concentration of the CSTR effluent was underpredicted with a deviation ratios of 13.8-23.2%, resulting in an underprediction of total VFA and COD concentrations despite good estimation of propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid. It is presumed that ethanol present in the raw wastewater was converted into acetic acid during the acidification process, which was not considered by the model. Additionally, due to the underprediction of acetic acid the pH of CSTR effluent was overestimated.

  5. The effect of Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum) ecotype on soil-plant system carbon and nitrogen processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E; DeWalt, Saara J; Siemann, Evan

    2006-11-01

    The EICA hypothesis predicts that shifts in allocation of invasive plants give rise to higher growth rates and lower herbivore defense levels in their introduced range than conspecifics in their native range. These changes in traits of invasive plants may also affect ecosystem processes. We conducted an outdoor pot experiment with Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) seedlings from its native (Jiangsu, China, native ecotype) and introduced ranges (Texas, USA, invasive ecotype) to compare their relative performances in its native range and to examine ecotype effects on soil processes with and without fertilization. Consistent with predictions, plant (shoot and root) mass was significantly greater and leaf defoliation tended to be higher, while the root:shoot ratio was lower for the invasive ecotype relative to the native ecotype. Seasonal amounts of soil-plant system CO(2) and N(2)O emissions were higher for the invasive ecotype than for the native ecotype. Soil respiration rates and N(2)O emission increases from fertilization were also greater for the invasive ecotype than for the native ecotype, while shoot-specific respiration rates (g CO(2)-C g(-1) C day(-1)) did not differ between ecotypes. Further, soil inorganic N (ammonium and nitrate) was higher, but soil total N was lower for soils with the invasive ecotype than soils with the native ecotype. Compared with native ecotypes, therefore, invasive ecotypes may have developed a competition advantage in accelerating soil processes and promoting more nitrogen uptake through soil-plant direct interaction. The results of this study suggest that soil and ecosystem processes accelerated by variation in traits of invasive plants may have implications for their invasiveness.

  6. Processing of Tense Morphology and Filler-Gap Dependencies by Chinese Second Language Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiyin Renee

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate in the field of Second Language Acquisition concerning whether a fundamental difference exists between the native language (L1) and adult second language (L2) online processing of syntax and morpho-syntax. The Shallow Structure Hypothesis (SSH) (Clahsen and Felser, 2006a, b) states that L2 online parsing is qualitatively…

  7. Modeling the Process of Summary Writing of Chinese Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiuliang

    2016-01-01

    In language learning contexts, writing tasks that involve reading of source texts are often used to elicit more authentic integrative language use. Thus, interests in researching these read-to-write tasks in general and as assessment tasks keep growing. This study examined and modeled the process of summary writing as a read-to-write integrated…

  8. Safety evaluation of Chinese nickel resources based on analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    China is now the world’s largest producer and consumer of nickel. As an important strategic metal, nickel is widely used in various industries of national economy. Whether the supply of nickel ore resources is sufficient or not directly restricts the development of downstream industries. It is becoming more and more important to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in our country, and to formulate the corresponding safety strategy. This paper uses fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in China, and overcomes the subjectivity and singleness of traditional evaluation methods. On the basis of the analytic hierarchy process to determine the weight, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is introduced. At present, the safety situation of nickel resources in our country is in a more dangerous level, and we need to take positive measures to improve it.

  9. The Translatology Process of the Word'Gaze'in Chinese Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Jun

    2008-01-01

    With reference to the concept of'cultural studies'and certain modern theories in translation studies,this essay makes a general analysis of the translation and introduction of the'gaze'concept in China.On the basis of this analysis,it explores how this concept spread to China and why,this concept Was explained and rewritten through translation and interpretation in the course of the spread;and what responses and reflections we should bear during the process.

  10. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization.

  11. Differential Hemispheric Processing in the Recognition of Chinese Characters with Different Structures in Foveal and Parafoveal Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Hsiao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether foveal representation in reading is initially split and contralaterally projected to different hemispheres or bilaterally projected remains a controversial issue. Here we examine visual field asymmetry effects in naming Chinese characters with different structures, with characters presented either to the left visual field or the right visual field (RVF, and either within or outside foveal vision (eccentricity. We show that overall the RVF advantage in naming characters was significant in both eccentricity conditions (fovea vs. parafovea, with a stronger effect in parafoveal vision. This suggests that foveal splitting may not be an all-or-none phenomenon but has a graded effect. When examining characters with different structures separately, this interaction between visual field and eccentricity was significant only in the dominant, right-heavy character structure type, but not in the minority left-heavy or symmetric structure types, suggesting a modulation of character structure or type frequency on the eccentricity effect. In addition, existence of a phonetic radical modulated the visual field asymmetry effect differentially in different character structure types; however this effect did not interact with eccentricity. This result thus suggests that character structure and existence of a phonetic radical have differential modulation on character processing in the foveal and parafoveal vision.

  12. Predominant processing adaptability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains isolated from Chinese traditional low-salt fermented whole fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xuefeng; He, Laping; Guo, Xu; Deng, Li; Yang, Wangen; Zhu, Qiujin; Duan, Zhenhua

    2017-02-02

    This study aimed to determine the predominant processing adaptability of 27 selected isolates of Staphylococcus xylosus in 'Suan yu', a traditional Chinese low-salt fermented whole-fish product. The isolates were screened for proteolytic, lipolytic, and enzymatic profiles; amino-acid decarboxylase content; antimicrobial activities; and tolerance to low temperatures, pH5.0, and salt. Two S. xylosus strains grew at 10°C in the presence of 10% NaCl and at pH5.0. Agar-plate assays and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that 21 and 8 of the strains exhibited appropriate proteolytic activities against myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins, respectively. All S. xylosus strains also displayed different enzymatic profiles, and most strains showed negative decarboxylase activities. The results of this step were used as input data for a Principal Component Analysis; therefore, the most technologically relevant strain 3 and 8 were combined with L. plantarum 120 as MS1 and MS2, respectively, were further selected for the fermented fish surimi, and the fish surimi inoculated with mixed starter cultures (MS1, MS2) scored high for overall acceptability. Free amino acid contents of 1757 and 1765mg/100g sample were found in fish surimi inoculated with MS1 and MS2, respectively, after 72h of fermentation. Therefore, Sx-3 and Sx-8, which presented the best predominant processing adaptability, is an eligible starter culture for fermented fish production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Beyond phonological and morphological processing: pure copying as a marker of dyslexia in Chinese but not poor reading of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalindi, Sylvia Chanda; McBride, Catherine; Tong, Xiuhong; Wong, Natalie Lok Yee; Chung, Kien Hoa Kevin; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-07-01

    To examine cognitive correlates of dyslexia in Chinese and reading difficulties in English as a foreign language, a total of 14 Chinese dyslexic children (DG), 16 poor readers of English (PE), and 17 poor readers of both Chinese and English (PB) were compared to a control sample (C) of 17 children, drawn from a statistically representative sample of 177 second graders. Children were tested on pure copying of unfamiliar stimuli, rapid automatized naming (RAN), phoneme deletion, syllable deletion, and morphological awareness. With children's ages and Raven's nonverbal reasoning statistically controlled, the PE and PB groups were significantly lower than the C group on phoneme deletion and RAN tasks, while the DG performed significantly better than the PB group on the RAN task. The copying task distinguished the DG group from the C group. Findings particularly highlight the importance of phoneme awareness for word reading in English (but not Chinese), the potential need for fluency training for children with reading difficulties in both Chinese and English, and the important role that copying skills could have specifically in understanding impairment of literacy skills in Chinese (but not English).

  14. Early difficulties of Chinese preschoolers at familial risk for dyslexia: deficits in oral language, phonological processing skills, and print-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Leung, Man-Tak; Cheung, Him

    2011-05-01

    The present study examined some early performance difficulties of Chinese preschoolers at familial risk for dyslexia. Seventy-six high-risk (40 good and 36 poor readers) and 25 low-risk Chinese children were tested on oral language, reading-related cognitive skills (e.g. phonological processing skills, rapid naming, and morphological awareness), and Chinese word reading and spelling over a 3-year period. The parents were also given a behaviour checklist for identifying child at-risk behaviours. Results showed that the High Risk (Poor Reading) group performed significantly worse than the Low Risk and the High Risk (Good Reading) group on most of the measures and domains. More children in the High Risk (Poor Reading) group displayed at-risk behaviours than in the other two groups. These results suggest that Chinese at-risk children with early difficulties in reading and spelling do show a wide range of language-, phonology-, and print-related deficits, similar to their alphabetic counterparts. An understanding of these early difficulties may help prevent dyslexia from developing in at-risk children. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Acrylamide in thermal-processed carbohydrate-rich foods from Chinese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fan; Jin, Shao Qiang; Zhu, Bing Qi; Chen, Wan Qin; Wang, Xin Yi; Liu, Zhu; Luo, Jin Wen

    2017-09-01

    Acrylamide content in food market in China was determined with the goal to evaluate related health concern. In this survey, products of rice, potato corn, wheat as well as dried fruit slices and instant foods were analysed. All these types of thermal-processed carbohydrate-rich foods were frequently consumed in China. They were purchased from markets in Zhejiang province and analysed using a liquid chromatography tandem/mass spectrometry method. Acrylamide was detected in 94.3% of 105 investigated samples, ranging from 10 to 3649 μg/kg with an average value of 231 μg/kg and a median of 114 μg/kg. In this study, high levels were found in potato products (564 ± 285 μg/kg), corn products (524 ± 187 μg/kg) and instant foods (180 ± 35 μg/kg) while low levels were measured in rice products (82 ± 17 μg/kg), wheat products (96 ± 29 μg/kg) and dried fruit slices (83 ± 13 μg/kg).

  16. Experimenting with a Wiki-based collaborative process writing pedagogy for teaching and learning of Chinese writing among upper primary school students in China

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This research mainly aims to design a Wiki-based Collaborative Process Writing Pedagogy (WCPWP) to help Mainland Chinese upper primary school students with their writing. A wiki-based learning environment (www.joyouswriting.com) named Joyous Writing Club (JWC) was designed and developed by the researcher using MediaWiki software. This study was conducted in a primary school in Shenzhen, Mainland China. This research applied Design-based Research (DBR) methodology, and included three itera...

  17. Study on the production process of Chinese chestnut milk%栗子奶制造技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张齐军; 韦丽

    2012-01-01

    The production process of Chinese chestnut milk, a kind of drink made from chestnut and milk with unique flavor was introduced.Firstly, the chestnuts were well-baked and grinded into serum, appropriately enzyme hydrolyzed by adding some malt,and finally mixed with milk.To ensure the product quality and flavor,the baking and hydrolysis processes, as well as ingredients ratio were optimized ,which showed that the optimal conditions for sugar-soaking and baking of chestnut were 2tO~C for 30 minutes,while that for enzymatic hydrolysis were 65℃ for 65 minutes with 2.0% malt ratio at pH 6.5, and the ideal DE value was about 15 of enzymatic hydrolysate.The optimal ingredients of Chinese chestnut milk were 10.0% chestnut kernel,2.0% malt, ].2% milk powder and 6.0% sugar,etc.The product was a kind of slight-yellow colored milk of good taste and high quality as well as the functions of nourishing the stomach and the kidney, promoting blood circulation and delaying ageing.%板栗经精心烘制处理,果仁磨浆后选用优质麦芽为酶解剂适度酶解,配以奶粉等用科学方法制成具有养胃健脾、补肾强筋、活血、养颜益寿、风味独特的健康功能饮料。对影响产品品质与风味的烘制工艺、麦芽酶解工艺及成分配比进行优化选择,结果表明:板栗浸糖烘烤的最佳条件为210%,30min;麦芽酶解栗仁浆的最优条件是麦芽用量2.0%,温度65%,pH6.5,时间65min,酶解液DE值的理想值在15左右;栗子奶最佳配方则为板栗仁10.0%、麦芽2.0%、奶粉1.2%、蔗糖6.0%。制得的产品色泽微黄、气味香甜略带淡雅奶香.风味、滋味俱佳.品盾上乘。

  18. 中国企业跨国知识转移过程研究%Study on Knowledge Transfer Process of Chinese Multinationals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾镜渝; 赵忠秀

    2015-01-01

    寻求创造性资产是中国企业对发达国家对外直接投资的主要动机之一,也是提升中国企业自主创新能力、培养全球竞争力的重要途径。然而,许多失败的海外投资案例表明,中国企业并未如预期那样通过海外投资提升创新能力,其重要原因之一是缺乏有效的知识转移。因此,本文以动态视角建立了中国企业跨国知识转移过程的整体框架,希望对企业跨国知识转移过程的管理提供有益借鉴。%One of the main objectives of Chinese outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) in developed countries is to acquire strategic assets, which is considered as an important way to elevate Chinese firms’self-innovation ability and global competitiveness.However, as indicated by many failed cross-border acquisitions, most Chinese firms failed to improve innovation ability through such OFDI.One impor-tant reason is the lack of effective knowledge transfer process after the investment.Therefore, this paper analyzes this process and builds a comprehensive knowledge transfer framework from a dynamic perspective.We hope this could shed new light on how to effectively manage knowledge transfer process for Chinese multinationals.

  19. On the Process of the Thai Chinese Participation in Political and Government Affairs After World War H and their Reasons%二战后泰国华人参政历程及原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘少红

    2004-01-01

    This paper expounds the process and characteristics of the political participation by oversea Chinese in Thailand and factors that affect their participation. Then it further explores their social significance.

  20. Right anterior cingulate gyrus in encephalic region associated with integrating and processing Chinese words information in working memory: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxing Wu; Shuqiao Yao; Lirong Yan; Changlian Tan; Dewen Hu; Wai Cheong Carl Tam; Yadong Liu; Zongtan Zhou; Xiang Wang; Ding Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many experimental results have been found in previous studies on whether laterality of brain cingulate gyrus exists in processing Chinese words information. OBJECTIVE: To observe the function of right anterior cingulate gyrus and activation showed by MRI in processing Chinese words in a visual working memory judgment tasks, and evaluate the laterality of activated brain regions.DESIGN : Observation experiment.SETTING : The Medical Psychological Research Center, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen healthy volunteers (7 males and 6 females), aged (29±7)years ranging from 23 to 36 years old, participated in this fMRI study during August 2003 to Febuary 2004. They gave informed consent in accordance with guidelines set by Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. All subjects were native Chinese speakers and strongly right handed.METHODS: In this study, Chinese numeral words were used as test materials and test mode of Sternberg was used in cognitive task, it was aimed to investigate the encephalic region involved in the storage and processing of Chinese numerical information. ①The head of subject was fixed with dense foam pad. Visual working task was performed according to the requests. Verbal working task was that the subject saw target items for four numerals written in Chinese, presenting for 1.5 s and then, after a short time by blank for 3.0 s. The subject saw one numeral presenting for 1.5 s and had to press one button if it was one of the shown numbers and another button if it did not belong to the presented numbers. There were two visual working memory stimuli in each stimulation block. The experiment was conducted in a single run, which consisted of seven blocks of visual working memory tasks. Different Chinese numerals were displayed in each block to avoid any practice effect (The response rate of the whole working memory task was 50%). ②The activation of brain was scanned with a 1.5T MRI

  1. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities and psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents in intact and non-intact families in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Lee, Tak Yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether Chinese adolescents' perceptions (N = 3,017) of parental behavioral control (parental knowledge, expectation, monitoring, discipline, and demandingness as well as parental control based on indigenous Chinese concepts), parental psychological control, parent-child relational qualities (perceived parental trust, child's trust of the parents, child's readiness to communicate with the parents, and child's satisfaction with parental control), and adolescent psychological well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem) differed in intact and non-intact families. Results showed that relative to non-intact families, parental behavioral control processes were higher and parent-child relational qualities were better in intact families. In contrast, parental psychological control was higher in non-intact families than in intact families. Finally, the psychological well-being of adolescents in non-intact families was poorer than that of adolescents in intact families.

  2. Under the Background of “Internet +” the Social Anomie and Governance Plan in Chinese Modernization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yundong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the reform and opening up in China, which appeared political anomie, values astray inevitably, and so on. To achieve the current benign social governance, the rule of law need to improve the Chinese characteristics of the socialist system, to promote the growth of the rule of law; which is need to improve socialism with Chinese characteristics system of moral standards to guide members of the community to actively Pursuits socialist core values; innovation and social governance mechanism, vigorously develop modern new social organizations; and which is need to explore the implementation of “Internet + supervision” mode, the innovation market regulatory approach, innovation in public service delivery.

  3. Scope Processing in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Gao, Liqun

    2009-01-01

    The standard view maintains that quantifier scope interpretation results from an interaction between different modules: the syntax, the semantics as well as the pragmatics. Thus, by examining the mechanism of quantifier scope interpretation, we will certainly gain some insight into how these different modules interact with one another. To observe…

  4. A study of the typological transitivity systems in oriental and occidental languages: A comparison of relational processes in English, Spanish, Chinese and Japanese in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim, firstly, to make a comparison of the transitivity systems of two occidental languages (English and Spanish) and two oriental languages (Japanese and Chinese). More concretely, this dissertation will focus on relational processes. I also aim to study the problems of translating different relational processes in Spanish, Japanese and Chinese as the second research aim by the typological transitivity system in the area of systemic functional linguistics. The re...

  5. First Chinese public hospital wins Joint Commission International accreditation: the Health Information Department played a key role in the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Audrey; Jun, Cheng Li

    2008-07-01

    Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital in Hangzhou, China spent five years preparing for a Joint Commission International accreditation survey. In March 2007 it became the first public hospital on the Chinese mainland to attain international accreditation. The Health Information Department, managed according to Western standards, played an integral role in preparing the hospital for the survey.

  6. Culturally Appropriate Photonovel Development and Process Evaluation for Hepatitis B Prevention in Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese American Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Yoon, Hyeyeon; Chen, Lu; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans have disproportionately high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States and yet have low hepatitis B screening and vaccination rates. We developed three photonovels specifically designed for Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans and evaluated their cultural relevance and effectiveness in increasing…

  7. Font Effects of Chinese Characters and Pseudo-Characters on the N400: Evidence for an Orthographic Processing View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Caixia; Wang, Quanhong

    2012-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a Chinese character decision task to examine whether N400 amplitude is modulated by stimulus font. Results revealed large negative-going ERPs in an N400 time window of 300-500 ms to stimuli presented in degraded Xing Kai Ti (XKT) font compared with more intact Song Ti (ST) font regardless…

  8. Testing for a cultural influence on reading for meaning in the developing brain: the neural basis of semantic processing in Chinese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Li Chou

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to explore the neural correlates of semantic judgments in a group of 8- to 15-year-old Chinese children. Participants were asked to indicate if pairs of Chinese characters presented visually were related in meaning. The related pairs were arranged in a continuous variable according to association strength. Pairs of characters with weaker semantic association elicited greater activation in the mid ventral region (BA 45 of left inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting increased demands on the process of selecting appropriate semantic features. By contrast, characters with stronger semantic association elicited greater activation in left inferior parietal lobule (BA 39, suggesting stronger integration of highly related features. In addition, there was a developmental increase, similar to previously reported findings in English, in left posterior middle temporal gyrus (BA 21, suggesting that older children have more elaborated semantic representations. There were additional age-related increases in the posterior region of left inferior parietal lobule and in the ventral regions of left inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting that reading acquisition relies more on the mapping from orthography to semantics in Chinese children as compared to previously reported findings in English.

  9. 香椿酸豆奶生产工艺技术研究%Study on Processing Technology of Fermented Soybean Milk with Chinese Toona

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万娅琼; 伍玉菡; 尤逢患; 储耀宇

    2012-01-01

    以香椿和大豆为原料,研究了香椿酸豆奶生产的关键技术,优化了香椿汁的添加量及发酵条件。结果显示:香椿提取液添加量为5.0%,混合工作发酵剂接种比例为4%,白砂糖8%,乳清粉0.5%,磷酸三钠0.05%,复合稳定剂0.2%,并高压均质2次,生产的酸豆奶色泽淡绿,酸甜适口,无气泡和乳清析出,具有香椿和大豆特有香气和发酵乳香。%The key processing technology of fermented soybean milk was studied using Chinese Toona and soybean as materi- als. The purpose was to develop fermented soybean milk with Chinese Toona flavor. The result showed that it could be real- ized with 5.0% Chinese Toona extract,4% mixed starter,8% sugar,0.5% whey powder, 0.05% trisodium phosphate, 0.2% complex stabilizer and twice high- pressure homogenization.

  10. Microbial Growth, Sensory Characteristic and pH as Potential Spoilage Indicators of Chinese Yellow Wet Noodles from Commercial Processing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwaibah Ghaffar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of microbial growth, sensory characteristic (odour and pH as potential spoilage indicators of Chinese yellow wet noodles. Approach: Samples were collected from 3 commercial processing plants namely, Automated Processing (AP, Semi-automated Processing (SP and Manual Processing (MP. The samples were kept at ambient temperature (28±2 °C and monitored microbiologically for ten days. Standard Plate Count (TPC and Yeast and Mould Count (YMC were determined using conventional spread plate methods. Sensory evaluation of noodles was carried out using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. Results: Initial TPC for all samples were around log 3 CFU/g which significantly increased to around log 7 CFU/g towards the end of storage period. The same pattern was observed for YMC for all samples. Odour of AP, SP and MP samples began to deteriorate and samples became unacceptable to panelists on 3, 4 and 2 days of storage, respectively. Linear regression analyses between storage period and the various potential spoilage indicators demonstrated the strongest correlation for all samples between the storage time and odour (r = 0.81243 - 0.93856 and p=Conclusion/Recommendation: Taken together, odor is the most suitable to be used as spoilage indicator for Chinese yellow wet noodles.

  11. 中药炮制中的“去汗”探析%Study on the "Quhan" in Traditional Chinese Medicine Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱俊华; 钱苏海

    2016-01-01

    Objective] Study on the exact meaning of "Quhan" in traditional Chinese medicine processing. [Methods] Based on studying the ancient and modern Chinese literature, with Sichuan pepper as the breakthrough point, we can analyze "Quhan" method of processing and the role. [Results] The process of "Quhan" is a component of the water or oil that is contained in the internal drug, which is transferred to the surface of the drug by frying or heap stuffy, it can not simply be regarded as to remove the water or oil from the drug. A correct understanding of "Quhan" is practically significant for people to master some of the traditional Chinese medicine processing degree and improve the treatment result of the drug instead of removing the water or oil from the drug. [Conclusion] "Quhan" is the method that the liquid substance is free to the surface of traditional Chinese medicine processing, which can make the drug's effect better.%[目的]探讨中药炮制“去汗”的确切含义。[方法]在研读古今中药文献的基础上,以蜀椒一药炮制为切入点,分析“去汗”法的炮制特点及其所起的作用。[结果]“去汗”炮制法是通过煎炒、堆闷等方法将蕴藏于中药内部的水或油的成分转移到药物的表面,它不能简单地理解为将药物中的水或油祛除出去。[结论]正确理解“去汗”的确切含义,对于掌握某些中药的炮制火候,提高药物的治疗效果具有现实的指导意义。

  12. 基于中国餐馆过程的语音增强%Speech Enhancement Based on Chinese Restaurant Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷菊阳

    2013-01-01

    针对有色噪声中的语音增强问题,通过引入中国餐馆过程混合模型(Chinese RestaurantProcess Mixture Model,CRPMM),其潜变量满足中国餐馆过程,能够较方便地获得马尔科夫链式样本的展开.建立了参变量与潜变量基于块采样的后验更新形式,结合卡尔曼滤波技术,能够在分布空间上更精确地逼近噪声的后验分布.仿真算例及实际语音信号增强算例表明,较之传统的参数化卡尔曼滤波算法及变分贝叶斯滤波算法,基于数据驱动的无穷维的块采样技术能够更好地适应新模态,并取得较好的语音增强效果.%Aiming to the problem of speech enhancement from colored noise, the Chinese restaurant process mixture model (referred to as CRPMM) was introduced to modeling the distribution of noise. Markov sampling chains can be conveniently extended, where the latent variables are distributed according to a Chinese restaurant process. The updating form of joint probability of parametric variables and the latent variables were built related to block sampling. This method can approximate the posterior distribution of noise on space exactly, incorporating Kalman filtering technique. The simulation results and the experimental result of speech enhancement show that the infinite block sampling technique data-driving can adapt new modes, and a higher efficiency can be achieved for speech enhancement.

  13. [Discussion about relativity between post-marketed safety outcome and treatment course of traditional Chinese medicine drugs on basis of reinforced urn processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng-Liang; Hu, Si-Yuan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2013-09-01

    Based on relevant research and development, the possibility of applying the reinforced urn processes (RUPs) statistical approach to traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) drugs safety research is discussed in this paper, primarily through theoretical discussion and simulations. Also introduced are work flows and the key points for the application of the RUPs approach. This potentially new approach has recently been applied to the target estimation of phase I human tolerance clinical trials. A traditional RUPs approach has also been widely applied in the precise point-estimation of allowable longest treatment courses, according to the particular safety outcomes of post-marketed TCM.

  14. Interpretation keys in the process of sensitization and education of the Chinese consumer as to the consumption of wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trotta Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available China’ wine consumption has ever and ever increased during the last decade but there are still difficulties in the communication of this product. This is caused by the great social, cultural and economical diversities among Chinese themselves and between eastern and western culture. In fact, the diversities between the population of urban areas of greater development and the rural ones and the differences between the profound and radical eastern culture and the western culture outline a very different consumer-type compared to the western one. For this reason, for years, the marketing strategies in the wine sector have not brought about the attended results. The Chinese wine consumer reveals much instability caused by cultural reasons, which have emerged in this work, joined by an experimental analysis that could bring into light reliable evaluative results. The output of the analysis of these results is a list of interpretation key points that can be used as a tool to improve the education and the communication towards Chinese wine consumer.

  15. Who is who? Interpretation of multiple occurrences of the Chinese reflexive: evidence from real-time sentence processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Shuai

    Full Text Available Theoretical linguists claim that the notorious reflexive ziji 'self' in Mandarin Chinese, if occurring more than once in a single sentence, can take distinct antecedents. This study tackles possibly the most interesting puzzle in the linguistic literature, investigating how two occurrences of ziji in a single sentence are interpreted and whether or not there are mixed readings, i.e., these zijis are interpretively bound by distinct antecedents. Using 15 Chinese sentences each having two zijis, we conducted two sentence reading experiments based on a modified self-paced reading paradigm. The general interpretation patterns observed showed that the majority of participants associated both zijis with the same local antecedent, which was consistent with Principle A of the Standard Binding Theory and previous experimental findings involving a single ziji. In addition, mixed readings also occurred, but did not pattern as claimed in the theoretical linguistic literature (i.e., one ziji is bound by a long-distance antecedent and the other by a local antecedent. Based on these results, we argue that: (i mixed readings were due to manifold, interlocking and conflicting perspectives taken by the participants; and (ii cases of multiple occurrences of ziji taking distinct antecedents are illicit in Chinese syntax, since the speaker, when expressing a sentence, can select only one P(erspective-Center that referentially denotes the psychological perspective in which the sentence is situated.

  16. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  17. 中药盐制山茱萸的炮制工艺探究%Study on the Processing Technology of Chinese Medicinal Salt Cornel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭增亮

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨中药盐制山茱萸的最佳炮制办法.方法 在预实验的基础上,以食盐用量、蒸制压力及蒸制时间3个因素为变量,以马钱苷含量作为评价指标,实施正交试验,选择最佳结果.结果 食盐用量2.0%,蒸制压力为0.01 MPa,蒸制时间为1.5 h是炮制中药盐制山茱萸的最佳办法.结论 通过正交试验优选出了最佳炮制办法,效果较好.%Objective To study the best processing method of Chinese medicinal salt cornel. Methods On the basis of preliminary experiment, the three factors of salt dosage, steam pressure and steaming time were used as variables, the content of loganin was used as evaluation index, implement the orthogonal experiment and choose the best Results .Results The salt dosage 2%, the steam pressure 0.01 MPa, steam time 1.5h were the best processing method of Chinese medicinal salt cornel.Conclusion The optimum processing method is chosen by optimized orthogonal experiment, the effect is good.

