Sample records for chinese personality assessment

  1. Life cycle assessment study of a Chinese desktop personal computer. (United States)

    Duan, Huabo; Eugster, Martin; Hischier, Roland; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Li, Jinhui


    Associated with the tremendous prosperity in world electronic information and telecommunication industry, there continues to be an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of electronic and electric products (e-products). China's importance as both a consumer and supplier of e-products has grown at an unprecedented pace in recent decade. Hence, this paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese e-products from a global level. A desktop personal computer system has been selected to carry out a detailed and modular LCA which follows the ISO 14040 series. The LCA is constructed by SimaPro software version 7.0 and expressed with the Eco-indicator'99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the so-called CML method is used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the result. Life cycle inventory information is complied by ecoinvent 1.3 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the present Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that that the manufacturing and the use of such devices are of the highest environmental importance. In the manufacturing of such devices, the integrated circuits (ICs) and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) are those parts contributing most to the impact. As no other aspects are taken into account during the use phase, the impact is due to the way how the electricity is produced. The final process steps--i.e. the end of life phase--lead to a clear environmental benefit if a formal and modern, up-to-date technical system is assumed, like here in this study.

  2. Personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia; Luo, Zhengxue; Liu, Xufeng


    This his article reports the findings of a study conducted to investigate the personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Form G) was used to assess the personality styles of 332 dental school applicants from the mainland of China. The results of the MBTI for Chinese dental school applicants were compared with a previous study of applicants from the U.K. A higher percentage of this group of Chinese applicants scored higher for Introversion (I) than Extroversion (E); both Chinese and English applicants preferred Judging (J) to Perceiving (P). The dominant personality types in Chinese applicants were ISTJ, ESTJ, and ISFP. The findings suggest that the personality types of Chinese dental students may be somewhat different from the personality profiles exhibited by dental students from other nations. The findings may be of value to individuals who desire to investigate personality type differences among dental students with different cultural backgrounds.

  3. Contributions of acculturation, enculturation, discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants: A context-specific assessment. (United States)

    Fang, Ke; Friedlander, Myrna; Pieterse, Alex L


    Based on the diathesis-stress model of anxiety, this study examined the contributions of cultural processes, perceived racial discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants. Further guided by the theory of intergroup anxiety, this study also adopted a context-specific approach to distinguish between participants' experience of social anxiety when interacting with European Americans versus with other Chinese in the United States. This quantitative and ex post facto study used a convenience sample of 140 first-generation Chinese immigrants. Participants were recruited through e-mails from different university and community groups across the United States. The sample includes 55 men and 82 women (3 did not specify) with an average age of 36 years old. Results showed that more social anxiety was reported in the European American context than in the Chinese ethnic context. The full models accounted for almost half the variance in anxiety in each context. Although personality accounted for the most variance, the cultural variables and discrimination contributed 14% of the unique variance in the European American context. Notably, low acculturation, high neuroticism, and low extraversion were unique contributors to social anxiety with European Americans, whereas in the Chinese ethnic context only low extraversion was a unique contributor; more discrimination was uniquely significant in both contexts. The findings suggest a need to contextualize the research and clinical assessment of social anxiety, and have implications for culturally sensitive counseling with immigrants.

  4. Assessing shyness in Chinese older adults. (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee


    The Shyness Scale (SS) is a brief instrument for assessing shyness as a personality trait. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the SS were investigated in a random sample of 192 Macau Chinese older adults. The Chinese version of the SS possesses high internal consistency and exhibited satisfactory short-term test-retest reliability. The Chinese version of the SS exhibited acceptable convergent validity with other negative measures of psychological well-being including negative emotional states (assessed by the Negative Affect Scale), loneliness (assessed by the UCLA Loneliness Scale), and state anxiety and trait anxiety (assessed by STAI). The divergent validity of the Chinese version of the SS was demonstrated by the negative but significant association between the SS and self esteem (assessed by Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory).

  5. English Translation of Chinese Personal Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper talks about the translation of personal names from Chinese into English, which is complicated by different factors, including orthographic, phonetic, geographic and social ones. To translate personal names appropriately, a wide range of knowledge is required. Although translation machine is more often used nowadays, it cannot take place of person in the end. Several types of name translation will be talked about in this paper.

  6. Adult Career Assessment: Personality Measures. (United States)

    Vansickle, Timothy R.; Russell, Mary T.


    Provides an overview of five assessment instruments and discusses their contribution to adult career development: (1) California Personality Inventory; (2) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; (3) Personality Research Form; (4) Occupational Stress Inventory; and (5) Personal Career Development Profile. Includes information about publishers, intended…

  7. Back to the Future: Personality and Assessment and Personality Development


    Roberts, Brent W.


    In this essay I consider the future of personality development in light of the past effects of Personality and Assessment on the field of personality in general and personality development in particular. The essay is organized around 1) the effect of Mischel's book on the foundational theories informing personality development; 2) definitions of personality traits; 3) an alternative model of personality traits, described as the sociogenomic model of personality traits, that can bridge the div...

  8. Chinese Undergraduates' Explicit and Implicit Attitudes toward Persons with Disabilities (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Ma, Li; Zhang, Jian-Xin


    The present study is aimed at examining implicit and explicit attitudes toward persons with disabilities among Chinese college students. The "Implicit Association Test" was used to measure their implicit attitudes, whereas their explicit attitudes toward persons with disabilities were measured by using a scale of three items.…

  9. Temperament, Personality and Achievement Goals among Chinese Adolescent Students (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Li-Fang


    Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students.…

  10. 什么是"中国人"的个性?--《中国人个性测量表CPAI-2》的分组差异%What is "Chinese" Personality? Subgroup Differences in the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI-2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妙清; 张树辉; 张建新


    The Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) is an indigenously developed personality measure, which covers both universal and culture-specific personality dimensions. We argue that a combined emic-etic approach reflects the broader psychological reality and is a useful approach to advance our understanding of psychology cross-culturally. We examine subgroup differences in the CPAI-2 normative sample to illustrate variations and continuity of personality characteristics within the same culture. Sex and age differences on mean scores of the CPAI-2 scales are consistent with expected variations associated socialization and developmental stages. There is no consistent pattern of variations across Hong Kong and different geographical regions within Mainland China.Within-culture and cross-cultural differences illustrate the continuity of individual differences in personality, and the dialectics of emic and etic constructs.%是一套本土化发展而成的个性量表,涵盖包括中国文化独有以及在大多数文化共有的性格维度.该文认为结合文化特定与文化共通的研究方法能全面地反映心理现实,亦能加深我们对跨文化心理学的理解.该研究分析了CPAI-2常模的几个子组别,以展示在同一文化之内,性格特质的差异及连续性.性别及年龄组别间的平均分差异均符合相应的社化过程及人生发展阶段所预期的结果.而中国香港及中国不同地区在平均分的差异上则没有特定的模式.文化内及跨文化的差异展示了个人性格差异的连续性,以及文化特定与文化共通概念的相互关系.

  11. Factors Contributing to Personal Commitment in Chinese Interethnic Couples

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    Xinmiao Zhong


    Full Text Available Interethnic relationships are increasingly common in many societies, yet interethnic couples have a higher divorce rate compared to intraethnic couples. Given these facts and the dearth of research, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to couples’ commitment in interethnic relationships. This study investigated the personal commitment of Chinese interethnic couples in the United Kingdom and the United States. Specifically, whether love, dyadic adjustment and “couple cultural identity” (i.e. acculturation to the partner and couple’s similarity on individualism/collectivism would predict personal commitment and whether each variable would account for unique variance in personal commitment of the participants. Thirty-seven Chinese/non-Chinese heterosexual couples participated in the study and significant relationships between love and personal commitment, dyadic adjustment and personal commitment were found. Also, couple cultural identity was important for women’s personal commitment. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling showed that partners in interethnic relationships defined personal commitment in different ways with men emphasizing love and dyadic adjustment, and women emphasizing love and acculturation to their partner. The discovery of the importance of couple cultural identity in contributing to personal commitment, besides love and dyadic adjustment, helps researchers to gain a greater understanding of such relationships and to extend the research on interethnic relationships.

  12. Motivation to Attend College in American and Chinese Students: Correlates with ADHD Symptomatology and Personality (United States)

    Norvilitis, Jill M.; Reid, Howard M.; Ling, Sun; Chen, Sisi


    Data were analyzed from 178 American and 153 Chinese college students who participated in a study examining motivation to attend college. Students in the two countries reported similar motivations for attending college, with career and personal reasons being most important and helping family least important. Also, the study assessed the influence…

  13. Validating the Type D personality construct in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease

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    Yu, Doris S F; Thompson, David R; Yu, Cheuk Man


    Type D personality predicts poor prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about Type D in non-Western cultures. We examined the (a) validity of the Type D construct and its assessment with the DS14 scale in the Chinese culture, (b) prevalence of Type D, and (c) gender vs. Type...

  14. Chinese multi-document personal name disambiguation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper presents a new approach to determining whether an interested personal name across documents refers to the same entity. Firstly, three vectors for each text are formed: the personal name Boolean vectors denoting whether a personal name occurs in the text, the biographical word Boolean vector representing title, occupation and so forth, and the feature vector with real values. Then, by combining a heuristic strategy based on Boolean vectors with an agglomerative clustering algorithm based on feature vectors, it seeks to resolve multi-document personal name coreference. Experimental results show that this approach achieves a good performance by testing on "Wang Gang" corpus.

  15. Development of the Multi-Trait Personality Inventory (MTPI): comparison among four Chinese populations. (United States)

    Cheung, P C; Conger, A J; Hau, K T; Lew, W J; Lau, S


    Anemic approach was adopted to develop a culture-specific instrument for the assessment of Chinese personality. The Multi-Trial Personality Inventory (MTPI) was administered to 1,673 men and 944 women in four major Chinese populations. It was found that Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the United States possess some common traits deeply rooted in the Chinese culture characterized by Confucian thoughts (e.g., self-discipline and moderation) and some additional traits nurtured by their respective environments. Consequently, findings of this study lent support to the hypothesis that, in spite of superficial discontinuities, there are basic continuities in the personality traits of mainland and overseas Chinese. The cross-cultural differences in personality were examined from a political-social perspective and also explained with a cultural-ecological model. In the development of the MTPI, a new methodology that relies on forming factor-consistent clusters was employed to deal successfully with the problem of complex factor space.

  16. Personality Traits and Occupational Stress among Chinese Academics (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fang


    The primary objective of this study was to examine the predictive power of personality traits for occupational stress among Chinese university academics. Two hundred and forty-six participants responded to the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised. Results indicated that the strongest predictor for occupational…

  17. Narratives and traits in personality development among New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European adolescents. (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Myftari, Ella; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona


    Narrative and trait levels of personality were assessed in a sample of 268 adolescents from age 12 to 21 from New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European cultures. Adolescents narrated three critical events and completed a Big Five personality inventory. Each narrative was coded for causal and thematic coherence. NZ Chinese adolescents reported lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, and higher levels of neuroticism, than NZ Māori or European adolescents. Cultural differences were also evident in narrative coherence. Adolescents in all three groups demonstrated age-related increases in thematic coherence, but only NZ European adolescents demonstrated the expected age-related increases in causal coherence. Narrative identity and traits were distinct aspects of personality for younger adolescents, but were linked for middle and older adolescents. These findings support the importance of both narrative identity and traits in understanding personality development in adolescents across cultures.

  18. Assessing Personalized Medicines in Australia (United States)

    Farah, Claude; Schubert, Camille; Mitchell, Andrew; Hiller, Janet E.; Ryan, Philip


    Background. Since the mapping of the human genome in 2003, the development of biomarker targeted therapy and clinical adoption of “personalized medicine” has accelerated. Models for insurance subsidy of biomarker/test/drug packages (“codependent technologies” or technologies that work better together) are not well developed. Our aim was to create a framework to assess the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of these technologies for a national coverage or reimbursement decision. Methods. We extracted information from assessments of recent Australian reimbursement applications that concerned genetic tests and treatments to identify items and evidence gaps considered important to the decision-making process. Relevant international regulatory and reimbursement guidance documents were also reviewed. Items addressing causality theory were included to help explain the relationship between biomarker and treatment. The framework was reviewed by policy makers and technical experts, prior to a public consultation process. Results. The framework consists of 5 components—context, clinical benefit, evidence translation, cost-effectiveness, and financial impact—and a checklist of 79 items. To determine whether the biomarker test, the drug, both, or neither should be subsidized, we considered it crucial to identify whether the biomarker is a treatment effect modifier or a prognostic factor. To aid in this determination, the framework explicitly allows the linkage of different types of evidence to examine whether targeting the biomarker varies the likely clinical benefit of the drug, and if so, to what extent. Conclusions. The first national framework to assess personalized medicine for coverage or reimbursement decisions has been developed and introduced and may be a suitable model for other health systems. PMID:22895559

  19. Spotless, Jade-like Personality (traditional Chinese painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The interpretation of the traditional Chinese paintings done by Xie Lijun vividly expresses a woman’s tolerance and silence. In traditional Chinese paintings black is the main component and the function of the color red is only to provide a striking contrast, so it is only used occasionally. On the contrary, in "Spotless. ,Jade-Like Personality." the color red is the main color in the painting. So different from its usual function, the red set against the quiet internal world passes from the expression of the figure’s eyes. The red color adds more elegance and inlplicit meaning to the work.

  20. The use of death metaphors to understand personal meaning of death among Hong Kong Chinese undergraduates. (United States)

    Cheung, Wing-Shan; Ho, Samuel M Y


    Many Chinese words are pictographic in nature and Chinese people often tend to use metaphorical expressions to communicate emotional feelings. The assessment of death images and metaphors provides a meaningful way of understanding personal perceptions of death among the Chinese. The purpose of this study was to establish an instrument to assess the death metaphors of Hong Kong Chinese for assessment and empirical research. Thirty death metaphor statements in Chinese were created from items of the Revised Death Fantasy Scale (RDFS; J. McLennan & C. A. Stewart, 1997) and a previous pilot study in Hong Kong (S. M. Y. Ho, 2001). The item pool was administered to 100 undergraduates together with the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale. Seven out of the 10 highest scored death metaphor statements were from the items that had been created for this study. Descriptive statistics of individual items suggested an interpersonal dimension of death perception that is not emphasized in Western literature. Factor analysis generated a 18-item Death Metaphors Scale (DMS) with 2 9-item subscales: the Positive Metaphors (f = .85) and the Negative Metaphors (f = .81). The scores of DMS subscales are significantly correlated with the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale but not with corresponding scores of the RDFS. The DMS was considered a potentially useful instrument to study death metaphors among Chinese.

  1. Application of Emotional Problems Factor of Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory Ⅱ in Anxiety Disorders Patients%中国人个性-情感量表在焦虑障碍患者中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹素霞; 李恒芬; 张勇; 李幼辉


    目的:评估中国人个性量表之情感量表(Emotional Problems Factor ofChinese Personality Assessment Invento-ry 2,CPAI2-E)在焦虑障碍患者中的适用性. 方法:以144例焦虑障碍患者和144名健康对照为样本进行信度、效度评定. 结果:①通过探索性因素分析6个CPAI2-E因子分别得到2~4个子因子层面,条目负荷在0.4134~0.779之间.实证效度具有较好的区分能力.②总量表内部一致性系数(Cronbach's α)为0.948,各因子在0.755~0.896之间.重测信度检测发现,CPAI2-E量表为0.718,各因子在0.496~0.730. 结论:中国人个性量表之情感量表(CPAI2-E)在焦虑障碍患者中有较好的适用性.

  2. A Vectorial Semantics Approach to Personality Assessment (United States)

    Neuman, Yair; Cohen, Yochai


    Personality assessment and, specifically, the assessment of personality disorders have traditionally been indifferent to computational models. Computational personality is a new field that involves the automatic classification of individuals' personality traits that can be compared against gold-standard labels. In this context, we introduce a new vectorial semantics approach to personality assessment, which involves the construction of vectors representing personality dimensions and disorders, and the automatic measurements of the similarity between these vectors and texts written by human subjects. We evaluated our approach by using a corpus of 2468 essays written by students who were also assessed through the five-factor personality model. To validate our approach, we measured the similarity between the essays and the personality vectors to produce personality disorder scores. These scores and their correspondence with the subjects' classification of the five personality factors reproduce patterns well-documented in the psychological literature. In addition, we show that, based on the personality vectors, we can predict each of the five personality factors with high accuracy.

  3. A vectorial semantics approach to personality assessment. (United States)

    Neuman, Yair; Cohen, Yochai


    Personality assessment and, specifically, the assessment of personality disorders have traditionally been indifferent to computational models. Computational personality is a new field that involves the automatic classification of individuals' personality traits that can be compared against gold-standard labels. In this context, we introduce a new vectorial semantics approach to personality assessment, which involves the construction of vectors representing personality dimensions and disorders, and the automatic measurements of the similarity between these vectors and texts written by human subjects. We evaluated our approach by using a corpus of 2468 essays written by students who were also assessed through the five-factor personality model. To validate our approach, we measured the similarity between the essays and the personality vectors to produce personality disorder scores. These scores and their correspondence with the subjects' classification of the five personality factors reproduce patterns well-documented in the psychological literature. In addition, we show that, based on the personality vectors, we can predict each of the five personality factors with high accuracy.

  4. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia

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    Young DKW


    Full Text Available Daniel KW Young,1 Timothy CY Kwok,2 Petrus YN Ng1 1Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Purpose: Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results: At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59% of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48 to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18, which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05, while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion: This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. Keywords: support group, mild dementia, Chinese, depression

  5. Personality in speech assessment and automatic classification

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    Polzehl, Tim


    This work combines interdisciplinary knowledge and experience from research fields of psychology, linguistics, audio-processing, machine learning, and computer science. The work systematically explores a novel research topic devoted to automated modeling of personality expression from speech. For this aim, it introduces a novel personality assessment questionnaire and presents the results of extensive labeling sessions to annotate the speech data with personality assessments. It provides estimates of the Big 5 personality traits, i.e. openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Based on a database built on the questionnaire, the book presents models to tell apart different personality types or classes from speech automatically.

  6. Efficient SVM-based Recognition of Chinese Personal Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ying(宇缨); Wang Xiaolong; Liu Bingquan; Wang Hui


    This paper provides a flexible and efficient method to identify Chinese personal names based on SVM (Support Vector Machines). In its approach, forming rules of personal name is employed to select candidate set, then SVM based identification strategies is used to recognize real personal name in the candidate set. Basic semanteme of word in context and frequency information of word inside candidate are selected as features in its methodology, which reduce the feature space scale dramatically and calculate more efficiently. Results of open testing achieved F-measure 90.59% in 2 million words news and F-measure 86.67% in 16.17 million words news based on this project.

  7. Automatic personality assessment through social media language. (United States)

    Park, Gregory; Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P


    Language use is a psychologically rich, stable individual difference with well-established correlations to personality. We describe a method for assessing personality using an open-vocabulary analysis of language from social media. We compiled the written language from 66,732 Facebook users and their questionnaire-based self-reported Big Five personality traits, and then we built a predictive model of personality based on their language. We used this model to predict the 5 personality factors in a separate sample of 4,824 Facebook users, examining (a) convergence with self-reports of personality at the domain- and facet-level; (b) discriminant validity between predictions of distinct traits; (c) agreement with informant reports of personality; (d) patterns of correlations with external criteria (e.g., number of friends, political attitudes, impulsiveness); and (e) test-retest reliability over 6-month intervals. Results indicated that language-based assessments can constitute valid personality measures: they agreed with self-reports and informant reports of personality, added incremental validity over informant reports, adequately discriminated between traits, exhibited patterns of correlations with external criteria similar to those found with self-reported personality, and were stable over 6-month intervals. Analysis of predictive language can provide rich portraits of the mental life associated with traits. This approach can complement and extend traditional methods, providing researchers with an additional measure that can quickly and cheaply assess large groups of participants with minimal burden.

  8. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  9. Personality Assessment Use by Clinical Neuropsychologists (United States)

    Smith, Steven R.; Gorske, Tad T.; Wiggins, Chauntel; Little, Jessica A.


    The present study is an exploration of the personality assessment practices of clinical neuropsychologists. Professional members of the National Academy of Neuropsychology and the International Neuropsychological Society (N = 404) were surveyed to examine use of several forms of personality, behavior, and emotional function measures. Results…

  10. Predicting personality disorder functioning styles by the Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality: a preliminary trial in healthy people and personality disorder patients


    Fan, Hongying; Zhu, Qisha; Ma, Guorong; Shen, Chanchan; Zhang, Bingren; Wang, Wei


    Background Cultural and personality factors might contribute to the clinical differences of psychiatric patients all over the world including China. One cultural oriented Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality (CADP) designed to measure normal personality traits, might be specifically associated with different personality disorder functioning styles. Methods We therefore have invited 201 healthy volunteers and 67 personality disorder patients to undergo CADP, the Parker Personality Meas...

  11. Assessment of DSM-5 Personality Disorder. (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A


    The purpose of this article is to present an approach to defining, identifying, and assessing personality disorders, including the links between these definitions and personality assessment, with a particular reference to the proposed revisions to the personality disorders section of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). The article discusses measures of maladaptive variants of the Five-factor model (FFM) that are coordinated with both the traditional personality disorder syndromes as well as the DSM-5 dimensional trait model. Discussed as well is the assessment of the more psychodynamically oriented deficits in sense of self and interpersonal relatedness that are also included within the hybrid model proposed for DSM-5.

  12. Personality, Assessment Methods and Academic Performance (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas


    This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…

  13. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits. (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao


    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder.

  14. Influence of Personality on SLA--A Qualitative Case Study of ESL Chinese Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This study aims to examine the influence of personality on second language learning. The whole study was based on the researcher’s regular interviews with two ESL Chinese students and the observation of their performance during their first se-mester. Additional data was collected via a simplified Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and interviews with their teachers and a native speaker of English. Overall English proficiency was assessed using two Institutional TOEFL tests and their current GPA during their ESL studies. A positive relationship was found between extraversion and spoken English while a slight but passive correlation emerged between extraversion and overall English achievement.

  15. Personality Traits Characterized by Adjectives in a Famous Chinese Novel of the 18th Century

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    Junpeng Zhu


    Full Text Available The personality-descriptive adjectives used in a famous Chinese novel of the 18th century, A Dream of Red Mansions, which is thought to broadly reflect Chinese culture, might help depict personality structure. Four hundred ninety-three personality-descriptive adjectives from the first 80 chapters of the novel were administered to 732 Chinese university students. After factor analyses, the one- to seven-factor solutions were extracted, and the five-factor one was relatively clearer. The five factors of personality titled Wicked, Intelligent, Amiable, Conscientious, and Frank, were intercorrelated. Men scored higher on Wicked and Conscientious but lower on Amiable compared with women. As a preliminary trial, our study demonstrates that personality-descriptive adjectives in a famous Chinese novel characterize the personality structure.

  16. The Chinese version of the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP): validity and reliability. (United States)

    Tianmei, Si; Liang, Shu; Yun'ai, Su; Chenghua, Tian; Jun, Yan; Jia, Cheng; Xueni, Li; Qi, Liu; Yantao, Ma; Weihua, Zhang; Hongyan, Zhang


    The Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP) is a 100-point single-item rating scale that assesses four important domains of patients with mental disorders. This study was designed to examine the validity and reliability of a Chinese version of the PSP. The study was conducted in a sample of 157 patients with schizophrenia (confirmed by DSM-IV-TR criteria, SCID-P interview). The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.84) and the inter-rater reliability (kappa value=0.82, ICC=0.94 for PSP total score) was good. The test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.95). The scale showed good construct validity with statistically significant correlations with the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) (ICC of 0.95). The PSP score had a good negative correlation with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score. The improvement in PSP after 8 weeks of treatment was significantly correlated with the reduction in PANSS: after 8 weeks of treatment, the responders (defined as those with a reduction in PANSS total score ≥50%) experienced a greater improvement in PSP than the non-responders. The Chinese version of the PSP is a convenient and valid instrument to assess the personal and social functions of stabilized and acute patients with schizophrenia.

  17. A Contrastive Study of Personal Reference between Chinese and English and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper aims to make a contrast of personal reference between Chinese and English and apply the contrastive study to Second Language(L2)teaching and learning and English-Chinese translation.Both Chinese and English have certain expressions serving as personal reference so as to achieve unity and coherence of a text.In spite of the similarity,there are differences in grammatical devices of personal reference between the two languages.Generally speaking,compared with English,there are two main differences in Chinese:A:Native Chinese speakers are prone to omit the subject and possessive determiners.B:Native Chinese speakers usually employ the device of lexical repetition to achieve the unity and coherence of a text.Both the differences will cause difficulties in L2 learning and translation.

  18. Inpatient Therapeutic Assessment With Narcissistic Personality Disorder. (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jon


    Growing evidence supporting the effectiveness of Collaborative/Therapeutic Assessment (C/TA) has led clinicians and researchers to apply C/TA to a variety of clinical populations and treatment settings. This case example presents a C/TA inpatient adaptation illustrated with narcissistic personality disorder. After a brief overview of salient concepts, I provide a detailed account of the clinical interview, test interpretation paired with diagnostic considerations specific to narcissism, planned intervention, and discussion of assessment results. Throughout the case study, I attempt to demonstrate defining features of C/TA, inpatient adaptations, and clinical techniques that encourage meaningful engagement with a "hard to reach" personality.

  19. Hardiness and the Big Five Personality Traits among Chinese University Students (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang


    This study examines the construct of hardiness with the Big Five personality traits among 362 Chinese university students. Participants in the study responded to the Dispositional Hardiness Scale (Bartone, Ursano, Wright, & Ingraham, 1989) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Results indicate that personality traits…

  20. Effects of big-five personality traits on the quality of relationship and satisfaction in Chinese coach-athlete dyads. (United States)

    Yang, S X; Jowett, S; Chan, D K C


    The present study examined the influence of personality traits on the quality of the Chinese coach-athlete relationship and satisfaction through a dyadic research design. A total of 350 coach-athlete dyads completed a self-report instrument that assessed personality traits, as well as perceptions of relationship quality and satisfaction with training. Results revealed that: (a) actor effects (i.e., actor's personality will predict his or her own perceptions of relationship quality) of personality traits, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on both coaches' and athletes' perceptions of relationship quality and (b) partner effects (an actor's own personality will predict his or her partner's perceptions of relationship quality) of only athletes' personality, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on their coaches' perceptions of relationship quality. The findings suggested that each relationship member's personality trait contributed independently to relationship quality, and both actor and partner effects of the relationship quality on satisfaction with training were found to be significant. In Chinese sports culture, there presents a unique dynamics of personality and relationship quality among coach-athlete dyad.

  1. Family and personal protective factors moderate the effects of adversity and negative disposition on smoking among Chinese adolescents. (United States)

    Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Chang, Megan Chia-Chen; Gallaher, Peggy; Pang, Zengchang; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer


    Tobacco use among Chinese adolescents is increasing at approximately 80,000 new smokers per day. Assessing the causes for initiating tobacco use in China will be important in developing effective interventions and policies to stem rising prevalence rates. This study tested predictors of Resilience Theory in a sample of 602 Chinese adolescents. Results revealed that prior adversity, measured through school and family-related events, was significantly associated with increased smoking in females. Family factors (i.e., family cohesion, family adaptability, parental monitoring) and one personal factor (i.e., academic score) were associated with lower odds for smoking due to prior adversity and negative disposition.

  2. Differences of Confucianism and Individualism on the Development of Chinese and American Personalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Different personalities are shaped by different cultures.Chinese Confucianism and American Individualism took totally different developing routes.Understanding and contemplating their differences in personality can greatly enhance inter-cultural communication between these two countries.Based on the present researches and studies,this paper discusses the differences and current situation of Chinese and American personalities.Relevant suggestions are initiated aiming at learning from each other’s strong points and bridging the gap as to enhance the development of healthy personality and harmonious world.

  3. Association between Cognitive Distortion, Type D Personality, Family Environment, and Depression in Chinese Adolescents


    Yong Zhang; Hengfen Li; Shaohong Zou


    Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the con...

  4. Chinese Strategic Art: A Cultural Framework for Assessing Chinese Strategy (United States)


    between a Chinese Taijiquan master and a Western mixed- martial arts opponent.111 111...Taijiquan—which translates as supreme ultimate fist—is a style of martial arts that emphasizes softness to overcome hardness, and focuses on instead of external, physical force. There is no equivalent to Taiji in Western pugilistic systems. Mixed- martial arts , is a pugilistic sport

  5. Hardiness and the Big Five Personality Traits among Chinese University Students (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang


    This study examines the construct of hardiness with the Big Five personality traits among 362 Chinese university students. Participants in the study responded to the Dispositional Hardiness Scale (Bartone, Ursano, Wright, & Ingraham, 1989) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Results indicate that personality…

  6. American and Chinese Children's Evaluations of Personal Domain Events and Resistance to Parental Authority (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Wong, Mun; Ball, Courtney; Yau, Jenny


    A total of 267 five-, seven-, and ten-year-olds (M = 7.62), 147 in Hong Kong and 120 in the United States, evaluated hypothetical personal (and moral) events described as either essential or peripheral to actors' identity. Except for young Chinese in the peripheral condition, straightforward personal events were overwhelmingly evaluated as…

  7. Do Reincarnation Beliefs Protect Older Adult Chinese Buddhists against Personal Death Anxiety? (United States)

    Hui, Victoria Ka-Ying; Coleman, Peter G.


    The aim of this exploratory survey study was to develop and validate a Buddhist reincarnation beliefs scale and explore the relation between Buddhist reincarnation beliefs and personal death anxiety in 141 older adult Hong Kong Chinese Buddhists. Buddhist reincarnation beliefs were unrelated to personal death anxiety. This suggests that not all…

  8. American and Chinese children's evaluations of personal domain events and resistance to parental authority. (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Wong, Mun; Ball, Courtney; Yau, Jenny


    A total of 267 five-, seven-, and ten-year-olds (M = 7.62), 147 in Hong Kong and 120 in the United States, evaluated hypothetical personal (and moral) events described as either essential or peripheral to actors' identity. Except for young Chinese in the peripheral condition, straightforward personal events were overwhelmingly evaluated as acceptable based on personal justifications. Children primarily endorsed compliance, but attributed negative emotions to actors when mothers forbade personal choices, especially when described as essential to identity. Conventional justifications declined among Chinese children and pragmatic justifications for these judgments increased with age for all children, as did judgments that personal events were up to the child. Rules were seen as more legitimate and events were seen as more up to mothers to decide for moral than personal events.

  9. A sustainability assessment system for Chinese iron and steel firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Yunguang; Pan, Jieyi; Farooq, Sami;


    The environmental impact of the Chinese iron and steel industry is huge due to its high consumption of ore, coal and energy, and water and air pollution. It is important not only for China but also for the rest of the world that the Chinese iron and steel industry becomes more sustainable....... A sustainable assessment indicator system is an important tool to support that development. Currently, however, a sustainable assessment system, specifically designed to match the characteristics of Chinese iron and steel firms, is not available. In this paper such a system is proposed and evaluated using data...... from financial and sustainability reports of four leading Chinese iron and steel firms. The proposed sustainable assessment system is envisaged to help Chinese iron and steel firms to objectively investigate their sustainability performance, provide clear and effective information to decision makers...

  10. Microbiological risk assessment for personal care products. (United States)

    Stewart, S E; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; Pitt, T L


    Regulatory decisions regarding microbiological safety of cosmetics and personal care products are primarily hazard-based, where the presence of a potential pathogen determines decision-making. This contrasts with the Food industry where it is a commonplace to use a risk-based approach for ensuring microbiological safety. A risk-based approach allows consideration of the degree of exposure to assess unacceptable health risks. As there can be a number of advantages in using a risk-based approach to safety, this study explores the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) four-step Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) framework frequently used in the Food industry and examines how it can be applied to the safety assessment of personal care products. The hazard identification and hazard characterization steps (one and two) of the Codex MRA framework consider the main microorganisms of concern. These are addressed by reviewing the current industry guidelines for objectionable organisms and analysing reports of contaminated products notified by government agencies over a recent 5-year period, together with examples of reported outbreaks. Data related to estimation of exposure (step three) are discussed, and examples of possible calculations and references are included. The fourth step, performed by the risk assessor (risk characterization), is specific to each assessment and brings together the information from the first three steps to assess the risk. Although there are very few documented uses of the MRA approach for personal care products, this study illustrates that it is a practicable and sound approach for producing products that are safe by design. It can be helpful in the context of designing products and processes going to market and with setting of microbiological specifications. Additionally, it can be applied reactively to facilitate decision-making when contaminated products are released on to the marketplace. Currently, the knowledge available may only allow a

  11. Association between Cognitive Distortion, Type D Personality, Family Environment, and Depression in Chinese Adolescents. (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Hengfen; Zou, Shaohong


    Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the controls were investigated cross-sectionally with life orientation test-revised (LOT-R), type D personality Scale-14 (DS14), family environment scale (FES), and Zung self-depression scale (SDS); respectively, all scales were administered in Chinese. Results. Chinese-depressed adolescents showed more cognitive distortion, type D personality, and adverse family environment than control groups. Furthermore, lower level of Optimism, negative affectivity, and poor family cohesion may increase the risk of depression in Chinese adolescents. Conclusions. Our study indicates that lower level of Optimism, Negative Affectivity, and poor Family Cohesion factors were implicated to contribute to depression in Chinese adolescents. Lower level of optimism and negative affectivity may be crucial associated factors of depression among these samples. our findings pointed to the importance of broad screening and intervention of vulnerable population.

  12. Chinese life cycle impact assessment factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jianxin; Nielsen, Per Henning


    The methodological basis and procedures for determination of Chinese normalization references and weighting factors according to the EDIP-method is described. According to Chinese industrial development intensity and population density, China was divided into three regions and the normalization r...

  13. Teaching Strategies for Personality Assessment at the Undergraduate Level. (United States)

    Roche, Michael J; Jacobson, Nicholas C; Roche, Carley A


    Personality assessment is a crucial component of clinical practice, and the training and proficiency criteria to develop competence are complex and multifaceted. Like many advanced topics, the field of personality assessment would benefit from early exposure in undergraduate classroom settings. This research evaluates how an undergraduate personality course can be enhanced through 2 enrichment activities (self-assessments and a personality project). Students completed several self-assessments of their personality and wrote a comprehensive and integrative personality assessment about themselves. Results demonstrated that these activities increased interest in personality assessment, deepened understanding of course material, and promoted student growth and self-exploration. We discuss the benefits of these enrichment activities for the student, instructor, and field of personality science.

  14. Theoretical foundations of personality assessment in clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik


    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes an important role of personality assessment in clinical psychology, leading theoretical and methodological perspectives, as well as the need for integrating different concepts and methods in personality assessment. Personality assessment in clinical psychology represents methodological frame for better understanding and treatment of psychological (mental disorders. Two principles for personality assessment prevail: one is based on psychological concepts of personality and statistical methodology, and the other relies on findings from clinical practice (clinical psychology, psychiatry and related fields. Since we do not yet have a generally accepted paradigm of personality assessment, clinical psychology needs unified concepts and methodology for personality assessment. Several authors have attempted to integrate and unify psychological concepts and methodology of assessment in the last decade. This is the path to development of clinical psychology and psychological science in general.

  15. Personality correlates of reporting Chinese words from the Deutsch “high-low” word illusion by Chinese-speaking people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Xu; Junpeng Zhu; Wanzhen Chen; Hao Chai; Wei He; Wei Wang


    [Objective] When English-speaking people listen to the Deutseh “high-low” word illusion,they report hearing English words.Whether Chinese-speaking people report Chinese words when listening to the illusion,or whether any reported words might be correlated with personality traits as previous investigations have demonstrated for listening to music in other cultures,is open to question.The present study aimed to address this.[Methods] A total of 308 right-handed,healthy volunteers (177 women and 131 men) were given the illusion test and asked to answer the Zuckerman-Kuhlman personality questionnaire (ZKPQ).Their depressive tendency was measured by the Plutchik-van Praag depression inventory (PVP).[Results] There was no gender effect regarding either the PVP score or the number of reported Chinese words from the illusion.Women scored higher on ZKPQ neuroticism-anxiety than men.The number of meaningful Chinese words reported was correlated with the ZKPQ impulsive sensation-seeking,aggression-hostility,and activity scores.Some words reported by participants who scored higher on these three traits were related in meaning to those scales.[[Conclusion

  16. Chinese life cycle impact assessment factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The methodological basis and procedures for determination ofChinese normalization references and weighting factors according to the EDIP-method is described. According to Chinese industrial development intensity and population density, China was divided into three regions and the normalization references for each region were calculated on the basis of an inventory of all of the region's environmental emissions in 1990. The normalization reference was determined as the total environmental impact potential for the area in question in 1990(EP(j)90) divided by the population. The weighting factor was determined as the normalization reference (ER(j)90) divided by society's target contribution in the year 2000 based on Chinese political reduction plans, ER(j)T2000.). This paper peessents and discuss resubts obtained for eight different environmental impact categories relevant for China:global warming,hazardous waste and slag and ashes.