  18. 山药杏仁乳饮料制作工艺优化%Optimization of Preparation Process of Milk Beverage of Almond and Chinese Yam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 邢建华; 郭志刚; 闫春生

    2011-01-01

    [目的]优化山药杏仁乳的制作工艺.[方法]对苦杏仁的脱毒、去苦条件、不同乳化稳定剂乳化稳定效果进行了考察,采用正交试验设计山药杏仁乳的配方.[结果]采用0.08%单甘酯、0.02%蔗糖酯、0.07%三聚甘油酯、0.03%酪蛋白酸钠、0.08%CMC、0.02%海藻酸钠、0.03%黄原胶及0.07%果胶作为乳化稳定剂,可以起到较好的乳化稳定效果;山药杏仁乳的最佳配方为:杏仁乳用量30.00%,山药汁用量15.00%,pH为3.8,白砂糖用量10.00%o[结论]该工艺配方条件下制得的产品色泽、风味俱佳,组织状态稳定.%[Objective] To optimize the preparation process of milk beverage of almond and Chinese yam. [ Method] The detoxification and debittering conditions of almond and effect of different emulsifying agent and stabilizer were investigated. The preparation process of milk beverage of almond and Chinese yam was optimized by orthogonal experiment. [ Result] The optimal emulsifying agent and stabilizer were as following : 0.08% of GMS, 0.02% of sucrose ester, 0.07% of polyglycerin ester, 0.03% of sodium caseinate, 0.08% of CMC, 0.02% sodium alginate, 0.03% of xanthan gum and 0. 07% of pectin. The optimum preparation formula of milk beverage of almond and Chinese yam were: 30.00% of almond milk amount,15.00% of Chinese yam juice amount, pH of 3. 8 and 10. 00% of white granulated sugar amount. [ Conclusion] The beverage prepared by this process was good in color and flavor and stable in state.

  19. Exploring the microbial origins of p-cresol and its co-occurrence pattern in the Chinese liquor-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Liu, Bo; Wang, Xueshan; Xu, Yan

    2017-11-02

    The compound p-cresol is the major off-odor and toxic component of strong aroma-type Chinese liquor. To trace its origin, the p-cresol contents in the liquor-making process were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The prokaryotic communities involved in the process were revealed by 16S rRNA gene MiSeq sequencing. The results showed that the microbial diversity and concentration of p-cresol in pit mud significantly increased with increased pit depth. Canonical correspondence analysis further revealed that p-cresol was positively correlated with the genera Aminobacterium, Clostridium, Sedimentibacter and Syntrophomonas. On investigating potential p-cresol producers, we obtained 11 species from pit mud samples using selective culture media. Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium tyrobutyricum, Clostridium aminovalericum and Eubacterium contortum were confirmed to possess the capacity for p-cresol production. Moreover, based on volatile compounds data, these strains were assigned to the same clusters characterized by the high abundance of butanoic acid and p-cresol. Furthermore, 24 pairs of significant correlations were identified from 14 genera using co-occurrence network analysis. Clostridium was the hub in pit mud and could be inhibited by increasing levels of Lactobacillus. These findings represented a step forward for controlling p-cresol in a complex microbial community of Chinese liquor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinants of Global Competitiveness of Chinese Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elmas Demircioğlu Karabıyık

    2015-01-01

    .... Main aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of the global competitiveness of Chinese economy by considering economic development process of the Chinese economy and World Economic Forum...

  1. Determinants of Global Competitiveness of Chinese Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elmas Demircioglu Karabiyik

    2016-01-01

    .... Main aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of the global competitiveness of Chinese economy by considering economic development process of the Chinese economy and World Economic Forum...

  2. Determining role of cyclicity in cosmic and natural processes for formation of energy figures in Chinese Classical Zhen Jiu Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Falev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the questions of cosmic and natural phenomena, identity, cyclic nature and parallelism of their constant changes. The authors regard it as a starting point for giving definitions to fundamental terms in Canon of Changes (Yi jing which is a methodological basis of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM; law of dynamic alternation of Yin and Yang, their cyclic regularity, succession, constancy and symmetry at any level of organization of the being; concept of changes as a function of movement; origin and numerological value of fundamental numerals and characters: the energy images of Canon of Changes; their mutual definition and mutual derivation as well as synchronizing indivisibility.

  3. The impact of culture on physiological processes of emotion regulation: a comparison of US and Chinese preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L; Miller, Alison L; Kessler, Daniel A; Felt, Barbara; Kaciroti, Niko; Wang, Li; Tardif, Twila

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive determinants of emotion regulation, such as effortful control, have been hypothesized to modulate young children's physiological response to emotional stress. It is unknown, however, whether this model of emotion regulation generalizes across Western and non-Western cultures. The current study examined the relation between both behavioral and questionnaire measures of effortful control and densely sampled, stress-induced cortisol trajectories in U.S. and Chinese preschoolers. Participants were 3- to 5- year-old children recruited from the United States (N = 57) and Beijing, China (N = 60). Consistent with our hypothesis, U.S. children showed a significant negative relation between maternal-rated inhibitory control and both cortisol reactivity and recovery. However, this was not replicated in the Chinese sample. Children in China showed a significant positive relation between maternal-rated attentional focusing and cortisol reactivity that was not seen in the U.S. Results suggest that children who reside in Western and non-Western cultures have different predictors of their emotion-related stress response. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Discovery of discriminatory quality control markers for Chinese herbal medicines and related processed products by combination of chromatographic analysis and chemometrics methods: Radix Scutellariae as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Bo; Wang, Long; Xiong, Zi-Yue; Gao, Wen; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2017-05-10

    The processing procedure of traditional Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) plays an essential role in clinical applications. However, little progress has been made on the quality control of crude and processed products. The present work, taking Radix Scutellariae (RS), wine-processed RS and carbonized RS as a typical case, developed a comprehensive strategy integrating chromatographic analysis and chemometric methods for quality evaluation and discrimination of crude RS and its processed products. Chemical fingerprints were established by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and similarity analyses were calculated based on eleven common characteristic peaks. Subsequently, four chemical markers were discovered by back propagation-artificial neural network (BP-ANN) modeling. The selected markers were quantified by the 'single standard to determine multi-components' (SSDMC) method, and then the quantitative data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Furthermore, support vector machine (SVM) was employed to predict the different processed products of RS. Finally, a hotmap visualization was conducted for clarifying the distribution of major flavonoids among different drugs. Collectively, the proposed strategy might be well-acceptable for quality control of CHMs and their related processed products from the processing mechanism-based perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of mode...

  6. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  7. 中药制剂生产工艺设计空间的建立%Establishment of design space for production process of traditional Chinese medicine preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冰; 史新元; 乔延江; 吴志生; 林兆洲

    2013-01-01

    The philosophy of quality by design (QbD) is now leading the changes in the drug manufacturing mode from the conventional test-based approach to the science and risk based approach focusing on the detailed research and understanding of the production process.Along with the constant deepening of the understanding of the manufacturing process,the design space will be determined,and the emphasis of quality control will be shifted from the quality standards to the design space.Therefore,the establishment of the design space is core step in the implementation of QbD,and it is of great importance to study the methods for building the design space.This essay proposes the concept of design space for the production process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations,gives a systematic introduction of the concept of the design space,analyzes the feasibility and significance to build the design space in the production process of traditional Chinese medicine preparations,and proposes study approaches on the basis of examples that comply with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine preparations,as well as future study orientations.%质量源于设计(quality by design,QbD)的理念正推动着药品生产模式的转变,即从传统的以检验为主的制药过程到以科学和风险为基础并经过详细研究和理解的生产过程.随着对工艺的认识和理解不断深入,“设计空间”将被确定,质量控制从质量标准转移到设计空间.因此,设计空间的建立是实施QbD的核心步骤,研究设计空间的构建方法具有重要的意义.该文提出在中药制剂生产工艺中建立设计空间的设想,系统介绍了设计空间的概念,分析了在中药制剂生产工艺中构建设计空间的可行性和意义,结合实例提出符合中药制剂特点的设计空间研究方法,以及未来的研究方向.

  8. The Representation and Processing of Subjective Words for Chinese Readers%汉语“主观词”的表征及其加工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫国利; 张兰兰; 孙莎莎; 白学军

    2013-01-01

    Given that there are no visual spaces between words in written Chinese and characters are the basic perceptual unit, it is intriguing how Chinese readers segment and represent words. Many studies have indicated that words play an important role in Chinese reading (Yan et al., 2006; Li et al., 2005; Rayner et al., 2007; Bai et al., 2008; Yan et al., 2009), while some other research has demonstrated that characters are more important than words in reading (Chen et al., 2003). However, some researchers have found that native Chinese readers have no clear concept of words, and they often disagree on how to divide the continuous string of characters within a sentence into words (Hoosain, 1992; Tsai et al., 1998; Miller et al., 2007). So there is a discrepancy here: If words play an important role in Chinese reading, what are the characteristics of these words? We propose that Chinese readers segment text into words according to complex cognitive representations: "subjective words" (e.g., representing the phrase "economic development" as a single word). Three studies were conducted to explore 1) whether subjective words are psychologically real in readers' minds and 2) how these subjective words are processed. The first study examined how well the readers could recognize the two-character combination as a word or a phrase. The results showed that the readers tend to judge phrases as subjective words, which indicated that they represented words according to their own complex cognition about words, which demonstrated that subjective words were real in readers' minds. The second and third experiment investigated the characteristics of subjective word processing. The second experiment explored whether subjective words had a "word superiority effect" - whether the readers found the position of a character in subjective words more efficiently than in non-words. The third experiment examined whether the reaction time of classifying subjective words as words was shorter than

  9. 中药产地加工方法“发汗”的研究进展%Study Advance on the "Sweating" Primary Processing Method of Chinese Medicinal Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜伟锋; 丛晓东; 蔡宝昌

    2013-01-01

    The paper discussed the study advance on the "sweating" primary processing method of Chinese medicinal materials in recent years, and put forward the research methods of " sweating" mechanism, in order to provide scientific basis for norming the "sweating" primary processing of Chinese medicinal materials.%概括了近些年中药产地加工方法”发汗”的研究进展情况,提出了研究发汗机理的新方法,为规范中药发汗的产地加工提供科学依据.

  10. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  11. [Contention on the theory of processing techniques of Chinese materia medica in the Ming-Qing period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Jia, Tianzhu

    2015-03-01

    On the basis of the golden stage of development of processing techniques of medicinals in the Song dynasty, the theory and techniques of processing in the Ming-Qing dynasties developed and accomplished further. The knowledge of some physicians on the processing of common medicinal, such as Radix rehmannia and Radixophiopogonis, was questioned, with new idea of processing methods put forward and argued against those insisting traditional ones, marking the progress of the art of processing. By reviewing the contention of technical theory of medicinal processing in the Ming-Qing period, useful references can be provided for the inheritance and development of the traditional art of processing medicinals.

  12. Look before You Leap: Underestimating Chinese Student History, Chinese University Setting and Chinese University Steering in Sino-British HE Joint Ventures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ewan G.

    2010-01-01

    This article makes the case--in three parts--that many Anglo-Chinese university collaborations (joint ventures) to date have seriously underestimated Chinese (student) history, the Chinese university setting and Chinese national governmental steering as part of the process of "glocalisation". Recent turbulence in this particular HE…

  13. Look before You Leap: Underestimating Chinese Student History, Chinese University Setting and Chinese University Steering in Sino-British HE Joint Ventures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ewan G.

    2010-01-01

    This article makes the case--in three parts--that many Anglo-Chinese university collaborations (joint ventures) to date have seriously underestimated Chinese (student) history, the Chinese university setting and Chinese national governmental steering as part of the process of "glocalisation". Recent turbulence in this particular HE…

  14. Look before You Leap: Underestimating Chinese Student History, Chinese University Setting and Chinese University Steering in Sino-British HE Joint Ventures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ewan G.

    2010-01-01

    This article makes the case--in three parts--that many Anglo-Chinese university collaborations (joint ventures) to date have seriously underestimated Chinese (student) history, the Chinese university setting and Chinese national governmental steering as part of the process of "glocalisation". Recent turbulence in this particular HE collaborative…

  15. Chinese Calligraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to introduce secondary or post-secondary students to the ancient art of Chinese calligraphy through step-by-step instructions on writing Chinese characters. Because each character is made up of a series of single brush strokes, it is believed that if students learn to recognize these as components of completed characters, the…

  16. 中文汉字的语音对日文汉字加工的影响%The influence of phonologic of Chinese to the processing of Japanese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2011-01-01

    Through two experiments, the present study investigated the phonological and semantic influence of Chinese on the processing of Japanese as second language. Experiment 1 used phonologic decision task, and Experiment 2 used semantic decision task. The results indicated: When judging Japanese homophones, similar Japanese and Chinese pronunciations of the same character improve the judgment speed; When judging Japanese non-homophones, similar Japanese and Chinese pronunciations of the same character inhibit the judgment which lead to longer response time and more errors. Above resuk suggested that when native Chinese speakers processing Japanese characters, the Chinese phonology and semantic significantly influence the processing. The influence is shown as facilitation when Japanese and Chinese are consistent, and inhibition when inconsistent.%本研究考察了中文汉字的音对日文汉字加工的影响。实验采用语音判断任务。结果表明:被试加工日文音相同类型词时,中文音相同会在反应时上促进判断(是判断);加工日文音不同类型词时,中文音相同会干扰判断(否判断),这种干扰表现为被试判断的反应时延长,错误率高。实验说明:母语为汉语的中国学生对日文汉字的加工过程中,中文的音对日文加工存在影响,这种影响在中文和日文一致时表现为促进,不一致时表现为干扰。

  17. Estudo comparativo do acesso semântico no processamento visual de palavras entre brasileiros monolíngues e chineses multilíngues falantes do português do Brasil como língua estrangeira Comparative study of the semantic access in the visual processing of words between monolinguistic Brazilians and multilinguistic Chinese who speak portuguese as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerusa Fumagalli de Salles

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O priming semântico é uma forma de avaliar o processamento semântico de palavras. Se a semântica é um importante fator contribuinte no reconhecimento visual de palavras, surge a questão de se chineses multilíngues (mandarin como L1 e inglês como L2, que estão aprendendo o português como L3, podem se beneficiar do contexto semântico em tarefa de decisão lexical na Língua Portuguesa, comparado aos controles (brasileiros universitários e crianças. Além de comparar a magnitude do efeito de priming semântico entre a amostra de chineses e de brasileiros, objetivou-se investigar nos chineses a relação entre o desempenho no experimento de priming semântico e na tarefa de consciência fonológica, ambos na língua portuguesa. Participaram do estudo 40 universitários chineses multilíngues, 31 universitários brasileiros e 26 crianças de 3ª série. Houve efeito de priming semântico nos chineses e nos brasileiros, universitários e crianças, ou seja, respostas mais rápidas na condição com prime relacionado do que na condição com prime não relacionado. Não houve diferenças significativas na magnitude do efeito entre os grupos de adultos, mas as crianças apresentaram maior magnitude de efeito do que os chineses. Considerando apenas o grupo de chineses, não houve correlação entre os escores na tarefa de decisão lexical no paradigma de priming semântico e a avaliação da consciência fonológica. Chineses parecem ter acessado o significado dos primes apresentados visualmente na Língua Portuguesa, não se diferenciando dos brasileiros adultos e crianças.The semantic priming paradigm can be used to evaluate word semantic processing. Considering that semantic is an important factor in visual word recognition, an experiment was conducted to verify if multilingual Chinese (L1 and L2 being respectively Mandarin and English that are learning Portuguese as L3 would benefit from the semantic context during a lexical decision

  18. Study on international standard multilingual nomenclature of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Liu, Lu; Li, Wei; Shi, Da-zhuo; Zeng, Wen-ying; Zhu, Mian-sheng; Angles, Michel; Attali, Jean-Raymond; Choy, Pedro; Choy, Joao; Wu, Chi-haur; Zhai, Fu-han; Ramon, Maria Calduch; Chung, Ching

    2010-04-01

    The International Standard Chinese-English Basic Nomenclature of Chinese medicine (ISN) was released in 2007, a nomenclature list consisting of 6 500 Chinese medical terms. ISN was the culmination of several years of collaborative diligent work of over 200 specialists who represent Chinese medicine in 68 countries. The overall goal for devising standard English nomenclature for Chinese medicine is to develop a practical international standard nomenclature for Chinese medical basic terms, to make it compatible with contemporary research and educational standards in the globalized health care service. In this article, provided is an overview of principles and methods for the multilingual translations, the processes behind the particular content of the Chinese-English ISN and an introduction to the ongoing new projects, i.e. the multilingual versions of ISN (International Standards of Chinese-Spanish, Chinese-French and Chinese-Portuguese Basic Nomenclature of Chinese Medicine).

  19. Cross-Cultural and Intra-Cultural Differences in Finger-Counting Habits and Number Magnitude Processing: Embodied Numerosity in Canadian and Chinese University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Richard Morrissey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in numerical cognition has shown-that number magnitude is not entirely abstract, and at least partly rooted in embodied and situated experiences, including finger-counting. The current study extends previous cross-cultural research to address within-culture individual differences in finger counting habits. Results indicated that Canadian participants demonstrated an additional cognitive load when comparing numbers that require more than one hand to represent, and this pattern of performance is further modulated by whether they typically start counting on their left hand or their right hand. Chinese students typically count on only one hand and so show no such effect, except for an increase in errors, similar to that seen in Canadians, for those whom self-identify as predominantly two-hand counters. Results suggest that the impact of finger counting habits extend beyond cultural experience and concord in predictable ways with differences in number magnitude processing for specific number-digits. We conclude that symbolic number magnitude processing is partially rooted in learned finger-counting habits, consistent with a motor simulation account of embodied numeracy and that argument is supported by both cross-cultural and within-culture differences in finger-counting habits.

  20. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was correct. Sentences were classified into literal translation sentences with the similar structure between the two languages and free translation sentences with the different structure. Behavioral data showed: shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates occurred in the high-proficient group than those in the intermediate-proficient group; shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates were observed in literal translation sentences than those in free translation sentences. ERP results showed literal translation sentences elicited an enhanced P200 and P600 while free translation sentences elicited a larger N400. The high-proficient group showed a larger P600 in syntactic violations and double violations while the intermediate-proficient group evoked an enhanced N400 in semantic violations and double violations. Literal translation sentences caused a larger P200 while free translation sentences elicited more negative-going N400. Behavioral and ERP data revealed the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on L2 sentence processing, and L2 proficiency played a predominate role.

  1. Browning type in Chinese olive juice concentrate processing%橄榄浓缩汁加工过程中的褐变类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婕; 郭泽镔; 郭明殊; 郑宝东

    2012-01-01

    通过检测橄榄浓缩汁加工过程中的多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,多酚、Vc、5-羟甲基糠醛(5-HMF)含量和褐变度等指标,研究整个加工过程中各阶段的褐变类型,分析褐变机制.结果表明:橄榄浓缩汁在加工过程中,热烫基本抑制了橄榄汁的酶促褐变,全过程以非酶促褐变为主;Vc氧化褐变持续存在,加工过程中损失了90%以上;热烫、酶解和浓缩阶段发生了美拉德反应,最终5-HMF的含量升高至0.9174 mg·L-1.%Browning type in different stage and its mechanism were studied by detecting the polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity, the content of polyphenol, the content of vitamin C, the content of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), browning degree in each production process of Chinese olive juice concentrate. It was found that browning was mainly non-enzymatic in the processing with enzymatie browning inhibited by blanching. Oxidation and browning of vitamin C constantly existed with more than 90% loss in the processing and there was Maillard reaction in blanching, hydrolysis and concentrating process with the content of 5-HMF increasing to 0.9174 mg · L-1 in the end.

  2. Language Activation and Lexical Processing by Polish Learners of English and Chinese--The Role of Learning Experience in TLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujalowicz, Agnieszka; Zajdler, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    Many offline studies on third language acquisition suggest strong connections between speakers' L3 and L2 rather than between their L3 and L1, especially if the foreign languages are typologically related (Cenoz, Hufeisen, & Jessner, 2001; Singleton, 2001). However, a recent online study investigating trilingual processing did not provide evidence…

  3. PDADMAC flocculation of Chinese hamster ovary cells: enabling a centrifuge-less harvest process for monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNerney, Thomas; Thomas, Anne; Senczuk, Anna; Petty, Krista; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Piper, Rob; Carvalho, Juliane; Hammond, Matthew; Sawant, Satin; Bussiere, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    High titer (>10 g/L) monoclonal antibody (mAb) cell culture processes are typically achieved by maintaining high viable cell densities over longer culture durations. A corresponding increase in the solids and sub-micron cellular debris particle levels are also observed. This higher burden of solids (≥15%) and sub-micron particles typically exceeds the capabilities of a continuous centrifuge to effectively remove the solids without a substantial loss of product and/or the capacity of the harvest filtration train (depth filter followed by membrane filter) used to clarify the centrate. We discuss here the use of a novel and simple two-polymer flocculation method used to harvest mAb from high cell mass cell culture processes. The addition of the polycationic polymer, poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) to the cell culture broth flocculates negatively-charged cells and cellular debris via an ionic interaction mechanism. Incorporation of a non-ionic polymer such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) into the PDADMAC flocculation results in larger flocculated particles with faster settling rate compared to PDADMAC-only flocculation. PDADMAC also flocculates the negatively-charged sub-micron particles to produce a feed stream with a significantly higher harvest filter train throughput compared to a typical centrifuged harvest feed stream. Cell culture process variability such as lactate production, cellular debris and cellular densities were investigated to determine the effect on flocculation. Since PDADMAC is cytotoxic, purification process clearance and toxicity assessment were performed.

  4. Language Activation and Lexical Processing by Polish Learners of English and Chinese--The Role of Learning Experience in TLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujalowicz, Agnieszka; Zajdler, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    Many offline studies on third language acquisition suggest strong connections between speakers' L3 and L2 rather than between their L3 and L1, especially if the foreign languages are typologically related (Cenoz, Hufeisen, & Jessner, 2001; Singleton, 2001). However, a recent online study investigating trilingual processing did not provide evidence…

  5. Qualidade de couve-chinesa minimamente processada e tratada com diferentes produtos Quality of Chinese cabbage minimally processed and treated with different products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Marta Evangelista

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de couve-chinesa minimamente processada e tratada com cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2, ácido ascórbico (vitamina C, ácido etileno-diamino-tetracético (EDTA e mantida sob refrigeração. Foram realizados os seguintes tratamentos: T1: testemunha (imersão em água contendo 50 mg L-1 clorin/5 minutos; T2: imersão em solução contendo CaCl2 a 1%/5 minutos; T3: imersão em solução contendo CaCl2 a 2%/5 minutos; T4: imersão em solução contendo vitamina C a 1%/5 minutos; T5: imersão em solução contendo Vitamina C a 2%/5 minutos; T6: imersão em solução contendo EDTA a 1%/5 minutos; e T7: imersão em solução contendo EDTA a 2%/5 minutos. Após a realização dos tratamentos a couve-chinesa foi centrifugada, embalada em bandejas de polietileno expandido, recoberta com policloreto de vinila (PVC e armazenada em temperatura de 5 ± 1 °C e umidade relativa (UR de 90 ± 2% por 8 dias. As análises físico-químicas, químicas e sensoriais foram realizadas de dois em dois dias. A presença de Salmonella foi verificada somente após a realização dos tratamentos. A partir dos resultados obtidos procedeu-se à análise de variância (ANAVA e aplicou-se o teste de Tukey considerando-se um nível de significância p The present research aimed at evaluating the quality of minimally processed Chinese cabbage treated with calcium chloride (CaCl2, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, and ethylene-diamine-tetracetic acid (EDTA and kept under refrigeration. Treatments were as follows: T1: control (immersion in water containing 50 mg L-1 Clorin/5 minutes; T2: immersion in 1% CaCl2 solution/5 minutes; T3: immersion in 2% aCl2 solution/5 minutes; T4: immersion in 1% vitamin C solution/5 minutes; T5: immersion in 2% vitamin C solution/5 minutes, T6: immersion in 1% EDTA solution/5 minutes; and T7: immersion in 2% EDTA solution/5 minutes. After the treatments, the Chinese cabbage was centrifuged, wrapped with polyvinyl

  6. 印刷体汉字识别后处理方法的研究%Post-Processing Approach for Printed Chinese Character Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏涛; 龙翀; 朱小燕; 孙俊

    2009-01-01

    高阶N-gram语言模型在OCR后处理方面有着广泛的应用,但也面临着因模型复杂度大导致的数据稀疏,以及耗费较多的时空资源等问题.该文针对印刷体汉字识别的后处理,提出了一种基于字节的语言模型的后处理算法.通过采用字节作为语言模型的基本表示单位,模型的复杂度大大降低,从而数据稀疏问题得到很大程度上缓解.实验证明,采用基于字节的语言模型的后处理系统能够以极少的时空开销获取很好的识别性能.在有部分分割错误的测试集上,正确率从88.67%提高到了98.32%,错误率下降了85.18%,运行速度较基于字以及基于词的系统有了大幅的提升,提高了后处理系统的综合性能;与目前常用的基于词的语言模型后处理系统相比,新系统能够节省95%的运行时间和98%的内存资源,但系统识别率仅降低了1.11%.%In Chinese OCR post-processing, the high-order Chinese n-gram language models, such as word based tri-gram and four-gram is still a challenging issue because of the data sparseness issue and large memory cost led by big model size. In this paper, we focus on the post-processing of printed Chinese character recognition and propose a byte-based language model. By choosing byte as the representing unit of language model, we achieve a remarkable reduction of model size which overcomes the sparseness problem to a great extent. The experimental results show that the new language model based on byte works very well with higher performance and lowest time and space costs. For the test set with segmentation errors, the recognition accuracy increases from 88. 67% to 98. 32% , which means 85. 18% error reduction. Compared with the system using traditional word based tri-gram, the new system saves 95% time cost and nearly 98% memory cost at almost no cost in the accuracy performance.

  7. Chinese Thinking during English Writing Process: An Empirical Study of English Majors%英语写作过程中的汉语思维:对英语专业学生的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢艳梅

    2013-01-01

    英语写作过程具有双语特征(即汉语与英语同时参与思维),不同思维活动中的汉语参与量不等.本项研究采用有声思维的方法,记录了20名英语专业大学生在一次英语写作任务中的思维过程,对此过程中的母语思维进行定量和定性的分析.%Both Chinese and English thinking are used during English writing process, which are varied in different writing processes. Think-aloud method is used to record the thinking process of English majors in writing an English composition. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on Chinese thinking are carried out.

  8. Data processing workflows from low-cost digital survey to various applications: three case studies of Chinese historic architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Cao, Y. K.

    2015-08-01

    The paper focuses on the versatility of data processing workflows ranging from BIM-based survey to structural analysis and reverse modeling. In China nowadays, a large number of historic architecture are in need of restoration, reinforcement and renovation. But the architects are not prepared for the conversion from the booming AEC industry to architectural preservation. As surveyors working with architects in such projects, we have to develop efficient low-cost digital survey workflow robust to various types of architecture, and to process the captured data for architects. Although laser scanning yields high accuracy in architectural heritage documentation and the workflow is quite straightforward, the cost and portability hinder it from being used in projects where budget and efficiency are of prime concern. We integrate Structure from Motion techniques with UAV and total station in data acquisition. The captured data is processed for various purposes illustrated with three case studies: the first one is as-built BIM for a historic building based on registered point clouds according to Ground Control Points; The second one concerns structural analysis for a damaged bridge using Finite Element Analysis software; The last one relates to parametric automated feature extraction from captured point clouds for reverse modeling and fabrication.

  9. A hybrid approach identifies metabolic signatures of high-producers for chinese hamster ovary clone selection and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Oliver; Müller, Dirk; Didzus, Katharina; Paul, Wolfgang; Lipsmeier, Florian; Kirchner, Florian; Niklas, Jens; Mauch, Klaus; Beaucamp, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In-depth characterization of high-producer cell lines and bioprocesses is vital to ensure robust and consistent production of recombinant therapeutic proteins in high quantity and quality for clinical applications. This requires applying appropriate methods during bioprocess development to enable meaningful characterization of CHO clones and processes. Here, we present a novel hybrid approach for supporting comprehensive characterization of metabolic clone performance. The approach combines metabolite profiling with multivariate data analysis and fluxomics to enable a data-driven mechanistic analysis of key metabolic traits associated with desired cell phenotypes. We applied the methodology to quantify and compare metabolic performance in a set of 10 recombinant CHO-K1 producer clones and a host cell line. The comprehensive characterization enabled us to derive an extended set of clone performance criteria that not only captured growth and product formation, but also incorporated information on intracellular clone physiology and on metabolic changes during the process. These criteria served to establish a quantitative clone ranking and allowed us to identify metabolic differences between high-producing CHO-K1 clones yielding comparably high product titers. Through multivariate data analysis of the combined metabolite and flux data we uncovered common metabolic traits characteristic of high-producer clones in the screening setup. This included high intracellular rates of glutamine synthesis, low cysteine uptake, reduced excretion of aspartate and glutamate, and low intracellular degradation rates of branched-chain amino acids and of histidine. Finally, the above approach was integrated into a workflow that enables standardized high-content selection of CHO producer clones in a high-throughput fashion. In conclusion, the combination of quantitative metabolite profiling, multivariate data analysis, and mechanistic network model simulations can identify metabolic

  10. Analyse of Browning Factors during the Process of Chinese Chestnut%板栗加工过程中褐变因素的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建暖

    2014-01-01

    The browning and factors including different peeling methods,heating time,heating temperature,pH of water and storage time during the process of Chinese chestnut were studied. The results showed that the peeling and heating were the main factors of browning chestnut. Chestnut browning could be controlled by reducing the heating temperature,shortening the heating time and changing pH of the water.%试验研究了板栗(Castanea mollissima)加工过程中的褐变及不同去皮方法、加热时间、温度和水的pH及贮藏时间等影响因素。结果表明,加工中的去皮、加热是影响褐变的主要因素,可通过降低加热温度、缩短加热时间及调整水的pH抑制褐变的发生。

  11. Religion, ethnic groups and processes of social stratification in the United States. Mexicans and Chinese citizens’ situation from a comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arriaga Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Through this article we are offering a global view of a theory that explains and contributes to the understanding of the position of ethnic groups in the United States within the social hierarchy. This research is focused toward a comparative analysis of Mexican and Chinese groups starting considering the following Weberian statements: a one that considers the influence of ideas and religious beliefs in the economic behavior of individuals, b and, another one that conceives religions as ethical vehicles liable to inhibit or stimulate the process of social stratification. In sum, this deals trying to consider the influence of diverse elements of religious culture in the makeup of certain economic behavior and context which is capable of vitalizing or hindering group dynamism in the social scale. This behavior is remarkably related to: a money in all its modalities, savings, expenses, investments, loans, etc., b work and entrepreneur business, and c family and communitarian solidarity. We also would like to emphasize on problems stemming from the practical applications of theory and method to the above mentioned phenomenon, emphasizing the productivity of concepts and analytical categories which are representative of a Methodological Individualism and Rational General Theory.

  12. Effect of PD 128763, a new potent inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, on X-ray-induced cellular recovery processes in Chinese hamster V79 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arundel-Suto, C.M.; Scavone, S.V.; Turner, W.R.; Suto, M.J.; Sebolt-Leopold, J.S. (Warner-Lambert Company, Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The modifying effects of PD 128763 (3,4-dihydro-5-methyl-1(2H)-isoquinolinone), a potent inhibitor of poly(adenosine-diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase, on radiation-induced cell killing were examined in Chinese hamster V79 cells. This compound has an IC50 value against the purified enzyme approximately 50X lower than 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), a widely used specific inhibitor of the enzyme. Exposure of exponentially growing cells to a noncytotoxic concentration (0.5 mM) of PD 128763 for 2 h immediately following X irradiation increased their radiation sensitivity, modifying both the shoulder and the slope of the survival curve. When recovery from sublethal damage and potentially lethal damage was examined in exponential and plateau-phase cells, respectively, postirradiation incubation with 0.5 mM PD 128763 was found not only to inhibit both these processes fully, but also to enhance further the level of radiation-induced cell killing. This is in contrast to the slight effect seen with the less potent inhibitor, 3-AB. The results presented suggest that the mechanism of radiosensitization by PD 128763 is related to the potent inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase by this compound.

  13. 板栗加工工艺对挥发性香气成分的影响%Effect of Processing Technology on Volatile Components of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚辉; 徐芳; 王丰俊; 王建中; 欧阳杰

    2012-01-01

    Chinese chestnut forms different flavors by different processing technology. An automatic thermal de-sorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (ATD-GC-MS) system was applied to analyze the volatile composition of raw chestnut, boiled chestnut, fried chestnut and roasted chestnut. Herbaceous aroma such as ethyl acetate, hex-anal, butyl acetate, 1-butanol-3-methyl-acetate, alpha-pinene and benzaldehyde were found in raw chestnut; fried chestnut and roasted chestnut were found to have characteristic volatiles such as 2-pentyl-furan, 3-carene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-ketone; and in boiled chestnut, spiro [2,4] hepta-4,6-diene was found first time. The results will provide a reference for the further research and development of Chinese chestnut products.%板栗经过不同的加工工艺熟化后会产生不同的风味.文中分别对生板栗,以及煮制、炒制和烤制加工后的板栗进行ATD热脱附以及GC-MS分析,得出不同加工工艺条件下的板栗挥发性香气成分.其中生板栗主要有板栗本身的草本清香香气成分,如乙酸乙酯、己醛、乙酸丁酯、3-甲基-1-丁醇乙酸酯、α-蒎烯和苯甲醛等;炒板栗和烤板栗的特征性挥发物有2-戊基呋喃、3-蒈烯、4-羟基-2-丁酮和2-甲基-四氢呋喃-3-酮;煮板栗中发现了之前未在板栗香气研究中报道过的香气成分螺[2,4]庚-4.6-二烯.

  14. Raising process-genre awareness in Chinese Tertiary EFL con-text:Introducing the Purdue Online Writing Lab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Bingqian

    2015-01-01

    Writing is always regarded as a purposeful way of communicating to an imaginary other.It is necessary to adhere to the author’s purpose and make sure that it is effective,instead of pro-viding only meaningless chunks of sentences to discourage readers.However,it’s worth no-ticing that the‘invisible reader’has (a) purpose(s) too.Writing is a process of the author try-ing to negotiate with the readers by following certain genre-specific restrictions.This focus has been well captured by an online writing workshop-the Purdue Online Writing Lab,which manifests a novel perspective to view writing as a process constrained within a specific genre.With the advancement of computers and internet,the Computer Aided Language Teaching method (CALL),as presented in this article,can foreground prominence of writing principles and motivate students to learn and write creatively.Suggested use of the workshop as such is provided at the end of this paper.

  15. Raising process-genre awareness in Chinese Tertiary EFL con-text: Introducing the Purdue Online Writing Lab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du; Bingqian

    2015-01-01

    Writing is always regarded as a purposeful way of communicating to an imaginary other.It is necessary to adhere to the author’s purpose and make sure that it is effective,instead of pro-viding only meaningless chunks of sentences to discourage readers.However,it’s worth no-ticing that the‘invisible reader’has(a)purpose(s)too.Writing is a process of the author try-ing to negotiate with the readers by following certain genrespecific restrictions.This focus has been well captured by an online writing workshop-the Purdue Online Writing Lab,which manifests a novel perspective to view writing as a process constrained within a specific genre.With the advancement of computers and internet,the Computer Aided Language Teaching method(CALL),as presented in this article,can foreground prominence of writing principles and motivate students to learn and write creatively.Suggested use of the workshop as such is provided at the end of this paper.

  16. Cool City Design: Integrating Real-Time Urban Canyon Assessment into the Design Process for Chinese and Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus White

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many cities are undergoing rapid urbanisation and intensification with the unintended consequence of creating dense urban fabric with deep ‘urban canyons’. Urban densification can trap longwave radiation impacting on local atmospheric conditions, contributing to the phenomena known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI. As global temperatures are predicted to increase, there is a critical need to better understand urban form and heat retention in cities and integrate analysis tools into the design decision making process to design cooler cities. This paper describes the application and validation of a novel three-dimensional urban canyon modelling approach calculating Sky View Factor (SVF, one important indicator used in the prediction of UHI. Our modified daylighting system based approach within a design modelling environment allows iterative design decision making informed by SVF on an urban design scale. This approach is tested on urban fabric samples from cities in both Australia and China. The new approach extends the applicability in the design process of existing methods by providing ‘real-time’ SVF feedback for complex three-dimensional urban scenarios. The modelling approach enables city designers to mix intuitive compositional design modelling with dynamic canyon feedback. The approach allows a greater understanding of existing and proposed urban forms and identifying potential canyon problem areas, improved decision making and design advocacy, and can potentially have an impact on cities’ temperature.

  17. A CASE STUDY OF A CHINESE ‘HIKIKOMORIAN’ IN CANADA – THEORIZING THE PROCESS OF HIKIKOMORIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Suk-ching CHONG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘hikikomori’ originates from Japan and means ‘acute social withdrawal’. This study intends to investigate into the causes of hikikomori which is increasing worldwide phenomenon. The methodology is a case study approach located in an interpretive paradigm. The data was mainly collected through e-mails with the participant and phone conversations with his mother. The participant was a ‘hiki­ko­morian’ who was invited to investigate his own problem and further to be the co-author of this paper. The literature findings and this case study were then conceptualized into a more wide-ranging framework in compre­hen­ding the process of hikikomorization. The result appears to show that hikikomorization involves three processes: first, a predisposed introverted personality; second, the effects of multiple environmental factors such as family, school and society; and finally, the trigger point, such as the end of schooling or a stressful event. The study offers implications for other hiki­ko­mo­rians in better understanding of their problems and for practitioners working with reclusive ado­lescents and their families.

  18. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  19. The impacts of fireworks burning at Chinese Spring Festival on air quality and human health: insights of tracers, source evolution and aging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, S.; Li, L.; Li, X.; Yin, Y.; Chen, K.; Liu, D.; Yuan, L.; Zhang, Y.; Shan, Y.; Ji, Y.

    2014-11-01

    To understand the impact of fireworks burning (FW) particles on air quality and human health during winter haze period, thirty-nine elements, ten water-soluble ions and eight fractions of carbonaceous species in atmospheric PM2.5 at Nanjing were investigated during 2014 Chinese Spring Festival (SF). Serious regional haze pollution persisted throughout the entire sampling period, PM2.5 averaging at 113 ± 69 μg m-3 and visibility at 4.8 ± 3.2 km. The holiday effect led to almost all the chemical species decreasing during the SF, except for Al, K, Ba and Sr which were related to FW. The source contributions of coal combustion, vehicle emission and road dust descreased dramatically, whereas FW contributed to about half of the PM2.5 during SF period. The intensive emission of FW particles at New Year's Eve accounted for 60.1% of the PM2.5. They also significnatly modified the chemical compositions of PM2.5, with 39.3% contributed by increased organic matter, followed by steadly increased loadings of secondary inorganic ions. The aging processes of the FW particles lasted for at least six days reflected by the variation of SO42-, characterized by heterogeneous reactions of SO2 and NOx on crustal materials directly from FW, the replacement of Cl- by NO3- and SO42- coating of NO3- and SO42- on soot, formation of secondary organic aerosols and metal-catalyzed formation of NO3- and SO42- at higher relative humidity. During aging, the main contributors to the extinction coefficient shifted from elemental carbon and organic matter to sulfate ammonium. The particles raised higher cancer risks by heavy metals (especially for Cd and As) as 1.62 ×10-6. This study provided detailed composition data and first comprehensive analysis of the aging processes of FW particles at serious haze pollution period and their potential impact on human health.

  20. Effects of Exogenous Enzymatic Treatment During Processing on the Sensory Quality of Summer Tieguanyin Oolong Tea from the Chinese Anxi County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Bo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to att enuate the bitt er taste and improve the aroma of the summer tieguanyin oolong tea from the Chinese Anxi county, the eff ects of processing treatment with exogenous laccase and α-galactosidase on tea sensory quality and related compounds were investigated. The solutio ns of laccase and/or α-galactosidase were sprayed on the tea leaves before the fi rst drying process. The sensory evaluation results showed that the sensory quality of the tea was signifi cantly enhanced with the enzymatic treatment. The combined application of laccase a t 8.25 and α- galactosidase at 22 U per kg of fresh tea shoots achieved the most satisfying sensory quality. Further analysis of fl avour-related constituents was carried out by HPLC and GC-MS. The HPLC analysis showed that the contents of catechins and total polyphen ols were reduced, compared to the untreated group, by 11.9 and 13.3 % respectively, and the total soluble sugars and water extract content were increased by 19.4 and 6.6 % respectively, aft er the treatment with both enzymes. The decrease of catechins and total polyphenols reduced the bitt erness and astringency of the summer tea, while the increase of total soluble sugars and water extract content improved the sweetness and mellow taste. The aromatic compound data from GC-MS showed that the total essential oil content in these tea samples co-treated with laccase and α-galactos idase increased significantly, in which aldehydes, alcohols, esters and alkenes increased by 23.28, 37.05, 20.10 and 38.99 %, respectively. Our data suggest that the exogenous enzymatic treatment can enhance the summer oolong tea quality, especially its taste and aroma.

  1. Responses of eastern Chinese coastal salt marshes to sea-level rise combined with vegetative and sedimentary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Heng; Cao, Hao-Bin; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Peltola, Heli; Cui, Li-Fang; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2016-06-01

    The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal ecosystems have attracted worldwide attention in relation to global change. In this study, the salt marsh model for the Yangtze Estuary (SMM-YE, developed in China) and the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, developed in the U.S.) were used to simulate the effects of SLR on the coastal salt marshes in eastern China. The changes in the dominant species in the plant community were also considered. Predictions based on the SLAMM indicated a trend of habitat degradation up to 2100; total salt marsh habitat area continued to decline (4–16%) based on the low-level scenario, with greater losses (6–25%) predicted under the high-level scenario. The SMM-YE showed that the salt marshes could be resilient to threats of SLR through the processes of accretion of mudflats, vegetation expansion and sediment trapping by plants. This model predicted that salt marsh areas increased (3–6%) under the low-level scenario. The decrease in the total habitat area with the SMM-YE under the high-level scenario was much lower than the SLAMM prediction. Nevertheless, SLR might negatively affect the salt marsh species that are not adapted to prolonged inundation. An adaptive strategy for responding to changes in sediment resources is necessary in the Yangtze Estuary.

  2. The Processing Technology of Yoghurt Beverage with Aloe and Chinese Yam%芦荟山药酸奶的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王承莉; 朱苗苗; 李梦达; 吕玉珍

    2014-01-01

    对以新鲜芦荟、山药为原料制得的芦荟汁和山药浆按一定比例添加到牛奶中生产芦荟山药酸奶的工艺进行研究,通过正交试验确定了芦荟汁和山药浆的添加比例、稳定剂的种类和数量、加糖量及乳酸菌接种量等对酸凝乳质量的影响。结果表明:芦荟用1.5%β-环糊精包络脱苦,山药用0.2%抗坏血酸和0.1%柠檬酸的护色;芦荟山药酸奶的最佳工艺条件为:80%的鲜牛奶、8%的白砂糖、6%的山药浆、6%的芦荟汁、3%的菌种(保加利亚乳酸杆菌∶嗜热链球菌=1∶1)、0.2%的果胶(或0.2%耐酸CMC和0.1%果胶),经55℃、18 MPa条件下均质后发酵,制得的酸奶营养丰富、感官品质佳、稳定性好。%With fresh aloe,Chinese yam and fresh milk as the main raw materials,the process-ing technology of a novel aloe and Chinese yam yoghourt is studied.According to the orthogonal experiment,the paper explores the effects of the mixture ratio of aloe j uice and yam paste,the type and quantity of stabilizer,the amount of sugar,and lactic acid bacteria inocu-lum on the product quality.And the optimal processing conditions for making the yoghurt are determined as follows:aloe debittering by 1.5%β-Cycoldextrin,the yam with 0.2% ascorbic acid and 0.1% citric acid to protect color,80% of the fresh milk,8% sugar,6% yam paste, 6% aloe j uice,3% strain (Lactobacillus bulgaricus∶Streptococcus thermophilus=1∶1 ),and 0.2% pectin (or 0.2% CMC and 0.1% pectin acid),under the conditions of 5 5 ℃ and 1 8 MPa,thus the yogurt can be obtained with rich nutrient,excellent sensory quality and good stability.

  3. Successive and Simultaneous Process of Dyslexia of Uyghur-Chinese Bilingual Children%维-汉双语阅读障碍儿童继时性和同时性加工特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩娟; 买合甫来提·坎吉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine cognition process of different types of Uyghur-Chinese bilingual dyslexia children by cognitive psychology of information process method. Methods: 35 Uyghur-Chinese Bilingual children with only Chinese Developmental dyslexia(Han Dyslexia group), 28 Uyghur-Chinese bilingual children with both Chinese and Uyghur developmental dyslexia (Double Dyslexia group) and 27 normal children (control group) matching in gender, grade and intelligence were selected to participate in successive cognitive process experiment task -Corsi Block -Tapping Task and Al* phabet Span Task, simultaneous cognitive process experiment task -Graphics Shape Design Task and Graphics Space Judgment Task- Results: HD and DD group had significantly lower scores in successive and simultaneous cognitive process than normal children (P0.05). Conclusion: HD and DD are low in successive and simultaneous cognitive process, and DD group is more universal in successive cognitive process; successive cognitive process as well as simultaneous cognitive process, plays a very important role in children's Chinese and Uyghur reading development; simultaneous cognitive process plays different roles in different languages of reading, and Chinese reading may rely more on simultaneous cognitive process than Uyghur reading.%目的:研究维-汉双语阅读障碍儿童的继时性和同时性认知加工特点.方法:采用实验方法对3-5年级35名存在单独汉语阅读障碍的维吾尔族儿童(汉障组)、28名维语和汉语都存在阅读障碍的维吾尔族儿童(双障组)和在性别、年级及智力等方面与之匹配的27名正常儿童在科西组块、字母回忆广度两种继时性加工任务和形状设计、图形空间判断两种同时性加工任务中的得分做了对比分析.结果:汉障组和双障组在继时性和同时性加工任务中的得分均显著落后于对照组,双障组仅在非言语类继时性加工任务中显著落后于汉障组.结论:汉

  4. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  5. Acquired Dyslexia and Dysgraphia in Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wengang Yin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the mappings between orthography and phonology in alphabetic languages are learned, represented and processed has been enhanced by the cognitive neuropsychological investigation of patients with acquired reading and writing disorders. During the past decade, this methodology has been extended to understanding reading and writing in Chinese leading to new insights about language processing, dyslexia and dysgraphia. The aim of this paper is to review reports of patients who have acquired dyslexia and acquired dysgraphia in Chinese and describe the functional architecture of the reading and writing system. Our conclusion is that the unique features of Chinese script will determine the symptoms of acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia in Chinese.

  6. 论影响新疆巴基斯坦留学生医学汉语学习的因素%The Study of the Influential Factors in the Medical Chinese Learning Process of Pakistani Students at Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁华

    2014-01-01

    医学汉语学习不同于一般的汉语学习,它涉及各种因素,这些因素直接影响着留学生的学习成绩,关系着留学生的专业学习质量。本文从学生层面、学习动机、母语因素等方面对影响新疆巴基斯坦留学生医学汉语学习的因素做了详细分析和研究,找出症结,用以指导教学。%Learning Medical Chinese is different from learning General Chinese language, which affects by a variety of factors, these factors directly affect the students' learning achievement, influenced the student's professional learning process. Research and detailed analyze has been taken out to investigate a few aspects which may affect Xinjiang Pakistani medical students' Medical Chinese learning process such as, students themself, learning motivation, mother tongue and etc. This paper aims to find out the core of the problems and which can later apply to guide the teaching process.

  7. The modernistic industrial processing development of Chinese traditional meat products%中国传统肉制品现代化工业加工研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙东跃

    2012-01-01

    中国传统肉制品有着悠久的历史,因其独特的风味、颜色和造型而闻名于世.随着我国食品工业的发展以及国民生活水平的提高,将我国传统肉制品进行工业化生产,让安全、营养、健康的传统肉制品进入千家万户成为我国传统肉制品发展的必经之路.然而,由于以往小作坊的生产模式以及我国传统肉制品在选材、加工、贮藏上的一系列要求,我国传统肉制品的工业化还存在着诸多困难.本文综述了我国传统肉制品现代化过程中出现的各种问题以及针对这些问题而进行的相关研究进展.%Chinese traditional meat products are historic and well - known for its inimitable flavor, color and appearance. By the development of Chinese food industry and the upgrade of peoples living standard, it is necessary to industrialize Chinese traditional meat products and supply safe, nutritional and healthy products to consumer. But based on the product mode and the demands on material - choosing, product - processing and goods - storing, there are many difficulties in the industrialization of Chinese traditional meat products. This article reviewed the problems during the modernization of Chinese traditional meat products and its relational research development.

  8. 汉字形声字声旁的语义加工%Semantic Processing of Phonetic Radicals in Reading Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓林; WilliamMarslen-Wilson

    2002-01-01

    Most complex Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right, which may provide information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. A semantic judgement task was used to investigate whether sublexical processing of phonetic radicals embedded in complex characters is purely a phonological event, involving activation of phonological information associated with the phonetic radicals, or whether it is also a semantic event, involving activation of semantic properties related to the radicals, which are meaningful characters on their own. Significant inhibitory effects was found for complex characters whose phonetic radicals were semantically related to the other member of the consecutively presented pair of characters. The magnitude of the inhibitory effects was generally not influenced by the regularity of phonetic radicals in providing phonological information for the whole characters, nor by the presentation order of complex characters and semantic associates of the phonetic radicals. It is argued that, in reading Chinese, phonetic radicals embedded in complex characters are decomposed from visual input and used to activate their own phonological and semantic properties, in parallel to the processing of whole characters.%作为汉字书写系统和意义表达基本单位的汉字可分为独体字(占5%)和合体字(占95%)两大类.绝大多数合体字由两部分组成:义旁(通常在左边)和声旁(通常在右边).声旁能够为这些合体字提供语音信息.根据声旁的读音与整字的读音是否一致,可把合体字分为规则字和不规则字.本研究的目的在于考察合体字声旁的亚词汇加工是否仅仅是一个纯粹的语音事件,只涉及声旁的语音加工,还是同时也是一个语义事件,涉及到声旁语义信息的激活.要求被试对屏幕上先后呈现的合体字(如"冯")和与其声旁语义相关的字("牛")作语义相关判断.整字之

  9. 中药山茱萸中马钱素的提取工艺研究%The study of extraction process of loganin in Chinese medicine dogwood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禤雪梅; 江国荣

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the extraction process of loganin in Chinese medicine dogwood. Methods:The extraction temperature, extraction time and the amount of solvent were as the reference factors, ultrasonic was used for extraction process. The L9(34) orthogonal test table was for design optimization process, and the loganin were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(column:YWGC18 (4.6mm×250mm,2.5μm), mobile phase: methanol: water=30∶70, the detection wavelength was 236nm,column temperature:25℃, flow rate was 1.0mL/min). Results:The temperature of dogwood Loganin optimum extraction extraction was 80℃, extraction time was 105min, the amount of solvent was 95%, ethanol was 50mL. The method of extracted loganin content was 14.25mg/g. Conclusion:The method of ultrasonic extraction optimization technology is simple and feasible, and the content of dogwood Loganin is higher.%目的:探讨中药山茱萸中有效成分马钱素的提取工艺。方法:以提取温度、提取时间、溶剂用量作为参考因素,超声波提取工艺,采用L9(34)正交试验表进行工艺优化设计,马钱素含量采用高效液相色谱法进行测定(色谱柱:YWGC18(4.6mm×250mm,2.5μm),流动相:甲醇:水=30∶70,检测波长为236nm,柱温:25℃,流量1.0mL/min)。结果:山茱萸中马钱素最佳提取工艺为提取温度为80℃,提取时间为105min,溶剂95%乙醇用量为50mL。该方法提取出的马钱素含量为14.25mg/g。结论:超声提取优化工艺后方法简便可行,得到的山茱萸中马钱素含量较高。

  10. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  11. Strategic Trend of Chinese Urban Forestry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhiyong

    2004-01-01

    China is facing new challenges of urban expansion of scale and deterioration of the ecological environment. Urban forestry has a new role and position in Chinese forestry development. ""Chinese Sustainable Development Forestry Strategic Research"" established the strategic objectives and policy measures on urban forestry, improved urban ecological environment and pushed Chinese urban ecological process through building up green forest island in urban central district, green forest zone in suburbs, forest system in remoter outskirts of cities.

  12. The-State-of-the-Art and the Related Strategic Considerations——On the Studies of Chinese Information Processing and Contemporary Chinese Language%现状和设想—试论中文信息处理与现代汉语研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许嘉璐

    2001-01-01

    The paper surveys the-state-of-the-art of Chinese information processing and the major obstacles being faced currently, pointing out that the underlying factor to block the development of Chinese information processing is the lag of the systematic and in-depth study on contemporary Chinese language. The main stream in Chinese information processing community depends heavily on corpus-based methods, by making full use of the statistical relationship among words, in recent years. The fact that the Chinese information processing technique progress slowly shows that the above scheme has very strong limitations. To make computer more intelligent and capable of coping with Chinese texts automatically, we must teach more linguistic knowledge to it. This requires us to strengthen the research in Chinese language, particularly in semantics, to the maximum extent from the perspective of computation. Regarding this, the author continues to talk about the ongoing research work in China, which is being promoted actively along with three distinct technical lines, discusses its advantage and disadvantage respectively, and concludes with a proposed strategy of “sharing resources nation-wide, doing research hand-in-hand, and tackle key problem jointly”, in terms of the experience obtained from the national 95 key project“Study on Lexicology of Contemporary Chinese Language for Information Processing” supervised by the author.%本文介绍了中文信息处理技术发展的现状及面临的主要困难,指出:关键在于对现代汉语研究的滞后。到目前为止,中文信息处理主要依赖于对大规模语料的统计,根据概率,对词与词的关系作出界定。多年来中文信息处理技术徘徊难进的现实说明,这一方法已经难以突破“瓶颈”,要使计算机对现代汉语进行自动化的处理,即使之真正“智能化”,就必须把人的语言知识“教”给计算机。这就需要根据计算机的要求

  13. 工人阶级在实现中国梦中的三个着力点%On the Three Pivot Points of Working Class in the Process of Achieving Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪飞; 闫晓燕; 秦中忠

    2014-01-01

    在实现中华民族伟大复兴之梦的过程中,工人阶级应进一步发挥主力军作用,并进一步提高自身素质,在繁纷的利益冲突中高瞻远瞩,保持几分淡定、从容与超脱,努力将其精力与热情积聚于为国家做出更大贡献上。%The working class should play the main role more effectively and improve their quality further in the process of achieving the Chinese dream which is the Chinese great revival .They should look at the future in the long run in the conflicts of all kinds of interests .They should keep calm and strive to concentrate on the greater contribution for our nation with passion .