  17. Using Self-Assessment for Personal Fitness Evaluation (United States)

    Morgan, Charles F.; Beighle, Aaron; Pangrazi, Robert P.; Pangrazi, Debra


    Assessment and evaluation of children's physical fitness should be an educational process. This process is described as the "personalized self-testing" approach. This approach is a form of self-assessment that teaches children to assess their personal level of health-related physical fitness, interpret the results, and use the information (with…

  18. Academic Performance and Personality Traits of Chinese Children: "Onlies" versus Others. (United States)

    Poston, Dudley L., Jr.; Falbo, Toni


    Using data from a 1987 survey of 1,460 schoolchildren, their parents and teachers, in urban and rural areas of Changchun, China, examines academic and personality outcomes in only children. Finds results similar to Western surveys: only children are more likely to be academically talented. Reveals, however, Chinese rural only children do not score…

  19. Assessment of Problem Gambling in a Chinese Context: The Chinese G-MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek


    Full Text Available There is a severe lack of instruments to assess problem gambling in Chinese people. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Maroondah Assessment Profile for Problem Gambling (Chinese G-MAP, based on the responses of eight problem gamblers and 125 pathological gamblers seeking help from a problem gambling treatment center. Reliability analyses showed that the G-MAP and its related domains and scales were generally internally consistent. There are also several lines of evidence suggesting that the Chinese G-MAP and the various domains are valid: (a the various G-MAP domain and scale measures were significantly correlated among themselves, (b the G-MAP measures were significantly correlated with pathological gambling behavior assessed by the 4th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, and (c the G-MAP total scale and domain measures were able to discriminate problem gamblers and pathological gamblers. The present study suggests that the Chinese G-MAP possesses acceptable psychometric properties that can be used in research and practice settings.

  20. Guidelines for Assessment of and Intervention With Persons With Disabilities (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012


    The goal of these "Guidelines for Assessment of and Intervention With Persons With Disabilities" is to help psychologists conceptualize and implement more effective, fair, and ethical psychological assessments and interventions with persons with disabilities. The guidelines provide suggestions on ways psychologists can make their practices more…

  1. Visual Acuity Assessment in Persons with Dementia. Research Report (United States)

    Morse, Alan R.; Teresi, Jeanne; Rosenthal, Bruce; Holmes, Douglas; Yatzkan, Elaine S.


    Most studies of vision in persons with Alzheimer's disease either exclude those with advanced dementia or are unable to assess their vision adequately, and therefore, improperly report these persons' visual acuity status. In this study, visual acuity was assessed using the ETDRS Snellen-type acuity chart and Teller Acuity Cards. The Teller Acuity…

  2. Personality Traits among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E-Shien Chang


    Full Text Available Objectives: Personality traits are important indicators of health and well-being. Neuroticism and conscientiousness in particular, are closely associated with morbidity and mortality in old age. However, little is known regarding the levels of these two key personality traits among U.S. Chinese older adults. This report aimed to examine the levels of personality traits among this population. Methods: Data were from the PINE study, a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 and above. We measured neuroticism and conscientiousness using modified NEO personality inventory. Results: Of the 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults, 58.9% were female, and mean age was 72.8 years. Compared to neuroticism, conscientiousness trait was endorsed higher among Chinese older adults in our sample. Each conscientiousness item had at least 67.8% of participant endorsement, in comparison to the lowest endorsement rate of 14.3% in the neuroticism measure. Younger age (r-neuroticism = -0.06, r-conscientiousness = -0.14 and fewer children (r-neuroticism = -0.06, r-conscientiousness = -0.06 were correlated with both traits. Female gender (r = 0.11, poorer health status (r = -0.26, poorer quality of life (r = -0.23 and worsened health over the past year (r = -0.15 were correlated with higher levels of neuroticism. In contrast, male gender (r = -0.05, better health status (r = 0.20, higher quality of life (r = 0.17 and improved health over the past year (r = 0.07 were correlated with higher levels of conscientiousness. Education level (r = 0.15 was positively correlated with higher levels of conscientiousness, but not with neuroticism; whereas income level (r = -0.04 was negatively correlated with neuroticism but not with conscientiousness. Conclusion: U.S. Chinese older adults generally possess higher agreement level on conscientiousness traits than neuroticism. Future analysis should be conducted to explore the complex associations between

  3. The Study on the Preferences of Customer Personal Values with Chinese Culture Background in Services (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yue

    Customer personal values are the important factors which affect customer behaviors, and they guide and decide the customer's attitudes and behaviors on the products or the services. The paper thinks there are only several important customer personal values to guide customer's decisions, and these values will have -strong cultural differences. This study focuses on discussing the preferences of customer personal values with Chinese culture background when customers consume service and analyzes on the customer preferences of customer personal values with the deep interview method. After interviewing 16 responders with the semi-structured questionnaires, the study finds out some interesting results: (1) Some customers have recognized the existent of customer personal values, even though customer perceived values still have the strong influences on customer behaviors. (2) As they pursue to high quality lives, customers enjoy the lives in easy and pleasure way and care about the safe of the family. Quick response, simple and professional services contribute to enhance the experiences of easy and pleasure lives. (3) Non-rational consumers need the respect from the staff and the companies seriously. In comparison, the rational customers care less about the respect. (4) The sociable requirements have become a common consuming psychology of the customers. More and more customers try to gain the friends by consuming some services. (5) The preferences of customer personal values have a close relationship with the Chinese culture, such as collective values, family conception and "face" culture. The results benefit for service companies improving service brands and service quality.

  4. The General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD) as an Instrument for Assessing the Core Features of Personality Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, H.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Verheul, R.; Larstone, R.; Livesley, J.


    This study presents a psychometric evaluation of the General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD), a self-report questionnaire for assessing the core components of personality dysfunction on the basis of Livesley's (2003) adaptive failure model. Analysis of samples from a general (n = 196) and

  5. Anthropometric Characteristics of Chinese Professional Female Marathoners and Predicted Variables for Their Personal Bests. (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Gang; Wang, Yang; Bao, Da-Peng; Hu, Yang


    To investigate anthropometric characteristics of Chinese professional female marathoners and suitable predicted variables correlated with their personal bests (PB), 96 Chinese female long-distance runners were divided into international (triceps surae skin-folds and PB for total athletes. Negative correlation between biiliac breadth and PB in international athletes, and positive correlations between abdominal and triceps surae skin-folds and PB in national athletes were found. For average runners, high positive correlation was found between upper arm girth and PB, and between subscapular, abdominal, iliac crest and triceps surae skin-folds and PB. The findings suggested that compared to stride length, stride frequency and efficiency were more important factors influencing running performance, which were in accordance with running technique in Chinese female marathoners.

  6. Assessment of Personality Problems among Patients with Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Ingebjørg Aspeland


    Full Text Available AIM – Several studies have shown that personality disorders (PDs are frequently occurring among patients with substance use disorders (SUDs. A development from research of co-occurrence estimates in this patient group investigates personality problems as dimensional constructs, which seek to capture the core of personality pathology. The aim of our study was to explore whether personality problems might be assessed among SUD patients in early stages of treatment. We also sought to investigate personality problem severity among Norwegian adult SUD patients.

  7. Beyond Authoritarian Personality: The Culture-Inclusive Theory of Chinese Authoritarian Orientation. (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Lung


    In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality. Based on Yang's (1993) indigenous conceptualization, Chien (2013) took an emic bottom-up approach to construct an indigenous model of Chinese authoritarian orientation; it represents a "culture-inclusive theory." However, Chien's model lacks the role of agency or intentionality. To resolve this issue and to achieve the epistemological goal of indigenous psychology (that is, "one mind, many mentalities"), this paper took the "cultural system approach" (Hwang, 2015b) to construct a culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation in order to represent the universal mind of human beings as well as the mentalities of people in a particular culture. Two theories that reflect the universal mind, the "Face and Favor model" (Hwang, 1987) and the "Mandala Model of Self" (Hwang, 2011a,c), were used as analytical frameworks for interpreting Chien's original model. The process of constructing the culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation may represent a paradigm for the construction of indigenous culture-inclusive theories while inspiring further development. Some future research directions are proposed herein.


    Zhang, Jieting; Lanza, Stephanie; Zhang, Minqiang; Su, Binyuan


    The University Personality Inventory, a mental health instrument for college students, is frequently used for screening in China. However, its unidimensionality has been questioned. This study examined its dimensions to provide more information about the specific mental problems for students at risk. Four subsamples were randomly created from a sample (N = 6,110; M age = 19.1 yr.) of students at a university in China. Principal component analysis with Promax rotation was applied on the first two subsamples to explore dimension of the inventory. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the third subsample to verify the exploratory dimensions. Finally, the identified factors were compared to the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) to support validity, and sex differences were examined, based on the fourth subsample. Five factors were identified: Physical Symptoms, Cognitive Symptoms, Emotional Vulnerability, Social Avoidance, and Interpersonal Sensitivity, accounting for 60.3% of the variance. All the five factors were significantly correlated with the SCL-90. Women scored significantly higher than men on Cognitive Symptoms and Interpersonal Sensitivity.

  9. Needs Assessment of an Ethnic Chinese Community in Japan


    Li-Mei Chen


    This study is a needs assessment of ethnic Chinese older adults in Japan. The Delphi method was applied to identify the needs addressed by the focus groups. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model guided the examination of the community’s political, economic and social environment in satisfying the needs of older community members. The needs were matched with a city’s Health, Welfare, and Long-term Care Insurance Program Plan seeking to identify differences between ethnic Chinese and Japanese commu...

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Shortened Version of the Zuckerman–Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire in a Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults (United States)

    Wang, Daoyang; Hu, Mingming; Zheng, Chanjin; Liu, Zhengguang


    Introduction: The original 89-item Zuckerman–Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (form III Revised, ZKPQ-III-R) is a widely accepted and used self-report measure for personality traits. This study assessed the reliability and construct validity of the Chinese short 46-item version of the ZKPQ-III-R in a sample of adolescents and young adults. Methodology: A total of 1,019 Chinese adolescents and young adults completed the Chinese version of the original 89-item version ZKPQ-III-R and short 46-item version ZKPQ-III-R, self-report measures of depression, life satisfaction, and subjective health complaints (SHC), the Big Five personality traits, and a substance use risk profile. We explored the internal consistency of five dimensions of the short 46-item version ZKPQ-III-R and compared it with observations in previous studies of Chinese and other populations. The structure of the questionnaire was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Results: The short 46-item version ZKPQ-III-R had adequate internal reliability for all five dimensions, with Cronbach’s α coefficients of 0.63 to 0.84. The concurrent validity of the short 46-item version ZKPQ-III-R was supported by significant correlations with depression, life satisfaction, and SHC. The short 46-item version ZKPQ-III-R had better fit, similar reliability coefficients, and slightly better construct and convergent validity than the 89-item version. Conclusion: The Chinese version of the 46-item ZKPQ-III-R presented reliability and validity in measuring personality in Chinese adolescents and young adults. PMID:28326057

  11. Screening of personality disorders among chinese college students by Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+. (United States)

    Huang, Xiting; Ling, Hui; Yang, Bingjun; Dou, Gang


    Four thousand eight hundred and eleven students were sampled from 26 universities in 21 cities of China and evaluated using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+(PDQ-4+). Results showed that male students obtained significantly higher scores than female students on paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, narcissistic, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorder scales, and lower scores on the borderline scale. Students from rural areas scored higher than those from urban areas on the schizoid, schizotypal, narcissistic, avoidant, compulsive-obsessive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorder scales, and lower on the paranoid and dependent scales. Singleton students obtained significantly higher scores than nonsingletons on paranoid, antisocial and dependent scales, and lower on schizoid, avoidant, compulsive-obsessive, passive-aggressive, depressive scales. Students from single-parent families scored significantly higher on the schizotypal scales; and students from foster families scored significantly higher on the antisocial, passive-aggressive, and depressive scales. Students from poor families scored significantly higher than those from average or wealthy families on schizoid, schizotyal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. The results suggest that low family income, low social status, and parental style contribute to the development of personality disorders.

  12. Chinese undergraduates' preferences for altruistic traits in mate selection and personal advertisement: Evidence from Q-sort technique. (United States)

    Guo, Qingke; Feng, Linlin; Wang, Mingming


    Human's preferences for altruistic mates have been confirmed by many researchers. Under the deep influence of Confucianism that authorised more parental control over offspring's mate selection, Chinese people's mating strategies and mate preferences may be different from what the evolutionary psychologists have suggested. This study used the Q-sort technique to assess the roles of altruistic traits in mate selection and personal advertisement. A total of 200 university students participated in the Q-sort procedures and were asked to sort 50 traits (among which altruistic traits were mixed) according to their importance when choosing (or advertising to) a long-term (LT) or a short-term (ST) mate. Our findings were quite different from prior studies. When Chinese participants chose a mate or advertised themselves to a potential mate, kin altruism was considered to be the most important trait; altruistic traits were more preferred by males than by females and females tended to advertise themselves as more altruistic; preferences for altruistic traits showed no difference between LT and ST mate selections (or between personal advertisement to a LT and a ST mate).

  13. Contributions from personality- and psychodynamically oriented assessment to the development of the DSM-5 personality disorders. (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K


    Advances in personality assessment over the past 20 years have notably influenced the proposed assessment and classification of personality disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]). However, a considerable body of personality assessment and psychodynamically oriented assessment research has significant relevance to the way in which personality disorders are evaluated that appears to have gone unrecognized in the current proposals for DSM-5. In this article, I discuss the ways in which some of these 2 bodies of literature can and should inform the DSM-5 so that the diagnostic nomenclature can be more scientifically and comprehensively informed and consequently improve the clinical utility of a diagnostic system in need of considerable revision.

  14. Development and Validation of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire: Test Manual. (United States)

    Rohner, Ronald P.; And Others

    Data are presented evaluating the validity and reliability of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ), a self-report questionnaire designed to elicit respondents' perceptions of themselves with respect to seven personality and behavioral dispositions: hostility and aggression, dependence, self-esteem, self-adequacy, emotional…

  15. Effects of childhood trauma on personality in a sample of Chinese adolescents. (United States)

    Li, XianBin; Wang, ZhiMin; Hou, YeZhi; Wang, Ying; Liu, JinTong; Wang, ChuanYue


    Childhood trauma is a major public health problem which has an impact on personality development, yet no studies have examined the association between exposure to trauma and personality in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Four hundred eighty-five students completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The CTQ-SF cut-off scores for exposure were used to calculate the prevalence of trauma. The possible associations between specific types of trauma and the EPQ subscale scores were examined. The rates of emotional abuse (EA), physical abuse (PA), sexual abuse (SA), emotional neglect (EN), and physical neglect (PN) were 18.76%, 11.13%, 27.01%, 49.48%, and 68.66%, respectively. Individuals subjected to EA, PA, and SA had significantly higher neuroticism (EPQ-N) and psychoticism (EPQ-P) scores on the EPQ compared with those who had not experienced EA, PA, or SA (all p valueschildhood abuse and neglect. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with personality development in Chinese adolescents.

  16. Assessment of the five-factor model of personality. (United States)

    Widiger, T A; Trull, T J


    The five-factor model (FFM) of personality is obtaining construct validation, recognition, and practical consideration across a broad domain of fields, including clinical psychology, industrial-organizational psychology, and health psychology. As a result, an array of instruments have been developed and existing instruments are being modified to assess the FFM. In this article, we present an overview and critique of five such instruments (the Goldberg Big Five Markers, the revised NEO Personality Inventory, the Interpersonal Adjective Scales-Big Five, the Personality Psychopathology-Five, and the Hogan Personality Inventory), focusing in particular on their representation of the lexical FFM and their practical application.

  17. Associations between empathy and big five personality traits among Chinese undergraduate medical students (United States)

    Song, Yang; Shi, Meng


    Background Empathy promotes positive physician-patient communication and is associated with improved patient satisfaction, treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. It has been suggested that personality traits should be taken into consideration in programs designed to enhance empathy in medical education due to the association found between personality and empathy among medical students. However, the associations between empathy and big five personality traits in medical education are still underrepresented in the existing literature and relevant studies have not been conducted among medical students in China, where tensions in the physician-patient relationship have been reported as outstanding problems in the context of China’s current medical reform. Thus, the main objective of this study was to examine the associations between empathy and big five personality traits among Chinese medical students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical university in Northeast China in June 2016. Self-reported questionnaires including the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and Big Five Inventory (BFI) and demographic characteristics were distributed. A total of 530 clinical medical students became our final subjects. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of big five personality traits on empathy. Results Results of this study showed that big five personality traits accounted for 19.4%, 18.1%, 30.2% of the variance in three dimensions of empathy, namely, perspective taking, empathic concern and personal distress, respectively. Specifically, agreeableness had a strong positive association with empathic concern (β = 0.477, PNeuroticism was strongly associated with personal distress (β = 0.526, P<0.01) and modestly associated with perspective taking (β = 0.149, P<0.01). Openness to experience had modest associations with perspective taking (β = 0.150, P<0.01) and personal distress (β = -0.160, P<0.01). Conscientiousness

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of Personal Exposure Assessment Using a Computer Simulated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Jensen, H. K.


    The paper considers uncertainties related to personal exposure assessment using a computer simulated person. CFD is used to simulate a uniform flow field around a human being to determine the personal exposure to a contaminant source. For various vertical locations of a point contaminant source t...... is found to be significantly sensitive to choice of model geometry, details of computer simulated person and velocity level. Modelling uncertainty and sensitivity should always be evaluated and reported.......The paper considers uncertainties related to personal exposure assessment using a computer simulated person. CFD is used to simulate a uniform flow field around a human being to determine the personal exposure to a contaminant source. For various vertical locations of a point contaminant source...... three additional factors are varied, namely the velocity, details of the computer simulated person, and the CFD model of the wind channel. The personal exposure is found to be highly dependent on the relative source location. Variation in the range of two orders of magnitude is found. The exposure...

  19. Personality assessment and feedback (PAF): strategies and preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats; Pedersen, Mads Kjær


    anxiety or depression, drug and alcohol dependence, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and current level of functioning. The axis II disorder includes a semi-structured interview for personality disorders. Outcomes include global functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale), substance use......, and antisocial personality disorder is particularly common. However, clinical strategies must vary strongly across disorders. Objectives: To test the clinical effectiveness of a full personality disorder assessment and individual feedback to patient and caseworker, against screening for axis I disorders alone......Background: Co-morbid personality disorders are common in substance dependent patients, and personality disorders are associated with worse clinical outcomes, worse retention and compliance, and alliance problems. The whole range of personality disorders is present in substance dependent patients...

  20. Offline Chinese handwriting recognition :an assessment of current technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sargur N.Srihari; Xuanshen Yang; Gregory R.Ball


    Offline Chinese handwriting recognition (OCHR)is a typically difficult pattern recognition problem.Many authors have presented various approaches to recognizing its different aspects.We present a survey and an assessment of relevant papers appearing in recent publications of relevant conferences and journals,including those appearing in ICDAR,SDIUT,IWFHR,ICPR,PAMI,PR,PRL,SPIE-DRR,and IJDAR.The methods are assessed in the sense that we document their technical approaches,strengths,and weaknesses,as well as the data sets on which they were reportedly tested and on which results were generated.We also identify a list of technology gaps with respect to Chinese handwriting recognition and identify technical approaches that show promise in these areas as well as identify the leading researchers for the applicable topics,discussing difficulties associated with any given approach.

  1. Assessing Ontario's Personal Support Worker Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Laporte


    Full Text Available In response to the growing role of personal support workers (PSWs in the delivery of health care services to Ontarians, the Ontario government has moved forward with the creation of a PSW registry. This registry will be mandatory for all PSWs employed by publicly funded health care employers, and has the stated objectives of better highlighting the work that PSWs do in Ontario, providing a platform for PSWs and employers to more easily access the labour market, and to provide government with information for human resources planning. In this paper we consider the factors that brought the creation of a PSW registry onto the Ontario government’s policy agenda, discuss how the registry is being implemented, and provide an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of this policy change.

  2. School-Based Extracurricular Activities, Personality, Self-Concept, and College Career Development Skills in Chinese Society (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Huang, Ying; Chang, Frances; Chang, Chuan-Feng; Yeh, Lun-Chang


    In the present study, we examined in Chinese society the association of school-based extracurricular activities (SBEAs) in both high school and college with students' career development skills in college, as well as with various personality characteristics and self-concept. Each of 281 college students administered the Lai Personality Inventory,…

  3. American and Chinese Children's Evaluations of Personal Domain Events and Resistance to Parental Authority (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Wong, Mun; Ball, Courtney; Yau, Jenny


    A total of 267 five-, seven-, and ten-year-olds (M = 7.62), 147 in Hong Kong and 120 in the United States, evaluated hypothetical personal (and moral) events described as either essential or peripheral to actors' identity. Except for young Chinese in the peripheral condition, straightforward personal events were overwhelmingly evaluated as…

  4. Beyond Authoritarian Personality: The Culture-Inclusive Theory of Chinese Authoritarian Orientation (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Lung


    In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality. Based on Yang's (1993) indigenous conceptualization, Chien (2013) took an emic bottom-up approach to construct an indigenous model of Chinese authoritarian orientation; it represents a “culture-inclusive theory.” However, Chien's model lacks the role of agency or intentionality. To resolve this issue and to achieve the epistemological goal of indigenous psychology (that is, “one mind, many mentalities”), this paper took the “cultural system approach” (Hwang, 2015b) to construct a culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation in order to represent the universal mind of human beings as well as the mentalities of people in a particular culture. Two theories that reflect the universal mind, the “Face and Favor model” (Hwang, 1987) and the “Mandala Model of Self” (Hwang, 2011a,c), were used as analytical frameworks for interpreting Chien's original model. The process of constructing the culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation may represent a paradigm for the construction of indigenous culture-inclusive theories while inspiring further development. Some future research directions are proposed herein. PMID:27445894

  5. Personal dietary assessment using mobile devices (United States)

    Mariappan, Anand; Bosch, Marc; Zhu, Fengqing; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.


    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper we describe further development of a novel dietary assessment system using mobile devices. This system will generate an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. The mobile computing device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces burden on records that are obtained using more classical approaches. Images before and after foods are eaten can be used to estimate the amount of food consumed.

  6. The heritability of Cluster B personality disorders assessed both by personal interview and questionnaire. (United States)

    Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S; Kendler, Kenneth S


    Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for assessing DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder (APD), borderline (BPD), narcissistic (NPD), and histrionic (HPD). We assessed close to 2,800 twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel using a self-report questionnaire and, a few years later, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Items from the self-report questionnaire that best predicted the PDs captured by the interview were then selected. Measurement models combining questionnaire and interview information were applied and were fitted using Mx. Whereas the heritability of Cluster B PDs assessed by interview was around .30, and around .40-.50 when assessed by self-report questionnaire, the heritability of the convergent latent factor, including information from both interview and self-report questionnaire was .69 for APD, .67 for BPD, .71 for NPD, and .63 for HPD. As is usually found for personality, the effect of shared-in families (familial) environment was zero. In conclusion, when both interview and self-report questionnaire are taken into account, the heritability of Cluster B PD appears to be in the upper range of previous findings for mental disorders.

  7. Screening schizotypal personality disorder for detection of clinical high risk of psychosis in Chinese mental health services. (United States)

    Zhang, TianHong; Li, HuiJun; Tang, YingYing; Li, Hui; Zheng, LiNa; Guo, Qian; Zhao, ShanShan; Zhuo, KaiMing; Qian, ZhenYing; Wang, LanLan; Dai, YunFei; Chow, Annabelle; Li, ChunBo; Jiang, KaiDa; Wang, JiJun; Xiao, ZePing


    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is viewed as a marker of prodromal psychosis. However, information regarding genetic risk (e.g. SPD) is often overlooked in the identification process. This study assessed whether SPD screening questionnaire help the prodromal psychosis (also widely applied "clinical high risk" (CHR) for clinical sample) detection in Chinese mental health service. This work also examined whether SPD had higher frequency in genetic risk population and CHR subjects. Two wave studies concerning the SPD identification was used for analysis. Wave 1 survey: 3075 subjects were assessed by Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for SPD (PDQ-SPD) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II (SCID-II). Wave 2 survey: 2113 subjects screened with the prodromal questionnaire -brief version (PQ-B), PDQ-SPD, and interviewed by Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS). Subjects with family history of mental disorders or with psychosis reported significantly higher scores in SPD. Receiver operating characteristic curves suggested that PDQ-SPD had moderate sensitivity and specificity for identifying CHR subjects. There was significant higher on SPD features in subjects with early stage (Course less than 1 year) of psychosis. Identifying SPD may be useful in early detection of psychosis especially in detecting the genetic risk syndromes and can be integrated with existing prodromal screen tools to improve its efficiency.

  8. Classroom assessment techniques to assess Chinese students’ sense of division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.; Veldhuis, M.


    This paper is about an explorative study of the use of classroom assessment techniques (CATs) by primary school mathematics teachers in China. Six female teachers and 216 third-grade students from two schools in Nanjing were involved. The focus was on assessing whole number arithmetic. Teachers’ use

  9. Geostellar: Remote Solar Energy Assessments Personalized

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Geostellar has produced an online tool that generates a unique solar profile for homeowners to learn about the financial benefits to installing rooftop solar panels on their home. The website incorporates the physical building characteristics of the home, including shading, slope, and orientation of the roof, and applies electricity costs and incentives to determine the best solar energy estimated energy production values against actual installed rooftop photovoltaic systems. The validation conducted by NREL concluded that over three-quarters of Geostellar's potential size estimates are at least as large as the actual installed systems, indicating a correct assessment of roof availability. In addition, 87% of Geostellar's 25-year production estimates are within 90% of the actual PV Watts results.

  10. Social functioning in Chinese college students with and without schizotypal personality traits: an exploratory study of the Chinese version of the First Episode Social Functioning Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The First Episode Social Functioning Scale (FESFS was designed to measure social functioning of young individuals with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to validate a Chinese version of the FESFS in a sample of young Chinese adults. METHOD: The FESFS was translated to Chinese prior to being administered to 1576 college students. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the scale were examined. RESULTS: Two items were deleted after item analysis and the internal consistency of the whole scale was .89. A six-factor structure was derived by exploratory factor analysis. The factors were interpersonal, family and friends, school, living skills, intimacy, and balance. Estimates of the structural equation model supported this structure, with Goodness of Fit Chi-Square χ(2 = 1097.53 (p<0.0001, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.058, and the comparative fit index (CFI = 0.93. Scale validity was supported by significant correlations between social functioning factors scores and schizophrenia personality questionnaire (SPQ scores. Individuals with schizotypal personality features presented poorer social functioning than those without schizotypal personality features. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese revised version of the FESFS was found to have good psychometric properties and could be used in the future to examine social functioning in Chinese college students.

  11. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering. (United States)

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan


    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Carciofo

    Full Text Available The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82, assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44, and .515-.873 (BFI-10. The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism, and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness. Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness, mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness, and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism. Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

  13. Current assessment practice, personality measurement, and rorschach usage by psychologists. (United States)

    Musewicz, John; Marczyk, Geoffrey; Knauss, Linda; York, David


    In this study, we investigated current personality assessment practice and attitudes toward Rorschach (Exner, 2003) usage by 215 psychologists. We administered an Internet survey to members of the Society for Personality Assessment (SPA) and the American Psychological Association. Results were similar to those of past surveys, but the importance of using tests with strong psychometric properties was greater in this study. The majority of respondents reported using the Rorschach and supporting efforts to standardize and psychometrically validate the test. However, SPA members agreed more strongly than non-SPA members that the Rorschach is an effective test. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. AUTltORITY CONTROL REGARDING CHINESE PERSONAL NAMES:Enhancement and Linkage with the Bibliographic Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Authority control is critical for the quality of the bibliographic database. Authority control is important in guiding users from variant forms of headings to the controlled forms of headings and providing users with the related headings. With authority control, the forms of headings in the bibliographic records are consista,t and easy to access. Authority control not only increases the accuracy of searching but also makes retrieving records from the online bibliographic database easier. In the first part of the paper, the author brings out three formats for Chinese personal names in the online environment. Tire second part presents a new model for better authority control regarding Chinese presonal names. In the last part, the author emphasizes the importance of linking the online authority records with the bibliographic database. The quality of the database can be improved dramatically by providing vernacular access capability to the name authorty, records and ensuring that every personal name heading in the bibliographic records have corresponding Library of Congress name authority records。

  15. Analysis on the Shift of Personal Pronoun in the Chinese Language - in Terms of Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Personal pronoun shift is a common phenomenon that by using second or third personal pronoun, the speaker means first personal pronoun;or speaker means second personal pronoun but uses first or third personal pronoun instead. Since the phe⁃nomenon frequently appears in the Chinese language, a great number of linguists have studied the personal pronoun and the inter⁃pretation of their usage. However, the study for the causes of the phenomenon is not so systemic. This paper aims to explain the personal pronoun shift from the perspective of Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle, which can help to discover the rela⁃tionship between Cooperative principle and politeness in the shift of personal pronoun.

  16. Systems biology technologies enable personalized traditional Chinese medicine: a systematic review. (United States)

    Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Ping


    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an alternative medicine, focuses on the treatment of human disease via the integrity of the close relationship between body and syndrome analysis. It remains a form of primary care in most Asian countries and its characteristics showcase the great advantages of personalized medicine. Although this approach to disease diagnosis, prognosis and treatment has served the medical establishment well for thousands of years, it has serious shortcomings in the era of modern medicine that stem from its reliance on reductionist principles of experimentation and analysis. In this way, systems biology offers the potential to personalize medicine, facilitating the provision of the right care to the right patient at the right time. We expect that systems biology will have a major impact on future personalized therapeutic approaches which herald the future of medicine. Here we summarize current trends and critically review the potential limitations and future prospects of such treatments. Some characteristic examples are presented to highlight the application of this groundbreaking platform to personalized TCM as well as some of the necessary milestones for moving systems biology of a state-of-the-art nature into mainstream health care.

  17. The role of personal values in Chinese consumers' food consumption decisions. A case study of healthy drinks. (United States)

    Lee, Pui Yee; Lusk, Karen; Mirosa, Miranda; Oey, Indrawati


    Differences in culture, language, and behavior between Chinese and Western consumers make entering the Chinese market a challenge. Chinese consumers may desire similar product features (e.g. brand name, quality, and flavor) to Western consumers but the value that consumers attach to the same product may differ cross-nationally. Besides values, an understanding of desired product attributes and the consequences linking to these values is also important. To the authors' knowledge, there is no published scientific research that investigates how personal values influence Chinese consumers' food consumption decisions. The aim of this research was to identify the links among product attributes, consequences of these attributes, and personal values associated with healthy drink consumption decisions within the Chinese market. Specifically, this research employed means-end chain theory and used association pattern technique (APT) as the main data collection technique to identify these links. Focus groups (n=6) were held in Hangzhou, China to identify the important attributes and consequences involved in the consumption decisions of healthy drinks. These attributes and consequences along with Schwartz's 10 basic values were used to construct the matrices included in the APT survey. A total of 600 APT surveys were administered in six different companies in Hangzhou, with 570 returned. Construction of the hierarchical value map (HVM) identified four of Schwartz's personal values influencing Chinese consumers' healthy drink consumption decisions: security, hedonism, benevolence, and self-direction. Food safety was the foremost concern for Chinese consumers when choosing healthy drinks. Chinese consumers also sought a good tasting and nutritious drink that was good value for money. Results from this study provide food marketers with an in-depth understanding of Chinese consumers' healthy drink consumption decisions. Implications and recommendations are provided that will assist

  18. Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.


    Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan by S. Nour [abstract] This paper discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for competence building and financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. We find that Chinese

  19. Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: preliminary validation studies. (United States)

    Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P


    In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.

  20. Normative data for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status in elderly Chinese. (United States)

    Collinson, Simon Lowes; Fang, Sam Hui; Lim, May-Li; Feng, Lei; Ng, Tze-Pin


    Asia will experience a surge in dementia prevalence within the next 20-40 years, but there is a dearth of well-normed neuropsychological tests that could assist with dementia diagnosis. Here, we report normative data for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in Elderly ethnic Chinese Singaporeans aged 55-91 years of age. A total of 1,165 male and female community-dwelling, cognitively normal elderly Chinese persons in Singapore, with varying levels of education and range of languages, were tested with the RBANS version A. The effects of age, education, language and gender on RBANS performance were examined. Negative effects of increased age and positive effects of education on the RBANS subtests, Index and Total Scale scores were found suggesting differential associations between age-related cognitive decline and education that vary according to the specific cognitive ability measured. The findings indicate that unique cultural and educational profile of elderly Chinese should be considered when applying the RBANS in this population.

  1. Personality assessment and behavioral prediction at first impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vartanian, O.; Stewart, K.; Mandel, D.R.; Pavlovic, N.; McLellan, L.; Taylor, P.J.


    Research has demonstrated high levels of consensus and self-other agreement for extraversion and conscientiousness. However, the mechanisms whereby these assessments contribute to accuracy in behavioral predictions remain unclear. In this study, two judges rated targets on Big Five personality facto

  2. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the Detection of Defensiveness. (United States)

    Cashel, Mary Louise; And Others


    The use of scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) to detect defensiveness in criminal and nonclinical samples was evaluated with 45 male inmates and 38 male undergraduates under standard conditions or under instructions to feign a positive role. Results indicate that the PAI is susceptible to defensive dissimulation. (SLD)

  3. Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) Profiles of Adult Female Abuse Survivors. (United States)

    Cherepon, Joseph Adam; Prinzhorn, Bradford


    Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) profiles of 91 adult female Caucasians were examined to see if significant differences existed between those who reported abuse in childhood or adolescence and those who did not. Significant differences were obtained on several PAI scales and subscales. (SLD)

  4. Pica in Persons with Developmental Disabilities: Characteristics, Diagnosis, and Assessment (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.


    Pica is a very serious and often life threatening problem which occurs largely in persons with developmental disabilities. The topic has received sporadic attention from researchers for several decades. This paper reviews definitions, diagnostic implications, causes, prevalence, and assessment methods that have been described in the research…

  5. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): A New Measure for Assessing Adolescent Personality and Personality Pathology (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna


    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative "DSM"-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347…

  6. A Study of Chinese Commercial Banks’ Credit Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosong Zheng


    Full Text Available It has been a long time that Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs have difficulties in dealing with financial problems. As a result of the imperfect financial environment in China, SMEs cannot find the effective way to obtain the funding, especially from Chinese commercial banks. In practice, the existing credit risk assessment and management policies cannot adapt to the requirements of SMEs, which means that developing new mechanisms and management policies is necessary. Based on the previous studies and the economic realities, this paper analyzes the credit status of commercial banks and sorts out the complex background to make a valuable conclusion. In the section of credit risk assessment mechanisms for SMEs, the author compares three classical models and introduces a parameter selection method which measures the financial and non-financial factors together. Besides the theoretical section, a case of Agricultural Bank of China will be studied and the paper will focus on the credit rating system and explore the innovative service for SMEs.

  7. Portfolios and Assessment of Personal Protective Devices Course Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Negar Assadi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Portfolio assessment is one of the new and most accurate assessment methods. The objective of this study was to examine the introduction of portfolios in the assessment of students’ learning in a personal protective devices course. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental study that was conducted using the curriculum of the Ministry of Health for occupational health students from the school of health in Mashhad from 2013-2015. A personal protective devices course was taught and assessed with a modified essay in group A, a portfolio and a modified essay in group B and some tasks and a modified essay in group C. Each group had 35 students. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for comparison of means between groups; in addition, odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated. Results: The total grades of students in the personal protective devices course were calculated, and in group A the mean score was 18.52±2.68, in group B it was 19.71±0.36 and in group C it was 18.93±1.0 (P=0.035. There were some differences between the three groups. Specific lessons, such as those on ear protectors, respiratory protector calculation and eye protectors were promoted, and the mean grades for these lessons were higher in group B, which used portfolio assessment. Conclusion: According to the results, portfolio assessment might be useful for the evaluation of undergraduate students’ learning in practical aspects of personal protective devices.

  8. Personal and other factors affecting acceptance of smartphone technology by older Chinese adults. (United States)

    Ma, Qi; Chan, Alan H S; Chen, Ke


    It has been well documented that in the 21st century, there will be relatively more older people around the world than in the past. Also, it seems that technology will expand in this era at an unprecedented rate. Therefore, it is of critical importance to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of technology by older people. The positive impact that the use of mobile applications can have for older people was confirmed by a previous study (Plaza et al., 2011). The study reported here aimed to explore and confirm, for older adults in China, the key influential factors of smartphone acceptance, and to describe the personal circumstances of Chinese older adults who use smartphone. A structured questionnaire and face to face individual interviews were used with 120 Chinese older adults (over 55). Structural Equation Modeling was used to confirm a proposed smartphone acceptance model based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The results showed that those who were younger, with higher education, non-widowed, with better economic condition related to salary or family support were more likely to use smartphone. Also, cost was found to be a critical factor influencing behavior intention. Self-satisfaction and facilitating conditions were proved to be important factors influencing perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use.

  9. Development of vocabulary-based Chinese seven factors personality inventory%中国人人格词汇7因素量表的编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇中; 王中杰; 贾黎斋; 赵江涛; 张海涛


    目的 探讨中国人的人格特质和结构,并编制中国人人格特质词汇评定量表.方法 依据中国人人格量表(QZPS)、中国人个性测量表-2(CPAI-2)及中国人5因素人格词汇量表(CPFFI)的小因素命名词汇,编制出包含ii6个项目的人格词汇自评调查量表,通过对1455名被试的自评结果进行探索性因素分析和平行分析.结果 获得7个因素包含52个项目的人格词汇评定量表(VBCP).7个因素累计解释变异量为51.63%,各因素的内部一致性信度在0.663 ~0.912之间,总量表的内部一致性信度为0.800;7个因素重测信度在0.700 ~0.874(P<0.01)之间.结论 外向性和情绪性是跨文化的人格特质内容.该人格因素结构可以包含QZPS、CPAI-2及CPFFI这3个模型的绝大多数人格因素内容,且结构更加清晰.%Objective To explore the structure of Chinese personality based on natural language and to develop a Chinese personality vocabulary data bank.Methods Based on the sub-factors of Chinese personality scale(QZPS),Chinese personality assessment inventory 2(CPAI-2) and Chinese personality five factors inventory (CPFFI),a self-reported personality questionnaire with 116 items was developed.An exploratory factory analysis and parallel analysis were made to the data collected from 1455 Chinese participants.Results A Chinese Personality Seven Factors Inventory (CPSFI) was developed,which included seven factors with 52 items.51.63% of the total variance of the seven factors was explained and the internal reliability coefficient was 0.800,while the internal reliability coefficients among the factors were between 0.663-0.912.The retest reliability coefficients of the factors were between 0.700-0.874 (P < 0.01).Conclusions Outgoing and emotion are the core contents of the crossculture personalities.Most of the factors in QZPS,CPAI-2 and CPFFI can be found in the seven factors structure,of which the structure is clearer.

  10. An Internal Dose Assessment Associated with Personal Food Intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joeun; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Wontae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection), Therefore, had recommended the concept of 'Critical Group'. Recently the ICRP has recommended the use of 'Representative Person' on the new basic recommendation 103. On the other hand the U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) has adopted more conservative concept, 'Maximum Exposed Individuals (MEI)' of critical Group. The dose assessment in Korea is based on MEI. Although dose assessment based on MEI is easy to receive the permission of the regulatory authority, it is not efficient. Meanwhile, the internal dose by food consumption takes an important part. Therefore, in this study, the internal dose assessment was performed in accordance with ICRP's new recommendations. The internal dose assessment was performed in accordance with ICRP's new recommendations. It showed 13.2% decreased of the annual internal dose due to gaseous effluents by replacing MEI to the concept of representative person. Also, this calculation based on new ICRP's recommendation has to be extended to all areas of individual dose assessment. Then, more accurate and efficient values might be obtained for dose assessment.

  11. Love-pursuing Patterns and Personality Traits: A Preliminary Study in Chinese University undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang CAI


    Full Text Available The love-pursuing pattern (LPP, or love-initiating behavior, is important in building or maintaining a relationship, but has been less studied. We hypothesize that the LPPs might be modulated by personality traits. Therefore we have administered an adjective-based LPP questionnaire, the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ, the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scales (SSS, and the Plutchik – van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP in 164 Chinese undergraduates who were in a current heterosexual-love relationship. We did not find any differences of LPP, ZKPQ, SSS, or PVP scale scores when either referred to gender or initiator/ receiver. In initiators (13 women, 85 men, the SSS Experience Seeking was negatively correlated with LPP Impulsive scale, Disinhibition was positively correlated with Threatening scale, and the PVP was negatively correlated with Persistent scale. In all subjects, the ZKPQ Aggression-Hostility was negatively correlated with the perceived happiness from the relationship, Activity was positively correlated with relationship suitability, and the SSS Experience Seeking was negatively correlated with a future marriage probability. Low SSS Experience Seeking and Disinhibition, ZKPQ Aggression-Hostility, together with high Activity and emotionality would be helpful to initiate a love relationship, and increase chances of the perceived happiness and suitability, and a future marriage.

  12. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Song; NIU Hui-xia; ZHAO Lu; GAO Yuan; LU Jia-meng; SHI Chang-he; Chandra Avinash


    Background The Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) was shown to be a reliable and valid measurement for patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA).The Brazilian version and the Japanese version of SARAwere favorable for good reliability and validity.This study aimed to translate SARA into Chinese and test its reliability and validity in measurement of cerebellar ataxia.Methods SARA was translated into Chinese.A total 39 patients with degeneration cerebellar ataxia were evaluated independently by two neurologists with the Chinese version of SARA.Then the patients were evaluated by one of above neurologists with International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS).The statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 for Windows.Results The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the Chinese version of SARA was 0.78,which represents a good internal consistence.The correlation coefficient of the Chinese version of SARA scores between the two evaluators was 0.86,illustrating that the inter-rater reliability of Chinese version of SARA was good.The correlation coefficient between the Chinese version of SARA and ICARS was 0.91,illustrating that the criterion validity of Chinese version of SARA was not bad.Conclusions The Chinese version of SARA is reliable and effective for the assessment of degeneration cerebellar ataxia.Compared with ICARS,the evaluation of Chinese version of SARA is more objective,the assessment time is shortened,and the maneuverability is better.

  13. Development and Validation of a Personality Assessment Instrument for Traditional Korean Medicine: Sasang Personality Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chae


    Full Text Available Objective. Sasang typology is a traditional Korean medicine based on the biopsychosocial perspectives of Neo-Confucianism and utilizes medical herbs and acupuncture for type-specific treatment. This study was designed to develop and validate the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ for future use in the assessment of personality based on Sasang typology. Design and Methods. We selected questionnaire items using internal consistency analysis and examined construct validity with explorative factor analysis using 245 healthy participants. Test-retest reliability as well as convergent validity were examined. Results. The 14-item SPQ showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=.817 and test-retest reliability (=.837. Three extracted subscales, SPQ-behavior, SPQ-emotionality, and SPQ-cognition, were found, explaining 55.77% of the total variance. The SPQ significantly correlated with Temperament and Character Inventory novelty seeking (=.462, harm avoidance (=−.390, and NEO Personality Inventory extraversion (=.629. The SPQ score of the So-Eum (24.43±4.93, Tae-Eum (27.33±5.88, and So-Yang (30.90±5.23 types were significantly different from each other (<.01. Conclusion. Current results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the SPQ and its subscales that can be utilized as an objective instrument for conducting personalized medicine research incorporating the biopsychosocial perspective.

  14. Assessment Procedures for Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Comparison of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 and Best-Estimate Clinical Judgments (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.


    This study examined the degree of correspondence between two assessments for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in a mixed clinical and community sample--one using a self-report measure (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4) and the other using clinical judgments derived from an assessment based on the longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD)…

  15. Five-factor personality measures in Chinese university students: effects of one-child policy? (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Du, Wuying; Liu, Ping; Liu, Jianhui; Wang, Yehan


    Since the one-child policy was implemented in China in 1979, many investigators have studied the psychological consequences to children without siblings. Although the results are not conclusive, there is evidence that children who have siblings, rather than only children, have increased anxiety and depression. Whether the differences between students with and without siblings would continue when they reached university age is an interesting question. We used the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire to assess personality traits and the Plutchik-van Praag Depression Inventory to measure depressed mood in 134 university students with and 126 university students without siblings. Most students without siblings (93.7%) were reared in urban areas, while 90.3% of students with siblings came from rural areas. Parental professions were higher in social status and annual family incomes were higher in students without siblings. Increased neuroticism-anxiety, aggression-hostility, and depressed mood were found in students with siblings. Gender and annual family income were not significantly related to personality in the two groups, and birth-order position was not related to personality in the students with siblings. In contrast, the depression score was positively correlated with neuroticism-anxiety and aggression-hostility, but negatively correlated with parental occupation and annual family income. The greater competition to receive high education, reduced benefits from society, and lower level of social respect might nurture these personality traits in students with siblings. These findings might, in some limited aspects, indicate that the one-child policy affects personality traits and depressed mood in students with siblings.

  16. Assessment of and Countermeasures against International Political Risk for Chinese Oil Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Considering the circumstances of Chinese oil companies and the latest development of international politics and world oil situation, this paper analyzes the implication and main factors of international political risk for Chinese oil companies, and presents the principles, mode and scoring method for the assessment of international political risk.Strategies and suggestions to manage international political risk in their overseas business are provided for Chinese oil companies.

  17. The validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale for assessing pathological grandiosity. (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E


    Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism.

  18. Assessing the Quality of Research Supervision in Mainland Chinese Higher Education (United States)

    Peng, Hongbing


    This article assesses the quality of research supervision in mainland Chinese higher education by critiquing the related literature. It provides an evaluative overview of the Chinese graduate supervisor-student relationship after presenting the supervision system that is at work. The study has revealed that despite the general satisfaction felt…

  19. Acoustic Analyses and Intelligibility Assessments of Timing Patterns among Chinese English Learners with Different Dialect Backgrounds (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh Chu


    This paper includes two interrelated studies. The first production study investigates the timing patterns of English as spoken by Chinese learners with different dialect backgrounds. The second comprehension study explores native and non-native speakers' assessments of the intelligibility of Chinese-accented English, and examines the effects of…

  20. Assessing Subjective Well-Being in Chinese Older Adults: The Chinese Aging Well Profile (United States)

    Ku, Po-Wen; Fox, Kenneth R.; McKenna, Jim


    Subjective well-being has increasingly been used as a key indicator of quality of life in older people. Existing evidence shows that it is likely that eastern cultures carry different life values and so the Chinese Aging Well Profile was devised for measuring subjective well-being in Chinese adults (50+). Data was collected from 1,906…

  1. Screening for personality disorder with the Standardised Assessment of Personality: Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS: further evidence of concurrent validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of personality disorders (PD is costly and time-consuming. There is a need for a brief screen for personality disorders that can be used in routine clinical settings and epidemiological surveys. Aims: To test the validity of the Standardised Assessment of Personality: Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS as a screen for PD in a clinical sample of substance abusers. Methods Convergent validity of the SAPAS with both categorical and dimensional representations of personality disorders was estimated. Results In this sample, the SAPAS correlated well with dimensional representations of cluster A and C personality disorders, even after controlling for ADHD symptoms, anxiety/depression symptoms and recent substance use. The SAPAS was also significantly associated with total number of PD criteria, although correlation with categorical measures of PD was weak. Conclusions The SAPAS is an valid brief screen for PD as assessed dimensionally.

  2. Risk assessment and ranking of pesticide residues in Chinese pears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-xia; LIU Chuan-de; ZHAO Xu-bo; GUO Yong-ze; NIE Ji-yun; YAN Zhen; XU Guo-feng; LI Hai-fei; KUANG Li-xue; PAN Li-gang; XIE Han-zhong; WANG Cheng


    The presence of pesticide residues in pears is a serious health concern. This study presents the results from a 2-year investigation (2013–2014) that used gas chromatography, GS/MS and UPLC/MS-MS to measure the levels of 104 pesti-cides in 310 pear samples. In 93.2% of the samples, 43 pesticides were detected, of which the maximum residue levels (MRLs) were exceeded in 2.6% of the samples. Multiple residues (two to eight compounds) were present in 69.7% of the samples; one sample contained nine pesticides and one sample contained 10. Only 6.8% of the samples did not contain residues. To assess the health risks, the pesticide residue data have been combined with daily pear consumption data for children and adult populations. A deterministic model was used to assess the chronic and acute exposures based on the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) method. A potential acute risk was demonstrated for children in the case of bifenthrin, which was found to be present at 105.36% of the acute reference dose (ARfD) value. The long-term exposure of the Chinese consumer to pesticide residues through the consumption of raw pears was far below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) criterion. Additionally, the matrix ranking scheme was used to classify risk subgroups of pesticides and pear samples. In general, 95.5% of samples were deemed to be safe and nine pesticides were classiifed as being of a relatively high risk. The ifndings indicated that the occurrence of pesticide residues in pears should not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, a more detailed study is required for vulnerable consumer groups, especially children. Continuous monitoring of pesticides in pears and tighter regulation of pesticide residue standards are recommended.

  3. Risk assessment: progress of quarantine biocontrol research on Chinese Tallow, Melaleuca, and Downy Rose Myrtle (United States)

    Risk assessments of two biocontrol candidates for Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphoriales: Euphorbiaceae), and one for Melaleuca, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), were conducted during 2009 and continuing into 2010 by USDA scientists located at the Florida Department of Agricul...

  4. 成人语音特征与中医五态人格的相关性研究%Correlations between spoken voice characteristics and the Chinese five-Pattern Personality Types in 50 Chinese adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙乡; 杨学智; 李海燕; 朱庆文; 牛欣


    Objective to analyze the relationship between voice characteristics and the Chinese Five-Pattern Personality types, defined as relatively consistent psychological characteristics symbolically named after the proportion of yin and yang. Methods Voice variables were obtained by recording 40 female and 10 male healthy BUCM students pronouncing [a:] vowel, sustained [a:], [a:] with Chinese four tones, reading a short story and answering questions, using modern sound technology. Praat 4. 2. 07 software was used to extract the pitch, formants, intensity, duration, jitter, shimmer, HNR, speed of speech, voice break variables ... The Five-Pattem Personality Questionnaire was used to obtain personality variables. SPSS 17. 0 and R were used to analyze statistical correlations between voice characteristics and personality types, and to perform linear regression analysis. Results Numerous correlations were found between voice characteristics and personality types. Based on the multi-linear regression analysis of 34 parameters of voice, we were able to construct an effective model that predicted the personality variables of 38 female subjects with high R-squared (R2 >0.77) and low P values (P≤0. 03). Conclusion Assessing personality traits from voice characteristics has a promising future.%目的 探索多种语音特征与中医五态人格的相关性.方法 对40位女性和10位男性受试者发[a:]音,持续[a:]音,[a:]音四声,朗读故事,回答问题,进行了录音并用Praat 4.2.07软件提取了音高、共振峰、音强、音长、微扰、噪音比,语速和语断等语音参数.用五态人格量表获取了五态人格参数,用SPSS 17.0与R软件进行了语音与人格的相关性统计和线性回归分析.结果 五态人格各自与多个语音特征相关.用34个语音参数的多元线性回归能建立一个有效模型、预测38位女性受试者的五态人格参数,五态人格决定系数R2>0.77,模型P≤0.03.结论 通过语音参数预

  5. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. (United States)


    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410 Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. The persons carrying out the AMS Assessment must have the appropriate skills to evaluate the security of...

  6. The motivational hierarchy between the personal self and close others in the Chinese brain: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangru Zhu


    Full Text Available People base their decisions not only on their own self-interest but also on the interests of close others. Generally, the personal self has primacy in the motivational hierarchy in the Western culture. A recent study found that friends have the same motivational hierarchy as the personal self in the Eastern collectivist culture. Remaining unknown is whether the motivational hierarchy of the personal self and close others can be manifested in the collectivist brain. In the present study, we asked participants to gamble for the personal self, close others (i.e., mother, father, and close friend, and strangers. The positive-going deflection of event-related potentials (ERPs in response to positive feedback showed the following pattern: personal self = mother = father > friend > stranger. In the loss condition, no significant beneficiary effect was observed. The present results indicate that the personal self and parents are intertwined in the motivational system in the Chinese undergraduate student brain, supporting the view that the personal self and parents have the same motivational primacy at the electrocortical level.

  7. Effect of Personalized Nutrition Guidance on the Birth Rate of Fetal Macrosomia in Chinese Population: A Meta-analysis of Nine Randomized Controlled Trials. (United States)

    Ge, Jingling; Wang, Dajia; Fan, Ling


    The aim of the study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of personalized nutrition guidance on birth rate of fetal macrosomia in the pooled studies. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all eligible studies using the databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Wanfang, Chongqing Weipu Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and China National Knowledge Infrastructure and reference lists of relevant articles. The methodological quality of the included trials was assessed based on the Jadad scale. We used risk ratios (RRs) to assess the strength of the association, and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the precision of the estimate. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity analysis were also explored. A total of nine RCT studies, including 7,458 pregnant women, were included in the present meta-analysis. The overall results showed that personalized nutrition guidance significantly reduced the birth rate of fetal macrosomia (RR 0.289, 95 % CI 0.184-0.453, P personalized nutrition guidance can significantly reduce the birth rate of fetal macrosomia. However, due to the limited number of RCTs, especially those with large sample size and multicenter that were quantitatively insufficient, further studies of high quality are required.

  8. Assessment Procedures for Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Comparison of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 and Best-Estimate Clinical Judgments


    Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Morse, Jennifer Q


    This study examined the degree of correspondence between two assessments for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in a mixed clinical and community sample—one using a self-report measure (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4) and the other using clinical judgments derived from an assessment based on the longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD) methodology. NPD scores demonstrated moderate convergence for the total scores but weak convergence for the individual criteria. The authors also exa...

  9. Feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body based on Chinese medicine constitution. (United States)

    Li, Ling-Ru; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qian-Fei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Zheng, Lu-Yu; Zhang, Yan


    This article discussed the feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body. Firstly, the balance of redox state is the basis of homeostasis, and the balance ability of redox can reflflect health state of human body. Secondly, the redox state of human body is a sensitive index of multiple risk factors of health such as age, external environment and psychological factors. It participates in the occurrence and development of multiple diseases involving metabolic diseases and nervous system diseases, and can serve as a cut-in point for treatment of these diseases. Detecting the redox state of high risk people is signifificantly important for early detection and treatment of disease. The blood plasma and urine could be selected to detect, which is convenient. It is pointed that the indexes not only involve oxidation product and antioxidant enzyme but also redox couple. Chinese medicine constitution reflflects the state of body itself and the ability of adapting to external environment, which is consistent with the connotation of health. It is found that there are nine basic types of constitution in Chinese population, which provides a theoretical basis of health preservation, preventive treatment of disease and personalized treatment. With the combination of redox state detection and the Chinese medicine constitution theory, the heath state can be systemically assessed by conducting large-scale epidemiological survey with classifified detection on redox state of human body.

  10. Comparison of alternate personality models in psychopathology assessment. (United States)

    Floros, Georgios D; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios D


    This study assessed the results from the parallel application of two alternate personality models, the Zuckerman-Kuhlman trait model and Bond's Defense Styles, in a sample of 268 Greek medical students (172 women, M age = 22.0 yr., SD = 1.1; 95 men, M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 1.2) in relation to psychopathological symptoms, so as to clarify whether this practice yielded accurate results while avoiding shared variance. Data from both models are cross-checked with canonical correlation analysis to validate whether there was significant conceptual overlap between them that would mean that their parallel use is an ineffective research practice. Following this analysis, factors from both models are utilized to predict variance in sample psychopathology, so as to compare their relative usefulness. Results indicated that the two models did not share a significant amount of variance, while a combination of personality aspects from both models, including Impulsive Sensation-Seeking, Neuroticism-Anxiety, Aggression-Hostility, and Sociability traits and Maladaptive Action, Image Distorting, and Adaptive Action defense styles, predicted high variance in psychopathology symptoms.

  11. Atherogenic Risk Assessment among Persons Living in Rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Wekesa


    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension and dyslipidemia are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease and commonly coexist. Cardiovascular risk can be reliably predicted using lipid ratios such as the atherogenic index, a useful prognostic parameter for guiding timely interventions. Objective. We assessed the cardiovascular risk profile based on the atherogenic index of residents within a rural Ugandan cohort. Methods. In 2011, a population based survey was conducted among 7507 participants. Sociodemographic characteristics, physical measurements (blood pressure, weight, height, and waist and hip circumference, and blood sampling for nonfasting lipid profile were collected for each participant. Atherogenic risk profile, defined as logarithm base ten of (triglyceride divided by high density lipoprotein cholesterol, was categorised as low risk (0.24. Results. Fifty-five percent of participants were female and the mean age was 49.9 years (SD±20.2. Forty-two percent of participants had high and intermediate atherogenic risk. Persons with hypertension, untreated HIV infection, abnormal glycaemia, and obesity and living in less urbanised villages were more at risk. Conclusion. A significant proportion of persons in this rural population are at risk of atherosclerosis. Key identified populations at risk should be considered for future intervention against cardiovascular related morbidity and mortality. The study however used parameters from unfasted samples that may have a bearing on observed results.

  12. Ethical issues in personality assessment in forensic psychology. (United States)

    Knapp, S; VandeCreek, L


    In this article we address several ethical issues of concern for psychologists who are engaged in personality assessment in forensic settings such as for courts or attorneys. The ethical issues reviewed include the role of the psychologist as an expert witness, matters of competence, informed consent, confidentiality, multiple relationships, and special issues related to billing. Emphasis is placed on how psychologists can provide useful information to the courts in a manner consistent with the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, the Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologist's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, and the APA's Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings. The practical recommendations made in this article are consistent with the APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

  13. Assessing personality traits of individuals with mental retardation. (United States)

    Zigler, Edward; Bennett-Gates, Dianne; Hodapp, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C


    Psychometric properties for a new instrument, the EZ-Personality Questionnaire designed to assess the functioning of students with cultural-familial mental retardation, are presented. The analysis of data from 661 participants yielded a 37-item, seven-scale instrument that confirmed the five hypothesized factors of Positive Reaction Tendency, Negative Reaction Tendency, Effectance Motivation, Expectancy of Success, and Outerdirectedness and identified two additional factors of Curiosity/Creativity and Obedience. Separate studies were conducted to establish the concurrent and construct validity of the instrument. Reliability was examined through split-half and test-retest analyses. All psychometric indices were within acceptable levels, resulting in an instrument with potential applications in research, education, and clinical settings.

  14. Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment of Transnational Operation Environment for Chinese Oil Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A comprehensive method was developed to assess the transnational operation environment in host countries for Chinese oil companies. This method includes an assessment criterion system of the environment, which is to be scored by the experts. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy mathematical methods were used to make evaluation and get the assessment result and ranking of three host countries.

  15. Interpretations of Formative Assessment in the Teaching of English at Two Chinese Universities: A Sociocultural Perspective (United States)

    Chen, Qiuxian; Kettle, Margaret; Klenowski, Val; May, Lyn


    Formative assessment is increasingly being implemented through policy initiatives in Chinese educational contexts. As an approach to assessment, formative assessment derives many of its key principles from Western contexts, notably through the work of scholars in the UK, the USA and Australia. The question for this paper is the ways that formative…

  16. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine


    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  17. A computer-supported method to reveal and assess Personal Professional Theories in vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaart, Antoine C.M.; Bilderbeek, Richardus; Schaap, Harmen; Hummel, Hans G.K.; Kirschner, Paul A.


    This article introduces a dedicated, computer-supported method to construct and formatively assess open, annotated concept maps of Personal Professional Theories (PPTs). These theories are internalised, personal bodies of formal and practical knowledge, values, norms and convictions that professiona

  18. Contributions of Chinese-style cooking and incense burning to personal exposure and residential PM concentrations in Taiwan region. (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Chen, Jein-Wei; Liang, Huang-Min


    We investigated the effect of indoor sources including Chinese-style cooking, incense burning, cleaning, and people's moving on indoor particle size distributions and concentrations and calculated the personal exposure dose rates in the human respiratory tract (HRT) using time-activity and indoor and outdoor particle size distribution data collected from a traditional Taiwanese residence in central Taiwan region. We applied a simple size-dependent indoor air quality model associated with a compartmental lung model to determine the source emission rates and exposure dose. Cooking and incense burning had size-integrated source emission rates of 0.042+/-0.024 (mean+/-S.D.) and 0.038+/-0.026 particles s(-1), respectively. Cooking and incense burning were significant contributors to indoor particle levels for particle sizes from 0.5 to 5 microm in that the percent contributions to indoor concentrations were 0.334+/-0.02 and 0.267+/-0.035, respectively. Our results demonstrated that extrathoracic (ET) region had higher average PM mass lung/indoor ratio (0.77) than that of bronchial (BB) (0.52), bronchiolar (bb) (0.27) and alveolar-interstitial (AI) (0.14) regions from both cooking and incense burning events. The average integrated deposition dose rates (particles cm(-2) h(-1)) of 24.11 in ET, 4.68 in BB, and 7.89 in bb were higher than that of 0.011 in AI for both cooking and incense burning events. This research illustrates that exposure assessment based on time-activity and real-time behavior of particle data can provide valuable information on the fate of indoor particles and hazard to human health.

  19. Desirability of Personal Characteristics Associated with Creativity: Through the Eyes of Polish and Chinese University Students (United States)

    Rudowicz, Elzbieta; Tokarz, Aleksandra; Beauvale, Andrzej


    The social desirability of characteristics associated with creativity and cultural stereotypes was examined across Polish and Chinese cultures. Polish responses were compared with those from an earlier Chinese study (n = 451). First, we carried out an initial study among 116 Polish students to determine what traits are parts of the national…

  20. Assessing the Scale and Potential of Chinese Investment Overseas: An Econometric Approach%Assessing the Scale and Potential of Chinese Investment Overseas: An Econometric Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiro Armstrong


    The recent rise in Chinese outward direct investment (ODI) has significant global implicatzons and impacts on host country policy. The present paper attempts to provide a theoretical basis and to define a robust econometric approach to assess the performa

  1. Prioritising chemicals used in personal care products in China for environmental risk assessment: application of the RAIDAR model. (United States)

    Gouin, Todd; van Egmond, Roger; Price, Oliver R; Hodges, Juliet E N


    China represents a significant market for the sale of personal care products (PCPs). Given the continuous emission of hundreds of chemicals used in PCPs to waste water and the aquatic environment after regular use, methods for prioritising the environmental risk assessment for China are needed. In an effort to assess the prioritisation of chemicals used in PCPs in China, we have identified the chemical ingredients used in 2500 PCPs released to the Chinese market in 2009, and estimated the annual emission of these chemicals. The physical-chemical property data for these substances have been estimated and used as model inputs in the RAIDAR model. In general, the RAIDAR model provides an overall assessment of the multimedia fate of chemicals, and provides a holistic approach for prioritising chemical ingredients. The prioritisation exercise conducted in this study is shown to be strongly influenced by loss processes, such as the removal efficiencies of WWT plants and biotransformation.

  2. Negative life events and mental health of Chinese medical students: the effect of resilience, personality and social support. (United States)

    Peng, Li; Zhang, Jiajia; Li, Min; Li, Peipei; Zhang, Yu; Zuo, Xin; Miao, Yi; Xu, Ying


    The present study was conducted on a large sample of Chinese medical students to test the moderating effect of resilience between negative life events and mental health problems, and investigate the factors that affect the mental health problems of the students. The Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List, Eysenck Adult Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Social Support Rating Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Symptom Check List were adopted for a survey with 1,998 Chinese medical students as respondents. Mental health problems had a positive correlation with negative life events and neuroticism. On the other hand, mental health problems had a negative correlation with social support, extraversion, and resilience. Regression analysis showed that resilience moderated negative life events and mental health problems. Promoting resilience may be helpful for the adjustment of college students.

  3. The SLC6A3 gene possibly affects susceptibility to late-onset alcohol dependence but not specific personality traits in a Han Chinese population (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Chih; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Yen, Che-Hung; Liang, Chih-Sung; Ho, Pei-Shen; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan


    Dopaminergic dysfunction has an important role in the pathoetiology of alcohol dependence (AD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the solute carrier family 6 member 3 (SLC6A3) gene (also known as the dopamine transporter DAT gene) was associated with AD, and whether variants in the SLC6A3 locus were associated with specific personality traits in patients with AD. Sixteen polymorphisms in SLC6A3 were analyzed using 637 patients with AD and 523 healthy controls. To reduce clinical heterogeneity, patients were classified into two subgroups: early-onset AD (EOAD) and late-onset AD (LOAD). The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire was used to assess the personality traits novelty seeking (NS) and harm avoidance (HA) in the patients with AD. Using allele frequency and genotype distribution comparisons and logistic regression analysis, we found evidence of association between rs6350 and AD (P gene may have a role in susceptibility to late-onset AD in the Han Chinese population. PMID:28182634

  4. Assessing personality change in psychotherapy with the SWAP-200: a case study. (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Shedler, Jonathan; Gazzillo, Francesco


    Many studies document the efficacy of psychotherapy for acute syndromes such as depression, but less is known about personality change in patients treated for personality pathology. The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200; Westen & Shedler, 1999a, 1999b) is an assessment tool that measures a broad spectrum of personality constructs and is designed to bridge the gap between the clinical and empirical traditions in personality assessment. In this article, we demonstrate the use of the SWAP-200 as a measure of change in a case study of a patient diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. We collected assessment data at the start of treatment and after 2 years of psychotherapy. The findings illustrate the personality processes targeted in intensive psychotherapy for borderline personality.

  5. Assessment of borderline personality features in population samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features scale measurement invariant across sex and age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, de M.H.M.; Distel, M.A.; Trull, T.J.; Boomsma, D.I.


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderl

  6. Assessment of Borderline Personality Features in Population Samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale Measurement Invariant across Sex and Age? (United States)

    De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Distel, Marijn A.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the "Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features" scale (PAI-BOR; Morey,…

  7. Studying United States Constitutional Law: A Personal Experience of a Chinese Student. (United States)

    Liu, Fengming


    A Chinese student of American constitutional law looks at problems and prospects in the application of the American constitutional experience in China and encourages more comparative study of consitutional law. (MSE)

  8. Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine: a review focused on their application in the Chinese population. (United States)

    Shu, Wen-ying; Li, Jia-li; Wang, Xue-ding; Huang, Min


    The field of pharmacogenomics was initiated in the 1950s and began to thrive after the completion of the human genome project 10 years ago. Thus far, more than 100 drug labels and clinical guidelines referring to pharmacogenomic biomarkers have been published, and several key pharmacogenomic markers for either drug safety or efficacy have been identified and subsequently adopted in clinical practice as pre-treatment genetic tests. However, a tremendous variation of genetic backgrounds exists between different ethnic groups. The application of pharmacogenomics in the Chinese population is still a long way off, since the published guidelines issued by the organizations such as US Food and Drug Administration require further confirmation in the Chinese population. This review highlights important pharmacogenomic discoveries in the Chinese population and compares the Chinese population with other nations regarding the pharmacogenomics of five most commonly used drugs, ie, tacrolimus, cyclosporine A, warfarin, cyclophosphamide and azathioprine.

  9. An On-line Assessment System for English-Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yan; LU Ru-zhan; DUAN Jian-yong


    On-line assessment of English-Chinese translation is a challenging task as it involves natural language processing. YanFa, an on-line assessment system for English-Chinese translation, is a pilot research project into scoring student's translation on-line. Based on the theory of translation equivalence, an algorithm called "conceptual similarity matching" was developed. YanFa can assess students' translation on-line timely, generate test papers automatically, offer standard versions of translation, and the scores of each sentence to students. The evaluation proves that YanFa is practical compared with the scores given by experts.

  10. Prior Negative Experience, Online Privacy Concerns and Intent to Disclose Personal Information in Chinese Social Media


    Hongwei “Chris†Yang


    A paper survey of 489 Chinese college students was conducted in spring, 2012 to test a conceptual model of online information disclosure in social media. It shows that young Chinese SNS users' prior negative experience of online disclosure significantly increased their online privacy concerns and their perceived risk. Their online privacy concerns undermined their trust of online companies, marketers and laws to protect privacy and elevated their perceived risk. Their trust strongly predicted...

  11. [Comparative assessment of cognitive styles forming personal behavior in health and borderline personality disorder]. (United States)

    Zakharov, N P


    The author suggests a cognitive-analytical concept of personality focusing on cognitively mediated processes of cyclic interaction of different levels of consciousness and subconsciousness represented in the form of emotional-behavioral potential and functional-dynamic system. A cognitive type (cognitype)--a type of personality-centered cognitive operations that determines the pattern of behavioral cycle and distinctive features of social adaptation--is singled out as an integrative basic individual and psychological component of personality. Presented is classification of personality cognitypes, their adaptive and maladaptive variants, correlations between cognitypes and anomalies of personality. The principles of psychotherapy of maladaptive behavior, borderline and addictive disorders (positive reintegration of personality) are substantiated.

  12. Level of Agreement between Self and Spouse in the Assessment of Personality Pathology (United States)

    South, Susan C.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Johnson, Jarrod; Turkheimer, Eric


    Informant reports can provide important information regarding the presence of pathological personality traits, and they can serve as useful supplements to self-report instruments. Ratings from a spouse may be a particularly valuable source of personality assessment because spouses are very well acquainted with the target person, have typically…

  13. Explaining the subjective well-being of urban and rural Chinese: income, personal concerns, and societal evaluations. (United States)

    Han, Chunping


    This study makes an integrated investigation of how subjective well-being is associated with income, personal concerns, and societal evaluations and how these social and psychological correlates of subjective well-being are contextualized within a country. Data used for the empirical analysis come from a nationally representative sample survey conducted in China in 2009. It is found that subjective well-being is independently linked to income, personal concerns, and societal evaluations. Comparisons of urban and rural Chinese further reveal that income, structural attributions of inequality, and evaluations of governance are related to subjective well-being among both groups. Nevertheless, different sets of other evaluative correlates of subjective well-being between urban and rural people stand out, which is conjectured to be related to the long-time institutional, economic, and social segmentation of the two groups. This study has contributed to both the subjective well-being theories and the understanding of the consequences of social inequality.

  14. Taking good care of myself: a qualitative study on self-care behavior among Chinese persons with a permanent colostomy. (United States)

    Tao, Hui; Songwathana, Praneed; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Wang, Qingxi


    In Chinese culture, as a possible consequence of Confucianism, caring for the sick is considered a moral obligation of family members, while self-care is only the basis of fulfilling filial piety. This qualitative study aims to explore the self-care behavior among persons with a permanent colostomy in a Chinese cultural context of emphasizing the role of family caregiving. Data from in-depth interviews with seven Chinese adults at a university hospital in southwest China were analyzed using content analysis. Informants' self-care behavior was characterized by "taking good care of myself," which underlined individuals' efforts to manage colostomy-related impacts involving: (i) taking care of my colostomy with a proper degree of independence; (ii) taking care of my life by dealing with limitations; (iii) taking care of my mood in a positive way. Findings revealed that informants' self-care behavior was linked to their Confucian beliefs in family obligations, and also influenced by a happy-go-lucky outlook of life, a likely product of Taoism. The information is useful for nurses to design a culturally appropriate care plan to improve self-care behavior and proper family caregiving.

  15. Goal and personality trait development in a transitional period: assessing change and stability in personality development. (United States)

    Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich; Husemann, Nicole


    This longitudinal study examined continuity and change in the Big Five personality traits and in the importance of life goals from eight domains (Personal Growth, Relationships, Community, Health, Wealth, Fame, Image, and Hedonism) in 2,141 students in a 2-year period at the transition from school to college or employment. Both personality traits and life goals demonstrated high levels of rank-order and structural stability and showed significant individual differences in individual change. Moreover, mean-level changes were in line with the maturity principle: Scores on Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness increased over time, whereas Neuroticism decreased. However, the importance of life goals decreased in all domains except health. Reciprocal effects models revealed that there were effects of prior personality traits on subsequent life goal importance but almost no effects of prior life goal importance on subsequent personality traits. Separate analyses by gender showed that the findings were almost invariant across gender.

  16. 个人评价问卷的中文修订%The Revised Chinese Version of Personal Evaluation Inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍; 毕重增


    以大学生为对象修订个人评价问卷并考察其信度和效度,结果发现:455份问卷的验证性因素分析表明,个人评价问卷的原因素结构未得到支持;对联合量表进行探索性因素分析,共提取出7个因子,即修订后的问卷包括社交焦虑、交友自信、恋爱自信、体育自信、学业自信、外表自信、当众讲话自信、一般自信及影响自信判断的心境状态共9个因子,各个题目在相应因子上的载荷在0.40~0.81之间.修订后的问卷分半信度和内部一致性信度分别为0.81和0.86,与主观幸福感呈极其显著正相关,表明个人评价问卷中文修订版具有良好的信度和效度,可以用于中国大学生自信的研究.%In current study, a revised Chinese version of Personal Evaluation Inventory (PEI) is developed and its reliability and validity are examined. Confirmatory factor analysis of 455 subjects does not offer support for the factor structure of the PEI. Exploratory factor analysis of the combined subscales shows that the Chinese version of PEI consists of 9 subscales: social anxiety, making friends, romantic relationship, athletics, academic, appearance, speaking in public, general confidence and mood. The loads of various items on their relevant factors are distributed in the range of 0. 40 - 0. 81. The split-half and internal consistency reliability of the revised Chinese version are 0. 81 and 0. 86, respectively, which are in highly significant correlation with subjective happiness, thus demonstrating that the revised Chinese Version of Personal Evaluation Inventory has acceptable validity and reliability and is recommended for use in the study of self-confidence of Chinese students.

  17. Assessment and Treatment of Personality Disorders: A Behavioral Perspective (United States)

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Lootens, Christopher M.; Mitchell, John T.; Robertson, Christopher D.; Hundt, Natalie E.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.