  14. LEARNING CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Vocabulary: 银行 yin hang bank 邮局 you jǔ (you as in "slow") post office 电报 dian bao telegram 邮票 you piao (you as in "know") stamp 信 xin letter 信封 xin feng envelope 航空 hang kong airmail 包裹 bao guo parcel 元 yuan a unit of currency in China 人民币 ren min bi RMB (the name of Chinese currency)

  15. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  16. The impacts of firework burning at the Chinese Spring Festival on air quality: insights of tracers, source evolution and aging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, S. F.; Li, L.; Li, X. X.; Yin, Y.; Chen, K.; Liu, D. T.; Yuan, L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Shan, Y. P.; Ji, Y. Q.

    2015-02-01

    To understand the impact of firework-burning (FW) particles on air quality and human health during the winter haze period, 39 elements, 10 water-soluble ions and 8 fractions of carbonaceous species in atmospheric PM2.5 in Nanjing were investigated during the 2014 Chinese Spring Festival (SF). Serious regional haze pollution persisted throughout the entire sampling period, with PM2.5 averaging at 113 ± 69 μg m-3 and visibility at 4.8 ± 3.2 km. The holiday effect led to almost all the chemical species decreasing during the SF, except for Al, K, Ba and Sr which were related to FW. The source contributions of coal combustion, vehicle emission and road dust decreased dramatically, whereas FW contributed to about half of the PM2.5 during the SF period. The intensive emission of FW particles on New Year's Eve accounted for 60.1% of the PM2.5. Fireworks also obviously modified the chemical compositions of PM2.5, with 39.3% contributed by increased organic matter, followed by steadily increased loadings of secondary inorganic ions. The aging processes of the FW particles lasted for about 4 days reflected by the variations of Ba, Sr, NH4+, NO3-, SO42- and K+, characterized by heterogeneous reactions of SO2 and NOx on crustal materials directly from FW, the replacement of Cl- by NO3- and SO42-, coating of NO3- and SO42- on soot, formation of secondary organic aerosols and metal-catalyzed formation of NO3- and SO42- at higher relative humidity. During aging, the main contributors to the extinction coefficient shifted from elemental carbon and organic matter to ammonium sulfate. The particles raised higher cancer risk of 1.62 × 10-6 by heavy metals (especially for Cd and As). This study provided detailed composition data and first comprehensive analysis of the aging processes of FW particles during the serious haze pollution period and their potential impact on human health.

  17. The impacts of fireworks burning at Chinese Spring Festival on air quality and human health: insights of tracers, source evolution and aging processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand the impact of fireworks burning (FW particles on air quality and human health during winter haze period, thirty-nine elements, ten water-soluble ions and eight fractions of carbonaceous species in atmospheric PM2.5 at Nanjing were investigated during 2014 Chinese Spring Festival (SF. Serious regional haze pollution persisted throughout the entire sampling period, PM2.5 averaging at 113 ± 69 μg m−3 and visibility at 4.8 ± 3.2 km. The holiday effect led to almost all the chemical species decreasing during the SF, except for Al, K, Ba and Sr which were related to FW. The source contributions of coal combustion, vehicle emission and road dust descreased dramatically, whereas FW contributed to about half of the PM2.5 during SF period. The intensive emission of FW particles at New Year's Eve accounted for 60.1% of the PM2.5. They also significnatly modified the chemical compositions of PM2.5, with 39.3% contributed by increased organic matter, followed by steadly increased loadings of secondary inorganic ions. The aging processes of the FW particles lasted for at least six days reflected by the variation of SO42−, characterized by heterogeneous reactions of SO2 and NOx on crustal materials directly from FW, the replacement of Cl− by NO3− and SO42− coating of NO3− and SO42− on soot, formation of secondary organic aerosols and metal-catalyzed formation of NO3− and SO42− at higher relative humidity. During aging, the main contributors to the extinction coefficient shifted from elemental carbon and organic matter to sulfate ammonium. The particles raised higher cancer risks by heavy metals (especially for Cd and As as 1.62 ×10−6. This study provided detailed composition data and first comprehensive analysis of the aging processes of FW particles at serious haze pollution period and their potential impact on human health.

  18. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  20. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  1. Diversification or Homogenization: How Governments and Markets Have Combined to (Re)Shape Chinese Higher Education in Its Recent Massification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The expansion and diversification of higher education are twin phenomena that have been associated with the development of higher education in many countries around the world. This study attempts to use enrolment expansion as a lens to examine the effects of governmental intervention and market forces on diversification of the Chinese system,…

  2. Diversification or Homogenization: How Governments and Markets Have Combined to (Re)Shape Chinese Higher Education in Its Recent Massification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The expansion and diversification of higher education are twin phenomena that have been associated with the development of higher education in many countries around the world. This study attempts to use enrolment expansion as a lens to examine the effects of governmental intervention and market forces on diversification of the Chinese system,…

  3. Perceived Parental Control Processes, Parent-Child Relational Qualities, and Psychological Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques…

  4. Perceived Parental Control Processes, Parent-Child Relational Qualities, and Psychological Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques…

  5. Topic prominence in Chinese EFL learners’ interlanguage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the general characteristics of topicprominent typological interlanguage development of Chinese learners of English in terms of acquiring subject-prominent English structures from a discourse perspective. Topic structures mainly appear in Chinese discourse in the form of topic chains (Wang, 2002; 2004. The research target are the topic chain, which is the main topic-prominent structure in Chinese discourse, and zero anaphora, which is the most common topic anaphora in the topic chain. Two important findings emerged from the present study. First, the characteristics of Chinese topic chains are transferrable to the interlanguage of Chinese EFL learners, thus resulting in overgeneralization of the zero anaphora. Second, the interlanguage discourse of Chinese EFL learners reflects a change of the second language acquisition process from topic-prominence to subject-prominence, thus lending support to the discourse transfer hypothesis.

  6. Nutrient Components and Processing Adaptability of Chinese Chestnut%板栗的营养成分及加工特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 汪浩明; 张丛兰; 李皓; 李庆; 马小建; 杨芳

    2013-01-01

    以湖北麻城的油栗、广东阳山的油栗和风栗为研究对象,对其主要营养成分和加工适应性以及板栗淀粉物理特性进行了分析.结果表明:三种板栗在—般营养成分上差异不大,麻城油栗含水量59.5%,适于制浆加工;阳山油栗单粒重16.53 g、颗粒大,麻城油栗、阳山风栗板栗单重小,可食率高.板栗品种对淀粉组成影响不大,产地上有差异;三种板栗淀粉在95℃时,溶解度接近50%,膨润力在30%左右,实验温度下阳山油栗仁淀粉溶解度和膨润力较大.在透明度方面,阳山风栗仁淀粉较高;各种板栗淀粉都有较强的冻融稳定性.%In order to study the nutrients components and the processing adaptability of different varieties Chinese chenstnut, there chestnut samples (oil chestnut from Macheng in Hubei province,oil chestnut and wind chestnut from Yangshan in Guangdong province) were analyzed. The results showed that the three kinds of chestnut had little difference in nutrient components. Macheng oil chestnut with 59.5% water content was suitable for pulping. Yangshan oil chestnut had large grain with weight value of 16.53g. Macheng oil chestnut and Yangshan wind chestnut had higher edible rate. Small difference was observed in characters of chestnut starch from different sources. The solubility and swelling power of the tested chestnut starch were closer to 50% and about 30% at 95 °C. The starch of Yangshan oil chestnut had higher solubility and swelling power than that of the others. Considering the transparence of the starch, Yanshan oil chestnut was better than the others. All tested chestnut showed high freeze-thaw stability.

  7. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  8. Automatic Thesaurus Generation for Chinese Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2002-01-01

    Reports an approach to automatic thesaurus construction for Chinese documents. Presents an effective Chinese keyword extraction algorithm. Compared to previous studies, this method speeds up the thesaurus generation process drastically. It also achieves a similar percentage level of term relatedness. Includes three tables and four figures.…

  9. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  10. Culture Differences and the Translation of English and Chinese Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明武

    2014-01-01

    Culture is a national phenomenon. English nation has its unique culture and so does Chinese nation. Idiom is an important part of language and culture. Idiom and culture are not separable. Special attention should be paid to the differences between English and Chinese cultures when translating idioms, and the translation can be perceived as a process of consideration of both English and Chinese cultures.

  11. 中成药非处方药遴选与转换中适应证评价规范性探讨%Normative study for indication assessment in process of selection and switch of OTC Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏东胜; 程刚; 周杰明

    2011-01-01

    This article departed from the actual work, studied on normative for indication assessment in process of selection and switch of OTC Chinese Medicine based on the brief introduction about the study background of non-prescription drugs in our country and analysis the necessity about the indication assessment of OTC Chinese Medicine. The normative for indication assessment is contribute to strengthen the science and fairness during the evaluation of OTC drugs, push on the development of switch evaluation of OTC Chinese Medicine, and has important practical significance for ensuring OTC Chinese Medicine safe and effective when they are used in the situation of self-medication by consumers.%文章从实际工作出发,在简述我国非处方药适应证研究背景及分析中成药非处方药适应证评价研究必要性基础上,探讨我国非处方药遴选与转换中中成药适应证评价的规范性.规范适应证评价有助于增强非处方药评价的科学与公正、推进中成药非处方药转换评价工作的开展,并对保障中成药非处方药自我药疗状态下的安全有效具有重要的现实意义.

  12. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  13. Chinese Aesthetics in the Process of Achieving the Great “Chinese Dream”%实现伟大“中国梦”进程中的中国美学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新市

    2014-01-01

    “审美无功利”观点在理论上存在着以偏盖全的缺陷。关于审美的无功利特性和有功利特性,应准确表述如下:对于审美主体而言,既具有显性状态下的无功利,又具有隐性状态下的有功利;从社会视角的客观情形而言,审美具有明确的系统功利性。中国特色社会主义是当代中国美学美育工作者的最为深厚的土壤和可以大有作为的广阔天地,中国美学美育工作者要牢记,中国特色社会主义信仰是审美之根,要密切关注现代化建设的时空变化和发展,要致力于协调人民群众的内在美和外在美,要积极地回应我国现代化建设面临的挑战,为人民群众的社会实践服务,要对广大人民群众的诸多生存样态进行有针对性的关照,要使审美为人的全面发展服务,要促进社会美的创造。%There is one sidedness defect in the view “Aesthetic Disinterestedness” in theory.About no utilitarian characteristic of aesthetic and utilitarian characteristics , we should accurately describe them in this way: For the aesthetic subject ,aesthetic has no utility in the dominant state ,but it has the hidden state of the utilitarian;from the objective situation of social perspective ,aesthetic has a clear utilitarian with system .Socialism with Chinese charac-teristics is the contemporary Chinese aesthetic workers and aesthetic educators ’ the most profound soil and a vast world that can be accomplished .Chinese aesthetic workers and aesthetic educators shall remember that the belief of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the aesthetic root ,and we shall pay close attention to the temporal and spa-tial variation of modernization construction and development .We should be committed to coordinate people ’ s inner and outer beauty and respond positively to the modernization of China challenges .We should serve for people ’ s so-cial practice,and give targeted care to the

  14. Hierarchical Classification of Chinese Documents Based on N-grams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We explore the techniques of utilizing N-gram informatio n tocategorize Chinese text documents hierarchically so that the classifier can shak e off the burden of large dictionaries and complex segmentation processing, and subsequently be domain and time independent. A hierarchical Chinese text classif ier is implemented. Experimental results show that hierarchically classifying Chinese text documents based N-grams can achieve satisfactory performance and outperforms the other traditional Chinese text classifiers.

  15. Effective Components of Chinese Herbal Compound Decoction and Maillard Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹治云; 陈旭征; 张恩达; 杜建

    2009-01-01

    This paper intends to explore the color changes considered to be Maillard reaction during the process of Chinese herbal medicine.The Maillard reaction products(MRPs) are often in substantial proportions of Chinese herbal compound decoctions but their effects are often neglected.By considering the effects of MRPs in studies of effective components on Chinese herbal compounds,a new perspective is established in future researches of Chinese herbal compound decoctions.

  16. The Processing Teaching and the Processing Evaluating for“Chinese Economy”Course%“中国经济”课程的过程教学与过程考核

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍开群

    2012-01-01

      为了全面考核学生的知识、能力、素质,改革传统“一锤定音”教学考核方式,根据课程目标、性质、类别、学时、特点或内容、班级规模等因素,进行“中国经济”课程教改,即过程教学与过程考核,主要做法就是提高平时考核占课程总成绩的权重。过程教学与过程考核改变了传统的教学考核形式单一、效果不佳的弊端,培养了学生的学习能力、综合素质,提高了学生学习的积极性、主动性、创造性,进而提高了课程教学效果。同时,也锻炼并提高了任课教师的教学能力和专业素质。%  In order to comprehensively assess students' knowl⁃edge, abilities, quality, and reform the traditional teaching and evaluating mode, namely the final test determines the outcome, according to the course’s goal, nature, category, hours, features or content, and class size and the other factors, implemented"Chinese Economy" course reform, namely the processing teaching and processing evaluating, in which the main ways are to raise the proportion of the routine examination in the curricu⁃lum. The processing teaching and evaluating can change the problems of a single form and poor effect of the traditional teach⁃ing and evaluation, cultivate the students' learning ability, com⁃prehensive quality, and enhance the students' enthusiasm, ini⁃tiative and creativity, thus improve the teaching effects of the course. At the same time, also exercise and improve the teach⁃er's teaching ability and professional quality.

  17. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  18. Chinese Online Hot Expressions:A Chinese Voice that Can Be Heard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jie

    2016-01-01

    Chinese online hot expressions, as one of Chinese popular cultures, were forming in the process of globalization and internetization. With about twenty years’development, now some Chinese online hot expressions have begun to enter into the international netspeak, forming a kind of counter-impact to the international net culture. It is an important part of our national culture and should be used as a special national resource in promoting the cultural soft power of our country.

  19. 我国近十年来汉语阅读障碍儿童的语言加工研究综述%A Review of Language Processing in Chinese Development Dyslexia Children in the Recent Decade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛赛群

    2014-01-01

    汉语阅读障碍研究是近年来我国学习困难领域研究的热点,我国近10年来对汉语阅读障碍儿童的语言加工研究主要涉及语音意识、语素意识、正字法加工、语义加工四个方面。作者对这四方面的研究内容进行了归纳分析,同时对现有研究的趋势及不足进行了初步探讨。%The research of Chinese development dyslexia is a hot spot in research of learning difficulties in China in recent years. In recent decade, the study of language processing of Chinese development dyslexia children mainly involves four aspects:phonetic consciousness, morpheme awareness, orthography processing, semantic processing. In this paper, the content of the above four aspects have carried on the objective analysis. In the end, the author analyzes the trends of existing research and pointed out some existing problems.

  20. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  1. A Preliminary Study on PASS Cognitive Processing Deficit of Chinese Developmental Dyslexia%小学汉语阅读障碍儿童的PASS认知加工特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓辰; 李其维; 李清

    2011-01-01

    本研究以智力的PASS认知模型为基础,考察汉语阅读障碍儿童的PASS认知缺陷模式。研究采用DN:CAS认知评估系统,并结合统计分析对33名汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童的PASS认知加工缺陷进行了分析。结果表明,汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童存在不止一种的PASS认知加工缺陷,可能在计划、注意、同时性和继时性加工的一个或几个方面出现了困难。继时性加工缺陷是汉语阅读障碍儿童的主要特征,与英语阅读障碍的研究相一致。此外,汉语阅读障碍儿童在表达性注意、言语-空间关系和继时性加工上的成绩差于生理年龄匹配组,仅达到阅读水平匹配组水平,这些的不足可能是由于发展迟滞所致。%For the purpose of this study, we examined if Chinese dyslexia is associated with deficits in Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) processing. Rather than comparing children with dyslexia with average readers alone, we employed a more sophisticated design in which grade 5 dyslexics were compared not only to the grade 5 average readers, but also to the grade 3 average readers whose reading ability was equivalent to the dyslexics. The Chinese version of DN: CAS was used to examine the PASS processing of the dyslexic children. The results indicated that Chinese developmental dyslexia was heterogeneous, i.e., the Chinese developmental dyslexia was correlated with more than two PASS cognitive deficits. The dyslexic children could have difficulties in one or several aspects of PASS processing. Meanwhile, the Successive processing deficit was the main problem faced by the Chinese dyslexic children. This proportion resembles the one reported for temporal processing deficits in English-speaking dyslexic children. Next, a significant main effect of group was shown in Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive. And the follow-up univariate analyses showed that the DYS group performed worse than the

  2. Brain Activation of Chinese Segmental and Supra-segmental Information on Attentive Processing Stage in Auditory Situation%听觉条件下汉语音段与超音段信息脑激活模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐浩; 韩玉昌; 任桂琴

    2015-01-01

    Based on the past researches and experimental studies on the spoken words of Chinese and alpha‐betic writing system ,this study was conducted to investigate the time course and the brain activation of Chinese segmental and supra‐segmental information in auditory situation by using ERP technique ,and ana‐lyze the intensity of neural activation’s source in the human brain by using LORETA .The results are:(1) The change of the initial consonant and tone brings more difficult tasks ;implication plays bigger role in se‐mantic activation ,w hich show s tonal processing uses more psychological resources ,w hich causes long du‐ration of working memory .(2) EEG result shows in auditory situation Chinese segmental and supra‐seg‐mental information have similar function and time course in semantic processing in attentive stage . (3) Chinese sentence processing took place mainly in the left hemisphere ;however ,the right hemisphere was involved in this process as well ,and both of the left and the right hemisphere got involved in the analysis of the semantic information at attentive processing stage .This result therefore raised a reasonable doubt about cerebral hemisphere processing lateralization w hile processing the Chinese semantic information .%采用ERP技术,考察听觉条件下汉语音段与超音段信息在注意加工阶段的时间进程, LORETA源定位分析比较二者的脑激活模式。研究结果为:(1)行为学结果显示,声母和声调的改变所带来的任务难度更大,暗示在语义激活过程中所起的作用也更大,同时也说明声调加工占用了更多的心理资源,工作记忆的时长更长。(2)EEG结果显示,听觉条件下,汉语音段与超音段信息在注意阶段对语义加工有着相似的作用和时间进程。(3)LORETA 源定位分析结果显示,在汉语句子加工中,虽然左半球占有一定的优势,但右半球也有所参与,在汉语语义整合阶

  3. Physiological Changes before and after Leaf Color Transition in the Bolting Process of Chinese Cabbage%大白菜抽薹过程叶色转变前后的生理变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丹萍; 李春刚; 张耀伟

    2011-01-01

    Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Pekinensis ( Lour.) Olsson ] shows leaf color transition during the period from vernalization to bolting. After the change it will bud and then bolting, flowering. This phenomenon is particularly prominent in early-bolting species. In present study, Chinese cabbage cultivars of late-bolting and early-bolting were used to investigate the physiological changes during leaf color transition in the bolting process. The results revealed that there were some correlations between leaf color transition and the hormones, pigment content and protein composition. The content of chlorophyll (a/b), IAA and GA3 reached their peak in bolting process, the stem initiates elongation growth after leaf color is changed. The changes of leaf color are physiological signal in Chinese cabbage bolting.%大白菜通过春化后至抽薹,叶色由绿变灰,这一叶色转变过程在弱冬性品系上的表现尤为突出.本试验以不同冬性的大白菜品系为材料,从激素、色素含量变化和蛋白质组分变化等方面研究大白菜抽薹过程叶色转变前后的生理变化.结果表明:激素、色素含量和蛋白质的变化均与叶色转变有一定关系,叶绿素a/b、IAA和GA3含量均在叶色转变期出现峰值.

  4. [Briefly analysis on academic origins of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Through collecting and collating the development process of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing, the development of modern Chinese medicine dispensing on the basis of experience could be promoted. "Heyaofenji", "Hehe", " Heji" in ancient Chinese medicine, herbal medicine literature and law were collected, and then things were sorted out according to traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory, skills and legal norms. Firstly, "Tang Ye Jing Fa" is the earliest book which marks the rudiment of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing. Secondly, traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory formed in "Shen Nong's herbal classic". Thirdly, Zhang Zhongjing's "Treatise on Febrile Diseases" marked the formation of Chinese medicine dispensing skills. Lastly, Provisions in Tang Dynasty law marks the development of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing.

  5. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Based on network analysis of hierarchical structural relations among Chinese characters, we develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters. We regard a more efficient learning method if one learns the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW) strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that takes into account both the weight of the nodes and the hierarchical structure of the network. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as...

  6. An automatic composition model of Chinese folk music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaomei; Li, Dongyang; Wang, Lei; Shen, Lin; Gao, Yanyuan; Zhu, Yuanyuan

    2017-03-01

    The automatic composition has achieved rich results in recent decades, including Western and some other areas of music. However, the automatic composition of Chinese music is less involved. After thousands of years of development, Chinese folk music has a wealth of resources. To design an automatic composition mode, learn the characters of Chinese folk melody and imitate the creative process of music is of some significance. According to the melodic features of Chinese folk music, a Chinese folk music composition based on Markov model is proposed to analyze Chinese traditional music. Folk songs with typical Chinese national characteristics are selected for analysis. In this paper, an example of automatic composition is given. The experimental results show that this composition model can produce music with characteristics of Chinese folk music.

  7. Chinese Sculpture as Public Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YinShuangxi

    2003-01-01

    Chinese arts have undergone tremendous changes thanks to the fast-growing modernization and urbanization process in China. One of the monumental changes is the emergence of “public art”, most notably, urban sculpture. This art is increasingly related to modern urban planning, architecture, and community building.

  8. 创新中草药调剂工作,建设全流程服务系统%Innovation of Chinese herbal medicine dispensing work, construction whole process of pharmaceutical care system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古今; 张玉萌; 何新荣

    2016-01-01

    中草药调剂有着数千年的历史沿革,其过程复杂,工作量大,且调配过程容易出现差错。基于我院标准化和信息化服务理念,研发中药房全流程药学服务与管理系统,具有合理用药审核,处方自动均衡分配,调剂工作历史追溯,叫号取药一键式,库存监控、工作量统计和药斗中药材消耗量统计等由人工改为自动统计、自动生成等特点。该系统应用在我院中药房整个调剂过程中,确保了调剂过程中称量的准确性、分付剂量均匀性,解决了患者取药等候时间长和合理用药指导缺乏等问题,大大提升了中药药学服务水平和服务质量。%[AbstrAct]Dispensing of Chinese herbal medicine has thousands of years of history, the process is complex, workload is large, and the dispensing errors easily occur. Based on the standardization and information technology in our pharmaceutical care concept, intelligent system of Chinese herbal medicine was researched and developmented, containing the rational use of drugs, prescription automatic equilibrium assignment, dispensing work tracing back to the history, taking medicine one-click, inventory control, workload statistics and Chinese traditional medicine consumption statistics by automatic statistics instead of hand. The application of the system in the whole pharmacy dispensing process in our hospital assured the weighing accuracy, allotments uniform dose, solved some problems such as long waiting time, deficiency of reasonable medication guidance, promoted the Chinese medicine pharmacy service level and service quality.

  9. 浅谈语文教学如何全过程体现综合性%A Brief Discussion on How Chinese Teaching Embodies Comprehensive Characteristics in the Whole Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐巧凤

    2012-01-01

    The great advantage of Chinese comprehensive learning activity in the development and use of infinite teaching resources.To break through the limitation of teaching materials,teachers should take advantage of every teaching link,so as to let the students feel the charm of the language and enhance comprehensive quality.Chinese learning is a process of integrated learning,Chinese comprehensive knowledge and course content of the rich decided the language learning is an integrated learning process.As long as the integrated use of language knowledge and the overall development of listening speaking reading and writing take place,this kind of Chinese learning should belong to the category of comprehensive learning.%语文综合性学习活动的巨大优势在于开发并利用无限的教学资源,突破教材的有限性,教师要把这一优势揉入教学过程的每一环节,让学生在潜移默化中感受语文的魅力、提升综合素质。语文学习的过程也是一个综合性学习的过程,语文知识的综合性和课程内容的丰富性决定了语文学习的过程就是一种综合学习的过程。语文的综合性、语文学习的综合性,决定了在语文的任何学习过程中时时都要综合性地学习,而非仅仅进行综合活动课才要强调综合性。只要是能综合运用语文知识、整体发展听说读写、沟通语文课程与其他课程、做到书本学习与实践活动紧密结合,这样的语文学习都应属于综合性学习范畴。

  10. Informization Implementation for Chinese Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; QIAN Yu; CHEN Jianfeng; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    Retailing is an important component of every country's economic system. The current status and developments in the informization of Chinese retail industry were investigated by using questionnaires and interviews to survey 139 retailers throughout China. The investigation shows that Chinese retailers are in the initial informization stage, and can be classified into different types with corresponding informization characteristics. In addition, the survey identified the key problems faced by retailers in the initial stage. Developments in the information technology field were analyzed to identify the key technologies that Chinese retailers should focus on during the informization process. The investigation also shows that the retailers have not arrived at a consensus about information technology adoption, and thus hesitate to use new information technologies, such as the radio frequency identification.

  11. English Loan Words in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡悦

    2016-01-01

    During the process of language contact, a lot of language changes may appear, among which lexical borrowing, the ori-gin lexical item from one language being used by another language, is one of the most common phenomena. As a result of glo-balization, the frequent contact with western culture and the English language has brought a huge amount of lexical borrowings to the Chinese language. This paper mainly looks at the language contact of the English loan words in Chinese in the following three methods, namely transliteration, semantic loan and a mixture of the two respectively. The discussion over the examination will contribute to the understanding of English as a lingua franca and its language contact with Chinese.

  12. Models of English and Chinese Word Reading for Adolescent Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, Alexandra; Koh, Poh Wee; Chen, Xi; Jia, Fanli

    2017-01-01

    These two studies examined the processes underlying English and Chinese word reading in Chinese-English bilinguals in relation to their experiences with their second language (L2), as determined by length of time in an English-speaking environment. Phonological awareness, morphological awareness and vocabulary measures were administered in English…

  13. Becoming a 'good' Chinese language teacher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    Discover what Chinese language teachers experience while teaching Chinese as a foreign language (abbreviated to CFL) at Danish universities. Are they teaching CFL in a ‘Chinese’ way? Are they teaching CFL in a ‘Danish’ way? Focusing on professional identities, this PhD project explores...... the relationship among teachers’ beliefs, prior CFL-related experiences and the influence of different teaching cultures. Six native-speaker teachers of Chinese and four non-native-speaker teachers of Chinese from three Danish universities joined the project. Through a qualitative study made up of researcher......’s journals, classroom observations and semi-structured interviews over four years (2011-2015), the author explains the process of being and becoming ‘good’ Chinese language teachers in a Danish educational setting, concentrating on the factors which are associated with influencing the construction of teacher...