    Personality disorders are complex and highly challenging to treatment providers; yet, for clients with these problems, there exist very few treatment options that have been supported by research. Given the lack of empirically-supported therapies for personality disorders, it can be difficult to make treatment decisions for this population. The…

  18. Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students: A Programmatic Assessment (United States)

    Melançon, Jérôme; Goebel, Nancy


    The Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students (PLAS) program at the University of Alberta (UofA) is a creative outgrowth of the growing Personal Librarian programs in academic libraries, in which a student is partnered with an individual librarian for the academic year. In the case of the UofA's PLAS program, first-year undergraduate students who…

  19. Safety assessment and detection method of genetically modified Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea cv. alboglabra ). (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Lu, Chien-Te; Lin, Hsin-Tang; Pan, Tzu-Ming


    Sporamins are tuberous storage proteins and account for 80% of soluble protein in sweet potato tubers with trypsin-inhibitory activity. The expression of sporamin protein in transgenic Chinese kale (line BoA 3-1) conferred insecticidal activity toward corn earworm [ Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)] in a previous report. In this study, we present a preliminary safety assessment of transgenic Chinese kale BoA 3-1. Bioinformatic and simulated gastric fluid (SGF) analyses were performed to evaluate the allergenicity of sporamin protein. The substantial equivalence between transgenic Chinese kale and its wild-type host has been demonstrated by the comparison of important constituents. A reliable real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method was also developed to control sample quality. Despite the results of most evaluations in this study being negative, the safety of sporamin in transgenic Chinese kale BoA 3-1 was uncluded because of the allergenic risk revealed by bioinformatic analysis.

  20. Assessing Personality and Mood With Adjective Check List Methodology: A Review (United States)

    Craig, Robert J.


    This article addresses the benefits and problems in using adjective check list methodology to assess personality. Recent developments in this assessment method are reviewed, emphasizing seminal adjective-based personality tests (Gough's Adjective Check List), mood tests (Lubin's Depressive Adjective Test, Multiple Affect Adjective Check List),…

  1. Psychosocial Development and the Big Five Personality Traits among Chinese University Students (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang


    This study explores how psychosocial development and personality traits are related. In particular, the study investigates the predictive power of the successful resolution of the Eriksonian psychosocial crises for the Big Five personality traits beyond age and gender. Four hundred university students in mainland China responded to the Measures of…

  2. Personality. (United States)

    Funder, D C


    Personality psychology is as active today as at any point in its history. The classic psychoanalytic and trait paradigms are active areas of research, the behaviorist paradigm has evolved into a new social-cognitive paradigm, and the humanistic paradigm is a basis of current work on cross-cultural psychology. Biology and evolutionary theory have also attained the status of new paradigms for personality. Three challenges for the next generation of research are to integrate these disparate approaches to personality (particularly the trait and social-cognitive paradigms), to remedy the imbalance in the person-situation-behavior triad by conceptualizing the basic properties of situations and behaviors, and to add to personality psychology's thin inventory of basic facts concerning the relations between personality and behavior.

  3. The impact of personality on driving safety among Chinese high-speed railway drivers. (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Wei, Wei; Liao, Ganli; Chu, Fulei


    This study explored the impact of personality traits on driving safety in high-speed railway drivers. A sample of high-speed railway drivers in Beijing (N=214) completed a questionnaire, including information on personality traits and background variables. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was administered to characterize participants based on five personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness. The survey data were combined with naturalistic data of accident involvement and risky driving behavior in China. Poisson regression results show that drivers with high Conscientiousness and Extraversion caused fewer accidents. Higher Conscientiousness and lower Agreeableness were related to less frequent risky driving behavior. Education level and age negatively moderated the relation between certain personality traits and driving safety. The findings suggest that personality traits should be considered when selecting and training high-speed railway drivers.

  4. The Connection Research Between Chinese Dream and Students' Personal Dream%中国梦与大学生个人梦的契合性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    与中国梦相对抽象、理性和宏观相比,大学生个人梦具有更加具体、更加感性、更加切身的特点.中国梦与大学生个人梦的契合性体现在:信仰追求上,两者集中体现在坚持中国道路;理想教育上,两者集中体现在弘扬中国精神;道德建设上,两者集中体现在凝聚中国力量.中国梦背景下,大学生个人梦是由个人信仰梦、个人本领梦和个人素质梦组成的有机统一整体.通过把中国梦融入课堂教学、各类媒介、校园文化和实践活动,构建实现大学生个人梦的有效路径.%Compared with abstract, rational and macro Chinese Dream, college students' personal dream is specific, emotional and with personal characteristics. The connection between Chinese dream and students' personal dream reflected in the following aspects: adhering to China road in the faith pursuit, carrying forward the Chinese spirit in the ideal education, and gathering the power of China on the moral construction. Under the background of the Chinese dream, college students' personal dream is an organic and unified whole consisted by personal beliefs, individual skills and personal qualities dream. The Chinese dream can help college students achieve personal dreams.

  5. Personality Education in Chinese Teaching in Middle School%浅谈高中语文教学中的人格教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    At present, all countries attach great importance to the development of students’ education of personality and all-round devel-opment. Under the back ground of quality education, people pay more and more attention to personality education of students. However, in the exam oriented education concept, school only pay attention to the enrollment rate, ignoring the subject of Chinese advantages and features of the personality education of Chinese language teaching. Analysis of the current development situation of personality education in Chinese teaching in middle school, and put forward the implementation of personality education should have the conditions in Chinese teaching.%当前,各国都非常注重学生个性发展和全面发展的教育。在素质教育这一背景下,人们越来越注重学生的人格教育。但是,在应试教育观念下,学校只注重升学率,忽略了语文这门学科的优势以及利用语文教学内容进行人格教育的特点。分析了高中语文教学中人格教育的发展现状,并提出了在语文教学中实施人格教育应当具备的条件。

  6. Comparative assessment of life cycle assessment methods used for personal computers. (United States)

    Yao, Marissa A; Higgs, Tim G; Cullen, Michael J; Stewart, Scott; Brady, Todd A


    This article begins with a summary of findings from commonly cited life cycle assessments (LCA) of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) products. While differing conclusions regarding environmental impact are expected across product segments (mobile phones, personal computers, servers, etc.) significant variation and conflicting conclusions are observed even within product segments such as the desktop Personal Computer (PC). This lack of consistent conclusions and accurate data limits the effectiveness of LCA to influence policy and product design decisions. From 1997 to 2010, the majority of published studies focused on the PC concluded that the use phase contributes most to the life cycle energy demand of PC products with a handful of studies suggesting that manufacturing phase of the PC has the largest impact. The purpose of this article is to critically review these studies in order to analyze sources of uncertainty, including factors that extend beyond data quality to the models and assumptions used. These findings suggest existing methods to combine process-based LCA data with product price data and remaining value adjustments are not reliable in conducting life cycle assessments for PC products. Recommendations are provided to assist future LCA work.

  7. Self-assessed dental health, oral health practices, and general health behaviors in Chinese urban adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin


    The objectives of this study were: to describe perceived dental health status and oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in Chinese urban adolescents; to assess the associations of oral health variables with socio-economic status and school performance; and to analyse the relative...

  8. Randomized controlled trial assessing a traditional Chinese medicine remedy in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, S.; Jin, X.; Yu, H.; Zhong, S.; Magill, P.; Vliet, T. van; Kistemaker, C.; Voors, C.; Pasman, W.


    A proof-of-concept study to assess the safety and efficacy of a traditional Chinese medicine formula as treatment for primary dysmenorrhea showed no statistically significant benefit over placebo. However, some efficacy parameters suggested possible superiority of the active treatment and so a large

  9. Assessing personality features and their relations with behavioral problems in adolescents: Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. (United States)

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Chih, Yi-Chien; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Yang, Hao-Jan; Chen, Wei J


    This study examines the applicability for adolescents of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), which was originally designed for adults, as compared to the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (JEPQ). The study also evaluates their inter-relationship and associations with various behavioral problems as reported by parents using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). In a representative community sample of 905 adolescents, the results of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and factor analysis showed that both the Harm Avoidance (HA) and the Novelty Seeking (NS) scales of the TPQ have sound construct validity, although the Reward Dependence (RD) scale has less so. The intercorrelation and factor analysis of the two questionnaires showed that the TPQ and the JEPQ are not simply alternative descriptions of the same construct of personality. In their associations with various behavioral problems, the scales of the TPQ are relatively more specifically associated with behavioral problems than the scales of the JEPQ. Our results provide empirical support for the applicability of the NS and the HA scales of the TPQ in adolescents, particularly in relation to behavioral problems.

  10. Similarity-based disease risk assessment for personal genomes: proof of concept. (United States)

    Woo, Jung Hoon; Lai, Albert M; Chung, Wendy K; Weng, Chunhua


    The increasing availability of personal genome data has led to escalating needs by consumers to understand the implications of their gene sequences. At present, poorly integrated genetic knowledge has not met these needs. This proof-of-concept study proposes a similarity-based approach to assess the disease risk predisposition for personal genomes. We hypothesize that the semantic similarity between a personal genome and a disease can indicate the disease risks in the person. We developed a knowledge network that integrates existing knowledge of genes, diseases, and symptoms from six sources using the Semantic Web standard, Resource Description Framework (RDF). We then used latent relationships between genes and diseases derived from our knowledge network to measure the semantic similarity between a personal genome and a genetic disease. For demonstration, we showed the feasibility of assessing the disease risks in one personal genome and discussed related methodology issues.

  11. The Narcissistic Personality Inventory: a useful tool for assessing pathological narcissism? Evidence from patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder. (United States)

    Vater, Aline; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Ritter, Kathrin; Renneberg, Babette; Schulze, Lars; Bosson, Jennifer K; Roepke, Stefan


    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) has dominated research on narcissism in the field of social and personality psychology. Surprisingly, it is unclear whether the NPI is useful for identifying pathological narcissism in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). The goal of this study was to close this research gap. We used an extreme-group approach by including NPD patients and healthy controls and comparing their narcissism scores. We further investigated whether explicit self-esteem (assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) suppressed the relationship between group membership and NPI narcissism. According to our results, NPD patients do not score higher on the NPI in comparison to healthy controls. Analysis of indirect effects revealed that differences in NPI scores are suppressed by NPD patients' low self-esteem. Our results indicate that the NPI is not a valid indicator of NPD, unless one controls for self-esteem. Implications for future research are discussed.

  12. Personal Monitoring for Ambulatory Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Assessment (United States)


    measuring heart rate, heart rate variability, and stress reactivity ? Skin conductance for measuring psychophysical arousal ? Cardiac bioimpedance for...physiological and environmental measurements in a handheld data collection system. Psychometric health scales can be used in concert with self-reported daily...15. SUBJECT TERMS PTSD, TBI, psychometric measures , personal health record, mobile, smart phone, handheld computer, Windows Mobile, physiological

  13. Multimethod Personality Profile Assessment Methodology: Alcohol Abusers versus Nonalcoholic Controls. (United States)


    following: oral fixation with passive, dependent features; psychopathy ; low frustration tolerance; low perseverance; guilt and anxiety; egocentricity...research findings of elevated scale 4 with alcoholic samples, the psychopathy /sociopathy personality domain, as tapped by the MMPI/Pd items, warranted

  14. Beliefs in the legitimacy of decision authority among Chinese adolescents and parents: a person-centered approach. (United States)

    Wang, Yudan Chen; Faldowski, Richard A


    The present study examined Chinese parents' and adolescents' beliefs in the legitimacy of decision authority with reference to specific issues from the prudential, conventional, multifaceted, and personal domains. The sample included 698 adolescents aged 12-15 and their parents from southern China. Parents and adolescents reported on their own beliefs respectively. Subgroups of parent and adolescent participants characterized by distinct patterns of beliefs across issues were identified with latent class analyses (LCA). Further, configural frequency analyses (CFA) were conducted to examine the match between parent subgroups and adolescent subgroups. In addition, the LCA-derived subgroups varied across residency status, sibling status, and child gender, and were linked to adolescent depressive symptoms and school misconduct. These associations with external variables provided evidence for the distinctiveness of the latent classes. Results were discussed in light of social domain theory and the socio-historical context where the participants were situated.

  15. Study of occupation health risk assessment on Chinese coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Guo-qing; YAN Xiang-nong


    Factors of occupation health hazard were identified and analyzed, and indexes system of occupation health risk assessment were established by applying fuzzy theory and system safety technique, the weights of index system were obtained by AHP, finally a reasonable mathematics model of occupation health risk assessment was accomplished by an example.

  16. Literature review and analysis of the application of health outcome assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Pei-wu Li; Qian-wen Li; Nelson Xie; Jing-wei Li


    OBJECITVE:To evaluate the application of health assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:According to a pre-defined search strategy,a comprehensive literature search for all articles published in China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted.The resulting articles that met the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were used for analysis.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine have been used in fundamental and theoretical research,and 14 of these were also used in 29 clinical trials that were randomized controlled trials,or descriptive or cross-sectional studies.In 2 152 Chinese medicine-based studies that used instruments in their methodology,more than 150 questionnaires were identified.Among the identified questionnaires,51 were used in more than 10 articles (0.5%).Most of these instruments were developed in Western countries and few studies (4%) used the instrument as the primary evidence for their conclusions.CONCLUSION:Usage of instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,current limitations include selection rationale,result interpretation and standardization,which must be addressed accordingly.

  17. Acoustic Analyses and Intelligibility Assessments of Timing Patterns Among Chinese English Learners with Different Dialect Backgrounds. (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh Chu


    This paper includes two interrelated studies. The first production study investigates the timing patterns of English as spoken by Chinese learners with different dialect backgrounds. The second comprehension study explores native and non-native speakers' assessments of the intelligibility of Chinese-accented English, and examines the effects of the listeners' language backgrounds on their perceptions of Chinese-accented English. The results showed that the Hong Kong (HK) group performed better in unstressed syllable duration compared with the Taiwan (TW) and Beijing (BJ) groups. The results also revealed that all six listener groups achieved at least 78% intelligibility, with the native speaker accent achieving the highest rating, followed by the HK, TW, and BJ accents. A shared first language (L1) background may have little or no impact on intelligibility. The speech properties might prevail over the shared L1 effect. All listeners perceived inappropriate word-stress shift and consonant cluster simplifications to be the most unintelligible features.

  18. Analyzing Semantic Creation on Homophones and Phonograms of Chinese from Personal Experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      This article mainly talk about the creating using of homophones and phonograms of Chinese. The writer give us a brief introduction of homophones and phonograms from a normal view, and it mainly strengthens the particular features of these semantic phenomenon through illustrating some examples that come from the experiences of writer, which is different from the normal in⁃stance and it possessing a specific actual significant. While it introduces the reasons of this kind of particular semantic creation, many real particular experiences also exemplified.

  19. Personality Assessment Through Internet: Factor Analyses By Age Group Of The Zka Personality Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Blanch


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the psychometric properties of an on-line version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ by sex and age. The questionnaire was responded by 1598 people, 474 males and 1124 females, with a mean age of 32.57 (SD = 11.72. Males and females differed in their responses to all personality dimensions evaluated by this instrument, in a similar way as that reported in past research. In addition, younger people scored higher in the Aggressiveness factor, especially concerning the Physical Aggression facet, whereas older people scored higher in the Activity factor. Besides, younger people scored higher in the Neuroticism and the Sensation Seeking factors, even though there were no age differences in the Extraversion factor. The ZKA-PQ five-factor structure was clear and yielded high congruence coefficients with the original Spanish validation sample. Altogether, the findings support the validity of the online version of this instrument. The ZKAPQ online version is therefore helpful in both, basic and applied research settings about human personality and individual differences.

  20. How Useful Are Indices of Personality Pathology when Assessing Domestic Violence Perpetrators? (United States)

    Gibbons, Peter; Collins, Marjorie; Reid, Corinne


    There has been considerable debate about profiling personality pathology when assessing and treating male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV). This study used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) to explore the severity and diversity of male perpetrator personality pathology and response bias in a group of DV perpetrators being…

  1. Comprehensive geriatric assessment : recognition of identified geriatric conditions by community-dwelling older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Marjon; Suijker, Jacqueline J; Bol, Wietske; Hoff, Eva; Ter Riet, Gerben; de Rooij, Sophia E; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Buurman, Bianca M


    OBJECTIVES: to study (i) the prevalence of geriatric conditions in community-dwelling older persons at increased risk of functional decline and (ii) the extent to which older persons recognise comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA)-identified conditions as relevant problems. METHODS: trained regis

  2. Explore the Usefulness of Person-Fit Analysis on Large-Scale Assessment (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Mousavi, Amin


    The current study applied the person-fit statistic, l[subscript z], to data from a Canadian provincial achievement test to explore the usefulness of conducting person-fit analysis on large-scale assessments. Item parameter estimates were compared before and after the misfitting student responses, as identified by l[subscript z], were removed. The…

  3. The Mind's Eye on Personal Profiles - How to inform trustworthiness assessments in virtual project teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen


    Rusman, E. (2011). The Mind's Eye on Personal Profiles - How to inform trustworthiness assessments in virtual project teams (Doctoral dissertation). June, 17, 2011, Open University in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  4. The Mind's Eye on Personal Profiles - How to inform trustworthiness assessments in virtual project teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen


    Rusman, E. (2011, 17 June). Lekenpraatje over promotieonderzoek, als onderdeel van de verdediging van het proefschrift 'The Mind's Eye on Personal Profiles - How to inform trustworthiness assessments in virtual project teams'.

  5. The objective assessment of personality: Cattells’s T-data revisited and more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The traditional assessment of personality based on individual’s self-report suffers from a series of limitations which encumbers the capacity to predict people’s future behavior. On the one hand, it makes equal the information that people offer about themselves and how they really behave. On the other hand, it does not take into account the fact that the behavior of any one person in a structured situation is determined, fundamentally, by the contingencies of that very situation. The aim of this study is to offer an alternative to personality assessment by means of questionnaires, picking up on the Cattell’s tradition to assess personality by means of objective tests. Three examples of objective tests are presented here for the assessment of risk tendency. The three tests developed for this purpose have shown satisfactory levels of reliability and validity that support the use of this kind of instruments, particularly in contexts such as personnel selection.

  6. The personality traits of observers and the acquaintanceship as factors of assessment of others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smederevac Snežana


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the relation between the degree of acquaintance and assessment of other persons’ personality traits and attribution of their behaviour. The second aim was to examine relation between personality traits of observers and their perception of actor’s personality traits and attribution of actor’s behaviour. The study was conducted on a sample of 76 subjects divided into two groups, on the basis of degree of acquaintance with actors. First group estimated a close person, a best friend. Second group estimated a person they are not acquainted with. This person was described in an invented interview. In the first part of the research, all subjects completed The Big Five Inventory (John, 1991. In the second part of the research, subjects estimated personality traits of actors (using BFI and attributed actor’s behaviour using The Attributional Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982. The results suggest that there are at least two types of bias in estimation of other people. One type is in relation with acquaintance. Observers estimate close persons more positively than persons they don’t know. Second type of bias is in relation to personality traits of observers. These personality traits are Consciousness, Extraversion and Openness.

  7. Personal and Family Correlates of Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong (United States)

    Lai Kwok, Sylvia Y. C.; Shek, Daniel T. L.


    Based on the family ecological model, personal (hopelessness, social problem solving, emotional competence) and family (parent-adolescent communication, family functioning) quality of life measures related to adolescent suicidal ideation were examined in 5,557 Secondary 1 to Secondary 4 students in Hong Kong. Results showed that suicidal ideation…

  8. An Examination of Personal Values and Value Systems of Chinese and U.S. Business Students (United States)

    Giacomino, Don E.; Li, Xin; Michael D. Akers,


    Using the Rokeach Value Survey and the Musser and Orke typology this paper examines the personal values and value systems of business students in China and compares the results with the results of a recent study that used similar methodology to examine the values and value systems of U.S. students. The study also examines the differences in values…

  9. Validating Student Score Inferences with Person-Fit Statistic and Verbal Reports: A Person-Fit Study for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Roberts, Mary Roduta


    The goal of this study was to investigate the usefulness of person-fit analysis in validating student score inferences in a cognitive diagnostic assessment. In this study, a two-stage procedure was used to evaluate person fit for a diagnostic test in the domain of statistical hypothesis testing. In the first stage, the person-fit statistic, the…

  10. The effect of stress and personality on dangerous driving behavior among Chinese drivers. (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Qu, Weina; Jiang, Caihong; Du, Feng; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan


    The relationship between stress and road safety has been studied for many years, but the effect of global stress and its joint effect with personality on driving behavior have received little attention in previous studies. This study aimed to elucidate the impact of global stress and various personality traits on driving behavior. 242 drivers completed the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10), the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI), and several personality trait scales related to anger, sensation seeking, and altruism. The results showed that perceived stress and sensation seeking were significantly correlated with the four subcategories of dangerous driving behavior, namely, negative cognitive/emotional driving (NCED), aggressive driving (AD), risky driving (RD), and drunk driving (DD). Moreover, anger was positively correlated with negative cognitive/emotional driving, aggressive driving, and risky driving, and altruism was negatively correlated with aggressive driving and drunk driving. Hierarchical multiple regressions were applied to analyze the mediating effect of personality traits, and the results showed that anger mediated the relationship between stress and dangerous driving behavior and that this mediating role was especially strong for negative cognitive/emotional driving and aggressive driving. Collectively, the results showed that stress is an important factor that can affect people's driving behavior but that personality traits mediate the effect of stress on driving behavior. The findings from this study regarding the relationship among stress, anger, and dangerous driving behavior could be applied in the development of intervention programs for stress and anger management in order to improve drivers' ability to manage emotional thoughts and adjust their behavior on the road.

  11. The modern assessment of personality disorders. Part 1: definition and typology of personality disorders. (United States)

    Mombour, W; Bronisch, T


    The general definition of personality disorders (PD) has found agreement in many classification systems and has remained relatively stable over many decades. However, a closer look at the history of the classification of various PD reveals that there are changes from generation to generation: a continuous variation in our cultural norms means that some types are 'renormalised' from time to time and that others are added. On the other hand, a comparison of the descriptions and classifications of PD by Schneider, the DSM and ICD systems shows substantial agreement on many types of PD.

  12. Assessment of toxic metals in waste personal computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolias, Konstantinos; Hahladakis, John N., E-mail:; Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Waste personal computers were collected and dismantled in their main parts. • Motherboards, monitors and plastic housing were examined in their metal content. • Concentrations measured were compared to the RoHS Directive, 2002/95/EC. • Pb in motherboards and funnel glass of devices released <2006 was above the limit. • Waste personal computers need to be recycled and environmentally sound managed. - Abstract: Considering the enormous production of waste personal computers nowadays, it is obvious that the study of their composition is necessary in order to regulate their management and prevent any environmental contamination caused by their inappropriate disposal. This study aimed at determining the toxic metals content of motherboards (printed circuit boards), monitor glass and monitor plastic housing of two Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors, three Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitors, one LCD touch screen monitor and six motherboards, all of which were discarded. In addition, concentrations of chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) were compared with the respective limits set by the RoHS 2002/95/EC Directive, that was recently renewed by the 2012/19/EU recast, in order to verify manufacturers’ compliance with the regulation. The research included disassembly, pulverization, digestion and chemical analyses of all the aforementioned devices. The toxic metals content of all samples was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results demonstrated that concentrations of Pb in motherboards and funnel glass of devices with release dates before 2006, that is when the RoHS Directive came into force, exceeded the permissible limit. In general, except from Pb, higher metal concentrations were detected in motherboards in comparison with plastic housing and glass samples. Finally, the results of this work were encouraging, since concentrations of metals referred in the RoHS Directive were found in

  13. Developing schemas for assessing personal and social competences among unskilled young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Vibe; Wahlgren, Bjarne


    competences. The schema was developed in cooperation with practitioners, i.e. representatives from workplaces, from municipal youth guidance centres, and from VET colleges. Based on the experiences accrued in developing the schema, the article discusses how personal and social competences can be assessed......Personal and social competences are crucial parts of VET competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for vocational education and training, a research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading personal and social...

  14. Personal spiritual values and quality of life: evidence from Chinese college students. (United States)

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Hui, C Harry; Lam, Jasmine; Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Cheung, Shu-Fai; Mok, Doris Shui Ying


    Values are guiding principles in our life. While some studies found spiritual values to be "healthier," Sagiv and Schwartz (Eur J Soc Psychol 30:177-198, 2000) showed that people holding non-spiritual values were higher on affective well-being. We examined the predictive power of these two types of values with a longitudinal data set collected from Chinese students mainly in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling revealed that spiritual values (as well as family income) positively predicted quality of life a year later. Non-spiritual, self-enhancement values, did not show any association. Results suggest that developing spiritual values may promote well-being through enabling individuals to find meaning and purpose in life.

  15. Literature review and analysis of the development of health outcomes assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Zheng-zheng Zhang; Di Xie; Nelson Xie; Hong Thach Nguyen


    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the development of health outcomes assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:A comprehensive literature search for all published articles in China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database,Chongqing VIP Database and WANFANG Data was conducted.The studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to extract information according to a predesigned assessment instrument.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine were identified.Of these questionnaires,7 were generic,12 were condition-specific and 78 were disease-specific.All instruments were suitable for adults,children,and both men and women.These instruments aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life,signs and symptoms as well as patient satisfaction and doctor-reported outcome.However,the descriptions were poorly constructed for some of the most basic parameters,such as the domains and items,administrative mode,response options,memory recall periods,burden evaluation,format,copyright,content validity,and other properties.CONCLUSION:The instrument development for health outcomes assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,there are many limitations in current methodologies and standards,and further studies are needed.

  16. Narcissistic personality and risk perception among Chinese aviators: The mediating role of promotion focus. (United States)

    Ju, Chengting; Ji, Ming; Lan, Jijun; You, Xuqun


    Optimism bias is a crucial feature of risk perception that leads to increased risk-taking behaviour, which is a particularly salient issue among pilots in aviation settings due to the high-stakes nature of flight. The current study sought to address the roles of narcissism and promotion focus on optimism bias in risk perception in aviation context. Participants were 239 male flight cadets from the Civil Aviation Flight University of China who completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13, the Work Regulatory Focus Scale, and an indirect measure of unrealistic optimism in risk perception, which measured risk perception for the individual and the risk assumed by other individuals performing the same task. Higher narcissism increased the likelihood of underestimating personal risks, an effect that was mediated by high promotion focus motivation, such that high narcissism led to high promotion focus motivation. The findings have important implications for improving the accuracy of risk perception in aviation risks among aviators.

  17. Neuroimaging supports behavioral personality assessment: Overlapping activations during reflective and impulsive risk taking. (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; M Ortner, Tuulia


    Personality assessment has been challenged by the fact that different assessment methods (implicit measures, behavioral measures and explicit rating scales) show little or no convergence in behavioral studies. In this neuroimaging study we address for the first time, whether different assessment methods rely on separate or overlapping neuronal systems. Fifty nine healthy adult participants completed two objective personality tests of risk propensity: the more implicit Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the more explicit Game of Dice Task (GDT). Significant differences in activation, as well as connectivity patterns between both tasks were observed. In both tasks, risky decisions yielded significantly stronger activations than safe decisions in the bilateral caudate, as well as the bilateral Insula. The finding of overlapping brain areas validates different assessment methods, despite their behavioral non-convergence. This suggests that neuroimaging can be an important tool of validation in the field of personality assessment.

  18. Dangerous driving in a Chinese sample: associations with morningness-eveningness preference and personality. (United States)

    Qu, Weina; Ge, Yan; Xiong, Yuexin; Carciofo, Richard; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan


    Individual differences in morningness-eveningness preference may influence susceptibility and response to sleepiness. These differences could influence driving performance, but the influence of morningness-eveningness preference on driving behavior and accident risk has not been comprehensively studied. As morningness-eveningness preference is associated with personality characteristics, we also investigated how the interaction between morningness-eveningness preference and personality may be related to dangerous driving behaviors. Two hundred and ninety five drivers completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, and personality scales for agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism, and reported demographic information (gender, age, level of education, driving years and annual average driving mileage) and self-reported traffic violations (accidents, penalty points and fines). The results showed that more Risky Driving, Aggressive Driving, Negative Cognitive/Emotional Driving and Drunk Driving, as measured by the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, were all significantly correlated with more eveningness, corresponding to lower scores on the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Moreover, eveningness was correlated with self-reported traffic accidents, penalty points and fines. Furthermore, a moderation effect was found: eveningness was more strongly associated with risky driving and negative emotional driving in those who scored high for trait agreeableness.

  19. Dangerous driving in a Chinese sample: associations with morningness-eveningness preference and personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Qu

    Full Text Available Individual differences in morningness-eveningness preference may influence susceptibility and response to sleepiness. These differences could influence driving performance, but the influence of morningness-eveningness preference on driving behavior and accident risk has not been comprehensively studied. As morningness-eveningness preference is associated with personality characteristics, we also investigated how the interaction between morningness-eveningness preference and personality may be related to dangerous driving behaviors. Two hundred and ninety five drivers completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, and personality scales for agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism, and reported demographic information (gender, age, level of education, driving years and annual average driving mileage and self-reported traffic violations (accidents, penalty points and fines. The results showed that more Risky Driving, Aggressive Driving, Negative Cognitive/Emotional Driving and Drunk Driving, as measured by the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, were all significantly correlated with more eveningness, corresponding to lower scores on the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Moreover, eveningness was correlated with self-reported traffic accidents, penalty points and fines. Furthermore, a moderation effect was found: eveningness was more strongly associated with risky driving and negative emotional driving in those who scored high for trait agreeableness.

  20. Behavioral and trait rating assessments of personality in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). (United States)

    Iwanicki, Suzanne; Lehmann, Julia


    The study of personality in animals is a rapidly growing scientific field and numerous species have been reported to show consistent personality profiles. Much animal personality research has focused on nonhuman primates, with the main emphasis being placed on Old World primates, particularly rhesus macaques and chimpanzees. So far, little work has been done on cooperatively breeding nonhuman primates and New World species. Here, we study personality in the cooperatively breeding common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to broaden the taxonomic range of such research and to widen the perspective of comparative personality research. We use behavioral data collection and observer trait ratings to assess marmoset personality dimensions. The resulting behavioral and rating-derived personality dimensions, when viewed in tandem, resemble the human five-factor model and include extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and conscientiousness. Correlations between the behavioral data and the observer trait-rated personality components suggest that the personality construct of common marmosets exhibits both convergent and discriminant validity. The finding of a distinct Conscientiousness component in this species extends previous knowledge in comparative personality psychology and warrants reconsideration of proposed taxonomic trait distributions.

  1. Personalized risk communication for personalized risk assessment: Real world assessment of knowledge and motivation for six mortality risk measures from an online life expectancy calculator. (United States)

    Manuel, Douglas G; Abdulaziz, Kasim E; Perez, Richard; Beach, Sarah; Bennett, Carol


    In the clinical setting, previous studies have shown personalized risk assessment and communication improves risk perception and motivation. We evaluated an online health calculator that estimated and presented six different measures of life expectancy/mortality based on a person's sociodemographic and health behavior profile. Immediately after receiving calculator results, participants were invited to complete an online survey that asked how informative and motivating they found each risk measure, whether they would share their results and whether the calculator provided information they need to make lifestyle changes. Over 80% of the 317 survey respondents found at least one of six healthy living measures highly informative and motivating, but there was moderate heterogeneity regarding which measures respondents found most informative and motivating. Overall, health age was most informative and life expectancy most motivating. Approximately 40% of respondents would share the results with their clinician (44%) or social networks (38%), although the information they would share was often different from what they found informative or motivational. Online personalized risk assessment allows for a more personalized communication compared to historic paper-based risk assessment to maximize knowledge and motivation, and people should be provided a range of risk communication measures that reflect different risk perspectives.

  2. Assessing Personal Learning Environments (PLEs. An expert evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Llorente Cejudo


    Full Text Available On the basis of the Research Project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Education under the title “Design, production and evaluation of a 2.0 learning environment for faculty training in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs” (EDU2009-08 893, experts have used the external competence coefficient to evaluate the different dimensions of Personal Learning Environments (PLE, namely: technical and aesthetic aspects, ease of navigation, or quality of the didactic elements that make up the environment. A quantitative methodology along with a questionnaire prepared by the author served this purpose. The results obtained highlight technical environment operation, the tools forming the PLE, or the learning object repository as being “very positive.” In conclusion, experts emphasise the user-friendliness of environment and tools alike, as well as the educational aspects of the contents available in materials guides.

  3. A social work study for assessment of entrepreneurs' personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani


    Full Text Available The personality of an entrepreneur plays an important role on the success of creating new ideas. There are different characteristics such as courage, hardness, braveness, which could help an entrepreneur reach his/her goals. In this paper, we present an empirical study to learn more about students who are supposed to act as entrepreneur to create jobs in different fields of accounting, computer science, mechanical engineering, etc. In this paper, There are seven aspects of accepting reasonable risk, locus of control, the need for success, mental health conditions, being pragmatic, tolerating ambiguity, dreaming and the sense of challenging in our study to measure the level of entrepreneurship. We implement ANOVA test to measure different entrepreneurship characteristics of students who study in various educational fields. The case study is associated with Sama private university located in city of Zanjan/Iran. The results indicate that there are not meaningful differences among pairwise comparison of many engineering fields.

  4. Comparative Assessment of Severe Accidents in the Chinese Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S.; Burgherr, P.; Spiekerman, G.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazek, J.; Cheng, L


    This report deals with the comparative assessment of accidents risks characteristic for the various electricity supply options. A reasonably complete picture of the wide spectrum of health, environmental and economic effects associated with various energy systems can only be obtained by considering damages due to normal operation as well as due to accidents. The focus of the present work is on severe accidents, as these are considered controversial. By severe accidents we understand potential or actual accidents that represent a significant risk to people, property and the environment and may lead to large consequences. (author)

  5. Factor Structure and Validation of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Questionnaire (DAPQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Krupić


    Full Text Available The last decade was extremely dynamic in the field of personality disorder. The extensive research has resulted with significant changes in conceptualization and assessment of personality psychopathology. DSM 5 has introduced a hybrid diagnostic model of personality disorders, which leads toward implementing dimensional instead of categorical approach to personality disorders. There are many questionnaires aimed to measure dimensions of personality psychopathology. However, they contain a large number of items, which may present a methodological problem in conducting research on large samples. Hence, the aim of this study is to present development of a short questionnaire aimed to measure main dimensions of personality psychopathology. The questionnaire, named Dimensional Assessment of Personality Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ, contains 62 items distributed into 5 main scales; Negative Emotionality, Detachment, Compulsivity, Psychoticism and Antagonism, and two additional scales Grandiosity and Attention Seeking. Study was conducted on the sample of 456 high school students from Osijek and Koprivnica. The DAPTQ, YPI, LEXI - 70 and Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being were administered. Results indicate good psychometric properties, namely content, construct and convergent validity and reliability, of all scales of the DAPTQ. This paper discusses some measurement issues concerning personality psychopathology in adolescents' population and the ways in which they could be overcome.

  6. Personality Assessment of Global Talent: Conceptual and Methodological Issues (United States)

    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.


    The recruitment of managers who will operate in a culturally heterogeneous context (as expatriate managers, managers in a global company, or managers of a multicultural workforce) is increasingly important in an age of globalization. This article describes conceptual and methodological issues in the assessment of such managers, notably in the…

  7. The CPAI-2 As a Culturally Relevant Personality Measure in Differentiating among Academic Major Groups (United States)

    Ng, Alexander; Fan, Weiqiao; Cheung, Fanny M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Cheung, Shu Fai


    We examined whether the Cross-Cultural (Chinese) Personality Assessment Inventory-2 (CPAI-2), developed by the combined emic-etic approach, could provide useful information for us to understand the relations between personality and the key academic major groups in the Chinese context. Participants in this study included 989 university students…

  8. Assessing the nutritional status of elderly Chinese lung cancer patients using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA® tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L


    Full Text Available Lei Zhang,1,* Yanjun Su,1,* Chen Wang,2 Yongsheng Sha,1 Hong Zhu,3 Shumin Xie,4 Sabrina Kwauk,5 Jing Zhang,2 Yunshou Lin,2 Changli Wang1,*1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Lung Cancer Center, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, 2Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 3Department of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 4Xiangya Medical School of Central-South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 5School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Cambridge, MA, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This study assessed the nutritional status of elderly Chinese lung cancer inpatients using a revised version of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA® tool.Patients and methods: The revised version of the MNA tool was used to assess the nutritional status of 180 elderly Chinese lung cancer inpatients prior to their scheduled surgery between June 2010 and July 2011. Patients' demographic data, anthropometric parameters, and biochemical markers were collected and analyzed.Results: Among the 180 inpatients who underwent the MNA, 9% were malnourished (MNA score < 19, 33% were at risk of malnutrition (MNA score 19–23, and 58% were well nourished (MNA score ≥ 24. There was significant correlation between the MNA scores of patients who were malnourished, at risk of malnutrition, and well nourished (P < 0.001, as well as between total MNA score and most MNA questions. The three patient groups with different nutritional statuses differed significantly in their responses to anthropometrics and global, diet, and subjective assessments.Conclusion: Incidence rates of malnutrition prior to surgery are high among elderly Chinese lung cancer inpatients. The revised MNA is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to assess and prevent malnutrition among these inpatients.Keywords: malnutrition, MNA-SF, nutrition, inpatients, diet

  9. Psychodiagnostic test usage: a survey of the society for personality assessment. (United States)

    Piotrowski, C; Sherry, D; Keller, J W


    The present survey investigated psychodiagnostic test usage and practices of the Society for Personality Assessment. A brief questionnaire was forwarded to 400 SPA members and 206 responded for a 51.5% rate of return. Projective techniques found popular in previous surveys of Division 12 were the major assessment instruments utilized by SPA members. Exner's comprehensive system was the preferred mode of Rorschach analysis, followed by the Klopfer and Beck systems. The Wechsler Scales and the MMPI were frequently included in conducting a psychological battery. Personality assessment was mainly utilized for diagnostic purposes and as an indicator for type of therapy.

  10. On English and Chinese Second Personal Pronouns Through Power and Solidarity%英汉第二人称代词的权势与同等研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣萍; 陆阳


    English and Chinese second personal pronouns , as an indispensable part of the language systems , are not only the product of the particular cultures but the cultural symbols of interpersonal relationships .Second person pronouns can display the sta-tus disparities and personal relationships between both sides in the verbal communication .Studying English and Chinese second per-sonal pronouns through power and solidarity , we find that English is more dominated by solidarity relation while Chinese is more in-flenced by power relation .However , with the development and change of the society , solidarity plays a more and more important role in Chinese second personal pronouns .The study can be of some value for cross -cultural communication .%英汉第二人称代词作为语言系统中必不可少的组成部分,既是特定文化的产物也是人际关系的文化符号。第二人称代词的使用可以显示言语交际双方的身份差距和亲疏有别。运用权势和同等关系原则,对英汉第二人称代词进行研究,发现同等关系对英语的影响占主导地位;而权势原则对汉语影响较大。然而,随着社会的发展和变迁,同等关系对汉语的影响力逐步加大。该研究能为跨文化交际的顺利进行提供一定的帮助。

  11. A Multi-Peer Assessment Platform for Programming Language Learning: Considering Group Non-Consensus and Personal Radicalness (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Liang, Yaowen; Liu, Luning; Liu, Ying


    Multi-peer assessment has often been used by teachers to reduce personal bias and make the assessment more reliable. This study reviews the design and development of multi-peer assessment systems that detect and solve two common issues in such systems: non-consensus among group members and personal radicalness in some assessments. A multi-peer…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Wenger


    Full Text Available The psychological assessment of offenders throughout the different stages in the juvenile justice system is essential. It ensures the adequacy of the legal and educational measures to be applied in the process. This paper reviews the main tests of psychological assessment available in Spanish, suitable for use by psychology professionals who work with young offenders in the juvenile justice services in Spanish-speaking countries. We classify these tools into three groups: a personological, i.e. generic tools, suitable for any professional context in psychology, b clinical, i.e. tools whose initial use has been limited to working with adolescents with mental health needs, and c forensic, tools that have been specially developed for use in the juvenile justice population. This last group is described in the second part of this article (which appears in this same issue. The most important instruments of proven utility are presented and reviewed for each group.

  13. Assessment of toxic metals in waste personal computers. (United States)

    Kolias, Konstantinos; Hahladakis, John N; Gidarakos, Evangelos


    Considering the enormous production of waste personal computers nowadays, it is obvious that the study of their composition is necessary in order to regulate their management and prevent any environmental contamination caused by their inappropriate disposal. This study aimed at determining the toxic metals content of motherboards (printed circuit boards), monitor glass and monitor plastic housing of two Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors, three Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitors, one LCD touch screen monitor and six motherboards, all of which were discarded. In addition, concentrations of chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) were compared with the respective limits set by the RoHS 2002/95/EC Directive, that was recently renewed by the 2012/19/EU recast, in order to verify manufacturers' compliance with the regulation. The research included disassembly, pulverization, digestion and chemical analyses of all the aforementioned devices. The toxic metals content of all samples was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results demonstrated that concentrations of Pb in motherboards and funnel glass of devices with release dates before 2006, that is when the RoHS Directive came into force, exceeded the permissible limit. In general, except from Pb, higher metal concentrations were detected in motherboards in comparison with plastic housing and glass samples. Finally, the results of this work were encouraging, since concentrations of metals referred in the RoHS Directive were found in lower levels than the legislative limits.

  14. Personal Metabolism (PM) coupled with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model: Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten; Kabins, Simon


    Sustainable and informed resource consumption is the key to make everyday living sustainable for entire populations.An intelligent and strategic way of addressing the challenges related with sustainable development of the everyday living of consumers is to identify consumption-determined hotspots...... in the context of environmental and human health burdens,as well as resource consumptions. A systematic commodity consumption, commodity disposal, and life style survey of 1281 persons living in urbanized Danish areas was conducted. The findings of the survey showed new impact dimensions in terms of Personal...... for all the 1281 persons was set-up in Gabi 6. The assessment results obtained applying the model on all 1281 personal consumption scenarios yielded the 1281 Personal Impact Profiles (PIPs). Consumption of food and energy (electricity and thermal energy) proved to be the primary impact sources of PM...

  15. An agent-based interaction model for Chinese personal income distribution (United States)

    Zou, Yijiang; Deng, Weibing; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu


    The personal income distribution in China was studied by employing the data from China Household Income Projects (CHIP) between 1990 and 2002. It was observed that the low and middle income regions could be described by the log-normal law, while the large income region could be well fitted by the power law. To characterize these empirical findings, a stochastic interactive model with mean-field approach was discussed, and the analytic result shows that the wealth distribution is of the Pareto type. Then we explored the agent-based model on networks, in which the exchange of wealth among agents depends on their connectivity. Numerical results suggest that the wealth of agents would largely rely on their connectivity, and the Pareto index of the simulated wealth distributions is comparable to those of the empirical data. The Pareto behavior of the tails of the empirical wealth distributions is consistent with that of the 'mean-field' model, as well as numerical simulations.

  16. Self-Assessment Of Personal Virtues and its Correlation to the Basic Beliefs and Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Bogomaz


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of empirical research of the personal values as bases for self-assessments of some personal virtues. The study is implemented in line with positive psychology, and is based on the concept of values as basic foundations of a particular human actions. The empirical research of a self-assessment of expressiveness of personal values at 658 residents of 4 Siberian cities of Russia. (Tomsk, Kemerovo, Barnaul, Lesosibirsk was carried out in 2013-2014 with the use of the technique the "Questionnaire of 24 virtues" developed by E.N. Osin on the basis of a questionnaire "A profile of personal values" of K. Peterson and M. Seligman's Values-In-Action. The results of cluster and correlation analysis were presented, allowing to isolate distinct groups of the virtues in a sample and to connect these to the basic beliefs and values.

  17. The Rorschach in the context of performance-based personality assessment. (United States)

    McGrath, Robert E


    In this article, I draw on literature concerning the current status of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (Exner, 2002), performance-based personality measurement, direct versus indirect personality assessment, and dual-process models to suggest a reconceptualization of the Rorschach. The goal is to offer an updated conceptual framework for thinking about the Rorschach that can potentially be used both to enhance the image of the method and to provide direction for future research on the validity of specific Rorschach scores.

  18. The Enactment of Formative Assessment in English Language Classrooms in Two Chinese Universities: Teacher and Student Responses (United States)

    Chen, Qiuxian; May, Lyn; Klenowski, Val; Kettle, Margaret


    The "College English Curriculum Requirements," announced by the Chinese Ministry of Education in 2007, recommended the inclusion of formative assessment into the existing summative assessment framework of College English. This policy had the potential to fundamentally change the nature of assessment and its role in the teaching and…

  19. Development and Validation of a Fine-Motor Assessment Tool for Use with Young Children in a Chinese Population (United States)

    Siu, Andrew M. H.; Lai, Cynthia Y. Y.; Chiu, Amy S. M.; Yip, Calvin C. K.


    Objectives: Most of the fine-motor assessment tools used in Hong Kong have been designed in Western countries, so there is a need to develop a standardized assessment which is relevant to the culture and daily living tasks of the local (that is, Chinese) population. This study aimed to (1) develop a fine-motor assessment tool (the Hong Kong…

  20. Are DSM-IV-TR borderline personality disorder, ICD-10 emotionally unstable personality disorder, and CCMD-III impulsive personality disorder analogous diagnostic categories across psychiatric nomenclatures? (United States)

    Lai, Ching Man; Leung, Freedom; You, Jianing; Cheung, Fanny


    This study examined the validity of the borderline construct which encompasses diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV-TR Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), ICD-10 Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder (EUPD), and CCMD-III Impulsive Personality Disorder (IPD) in a sample of 1,419 Chinese psychiatric patients. Participants completed the Chinese Personality Disorder Inventory and the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-2 assessing various disordered personality features. Adequate internal consistency was found for the borderline construct (α = .83). Exploratory factor analysis revealed two components: (1) affective and cognitive disturbances, and (2) impulse dysregulation, which were replicated by confirmatory factor analysis. Item analysis indicated that the various borderline criteria displayed similar levels of diagnostic efficiency, which does not support the elimination of fear of abandonment and transient psychotic features from the EUPD and IPD criteria set. Findings of this study suggest that BPD, EUPD, and IPD may represent analogous diagnostic categories across classification systems.

  1. Development of Chinese characterization factors for land use in life cycle impact assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A model with Chinese characterization factors for quantifying the damages to environment by land use in terms of the change in net primary productivity (NPP) of ecosystem was developed in the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA).In this method,the forms of land utilization were divided into two aspects involving long-term use of land (e.g.,for arable farming),namely "land occupation",and the change of land properties (e.g.,from agricultural area to urban area),namely "land transformation".Furthermore,the land use elementary flows (occupation and transformation) and parameters were linked to the impact indicators,and the characterization formulas of the two forms of land utilization were derived respectively according to the ecological theory.Moreover,based on this method,the characterization factors of both land occupation and land transformation were calculated using Chinese empirical information on NPP,which can be incorporated into LCA framework and applied to Chinese LCA case study to fill up the important gap in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of land use.

  2. Reliability assessment and correlation analysis of evaluating orthodontic treatment outcome in Chinese patients. (United States)

    Song, Guang-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-He; Ding, Yin; Bai, Yu-Xing; Wang, Lin; He, Hong; Shen, Gang; Li, Wei-Ran; Baumrind, Sheldon; Geng, Zhi; Xu, Tian-Min


    This study aimed to assess the reliability of experienced Chinese orthodontists in evaluating treatment outcome and to determine the correlations between three diagnostic information sources. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontic specialists each evaluated the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 108 Chinese patients. Three different information sources: study casts (SC), lateral cephalometric X-ray images (LX) and facial photographs (PH) were generated at the end of treatment for 108 patients selected randomly from six orthodontic treatment centers throughout China. Six different assessments of treatment outcome were made by each orthodontist using data from the three information sources separately and in combination. Each assessment included both ranking and grading for each patient. The rankings of each of the 69 judges for the 108 patients were correlated with the rankings of each of the other judges yielding 13 873 Spearman rs values, ranging from -0.08 to +0.85. Of these, 90% were greater than 0.4, showing moderate-to-high consistency among the 69 orthodontists. In the combined evaluations, study casts were the most significant predictive component (R(2)=0.86, P<0.000 1), while the inclusion of lateral cephalometric films and facial photographs also contributed to a more comprehensive assessment (R(2)=0.96, P<0.000 1). Grading scores for SC+LX and SC+PH were highly significantly correlated with those for SC+LX+PH (r(SC+LX)vs.(SC+LX+PH)=0.96, r(SC+PH)vs.(SC+LX+PH)=0.97), showing that either SC+LX or SC+PH is an excellent substitute for all three combined assessment.

  3. Reliability assessment and correlation analysis of evaluating orthodontic treatment outcome in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Ying Song; Zhi Geng; Tian-Min Xu; Zhi-He Zhao; Yin Ding; Yu-Xing Bai; Lin Wang; Hong He; Gang Shen; Wei-Ran Li; Sheldon Baumrind


    This study aimed to assess the reliability of experienced Chinese orthodontists in evaluating treatment outcome and to determine the correlations between three diagnostic information sources. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontic specialists each evaluated the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 108 Chinese patients. Three different information sources:study casts (SC), lateral cephalometric X-ray images (LX) and facial photographs (PH) were generated at the end of treatment for 108 patients selected randomly from six orthodontic treatment centers throughout China. Six different assessments of treatment outcome were made by each orthodontist using data from the three information sources separately and in combination. Each assessment included both ranking and grading for each patient. The rankings of each of the 69 judges for the 108 patients were correlated with the rankings of each of the other judges yielding 13 873 Spearman rs values, ranging from-0.08 to 10.85. Of these, 90%were greater than 0.4, showing moderate-to-high consistency among the 69 orthodontists. In the combined evaluations, study casts were the most significant predictive component (R250.86, P,0.000 1), while the inclusion of lateral cephalometric films and facial photographs also contributed to a more comprehensive assessment (R250.96, P,0.000 1). Grading scores for SC1LX and SC1PH were highly significantly correlated with those for SC1LX1PH (r(SC1LX)vs.(SC1LX1PH)50.96, r(SC1PH)vs.(SC1LX1PH)50.97), showing that either SC1LX or SC1PH is an excellent substitute for all three combined assessment.

  4. Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study: Design and Methods Validation of Personal, Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring (United States)

    The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures...

  5. Brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia: normative data in an English-speaking ethnic Chinese sample. (United States)

    Eng, Goi Khia; Lam, Max; Bong, Yioe Ling; Subramaniam, Mythily; Bautista, Dianne; Rapisarda, Attilio; Kraus, Michael; Lee, Jimmy; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Chong, Siow Ann; Keefe, Richard S E


    There is a dearth of non-Western normative data for neuropsychological batteries designed to measure cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Here, we provide normative data for English-speaking ethnic Chinese on the widely used Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia acquired from 595 healthy community participants between ages 14 and 55. Means and standard deviations of subtests and composite scores were stratified by age group and sex. We also explored linear regression approaches to generate continuous norms adjusted for age, sex, and education. Notable differences in subtest performances were found against a Western comparison sample. Normative data established in the current sample are essential for clinical and research purposes as it serves as a reference source of cognition for ethnic Chinese.

  6. Evaluation of potential kidney donors with the personality assessment inventory: normative data for a unique population. (United States)

    Hurst, Duane F; Locke, Dona E C; Osborne, David


    Many transplant centers require personality assessment and/or psychiatric clearance prior to allowing an individual to donate a kidney. This is a unique cohort for personality assessment, and there is no normative information available for this population on standardized self-report measures such as the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). We evaluated a prospective sample of 434 kidney donor candidates with development of normative T-scores relevant to this specific comparison group. Compared to the original normative group from the PAI manual, potential kidney donors are 5-7 T-score points above the mean on PIM, RXR, DOM, and WRM and 4-6 points below the mean on the majority of the remaining scales. Raw score/T score conversion tables are provided. The normative data provided here is meant to supplement the original normative information and aid psychologists in evaluation of this unique medical population.

  7. The effects of collective self-esteem for ascribed group on stress coping, stress reaction, and personal self-esteem in Chinese undergraduates


    申, 銀女; 井隼, 経子; 中村, 知靖


    It is well-known that collective self-esteem for a group that we belong to the modulation of our stress. In China, collective self-esteem for achieved groups has been investigated, whereas that for ascribed groups has not. Thus, the present study examined the relationship among personal self-esteem, stress coping, stress reaction, and collective self-esteem for ascribed groups by measuring these factors in Chinese undergraduate students. The undergraduate students (N=358) responded to four qu...

  8. The role of personality traits and driving experience in self-reported risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese drivers. (United States)

    Tao, Da; Zhang, Rui; Qu, Xingda


    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of personality traits and driving experience in the prediction of risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese population. A convenience sample of drivers (n=511; mean (SD) age=34.2 (8.8) years) completed a self-report questionnaire that was designed based on validated scales for measuring personality traits, risky driving behaviors and self-reported accident risk. Results from structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated that the data fit well with our theoretical model. While showing no direct effects on accident risk, personality traits had direct effects on risky driving behaviors, and yielded indirect effects on accident risk mediated by risky driving behaviors. Both driving experience and risky driving behaviors directly predicted accident risk and accounted for 15% of its variance. There was little gender difference in personality traits, risky driving behaviors and accident risk. The findings emphasized the importance of personality traits and driving experience in the understanding of risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese drivers and provided new insight into the design of evidence-based driving education and accident prevention interventions.

  9. Psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version of the Person-Centered Care Assessment Tool (P-CAT)


    Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Sandman, Per-Olof; Zingmark, Karin; Edvardsson, David


    Background: Person-centered care is a multidimensional concept describing good care, especially within aged care and care for people with dementia. Research studies evaluating person-centered care interventions seldom use direct measurement of levels of person-centeredness. Existing scales that measure person-centeredness need further testing. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Person-Centered Care Assessment Tool (P-CAT). Methods: A cross-sectional...

  10. The relationship between personality organization as assessed by theory-driven profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the MMPI and self-reported features of personality organization. (United States)

    Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth H M; Luyten, Patrick; Remijsen, Mila; Koelen, Jurrijn


    In this study, we investigated the relationships between features of personality organization (PO) as assessed by theory driven profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the MMPI (DSFM; Luteijn & Kok, 1985) and 2 self-report measures of personality pathology, that is, the Dutch Inventory of Personality Organization (Berghuis, Kamphuis, Boedijn, & Verheul, 2009) and the Dutch Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Vollema & Hoijtink, 2000), in a sample of 190 outpatient psychiatric patients. Results showed that the single scales of all 3 measures segregated into 2 theoretically expected and meaningful dimensions, that is, a dimension assessing severity of personality pathology and an introversion/extraversion dimension. Theory-driven combinations of single DSFM subscales as a measure of level of PO distinguished characteristics of patients at various levels of PO in theoretically predicted ways. Results also suggest that structural personality pathology may not be fully captured by self-report measures.

  11. Computer-aided assessment of tone production: A case of Zimbabwean students learning Chinese as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Mushangwe


    Full Text Available This study examined how technology can help in assessing and teaching Chinese tones to foreign students who are not used to tonal languages. It was an attempt to show how we can use the PRAAT software to make learners of Chinese as a foreign language realize their tonal errors. The data used was collected from the students at the University of Zimbabwe studying Chinese and this was part of a continuous assessment for the students’ pronunciation of Chinese tones. This method which was used by teachers to assess students’ tones was found to be easy to follow such that students could also utilize it for their own pronunciation practice. We argued that the use of computer-aided assessment makes assessment of students’ tone acquisition lesser arbitrary than when the teacher merely gives comments based on his or her individual perception. This is because this assessment method gives PRAAT acoustic pictures which show the tone structures for each student; hence, both the student and the teacher can visualize the errors. Since PRAAT can provide a platform to compare the student’s pronunciation with that of the native speaker and at the same time can help the teacher to explain why student’s pronunciation is wrong, this paper concludes that PRAAT can be a useful tool in assessing and teaching Chinese tones.

  12. Personal Identification and the Assessment of the Psychophysiological State While Writing a Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Lozhnikov


    Full Text Available This article discusses the problem of user identification and psychophysiological state assessment while writing a signature using a graphics tablet. The solution of the problem includes the creation of templates containing handwriting signature features simultaneously with the hidden registration of physiological parameters of a person being tested. Heart rate variability description in the different time points is used as a physiological parameter. As a result, a signature template is automatically generated for psychophysiological states of an identified person. The problem of user identification and psychophysiological state assessment is solved depending on the registered value of a physiological parameter.

  13. Millon's Contributions to Preadolescent and Adolescent Personality Assessment: Searching Onward and Upward. (United States)

    Tringone, Robert; Bockian, Neil


    Theodore Millon was one of the most influential personality theorists of the 20th century. His theory was originally rooted in biosocial learning models and later reconceptualized as an evolutionary model. This foundation of Millon's work encompasses the entire life span. He had a genuine concern for humankind, especially children. His theory encompasses a comprehensive understanding of the relationship among childhood experiences, parenting styles, and recurring events throughout the life span in shaping the personality. Notable contributions to child and adolescent assessment are the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (Millon, Green, & Meagher, 1982 ), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1993 ), and the Millon Pre-Adolescent Clinical Inventory (M-PACI; Millon, Tringone, Millon, & Grossman, 2005 ). Given Millon's influence on the personality disorders section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the aforementioned instruments have personality constructs tied to familiar DSM categories, and among them, cover the age range of 9 to 18 years old. His development of the Millon Inventories revolutionized personality assessment in the United States and abroad. Millon's legacies will live on through his works and through the respect and compassion he demonstrated toward others.

  14. The Self-report Standardized Assessment of Personality-abbreviated Scale: Preliminary results of a brief screening test for personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germans, S.; Heck, G.L. van; Moran, P.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.


    Objective The internal consistency, test-retest reliability and validity of the Self-report Standardized Assessment of Personality-abbreviated Scale (SAPAS-SR) as a screening instrument for personality disorders were studied in a random sample of 195 Dutch psychiatric outpatients, using the Structu

  15. The mind’s eye on personal identity profiles: Design and development of a personal identity profile to inform initial trustworthiness assessments in virtual project teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob


    Rusman, E., Van Bruggen, J., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2010, 15 June). The mind’s eye on personal identity profiles: Design and development of a personal identity profile to inform initial trustworthiness assessments in virtual project teams. Presentation of PhD research at LN PhD session. Overview

  16. Assessing linguistic and cultural equivalency of two Chinese-version sexual health instruments among Chinese immigrant youth. (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Han, Chong-Suk


    This study aimed to evaluate the linguistic and cultural equivalency of two Chinese-version instruments measuring sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among 10 bilingual and 2 monolingual Chinese immigrant youth aged 13-19 years. We used a rigorous design to translate, back-translate, and pilot test the instruments. Kappa coefficient, percentage agreement, and qualitative feedback from participants were used to examine reliability and validity of the instruments. Telephone interviews revealed that answer discrepancies in different language versions were due to external factors rather than lack of linguistic and cultural equivalency. This study offers preliminary evidence supporting the cultural and linguistic equivalence of two Chinese-version sexual scales.

  17. Comparing personality disorder models: cross-method assessment of the FFM and DSM-IV-TR. (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas W


    The current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) defines personality disorders as categorical entities that are distinct from each other and from normal personality traits. However, many scientists now believe that personality disorders are best conceptualized using a dimensional model of traits that span normal and abnormal personality, such as the Five-Factor Model (FFM). However, if the FFM or any dimensional model is to be considered as a credible alternative to the current model, it must first demonstrate an increment in the validity of the assessment offered within a clinical setting. Thus, the current study extended previous research by comparing the convergent and discriminant validity of the current DSM-IV-TR model to the FFM across four assessment methodologies. Eighty-eight individuals receiving ongoing psychotherapy were assessed for the FFM and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders using self-report, informant report, structured interview, and therapist ratings. The results indicated that the FFM had an appreciable advantage over the DSM-IV-TR in terms of discriminant validity and, at the domain level, convergent validity. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Assessing Interventions Available to Internally Displaced Persons in Abia State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enwereji EE


    Full Text Available Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. Method: The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. Results: None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68% organizations to 43 (78.2% of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12% included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. Conclusion: The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

  19. Assessment of Personality Types and Locus of Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Mazaheri


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease with unknown cause. MS is one of the disabling neurologic diseases in adult especially young range that myelin part of central nervous system (CNS is destructed. The aim of this study was assessment of types A and B personality and internal and external locus of control in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and comparison of the results with control group.Materials & Methods: In a case-control study, 30 patients with MS and 30 normal persons as control group evaluated with neurological examination, Rotter locus of control test and Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire for detection of types A and B personality. We employed to analyze the results.Results: 43 percent and 57 percent of MS patients had internal and external locus of control respectively. 63 percent and 37 percent of MS patients had type A and B personality respectively. 60 percent and 40 percent of control group had internal and external locus of control respectively. 20 percent and 80 percent of control group had type A and B personality respectively. Difference between personality type in two groups was significant (P<0.01.Conclusions: In this study, MS patients had more type A personality in comparison to control group.

  20. Thinking on the Implementation of Personalized Chinese Teaching%关于实施语文个性化教学的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Along with the development of modern education teaching, teachers of Chinese language will be an inevitable in facing with the problem of personalized teaching. Personalized language teaching is inevitable in modern education,and It~ the needs of the development of the students, It meets the requirements of the Chinese curriculum standard. Teachers in language teaching process should be reflected in the unique personal teaching personality, fully consider different students'psychological characteristics and individual differences. It varies from person to person. Teaching students in accordance of their aptitude, the teachers use the unique teaching strategy of personalized teaching.%随着现代教育教学的发展,语文教师将不可回避地面临着个性化教学的问题。语文个性化教学是现代教育教学发展的必然,是学生发展的需要,符合国家教育部制订的《语文课程标准》(实验稿)的要求。教师在语文教学过程中应体现个人独特的教学个性,充分考虑不同学生的心理特点和个别差异,因人而异,因材施教,运用独特的教学策略,进行个性化教学。

  1. MMPI assessment of the DSM-III-R histrionic personality disorder. (United States)

    Schotte, C; De Doncker, D; Maes, M; Cluydts, R; Cosyns, P


    This study investigated the MMPI characteristics of a group of 25 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM-III-R]; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) histrionic personality disorder patients, contrasted with a mixed group of 57 other personality disorder patients. All patients were diagnosed by means of a semistructured interview (SCID-II; Spitzer, Williams, & Gibbon, 1987). Effects for diagnostic category were found for MMPI Scales 9 (Ma), 0 (Si) and for the HST scale, developed by Morey, Waugh, and Blashfield (1985) for the diagnosis of the histrionic personality disorder. Further analysis of the results revealed that these MMPI scales, and especially the HST scale, mainly assess a social introversion-extraversion dimension, on which histrionic inpatients can be differentiated from nonhistrionic inpatients. This study does not offer direct empirical support for the use of the HST scale as a measurement of the DSM-III-R histrionic personality disorder concept.

  2. On Pedagogy of Personality Assessment: Application of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. (United States)

    Ramirez, Tatyana V


    In this article, Bloom's ( 1956 ) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, a pedagogical tool that can help instructors of personality assessment to develop effective and student-centered instructional design, is discussed. Bloom's taxonomy provides a progressive sequence of educational objectives used for lesson planning, needs assessment, and measurement of learning outcomes. The taxonomy comprises 6 categories of objectives that are ordered hierarchically, from the simplest to the most advanced. The levels are knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. I explain how the taxonomy can be applied to the teaching of personality assessment and discuss the implications for assessment pedagogy. I provide examples of effective instructional activities, overview the signs of learners at each level, and highlight typical errors that students make in their oral and written work. Strategies to help learners progress to higher order thinking are also addressed.

  3. Personality assessment in today's health care environment: therapeutic alliance and patient satisfaction. (United States)

    Quirk, Michael P; Erdberg, Philip; Crosier, Marlan; Steinfeld, Bradley


    This article addresses the role of personality assessment-specifically the Rorschach (Exner, 2002)-]in the context of the health care industry's increased focus on patient satisfaction. When providing psychotherapy, a challenge to providing patient-centered care turns on understanding and acting on the key aspects of the patient's personality that are crucial to forming an effective alliance. This article includes a description and examples of how personality assessment can enhance therapists' understanding of the ideational, affective, and self-control aspects of complicated patients' problem-solving styles. This enhanced understanding in turn can lead to improved therapeutic alliance between therapists and patients and to increased patient satisfaction with their care. How to provide feedback to the therapist also is addressed.

  4. Millon's Evolutionary Model of Personality Assessment: A Case for Categorical/Dimensional Prototypes. (United States)

    Grossman, Seth D


    Theodore Millon (1928-2014) was arguably one of the most influential figures in conceptualizing and detailing personality styles and disorders in the latter 20th and early 21st centuries. A prominent member of the Axis II Work Group of DSM-III, III-R, and IV, Millon continued refining his evolutionary model long after his active involvement with these committees, and remained focused on the future of personality assessment until his death in 2014. This article is an exploration of his latter works, critiques of recent DSM-5 developments, and commentary on the usefulness of his deductive methodology as it continues to apply to the study, classification, and clinical application of personality assessment.

  5. Introduction to the special section on mixture modeling in personality assessment. (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Hallquist, Michael N


    Latent variable models offer a conceptual and statistical framework for evaluating the underlying structure of psychological constructs, including personality and psychopathology. Complex structures that combine or compare categorical and dimensional latent variables can be accommodated using mixture modeling approaches, which provide a powerful framework for testing nuanced theories about psychological structure. This special series includes introductory primers on cross-sectional and longitudinal mixture modeling, in addition to empirical examples applying these techniques to real-world data collected in clinical settings. This group of articles is designed to introduce personality assessment scientists and practitioners to a general latent variable framework that we hope will stimulate new research and application of mixture models to the assessment of personality and its pathology.

  6. Advancing the Assessment of Personality Pathology With the Cognitive-Affective Processing System. (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M


    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) is a dynamic and expansive model of personality proposed by Mischel and Shoda (1995) that incorporates dispositional and processing frameworks by considering the interaction of the individual and the situation, and the patterns of variation that result. These patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior are generally defined through the use of if … then statements, and provide a rich understanding of the individual across varying levels of assessment. In this article, we describe the CAPS model and articulate ways in which it can be applied to conceptualizing and assessing personality pathology. We suggest that the CAPS model is an ideal framework that integrates a number of current theories of personality pathology, and simultaneously overcomes a number of limits that have been empirically identified in the past.

  7. Personality assessment in the Great Apes: comparing ecologically valid behavior measures, behavior ratings, and adjective ratings



    Three methods of personality assessment (behavior measures, behavior ratings, adjective ratings) were compared in 20 zoo-housed Great Apes: bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). To test a new bottom-up approach, the studied trait constructs were systematically generated from the species’ behavioral repertoires. The assessments were reliable, temporally stable, and showed substantial cross-method...

  8. Assessing the criminal responsibility of individuals with multiple personality disorder: legal cases, legal theory. (United States)

    Behnke, S H


    This article discusses the criminal responsibility of individuals diagnosed with multiple personality disorder (MPD). First, it reviews how courts understand and assess criminal responsibility. Second, it gives an overview of how courts have applied the doctrine of criminal responsibility to individuals with MPD. Third, it explains what legal theorists say about this question. Finally, it uses a case example to illustrate how various theorists would assess the responsibility of a criminal defendant with MPD.

  9. Assessment of Fat distribution and Bone quality with Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) in Healthy Chinese Men


    Shan Lv; Aisen Zhang; Wenjuan Di; Yunlu Sheng; Peng Cheng; Hanmei Qi; Juan Liu; Jing Yu; Guoxian Ding; Jinmei Cai; Bin Lai


    Whether fat is beneficial or detrimental to bones is still controversial, which may be due to inequivalence of the fat mass. Our objective is to define the effect of body fat and its distribution on bone quality in healthy Chinese men. A total of 228 men, aged from 38 to 89 years, were recruited. BMD, trabecular bone score (TBS), and body fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were assessed by MRI. In the Pearson correlation analysis,...

  10. A Normative Study of the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment (United States)

    Bucciarelli, Amy


    The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the…

  11. The Impact of NEO PI-R Gender Norms on the Assessment of Personality Disorder Profiles (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B.; Ansell, Emily B.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.


    Many personality assessment inventories provide gender-specific norms to allow comparison of an individual's standing relative to others of the same gender. In some cases, this means that an identical raw score produces standardized scores that differ notably depending on whether the respondent is male or female. Thus, an important question is…

  12. Using Personal Cell Phones for Ecological Momentary Assessment An Overview of Current Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Labhart, F.


    Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is a way of collecting data in people's natural environments in real time and has become very popular in social and health sciences. The emergence of personal digital assistants has led to more complex and sophisticated EMA protocols but has also highlighted som

  13. Taxometric Analysis of the Antisocial Features Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory in Federal Prison Inmates (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Geyer, Matthew D.; Duncan, Scott A.


    The Antisocial Features (ANT) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was subjected to taxometric analysis in a group of 2,135 federal prison inmates. Scores on the three ANT subscales--Antisocial Behaviors (ANT-A), Egocentricity (ANT-E), and Stimulus Seeking (ANT-S)--served as indicators in this study and were evaluated using the…

  14. Assessing personal talent determinants in young racquet sport players: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Bustin, P.M.; Oosterveld, F.G.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.


    Since junior performances have little predictive value for future success, other solutions are sought to assess a young player's potential. The objectives of this systematic review are (1) to provide an overview of instruments measuring personal talent determinants of young players in racquet sports

  15. Use of the "Personal Delivery" System for Assessment of Drug and Alcohol Attitudes and Usage Patterns. (United States)

    Crabtree, J. Michael; Myers, Stanley B.

    Community data concerning drug and alcohol usage patterns was assessed via a unique "personal delivery" system. The system, which can be used for collecting other community data produced a return rate of 45% and was very economical. This system largely overcomes the main drawback of the mailed questionnaire (low return rate) by (1) having…

  16. Personal Constructs in Rehabilitation Counseling: Empirically Derived Dimensions for Competence Assessment. (United States)

    Scofield, Michael E.; And Others


    Identified six dimensions of personal constructs related to rehabilitation counseling as the first part of an investigation into how these variables influence clinical problem solving. Findings have implications for competence assessment research, definition of the affective domain in rehabilitation counseling, and identification of its unique…

  17. Assessing personal talent determinants in young racquet sport players : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Irene R.; Bustin, Paul M. J.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Nijhuis-Van Der Sanden, Maria W. G.


    Since junior performances have little predictive value for future success, other solutions are sought to assess a young player's potential. The objectives of this systematic review are (1) to provide an overview of instruments measuring personal talent determinants of young players in racquet sports

  18. Personality Assessment Inventory Profiles of Deployed Combat Troops: An Empirical Investigation of Normative Performance (United States)

    Morey, Leslie C.; Lowmaster, Sara E.; Coldren, Rodney L.; Kelly, Mark P.; Parish, Robert V.; Russell, Michael L.


    The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of…

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of Personal Exposure Assessment Using a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Mikael K.


    The present work deals with the investigation of uncertainties related to personal exposure assessment using a breathing thermal manikin subject to a partly uniform velocity field in a wind channel. Several parameters are investigated: velocity level, thermal manikin heat flux, Archimedes number...

  20. An integrative typology of personality assessment for aggression: implications for predicting counterproductive workplace behavior. (United States)

    Bing, Mark N; Stewart, Susan M; Davison, H Kristl; Green, Philip D; McIntyre, Michael D; James, Lawrence R


    This study presents an integrative typology of personality assessment for aggression. In this typology, self-report and conditional reasoning (L. R. James, 1998) methodologies are used to assess 2 separate, yet often congruent, components of aggressive personalities. Specifically, self-report is used to assess explicit components of aggressive tendencies, such as self-perceived aggression, whereas conditional reasoning is used to assess implicit components, in particular, the unconscious biases in reasoning that are used to justify aggressive acts. These 2 separate components are then integrated to form a new theoretical typology of personality assessment for aggression. Empirical tests of the typology were subsequently conducted using data gathered across 3 samples in laboratory and field settings and reveal that explicit and implicit components of aggression can interact in the prediction of counterproductive, deviant, and prosocial behaviors. These empirical tests also reveal that when either the self-report or conditional reasoning methodology is used in isolation, the resulting assessment of aggression may be incomplete. Implications for personnel selection, team composition, and executive coaching are discussed.

  1. The Person Centered approach in Gerontology: New validity evidence of the Staff Assessment Person-directed Care Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Martínez


    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivos La atención centrada en la persona es un enfoque innovador que busca mejorar la calidad asistencial de los servicios para personas mayores que precisan cuidados. Ante el creciente interés hacia este enfoque es necesario contar con instrumentos de medida que permitan evaluar en qué grado los servicios gerontológicos llevan a cabo una atención centrada en la persona. El objetivo de este trabajo es la adaptación y validación del Staff Assessment Person-directed Care (PDC en población espanola. ˜ Método Se llevó a cabo la traducción y adaptación del PDC al espanol ˜ y se aplicó a una muestra de 1.339 profesionales de atención directa, pertenecientes a 56 residencias para personas mayores. El estudio de las propiedades psicométricas se realizó desde el marco de la Teoría Clásica de los Tests y los modelos de Teoría de Respuesta a los Ítems. Resultados El coeficiente alfa de Cronbach fue de 0,97 y el coeficiente de fiabilidad test-retest de 0,89. La Función de Información indica que la prueba mide de forma precisa para un amplio rango de puntuaciones (valores entre -2 y + 2. La estructura factorial del PDC es esencialmente unidimensional, confirmándose la existencia de dos grandes dimensiones que se articulan a su vez en ocho factores muy correlacionados. En cuanto a la validez predictiva destacan las correlaciones del PDC con el The Person-centered Care Assessment Tool (r= 0,68, con el clima organizacional (r = 0,67 y con los factores del burnout, agotamiento emocional (r= -0,41 y realización personal (r = 0,46. Conclusiones La versión espanola ˜ del PDC confirma los resultados encontrados en otras poblaciones, presentando unas excelentes propiedades psicométricas para su uso en la evaluación de residencias de personas mayores, tanto con fines profesionales como de investigación.