  14. Processing Technology of Chinese Yam and Ribes Mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kom.Compound Beverage%山药东北茶藨子复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾健辉; 张彦丽; 宋宏光

    2012-01-01

    以新鲜山药和东北茶藨子为主要原料,添加白砂糖、黄原胶,制作复合浊汁饮料.试验结果表明,其最优配比为:山药原浆20%,东北茶藨子原汁15%,白砂糖8%,黄原胶0.08%,制得的山药东北茶藨子复合饮料口感润滑、酸甜适口、色泽协调、营养丰富、组织状态稳定.%Using fresh Chinese yam and Ribes mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kom. As the main materials, adding sugar and xanthan gum to make compound beverage. The results showed that, the optimal formulation for this beverage was as following: chinese yam juice 20%, Ribes mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kom. Juice 15%, white granulated sugar 8%, xanthan gum 0.08%. The compound beverage taste lubrication, sweet and sour, has abundant nutritions, coordinate color and good stability.

  15. Translating Chinese Neologism as a Problem -solving Process%翻译过程论视域下新词新语英译策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽春

    2016-01-01

    Through Analysis ,Transference ,Restructuring and Testing ,this article follows Nida’ s four - stage translation procedure to find major problems in the C -E neologism translation .Based on current statistics from literature research ,it probes into the conversion of translators’ logic ,the reference of parallel texts ,and translators’ competence to optimize their translation .It is expected to shed some light on the translation of Chinese neologism and propose translation strategies for the translation of Chinese neologism .%以奈达的“翻译四步骤”(分析—转换—重组—验证)为研究视角,分析汉语新词新语英译中存在的主要问题。通过文献研究列举目前新词新语翻译现状及其成因,旨在揭示译者从原语思维到译语思维的转换,需要参照平行文本,生成并优化译文,进而提出新词新语的英译策略。

  16. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals of conflict processing in the Chinese-character Stroop task: a simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiahuan; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-09-01

    A dual-modality method combining continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and event-related potentials (ERPs) was developed for the Chinese-character color-word Stroop task, which included congruent, incongruent, and neutral stimuli. Sixteen native Chinese speakers participated in this study. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were monitored simultaneously by NIRS and ERP. The hemodynamic signals were represented by relative changes in oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentration, whereas the electrophysiological signals were characterized by the parameters P450, N500, and P600. Both types of signals measured at four regions of the PFC were analyzed and compared spatially and temporally among the three different stimuli. We found that P600 signals correlated significantly with the hemodynamic parameters, suggesting that the PFC executes conflict-solving function. Additionally, we observed that the change in deoxy-Hb concentration showed higher sensitivity in response to the Stroop task than other hemodynamic signals. Correlation between NIRS and ERP signals revealed that the vascular response reflects the cumulative effect of neural activities. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that this new dual-modality method is a useful approach to obtaining more information during cognitive and physiological studies.

  17. Repetition Blindness in Chinese Polyphones Processing%汉字多音字加工过程中的重复知盲效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷英; 陈旭莲

    2011-01-01

    Repetition blindness (Kanwisher, 1987, 1991) refers to the phenomenon that participants have difficulty detecting repetitions of words (Cl and C2) presented in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Several accounts focused on why and how the recognition deficit for C2 occurs, such as Token Individuation Theory (Kanwisher, 1987, 1991; Kanwisher & Potter, 1989, 1990; Chun, 1997), Refractory Period Hypothesis (Luo & Caramazza, 1995, 1996), Potential Retrieval-Based Models (Fagot, & Pashler, 1995), Construction and Attribution Theory (Masson, 2004; Whittlesea & Masson, 2005; Whittlesea & Hughes, 2005) and Competition Hypothesis (Morris, Still, & Caldwell-Harris Harris, 2009). Among these theories, Token Individuation Theory and Construction and Attribution Theory are the most widely influential. Up to now, it is difficult for them to come to an agreement on the processing level of repetition blindness. For example, Token Individuation Theory argued that repetition blindness was perception deficit, occurring at perception level, while Construction and Attribution Theory argued that repetition blindness was memory deficit, occurring at semantic level. The present research investigated the processing level of repetition blindness with Chinese Polyphones.We used a mixed design with three variables, one between-subject variable, Time Interval with two levels (100ms and 200ms), and two within-subject variables, Repetition with three levels (completely repeated, homophones repeated and different phonetic repeated), and Position with two levels (position homology and position dissimilarity). Each trial included three words, two experimental words (Cl and C2) and a high frequency word in between. All materials were presented on a computer screen in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Participants were instructed to verbally report all words in a trial, no matter whether a word was repeated or not. The dependent variable was the accuracy rate for

  18. In-situ transesterification of seeds of invasive Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera L.) in a microwave batch system (GREEN(3)) using hexane as co-solvent: Biodiesel production and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekati-Goudarzi, Mohamad; Boldor, Dorin; Nde, Divine B

    2016-02-01

    In-situ transesterification (simultaneous extraction and transesterification) of Chinese tallow tree seeds into methyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A high degree of oil extraction and efficient conversion of oil to biodiesel were found in the proposed range. The process was further optimized in terms of product yields and conversion rates using Doehlert optimization methodology. Based on the experimental results and statistical analysis, the optimal production yield conditions for this process were determined as: catalyst concentration of 1.74wt.%, solvent ratio about 3 (v/w), reaction time of 20min and temperature of 58.1°C. H(+)NMR was used to calculate reaction conversion. All methyl esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications.

  19. Different Brain Activation of Second Language Semantic Processing Between Chinese-Japanese Bilinguals and Japanese-Chinese Bilinguals:an fMRI Study%中日-日中双语被试在第二外语语义处理时脑活动差异的fMRI研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    利用功能性磁共振成像(fMRI)技术探讨中日双语和日中双语被试在语义处理时脑活动的差异。实验利用中日双语和日中双语两种被试,使用中文语义判断任务和日文语义判断任务,通过两组被试各自判断任务中不同的脑激活情况探讨中日双语和日中双语被试在语义处理时脑活动之间的差异。结果表明中日双语被试语义判断时脑神经网络为右侧额叶下回(BA44/45),左侧纺锤状回(BA37)以及左侧颞叶(BA39);日中双语被试语义判断时脑神经网络为左侧颞下回(BA38),左侧顶上及顶下小叶(BA7)以及左侧颞叶(BA21/22)。%Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the differences of brain activity during semantic pro-cessing between Chinese-Japanese and Japanese-Chinese bilingual subjects are discussed. In this paper, both the bilin-guals are used to judge semantic task and their judgments difference in brain activation. Results show that Chinese-Jap-anese bilingual subjects have effects on semantic judgment of brain neural network for the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA44/45),the left fusiform (BA37) and the left temporal lobe (BA39);Japanese-Chinese bilingual subjects affect se-mantic judgment of brain neural network for the left superior temporal gyrus (BA38),the left temporal lobule (BA7), the left temporal lobe (BA21/22).

  20. 中华鳖产品种类及主要加工技术研究现状%Research status of processing techniques of Chinese soft-shelled turtle products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王扬; 张海琪; 周凡; 李诗言; 陆炜

    2014-01-01

    Chinese soft-shelled turtle is a kind of traditional food with high nutritional values and various health-giving effects, which is rich in protein, essential amino acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), trace elements and B vitamins, folic acid and other active substances. It can improve human immunity, promote metabolism, and enhance the ability of resistance, anti-aging effect and so on. With the rapid development of aquaculture industry, the output of Chinese soft-shelled turtle increases dramatically, so it has the important meaning of processed products to improve product added value and promote industrial development. This paper introduced the main processed products of Chinese soft-shelled turtle and their processing techniques, so as to provide insights for its development and comprehensive utilization. By some processing techniques, such as cooking, freeze-dried, fermentation, enzymatic hydrolysis, the fresh turtle could be produced many types of food, such as wine, beverage, polypeptide and ready-to-eat products. It was important to make full use of whole turtle body oil, shell, bone,etc, to promote industrial development.%中华鳖富含蛋白质、人体必需氨基酸、二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)、二十碳五烯酸(EPA)、微量元素和 B族维生素、叶酸等活性物质,具有提高人体免疫力、促进新陈代谢、增强抗病能力、延缓衰老等功效,是中国传统的滋补强身珍品,有较高的营养和药用价值。而今随着养鳖业的迅猛发展,养殖产量越来越多,甲鱼加工产品对提高产品附加值、促进产业发展具重要意义。本文介绍了目前中华鳖加工主要产品及其加工工艺,为其开发与综合利用提供思路。将鲜活甲鱼通过蒸煮、冻干、发酵、酶解等加工工艺,制成冻干粉、酒、饮料、多肽产品和即食产品等类型的食品,其全身油、壳、骨等有待进一步充分利用。

  1. Simultaneous determination of 19 triazine pesticides and degradation products in processed cereal samples from Chinese total diet study by isotope dilution–high performance liquid chromatography–linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng [College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Yang, Xin, E-mail: beijing-yangxin@163.com [China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng [China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Key Lab of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100021 (China); Liu, Wei [Shandong Province Environmental Monitoring Centre, Jinan 250013 (China); Wu, Yongning, E-mail: china_cdc@yahoo.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Key Lab of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100021 (China)

    2013-06-05

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •19 triazines were determined in cereal samples from Chinese TDS for the first time. •Isotope dilution technique and HPLC–LIT-MS{sup 3} method are both applied in this study. •CCαs and CCβs are much lower in this work than those of the previous publications. -- Abstract: A selective and sensitive isotope dilution–high performance liquid chromatography–linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Isotope Dilution–HPLC–LIT-MS{sup 3}) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 triazine pesticides and their degradation products in processed cereal samples from Chinese total diet study (TDS). The method integrated the addition of isotope internal standards, liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), clean-up with MCX solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and HPLC–LIT-MS{sup 3} analysis with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.9940) verified by applying the Mandel's fitting test (p > 0.087) performed at the 95% confidence level. Decision limits (CCαs) and detection capabilities (CCβs) of the 19 triazine pesticides and their degradation products fell in the ranges of 0.0020–0.4200 μg kg{sup −1} and 0.0024–0.4500 μg kg{sup −1}, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 70.1% to 112.8%, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 1.5% to 13.5%. Furthermore, the proposed method was applied to analyzing the proposed cereal samples from the fourth Chinese TDS. Eleven triazines were detected in six cereal samples with the concentrations ranging from 0.013 to 0.987 μg kg{sup −1}. This method can also be used for the further determination of the triazines in other food group composites, and ultimately served as a methodological foundation for assessing the triazines in the average Chinese diet in the general population.

  2. 论中国特色社会主义政治发展道路的形成历程%Analysis of Formative Process of Socialist Road of Political Development with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立进

    2016-01-01

    Through historical overlooking,all things can trace back to the real origin.The formative process of the socialist road of political development with Chinese characteristics has experienced three stages,including brewing and preparation,difficult exploration and preliminary formation,which reflect the hard exploration and great creation of countless outstanding Chinese people especially the Chinese Communist Party leading the people since the modern times.Especially the Communist Party of China’s second generation col-lective leadership with Deng Xiaoping as the core conformed to the trend of peace and development,combined with the history-society-culture and the current situation of China,tried hard to break the rigid mode of socialism ,reformed and perfected the superstructure with comprehensive and systematic way,which gradually formed the main framework and basic outline of the socialist road of political development with Chinese characteristics.%中国特色社会主义政治发展道路的形成经历了酝酿与准备、艰难探索、初步形成等阶段,反映了近代以来无数先进中国人特别是中国共产党领导人民进行的艰辛探索和伟大创造。尤其是以邓小平为核心的中共第二代领导集体,顺应和平发展的时代潮流,结合历史、社会、文化和现实国情,努力突破僵化的计划经济模式,对上层建筑进行全面、系统地改革和完善,逐渐形成了中国特色社会主义政治发展道路的主要框架和基本轮廓。

  3. Molecular Identification of Processed Medicinal Insects Chinese polyphaga Based on Cytb Gene%基于Cytb基因对药用昆虫地鳖虫炮制品的分子鉴别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 岳蓓蓓; 张家贺; 赵玥; 宝特日根; 贾景明

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To provide new identification method for processed medicinal material Chinese polyphaga(Eupolyph-aga sinensis,Steleophaga plancyi) and their adulterants by establishing molecular identification method based on Cytb genes. METHODS:The total DNA of Chinese polyphaga and their adulterants was extracted using modified saturation sodium chloride method. The Cytb genes of all samples were amplified with PCR using general primers REVCB2H and REVCBJ. The phylogenetic tree of all samples was constructed with Neighbor-Joining(NJ)method using MEGA 5.1 software. The sequences of the Cytb gene of all sampled were compared by using DNAMAN sofetware. The difference between genuine product and their adulterants were analyzed,and the specific primers Esin-F and Esin-R were designed for molecular identification in different regions. RESULTS:DNA extracted from processed medicinal insects was successful to amplify Cytb gene segments. The phylogenetic tree of all sam-ples was consistent with their genetic relationship. A fragment was amplified only from genuine product but not from other adulter-ants with the designed specific primers Esin-F and Esin-R. CONCLUSIONS:DNA extraction method from processed Chinese polyphaga and their adulterants have been established. Designed specific primers are highly specific to genuine product Chinese polyphaga,and can be used for the identification of Chinese polyphaga and their adulterants.%目的:建立基于线粒体DNA细胞色素氧化酶b(Cytb)基因的分子标记技术对地鳖虫(地鳖、冀地鳖)及其混伪品炮制药材进行分子鉴定的方法.方法:采用改良的饱和氯化钠法对地鳖虫及其混伪品炮制药材的总DNA进行提取.通过通用引物REVCB2H、REVCBJ对所有样品的Cytb基因进行聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增;用MEGA 5.1软件对所有样品的Cytb基因序列采用邻接(NJ)法构建系统发育树;并利用DNAMAN软件对得到的所有样品的Cytb基因序列进行比对,分析正品、混

  4. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  5. 哈佛燕京图书馆发展中文馆藏的历程及启示%The Development Process of Chinese Collection in Harvard Yenning Library and Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤罡辉

    2011-01-01

    通过对哈佛燕京图书馆发展中文馆藏的历程了解,我们可得到重要启示,如馆长职位要稳定且专业,要主动寻找发展特色馆藏的契机,小馆也有机会成名,要善于从书目中挖掘信息。此外,燕京馆对中文地方志的收藏政策,对我国图书馆开展地方文献的收藏工作也有重要参考作用。%Through understand the development process of Chinese literature in the Harvard Yenching Library, We can get the important enlightenment, such as, the curator position should be stable and professional, to actively seek the development of characteristic collection of opportunity, small library also have the chance to become famous, should be good at mining information from bibliography. In addition, the collection policies about the Chinese local chorography in Harvard Yenching Library, has important reference function to our library collection of local literature.

  6. Study the construction of chinese medicine dispensing technique based on work process direction%基于工作过程的中药调剂技术课程建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋爱品; 马春

    2013-01-01

    Basing on the experience of Beijing Health Career Academy,this article elaborates on the methods of chinese medicine dispensing technique.In our elaboration,we emphasize on the following aspects:thorough understanding of the nature of model curriculum,clear thinking of how to construct the course,optimization design of course construction,improvement of classroom design and improvement of the quality of course.In our case,the principles of the model curriculum construction of chinese medicine dispensing technique course are working process orientation,by using job tasking as motivation,serving the purpose of professional training through cooperation.%本文结合北京卫生职业学院中药调剂技术课程建设的实践,从深刻认识课程内涵,明确课程开发思路、指定课程建设内容、完善课程教学设计、提高课程建设质量等几方面阐述了中药调剂技术课程建设的体会和做法.中药调剂技术课程的建设思路是以工作过程为导向、工作任务为驱动,为专业培养目标服务.

  7. Change of 3 Kinds of Enzyme Activity and Soluble Sugar in 3 Chinese Cabbage Varieties with Different Resistance Level During the Process of Plasmodiophora brassicae lnfecting Their Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuohua REN; Hu ZHOU; Xiaoli HUANG; Qiong SONG; Minjie LlU; Erming LlU

    2015-01-01

    There are different levels of resistance in Chinese cabbage varieties a-gainst clubroot. The content of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanin am-monia-lyase (PAL), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and soluble sugar activities of 3 cultivars with different clubroot-resistant levelswere detected after inoculation in this study. The results suggest that the changing rates of CAT, PAL and SOD contents of resistance cultivars after inoculation were higher than those of susceptible culti-vars (Baigengbaiye > Zaobaicaitai > Huangjinxiaobaicai); the POD activities of resis-tance cultivars reached a peak on an earlier day than those of susceptible cultivars;the increasing rate of soluble sugar of susceptible cultivars was higher than that of the resistance cultivars, and ended with two peaks. Therefore, the four enzymes (CAT, POD, PAL and SOD) and soluble sugar may be used as physiological and biochemical reference indexes for the resistance identification to clubroot after inoc-ulation with P. brassicae.

  8. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  9. Scanorama in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scanorama, the SAS on-board magazine,is now also available in Chinese. Table-tennis star,J-O Waldner, Scandinavian design and delicious Norwegian seafood are what SAS Chinese customers can read about while sitting on board SAS flights on the Copenhagen - Beijing and Copenhagen-Shanghai routes. The magazine uses the written Chinese language that is read by nearly one billion mainland Chinese.

  10. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  11. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  12. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  13. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  14. Research on Difficulty in Indonesia Students Learning Chinese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Anggreani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese has become the worlds second language. Each language has its own law, as is the Chinese. Indonesian students have difficulty in learning Chinese which are are not surprising. Every language has various characteristics, so do Chinese and Bahasa Indonesia. Article analyzes difficulties to learn Chinese, especially for Indonesian students, those are tone, grammar, sounds of er hua such as Alice retroflex. The respondents are 100 Indonesian students who are randomly selected for testing samples analyzed. Since there is no tone in Bahasa Indonesia, it makes a lot of Indonesian students in the learning process often appear in Chinese foreign accent phenomenon. This article expects to explore the problem by studying the formation of the causes and solutions. Indonesian students learning Chinese was designed to provide some teaching and learning strategies.

  15. Research on Difficulty in Indonesia Students Learning Chinese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Anggreani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese has become the world’s second language. Each language has its own law, as is the Chinese. Indonesian students have difficulty in learning Chinese which are are not surprising. Every language has various characteristics, so do Chinese and Bahasa Indonesia. Article analyzes difficulties to learn Chinese, especially for Indonesian students, those are tone, grammar, sounds of “er hua” such as Alice retroflex. The respondents are 100 Indonesian students who are randomly selected for testing samples analyzed. Since there is no tone in Bahasa Indonesia, it makes a lot of Indonesian students in the learning process often appear in Chinese foreign accent phenomenon. This article expects to explore the problem by studying the formation of the causes and solutions. Indonesian students learning Chinese was designed to provide some teaching and learning strategies.

  16. Biosolubilisation of Chinese lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Tao, Xiuxiang; Shi, Kaiyi [School of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The biosolubilisation of coal is a promising coal processing technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil at ambient conditions. In this study, the biosolubilisation of Chinese lignite was studied using a fungus isolated from decaying wood. The intensity of biosolubilisation was determined by estimating the liquid formation time and by measuring the weight loss of the lignite granules gravimetrically. The biosolubilisation product (black liquid) was characterized by ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, element analysis, and heating value. Results showed that this fungus isolated from the decaying wood solubilised 31.83% (by weight) of Chinese lignite to black liquid within 11 days at 27.5 C. The biosolubilisation product mainly contained aromatic acids and chain hydrocarbons, and had organic function groups of hydroxyl, cyclane, carbonyl, ether linkage and aromatic rings. The heating value of the biosolubilisation product was 14 MJ/kg. Chemical analysis of the biosolubilisation product indicated that side chains of lignite were important structures in the biosolubilisation mechanism. (author)

  17. [Study on dosage form design for improving oral bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Yao, Dong-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Both chemical drugs and traditional Chinese medicines have the problem of low bioavailability. However, as traditional Chinese medicines are a multi-component complex, their dosage forms are required to be designed in line with their characteristics, in order to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines. Traditional Chinese medicines are mostly prepared into pill, powder, paste, elixir and decoction, but with such drawbacks as high administration dose and poor efficacy. With the process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicines, new-type preparations have be developed and made outstanding achievements. However, they fail to make an organic integration between traditional Chinese medicine theories and modern preparation theories. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines are required to be taken into account during the development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the article, multi-component preparation technology was adopted to establish a multi-component drug release system of traditional Chinese medicines on the basis of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines.

  18. A Brief Analysis of Application of Public Relations Strategy in Chinese Enterprises "Going Out" Process%浅析中国企业“走出去”中的公共关系战略运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁王珏

    2013-01-01

    In the background of the global economic integration,international company merger,capital fusion and overseas investment trade and other business activities occur commonly.In the 21st century,in the promotion of national "going out" strategy,more and more Chinese enterprises begin to seek a road of sustainable development in a global point of view.However,cross-cultural communication barriers become the utmost setback of Chinese enterprise during the "going out"process.In order to solve this problem,one of the effective means is the use of public relations strategy.This paper will give the complete definition of public relations strategy,the elements and main content of public relations strategy,and with the case study of successful acquisition of Volvo by Gili Group,elaborate the application of public relations strategy in Chinese enterprises "going out" process and issues that should be pay attention to.%在全球经济一体化的大背景下,国际上公司兼并、资本融合以及海外投资贸易等经营活动屡见不鲜.21世纪,在“走出去”国家战略的推动下,我国越来越多的企业开始以全球视野寻求可持续发展道路.然而,跨文化沟通障碍成为中国企业“走出去”过程中遭遇挫折的主要原因,要解决这个问题的有效方法之一就是进行公共关系战略的运用.本文将整理得出公共关系战略的概念、公共关系战略的要素及主要内容,并结合案例阐述公共关系战略在中国企业“走出去”过程中的运用以及需要注意的问题.

  19. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  20. Chinese lexical networks: The structure, function and formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyu; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Xiaoyue; Yang, Zhanxin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper Chinese phrases are modeled using complex networks theory. We analyze statistical properties of the networks and find that phrase networks display some important features: not only small world and the power-law distribution, but also hierarchical structure and disassortative mixing. These statistical traits display the global organization of Chinese phrases. The origin and formation of such traits are analyzed from a macroscopic Chinese culture and philosophy perspective. It is interesting to find that Chinese culture and philosophy may shape the formation and structure of Chinese phrases. To uncover the structural design principles of networks, network motif patterns are studied. It is shown that they serve as basic building blocks to form the whole phrase networks, especially triad 38 (feed forward loop) plays a more important role in forming most of the phrases and other motifs. The distinct structure may not only keep the networks stable and robust, but also be helpful for information processing. The results of the paper can give some insight into Chinese language learning and language acquisition. It strengthens the idea that learning the phrases helps to understand Chinese culture. On the other side, understanding Chinese culture and philosophy does help to learn Chinese phrases. The hub nodes in the networks show the close relationship with Chinese culture and philosophy. Learning or teaching the hub characters, hub-linking phrases and phrases which are meaning related based on motif feature should be very useful and important for Chinese learning and acquisition.

  1. Technology, unit operation, transference, and process engineering of Chinese materia medica%中药生产工艺、单元操作、传递及过程工程学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明言; 张慧慧

    2011-01-01

    根据过程工程学的基本理论及发展历史、中药生产过程的发展现状,从系统工程角度分析了中药生产过程各环节的过程工程学特点,分析中药过程工程学这一更为宽广视野的概念,从新的视角对中药过程工程学的研究内容进行了阐述,并探讨了本领域的研究新进展.%According to the basic theories of process engineering and their developing histories, considering the development of pharmaceutical industry of Chinese materia medica (CMM), the process engineering features in all sectors of the CMM whole production process were discussed on the point of systematical engineering, and a wider concept of CMM process engineering was suggested. Its research contents were analyzed and lastest achievements were reviewed in this paper.

  2. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  3. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage.

  4. Sustained productivity in recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines: proteome analysis of the molecular basis for a process-related phenotype

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meleady, Paula

    2011-07-24

    Abstract Background The ability of mammalian cell lines to sustain cell specific productivity (Qp) over the full duration of bioprocess culture is a highly desirable phenotype, but the molecular basis for sustainable productivity has not been previously investigated in detail. In order to identify proteins that may be associated with a sustained productivity phenotype, we have conducted a proteomic profiling analysis of two matched pairs of monoclonal antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines that differ in their ability to sustain productivity over a 10 day fed-batch culture. Results Proteomic profiling of inherent differences between the two sets of comparators using 2D-DIGE (Difference Gel Electrophoresis) and LC-MS\\/MS resulted in the identification of 89 distinct differentially expressed proteins. Overlap comparisons between the two sets of cell line pairs identified 12 proteins (AKRIB8, ANXA1, ANXA4, EIF3I, G6PD, HSPA8, HSP90B1, HSPD1, NUDC, PGAM1, RUVBL1 and CNN3) that were differentially expressed in the same direction. Conclusion These proteins may have an important role in sustaining high productivity of recombinant protein over the duration of a fed-batch bioprocess culture. It is possible that many of these proteins could be useful for future approaches to successfully manipulate or engineer CHO cells in order to sustain productivity of recombinant protein.

  5. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Junping; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Weicun; CISC’15

    2016-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers from the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference (CISC’15), held in Yangzhou, China. The topics covered include multi-agent systems, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, complex systems, computation intelligence and soft computing, intelligent control, advanced control technology, robotics and applications, intelligent information processing, iterative learning control, and machine learning. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent systems.

  6. Asymmetry Effects of shocks in Chinese Stock Markets Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Ai Jun

    2013-01-01

    The unique characteristics of the Chinese stock markets make it difficult to assume a particular distribution for innovations in returns and the specification form of the volatility process when modelling return volatility with the parametric GARCH family models. This paper therefore applies...... a generalized additive nonparametric smoothing technique to examine the volatility of the Chinese stock markets. The empirical results indicate that an asymmetric effect of negative news exists in the Chinese stock markets. Furthermore, compared with other parametric models, the generalized additive...

  7. ON THE STRUCTURES OF RAM-BASED CHINESE CHARACTER LIBRARIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱培德

    1991-01-01

    The Chinese character library is one of the important data structures in the Chinese information Processing system.The behavior of the whole system depends directly on the reasonableness of design for its structure.This paper expounds the structures of RAM-based Chinese character libraries,static and dynamic ,The paper offers a descriptive method for this behavior and inquires into some algorithms related to the structures mentioned above.

  8. How to introduce Chinese culture in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李解人

    2014-01-01

    Chinese traditional culture is the root and soul of our nation,in the process of English learning,teachers and students should try to do something for the spread of Chinese culture.If we can realize the importance of introducing native culture in English teaching,revise syllabus,reform the examination system,improve the quality of teachers and teaching methods,we can combine Chinese traditional culture with university English teaching better.

  9. Measurement of resilience in Chinese older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Bao, J-M; Huang, X-H; Guo, Q; Smith, G D

    2015-03-01

    Resilience has been identified as a personal construct that may contribute to the process of healthy ageing in older people. To date, no measurement instrument has been tested to evaluate resilience in Chinese older people. To examine the psychometric testing and clinical application of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) in Chinese older people. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Forward and backward translation procedures were used to obtain semantic equivalence of the original English version of the RS. Content validity was examined by identified experts, followed by exploratory factor analysis, item-to-total correlation, Cronbach's α coefficients and test-retest reliability. The 25-item Chinese version of Resilience Scale (RS-CN) was fully completed by 461 Chinese older people. Cronbach's α for the total Chinese version of the Revised Resilience Scale was 0.95, with a range of 0.85-0.89 for the sub-scales. Item-to-total correlation coefficients ranged from 0.51 to 0.75 and items were excluded with item-to-total correlations coefficients lower than 0.4. The test-retest reliability of the total scale was 0.80, sub-scale test-retest reliability ranged from 0.61 to 0.620. The exploratory principal component analysis with varimax rotation revealed RS-CN to have a four-factor structure. The RS-CN is a valid and reliable instrument for the measurement of the concept of resilience in Chinese older people. The results of this study provide cross-cultural evidence for the potential application of this scale in Chinese older people. Greater insight into the psychological constructs of resilience in Chinese older people can lead to international comparisons and to the potential development of interventions for this population around the world. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  10. 浅谈韩国人学习汉语过程中母语的干扰%On South Korea in the process of learning Chinese mother tongue interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷

    2012-01-01

      在学习外语的过程中,学习者都会因母语而受到不同程度的干扰,而导致学习过程中产生诸多问题。本文从语音、词汇、语法三方面阐述了母语在韩国学生学习汉语过程中产生干扰的问题,并试对此提出解决建议。%  In the process of learning a foreign language. Learners will be because of the language and by different degree of interference .In the learning process produce many problems . This paper from the pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, this paper discusses the three of the mother tongue in south Korean students learning Chinese occurring in the process of interference problems, and try to solve it are put forward.