  2. The General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD): factor structure, incremental validity of self-pathology, and relations to DSM-IV personality disorders. (United States)

    Hentschel, Annett G; Livesley, W John


    Recent developments in the classification of personality disorder, especially moves toward more dimensional systems, create the need to assess general personality disorder apart from individual differences in personality pathology. The General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD) is a self-report questionnaire designed to evaluate general personality disorder. The measure evaluates 2 major components of disordered personality: self or identity problems and interpersonal dysfunction. This study explores whether there is a single factor reflecting general personality pathology as proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), whether self-pathology has incremental validity over interpersonal pathology as measured by GAPD, and whether GAPD scales relate significantly to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]) personality disorders. Based on responses from a German psychiatric sample of 149 participants, parallel analysis yielded a 1-factor model. Self Pathology scales of the GAPD increased the predictive validity of the Interpersonal Pathology scales of the GAPD. The GAPD scales showed a moderate to high correlation for 9 of 12 DSM-IV personality disorders.

  3. Personality, Motivation, and College Readiness: A Prospectus for Assessment and Development. Research Report. ETS RR-14-06 (United States)

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Burrus, Jeremy; Roberts, Richard D.


    This article concerns how noncognitive constructs--personality and motivation--can be assessed and developed to increase students' readiness for college. We propose a general framework to account for personality and motivational differences between students. We review numerous studies showing that personality and motivational factors are related…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Suárez-Álvarez


    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is fundamental in modern society because it represents an important source of innovation, employment, productivity, and growth. While the first theoretical models arose from economic and sociological approaches, psychology provides models that integrate different aspects such as cognitions, attitudes and personality, which allow a more detailed study. The purpose of this paper is to show the main contributions of psychology to the assessment of the enterprising personality. For this purpose, the main models and instruments developed to date were reviewed. The results confirm that the enterprising personality has a multidimensional structure and eight personality traits can be highlighted: achievement motivation, risk-taking, autonomy, self-efficacy, stress tolerance, innovativeness, internal locus of control, and optimism. From a methodological point of view, Item Response Theory and Computerised Adaptive Tests represent the most advanced and modern methods for assessing enterprising personality. There are currently several measurement instruments available. Future areas of research should be directed at the construction of multidimensional models as well as providing alternatives that facilitate a reduction in social desirability and other biases inherent in self-reports.

  5. Personal Care Product Use in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: Implications for Exposure Assessment. (United States)

    Lang, Carly; Fisher, Mandy; Neisa, Angelica; MacKinnon, Leona; Kuchta, Sandra; MacPherson, Susan; Probert, Adam; Arbuckle, Tye E


    Concern regarding the potential for developmental health risks associated with certain chemicals (e.g., phthalates, antibacterials) used in personal care products is well documented; however, current exposure data for pregnant women are limited. The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of personal care product use in pregnancy and the post-partum period. Usage patterns of personal care products were collected at six different time points during pregnancy and once in the postpartum period for a cohort of 80 pregnant women in Ottawa, Canada. The pattern of use was then described and groups of personal care product groups commonly used together were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis. The results showed that product use varied by income and country of birth. General hygiene products were the most commonly used products and were consistently used over time while cosmetic product use declined with advancing pregnancy and post-delivery. Hand soaps and baby products were reported as used more frequently after birth. This study is the first to track personal care product use across pregnancy and into the postpartum period, and suggests that pregnant populations may be a unique group of personal care product users. This information will be useful for exposure assessments.

  6. Review article Assessment of personality according to Otto Kernberg’s conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Izdebska


    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the model of personality developed by Otto Kernberg and the research tools designed on the basis of that conception. The paper presents the spectrum of diagnostic methods differing in terms of the level of structuralizing and the form in which they are applied. The first one constructed, the Structural Interview, due to the high requirements within psychoanalytical knowledge and clinical abilities for the individuals who apply it, initiated the development of subsequent methods. They include: the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO, inventory methods, and a clinician-rated instrument referred to as the Personality Organization Diagnostic Form (PODF. Within the scope of inventory methods, two principal tools for which Polish adaptations have been developed are presented, namely: the Inventory of Personality Organization of Kernberg and collaborators, and the Borderline Personality Inventory of Leichsenring. The existence of a broad spectrum of assessment methods of the personality structure makes it possible to take advantage of the conception of Kernberg in the realms of clinical diagnosis, scientific research, and recently also forensic psychology.

  7. Assessment of human exposure to airborne fungi in agricultural confinements: personal inhalable sampling versus stationary sampling. (United States)

    Adhikari, Atin; Reponen, Tiina; Lee, Shu-An; Grinshpun, Sergey A


    Accurate exposure assessment to airborne fungi in agricultural environments is essential for estimating the associated occupational health hazards of workers. The objective of this pilot study was to compare personal and stationary sampling for assessing farmers' exposure to airborne fungi in 3 different agricultural confinements located in Ohio, USA (hog farm, dairy farm, and grain farm), using Button Personal Inhalable Samplers. Personal exposures were measured with samplers worn by 3 subjects (each carrying 2 samplers) during 3 types of activities, including animal feeding in the hog farm, cleaning and animal handling in the dairy farm, and soybean unloading and handling in the grain farm. Simultaneously, the stationary measurements were performed using 5 static Button Samplers and 1 revolving Button Sampler. The study showed that the total concentration of airborne fungi ranged from 1.4 x 10(4)-1.2 x 10(5) spores m(-3) in 3 confinements. Grain unloading and handling activity generated highest concentrations of airborne fungi compared to the other 2 activities. Prevalent airborne fungi belonged to Cladosporium, Aspergillus/Penicillium, Ascospores, smut spores, Epicoccum, Alternaria, and Basidiospores. Lower coefficients of variations were observed for the fungal concentrations measured by personal samplers (7-12%) compared to the concentrations measured by stationary samplers (27-37%). No statistically significant difference was observed between the stationary and personal measurement data for the total concentrations of airborne fungi (p > 0.05). Revolving stationary and static stationary Button Samplers demonstrated similar performance characteristics for the collection of airborne fungi. This reflects the low sensitivity of the sampler's efficiency to the wind speed and direction. The results indicate that personal exposure of agricultural workers in confinements may be adequately assessed by placing several Button Samplers simultaneously operating in a

  8. Personal exposure assessment to particulate metals using a paper-based analytical device (United States)

    Cate, David; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles


    The development of a paper-based analytical device (PAD) for assessing personal exposure to particulate metals will be presented. Human exposure to metal aerosols, such as those that occur in the mining, construction, and manufacturing industries, has a significant impact on the health of our workforce, costing an estimated $10B in the U.S and causing approximately 425,000 premature deaths world-wide each year. Occupational exposure to particulate metals affects millions of individuals in manufacturing, construction (welding, cutting, blasting), and transportation (combustion, utility maintenance, and repair services) industries. Despite these effects, individual workers are rarely assessed for their exposure to particulate metals, due mainly to the high cost and effort associated with personal exposure measurement. Current exposure assessment methods for particulate metals call for an 8-hour filter sample, after which time, the filter sample is transported to a laboratory and analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). The time from sample collection to reporting is typically weeks and costs several hundred dollars per sample. To exacerbate the issue, method detection limits suffer because of sample dilution during digestion. The lack of sensitivity hampers task-based exposure assessment, for which sampling times may be tens of minutes. To address these problems, and as a first step towards using microfluidics for personal exposure assessment, we have developed PADs for measurement of Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in aerosolized particulate matter.

  9. Marginal Generation Technology in the Chinese Power Market towards 2030 Based on Consequential Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangling Zhao


    Full Text Available Electricity consumption is often the hotspot of life cycle assessment (LCA of products, industrial activities, or services. The objective of this paper is to provide a consistent, scientific, region-specific electricity-supply-based inventory of electricity generation technology for national and regional power grids. Marginal electricity generation technology is pivotal in assessing impacts related to additional consumption of electricity. China covers a large geographical area with regional supply grids; these are arguably equally or less integrated. Meanwhile, it is also a country with internal imbalances in regional energy supply and demand. Therefore, we suggest an approach to achieve a geographical subdivision of the Chinese electricity grid, corresponding to the interprovincial regional power grids, namely the North, the Northeast, the East, the Central, the Northwest, and the Southwest China Grids, and the China Southern Power Grid. The approach combines information from the Chinese national plans on for capacity changes in both production and distribution grids, and knowledge of resource availability. The results show that nationally, marginal technology is coal-fired electricity generation, which is the same scenario in the North and Northwest China Grid. In the Northeast, East, and Central China Grid, nuclear power gradually replaces coal-fired electricity and becomes the marginal technology. In the Southwest China Grid and the China Southern Power Grid, the marginal electricity is hydropower towards 2030.

  10. The Dimensional Assessment of Personality Psychopathology Basic Questionnaire: shortened versions item analysis. (United States)

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Àngel; Blanco, Eduardo; Martí-Guiu, Maite; Balada, Ferran


    This study has been designed to evaluate and replicate the psychometric properties of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Psychopathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) and the DAPP-BQ short form (DAPP-SF) in a large Spanish general population sample. Additionally, we have generated a reduced form called DAPP-90, using a strategy based on a structural equation modeling (SEM) methodology in two independent samples, a calibration and a validation sample. The DAPP-90 scales obtained a more satisfactory fit on SEM adjustment values (average: TLI > .97 and RMSEA assessment of patients in hospital consultation or in brief psychological assessments.

  11. [Graphical procedures for assessing person-fit in item factor analysis]. (United States)

    Ferrando Piera, Pere Joan; Morales Vives, Fàbia


    Flagging the individuals who did not answer consistently can be very useful in certain applied domains, especially in clinical and personnel selection areas. Identification of inconsistent patterns prevents erroneous interpretations of test scores. Two graphic procedures based on linear factor analysis are proposed in this paper. They allow the possible causes of low intra-individual consistency to be assessed once a pattern has been flagged as inconsistent. Moreover, these procedures allow us to identify the items that have contributed the most to the inconsistency. The procedures are illustrated with some empirical examples in personality. Lastly, implications of the results in the construction of personality measures are discussed.

  12. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese - Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Assessment. (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Li, Fang; Nydegger, Liesl; Gong, Jie; Ren, Yuanjing; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Sun, Huiling; Stanton, Bonita


    International behavioral research requires instruments that are not culturally-biased to assess sensation seeking. In this study we described a culturally adapted version of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese (BSSS-C) and its psychometric characteristics. The adapted scale was assessed using an adult sample (n=238) with diverse educational and residential backgrounds. The BSSS-C (Cronbach alpha=0.90) was correlated with the original Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (r = 0.85, p<0.01) and fitted the four-factor model well (CFI=0.98, SRMR=0.03). The scale scores significantly predicted intention to and actual engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and sexual risk behaviors. In conclusion, the BSSS-C has adequate reliability and validity, supporting its utility in China and potential in other developing countries.

  13. Three-Pronged Assessment and Diagnosis of Personality Disorder and its Consequences: Personality Functioning, Pathological Traits, and Psychosocial Disability



    The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: Impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functio...

  14. Personality characteristics and disorders in multiple sclerosis patients: assessment and treatment. (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Anastasia; Christopoulos, Platon; Soubasi, Evanthia; Gourzis, Philippos


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although a significant incidence and prevalence of psychological disorders in MS has been reported there is limited data on the prevalence of personality disorders (PD) in these patients. Recent findings indicate the need for early diagnosis and treatment of PD in MS patients in the interests of prognosis, conformity to treatment and patient's quality of life improvement. This article summarizes existing evidence on prevalence, types and diagnostic criteria of PD in MS, clinical manifestations of personality pathology or changes in MS patients, and instruments currently used for diagnosis and assessment of PD in this group of patients. Underlying mechanisms suggested as causes of personality changes in MS patients are also discussed. The article reviews therapeutic strategies, including pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy interventions and emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary approach to patient's treatment.

  15. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovsky


    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  16. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovsky


    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  17. The utility of pain assessment for analgesic use in persons with dementia. (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Lipson, Steven


    Ameliorating pain symptoms in persons with severe dementia is difficult due to the inherent problems of pain assessment and communication with this population. This study aims to examine the utility of nine pain assessments in identifying pain and documenting responsiveness to pain medication in 121 nursing home residents with dementia. The assessments included self-report, informant ratings by nursing staff, and direct observations. This was an open medication study, with comparison groups of persons with dementia. Those evaluated as having pain were included in the pain medication protocol. Three comparison groups were utilized: those not considered in pain at baseline, those in pain at baseline for whom caregivers refused to follow the pain medication protocol, and a subset of those not in pain at baseline who were followed for a period of time similar in length to the treatment group. Informant ratings were the assessments most likely to detect pain and direct observations were least likely to do so. Both self-report and informant ratings showed a significantly greater decrease in pain in the treatment group relative to the comparison groups. All participants who followed the pain protocol reached a pain free stage by the study criteria. A limitation of the study was the reduced endpoint number due to family or physician resistance to following treatment recommendations. The results present a methodology that caregivers can use to increase the detection of pain in persons with dementia, enabling them to treat it more effectively, and thereby improve life quality for dementia patients.

  18. Relationship between subjective assessment of oral health and medical expenses in community-dwelling elderly persons (United States)

    Harada, Eriko; Moriya, Shingo; Murata, Ayumi; Muramatsu, Masumi; Kashiwazaki, Haruhiko; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Notani, Kenji; Inoue, Nobuo


    Objectives The increasing medical expenses of elderly persons in Japan’s rapidly ageing society have become a major concern. It is therefore important to elucidate the factors associated with such escalation. Here, we focused on the relationship between subjective self-assessment of oral health, as an index of general health, and medical expenses (excluding dental repair) under the hypothesis that oral health contributes to general medical expenses. Several studies have shown that oral health status is correlated with general health status among elderly persons. We speculated that oral health status might show a relation with medical costs among elderly persons. However, few studies have investigated this relationship to date. Materials and Methods Participants were 259 elderly subjects (range: 65–84 years; 120 men, 139 women) residing independently. Subjective assessment of oral health was evaluated by their responses (‘Good’, ‘Not good’ and ‘Not at all good’) on a survey questionnaire. The correlation between subjective assessment of oral health and medical expenditure was analysed using Spearman’s rank method, the Mann–Whitney U-test and the Kruskal–Wallis test. Medical expenses were used as the dependent variable in multinomial logistic regression analysis with background and intraoral factors as independent variables. Results A slight yet statistically significant correlation was observed between subjective assessment of oral health and outpatient treatment fees. Conclusion The findings revealed that subjective assessment of oral health is significantly and independently related to the medical expenses of community-dwelling elderly persons after adjusting for social background, living environment and physical factors. PMID:21306431

  19. Corpus-drive research on Chinese and English personal pronouns%语料库驱动的英汉语篇人称系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付海燕; 顾毅


    By using the method of data driven, and curator of the Museum of self-built database by modified the personal pronouns, especially cross-cultural comparison the second person and the first person plural use personal pronouns, aims to reflect different cultural discourse relation between writer and reader in the interaction. The results show that, whether to refer to the author or reader, Chinese corpus frequency of personal pronouns in were lower than English corpus. Chinese discourse tend to use participatory low than second person refers to the alleged readers, highlighting the authoritative information and objectivity, but the lack of interaction with the potential audience. Based on the results, presented to improve Chinese museum curator to words of textual interaction effect of the proposal in this paper.%  采用语料驱动的研究方法,对自建的英汉博物馆馆长致辞语料库的人称代词,特别是第二人称和第一人称复数的使用进行跨文化对比研究,旨在探讨由人称代词体现的不同文化的语篇中作者与读者互动关系的差异。研究结果显示,不论是指称作者还是指称读者,中文语料中人称代词的使用频率均明显低于英文语料。中文语篇倾向使用参与性低的非第二人称泛指指称读者,突出了信息的权威性和客观性,但缺乏与潜在观众的互动交流。基于研究结果本文提出改进中文博物馆馆长致辞语篇互动效果的建议。

  20. The mediating role of resilience in the relationship between big five personality and anxiety among Chinese medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Shi

    Full Text Available The psychological distress of medical students is a major concern of public health worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate anxiety symptoms of medical students in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anxiety symptoms among Chinese medical students, to examine the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms among medical students, and to explore the mediating role of resilience in these relationships.This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. Self-reported questionnaires consisting of the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, Big Five Inventory (BFI, Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14 and demographic section were distributed to the subjects. A stratified random cluster sampling method was used to select 2925 medical students (effective response rate: 83.57% at four medical colleges and universities in Liaoning province, China. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to explore the mediating role of resilience.The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 47.3% (SAS index score≥50 among Chinese medical students. After adjusting for the demographic factors, the traits of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness were all negatively associated with anxiety whereas neuroticism was positively associated with it. Resilience functioned as a mediator in the relationships between agreeableness/conscientiousness/openness and anxiety symptoms.Among Chinese medical students, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was high and resilience mediated the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms. Identifying at-risk individuals and undertaking appropriate intervention strategies that focus on both personality traits and resilience might be more effective to prevent and reduce anxiety symptoms.

  1. How Transdiagnostic Factors of Personality and Psychopathology Can Inform Clinical Assessment and Intervention. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Eaton, Nicholas R; Krueger, Robert F


    Research suggests that many mental disorders-mood and anxiety, substance use, and personality psychopathology-are related through relatively few latent transdiagnostic factors. With regard to the comorbidity of personality disorders and common mental disorders, factor structures such as internalizing-externalizing have been replicated in numerous samples, across the life span, and around the globe. One critical feature of transdiagnostic factors is that they serve as a point of intersection between personality and psychopathology, making them particularly relevant phenomena for applied clinical work. Although numerous studies have supported the significance of transdiagnostic factors for research and classification purposes, there has been comparatively less articulation of how such factors might be of benefit to practicing assessment clinicians. Herein, we present an overview of transdiagnostic factor research findings, and we apply these findings to the clinical topics of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. For clinicians as well as researchers, the use of transdiagnostic constructs presents positive implications for efforts to understand, characterize, and ameliorate psychopathology-including its manifestations as personality disorder-in a valid, effective, and efficient way.

  2. Assessment of personality-related levels of functioning: A pilot study of clinical assessment of the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning based on a semi-structured interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Simonsen, Sebastian; Nemery, Caroline;


    Background: The personality disorder categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV have been extensively criticized, and there is a growing consensus that personality pathology should be represented dimensionally rather than categorically. The aim of this pilot study...... was to test the Clinical Assessment of the Level of Personality Functioning Scale [CALF], a semi-structured clinical interview, designed to assess the Level of Personality Functioning Scale of the DSM-5 (Section III) by applying strategies similar to what characterizes assessments in clinical practice....... Methods: The inter-rater reliability of the assessment of the four domains and the total impairment in the Level of Personality Functioning Scale were measured in a patient sample that varied in terms of severity and type of pathology. Ratings were done independently by the interviewer and two experts who...

  3. 现代汉语第二人称代词人称泛化探讨%A Discussion on the Reference Generality of Second Personal Pronouns in Modern Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Referents of second personal pronouns in modern Chinese are not definite, reference generality may arise when assigning a second person pronoun with a referent. The generality mentioned here falls into four types: singular-reference generality, relative-reference generality, optional-reference generality and abstract-reference generality. Second personal pronouns are syntactically in close relationship with imperative mood and there is a hierarchy among personal pronouns in the possibility of forming imperative clauses. In addition, the relationship between personal pronouns and targets of imperative is another important factor in forming imperative clauses.%现代汉语第二人称代词称代对象并不稳定,容易引起人称的泛化,主要有单称泛化、对称泛化、任指泛化、虚指泛化四种类型。第二人称代词在句法上与祈使句关系密切,不同人称在构成祈使句的可能性上存在一个明显的层级系统;另外,人称与祈使对象的关系,也是祈使句构成的重要因素。

  4. Developing a person-centred approach to carer assessment and support. (United States)

    Ewing, Gail; Austin, Lynn; Diffin, Janet; Grande, Gunn


    Community nurses play an important role in providing palliative care and support for patients and carers at home. The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) provides practitioners with an evidence-based comprehensive tool to use with carers in palliative home care. As a practice tool, the CSNAT uses a person-centred approach-that is, the process of carer assessment and support is facilitated by practitioners but is carerled. In this paper, the CSNAT research team provides an overview of the development of the tool and the benefits for both carers and practitioners arising from using the CSNAT as a person-centred approach in practice. The authors outline the five stages of the CSNAT approach to assist practitioners wishing to implement the CSNAT in practice.

  5. Adjective checklist to assess the big five personality factors in the Argentine population. (United States)

    Ledesma, Rubén D; Sánchez, Roberto; Díaz-Lázaro, Carlos M


    The aim of this work was to develop an adjective checklist to assess the Big Five personality factors in the Argentine population. The new instrument was administered to pilot (n= 112), validation (n= 372), and replication (n= 309) samples. The final version of the checklist included 67 adjectives encompassing its 5 dimensions. Factor analysis results were consistent with the Five-factor model. Internal consistency of scales was very good and convergent correlations with the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) were substantial. Face validity, as evaluated by 2 independent raters, was good. Preliminary evidence of validity for the checklist is presented. Finally, the Adjective Checklist for Personality Assessment and BFI are compared, taking into consideration their psychometric properties in our cultural context. Study limitations and future research are discussed.

  6. A Case Study of Teacher Personal Practice Assessment Theories and Complexities of Implementing Formative Assessment (United States)

    Box, Cathy; Skoog, Gerald; Dabbs, Jennifer M.


    The value and effectiveness of formative assessment in the classroom has gained an increasing amount of attention during the past decade, especially since the publication of seminal work by Black and Wiliam titled "Assessment and Classroom Learning." Since that time, there has been a renewed interest in describing and evaluating teacher…

  7. Indicators' role: How do they influence Strategic Environmental Assessment and Sustainable Planning - The Chinese experience. (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone


    As an information carrier and communication medium, indicators provide useful decision-making assistance in setting process goals and effectively reaching the goals. The main focus of this article is to investigate indicators' role in influencing planning through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) especially related to Chinese experiences. From the perspective of planning and decision-making theory, the influence on planning is studied as influence of planning structure and influence of planning actors. Such a conceptual framework is applied in order to demonstrate how the use of indicators can influence planning through a SEA process. The study holds two empirical levels. On a general level, based on an online survey, this article investigates SEA practitioners' experiences in using indicators. On a case level, two urban plans are selected to provide more detailed experiences. The case level investigation is based on a documentary study and individual interviews with SEA practitioners/planners. By exploring how indicators influence planning through the structure of and the actors within SEA, this study tries to provide an overview of indicators' role in SEA. The results indicate that indicators are perceived as a useful tool in the Chinese SEA system. By improving and simplifying the procedures of SEA, the indicators exert more structural influence on SEA and on plan making. On the other hand, indicators are also shown to have more influence through political actors than found among technical actors.

  8. An exploratory assessment of the attitudes of Chinese wood products manufacturers towards forest certification. (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L; Kozak, Robert A


    Interviews with Chinese forest products manufacturers were conducted to explore their attitudes towards forest certification and related issues. Participants comprised owners, CEOs, and managers in 20 Chinese wood products companies, including producers of furniture, doors, flooring, and various engineered wood products. The interviews were used to analyze the extent to which participants were considering adopting forest certification and what might motivate such a decision. This was done by assessing their awareness and knowledge of certification. The results indicated that participants' understanding of forest certification was extremely low, despite major efforts in China to raise awareness of the issue. Potential economic benefits were the most frequently cited reason to adopt certification, including gaining or maintaining competitive advantage over their industry counterparts, improved access to both domestic and export markets, better customer recognition, and enhanced corporate responsibility practices. Some interviewees (3 out of 20) considered that certification would become a mandatory requirement or industry standard, and that this would be the only viable motivation for certification given that the financial benefits were potentially limited. According to the participants, the main differences between certified and uncertified wood products operations related to improved market access and public image. Interviewees felt that cooperation between and support from governments and the forest industry would enable the enhanced awareness of certification amongst manufacturers and the general public. This, in turn, could serve to stimulate demand for certified products.

  9. The PHM-Ethics methodology: interdisciplinary technology assessment of personal health monitoring. (United States)

    Schmidt, Silke; Verweij, Marcel


    The contribution briefly introduces the PHM Ethics project and the PHM methodology. Within the PHM-Ethics project, a set of tools and modules had been developed that may assist in the evaluation and assessment of new technologies for personal health monitoring, referred to as "PHM methodology" or "PHM toolbox". An overview on this interdisciplinary methodology and its comprising modules is provided, areas of application and intended target groups are indicated.

  10. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)


    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  11. Women's interest in a personal breast cancer risk assessment and lifestyle advice at NHS mammography screening (United States)

    Wilkinson, L.; Valencia, A.


    Abstract Background Although mortality from breast cancer is declining, incidence continues to increase and is often detected at routine NHS screening. Most middle aged and older women in England attend for screening every 3 years. Assessing their personal breast cancer risk and providing preventative lifestyle advice could help to further reduce breast cancer incidence. Methods A cross-sectional, self-complete postal survey measured attendees' interest in having a personal risk assessment, expected impact on screening attendance, knowledge of associations between lifestyle and breast cancer and preferred ways of accessing preventative lifestyle advice. Results A total of 1803/4948 (36.4%) completed questionnaires were returned. Most participants (93.7%) expressed interest in a personal risk assessment and 95% (1713/1803) believed it would make no difference or encourage re-attendance. Two-thirds (1208/1803) associated lifestyle with breast cancer, but many were unaware of specific risks such as weight gain, obesity, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. NHS sourced advice was expected to be more credible than other sources, and booklets, brief counselling or an interactive website were most preferred for accessing this. Conclusions Attendees appear to welcome an intervention that would facilitate more proactive clinical and lifestyle prevention and address critical research gaps in breast cancer prevention and early detection. PMID:26834190

  12. Correspondence between self-report and interview-based assessments of antisocial personality disorder. (United States)

    Guy, Laura S; Poythress, Norman G; Douglas, Kevin S; Skeem, Jennifer L; Edens, John F


    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with suicide, violence, and risk-taking behavior and can slow response to first-line treatment for Axis I disorders. ASPD may be assessed infrequently because few efficient diagnostic tools are available. This study evaluated 2 promising self-report measures for assessing ASPD--the ASPD scale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4; S. E. Hyler, 1994) and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; L. Morey, 1991, 2007)--as well as the ASPD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II (SCID-II; M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, M. Gibbon, J. B. W. Williams, & L. S. Benjamin, 1997). The measures were administered to 1,345 offenders in court-mandated residential substance abuse treatment programs and prisons. PDQ-4 and PAI scores related strongly to SCID-II symptom counts (rs = .67 and .51, respectively), indicating these measures convey useful clinical information about the severity of offenders' ASPD pathology. The dimensional association between the measures was relatively invariant across gender, race, and site, although differences in mean scores were observed. Levels of agreement of the SCID-II with the PDQ-4 (kappa = .31) and PAI (kappa = .32) in classifying participants as ASPD was limited. Alternative thresholds for both self-report measures were identified and cross-validated.

  13. Research and Enlightenment of Chinese and Western Ideal Personality Thought%中西方理想人格思想研究及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The western personality theory pays attention to the individual: The ideal personalitys of Chinese Confucianism Buddhism and Taoism are saint,immortal and Buddha, which embody the social ideal and the collective value: Marx's ideal per- sonality is the man of free and comprehensive development, which emphasizes the unity of personal ideal and social ideal. We can draw lessons from the rational factors of those the ideal personality thoughts. In the process of the cultivation of contempo- rary youth's ideal personality, ideal personality value orientation should reflect the integration of truth and good and beauty, the ideal personality approach should pay attention to the unify of four aspects: voluntary and conscious, self--discipline and heter- onomy, moral education and ability education, and righteousness and profit.%西方人格理论关注个体;中国儒释道的理想人格是圣贤仙佛,是社会理想与集体价值的体现;马克思追求的理想人格是自由全面发展的人,强调个人理想与社会理想的统一。借鉴这些理想人格思想中的合理因素,在当代青年理想人格的培育过程申,理想人格的价值取向应体现真善美的统一,理想人格的实现途径应注重自愿与自觉、自律与他律、德育与才育和重义与趋利等四个方面的统一。

  14. Personal Metabolism (PM) coupled with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model: Danish Case Study. (United States)

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Birkved, Morten; Kabins, Simon; Nygaard, Simon Elsborg


    Sustainable and informed resource consumption is the key to make everyday living sustainable for entire populations. An intelligent and strategic way of addressing the challenges related with sustainable development of the everyday living of consumers is to identify consumption-determined hotspots in terms of environmental and health burdens, as well as resource consumptions. Analyzing consumer life styles in terms of consumption patterns in order to identify hotspots is hence the focus of this study. This is achieved by taking into account the entire value chain of the commodities consumed in the context of environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions. A systematic commodity consumption, commodity disposal, and life style survey of 1281 persons living in urbanized Danish areas was conducted. The findings of the survey showed new impact dimensions in terms of Personal Metabolism (PM) patterns of residents living in urbanized areas of Denmark. Extending the PM analysis with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provided a clear picture of the per capita environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions, and the exact origin hereof. A generic PM-LCA Model for all the 1281 persons was set-up in Gabi 6. The assessment results obtained applying the model on all 1281 personal consumption scenarios yielded the 1281 Personal Impact Profiles (PIPs). Consumption of food and energy (electricity and thermal energy) proved to be the primary impact sources of PM, followed by transport. The PIPs further revealed that behavioral factors (e.g. different diets, use of cars, household size) affect the profiles. Hence, behavioral changes are one means out of many that humanity will most likely have to rely on during the sustainable development process. The results of this study will help the Danish and other comparable populations to identify and prioritize the steps towards reducing their environmental, human health, and resource consumption

  15. Comparing the temporal stability of self-report and interview assessed personality disorder. (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Hopwood, Christopher J; Ansell, Emily B; Morey, Leslie C; Sanislow, Charles A; Markowitz, John C; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E; Grilo, Carlos M


    Findings from several large-scale, longitudinal studies over the last decade have challenged the long-held assumption that personality disorders (PDs) are stable and enduring. However, the findings, including those from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS; Gunderson et al., 2000), rely primarily on results from semistructured interviews. As a result, less is known about the stability of PD scores from self-report questionnaires, which differ from interviews in important ways (e.g., source of the ratings, item development, and instrument length) that might increase temporal stability. The current study directly compared the stability of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) PD constructs assessed via the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP-2; Clark, Simms, Wu, & Casillas, in press) with those from the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (Zanarini, Frankenburg, Sickel, & Yong, 1996) over 2 years in a sample of 529 CLPS participants. Specifically, we compared dimensional and categorical representations from both measures in terms of rank-order and mean-level stability. Results indicated that the dimensional scores from the self-report questionnaire had significantly greater rank-order (mean r=.69 vs. .59) and mean-level (mean d=0.21 vs. 0.30) stability. In contrast, categorical diagnoses from the two measures evinced comparable rank-order (mean κ=.38 vs. .37) and mean-level stability (median prevalence rate decrease of 3.5% vs. 5.6%). These findings suggest the stability of PD constructs depends at least partially on the method of assessment and are discussed in the context of previous research and future conceptualizations of personality pathology.

  16. Assessment of the embryotoxicity of four Chinese herbal extracts using the embryonic stem cell test. (United States)

    Li, Lin-Yan; Cao, Fen-Fang; Su, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Qi-Hao; Dai, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Xue; Huang, Ya-Dong; Zheng, Qing; Xu, Hua


    Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala, Radix Isatidis, Coptis chinensis and Flos Genkwa are common herbal remedies used by pregnant woman in China. In this study, their potential embryotoxicity was assessed using the embryonic stem cell test (EST) and a prediction model. The potential embryotoxicity of the herbs was based on three endpoints: the concentrations of the compounds that inhibited the proliferation of 50% of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (IC50ES), the concentrations that inhibited 50% of 3T3 cells (IC503T3), and the concentrations that inhibited the differentiation of 50% of ESCs (ID50ES). The results revealed that Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala and Radix Isatidis are non-embryotoxic compounds. Coptis chinensis extracts appeared to demonstrated weak embryotoxicity, and Flos Genkwa exhibited strong embryotoxicity. These results may be useful in guiding the clinical use of these herbs and in expanding the application of the EST to the field of traditional Chinese medicine.

  17. Marginal Generation Technology in the Chinese Power Market towards 2030 Based on Consequential Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Guerrero, Josep M.; Pei, Yingying


    Grids, and the China Southern Power Grid. The approach combines information from the Chinese national plans on for capacity changes in both production and distribution grids, and knowledge of resource availability. The results show that nationally, marginal technology is coal-fired electricity...... and regional power grids. Marginal electricity generation technology is pivotal in assessing impacts related to additional consumption of electricity. China covers a large geographical area with regional supply grids; these are arguably equally or less integrated. Meanwhile, it is also a country with internal...... generation, which is the same scenario in the North and Northwest China Grid. In the Northeast, East, and Central China Grid, nuclear power gradually replaces coal-fired electricity and becomes the marginal technology. In the Southwest China Grid and the China Southern Power Grid, the marginal electricity...

  18. Internet Addiction in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong: Assessment, Profiles, and Psychosocial Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek


    Full Text Available Internet addiction behavior was examined in 6,121 Chinese primary and secondary school students in Hong Kong based on the assessment frameworks of Ivan Goldberg and Kimberly Young. Results showed that scales derived from both frameworks (CIA-Goldberg Scale and CIA-Young Scale were internally consistent and evidence supporting their validity was found. Descriptive statistical analyses revealed that roughly one-fifth of the respondents could be classified as Internet addicted based on either scale. Further analyses showed that Internet-addicted and -nonaddicted respondents differed in their Internet use and related behavior. Logistic regression analyses showed that engagement in certain on-line activities (such as playing on-line games and downloading software and replacement of pastimes activities (such as watching TV and going out with friends with Internet activities predicted a higher probability of Internet addiction.

  19. Assessment of domestic cat personality, as perceived by 416 owners, suggests six dimensions. (United States)

    Bennett, Pauleen C; Rutter, Nicholas J; Woodhead, Jessica K; Howell, Tiffani J


    Understanding individual behavioral differences in domestic cats could lead to improved selection when potential cat owners choose a pet with whom to share their lives, along with consequent improvements in cat welfare. Yet very few attempts have been made to elicit cat personality dimensions using the trait-based exploratory approaches applied previously, with some success, to humans and dogs. In this study, a list of over 200 adjectives used to describe cat personality was assembled. This list was refined by two focus groups. A sample of 416 adult cat owners then rated a cat they knew well on each of 118 retained words. An iterative analytical approach was used to identify 29 words which formed six personality dimensions: Playfulness, Nervousness, Amiability, Dominance, Demandingness, and Gullibility. Chronbach's alpha scores for these dimensions ranged from 0.63 to 0.8 and, together, they explained 56.08% of the total variance. Very few significant correlations were found between participant scores on the personality dimensions and descriptive variables such as owner age, cat age and owner cat-owning experience, and these were all weak to barely moderate in strength (r≤0.30). There was also only one significant group difference based on cat sex. Importantly, however, several cat personality scores were moderately (r=0.3-0.49) or strongly (r≥0.5) correlated with simple measures of satisfaction with the cat, attachment, bond quality, and the extent to which the cat was perceived to be troublesome. The results suggest that, with further validation, this scale could be used to provide a simple, tick-box, assessment of an owner's perceptions regarding a cat's personality. This may be of value in both applied and research settings.

  20. A Functional Approach to Integrated Assessment of Teacher Support and Student Discourse Development in an Elementary Chinese Program (United States)

    Huang, Jingzi; Mohan, Bernard


    How can foreign language education integrate the learning of language with learning of content, and culture on a systematic basis, when assessment typically focuses on language in isolation from meaning? Examining developmental data gathered over a three-year period from elementary students in a Chinese program in North America, we explore the…

  1. Strengths and Limitations of the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY in Juvenile Delinquency Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Semel


    Full Text Available This article highlights and discusses the usefulness of the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY in juvenile delinquency assessments. Psychiatric disorders have high prevalence rates among youths in the juvenile justice system. The PIY was developed to evaluate a broad range of behavioral and psychological characteristics, which may make it useful in juvenile delinquency assessment contexts. Practical and psychometric strengths and limitations of the PIY in the juvenile delinquency assessment context are presented, with reference to relevant research literature. The effectiveness of this instrument in detecting response bias, particularly under-reporting, and for identifying problems associated with delinquency is discussed. The issue of item overlap and spurious influences on scale correlations, especially between the PIY Defensiveness and Delinquency scales, is also addressed. A comparison of findings with the PIY and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–Adolescent (MMPI-A in juvenile justice samples helps to identify broader considerations about how youths in juvenile justice settings respond to self-report psychological inventories. Finally, the author offers some practical considerations for evaluators when using the PIY in juvenile delinquency assessments, and suggestions for future research.