  11. Chinese Natural Language Processing for Animation Automatic Generation of Traditional Architecture%面向古建动画自动生成的中文自然语言处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凯

    2011-01-01

    本文提出了一个面向古代建筑领域的自然语言处理的系统模型,它被用于古建筑动画自动生成系统之中,承担着从简单中文描述到古建筑领域语义结果的计算工作。该模型分为三部分,分别为预处理过程,一般语义计算和面向古建筑领域的语义计算。通过调用Stanford大学的中文分词、语法分析程序完成分词、语法分析任务,使用Prolog语言完成一般语义计算,最终计算出古建筑构件以及它的搭建顺序、尺寸和位置,即所谓的面向古建筑领域的语义计算。%In this paper,a model is proposed for Chinese natural language processing for animation automatic generation of traditional architecture,which is applied in the system of animation generation of traditional architecture and undertakes the computing task of transformation from simple Chinese text to result in traditional architecture domain.This model contains three main parts including preprocessing,general semantics computing,and traditional architecture oriented semantics computing.Stanford segmenter and parser programs are called to accomplish the task of segmenting and parsing,and Prolog is utilized to accomplish the general semantics computing,and finally the components of traditional architecture and their construction sequence,size and position is generated,whose procedure is also called traditional architecture domain oriented semantics computing.

  12. 语音和字形信息对汉语语义加工的影响%On the Influence of Phonological and Orthographic Information on Chinese Semantic Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丹

    2016-01-01

    通过对汉语句尾歧义字的行为实验研究,探讨汉字字形、语音、语义之间的关系.选择与中心末尾字(如"雨")同音("语")、形似("两")以及无关控制("哥")的干扰末尾字,让被试判断句子是否语义正确.行为数据表明,形似组和同音组有显著的不同:形似组的反应时长于同音组,正确率也低于同音组.行为实验的结果说明,在汉语句尾歧义字的实验模式中,人们对于形的加工要比同音字困难,在对末尾字不匹配句的语义判断中字形的干扰作用大于语音的干扰作用,而这与对英语的研究结果是相反的.%The behavioral experiment of Chinese incongruent sentences was conducted to investigate the relationship among phonol-ogy,grapheme and semasiology. The incongruent sentences were created as the graphemically similar and phonologically similar,or dissimilar of the sentence-final words. And the participants were asked to judge if a sentence makes sense. Behavioral data indicated that the graphemically similar sentences were significantly different with phonologically similar sentences( the accuracy was lower whereas the reaction time was longer than that of phonological similar sentences). So in Chinese language,people have greater difficul-ty in processing grapheme than phonologically similar words and the interference effect of graphemically similar is greater than that of phonologically similar in judging the incongruent sentences. And this conclusion is opposite to that of English study.

  13. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability. PMID:27977737

  14. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  15. 清香型白酒固态酿造过程中酵母种群结构和多样性分析%Identification and analysis of yeast community structure in Chinese light-style liquor brewing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 吴群; 徐岩

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This work aimed to explore yeast community structure and ecological diversity in making process of Chinese light-style liquor, which would be benificial for scientifically understanding of the formation mechanism of Chinese light-style liquor. [Methods] Yeast variety and quantity during making process of Chinese light-style liquor was investigated by WL medium and 26S rRNA D1/D2 region sequence analysis. [Results] Ten yeast species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia anomala, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Pichia fermentans, Trichosporon asahii, Hanseniaspora osmo-phila, Pichia farinosa, Pichia membranifaciens and Clavispora lusitaniae. Among them, T. asahii, P. membranifaciens, H. osmophila, P. farinose and P. fermentans were firstly isolated in Chinese light-style liquor. Athough the quantity of S. fibuligera dominated in three types of Daqu, yeasts ecological distribution was different. There were the most amount and varieties of yeast species in Daqu of Qincha. Yeast community structure of fermented grain was also different from that of Daqu and difference also existed between fermented grain of Dacha and Ercha. S, cerevisiae was dominant at later stage of liquor fermentation, while the dominant species in Dacha and Ercha were H. osmophila and P. membranifaciens at early stage, respectively. [Conclusion] This work deeply studied the yeast distribution characteristics and community structure in making process of Chinese light-style liquor, which would show great value in scientifically understanding of the formation mechanism of Chinese light-style liquor.%[目的]探索清香型白酒固态酿造过程中酵母的种群结构和生态多样性变化规律,为科学认识白酒酿造的过程与机制提供理论依据.[方法]运用WL鉴别培养基和26SrRNA D1/D2序列分析方法对清香型白酒3种典型大曲和酒醅发酵过程的酵母进行分类学研究.[结果]从清香型白酒固态

  16. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  17. Chinese Whispers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Mike

    2016-04-01

    In discrete networks, disconnection is often the critical factor that controls system function. The quality of network behaviour may be described by graph-theoretic indices such as the Cheeger constant, or through context-specific models. For water and sediment transport, one primary distinction is between unchannelled and channelled flow: diffusive sediment transport in the former providing poor connectivity and the progressive dominance of advective processes leading to better connected channelization. Within the channel network, Fryir's terminology of buffers, barriers and blankets describe types of disconnection that control water and sediment movement which are crucial to, for example, flood management. In the long term and at coarse scales, network connectivity is controlled by disconnection across divides and through sea level change. Willett has proposed a network analysis that shows catchments whose headwaters are threatened by capture and distributions of fish have provided evidence of the efficacy and rate of these processes, in Africa and elsewhere. Is there common ground between these approaches that can be applied to modelling the behaviour of social and other networks? The critical role of poor connections seems to be at least one significant common thread.

  18. Variation Process of Chinese Income Distribution and Its Mechanism Analysis%中国收入分布演化实证及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许研; 王有贵

    2016-01-01

    已有工作发现1998~2002年期间的中国收入分布呈现幂律分布特征。利用1988、1995年China Household Income Projects两次调查数据进一步检验了幂律出现前收入分布的演化过程;并确定了幂律尾出现的时间为20世纪90年末期。经济分析表明这一时期主要的收入影响因素是资本收入的出现。因此在Gibrat模型的框架下,增加了部分群体遵循资本收入变动特点的假设。仿真结果的短期收入分布呈现两段式lognormal分布,长期收入分布尾端呈现幂律分布。这表明资本收入是收入分布形式发生演化的重要条件。%Power law distribution has been found in China with income data from 1998 to 2002 previously. With data from China Household Income Projects taken in 1988 and 1995, the distribution’s evolution procedure before power-law is studied, and power-law distribution is identified occurred in the late 90s. Economical analysis reveals a fact that the major changes of residuals income during this period are the emergence of Capital income. Accordingly, Gibrat’s model is modified by assuming a proportion of agents whose income changes with the features of capital income. Simulation results present two-segmental lognormal distribution in short term and power-law distribution in long term. It verifies that capital income is a main element to cause the variation of Chinese income distribution.

  19. Evaluation of Heavy Metal Chromium Pollution Problems and Results in the Production Process of Tradi-tional Chinese Medicines%中药粉碎前后重金属铬含量检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾秋初; 李衡; 刘建存; 张铁辉

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To prove the production process( pulverzation processing) by stainless steel pharmaceutical machines of tra-ditional Chinese medicines, including various batches of raw materials, decoction pieces, patent drugs and medicinal subsidiary materi-als, lead to heavy metal chromium exceed the standard. Methods:According to ChP 2010 version Vol 1 appendixⅨB“lead, cad-mium, arsenic, mercury, copper determination method”, referring to ChP 2010 version Vol 2 gelatin capsules “chrome check stand-ard”. Results:Most of the test data showed that the chromium content of the sample exceeded the standard in varying degrees. Con-clusion:Pharmaceutical machinery and equipment using stainless steel lead to chromium exceed the standard in Chinese medicine pro-duction process, bring hidden trouble to the quality of the products.%目的::通过对多批次样品(包括中药材、中药饮片、中成药、药用辅料)粉碎前后的铬含量检测,证明通过不锈钢材质制药机械进行中药细粉加工将导致产品重金属铬超标。方法:参照《中国药典》2010年版一部附录Ⅸ B铅、镉、砷、汞、铜测定法,参考《中国药典》2010年版二部明胶空心胶囊“铬”[检查]标准。结果:大部分检验数据显示,样品的铬含量不同程度超标。结论:使用不锈钢材质的制药机械设备会导致中药生产过程中铬超标,给产品质量带来安全隐患。

  20. HYDROLOGIC PROCESS AND NUTRIENT DYNAMICS OF YOUNG SECOND\\|ROTATION CHINESE FIR PLANTATION%湖南第2代杉木幼林的水文学过程及养分动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田大伦; 项文化; 康文星

    2001-01-01

    Based on the small watershed technique and the located observation method,the data collected in 3 consecutive years were used for analyzing the water balance and nutrients geochemical cycling in the second\\|rotation Chinese fir plantation.The results showed that the average annual rainfall of the ecosystem was 1170.6mm,86.9%,0.3% and 12.8% of which were allocated to throughfall,stemflow and canopy interception,respectively.The annual runoff was 428.05mm,that was 36.57% of the annual rainfall.The surface runoff and ground runoff accounted for 4.31% and 95.69% of the total runoff.The estimated evapotranspiration of the second\\|rotation Chinese fir plantation was 862.64mm,that was 62.2% of the annual rainfall.In the process of biological cycling,the annual uptake of 5 nutrient elements (N,P,K,Ca and Mg) in the second\\|rotation Chinese fir plantation was up to 140.658kg*hm-2*a-1,annual return and retention was 73.988kg*hm-2*a-1 and 66.67kg*hm-2*a-1,respectively.The cycling rate accounted for 0.53.The total nutrient input of N,P,K,Ca and Mg reached 53.173kg*hm-2*a-1,and output was 42.563kg*hm-2*a-1.The net nutrient accumulation was 10.610kg*hm-2*a-1.   In contrast to the first\\|rotation Chinese fir plantation,the hydrologic process and nutrient dynamics of the second\\|rotation had different characteristics.The canopy interception rate in the second\\|ration was lower than that in the first rotation.In the second\\|rotation Chinese fir plantation,the monthly runoff varied with the pace of the rainfall,and the annual retention was higher while net nutrient accumulation was lower.These statistics revealed that the second\\|rotation Chinese fir had lower capacity of water regulation and disturbance resistance.The trees consumed more nutrients and the ecosystem was in the biological restoration stage.%采用小集水区技术和定位研究方法,根据连续3a观测所取得的数据,对湖南会同第2代杉木幼林的水量平衡和养分元素的地球

  1. [Establishment of industry promotion technology system in Chinese medicine secondary exploitation based on "component structure theory"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Feng, Liang; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Gu, Jun-Fei; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the secondary exploitation of Chinese medicine is to improve the quality of Chinese medicine products, enhance core competitiveness, for better use in clinical practice, and more effectively solve the patient suffering. Herbs, extraction, separation, refreshing, preparation and quality control are all involved in the industry promotion of Chinese medicine secondary exploitation of industrial production. The Chinese medicine quality improvement and industry promotion could be realized with the whole process of process optimization, quality control, overall processes improvement. Based on the "component structure theory", "multi-dimensional structure & process dynamic quality control system" and systematic and holistic character of Chinese medicine, impacts of whole process were discussed. Technology systems of Chinese medicine industry promotion was built to provide theoretical basis for improving the quality and efficacy of the secondary development of traditional Chinese medicine products.

  2. Study on Chinese enterprises' internationalization mode and strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Dan; Wu Chunmei

    2006-01-01

    With the trend of world economic globalization, the enterprises must be influenced by the economic globalization.At the same time, Chinese economy has developed fast and entered WTO. There are opportunities as well as challenges for Chinese enterprises; internationalization is the trend for Chinese enterprises to get more chances to develop. How Chinese enterprises take the multinational operation is a hot topic for both Chinese enterprise sector and academe sector,as well as for the government and all the Chinese people, This paper firstly reviews the multinational operation theories and thoughts of scholars from home and abroad, and describes the necessity for Chinese enterprises to take internationalization road. Combined with the status quo and characteristics of Chinese enterprises' internationalization, it concludes four modes available for Chinese enterprises: low-cost expansion, mergers and acquisitions, OBM and OEM,and analyzes four modes. Finally, it proposes some suggestions and countermeasures from the aspects of enterprises and government according to the problems in the process of Chinese enterprises' internationalization.

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHRASEOLOGY AS A PRINCIPLE OF NATIONALLY-ORIENTED TEACHING RUSSIAN TO CHINESE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Novikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes national - orientation principle in teaching Chinese students Russian phraseology. Basing on the observations of Russian linguists and methodists, and on her own experience of teaching Chinese students, the author pays attention to the following aspects of the problem: the main differences between Russian and Chinese phraseological systems; difficulties in comparing Russian and Chinese phraseological units; the most common mistakes made by Chinese students while using Russian phraseological units. According to the author, describing and considering the above-mentioned problems helps to make the process of teaching Chinese students Russian phraseological units more effective.

  4. Cross-Language Transfer of Word Reading Accuracy and Word Reading Fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals: Script-Universal and Script-Specific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Gottardo, Alexandra; Geva, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-language transfer of word reading accuracy and word reading fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English bilinguals. Participants included 51 Spanish-English and 64 Chinese-English bilinguals. Both groups of children completed parallel measures of phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, word reading accuracy,…

  5. Cross-Language Transfer of Word Reading Accuracy and Word Reading Fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals: Script-Universal and Script-Specific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Gottardo, Alexandra; Geva, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-language transfer of word reading accuracy and word reading fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English bilinguals. Participants included 51 Spanish-English and 64 Chinese-English bilinguals. Both groups of children completed parallel measures of phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, word reading accuracy,…

  6. Hanzix and Chinese Open System Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉方

    1997-01-01

    International use of the UNIX system in recent years provokes a need to expand its functionality.Extensions are needed to process data in various languages as the market requirement dictate[1,2].With the advent of open systems and interfaces.the method of internationalization(I18N)has become standardized.Hanzix Association was founded by the Institute of Software,The Chinese Academy of Sciences(ISAS,Beijing),Institute of Information Industry ( Ⅲ,Taipei)and Chinese University of Hong Kong(CUHK,Hong Kong),and its aim is to promote an open system standard for Chinese character(Hanzi)processing.This paper presents Hanzix,an open system environment to support Hanzi processing,including enhancement recommended for Hanzi API,input method mechanism codeset conversion and announcement,and reviews the current work.

  7. The control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers: Evidence of convergence with and divergence from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chi eWong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical review of the motivational theory of life-span development reveals that this theory has undergone a series of elegant theoretical integrations. Its claim to universality nonetheless brings forth unresolved controversies. With the purpose of scrutinizing the key propositions of this theory, an empirical study was designed to examine the control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers (N = 637. The OPS-Scales (Optimization in Primary and Secondary Control Scales for the Domain of Teaching were constructed to assess patterns of control processes. Three facets of subjective well-being were investigated with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Subjective Vitality Scale. The results revealed certain aspects of alignment with and certain divergences from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development. Neither primacy of primary control nor primacy of secondary control was clearly supported. Notably, using different criteria for subjective well-being yielded different subtypes of primary and secondary control as predictors. The hypothesized life-span trajectories of primary and secondary control received limited support. To advance the theory in this area, we recommend incorporating Lakatos’ ideas about sophisticated falsification by specifying the hard core of the motivational theory of life-span development and articulating new auxiliary hypotheses.

  8. 聋人与听力正常人汉语字词加工认知途径的比较%Cognitive processing of Chinese characters between hearing-disabled and normal people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, there are some researches on the cognitive identification of Chinese characters at home or abroad, however, most of them are based on the normal and healthy people.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the processing styles of optical information on phonemic code, graphic code and semantic code of Chinese haracters between hearing-disabled and normal people.DESIGN: Retrospective, observational and compared analysis based on the hearing-disabled as research subjects and the normal as the controlled group.SETTING: Department of education in a university.PARTICIPANTS: This study was completed in Xi' an between October 2001 and April 2002. With the mean age of 17 years and half in gender, 20hearing-disabled people, who were in grade 6 to grade 8, were selected from the Second School for the Deaf and Dumb in Xi' an. Inclusion criteria: The hearing loss of people was more than or equal to 92 dB. Exclusion criteria:People with acquired hearing-disabled were excluded. At the beginning of study in primary school, they were accepted oral training and taught Chinese pinyi, but gesture was the main communicated style in their daily life. With the mean age of 15 years and half in gender, 28 normal people, who were in grade 3, were selected from the No. 99 Middle School in Xi'an.METHODS: This study showed with serial opticum. The diagnostic method was compared with the cognitive identification of the three kinds of Chinese characters between the hearing-disabled and the normal respectively.phonemic code, graphic code and semantic code between hearing-disabled characters between hearing-disabled and normal people.RESULTS: The results showed that the function of graphic code in visual processing was strongly correlated with recognition of words of Chinese characters than the phoneme code and semantic code in both the hearing-disabled and hearing children. For hearing-disabled children, the alternative was the direct access that a semantic code was produced directly

  9. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  10. Negative Transfer of Chinese to English Learning in Lexis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2013-01-01

    Language transfer is a common phenomenon in language learning. Transfer can be positive or negative. Researches show that language transfer occurs in all aspects of language, such as syntax, pragmatics, and lexis etc. According to a research, Chinese English learners may make plenty of mistakes during the beginning of the process of English language learning, 51% of which are caused by the negative transfer of Chinese. In this article, I put emphasis on analyzing various mistakes due to the nega⁃tive transfer of Chinese on the subject of lexis. I also provide some solution to minimize the negative transfer of Chinese in our English learning.

  11. Remarks on different reviews of Chinese character recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yuanyan

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction and remarks on two review papers for Chinese character recognition.One review is made by Chinese authors,another is from American scientists.They investigate Chinese character from different language environments;they do the research from different points of view.Thus,a more comprehensive view on Chinese character recognition,which is an important branch of pattern recognition,can be provided to the readers.Meantime,one article pays attention to online process,and other paper deals with offiine recognition,which complement each other.

  12. Cultural values and immigrant entrepreneurship: the Chinese in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K B; Chiang, S N

    1994-01-01

    "It is the intent of this paper to examine the interrelationships between early socialisation into core Chinese cultural values, international migration and Chinese immigrant entrepreneurship.... It is through a developmental socialisation process by which [cultural] values are articulated in family and kin network dynamics that social organisations begin to develop and define what is popularly understood as the 'Chinese way of doing business'. We argue that among the overseas Chinese, this way of doing business must be viewed historically and developmentally, as it is intimately intertwined with transmigration experiences and their consequences in shaping values necessary for the emergence and development of entrepreneurship." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  13. Brief Analysis of Teaching Model for the Processing of Chinese Materia in Our School%我校《中药炮制学》教学模式浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 窦志英; 王晖; 刘亚男; 李佳玮; 马琳

    2016-01-01

    目的:对我校《中药炮制学》理论教学和实验教学的运行情况进行总结,为《中药炮制学》教学模式的改革提供参考和借鉴.方法:采用教学软件、教学视频等现代化教学方法和手段丰富理论教学内容;运用理论联系实际的教学方法,激发学生学习兴趣;在教学中引入科研成果,培养学生科研思维.改变了实验教学以传统验证性实验为主的教学模式,增加了设计性实验的学时和分值;改变了传统的平时成绩评价方法,采用形成性评价方法进行评价.结果:学生在学习过程中既学会了理论知识,又培养了分析问题和解决问题的能力,变被动学习为主动学习,从而取得了满意的教学效果.结论:《中药炮制学》教学应转变传统观念,注重科研与教学相结合;提高设计性实验在实验教学中的地位,以激发学生的学习兴趣,增强学生的实践能力,提高教学质量.%OBJECTIVE:Tosum up the condition of theoretical teaching and experimental teaching of the Processing of Chinese Materia,and to provide referencefor the reform of teaching model of the Processing of Chinese Materia. METHODS:Teaching soft-ware,teaching video and other modelrn teaching methods were used to enrich the content in theory teaching;linking theory with practice was used to stimulate students'interest in learning;scientific research achievement was introduced in teaching to train stu-dents' scientific research thinking;the teaching model of traditional confirmative experiment teaching was reformed by increasing de-signing experiment hours and score;the traditional usual performance evaluation method was changed by replacing with evaluation method of formative,and it was used for evaluation. RESULTS:The students not only learned theoretical knowledge,but also cul-tivated their ability to analyze and solve problems,changing from passive learning to active learning,so that it has made satisfacto-ry teaching effect

  14. A New Mission for Contemporary Chinese Universities: Cultural Inheritance and Innovation Based on Chinese Thinking and Bilingual Processing%当代中国大学新使命:基于汉语思维与双语处理的文化传承和创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹晓辉; 邹顺鹏

    2012-01-01

    本文旨在从理论和实践两方面论述当代中国大学传承和创新人类文化的新使命。采用双语信息处理的研究方法,具体包括:广义和狭义、言和语、宏观与微观、世界观与方法论,四组相辅相成的基本划分。其研究结果不仅涉及:信息学、语言学、教育学和哲学四个研究领域的根本性问题,而且,还可形成继人类发明电脑硬件之后的软件工程,尤其是语言处理和知识工程,虚拟的"第三脑"——其推广普及可形成具有协同智能的超级互动平台。它将会深刻影响:机与人、学与用、教和管、知和行等相辅相成的活动。这是当代中国大学完成人类文化传承和创新这一新使命的简捷途径。这就是本研究得出的结论。%This paper aims to theoretically and practically discuss the new mission of contemporary Chinese universities in human cultural inheritance and innovation. It adopts a bilingual information processing approach, including four mutually - complemen- ting divisions: broad and narrow, langue and parole, macro and micro, worldview and methodology. Research findings can not only tackle fundamental problems in these research areas, namely, informatics, linguistics, pedagogy and philosophy, but also form software engineering after the invention of the computer hardware, especially in the areas of language processing, knowledge engineering, and virtual "third brain". Their popularization can form superb interactive platforms with collaborative intelligence, and will pose a profound impact on machines and people, learning and use, teaching and administration, knowledge and practice, as well as other complementary activities. This is a shortcut for contemporary Chinese universities to fulfill the new mission of hu- man cultural inheritance and innovation, and thus concludes the paper.

  15. Morphological Awareness Uniquely Predicts Young Children's Chinese Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Wat, Chun Pong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2003-01-01

    Two unique measures of morphological awareness were orally administered to kindergarten and 2nd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Both tasks of morphological awareness predicted unique variance in Chinese character recognition in these children, after controlling for age, phonological awareness, speeded naming, speed of processing, and vocabulary.…

  16. Relationships between Reading Comprehension and Its Components in Young Chinese-as-a-Second-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Ka

    2017-01-01

    Based on the Simple View of Reading model, this study examines the relationships among Chinese reading comprehension and its two componential processes, Chinese character reading and listening comprehension, in young learners of Chinese as a second language (CSL) using a longitudinal design. Using relevant measures, a sample of 142 senior primary…

  17. Doorway to Chinese Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xi’an,the ancient Chinese capital and modern day metropolis,offers an exciting array of historic attractions and tourist charms The long and extensive history of Xi’an,an ancient Chinese capital,has endowed it with an abundant variety of cultural sites and artifacts,including the

  18. Chinese Conversation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  19. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  20. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  1. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  2. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  3. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  4. Not Your Father's Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government's first annual report on the evolution of the Chinese language contains some surprisesThe Chinese people are proud of their language, which they consider the most essential part of their civilization of 5,000 years. The charm of the language includes its ideographic writing system, in which the structure of the characters is directly related

  5. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  6. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  7. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive Warm-up in Jiang Hua (Department of Foreign Language, Modern College of Northwest University, Xi'an 710130, China)Read and Write Perodica,vol.9,No.10,10,2012 (ISSN1672 -1578,in, Chinese) Abstract: Classroom teaching activities should be an interactive process, which includes not only interaction between teachers and students but also includes the interaction between students and learning materials and the interaction between students and design activities in class. These interaction processes will directly affect the students learning interest and the effect. So classroom interactions are very important. But how to present these interactions well and make them educational in the classroom is a question which needs considered carefully by teachers. Because of the warm-up is the key part for teachers to introduce the whole unit and stimulate the interests of students, this article mainly discusses the warming-up part of college English teaching, to improve the classroom interactions, and stimulate the students' study enthusiasm and the initiative. Key words: Interaction; Educational; Warm-up

  8. 汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童的快速命名与正字法加工技能%Rapid naming and orthographic processing skill in children with Chinese developmental dyslexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵婧; 毕鸿燕; 杨炀

    2012-01-01

    目的:探查汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童快速命名和正字法加工的特点.方法:运用小学生识字量评价量表和标准瑞文智力测试,从171名小学二至四年级学生中选出20名发展性阅读障碍(DD)儿童、22名同年龄对照组(CA)儿童、18名同阅读水平对照组(RL)儿童.三组儿童进行数字、图片快速命名,和正字法加工技能测试,即真字、假字、非字判断任务,记录反应时和错误率.结果:DD组在数字、图片快速命名上的反应时均长于CA组(均P<0.01),图片命名的反应时与RL组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),而数字命名反应时短于RL组(P<0.05).DD组和RL组均表现出拒绝假字的时间长于拒绝非字(均P<0.05),而CA组儿童此效应无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:本研究提示汉语阅读障碍儿童存在数字快速命名缺陷,其图片快速命名速度落后,与其阅读水平表现一致.本样本中的发展性阅读障碍儿童表现出明显的正字法效应,即能很好地判断假字和非字.%Objective: To examine the characteristics of rapid naming and orthographic processing in children with Chinese developmental dyslexia. Methods: Twenty children with Chinese developmental dyslexic (DD group), 22 children with the same chronological age (CA group), and 18 children with the same reading level (RL group) were selected with the Character Recognition Measure and Assessment Scale for Primary School Children and the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM). All subjects completed the digital/picture rapid naming tests and orthographic processing skill test (I. e. a lexical decision task with characters, pseudo-characters and non-characters) , and their reaction time and error rates were recorded. Results: The DD group had longer reaction time in picture naming [(23. 8 ±4.0) s vs. (20. 0 ±3. 4) s,P0.05] and shorter reaction time in digital naming test [(11. 7 ± 1. 9) s vs. (13.5 ± 3.4) s, P 0. 057] Conclusion: It suggests

  9. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  10. The ABCs of Chinese Pop: Wang Leehom and the Marketing of a Global Chinese Celebrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How did singer Wang Leehom, a Chinese American raised in the suburbs of New York, end up becoming one of the industry heavyweights of Mandopop (Mandarin-language pop music? This essay uses Wang as a case study to investigate how discourses of race, market, and belonging are reworked in global contexts. Drawing on Sau-ling Wong’s theoretical insights on transnational processes of race, citizenship, and belonging, it argues that Wang capitalizes on a fluid dynamic of sameness and difference to appeal to a heterogeneous Chinese-speaking audience that stretches across China to Taiwan, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia, and the greater Chinese diaspora. Through an examination of the racial and national contexts that frame Wang’s participation in Mandopop, this essay analyzes the particular calibrations of Chineseness that emerge from the singer’s music and public image and the imperfect translation of identities such as Chinese American, Chinese diasporic, and Chinese across diverse linguistic and national communities.