  2. The impact of Chinese cultural values on Taiwan nursing leadership styles: comparing the self-assessments of staff nurses and head nurses. (United States)

    Chang, Yuanmay


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Chinese culture on nursing leadership behavior in Taiwan nurses. A descriptive study compared staff nurses' assessment of Chinese value in the leadership behavior of their head nurses. Data analysis was made on a convenience sample in Taiwan of 214 head nurses and 2,127 staff nurses who had worked with their head nurse for at least one year. Six medical centers and regional hospitals in northern (Taipei), central (Taichung) and southern (Kaohsiung) Taiwan were recruited for this study. Instruments included the demographic questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey, and Kang's Chinese Leadership Behaviors Module Scale. Results indicated that head nurses scored significantly higher than staff nurses in terms of all cultural values and leadership behaviors. Both staff nurses and head nurses scored the highest mean scores in personal integrity (Yi) and human connectedness (Ren) and the lowest in moral discipline (Li). Staff nurse perceptions of leadership behavior indicated the role of parent to be higher than either the role of director or mentor. Head nurses perceptions of leadership behavior emphasized the role of the director more than either parent or mentor. There were no significant differences between the staff nurses and head nurses in terms of expectative leadership behavior, which gave the role of director higher mean scores than those of either the parent or mentor. Positive and significant associations (r = .266 to r = .334) were found between cultural values and perceptions of leadership behavior. Cultural values predicted 10.6% of leadership behavior variance. The three demographic characteristics of location in northern Taiwan (beta = .09), intention to leave (beta = -.14), and general unit (beta = .10) and the two cultural values of human connectedness (Ren) (beta = .16) and personal integrity (Yi) (beta = .16) together reported a cumulative R2 of 14.6% to explain variance in leadership behavior

  3. Clinical application of subjective global assessment in Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei-Wen Wu; Tao Yin; Wei-Xin Cao; Zhi-Dong Gu; Xiao-Jin Wang; Min Yan; Bing-Ya Liu


    AIM: To investigate the role of subjective global assessment (SGA) in nutritional assessment and outcome prediction of Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer. METHODS: A total of 751 patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer between August 2004 and August 2006 were enrolled in this study. Within 72 h after admission, SGA, anthropometric parameters, and laboratory tests were used to assess the nutritional status of each patient. The outcome variables including hospital stay, complications, and in-hospital medical expenditure were also obtained. RESULTS: Based on the results of SGA, 389 (51.8%), 332 (44.2%), and 30 (4.0%) patients were classified into well nourished group (SGA-A), mildly to moderately malnourished group (SGA-B), and severely malnourished group (SGA-C), respectively. The prevalence of malnutrition classified by SGA, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-upper arm muscle circumference (MAMC), albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), and body mass index (BMI) was 48.2%, 39.4%, 37.7%, 31.3%, 21.7%, and 9.6%, respectively. In addition, ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in body mass index (BMI), TSF, PA, and ALB of patients in different SGA groups. The more severely malnourished the patient was, the lower the levels of BMI, TSF, PA, and ALB were ( P < 0.05). c2 tests showed a significant difference in SGA classification between patients receiving different types of treatment (surgery vs chemotherapy/radiotherapy). As the nutritional status classified by SGA deteriorated, the patients stayed longer in hospital and their medical expenditures increased significantly. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that SGA and serum ALB could help predict the medical expenditures and hospital stay of patients undergoing surgery. The occurrence of complications increased in parallel with the increasing grade of SGA, and was the highest in the SGA-C group (23.3%) and the lowest in the SGA-A group (16.8%). CONCLUSION: SGA is a reliable

  4. PM2.5 data reliability, consistency, and air quality assessment in five Chinese cities (United States)

    Liang, Xuan; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Shuyi; Huang, Hui; Chen, Song Xi


    We investigate particulate matter (PM2.5) data reliability in five major Chinese cities: Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Shenyang by cross-validating data from the U.S. diplomatic posts and the nearby Ministry of Environmental Protection sites based on 3 years' data from January 2013. The investigation focuses on the consistency in air quality assessment derived from the two data sources. It consists of studying (i) the occurrence length and percentage of different PM2.5 concentration ranges; (ii) the air quality assessment for each city; and (iii) the winter-heating effects in Beijing and Shenyang. Our analysis indicates that the two data sources produced highly consistent air quality assessment in the five cities. This is encouraging as it would inject a much needed confidence on the air pollution measurements from China. We also provide air quality assessments on the severity and trends of the fine particulate matter pollution in the five cities. The assessments are produced by statistically constructing the standard monthly meteorological conditions for each city, which are designed to minimize the effects of confounding factors due to yearly variations of some important meteorological variables. Our studies show that Beijing and Chengdu had the worst air quality, while Guangzhou and Shanghai faired the best among the five cities. Most of the five cities had their PM2.5 concentration decreased significantly in the last 2 years. By linking the air quality with the amount of energy consumed, our study suggests that the geographical configuration is a significant factor in a city's air quality management and economic development.

  5. Three-pronged assessment and diagnosis of personality disorder and its consequences: personality functioning, pathological traits, and psychosocial disability. (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna; Ro, Eunyoe


    The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self-functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functioning and traits is important conceptually, because simply having extreme traits is not necessarily pathological. However, adding personality functioning to PD diagnosis represents an empirical challenge, because the constructs overlap conceptually. Further, there is debate regarding whether diagnosis of mental disorder requires either distress or disability, concepts that also overlap with maladaptive-range personality traits and personality dysfunction. We investigated interrelations among these constructs using multiple self-report measures of each domain in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 402). We examined the structures of functioning (psychosocial disability and personality) and personality traits, first independently, then jointly. The disability/functioning measures yielded the 3 dimensions we have found previously (Ro & Clark, 2013). Trait measures had a hierarchical structure which, at the 5-factor level, reflected neuroticism/negative affectivity (N/NA), (low) sociability, disinhibition, (dis)agreeableness, and rigid goal engagement. When all measures were cofactored, a hierarchical structure again emerged which, at the 5-factor level, included (a) internalizing (N/NA and self-pathology vs. quality-of-life/satisfaction); (b) externalizing (social/interpersonal dysfunction, low sociability, and disagreeableness); (c) disinhibition; (d) poor basic functioning; and (e) rigid goal engagement. Results are discussed in terms of developing an integrated PD diagnostic

  6. Case illustration of a boy with nonverbal learning disorder and Asperger's features: neuropsychological and personality assessment. (United States)

    Yalof, Jed


    I present a case study of a latency-age boy referred for assessment of a nonverbal learning disability/disorder (NLD) who also had features of Asperger's syndrome (AS). I review NLD terminology, presumed brain-behavior relationship, neuropsychological profile, and diagnosis/classification issues. I discuss the challenge of differentiating NLD from AS in relation to the client's pattern of visual-spatial, communication, social-emotional, and behavioral NLD correlates. I integrate neuropsychological and personality assessment data with interviews, observations, prior testing, and input from teacher and therapist in formulating a diagnostic impression. I discuss Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and neuropsychological consultations in relation to subtle language and interpersonal features of the client's communication style. I provide parent feedback at 18 and 24 months posttesting. I discuss implications relative to a model of school neuropsychological assessment that includes the Rorschach test.

  7. Profile Analyses of the Personality Assessment Inventory Following Military-Related Traumatic Brain Injury (United States)

    Kennedy, Jan E.; Cooper, Douglas B.; Reid, Matthew W.; Tate, David F.; Lange, Rael T.


    Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) profiles were examined in 160 U.S. service members (SMs) following mild–severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants who sustained a mild TBI had significantly higher PAI scores than those with moderate–severe TBI on eight of the nine clinical scales examined. A two-step cluster analysis identified four PAI profiles, heuristically labeled “High Distress”, “Moderate Distress”, “Somatic Distress,” and “No Distress”. Postconcussive and posttraumatic stress symptom severity was highest for the High Distress group, followed by the Somatic and Moderate Distress groups, and the No Distress group. Profile groups differed in age, ethnicity, rank, and TBI severity. Findings indicate that meaningful patterns of behavioral and personality characteristics can be detected in active duty military SMs following TBI, which may prove useful in selecting the most efficacious rehabilitation strategies. PMID:25857403

  8. Syndromal versus contextualized personality assessment: differentiating environmental and dispositional determinants of boys' aggression. (United States)

    Wright, J C; Lindgren, K P; Zakriski, A L


    Two studies examined how "syndromal" approaches to assessment confound differences between individuals in the person and situation variables that contribute to their behavior. In a field study, a widely used instrument was found to be sensitive to the base rates of boys' aggression but, as expected, did not discriminate between boys who were similar in their behavior base rates but different in their social environments and how they responded to them. A laboratory experiment replicated this finding and demonstrated that social observers discriminated between targets on the basis of their functional properties even though syndrome scores did not. The results clarify how syndromal methods can obscure situational factors, conflict with people's social knowledge, and reinforce the view that syndromes exist "in the individual" rather than in person-environment interactions. Implications for developing more contextually sensitive instruments are discussed.

  9. Profile analyses of the Personality Assessment Inventory following military-related traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Kennedy, Jan E; Cooper, Douglas B; Reid, Matthew W; Tate, David F; Lange, Rael T


    Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) profiles were examined in 160 U.S. service members (SMs) following mild-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants who sustained a mild TBI had significantly higher PAI scores than those with moderate-severe TBI on eight of the nine clinical scales examined. A two-step cluster analysis identified four PAI profiles, heuristically labeled "High Distress", "Moderate Distress", "Somatic Distress," and "No Distress". Postconcussive and posttraumatic stress symptom severity was highest for the High Distress group, followed by the Somatic and Moderate Distress groups, and the No Distress group. Profile groups differed in age, ethnicity, rank, and TBI severity. Findings indicate that meaningful patterns of behavioral and personality characteristics can be detected in active duty military SMs following TBI, which may prove useful in selecting the most efficacious rehabilitation strategies.

  10. Spanish and Chilean Standardizations of the Personality Assessment Inventory: the Influence of Sex. (United States)

    Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; Ferragut, Marta; Santamaría, Pablo


    There is growing interest in the adaptation of psychological questionnaires in different countries, due to the need for cross-cultural research using the same tests adapted to diverse populations. This paper presents the standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) in Spain and Chile (both Spanish-speaking countries). The Spanish sample was made up of 940 people (461 men and 479 women), and the Chilean sample of 569 people (231 men and 338 women). Results revealed that the Chilean means were higher than those of the Spanish sample at confidence level 99.9%, although the associated effect sizes were generally small to moderate (partial eta-square between 0.008 and 0.187). Sex differences in the variables evaluated were commented on, and the importance of cross-cultural research and the influence of sex on personality and psychopathology variables were discussed.

  11. An assessment of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in persons with Down syndrome. (United States)

    Costa, Alberto C S


    Down syndrome (DS), the most common genetically defined cause of intellectual disability, is the phenotypic consequence of a supernumerary chromosome 21. Persons with DS commonly display deficits in visuomotor integration, motor coordination, and balance. Despite the key roles of the optokinetic and vestibular systems in these submodalities of motor function, a systematic investigation into the optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in persons with DS was lacking in the literature. Accordingly, this study generated quantitative data on oculomotor function in persons with DS under vestibular stimulation (an accompanying work describes results on the analysis of optokinetic function in the same cohort of participants). Experiments involved 32 participants with DS (14-36 years old, equally divided by gender) and 32 chronological age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Eye movements were recorded by binocular video-oculography, and a servo-controlled rotary chair produced vestibular stimulation. Participants were assessed for VOR during step, ramp, and sinusoidal stimulations; inhibition of the VOR by visual target fixation; and VOR adaptation to conflicting visual input. Individuals with DS displayed small alterations in the VOR gain and dynamics compared to controls. In contrast, the number of VOR nystagmus beats and the ability to inhibit the VOR by visual target fixation were markedly and robustly smaller in persons with DS. Significantly increased VOR adaptation was observed in men with DS. These findings may have implications to the understanding of the neurological basis of the motor dysfunction that affects performance in many practical tasks persons with DS encounter in their everyday lives.

  12. A Person-Centered Perspective on Multidimensional Perfectionism in Canadian and Chinese University Students: A Multigroup Latent Profile Analysis (United States)

    Smith, Martin M.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Yan, Gonggu; Sherry, Simon B.


    This study investigated the generalizability of the tripartite model of perfectionism across Canadian and Chinese university students. Using latent profile analysis and indicators of perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, and neuroticism in both groups, the authors derived a 3-profile solution: adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive…

  13. Dimensionality of the Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale: Findings Based on Confirmatory Factor Analyses (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia Man-Sze


    The Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale (CPCPS) was constructed to assess Chinese people's beliefs about poverty. Four categories of explanations of poverty are covered in this scale: personal problems of poor people, lack of opportunities to escape from poverty, exploitation of poor people, and bad fate. Based on the responses of 1,519…

  14. Design and Evaluation of a Protocol to Assess Electronic Travel Aids for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired (United States)

    Havik, Else M.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.; van der Velde, Hanneke; Pinkster, J. Christiaan; Kooijman, Aart C.


    This study evaluated a protocol that was developed to assess how beneficial electronic travel aids are for persons who are visually impaired. Twenty persons with visual impairments used an electronic travel device (Trekker) for six weeks to conform to the protocol, which proved useful in identifying successful users of the device. (Contains 2…

  15. 14 CFR 13.16 - Civil Penalties: Administrative assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a... (United States)


    ... against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman... assessment against a person other than an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or... as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman for a violation cited in the first sentence of...

  16. Language Learning Strategies Employed by Chinese English-Major Pre-Service Teachers in Relation to Gender and Personality Types (United States)

    Zhou, Chaoying; Intaraprasert, Channarong


    This study was intended to investigate the use of language learning strategy employed by English-major pre-service teachers in Midwest China in relation to their gender and personality types. The modified Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and adopted personality type inventory were used to collect the data. ANOVA and Chi-square tests…

  17. Psychological assessment of persons following suicide attempt by self-poisoning

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    Dedić Gordana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Urgent psychiatric help and effective psychotherapeutic treatments are required soon after revival of a person after suicide attempt by self-poisoning. The aim of this article was to define an assessment of actual psychological characteristics of a person after suicide attempt by self-poisoning in order to apply psychotherapeutic crisis intervention after suicide attempt, as well as to show an approach to the treatment guided by the assessment that uses a psychodynamic model of suicidal crisis intervention based on our clinical experience. Methods. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, Center for Epidemiological Studies- Depression Scale (CES-D, Defensive Questionnaire Scale (DSQ-40, Scaling of Life Events (Paykel, and Pierce Suicide Intent Scale (SIS were applied in 30 hospitalized persons following suicide attempt by self-poisoning and in 30 patients who had asked for psychiatric examination at the outpatient clinic due to various life crises not resulting in suicide attempt. The examinees of both groups were matched by sex, age, and education, professional and marital status. Comparison of the patient groups was done by the ttest. Logistic regression analysis was used for suicidal risk assessment. Results. The suicide attempters were depressed (HAMD = 22.60 ± 5.93, CES-D = 29.67 ± 7.99, with medium suicide risk factor (SIS = 4.5 ± 4.17, using immature (projection, dissociation, devaluation, acting-out and neurotic (altruism defense mechanisms. The most important motives for suicide attempt were separation problems, problems with parents and a problem of loneliness. The commonest feelings and thoughts of a subject preceding suicide attempt were a wish to escape an unbearable situation, loss of control, desire to show love for a partner and wish to be helped. After a suicide attempt, 90% of the persons felt relief because the attempt failed, although almost half of them intend to repeat it. The risk of repeated suicide

  18. Personality Assessment in the Diagnostic Manuals: On Mindfulness, Multiple Methods, and Test Score Discontinuities. (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F


    Recent controversies have illuminated the strengths and limitations of different frameworks for conceptualizing personality pathology (e.g., trait perspectives, categorical models), and stimulated debate regarding how best to diagnose personality disorders (PDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), and in other diagnostic systems (i.e., the International Classification of Diseases, the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual). In this article I argue that regardless of how PDs are conceptualized and which diagnostic system is employed, multimethod assessment must play a central role in PD diagnosis. By complementing self-reports with evidence from other domains (e.g., performance-based tests), a broader range of psychological processes are engaged in the patient, and the impact of self-perception and self-presentation biases can be better understood. By providing the assessor with evidence drawn from multiple modalities, some of which provide converging patterns and some of which yield divergent results, a multimethod assessment compels the assessor to engage this evidence more deeply. The mindful processing that ensues can help minimize the deleterious impact of naturally occurring information processing bias and distortion on the part of the clinician (e.g., heuristics, attribution errors), bringing greater clarity to the synthesis and integration of assessment data.

  19. [Application of uncertainty assessment in NIR quantitative analysis of traditional Chinese medicine]. (United States)

    Xue, Zhong; Xu, Bing; Liu, Qian; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Li, Jian-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Qiao, Yan-Jiang


    The near infrared (NIR) spectra of Liuyi San samples were collected during the mixing process and the quantitative models by PLS (partial least squares) method were generated for the quantification of the concentration of glycyrrhizin. The PLS quantitative model had good calibration and prediction performances (r(cal) 0.998 5, RMSEC = 0.044 mg · g(-1); r(val) = 0.947 4, RMSEP = 0.124 mg · g(-1)), indicating that NIR spectroscopy can be used as a rapid determination method of the concentration of glycyrrhizin in Liuyi San powder. After the validation tests were designed, the Liao-Lin-Iyer approach based on Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate β-content-γ-confidence tolerance intervals. Then the uncertainty was calculated, and the uncer- tainty profile was drawn. The NIR analytical method was considered valid when the concentration of glycyrrhizin is above 1.56 mg · g(-1) since the uncertainty fell within the acceptable limits (λ = ± 20%). The results showed that uncertainty assessment can be used in NIR quantitative models of glycyrrhizin for different concentrations and provided references for other traditional Chinese medicine to finish the uncertainty assessment using NIR quantitative analysis.

  20. Personality assessment inventory profile and predictors of elevations among dissociative disorder patients. (United States)

    Stadnik, Ryan D; Brand, Bethany; Savoca, Angela


    Assessing patients with dissociative disorders (DD) using personality tests is difficult. On the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 ( J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989 ), DD patients often obtain elevations on multiple clinical scales as well as on validity scales that were thought to indicate exaggeration yet have been shown to be elevated among traumatized individuals, including those with DD. No research has been conducted to determine how DD patients score on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; L. C. Morey, 1991 ), which includes the symptom exaggeration scale Negative Impression (NIM) and the malingering scales Malingering Index (MAL) and Rogers Discriminant Function (RDF). The goals of this study were to document the PAI profile of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) patients and to determine how the validity and Schizophrenia scales are related to other PAI scales as well as dissociation. A total of 42 inpatients with DID or DDNOS were assessed on the PAI as well as the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II. The DID/DDNOS patients were elevated on many PAI scales, including NIM and, to a lesser extent, MAL, but not RDF. Dissociation scores significantly and uniquely predicted NIM scores above and beyond Depression and Borderline Features. In addition, after we controlled for MAL and RDF, dissociation was positively associated with NIM. In contrast, after we controlled for the other 2 scales, dissociation was not related to MAL and was negatively related to RDF, indicating that RDF and, to a lesser extent, MAL are better correlates of feigning in DD patients than NIM.

  1. A prototypicality validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality model (CAPP). (United States)

    Hoff, Helge Andreas; Rypdal, Knut; Mykletun, Arnstein; Cooke, David J


    Cooke and colleagues recently developed the lexically based model of psychopathy named the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP, Cooke, Hart, Logan, & Michie, 2004). The current study was the first to evaluate aspects of the validity of a translated version of the CAPP model, which comprises 33 symptoms from six domains of personality functioning. Prototypicality ratings from 796 Norwegian community residents, forensic mental health professionals, and corrections professionals were obtained. Most CAPP symptoms were evaluated as highly prototypical of psychopathy by all three groups. Symptoms from the Self, Dominance, and Attachment domains were perceived as more prototypical than those from the Behavioral domain. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) indicated that two CAPP domains were unidimensional whereas evidence of unidimensionality was somewhat weaker for the other domains, but improved substantially after removal of problematic symptoms. Overall, the findings support the content validity of the CAPP model. This may have relevance to the current considerations regarding reformulation of the criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder in DSM-V.

  2. Impact Assessment of a Vocational Training Program for Persons with Disabilities in Bangladesh

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    Samuel Matthew Waldron


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a vocational training programme in enabling 261 persons with disabilities to find employment in Bangladesh.Methods: A qualitative method, which employed interviews and focus group discussions, assessed the effect of the training programme on key individual, societal and physical factors set out by the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (2001.Results: 157 persons with disabilities (60% secured employment after training. Of these, 74% reported that they were able to provide a better livelihood for their families, 92% reported increased social acceptance, and 83% reported improvement in overall quality of life. Of those who did not find employment, 15% cited issues related to the training course, 6% mentioned discriminatory attitudes of potential employers and 12% had problems related to physical access. Conclusions and Implications: These results suggest that the vocational training programme improved the (reentry of persons with disabilities into employment, which in turn aided their rehabilitation. However, discriminatory attitudes towards them at the workplace were reported.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.81

  3. Validation of the Chinese SF-36 for quality of life assessment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Thumboo, J; Feng, P H; Boey, M L; Soh, C H; Thio, S; Fong, K Y


    We studied the reliability and validity of the Chinese Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) in a cross sectional study of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Sixty-nine consecutive subjects completed a questionnaire containing the Chinese SF-36 twice within 14 d. Disease activity and damage were assessed using the British Isles Lupus Activity Group (BILAG) and SLICC/ACR Damage Index (DI) scales, respectively. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, reliability using Spearman's correlation and repeatability coefficients, and relationships between SF-36, BILAG and DI scores using Spearman's correlation. The Chinese SF-36 showed high internal consistency (alpha = 0.72-0.91) and good reliability, with correlations exceeding 0.70 for 7 scales and mean scale score differences of SF-36 scores correlated weakly with BILAG scores (-0.27 to -0.41) and DI scores (-0.24 to -0.35), and subjects' mean SF-36 scores were 6-24 points lower than the general population, supporting construct validity of the SP-36. These data suggest that the Chinese SF-36 is a reliable and valid measure of quality of life in patients with SLE.

  4. Correlation between quality of life assessment and a personality neurobiologic model in dialyzed patients. (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Caccamo, Chiara; Floccari, Fulvio; Coppolino, Giuseppe; Tripodo, Donatella; Giacobbe, Maria Stella; Senatore, Massimino; Aloisi, Carmela; Ruello, Antonella; Sturiale, Alessio; Ientile, Riccardo; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Coppolino, Salvatore; Villari, Antonino; Frisina, Nicola


    The Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) is a self-administered scoring system that has been widely used and validated as a quality of life (QOL) assessment tool. In our study, a cluster analysis of SF-36 scores was performed in 50 healthy volunteers (controls) and 50 neurobiologically asymptomatic patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Firstly, we assayed the tendency to form clusters from each of the investigated dimensions. Statistic analysis was performed using the Student's t-test for independent measurements and multiple regression analysis. Secondly, we attempted to evaluate if the MHD to apply to both groups a general psychobiological personality model developed by Cloninger in 1987. Cloninger describes three independent personality dimensions: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA)and reward dependence (RD). Each personality dimension would be the expression of hereditary variations integrating the three main brain systems, respectively: dopaminergic, serotoninergic and noradrenergic. Finally, we then aimed to investigate possible interferences among the seric concentrations of the neuromodulators and SF-36 scores, in the attempt to identify, using a simple approach, the complex personality structure of MHD patients. QOL self-assessment and seric neuromodulators were measured in both groups, choosing an interdialytic day for MHD patients. We found that MHD patients perceived a significant worsening in their QOL in all investigated dimensions with respect to the controls. In addition, they showed significantly lower dopamine and serotonine concentrations and significantly higher noradrenaline concentrations. Therefore, our study, confirmed data reported previously in the literature, that cluster analysis of SF-36 scores provides different results in the MHD population in comparison to normal subjects. In fact, comparing the hierarchical trees of both groups, it appeared evident that in MHD patients, cluster dimensions were greater than in the

  5. A systematic assessment of quality assurance-based food safety management system of Chinese edible oil manufacturer in view of context characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yingxue; He, Zhen; Luning, Pieternel A.


    This study uses a framework of a food safety management system-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI), for the assessment of the context of a Chinese edible oil manufacture through the view of a case study, and an evaluation of the performance of the FSMS of a Chinese edible oil company. The study inclu

  6. Ventricular synchronicity: observations comparing pulse flow and tissue Doppler assessment in a Chinese healthy adult cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Xin; ZHU Tian-gang; GUO Shi; MA Jian-xin; WANG Xin; GUO Ji-hong


    Background Mechanical asynchrony is an important parameter in predicting the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy,but detailed knowledge about cardiac timing in healthy persons is scarce.Therefore,in the current study,we sought to investigate the physiological status of interventricular synchronicity using pulse wave flow and tissue Doppler imaging in a healthy Chinese population.Methods Eighty-eight healthy volunteers underwent standard flow and tissue Doppler echocardiographic examinations.Ventricular inflow and outflow pulse wave flow Doppler patterns were recorded together with annulus pulse tissue Doppler imaging.Time intervals from the beginning of the QRS complex to the onset,peak and end of each wave were measured.Results The onsets of systole between left and right ventricles were highly synchronized by both imaging modalities.However,the left ventricle reached the peak flow ejection and peak mechanical contraction earlier than the right ventricle,(165.61±26.23) ms vs.(204.3±34.55) ms (P <0.01) and (133.62±26.19) ms vs.(191.25±38.47) ms (P <0.01).Time to peak early diastolic relaxation was earlier in the left ventricle than in the right heart,(500.23±56.52) me vs.(524.94±47.42) ms (P <0.01).Conclusions Left and right ventricles were well synchronized at the onsets of systole and diastole even though interventricular peak systolic and peak early diastolic dyssynchrony was observed in healthy people by pulse wave Doppler imaging.In addition,diastolic timing events were slightly affected by age and gender.

  7. Assessing Cardiovascular Health Using Life's Simple 7 in a Chinese Population Undergoing Stroke Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong Yang; Bin Zhang; Pan Deng; Lu Chen; Jing-Ran Wang; Dong-Sheng Fan


    Background:The American Heart Association/American Stroke Association proposed a metric called Life's Simple 7 (LS7) to define cardiovascular health (CVH).The presence of a large number of ideal components of CVH is associated with lower cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality.We aimed to assess CVH using LS7 in a Chinese population undergoing primary and secondary stroke prevention.Methods:Patients with either ischemic stroke or cardiovascular risk factors were enrolled in the study from October 2010 to July 2013.LS7 components were scored as poor (0 points),intermediate (1 point),or ideal (2 points).The overall LS7 score was categorized as inadequate (0-4),average (5-9),or optimal (10-14) CVH.The Chi-square test,Mann-Whitney U-test,and Kruskal-Wallis test were used.Results:In total,706 patients were enrolled.(1) The distribution of the overall LS7 score (n =255) indicated that 9.4%,82.4%,and 8.2% of the patients had inadequate,average,and optimal CVH,respectively.The proportion of patients with optimal CVH undergoing secondary stroke prevention was lower than that for patients undergoing primary stroke prevention (3.8% vs.12.8%,P =0.005).The vast majority of participants (76.1%) presented with ≤2 ideal health components.(2) The proportions of patients with poor,intermediate,and ideal status,respectively,for the following LS7 components were assessed:Total cholesterol (n =275; 5.1%,73.8%,and 21.1%),blood pressure (n =351 ;32.5%,59.0%,and 8.5%),blood glucose (n =280; 9.3%,39.6%,and 51.1%),physical activity (n =540; 90.7%,8.7%,and 0.6%),diet (n =524;0.2%,92.4%,and 7.4%),smoking (n =619; 20.7%,2.9%,and 76.4%),and body mass index (n =259; 6.6%,35.5%,and 57.9%).Conclusions:Few Chinese patients undergoing stroke prevention had optimal CVH (determined using LS7).Additionally,fewer patients undergoing secondary prevention had optimal CVH than those undergoing primary prevention.In particular,physical activity

  8. The Systematic Evaluation of Instruments Designed to Assess Pain in Persons with Limited Ability to Communicate*

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    Michèle Aubin


    Full Text Available Chronic pain is often underdetected and undertreated in long-term care facilities. The use of self-report measures of pain (such as the visual analogue scale is often problematic for older adults residing in long-term care because of the high prevalence of visual and auditory deficits and severe cognitive impairment. Observational measures of pain have been developed to address this concern. A systematic grid designed to assess the properties of existing observational measures of pain was used for seniors with dementia. The grid focused on the evaluation of content validity (12 items, construct validity (12 items, reliability (13 items and clinical utility (10 items. Among the 24 instruments that were evaluated, several were deemed to be promising in the assessment of pain among older persons with severe dementia. Nonetheless, additional research is needed before their routine integration in the practices of long-term care settings.

  9. Persons in the shadow: Assessing the social context of high abilities

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    Full Text Available From a perspective of research on expertise we argue that the analysis of practice and of the growth of social networks is a promising approach to assessing indicators of high ability. Both groups of variables jointly predict how subjects master critical changes or transitional periods in their careers. Although expert performance is frequently an individual matter, the development of expertise crucially depends on the presence of "persons in the shadow" who design practice patterns, direct the subjects' deliberate practice, and motivate them (often extrinsically. We present detailed analyses from the cases of highly successful professionals – a jazz guitarist, a consultant and a scientist – in order to show how individual and social aspects are combined in early expertise development. Thus, these aspects form the crucial components which have to be considered in the assessment of high abilities if an expertise approach is taken.

  10. An assessment of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) in persons with Down syndrome. (United States)

    Costa, Alberto C S


    Down syndrome (DS), the most common genetically defined cause of intellectual disability, is the phenotypic consequence of a supernumerary chromosome 21. Persons with DS commonly display deficits in visuomotor integration, motor coordination, and balance. Despite the key roles of the optokinetic and vestibular systems in these submodalities of motor function, a systematic investigation of the optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in persons with DS had lacked in the literature. Accordingly, this study generated quantitative data on oculomotor function in persons with DS under optokinetic and sinusoidal smooth pursuit stimulation. Thirty-two participants with DS (14-36 years old, equally divided by gender) and 32 chronological age- and gender-matched typically developing controls were recruited from the community. Eye movements were recorded by binocular video oculography and an LCD projector produced visual stimulation. Assessments of the gain and frequency of slow phase of OKN beats and number and mean amplitude of intruding saccades during smooth pursuit were performed. Individuals with DS displayed angular velocity-dependent reduction in OKN gain and number of produced nystagmus beats compared to controls. The gain of the smooth pursuit was not significantly different between participants with DS and control participants. However, the number and mean amplitude of intruding saccades during smooth pursuit were increased in participants with DS compared to control participants. These findings may have implications to the understanding of the neurological basis of the motor dysfunction that affects performance in many practical tasks persons with DS encounter in their everyday lives.

  11. Semantic analysis of idioms characterizing negative psycho-emotional state of person in Russian and Chinese languages

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    Ma Lin


    Full Text Available Phraseology is a treasury of language. It is the fruit, which was born in the result of a long process of the practical use of the language. Phraseologisms give the speech power, persuasiveness, brilliance and imagery. They enliven the language and make it more emotional. In this article, we focus on the negative psycho-emotional state of a person. The negative psycho-emotional state of a person is emotion and feelings that are formed in the result of the negative mood of a person and related to the dissatisfaction with vital needs. The authors of the article identified 5 phraseological subgroups that characterize the negative psycho-emotional state of a person: (1 anger (irritation, rage; (2 disgust, hatred; (3 terror (fear, fright, horror; (4 anxiety, agitation; (5 sadness, melancholy.

  12. Personal Best (PB) Goal Structure, Individual PB Goals, Engagement, and Achievement: A Study of Chinese- and English-Speaking Background Students in Australian Schools (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.


    Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…

  13. A Smartphone Application for Personal Assessments of Body Composition and Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Farina


    Full Text Available Personal assessments of body phenotype can enhance success in weight management but are limited by the lack of availability of practical methods. We describe a novel smart phone application of digital photography (DP and determine its validity to estimate fat mass (FM. This approach utilizes the percent (% occupancy of an individual lateral whole-body digital image and regions indicative of adipose accumulation associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease. We measured 117 healthy adults (63 females and 54 males aged 19 to 65 years with DP and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and report here the development and validation of this application. Inter-observer variability of the determination of % occupancy was 0.02%. Predicted and reference FM values were significantly related in females (R2 = 0.949, SEE = 2.83 and males (R2 = 0.907, SEE = 2.71. Differences between predicted and measured FM values were small (0.02 kg, p = 0.96 and 0.07 kg, p = 0.96 for females and males, respectively. No significant bias was found; limits of agreement ranged from 5.6 to −5.4 kg for females and from 5.6 to −5.7 kg for males. These promising results indicate that DP is a practical and valid method for personal body composition assessments.

  14. A Study of the Relationship Between Tutor's Personality and Teaching Effectiveness: Does culture make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobbie Chan


    Full Text Available Good tutoring requires appropriate interpersonal and pedagogical skills. Tutor personality is a major factor affecting how tutors communicate and deals with students, and yet it is a largely unexplored context of distance education. Using the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI* this paper examines how the personality of tutors’ affects their teaching effectiveness at a distance learning institution in Hong Kong. The results are compared to those reported by Chan (2001 in a similar study using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI. The results indicate that certain scales on the Chinese Tradition factor of the CPAI are significantly related to tutors’ teaching performance, and that the MBTI could not subsume all the CPAI scales. Future research with the CPAI should explore whether this Chinese Tradition factor is unique to the Chinese culture or whether it comprises elements of a universal domain useful in understanding key interpersonal aspects of personality that have been absent from Western personality inventories.

  15. On key issues for perfecting the legal person governance structure of Chinese football--Writtenat the first anniversary of issuance of Overall Chinese Football Reform Plan%论完善中国足球法人治理结构的关键问题--写在《中国足球改革总体方案》颁布一周年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易剑东; 施秋波


    当前,国家体育产业政策中已经有明晰的法人治理结构的观念,中国足球的改革和发展也呈现出建立法人治理结构的迫切需求。然而,我国并不完善的法人制度、传统的单位管理体制、足球领域不系统的法人治理理念,使得当下中国足球的法人治理结构面临一系列问题。因此提出:(1)我国需要的是俱乐部的法人治理结构,还是中国足协的法人治理结构,抑或整个中国足球的法人治理结构?(2)中国足球是否需要自治?谁的自治?怎样的自治?(3)中国足球协会是否需要明确法人属性?应该定位在实际事业法人,还是名义上的社团法人?(4)推动中国足球发展的4种法人(机关、事业、社团、企业法人)的关系如何处理?当下突出强调中国足协和足球理事会的社团法人资格,那么事业法人和企业法人的地位如何处理?(5)各类关系到中国足球改革发展的法人的责任、权利和义务何在?%Currently there has been a clear conception of legal person governance structure in Chin’s policies for the sports industry, and Chinese football reform and development show an urgent need for establishing a legal person governance structure as well. However, the imperfect legal person system, traditional corporate management system and unsystematic legal person governance conception in the football area in China, have rendered the legal person governance structure of Chinese football facing a series of problems. Therefore, the author put forward the following issues: 1) Does China need a legal person governance structure of clubs, or a legal person governance structure of China football Association, or a legal person governance structure of the entire Chinese football? 2) Does Chinese football need autonomy? Whose autonomy will it be? What kind of autonomy will it be? 3) Does Chinese Football Association need to specify legal person attribute? Should

  16. Investigating the myth of the "model minority": a participatory community health assessment of Chinese and Vietnamese adults. (United States)

    Tendulkar, Shalini Ahuja; Hamilton, Renée Cammarata; Chu, Chieh; Arsenault, Lisa; Duffy, Kevin; Huynh, Van; Hung, Mei; Lee, Eric; Jane, Shwuling; Friedman, Elisa


    Despite the persistent belief that Asians are the "model minority" there is accumulating evidence of health concerns within Asian subgroups. In this study, we implemented a cross-sectional participatory community health assessment in an urban city in Massachusetts, to understand differences and similarities in demographics, health and healthcare access in Chinese and Vietnamese adults. We gathered qualitative data from community stakeholders to inform the development of a community health assessment tool. The tool elicited information on healthcare access, health status, behavioral health and chronic disease history and treatment. Healthcare access issues and poor health status, particularly among Chinese participants and mental health symptomotology in both groups were areas of concern. These findings revealed important health concerns in two Asian ethnic groups. Studies are needed to better understand these concerns and inform programs and policies to improve health outcomes in these Asian ethnic groups.

  17. Assessment of Severe Accident Depressurization Valve Activation Strategy for Chinese Improved 1000 MWe PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Shao


    Full Text Available To prevent HPME and DCH, SADV is proposed to be added to the pressurizer for Chinese improved 1000 MWe PWR NPP with the reference of EPR design. Rapid depressurization capability is assessed using the mechanical analytical code. Three typical severe accident sequences of TMLB’, SBLOCA, and LOFW are selected. It shows that with activation of the SADV the RCS pressure is low enough to prevent HPME and DCH. Natural circulation at upper RPV and hot leg is considered for the rapid depressurization capacity analysis. The result shows that natural circulation phenomenon results in heat transfer from the core to the pipes in RCS which may cause the creep rupture of pipes in RCS and delays the severe accident progression. Different SADV valve areas are investigated to the influence of depressurization of RCS. Analysis shows that the introduction of SADV with right valve area will delay progression of core degradation to RPV failure. Valve area is to be optimized since smaller SADV area will reduce its effect and too large valve area will lead to excessive loss of water inventory in RCS and makes core degradation progression to RPV failure faster without additional core cooling water sources.