  11. Long-term experience with Chinese language shapes the fusiform asymmetry of English reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi

    2015-04-15

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Mechanism of the Repetition Blindness Effect: Evidence From Chinese Reduplicated Words Processing%重复知盲效应产生的机制——来自汉语叠词加工的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷英; 何秀丽

    2012-01-01

    以汉语中的叠词为实验材料,对重复知盲产生机制的类型标记个体化理论和建构理论进行检验。采用快速系列视觉呈现(Rapid Serial Visual Presentation,简称RSVP)研究范式,在两个实验中让178名被试口头报告RSVP列表中出现的所有汉字(全部报告)或列表中最后两个字(部分报告)。结果发现:(1)在呈现速率为128ms和198ms时,完全重复的汉字在全部报告任务中存在RB效应,在部分报告任务下RB效应消失了,但没有出现RP效应,符合建构理论的假设。(2)在全部报告条件下,不仅重复刺激的正确报告率会降低,而且与重复刺激相关的非重复刺激的正确报告率也会降低。研究表明建构理论比类型标记个体化理论更能解释RB效应的产生机制。%Repetition blindness (RB) refers to the failure of the report of the second repeated word in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) Many researchers tried to explain the phenomenon and put forward several suggestions. Now the type-token individuation theory and the construction theory are under heated debate. This research aimed to examine the effect of repetition blindness in Chinese reduplicated words processing in RSVP. Based on the data in two experiments, the study also differentiated between the type-token individuation theory (Kanwisher, 1987, 1991 ; Kanwisher & Potter, 1990) and the construction theory. 178 college students participated in the study. The stimuli were displayed on an IBM-compatible 486 microcomputer. The experimental software was written by means of Eprime. The stimuli used in the repeated condition comprised six characters with a Chinese reduplicated word (e. g. ~). And the stimuli used in the non-repeated condition were composed of other characters which replaced the second repeated character of reduplicated words. The subjects were to view words presented in the RSVP format at 128 ms per word on

  13. Dissociation in the neural basis underlying Chinese tone and vowel production

    OpenAIRE

    Liu,L.; Peng, D.; Ding, G.; Jin, Z; Zhang, L; Li, K.; Chen, C

    2006-01-01

    Neuropsychologists have debated over whether the processing of segmental and suprasegmental units involves different neural mechanisms. Focusing on the production of Chinese lexical tones (suprasegmental units) and vowels (segmental units), this study used the adaptation paradigm to investigate a possible neural dissociation for tone and vowel production. Ten native Chinese speakers were asked to name Chinese characters and pinyin (Romanized phonetic system for Chinese language) that varied i...

  14. Significant Breakthrough in Industrial Test of the "Methanol to Olefins" Process Developed by Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ A process of "Methanol or Dimethylether to Olefins" developed by Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), designated as the DMTO process, has attained great success in industrial scaling up testing. DICP, by collaborating with the Xinxing Coal Chemical Co., Ltd. of Shaanxi Province and the Luoyang Petrochemical Engineering Co. of the SINOPEC Group, operated successfully a 50t(methanol)/d unit for the conversion of methanol to lower olefins, with a methanol conversion of close to 100%, and a selectivity to lower olefins(ethylene, propylene and butylenes) of higher than 90%. On 23rd August, the industrial test project has passed a state appraisal. The experts of the Appraisal Group, headed by Prof.

  15. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  16. On the Processing Model of Chinese National Capital%简论我国国有资本的运作模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖晓燕

    2000-01-01

    The basic thinking of building the new processing model of national capital can be derived from its evolution in China. It is to abide by the principle of value- oriented management, allocation according to share rights and flowing to market so as to make national capital alive and retained and added. At present, the three-level authorized operating model of the national capital still leave some space to be improved, while the processing model of “National Investment Funds”can be regarded as aim processing model of national capital.%纵观我国国有资本运作模式的演变可得出构建新型的国有资本运作模式的基本思路,应是遵循价值型管理、股权化配置、市场化流动的原则,盘活国有资本,使国有资本保值增值。目前国有资本三级授权经营模式仍有待改进与完善。“国民投费基金”运作模式可作为我国国有资本运作的目标模式。

  17. 中国健康信息数据集的一种本体处理架构%Ontology Processing Architecture for Chinese Healthcare Informative Data Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晖; 林欣; 韦俊银

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at healthcare information data set does not support semantic integration, automatic processing and reasoning, it proposes a Knowledge Base(KBS) processing architecture based on ontology database in the mathematical fundamentals of Description Logics. It makes building digitalization of healthcare information bring into track of knowledge engineering, provides an astronomical, normative, dependable, maintainable KBS. It uses the data sets of the pre-marriage medical examination as a case reference, result shows that the processing architecture can implement the automatic disposal and reasoning of knowledge.%针对中国健康信息数据集规范不支持语义集成、自动处理和推理,在DescriptionLogics数学基础上,提出一种基于本体数据库的知识基(KBS)处理架构.该架构将健康信息数字化建设纳入知识工程轨道,提供一个庞大、规范、可靠、安全,可维护的KBS.以婚前体格检查数据集为案例说明,结果证明该架构可实现知识的自动处理和推理.

  18. Migration, the Chinese wholesale trade and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Betrisey Nadali

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the historical-social context of Spain, the ethnic-national identities of Chinese immigrants are not free from hierarchisation, given that they can tend to be sources of recognition and prestige, though also of discrimination. In recent decades, the presenceof Chinese people has become alternately or simultaneously an ambiguous resource to be celebrated by certain hegemonic groups as something positive in accordance with their cultural and economic contributions (“entrepreneurs”, “model traders”, or a dissonance thatis sufficiently complex to be accepted within the country. This article focuses on analysing Chinese immigrants working in the area of wholesale trading in the city of Madrid, and bears in mind the social processes by which these groups were constituted as different in cultural terms in the heart of social relations of inequality; it also examines to what extent and under what conditions these processes end up forming part of these traders’ self-image, determine

  19. Development and outlook of Chinese steel industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Liu

    2005-01-01

    The fast development of Chinese steel industry has drawn great attention from the world.Market n eeding and technical development are the main driving forces for the rapid development of Chinese steel industry. Based on the discussing of the reasons of its rapid development, the present paper further analyzed the main problems and distance towards the advanced level of international steel industry. It bring forward that Chinese steel industry should enhance the research and development on new generation steel materials and production process to ensure its sustainable development. Through populating the key technologies of syntheses energy saving and water saving to realize the main equipments self-making and establish a new recyclable steel production process.

  20. 中国热带特色农业产业萌芽:特征、过程与模式%The Features and Process and Mode of Rudiments of Chinese Tropical Characteristic Agricultural lndustry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新锋

    2012-01-01

    New agricultural industry has sprouted owing to the exploitationof germplasm resources and utilization of new agricultural technology.The emerging industry in chinese tropical characteristic agriculture can be categorized mainly in four patterns,and its process includes three stages: the choice of technology,the innovation of products and procedure and innovation of market.And it has four basic modes:technology-pushing pattern,market-pulling pattern and growth strategy-driving pattern(government-driving pattern).%种质资源的开发利用和农业新技术的运用,形成农业新产业的萌芽。中国热带特色农业产业萌芽主要有4种类型,其产业萌芽的过程包括3个阶段:技术选择、产品和流程创新、市场创新。我国热带特色农业产业萌芽的基本模式有:技术推动型、市场拉动型、增长战略推动型(政府推动型)。

  1. 香港三年级学童阅读中、英文时脑电图的分析%Different Brain Pathways in Processing Chinese and English by Primary Three Hong Kong Pupils Based on Electroencephalography Coherence Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯戬云; 黄家慧; 陈和晏; 陈华伦; 关定辉; 杜祖贻

    2006-01-01

    We have employed a 128 .channel electroencephalography (EEG) system to record the electrical brain signals reaching the scalp of test subjects in response to reading mother tongue (Chinese) and second-language (English) sentences. Half of these test sentences were grammatically correct, while the other half contained syntactical errors. We analysed the coherence in various EEG frequency bands ( δ , θ, α, β , γ) among all possible pairs of scalp electrode sites. Since it is well-known that the rest state of the brain, whether eyes open or closed, has an abundance of activity, we studied the difference in coherence (rather than the absolute value) of a subject as he/she reads Chinese and English sentences. We analysed the difference in "cross-talk" between ten different brain regions as the subject responded to the visual stimuli by simplifying the raw difference coherence data into "difference coherence diagrams" pertaining to specific conditions ( i. e. correct or incorrect grammar). We have found, from the responses of 22 Primary Three pupils (mean age nine years ) , that Chinese syntactic processing is related to strong short-range EEG coherence within the frontal and occipital regions, while syntactic processing of English involved relatively more coherence between EEG signals recorded from the frontal and temporal regions. A gender difference was also found. Boys seemed to show a general left hemispheric preference for syntactic language processing. In particular, the left frontal region was a pro-minent EEG coherence focus. On the other hand, girls tended to use more bilateral regions for processing both Chinese and English syntax, and the parietal and right temporal regions seem to be particularly strong coherence foci.%通过一系列实验,让测试者阅读母语(中文)的句子,判断其文法或句法结构是否有错误.同时用安装了128个电极贴的脑电图(EEG)机记录头盖的脑电波.除去记录上的人为现象

  2. 参与式教学法在中药炮制学中的探索与实践%Exploration and Practice of Participation-Model Didactics on Processing Science of Chinese Materia Medica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王满元; 卢炜

    2014-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of the participation-model didactics on processing science of Chinese materia medica ,the effects of the teaching model were analysized and sumarized .The positive results verify the effectiveness of the didactics on developing students'creativity and improving their professional ability as well as transferable skills.Combination of participation-model didactics with traditional teaching model can help students improve their learning levels.%参与式教学法重视教学过程中“学”的因素,重视师生“对话”互动交流,有助于提高学生的综合能力与创新意识。该文归纳总结在中药炮制学课程中应用参与式教学的具体方法和实施途径。传统教学中加入参与式教学元素,两者有机结合,能够提高中药炮制学的教学质量。

  3. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  4. The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In the movement of Chinese indigenous management research, a sort of ‘Chinese exceptionalism’ (as critiqued by Peng, 2005: 133) seems to have been emerging, namely, some Chinese scholars see Chinese culture, philosophy, and way of thinking are unique and cannot be accounted for by some...

  5. A Study of the Conversion Process f rom Jurchen to Chinese Ethnic Based on Jurchen Noble Tombs in Jin Dynasty%从金代女真贵族墓葬看女真民族汉化进程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉君; 吴东铭; 夏一博

    2013-01-01

    Jin dynasty was a regime established by the Northern Minority Jurchen .In Jin Dynasty ,from the Jurchen nobles to ordinary people ,all tried their best to learn Chinese culture .At the meantime ,Jurchen Funeral customs gradually evolved to that of the Central Plains .Based on the analysis of the external shape and internal structure of the Jurchen noble tombs in Northeast and Beijing regions ,a process is demonstra-ted for Jurchen accepting Chinese culture on funeral goods ,funeral ceremony and funeral ideas .Especially after the political center was moved into the Central Plains ,the use of dragon ,phoenix and cloud ornamen-tation ,the application of “Kanyu” theories ,the execution of “Zhaomu” system and the reception to the i-dea of “all will die and return to the earth” reached an unprecedented level .%金王朝是由北方少数民族女真族建立的政权,有金一代,上到女真贵族,下到普通百姓,都极力地效仿学习汉族文化,女真人死后的葬俗也逐步向中原葬俗演变。本文通过对东北和北京地区金代女真贵族墓葬外在形制与内在构建嬗变的分析,展示有金一代女真民族在葬具、葬式、随葬品和丧葬理念等诸多方面不断融入汉文化的历史演变进程。特别是在政治中心迁入中原地区后,贵族墓葬中龙、凤、云纹的使用、“堪舆”学说的运用、昭穆制度和“众生必死,死必归土”观念的认同等等,都达到了前所未有的地步。

  6. Insights into semen analysis:a Chinese perspective on the fifth edition of the WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Hong Lu; Yi-Qun Gu

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, We are very glad to see that the Asian Journal of Andrology published a Special Issue on Semen Analysis in 21st Century Medicine, which well revealed some behind-the-scene controversies of the 5th edition of the WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen [1]. Three articles from the special issue, two on the reference values of semen parameters [2,3] and another presenting the investigation results of 118 laboratories performing semen analysis in Mainland China [4], are very thoughtprovoking and we would like to share some of our views on these topics.

  7. 中国氢氧化镁生产工艺及市场分析%Chinese Magnesium Hydroxide Production Process and Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯双青

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced the main production process of magnesium hydroxide in our country,and several techniques were compared,including their advantages and disadvantages;pointed out that the different process method should be selected in different area according to the features of magnesium resources;analyzed the market of magnesium hydroxide at home and abroad,the results show that there is an oversupply of magnesium hydroxide and the market competition is intense.%介绍了我国氢氧化镁生产的主要工艺方法,并对几种工艺方法的优、缺点进行了比较,指出不同地区应结合镁资源选择适合的工艺方法;分析了国内外氢氧化镁的市场情况,氢氧化镁产大于求,市场竞争激烈。

  8. Study on the Quality Control of Chinese Jujube Wine Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-shan; CHEN Jin-ping; LI Hui-yun

    2004-01-01

    Fermentation processes were studied,with an aim of improving the quality of Chinese jujube wine.Results showed the quality of the wine made from fresh Chinese jujube and dried Chinese jujube were similar,but wine made from excessively dried Chinese jujube showed decreased quality.The reducing sugar content in Chinese jujube juice extracted by pectic enzymes was higher than the reducing sugar content extracted by hot water,however,methanol content in wine extracted by pectic enzymes also increased.Therefore the hot water extraction method is recommended for fermentation of Chinese jujube wine.Fermentation using vacuum concentrated Chinese jujube juice was more effective than that using filtered juice readjusted to 20% soluble solid content .(SSC) with sucrose or glucose.The inoculation of 0.3% Saccharomyces ellipsodieus Strain was suitable for fermentation of Chinese jujube wine.Fermentation was carried out at 21-25℃.The concentration of SO2 in wine affected fermentation time and the optimum additional amount was 40 mg L-1.Post fermentation storage in oak barrel improved the quality of Chinese jujube wine,as did 4.5% diatomite filtration.

  9. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both tr

  10. Quality Degradation of Chinese White Lotus Seeds Caused by Dampening during Processing and Storage: Rapid and Nondestructive Discrimination Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Fu, Hai-Yan; Cai, Chen-Bo; She, Yuan-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Dampening during processing or storage can largely influence the quality of white lotus seeds (WLS). This paper investigated the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid and nondestructive discrimination of the dampened WLS. Regular (n = 167) and dampened (n = 118) WLS objects were collected from five main producing areas and NIR reflectance spectra (4000-12000 cm(-1)) were measured for bare kernels. The influence of spectral preprocessing methods, including smoothing, taking second-order derivatives (D2), and standard normal variate (SNV), on partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA) was compared to select the optimal data preprocessing method. A moving-window strategy was combined with PLSDA (MWPLSDA) to select the most informative wavelength intervals for classification. Based on the selected spectral ranges, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 0.927, 0.950, and 0.937 for SNV-MWPLSDA, respectively.

  11. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate

    are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural......Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...

  12. The Phonetic Matching and Regression of the Contact Process of Uigur Language and Chinese Language%论维汉语言接触过程中的语音匹配和回归

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德华

    2012-01-01

    文章论述了维汉语言最重要的接触过程——母语干扰。维汉语言接触是一种互协的过程,即两种语言有规则地相互协调、趋向同构.形成有系统的语音对应关系。母语对目标语的干扰必然引起匹配(母语对目标语言干扰的第一阶段)和回归(经过匹配的“第二语言”向目标语靠拢)。匹配是有规则性的匹配。回归是目标语言对第二语言的影响,或者说母语对民族方言的影响。母语干扰是一种简化性干扰并会带来同构,由此使两种语言由接触逐步走向联盟。%This paper mainly deals with mother tongue interference, the most important contact process ot vlgur language and Chinese language. The contact of these two languages is a cointegration process, namely the two languages coordinate regularly with each other, incline to isomorphism , and form a systematic phonetic corre sponding relation. The interference of mother tongue with target language absolutely leads to matching and regression ~ The matching takes place regularly and the regression is the influence of the target language on the second language or the influence of the mother tongue on an ethnic dialect. Mother tongue interference is a simple interference and will result in isomorphism and thus these two languages come to alliance from their mutual contact.

  13. 基于语义网的中医药数据处理方法研究思路%Research Ideas on Data Processing Methods Based on Semantic Web for Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于彤; 李敬华; 张竹绿; 于琦; 刘静; 杨硕; 贾李蓉; 朱玲; 董燕

    2014-01-01

    The coming of the“Big Data”era provides a valuable opportunity for us to rethink about the essence of data in Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM)domain and to develop new data processing methods. The TCM data is essentially"knowledge intensive". In the“Big Data”era,TCM data processing methods shall solve problems related to TCM knowledge,such as knowledge modeling,knowledge fusion,and knowledge service. Semantic web technologies originate in the research results of knowledge representation and reasoning,and can solve the problem of data integration and interconnection. It provides the ideal means for the construction of and knowledge discovery from TCM big data.%“大数据”时代的来临,为中医药工作者重新思考中医药数据的本质,革新中医药数据处理方法,提供了宝贵的契机。中医药数据的核心是“知识密集性”数据。“大数据”时代的中医药数据处理方法,应侧重于解决知识建模、知识融合、知识服务等一系列与“知识”相关的问题。语义网技术发端于知识表示和推理领域的研究成果,又能解决数据集成与互联问题。它为构建中医药“大数据”并从中发现新颖知识,提供了理想的技术手段。

  14. The Chinese Lexicon Project: a repository of lexical decision behavioral responses for 2,500 Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Wei Ping; Rickard Liow, Susan J; Yap, Melvin J

    2014-03-01

    The Chinese language has more native speakers than any other language, but research on the reading of Chinese characters is still not as well-developed as it is for the reading of words in alphabetic languages. Two areas notably lacking are the paucity of megastudies in Chinese and the relatively infrequent use of the lexical decision paradigm to investigate single-character recognition. The Chinese Lexicon Project, described in this article, is a database of lexical decision latencies for 2,500 Chinese single characters in simplified script, collected from a sample of native mainland Chinese (Mandarin) speakers (N = 35). This resource will provide a valuable adjunct to influential mega-databases, such as the English, French, and Dutch Lexicon Projects. Using two separate analyses, some advantages associated with megastudies are exemplified. These include the selection of the strongest measure to represent Chinese character frequency (Cai & Brysbaert's (PLoS ONE 5(6): e10729, 2010) subtitle contextual diversity frequency count), and the conducting of virtual studies to replicate and clarify existing findings. The unique morpho-syllabic nature of the Chinese writing system makes it a valuable case study for functional language contrasts. Moreover, this is the first publicly available large-scale repository of behavioral responses pertaining to Chinese language processing (the behavioral dataset is attached to this article, as a supplemental file available for download). For these reasons, the data should be of substantial interest to psychologists, linguists, and other researchers.

  15. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  16. 条约保留程序问题研究%Research on the problems in the process of rule of law program Chinese reservations to treaties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄萃芸

    2015-01-01

    条约保留是条约法理论和实践中最为复杂的问题. 条约保留的 《实践指南》 对于条约保留制度的发展意义重大, 并且仍在不断地发扬光大. 在国际法中, 条约保留有其存在的法理基础, 条约保留的提出程序在条约法公约和 《实践指南》 中有严格规定, 并不断顺应形势要求发展壮大. 中国在大力推进法治进程中, 应主动消除条约保留实践中的不足, 积极践行条约保留制度的新发展.%Reservations to treaties is a complex problem to the theory and practice of the law of treaties . The practice of reservations to treaties "guide" for the system of reservations to treaties and the development of great significance , and still continue to carry forward .In international law , Reservations to treaties is a legal basis for its existence the proposed treaty reservation procedures in the Convention on the law of treaties and the"guide"in the practice of strict requirements , and constantly adapt to the situation requirement develop-ment.China should take the initiative to eliminate the problems in practice of reservations to treaties in vigor-ously promoting the rule of law in the process ,, the new development of practicing the system of reservations to treaties.

  17. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we......-ba /pha pa/ ta-da /tha ta/ ka-ga / kha-ka/ For L2 acquisition it is held that same and new phonemes are (relatively) easy acquired, whereas similar but not identical sounds are difficult to learn. New sounds are initially mapped onto the L1 phoneme inventory (Kuhl 1991). For Danish, this would predict...... instruction, which pitch contours do the Danish learners of Chinese use on neutral tones and to what extent does their production match that of native speakers? Future research may include Norwegian and Swedish-accented Chinese and a comparison between the different Germanic accents of CFL. Reference Kuhl, P...

  18. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Compiled by the Central Document Compiling Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CPC), the third volume of the Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping was published by the People’s Publishing House and was issued nationwide on November 2, 1993.

  19. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  20. Ancient Chinese Dress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Chinese archaeologists discov- ered in Zhoukoudian on theoutskirts of Beijing the firstneedle made by Chinese about 18,000years ago.It was about 82 mm longand 3.3 mm in diameter,polishedcarefully and had a hole,showing thatthe Chinese of that time had masteredthe skill of polishing and drilling andcould make clothes ont of animalskins.It Is recorded in The Book of Rites(one of the Confucian classics,includ- ing essays on rites and etiquette of theQin and Han dynasties),compiled byDai Sheng of the Western Han Dy- nasty(206 B.C.-A.D.24),that therehad been no flax or silk in the pastand people wore animal skins or feathers as clothes.That proves that appa-rel appeared earlier than textiles in theChinese culture.

  1. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  2. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The feature and development direction of ecological garden city; The problem and countermeasures in urban construction audio-visual file management task;Youth network moral education is imperative;A shallow discussion about moral education penetration in Chinese classroom;

  3. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  4. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  5. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  6. Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CHINESE people have accu-mulated a great deal ofexperience in architecture,constantly improving building ma-terials and thus creating uniquebuilding styles.The history of ancient Chinesearchitechtural development can be

  7. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  8. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  9. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  10. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on Chinese students' hopes and expectations before leaving to study abroad. The national political environment for their decision to go abroad is shaped by an official narrative of China's transition to a more creative and innovative economy. Students draw on this narrative...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  11. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  12. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  13. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  14. Demands of immigration among Chinese immigrant nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Amy X; Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Capitulo, Katie L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of immigration among Chinese nurses that have immigrated to the USA. The relationship between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA was investigated also. A descriptive correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 128 nurses was recruited. A self-administered survey was conducted using the demands of immigration scale developed by Aroian, along with a demographic questionnaire. The results showed Chinese immigrant nurses have high demands of immigration. There were significant negative relationships between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA. Immigration demands decreased as length of stay increased but remained high even for those who had been in the USA for > 5 years. This information is vital to health-care agencies designing and implementing adaptation programmes targeting these demands to facilitate Chinese nurses' adaptation process.

  15. An Analysis of Loanword in Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽菊

    2010-01-01

    Today, along with social and economic development, a lot of new things are constantly appearing. And a lot of vogue words arise correspondingly. Facing so many western words pouring in, especially English words blotting out the sky and covering up the earth, what kind of attitude towards loanwords we will remain? This paper is about the loanword in Chinese language. Through illustrating the classification, feature and influence of loanword, especially elaborating translation process of loanword, it presents that the loanword in Chinese language has a long history and it has become an important part in our Chinese language. It hopes that the study can shed light on the loanword and adjust their attitude towards loanword.

  16. Current crustal movement in Chinese mainland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪

    2003-01-01

    The quantification of tectonic deformation in the Eastern and Central Asia is of great significance for the study on global plate motion and lithospheric dynamics. In the past four years, the velocity field of horizontal crustal movement for the Chinese mainland has been established for the first time thanks to the intensified GPS measurements and its improved accuracy. The velocity field derived from GPS measurements delineates the patterns of tectonic deformation in the Chinese mainland in the unprecedented detail, and thus reveals the new features of the ongoing tectonic process resulted from the collision of Indian plate to Eurasian plate. Meanwhile, the surface offset induced by two strong earthquakes occurred in Chinese mainland was sampled precisely using InSAR technique.

  17. The Chinese Communist Party in Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Yongnian, Zheng

    Contrary to the expectations of many people, China's recent economic growth has not led to the collapse of the Chinese Communist Party. In fact, the party has recently carried out a peaceful and orderly transition to the so-called fourth generation of leadership, has revitalised itself, and created...... social groups, and increasing dissatisfaction among workers who seem to be losing out in the present transition process. "The Chinese Communist Party in Reform" explores the current state of the Chinese Communist Party and the many challenges which it faces. It considers the dynamics of development...... in China, the party organisation, recruitment and management, and the party's role in society more widely. It concludes by examining the prospects for the future of the Party, including whether it will continue to be able to accommodate socio-economic changes within China and pressures from abroad...

  18. Chinese and Thai Bilingual Topic Detection Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rang Ziqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual topic detection is a vital application of natural language processing in the Internet plus Era and trend of economic globalization. At present, the method of bilingual topic detection can’t solve the problem of bilingual topic inconsistent distribution. Aiming at the shortcoming, this paper introduces a based on maximal clique method to find bilingual topic detection of Chinese and Thai feature words. First of all, extract the information of news with keywords of each Chinese and Thai documents through the TextRank algorithm. Next, disambiguate by means of the similarity combined with Chinese and Thai dictionary. Then, use credible association rules to cluster Chinese and Thai feature words, which generates maximal clique of bilingual topic. Finally, cluster similar maximal clique of topic to obtain the collection of final topic. According to the needs of users, the method can recommend a bilingual topic of different sizes. The test of Chinese and Thai news texts in January 2016 made good achievement. From the perspective of cross-language word clustering, the algorithm effectively solves the problem of inconsistency of bilingual topic distribution reasonably, and has the advantages of no need to estimate the number of topics and low time complexity, so it is suitable for the application of online discovery in ilingual topic.

  19. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  20. 浅议碳关税及其对中国工业化进程的影响%Discussion on Carbon Tariff and Its Effects on Chinese Industrialization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭而郛; 鞠美庭

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the essence and international influence of carbon tariff, through the research on the background and policy intent of carbon tariff.The article also analyses the choice of Chinese industrialization and its effects from carbon tariff.Consequently, the article put forward that the essence of carbon tariff is a kind of new trading protection to maintain the competitive industry and enforce international political speech right of western countries.And the carbon tariff would have a profound impact on China's foreign trade, as well as the overall industrialization process, forcing China to accelerate the implementation of the transformation of the mode of economic growth, and create a new industrialization road to adapt to the complicated international background.%通过对碳关税的提出背景、政策意图的研究,对碳关税的实质及国际影响进行了分析,并且对碳关税对中国工业化道路的选择,以及对中国工业化进程的影响进行了分析.提出碳关税的实质是对本国产业竞争力以及为巩固和加强国际政治话语权而实施的新型贸易保护手段.碳关税政策将对中国的对外贸易以及整体工业化进程产生深远的影响,迫使中国继续加快实施经济增长方式的转变,创新适应目前复杂国际背景的新型工业化道路.

  1. 消失文本词窗口条件下八年级学生阅读的眼动特征%Eighth Graders' Eye Movements When Processing Disappearing Chinese Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志方; 闫国利; 白学军

    2011-01-01

    The disappearing text paradigm was used to investigate how early in a fixation the eighth graders were able to obtain sufficient information from the text to read when disappearing unit was a word. Compared with the control condition, for the mean fixation duration, the differences were apparent when words disappeared after 40ms and 60ms in the experiment. There was no significant difference between the conditions which the words disappeared after 80ms and the control condition. However no disappearing conditions interrupted the total reading time. So we concluded that for eighth-grade children, when they processed disappearing text most of the visual information necessary for reading could be acquired within the initial 50-60ms during a fixation in Chinese reading.%本研究通过消失文本实验范式,考察八年级阅读者在刺激材料以双字词为消失单元时,从视觉刺激中提取语义信息的必要呈现时间。实验发现40ms以上延迟时间的消失文本并不影响读者的总阅读时间,但在80ms消失的条件下,注视时间与控制条件下的差异不再显著。结果支持眼动控制理论中的认知控制模型。

  2. Major achievements in relation to dyslexia in Chinese characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Gui-feng; JING Jin

    2008-01-01

    Objective To review the major achievements in dyslexia in Chinese characters,hoping to give some clues for future studies.Data sources Both Chinese and English language literature search using PUBMED,and original articles published in main Chinese and international journals.Study selection After reviewing the literature,54 articles were selected that specifically addressed the stated purpose.Results The results of studies about the subtypes,cerebral basis,reading processing model,event-related potential (ERP) and saccadic features between English and Chinese dyslexia are different.Conclusions In the last ten years,great progress has been made in the study of dyslexia in Chinese characters.However,there are still many problems and shortcomings which need to be investigated.

  3. [Construction of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wei, Li; Dong, Ling; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Tang, Ming-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Based on the characteristics of multicomponent of traditional Chinese medicine and drawing lessons from the concepts, methods and techniques of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) in chemical field, this study comes up with the science framework of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS). Using the different comparison method of multicomponent level and the CMMBCS method of overall traditional Chinese medicine, the study constructs the method process while setting forth academic thoughts and analyzing theory. The basic role of this system is clear to reveal the interaction and the related absorption mechanism of multicomponent in traditional Chinese medicine. It also provides new ideas and methods for improving the quality of Chinese materia medica and the development of new drug research.

  4. Chinese Tourists in Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rozsypálková, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the Master Thesis is to analyze behavior of Chinese tourist in hotel industry. The analysis is based on questionnaires of three Chinese professionals who worked in a Chinese hotel, three foreigners (Russian, Italian, Spanish) who as well worked in a Chinese hotel and three Czech professionals who worked in a Czech hotel frequently visited by Chinese tourists. The thesis subsequently introduces ways how Chinese tourists should be treated during their visit in a hotel with respect t...

  5. Non-Photorealistic Rendering in Chinese Painting of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A set of algorithms is proposed in this paper to automatically transform 3D animal models to Chinese painting style. Inspired by real painting process in Chinese painting of animals, we divide the whole rendering process into two parts: borderline stroke making and interior shading. In borderline stroke making process we first find 3D model silhouettes in real-time depending on the viewing direction of a user. After retrieving silhouette information from all model edges, a stroke linking mechanism is applied to link these independent edges into a long stroke. Finally we grow a plain thin silhouette line to a stylus stroke with various widths at each control point and a 2D brush model is combined with it to simulate a Chinese painting stroke. In the interior shading pipeline, three stages are used to convert a Gouraud-shading image to a Chinese painting style image: color quantization, ink diffusion and box filtering. The color quantization stage assigns all pixels in an image into four color levels and each level represents a color layer in a Chinese painting. Ink diffusion stage is used to transfer inks and water between different levels and to grow areas in an irregular way. The box filtering stage blurs sharp borders between different levels to embellish the appearance of final interior shading image. In addition to automatic rendering, an interactive Chinese painting system which is equipped with friendly input devices can be also combined to generate more artistic Chinese painting images manually.

  6. Automatic Recognition of Chinese Personal Name Using Conditional Random Fields and Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the features of Chinese personal name, we present an approach for Chinese personal name recognition based on conditional random fields (CRF and knowledge base in this paper. The method builds multiple features of CRF model by adopting Chinese character as processing unit, selects useful features based on selection algorithm of knowledge base and incremental feature template, and finally implements the automatic recognition of Chinese personal name from Chinese document. The experimental results on open real corpus demonstrated the effectiveness of our method and obtained high accuracy rate and high recall rate of recognition.

  7. [Technical specifications for post-marketing pharmacoeconomic evaluation of Chinese medicine (draft version for comments)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Wang, Xin; Wang, Nuo; Chang, Yan-Peng

    2013-09-01

    Pharmacoeconomics is an important part of the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese medicine, post-marketing pharmacoeconomic evaluation can better reflect the clinical and market value of Chinese medicine, the purpose of establishing the technical specifications for pharmacoeconomic evaluation is to make the evaluation process and results regarding Chinese patent medicines more scientific and fair. Every country's technical specifications for pharmacoeconomic evaluation act as reference guidelines, we have already drawn up the technical specifications which take into account the special characteristics of Chinese medicine; these are in preparation for post-marketing pharmacoeconomic evaluation Chinese medicine.

  8. Chinese Australian Urban Politics in the Context of Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Tsen Kwok

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation and the rise of East Asia have accelerated the migration of Chinese populations across the Asia-Pacific rim. Ethnic Chinese populations from highly diverse sub-ethnic, socio-economic and political backgrounds are increasingly aggregated in major cities throughout the region. Nonetheless, there remains insufficient attention to the implications of greater economic interdependence and accelerated population movement upon the political cultures of host nations such as Australia, especially in the context of ensuing spatial and economic concentrations of activity. Both articulate and interlocking relationships between political and economic fields exist in the metropolitan engagements of Chinese Australian community groups and associations. Many of these political dimensions extend into ‘formal’ modes of politics. Framed by urban regime theory and the broader notion of urban politics, this paper claims that network resource exchange within Chinese Australian communities are tied to ethnic economies, and in certain contexts global processes. These kinds of social dynamics have implications for the expression of diasporic Chinese affinity and constructions of Chineseness. Explorations of transnational political tensions, in fact, highlight the diversity and potential fragility of diasporic interdependence within ethnic Chinese communities – communities that are persistently refashioned through new waves of migration and from different points of origin. This paper seeks to advance these perspectives through a case study of a particular period of tension between two representative peak bodies in Brisbane, Queensland. Grounded in the testimony of elite political actors, it reflects upon the nature of ethnic Chinese community representation in contemporary Australia.

  9. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    We develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on the network of the hierarchical structural relations between Chinese characters. A more efficient strategy is that of learning the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW) strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that considers both the weight of the nodes and its location in the network hierarchical structure. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as a second language. We find that the DNW method significantly outperforms the others, implying that the efficiency of current learning methods of major textbooks can be greatly improved.

  10. Development Process of Chinese New Energy Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    "Major Sci-Tech Special Project of New Energy Vehicles in Project 863",with industrialization as the goal.actively carried out three main strategies of talents.patents and standards.Through resource integration.management optimization.technical and mechanism innovation.the Project has made prominent progress in the R&D of new energy vehicles.building of industrialization environment and organizing and management of large sci-tech projects.

  11. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  12. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  13. 地质介质热-力学-化学耦合反应的数值模拟--国内外研究成果评述%NUMERICAL MODELING FOR COUPLED THERMO-HYDRO-MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES (THMC) OF GEOLOGICAL MEDIA——INTERNATIONAL AND CHINESE EXPERIENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井兰如; 冯夏庭

    2003-01-01

    The coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes of stress/deformation, fluid flow, temperatureand geochemical reactions of the geological media, namely fractured rocks and soils, play an important role in design, construction,operation and environmental impact assessments of rock and soil engineering works such as underground nuclear waste repositories,oil/gas production and storage, geothermal energy extraction, landslides and slope stability, hydropower and water conservancycomplexes, etc. This paper presents an overview of the international and Chinese experiences in numerical modeling of the coupledTHMC processes for both the state-of-the-knowledge, remaining challenges and possible future prospects.

  14. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their

  15. The carbon emissions of Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Zhang, R.; Liu, M.; Bi, J.

    2012-07-01

    As increasing urbanization has become a national policy priority for economic growth in China, cities have become important players in efforts to reduce carbon emissions. However, their efforts have been hampered by the lack of specific and comparable carbon emission inventories. Comprehensive carbon emission inventories for twelve Chinese cities, which present both a relatively current snapshot and also show how emissions have changed over the past several years, were developed using a bottom-up approach. Carbon emissions in most Chinese cities rose along with economic growth from 2004 to 2008. Yet per capita carbon emissions varied between the highest and lowest emitting cities by a factor of nearly 7. Average contributions of sectors to per capita emissions for all Chinese cities were 65.1% for industrial energy consumption, 10.1% for industrial processes, 10.4% for transportation, 7.7% for household energy consumption, 4.2% for commercial energy consumption and 2.5% for waste processing. However, these shares are characterized by considerable variability due to city-specific factors. The levels of per capita carbon emissions in China's cities were higher than we anticipated before comparing them with the average of ten cities in other parts of the world. This is mainly due to the major contribution of the industry sector in Chinese cities.

  16. 改性乌桕脂的液-液萃取脱酸工艺研究%Study on the investigation of liquid-liquid extraction process of modified Chinese tallow oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志强; 吴炜亮; 郑建仙

    2012-01-01

    Effects of the solution concentration of extraction solvent isopropyl alcohol,material ratio,extraction time on free fatty acid extraction ratio and the yield of modified lipid were investigated by single factor experiment and the response surface method to obtain the optimum process parameters of liquid-liquid extraction process of modified Chinese tallow oil.The research showed that free fatty acid extraction ratio increased with extraction solution concentration,material ratio,extraction time increasing,while the yield decreased with these three process conditions increasing.The regression models established by the response surface method could observably reflect the relationships of various factors and free fatty acid extraction ratio yield.The sequences of two factors which influenced on free fatty acid extraction ratio and yield of modified lipid were both extraction solution concentrationmaterial ratio.Through overlaying two contour lines of free fatty acid extraction ratio and modified lipid yield,the optimal process was:IPA concentration 75.00%,material ratio 1.50.Under the optimum process parameters,when the extraction times was 5 and extraction temperature was 35℃,the extraction ratio was higher than 97%,and yield more than 95%.%通过单因素实验和响应面法研究了萃取溶剂异丙醇溶液浓度、物料比、萃取级数等因素对脱酸工艺的影响,以改性乌桕脂脱酸率和得率为指标,确定了改性乌桕脂液-液萃取脱酸的最佳工艺参数。研究表明:改性乌桕脂脱酸率与异丙醇溶液浓度、物料比、萃取级数正相关,而得率则随这三个因素条件的增加而减少。由响应曲面法建立的回归模型反映了各因素水平与改性乌桕脂脱酸率和得率之间的关系,对改性脂质脱酸率和得率的影响顺序均为异丙醇溶液浓度〉物料比。通过对改性乌桕脂脱酸率和得率的等高线进行叠加得到异丙醇液-液萃取脱酸的最佳工艺

  17. Ancient Chinese Landscape Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    IN the past decade,the worldhas suddenly discovered thewonders of Chinese landscapegardening and garden architecture,and places like New York,Singaporeand London have all built Chinese-style gardens.The architectural stylespecial to Chinese gardens has,infact,developed·a“school”of itsown.In China,the landscaped gardenhas long been a part of culture,andliterature,painting,philosophy,cal-ligraphy and folk customs have alldealt with it at one time or another.Two categories of garden architec-ture exist:the imperial garden andthe private garden.The former is,ofcourse,grand and palatial and occu-pies large tracts of land,while the

  18. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  19. How Iconic Are Chinese Characters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The study explores the notion that some Chinese characters contain pictorial indications of meanings that can be used to help retrieve the referent. Thirty adults with no prior knowledge of Chinese guessed the meanings of twenty Chinese characters by choosing between one of two photographs. Half of the characters were considered to be iconic and…

  20. Directory of Chinese American Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese American Librarians Association, River Forest, IL.

    This directory was compiled by the Chinese American Librarians Association based on replies to questionnaires sent to more than 500 Chinese American librarians in the United States and research based on secondary sources. Information provided on each person includes: name, name in Chinese, position/title, institution, institution's address, field…

  1. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  2. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  3. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  4. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  5. The Chinese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts; Willem Huijnk; Ria Vogels

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Chinese Nederlanders This report presents the first national picture of the position of the Chinese community in the Netherlands. A large-scale survey was conducted among persons of Chinese origin living in the Netherlands, with the aim of answering questions on a wide range of topi

  6. Chinese Contemporary Art: Ink Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiDaojian

    2003-01-01

    Chinese ink painting is an age-old art tradition that embodies distinctive characteristics of Chinese culture. In these exquisite paintings, artists integrate nature and everyday life to show how the two exist in harmonyalso a frequent theme in Chinese philosophy.

  7. The Analysis on Translation of commercial Terms with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茹

    2010-01-01

    <正>During process of global integration,English commercial terms with Chinese characteristics has become a unique linguistic phenomenon.It stands out in the course of Sino - foreign economic communications.The influence of Chinese language upon the English continues to expand and the business expressions with Chinese characteristics highlight its original vocabulary to express their unique strengths.This thesis summarizes features of such translation,lists plenty of representative practical examples,and puts forward some basic ways of its translation.

  8. [Integrative pharmacology: new paradigm of modernization of Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Yu; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Chinese medicinal formulae( CMF) were often used in the clinics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which were critical for modernization of Chinese medicine to shed light on the interaction between CMF and biological organisms. In current studies, correlation between system and part, macroscopic actions and microcosmic mechanism, ADME process and pharmacologic actions were often neglected. Thus, we put forward integrative pharmacology, which could integrate the correlation between CMF and biological organisms from multi-levels and multi-dimensional views. Integrative pharmacology would reveal the molecular mechanism of CMF for ailments treatment and screen out effective material systematically, which would be the new paradigm of TCM research.

  9. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  10. Pilot Test of Hydrolysis Acidification/MBBR Process for Treatment of Traditional Chinese Medicine Wastewater%水解酸化/MBBR工艺处理中药废水的中试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许劲; 洪国强; 赵绪光; 董晓梦; 李家祥

    2011-01-01

    The pilot test was performed to investigate the feasibility of the combined process of hydrolysis acidification and moving-bed biofilm reactor ( MBBR) process to upgrade the existing traditional Chinese medicine wastewater treatment process in a pharmaceutical factory in Nanjing. The results show that when the influent flow rate is 0.4 m3/h , the average COD concentrations in the influent and effluent are 1161 mg/L and 167 mg/L respectively, with an average COD removal of 85.6% . The maximum volumetric loading rate and the maximum removal loading rate in primary MBBR are 6.64 kgCOD/( m3 · d)and 5 kgCOD/(m3·d) respectively, with the averages of 4.66 kgCOD/( m3 · d) and 2.94 kg COD/(m3 · d) , which are 4.28 times and 5.88 times of those of the existing biological contact oxidation process. With the same removal rate of COD, HRT, COD removal loading rate and volumetric loading rate of hydrolysis acidification tank are less than one third, 4.28 times and 3.84 times of those of second anaerobic tank respectively.%南京某制药厂拟采用水解酸化/移动床生物膜反应器(MBBR)工艺对中药废水处理工艺进行升级改造,为考察该工艺的可行性开展了中试研究.试验结果表明,当进水量为0.4 m3/h时,进、出水平均COD分别为1161 mg/L和167 mg/L,对COD的平均去除率为85.6%.一级MB-BR的最大容积负荷与最大去除负荷分别为6.64和5 kgCOD/(m3·d),两者的平均值分别为4.66和2.94 kgCOD/(m3·d),分别是现有生物接触氧化工艺的4.28倍和5.88倍.水解酸化池与厌氧池2对COD的去除率相当,而HRT不到厌氧池2的1/3,对COD的去除负荷与容积负荷分别是厌氧池2的4.28倍和3.84倍.

  11. Asymmetry Effects of shocks in Chinese Stock Markets Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Ai Jun

    2013-01-01

    The unique characteristics of the Chinese stock markets make it difficult to assume a particular distribution for innovations in returns and the specification form of the volatility process when modelling return volatility with the parametric GARCH family models. This paper therefore applies a ge...... nonparametric model demonstrates a better performance for return volatility forecasts, particularly for the out-of-sample forecast. The results from this paper have important implications in risk management, portfolio selection, and hedging strategy.......The unique characteristics of the Chinese stock markets make it difficult to assume a particular distribution for innovations in returns and the specification form of the volatility process when modelling return volatility with the parametric GARCH family models. This paper therefore applies...... a generalized additive nonparametric smoothing technique to examine the volatility of the Chinese stock markets. The empirical results indicate that an asymmetric effect of negative news exists in the Chinese stock markets. Furthermore, compared with other parametric models, the generalized additive...

  12. A Chinese Character Teaching System Using Structure Theory and Morphing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Linjia; Liu, Min; Hu, Jiajia; Liang, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a Chinese character teaching system by using the Chinese character structure theory and the 2D contour morphing technology. This system, including the offline phase and the online phase, automatically generates animation for the same Chinese character from different writing stages to intuitively show the evolution of shape and topology in the process of Chinese characters teaching. The offline phase builds the component models database for the same script and the components correspondence database for different scripts. Given two or several different scripts of the same Chinese character, the online phase firstly divides the Chinese characters into components by using the process of Chinese character parsing, and then generates the evolution animation by using the process of Chinese character morphing. Finally, two writing stages of Chinese characters, i.e., seal script and clerical script, are used in experiment to show the ability of the system. The result of the user experience study shows that the system can successfully guide students to improve the learning of Chinese characters. And the users agree that the system is interesting and can motivate them to learn. PMID:24978171

  13. Research of the effect of celery powder on color and process optimization of natural Chinese fermented sausages%芹菜粉对天然中式香肠颜色影响及工艺优化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇延军; 赵亚娟; 赵杰

    2012-01-01

    天然中式发酵香肠是不添加人造着色成分、化学防腐剂或任何其他人造或合成成分的一种产品。本文以芹菜粉、产硝酸还原酶的木糖葡萄球菌和肉糖葡萄球菌作为天然配料,以中式香肠的红度值a和亚硝酸盐残留量为指标,通过单因素实验确定了四因素(接种量、菌种配比、发酵温度和发酵时间)的优工艺参数的基础上,采用正交实验L9(34)的方法,确定最优的发酵工艺参数条件为:A1B3C2D2,即发酵时间为30h,发酵温度为30℃,发酵菌株接种量为107cfu/g,发酵菌种配比采用木糖葡萄球菌:肉糖葡萄球菌=1:2。%Natural Chinese fermented sausages did not contain any artificial flavor or flavoring,coloring ingredient,or chemical preservative,or any other artificial or synthetic ingredient.The article studied that celery powder,Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus were applied to fermented sausages as natural ingredients.Considered products’ objective color a(redness)and residual nitrite as the criterion.Through single factor experiment to get better process conditions:temperature of fermentation(A),time of fermentation(B),inoculating amount(C)and mixture of bacteria(D).And then the orthorgonal experiment was carried on to confirm best technology parameters of four factors as:A1B3C2D2,namely the strains were time of fermentation was 30h,temperature of fermentation was 30℃,inoculation amount was 107cfu/g,Staphylococcus xylosus:Staphylococcus carnosus=1:2.

  14. Imbalances in the Development of Chinese Culture------about the traditional Chinese culture influenced by the west

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉晨

    2014-01-01

    During the development of Chinese culture, it absorbs a lot of exotic new things from the west. This situation directly induced two imbalances in the structure of our culture nowadays. One of these imbalances is between the Chinese traditional culture and the western culture, and the other one is the humanity culture and the science culture. Both these imbalances are rooted in the relationship between the eastern and western cultures, which are combining, interweaving and conflicting during the developing process. The differences between these two cultures and the influences from the western one determine the current imbalanced pattern of Chinese culture.

  15. International expansion of Chinese multinationals: the new challenge of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, a new generation of Chinese multinationals has set out to conquer global markets, featuring major international acquisitions that were unthinkable until very recently. This work seeks to analyze the nature of this emerging phenomenon, illustrating the reasons behind the international expansion of Chinese multinationals, the factors that facilitate and hinder this process, the entry modes that they use and the strategic implications for Western companies of their sudde...

  16. Challenges Facing Chinese Refineries and Demand Forecast for 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongsheng

    2003-01-01

    @@ After several decades of development the processing capac ity of Chinese refineries has reached 276 million tons per year,ranking the fourth in the world. The refining industry has made great contribution to the growth of national economy in China. With changing times, especially after China's accession to the WTO, significant changes have occurred in economy, politics and petroleum market both at home and abroad. The survival and growth of Chinese refineries has faced new challenges.

  17. Management of Substitution in English-Chinese Trans lation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宇飞

    2015-01-01

    Substitution is one of the major cohesive devices.Both English and Chinese use substitution.But due to the differences between the two languages,the translation methods adopted should vary according to the situation.This thesis aims to explore the different strategies that can be used in the translation of substitution from English to Chinese in different cases.A contrastive study between the two languages is crucial in this process.

  18. Management of Substitution in English-Chinese Trans lation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宇飞

    2015-01-01

    Substitution is one of the major cohesive devices. Both English and Chinese use substitution. But due to the differences between the two languages, the translation methods adopted should vary according to the situation. This thesis aims to explore the different strategies that can be used in the translation of substitution from English to Chinese in different cases. A contrastive study between the two languages is crucial in this process.

  19. The World Shares Chinese Experience of Poverty Alleviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Rengui

    2015-01-01

    As the 2nd China Poverty Alleviation Day and the 23rd International Day for the Eradication of Poverty is approaching,Chinese President Xi Jinping delivered a keynote speech at the 2015 Global Poverty Reduction and Development Forum in Beijing on October 16th and elaborated Chinese Government’s resolute measures on comprehensively promoting poverty alleviation campaign in the process of building a moderately prosperous society in an all suspects,showing China’s

  20. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  1. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  2. Chinese Decorative Coatings Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Growth prospects The Chinese market for decorative coatings, excluding non-architectural products such as industrial varnishes,marine paint and other industrially applied coatings, has been growing byaround 10% annually and was estimated to be worth Eurol.3 billion a year, with an annual per capita consumption of just less than 1 liter ofpaint.

  3. SWOT analysis - Chinese Petroleum

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  4. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  5. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Corbiere

    2013-01-01

    <正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in

  6. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  7. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  8. Milestone for Chinese physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Chinese scientists have discovered a new particle predicted decades ago but never observed before. It could be what was once called the "multi-quark state," tiny elementary particles with a strong interaction or force that serves as the source of nuclear energy (1/2 page).

  9. Chinese Lacquer Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengXiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the

  10. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  11. Chinese Students' Constructive Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Last June the author, a teacher of political theory at Tsinghua University, was asked by a Canadian television crew to get hold of some students for a special on modern China. During the discussion, the author observed that his Chinese students express a thoughtful and informed nationalism, and a distrust of Western-style democracy. Some of the…

  12. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese Ethnic Park, divided into two parts, occupies 45 hectares. The northern section, which opened first, occupies 20 hectares, featuring 16 ethnic villages where people can enjoy indigenous music and dance. About 200 performers working in the village represent a number of minority nationalities. Their performances are based on local custom, and mostly comprise greeting and bidding

  13. Chinese Commercial Negotiating Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    the importance of whatever activities they are a part of-a form of Sinocentrism --and relations among all others belong to the periphery of the Chinese...Siemens, 22 73-74 "Silent Treatment," 68-69 Trade agreements, 4. See a/so Singapore, 32 Agreements; Compensatory Sinocentrism , 86 trade I----- Index / 105

  14. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Li Yiyi, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of Shenyang Metal Research Institute, has developed a new system for creating a low temperature and high pressure anti-hydrogen material in the research of engineering material. She has also been successful in her research of various types of steel.

  15. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  16. 当代中国商务诚信价值观培育的演进历程与范式建构∗%The Evolution Process and Paradigm Construction of Contemporary Chinese Business Integrity Value Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽涛

    2016-01-01

    Carefully examining the process of contemporary Chinese business integrity value cultivation from the diachronic per⁃spective, it aimed at grasping the general changing direction and conventional paradigm. The cultivated process of business integrity val⁃ue presents stage evolution characteristics, it embodied in:the political ethics of serving the people during the period of planned econo⁃my, mainly on the heteronomy, self-discipline as the supplement at the early stage of the socialist market economy construction and fo⁃cused on morality and law at the same time, integrity value was promoted to the social level during the period of socialist market econo⁃my further development. Meanwhile, the cultivated process of business integrity value in contemporary China presents four kinds of con⁃ventional paradigm:the moral cultivation paradigm through morality to cultivate business integrity values, the practical cultivation para⁃digm through practical activities to promote business integrity values, the institutional cultivation paradigm through formal rules to shape business integrity values, the public opinion cultivation paradigm through collection of opinions to guide business integrity values.%从历时态视角审视当代中国商务诚信价值观培育的过程,旨在总体性地把脉商务诚信价值观培育的变迁路向与常规范式。我国商务诚信价值观培育历程呈现出阶段性演进特点,具体表现为:计划经济时期的为人民服务政治伦理要求,社会主义市场经济建设初期的他律为主、自律为辅以及社会主义市场经济深入发展时期的德法并举、诚信价值观被提升到社会层面。当代中国商务诚信价值观培育演进过程中表现出四种常规范式:以德性修养涵育商务诚信价值观的道德培育范式,以践诺活动促进商务诚信价值观的实践培育范式,以正式规则形塑商务诚信价值观的制度培育范式以及以集

  17. 创新语文教学情景 激活语文课堂情趣%Innovating Chinese Teaching Situations and Motivating Chinese Classroom Sentiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞颖群

    2011-01-01

    In Chinese teaching, the author attempts to apply the method of creating Chinese teaching situation to optimize teaching process, thus to motivate students' Chinese learning interest and improve Chinese classroom teaching quality.%语文教学中,笔者尝试着用创设语文教学情景的方法来优化教学过程,从而激发学生学习语文的浓厚兴趣,也使语文课堂教学质量得到了极大的提高。

  18. Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2016-06-20

    We present Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N = 28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1,429 English words. The results revealed that 71 % of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigated. Although the significant correlations were not strong, results revealed that English word frequency was positively correlated with the number of alternative translations, whereas English word concreteness was negatively correlated with the number of translations. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the number of Chinese translations was predicted by word frequency and concreteness. Furthermore, an interaction between these predictors revealed that the number of translations was more affected by word frequency for more concrete words than for less concrete words. In addition, mixed-effects modelling showed that word frequency, concreteness and English language proficiency were all significant predictors of whether or not a dominant translation was provided. Finally, correlations between the word frequencies of English words and their Chinese dominant translations were higher for translation-unambiguous pairs than for translation-ambiguous pairs. The translation norms are made available in a database together with lexical information about the words, which will be a useful resource for researchers investigating Chinese-English bilingual language processing.

  19. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolution of Chinese airport network

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Cai, Kai-Quan

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy and the accelerated globalization process, the aviation industry plays more and more critical role in today's world, in both developed and developing countries. As the infrastructure of aviation industry, the airport network is one of the most important indicators of economic growth. In this paper, we investigate the evolution of Chinese airport network (CAN) via complex network theory. It is found that although the topology of CAN remains steady during the past several years, there are many dynamic switchings inside the network, which changes the relative relevance of airports and airlines. Moreover, we investigate the evolution of traffic flow (passengers and cargoes) on CAN. It is found that the traffic keeps growing in an exponential form and it has evident seasonal fluctuations. We also found that cargo traffic and passenger traffic are positively related but the correlations are quite different for different kinds of cities.