  18. Applying the revised Chinese Job Content Questionnaire to assess psychosocial work conditions among Taiwan's hospital workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Roberto


    Full Text Available Abstract Background For hospital accreditation and health promotion reasons, we examined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ could be applied to evaluate job strain of individual hospital employees and to determine the number of factors extracted from JCQ. Additionally, we developed an Excel module of self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation with experts. Methods To develop an Excel-based self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation to experts to make job strain assessment easier and quicker than ever, Rasch rating scale model was used to analyze data from 1,644 hospital employees who enrolled in 2008 for a job strain survey. We determined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ could evaluate job strain of individual employees in work sites. The respective item responding to specific groups' occupational hazards causing job stress was investigated by using skewness coefficient with its 95% CI through item-by-item analyses. Results Each of those 22 items on the questionnaire was examined to have five factors. The prevalence rate of Chinese hospital workers with high job strain was 16.5%. Conclusions Graphical representations of four quadrants, item-by-item bar chart plots and skewness 95% CI comparison generated in Excel can help employers and consultants of an organization focusing on a small number of key areas of concern for each worker in job strain.

  19. Significant and sustaining elevation of blood oxygen induced by Chinese cupping therapy as assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy


    Li, Ting; Li, Yaoxian; Lin, Yu; Li, Kai


    Cupping therapy has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years to relieve muscle pain/tendency/fatigue and to cure or reduce symbols of other diseases. However, its therapeutic effect is sparsely interpreted in the language of modern physiology. To objectively evaluate its therapeutic effect, we focused on dry cupping treatment and utilized near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to assess the concentration change in oxy-hemoglobin ([HbO2]), deoxy-hemoglobin ([Hb]), and blood ...

  20. Assessment of personal noise exposure of overhead-traveling crane drivers in steel-rolling mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Lin; CHAI Dong-liang; LI Hui-juan; LEI Zhuo; ZHAO Yi-ming


    Background Noise is widespread occupational hazard in iron and steel industry. Overhead-traveling cranes are widely used in this industry, but few studies characterized the overhead-traveling crane drivers' noise exposure level so far. In this study, we assessed and characterized personal noise exposure levels of overhead-traveling crane drivers in two steel-rolling mills.Methods One hundred and twenty-four overhead-traveling crane drivers, 76 in the cold steel-rolling mill and 48 in the hot steel-rolling mill, were enrolled in the study. Personal noise dosimeters (AIHUA Instruments Model AWA5610e,Hangzhou, China) were used to collect full-shift noise exposure data from all the participants. Crane drivers carried dosimeters with microphones placed near their collars during the work shifts. Work logs had been taken by the drivers simultaneously. Personal noise exposure data were divided into segments based on lines in which they worked. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS 13.0.Results The average personal noise exposure (LAeq.8h) of overhead-traveling crane drivers in the hot steel-rolling mills ((85.03±2.25) dB(A)) was higher than that in the cold one ((83.05±2.93) dB(A), P<0.001). There were 17 overhead traveling cranes in the hot steel-rolling mill and 24 cranes in the cold one, of which carrying capacities varied from 15 tons to 100 tons. The average noise exposure level based on different lines in the hot and cold steel-rolling mills were (85.2±2.61) dB(A) and (83.3±3.10) dB(A) respectively (P=0.001), which were similar to the average personal noise exposure in both mills. The noise exposure levels were different among different lines (P=0.021).Conclusion Noise exposure levels, depending upon background noise levels and the noise levels on the ground, are inconstant. As the noise exposure levels are above the 85 dB(A) criteria, these drivers should be involved in the Hearing Conservation Program to protect their hearing.

  1. Life cycle assessment of Chinese shrimp farming systems targeted for export and domestic sales. (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Diana, James S; Keoleian, Gregory A; Lai, Qiuming


    We conducted surveys of six hatcheries and 18 farms for data inputs to complete a cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance for intensive (for export markets in Chicago) and semi-intensive (for domestic markets in Shanghai) shrimp farming systems in Hainan Province, China. The relative contribution to overall environmental performance of processing and distribution to final markets were also evaluated from a cradle-to-destination-port perspective. Environmental impact categories included global warming, acidification, eutrophication, cumulative energy use, and biotic resource use. Our results indicated that intensive farming had significantly higher environmental impacts per unit production than semi-intensive farming in all impact categories. The grow-out stage contributed between 96.4% and 99.6% of the cradle-to-farm-gate impacts. These impacts were mainly caused by feed production, electricity use, and farm-level effluents. By averaging over intensive (15%) and semi-intensive (85%) farming systems, 1 metric ton (t) live-weight of shrimp production in China required 38.3 ± 4.3 GJ of energy, as well as 40.4 ± 1.7 t of net primary productivity, and generated 23.1 ± 2.6 kg of SO(2) equiv, 36.9 ± 4.3 kg of PO(4) equiv, and 3.1 ± 0.4 t of CO(2) equiv. Processing made a higher contribution to cradle-to-destination-port impacts than distribution of processed shrimp from farm gate to final markets in both supply chains. In 2008, the estimated total electricity consumption, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions from Chinese white-leg shrimp production would be 1.1 billion kW·h, 49 million GJ, and 4 million metric tons, respectively. Improvements suggested for Chinese shrimp aquaculture include changes in feed composition, farm management, electricity-generating sources, and effluent treatment before discharge. Our results can be used to optimize market-oriented shrimp supply chains and promote more

  2. Evaluation of reliability and validity of the Chinese version of personal and social performance scale%个人和社会功能量表在抑郁症中的适用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田涛; 卢卫红; 易正辉; 乔颖


    目的 检测个人和社会功能量表(Personal and Social Performance scale,PSP)在抑郁症患者中的信度和效度,了解PSP在抑郁症中的适用性.方法 在全国6个精神卫生中心收集84例门诊抑郁症患者.所有的病例进行PSP、Montgomery- Asberg抑郁量表(Montgomery- Asberg Depression Rating Scale,MADRS)、大体社会功能量表(Global Assessment of Functioning Scale,GAF)评定,分析PSP在抑郁症患者中的内部一致性、与GAF的一致性以及与MADRS的相关性.另外,6例抑郁症病例在首次评定后的1周进行再次评定用以PSP重测一致性的检验.结果 PSP的内部一致性Cronbach α系数为0.760,PSP总分与GAF评分具有良好的正相关(r=0.906,P<0.01),与MADRS总分呈负相关,具有统计学意义(r=-0.652,P<0.01),重测一致性的kappa值为0.945(n=6,P=0.01).结论 PSP是一个操作简单、稳定性高的评估工具,可用于抑郁症患者社会功能的评估.量表中d维度(冲动和攻击行为)对整个量表的权重大,在抑郁症患者中与总分相关性欠佳.%Objective To investigate the reliability and validity of Chinese version of Personal and Social perfomance scale (PSP - CHN) in depression patients. Methods 84 depression outpatients were enrolled from 6 mental health hospitals around the country. All participants were assessed in Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) to investigate the validity of PSP -CHN, and were assessed in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) to analyses the correlation. One week after the first PSP interview, the second PSP interview was conducted to assess the test-retest reliability in 6 depression patients. Results The internal consistency of PSP (Cronbach a is 0. 760) was high. The total score of Chinese version of PSP had a good positive correlation with the GAF score (r=0. 906) and good negative correlations with MADRS (r= -0. 652, P<0. 01). Furthermore, the test-retest reliability of Chinese version of PSP (kappa=0

  3. Assessment of personality-related levels of functioning: A pilot study of clinical assessment of the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning based on a semi-structured interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Simonsen, Sebastian; Nemery, Caroline


    Background: The personality disorder categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV have been extensively criticized, and there is a growing consensus that personality pathology should be represented dimensionally rather than categorically. The aim of this pilot study....... Methods: The inter-rater reliability of the assessment of the four domains and the total impairment in the Level of Personality Functioning Scale were measured in a patient sample that varied in terms of severity and type of pathology. Ratings were done independently by the interviewer and two experts who...... watched a videotaped interview. Results: Inter-rater reliability coefficients varied between domains and were not sufficient for clinical practice, but may support the use of the interview to assess the dimensions of personality functioning for research purposes. Conclusions: While designed to measure...

  4. Assessing the Impact of Faking on Binary Personality Measures: An IRT-Based Multiple-Group Factor Analytic Procedure (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina


    This article proposes a model-based multiple-group procedure for assessing the impact of faking on personality measures and the scores derived from these measures. The assessment is at the item level and the base model, which is intended for binary items, can be parameterized both as an Item Response Theory (IRT) model and as an Item…

  5. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Hazard Assessment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection... (United States)


    ... common sense and appropriate expertise to assess work activity hazards and select PPE. 3. Assessment...). Glare Poor vision Spectacles with shaded or special-purpose lenses, as suitable. See notes (9), (10... are marked or identified as such. (e) As required by the standard, persons whose vision requires...

  6. Construct measurement quality improves predictive accuracy in violence risk assessment: an illustration using the personality assessment inventory. (United States)

    Hendry, Melissa C; Douglas, Kevin S; Winter, Elizabeth A; Edens, John F


    Much of the risk assessment literature has focused on the predictive validity of risk assessment tools. However, these tools often comprise a list of risk factors that are themselves complex constructs, and focusing on the quality of measurement of individual risk factors may improve the predictive validity of the tools. The present study illustrates this concern using the Antisocial Features and Aggression scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (Morey, 1991). In a sample of 1,545 prison inmates and offenders undergoing treatment for substance abuse (85% male), we evaluated (a) the factorial validity of the ANT and AGG scales, (b) the utility of original ANT and AGG scales and newly derived ANT and AGG scales for predicting antisocial outcomes (recidivism and institutional infractions), and (c) whether items with a stronger relationship to the underlying constructs (higher factor loadings) were in turn more strongly related to antisocial outcomes. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) indicated that ANT and AGG items were not structured optimally in these data in terms of correspondence to the subscale structure identified in the PAI manual. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted on a random split-half of the sample to derive optimized alternative factor structures, and cross-validated in the second split-half using CFA. Four-factor models emerged for both the ANT and AGG scales, and, as predicted, the size of item factor loadings was associated with the strength with which items were associated with institutional infractions and community recidivism. This suggests that the quality by which a construct is measured is associated with its predictive strength. Implications for risk assessment are discussed.

  7. Life Story of Chinese College Students with Perfectionism Personality: A Qualitative Study Based on a Life Story Model (United States)

    Ma, Min; Zi, Fei


    This manuscript aims to explore and delineate the common characteristics of college students with perfectionism, to promote an in-depth understanding of dynamic personality development of perfectionists from the views of life story model proposed by McAdams (1985). The researchers adopted a narrative qualitative research method. The life stories…

  8. Ethically sound technology? Guidelines for interactive ethical assessment of personal health monitoring. (United States)

    Palm, Elin; Nordgren, Anders; Verweij, Marcel; Collste, Göran


    Novel care-technologies possess a transformational potential. Future care and support may be provided via monitoring technologies such as smart devices, sensors, actors (robots) and Information and Communication Technologies. Such technologies enable care provision outside traditional care institutions, for instance in the homes of patients. Health monitoring may become "personalized" i.e. tailored to the needs of individual care recipients' but may also alter relations between care providers and care recipents, shape and form the care environment and influence values central to health-care. Starting out from a social constructivist theory of technology, an interactive ethical assessment-model is offered. The suggested model supplements a traditional analysis based on normative ethical theory (top-down approach) with interviews including relevant stakeholders (a bottom-up approach). This method has been piloted by small-scale interviews encircling stakeholder perspectives on three emerging technologies: (1) Careousel, a smart medicine-management device, (2) Robot Giraff, an interactive and mobile communication-device and (3) I-Care, a care-software that combines alarm and register system. By incorporating stakeholder perspectives into the analysis, the interactive ethical assessment model provides a richer understanding of the impact of PHM-technologies on ethical values than a traditional top-down model. If the assessment is conducted before the technology has reached the market - preferably in close interaction with developers and users - ethically sound technologies may be obtained.

  9. The Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids: A Useful Measure of Childhood Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey P. Jones


    Full Text Available Despite being identified as a high risk cohort for psychosis, there has been relatively little research on the clinical presentation and assessment of Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD in childhood. The current study aimed to develop a measure of childhood SPD (Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids (MASK and assess discriminant validity against another neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Sixty-eight children aged between 5 and 12 (21 SPD, 15 ASD, and 32 typically developing and their parents were administered the MASK. The MASK is a 57-item semistructured interview that obtains information from the child, their parents, and the clinician. The results showed high internal consistency for the MASK and higher scores in the SPD group. A factor analysis revealed two MASK factors: social/pragmatic symptoms and positive schizotypal symptoms. Both factors were associated with SPD, while only the social/pragmatic factor was associated with ASD. Within the two clinical groups, a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the MASK (cut-off score: 132 out of 228 was a good indicator of SPD diagnosis. These preliminary MASK findings were reliable and consistent and suggest that childhood SPD is characterised by complex symptomology distinguishable from ASD.

  10. Rorschach score validation as a model for 21st-century personality assessment. (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F


    Recent conceptual and methodological innovations have led to new strategies for documenting the construct validity of test scores, including performance-based test scores. These strategies have the potential to generate more definitive evidence regarding the validity of scores derived from the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM) and help resolve some long-standing controversies regarding the clinical utility of the Rorschach. After discussing the unique challenges in studying the Rorschach and why research in this area is important given current trends in scientific and applied psychology, I offer 3 overarching principles to maximize the construct validity of RIM scores, arguing that (a) the method that provides RIM validation measures plays a key role in generating outcome predictions; (b) RIM variables should be linked with findings from neighboring subfields; and (c) rigorous RIM score validation includes both process-focused and outcome-focused assessments. I describe a 4-step strategy for optimal RIM score derivation (formulating hypotheses, delineating process links, generating outcome predictions, and establishing limiting conditions); and a 4-component template for RIM score validation (establishing basic psychometrics, documenting outcome-focused validity, assessing process-focused validity, and integrating outcome- and process-focused validity data). The proposed framework not only has the potential to enhance the validity and utility of the RIM, but might ultimately enable the RIM to become a model of test score validation for 21st-century personality assessment.

  11. The Melbourne assessment of Schizotypy in kids: a useful measure of childhood schizotypal personality disorder. (United States)

    Jones, Harvey P; Testa, Renee R; Ross, Nola; Seal, Marc L; Pantelis, Christos; Tonge, Bruce


    Despite being identified as a high risk cohort for psychosis, there has been relatively little research on the clinical presentation and assessment of Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD) in childhood. The current study aimed to develop a measure of childhood SPD (Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids (MASK)) and assess discriminant validity against another neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sixty-eight children aged between 5 and 12 (21 SPD, 15 ASD, and 32 typically developing) and their parents were administered the MASK. The MASK is a 57-item semistructured interview that obtains information from the child, their parents, and the clinician. The results showed high internal consistency for the MASK and higher scores in the SPD group. A factor analysis revealed two MASK factors: social/pragmatic symptoms and positive schizotypal symptoms. Both factors were associated with SPD, while only the social/pragmatic factor was associated with ASD. Within the two clinical groups, a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the MASK (cut-off score: 132 out of 228) was a good indicator of SPD diagnosis. These preliminary MASK findings were reliable and consistent and suggest that childhood SPD is characterised by complex symptomology distinguishable from ASD.

  12. Assessment of personality and demographic aspects of cohabitation and marital success. (United States)

    Newcomb, M D; Bentler, P M


    The outcomes of 68 marriages of four-year duration were compared on the basis of whether the partners had or had not cohabited premaritally. Background characteristics and personality data were assessed on those couples when there were newly married, and they were followed-up four years later to determine their current marital status, level of satisfaction, difficulty with various problem areas and the number of children born to them. No reliable differences on marital satisfaction or divorce rates between premarital cohabitors and noncohabitors were found. Cohabitors who divorced did so while reporting less marital distress than noncohabitors who divorced. Premarital cohabitors had significantly fewer children than noncohabitors. Degree of difficulty experienced on various problem areas differed between the groups. Certain personality and background variables predicted marital success differently for the two groups. Using the same selected set of six predictor variables, multiple regression equations were generated for cohabitors and noncohabitors. The cohabitors equation (R2 = .56) predicted marital success significantly more effectively than the noncohabitors equation (R2 = .28), When comparing the tri-weight vectors for these two equations, none of the predictor variables had the same influence in both groups. Theoretical implications of the findings were discussed.

  13. A framework and approach for assessing the value of personal health records (PHRs). (United States)

    Johnston, Douglas; Kaelber, David; Pan, Eric C; Bu, Davis; Shah, Sapna; Hook, Julie M; Middleton, Blackford


    Personal Health Records (PHRs) are a rapidly expanding area of medical informatics due to the belief that they may improve health care delivery and control costs of care. The PHRs in use or in development today support a myriad of different functions, and consequently offer different value propositions. A comprehensive value analysis of PHRs has never been conducted; such analysis is needed to identify those PHR functions that yield the greatest value to PHR stakeholders. Here we present a framework that could serve as a foundation for determining the value of PHR functions and thereby help optimize PHR development. While the value framework is specific to the domain of PHRs, the authors have successfully applied the associated evaluation methodology in assessing other health care information technologies.

  14. Assessing concrete and abstract thinking with the Draw-a-Person technique. (United States)

    Gustafson, J L; Waehler, C A


    In this study, we examined the Draw-a-Person (DAP) technique as an indicator of concrete/literal and abstract thinking, Subjects (N = 50) included schizophrenic inpatients (n = 25) and college students (n = 25). Fourteen possible indicators of concrete/literal or abstract thinking on the DAP were generated based on theoretical considerations and prior research. Five indicators were eliminated because of their low interrater reliability. The Proverbs Test (Gotham, 1956) was used to establish evidence of concrete/literal and abstract thinking. Scores from the DAP and the Proverbs Test were correlated. Composite scores on the DAP were highly correlated (r = .52, p .05) with concrete/literal Proverb Test scores. Results indicate the potential for using the DAP technique to assess concrete/literal and abstract thinking when a nonverbal test is needed.

  15. The German Adaptation and Standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). (United States)

    Groves, Julia A; Engel, Rolf R


    We developed the German Adaptation of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) under careful consideration of current adaptation literature and guidelines. The adaptation process included the translation of the 344 items into German, a back translation into English as well as the testing of the language equivalence using a bilingual sample. We then standardized the final German version of the PAI for the German population. We compared the American and German norm and reliability data. The observed differences in PAI scale means did not exceed 5 T scores. Internal consistency reliability showed a similar pattern in both language versions, although the German alpha coefficients were on average slightly lower than the American ones. Factor structure was similar in both versions. We discuss expectations about the German PAI and possible problems for its practical usefulness for the German-speaking population.

  16. Predicting law enforcement officer job performance with the Personality Assessment Inventory. (United States)

    Lowmaster, Sara E; Morey, Leslie C


    This study examined the descriptive and predictive characteristics of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) in a sample of 85 law enforcement officer candidates. Descriptive results indicate that mean PAI full-scale and subscale scores are consistently lower than normative community sample scores, with some exceptions noted typically associated with defensive responding. Predictive validity was examined by relating PAI full-scale and subscale scores to supervisor ratings in the areas of job performance, integrity problems, and abuse of disability status. Modest correlations were observed for all domains; however, predictive validity was moderated by defensive response style, with greater predictive validity observed among less defensive responders. These results suggest that the PAI's full scales and subscales are able to predict law enforcement officers' performance, but their utility is appreciably improved when taken in the context of indicators of defensive responding.

  17. A Prototypicality Validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) Model Spanish Version. (United States)

    Flórez, Gerardo; Casas, Alfonso; Kreis, Mette K F; Forti, Leonello; Martínez, Joaquín; Fernández, Juan; Conde, Manuel; Vázquez-Noguerol, Raúl; Blanco, Tania; Hoff, Helge A; Cooke, David J


    The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) is a newly developed, lexically based, conceptual model of psychopathy. The content validity of the Spanish language CAPP model was evaluated using prototypicality analysis. Prototypicality ratings were collected from 187 mental health experts and from samples of 143 health professionals and 282 community residents. Across the samples the majority of CAPP items were rated as highly prototypical of psychopathy. The Self, Dominance, and Attachment domains were evaluated as being more prototypical than the Behavioral and Cognitive domains. These findings are consistent with findings from similar studies in other languages and provide further support for the content validation of the CAPP model across languages and the lexical approach.

  18. 高校国学教育对构筑大学生和谐人格的影响及对策%Influence and Countermeasures of Chinese Studies Education on Establishing College Students' Harmonious Personality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The harmonious personality is viewed as the developing goal for college students. Chinese studies edtication lays emphasis on enlightening wisdom and improving character, which helps develop college students' harmonious personality. Deepening Chinese studies education, innovating the college teaching model, and creating cultural construction have great significance to cultivating harmonious personality.%国学教育的核心价值观内涵重在“启迪智慧、完善品格”,而和谐人格是大学生现实人格发展的目标模式。深化国学教育,创新高校教学、文化建设模式对促进大学生和谐人格的养成具有重要意义。

  19. Assessing Cardiovascular Health Using Life′s Simple 7 in a Chinese Population Undergoing Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Yang


    Conclusions: Few Chinese patients undergoing stroke prevention had optimal CVH (determined using LS7. Additionally, fewer patients undergoing secondary prevention had optimal CVH than those undergoing primary prevention. In particular, physical activity and diet status in this population require improvement.

  20. Contributions to the dimensional assessment of personality disorders using Millon's model and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI9-III). (United States)

    Strack, Stephen; Millon, Theodore


    For over 35 years, Mllion's (1996) model of personality and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (Millon, 1977, 1987, 2006) have been useful resources for clinicians to understand and assess personality disorders (PDs) and clinical syndromes in psychiatric patients. In this article, we highlight significant features of the model and test that have proved valuable to personologists in their quest for a more satisfactory taxonomy of PDs based on continuously distributed traits. We also describe Millon's (1996)prototypal domain approach to personality that combines dimensional and categorical elements for the description of PDs and their normal counterparts.

  1. The associations between non-suicidal self-injury and borderline personality disorder features among Chinese adolescents. (United States)

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom; Lai, Ching Man; Fu, Kei


    This study examined the relative importance of four major BPD features, that is, affective instability, disturbed interpersonal relationship, unstable sense of self, and behavioral impulsivity, in explaining the presence, initiation, repetition, and discontinuation of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among a 2-year follow-up sample of 4,782 (68.5% girls) Hong Kong Chinese secondary school students. Affective instability, disturbed interpersonal relationship and behavioral impulsivity were significantly associated with the presence of NSSI both concurrently and longitudinally. These three BPD features were also related to the future initiation of NSSI. On the other hand, only behavioral impulsivity made a significant contribution to the repetition of NSSI. Additionally, a lower level of affective instability was also associated with quitting NSSI. We discussed some possible mechanisms underlying the effects of different BPD features on different developmental stages of NSSI.

  2. Assessing pollution-related effects of oil spills from ships in the Chinese Bohai Sea. (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Guo, Mingxian; Wang, Yebao; Yu, Xiang; Guo, Jie; Tang, Cheng; Hu, Xiaoke; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Baoquan


    An analysis of the effects of potential oil spills will provide data in support of decisions related to improving the response to oil spills and its emergency management. We selected the Chinese Bohai Sea, especially the Bohai Strait, as our investigation region to provide an assessment of the effects of pollution from ship-related oil spills on adjacent coastal zones. Ship-related accidents are one of the major factors causing potential oil spills in this area. A three dimensional oil transport and transformation model was developed using the Estuary, Coastal, and Ocean Model. This proposed model was run 90 times and each run lasted for 15days to simulate the spread and weathering processes of oil for each of four potential spill sites, which represented potential sites of ship collisions along heavy traffic lanes in the Bohai Sea. Ten neighboring coastal areas were also considered as target zones that potentially could receive pollutants once oil spilled in the study areas. The statistical simulations showed that spills in winter were much worse than those in summer; they resulted in very negative effects on several specific target zones coded Z7, Z8, Z9, and Z10 in this paper. In addition, sites S3 (near the Penglai city) and S4 (near the Yantai city) were the two most at-risk sites with a significantly high probability of pollution if spills occurred nearby during winter. The results thus provided practical guidelines for local oil spill prevention, as well as an emergency preparedness and response program.

  3. The Influence of Culture-Specific Personality Traits on the Development of Delinquency in At-Risk Youth. (United States)

    Tong, Tat Seng; Ku, Lisbeth; Zaroff, Charles Mark


    The association between culture-specific personality variables and family factors, and juvenile delinquency, was assessed in a sample of 402 adolescents of Chinese ethnicity between 12 and 17 years of age (Mage = 15.13, SD = 1.41; 135 girls), a subgroup of whom were considered at risk for juvenile delinquency owing to addictive behavior tendencies. Culture-specific personality variables were assessed using the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-Adolescent version Interpersonal Relatedness factor. The General Function subscale of the Chinese version of the Family Assessment Device was utilized to assess the influence of perceived levels of family functioning. Both culture-specific personality variables and non-culture-specific familial factors were significantly and negatively associated with self-reported juvenile delinquency (p culture-specific variable measuring orientation toward the family was able to predict self-reported juvenile delinquency (p < .001). Implications of the current results are discussed.

  4. Personalized treatment strategies for non-small-cell lung cancer in Chinese patients: the role of crizotinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu FY


    Full Text Available Fei-Yu Niu,1,2 Yi-Long Wu2 1Graduate School, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK rearrangement is an oncogene targeted with approved drugs second to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in lung cancer. Crizotinib was developed and introduced into clinical practice rapidly and successfully after the discovery of ALK rearrangement in non-small-cell lung cancer. Chinese and other Asian patients treated with crizotinib seem to have lower toxicity and higher efficacy compared with other ethnicities. Crizotinib showed potent antitumor activity and manageable toxicity in mesenchymal–epithelial transition factor (c-Met/ROS1-positive non-small-cell lung cancer patients, but prospective clinical trials are still needed to confirm its efficacy and safety. Crizotinib appears to be effective against tumors originating from various organs that harbor ALK abnormalities. In the near future, we would classify the tumors by their genetic information beyond organs, such as ALKoma, EGFRoma, and RAFoma, and a single compound could be used for many different types of cancer in different organs. The major challenge of the widespread use of crizotinib in clinical practice is establishing convenient diagnostic techniques for the detection of ALK/c-Met/ROS1. In the present study, we reviewed the application of crizotinib in Chinese patients. Keywords: NSCLC, crizotinib, ALK, c-Met, ROS1

  5. An onsite ergonomics assessment for risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among cooks in a Chinese restaurant. (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Andy S K


    This article is a case presentation of an onsite ergonomic assessment of the risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among three cooks working at a medium-sized Chinese restaurant in Hong Kong. The weight of workload was measured during the onsite assessment and the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation used to assess the risk of WMSDs. The results showed that these cooks usually had to hold utensils for extended periods of time, toss woks, and barbecue meat, all of which demanded a lot of repetitive movements of the upper limbs. Future research is needed on the implementation of effective prevention measures, including administrative and ergonomic controls, to reduce the problems within this industry associated with such high-risk tasks.

  6. An ecological momentary assessment investigation of complex and conflicting emotions in youth with borderline personality disorder. (United States)

    Andrewes, Holly E; Hulbert, Carol; Cotton, Susan M; Betts, Jennifer; Chanen, Andrew M


    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behaviour among people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) but many aspects of the emotional changes that trigger and maintain this behaviour are unknown. This study examines the relationships between NSSI and the number of negative ('negative complex') and opposing valence ('conflicting') emotions. One hundred and seven youth (aged 15-25 years) with first-presentation BPD were assessed using a combination of self-report and ecological momentary assessment to investigate trait levels of emotional acceptance and in vivo changes in the number of negative complex and conflicting emotions before and after self-injurious thoughts and behaviours. Multilevel modelling revealed that changes in the number of negative complex emotions mirrored distress levels before and after self-injurious thoughts and behaviours, approximating a quadratic curve. Increases in the number of negative complex emotions reported prior to self-injurious thoughts and behaviours were associated with lower acceptance of negative emotions. These findings indicate that the number of negative emotions experienced contributes to distress prior to engagement in NSSI. The relationship between non-acceptance of negative emotions and negative complex emotions prior to NSSI suggests that improved emotional awareness and acceptance should be a focus for early interventions aimed at reducing self-injury.

  7. Assessment of Sex Offenders With the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality /Inventory-2-Restructured Form. (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Cappo, Bruce M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S


    This study examined the association between scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) with static and dynamic risk assessment instruments, including the STATIC-99 and Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R). The sample included 304 male adults who were convicted of sexual offenses against children and were referred to a sex offender treatment program. On average, the sample had a Low-Moderate risk of re-offending according to the STATIC-99 and LSI-R. The results indicated that MMPI-2-RF scale scores in this setting are characterized by relatively high levels of under-reporting and externalizing psychopathology compared with the normative sample. We also found that scale scores in this sample produced reliability estimates that were similar to the normative sample. Finally, external correlations between the MMPI-2-RF scales and the risk assessment instruments indicated that the test was associated in expected ways with constructs measured by these instruments. Correlations were most robust among scales in the externalizing/behavioral dysfunction domain of the MMPI-2-RF. Overall, the results of the study support and guide use of the test in this population.

  8. Broadening Our Understanding and Assessment of Personal and Social Responsibility: A Challenge to Researchers and Practitioners (United States)

    Trosset, Carol


    Higher education literature has focused narrowly on social responsibility to the exclusion of personal responsibility. This chapter challenges higher education researchers and practitioners to include behaviors related to personal responsibility in their research and educational agendas.

  9. Assessment of health-related quality of life in Chinese patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun Bao; De-Kai Qiu; Xiong Ma; Zhu-Ping Fan; Gan-Sheng Zhang; Yi-Qin Huang; Xiao-Feng Yu; Min-De Zeng


    AIM: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) based on the Chinese version of SF-36 and Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ) in subjects with chronic hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis, including patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE).METHODS: The SF-36 and CLDQ were administered to 160 healthy volunteers, 20 subjects with chronic hepatitis B and 106 patients with cirrhosis (33 cases exhibited MHE). HRQOL scores were compared among the different study groups. The SF-36 includes eight health concepts: physical functioning, role-physical,body pain, general health, vitality, social functioning,role-emotion, and mental health. Six domains of CLDQ were assessed: abdominal symptoms, fatigue, systemic symptoms, activity, emotional function and worry.RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls (96.9 ± 4.5,86.6 ± 18.4, 90.1 ± 12.5, 89.0 ± 5.7, 87.5 ± 4.3, 95.8± 7.1, 88.5 ± 15.9, 88.7 ± 5.2 in SF-36 and 6.7 ± 0.5,6.1 ± 0.6, 6.3 ± 0.6, 6.5 ± 0.5, 6.3 ± 0.5, 6.8 ± 0.4 in CLDQ), patients with chronic hepatitis B (86.3 ± 11.0,68.8 ± 21.3, 78.9 ± 14.4, 60.8 ± 10.5, 70.8 ± 8.6, 76.1± 12.6, 50.0 ± 22.9, 72.2 ± 10.6 and 5.5 ± 1.0, 4.5 ± 1.0,5.2 ± 1.1, 5.3 ± 0.9, 4.8 ± 0.9, 4.9 ± 1.0) and cirrhosis (52.8 ± 17.4, 32.8 ± 27.9, 61.6 ± 18.9, 30.2 ± 18.3,47.9 ± 20.1, 54.0 ± 19.2, 28.9 ± 26.1, 51.1 ± 17.8 and 4.7± 1.2, 3.9 ± 1.2, 4.7 ± 1.2, 4.7 ± 1.3, 4.7 ± 1.0, 4.4 ± 1.1)had lower HRQOL on all scales of the SF-36 and CLDQ (P< 0.01 for all). Increasing severity of liver cirrhosis (based on the Child-Pugh score/presence or absence of MHE)was associated with a decrease in most components of SF-36 and CLDQ, especially SF-36.CONCLUSION: The Chinese version of SF-36 along with CLDQ is a valid and reliable method for testing MHE in patients with liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis and MHE are associated with decreased HRQOL.

  10. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文


    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  11. Assessment of health status and quality of life of homeless persons in Belgrade, Serbia

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    Sarajlija Marija


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Homelessness is a problem with social, medical, economic, political and other implications. Despite a large number of studies, reports about health-related quality of life (HRQoL of homeless persons remain sparse. There is a summary of consistent evidence that homeless people have higher prevalence of chronic disease (mental and somatic than general population. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL and depression in homeless persons in Belgrade, to describe their sociodemographic factors and health status (the presence of chronic mental and somatic diseases and addiction disorders and analyse impact of sociodemographic factors and health status to HRQoL and depression of homeless persons. Methods. The study was conducted in the Shelter for Adult and Elderly Persons in Belgrade, from January 1 to January 31, 2012. A set of questionnaires used in survey included Serbian translation of SF-36 questionnaire, Serbian translation of Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II and sociodemographic questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive and analytic methods. Results. Our study sample consisted of 104 adult participants. The majority of them were male (74% and the mean age in the sample was 48.2 ± 13.0 years. We have found that 35.6% participants had lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorder, most frequently depression (lifetime prevalence of 15.4% in the study group. The history of suicide attempts was registered in 28 (26.9% participants. Lifetime illicit drugs use was reported by 12.5%, daily smoking by 82.7% and daily alcohol consumption by 8.7% of the participants. Most common somatic chronic diseases were cardiovascular while chronic lung diseases were the second most frequent. Single chronic disease was present in 33 (31.7% of the participants and comorbidity of 2 chronic diseases was present in 20 of them. A statistically significant difference between participants` HRQoL SF-36 domain scores and norms of

  12. Validation assessment of the Chinese version of the Snore Outcomes Survey. (United States)

    Chen, Ning-Hung; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Gliklich, Richard E; Chu, Chia-Chen; Liang, Shu-Cheng; Wang, Pa-Chun


    The aim of this study was to use a parallel model to translate the Snore Outcomes Survey (SOS) into Mandarin Chinese language by comparing performing characteristics and statistical properties of the original and Chinese versions SOS. The Chinese version SOS (CSOS) was validated in a prospective, non-randomized manner. A total of 359 patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) aged 18 years and older diagnosed as having SDB participated in the study at entry. Reliability, validity, and longitudinal sensitivity data for CSOS were obtained. CSOS demonstrated good test-retest reliability (Intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.751). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.86. The item-total correlation coefficients varied from 0.30 to 0.99. The CSOS correlated well with polysomnogram (PSG) parameters including respiratory distress index (RDI), lowest arterial O2 saturation (LAST). CSOS also yielded significant correlations with vitality subscale of Chinese Taiwan version SF-36 (r = 0.4, p = 0.0011). The standard response mean (SRM) for CSOS was 1.33. The validation demonstrated only minor effects of language; the statistical properties of the CSOS were equivalent to the English version. The CSOS is a valid tool to evaluate adults with SDB among Chinese-speaking population.

  13. Mixture modeling methods for the assessment of normal and abnormal personality I: Cross-sectional models


    Hallquist, Michael N; Wright, Aidan G. C.


    Over the past 75 years, the study of personality and personality disorders has been informed considerably by an impressive array of psychometric instruments. Many of these tests draw on the perspective that personality features can be conceptualized in terms of latent traits that vary dimensionally across the population. A purely trait-oriented approach to personality, however, may overlook heterogeneity that is related to similarities among subgroups of people. This paper describes how facto...

  14. Personal care product preservatives: risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater. (United States)

    Carbajo, Jose B; Perdigón-Melón, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letón, Pedro; García-Calvo, Eloy


    The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1 mg L(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative + IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative

  15. Ocular irritation reversibility assessment for personal care products using a porcine corneal culture assay. (United States)

    Donahue, Douglas A; Avalos, Javier; Kaufman, Lewis E; Simion, F Anthony; Cerven, Daniel R


    Personal care product manufacturers have used a broad spectrum of alternative ocular irritation assays during the past two decades because these tests do not require the use of live animals, they provide reliable predictive data, and they are relatively inexpensive to conduct. To complement these assays, the ex vivo Porcine Corneal Opacity Reversibility Assay (PorCORA) was recently developed using a corneal culture model to predict reversibility of ocular irritants. Three commercially available consumer products (a shampoo, a hair color glaze, and a hair colorant system containing 12% hydrogen peroxide) were each tested in two PorCORA study replicates in order to assess potential ocular damage reversibility for surfactant-, propylene carbonate-, and peroxide-based formulations, respectively. Under the exaggerated, in vitro study conditions, the surfactant-based shampoo may cause irreversible porcine corneal damage (histological changes in the epithelial squamous cell and/or basal cell layers), whereas the hair color glaze and 12% hydrogen peroxide product caused fully reversible ocular irritation (microscopic changes only in the superficial squamous cell layer). The hair color glaze and peroxide product results correlate with established in vivo data for similar compounds, but the shampoo results contradicted previous BCOP results (expected to be only a mild irritant). Therefore, although the PorCORA protocol shows promise in predicting the extent and reversibility of potential ocular damage caused by accidental consumer eye exposure to personal care products, the contradictory results for the surfactant-based shampoo indicate that more extensive validation testing of the PorCORA is necessary to definitively establish the protocol's reliability as a Draize test replacement.

  16. Assessing the effect of weight and weight loss in obese persons with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Curtis


    Full Text Available Bradley Curtis1, Risa P Hayes1, Sheri Fehnel2, Laurie Zografos21Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: The objective of this study was to assess specific areas of life in which obesity affects individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and changes that obese persons with T2DM experience with weight loss of varying degrees. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted in persons identified as: age ≥40 years, diagnosed with T2DM for ≥2 years, on oral antihyperglycemic medications >3 months, BMI 30–35 kg/m2, having attempted to lose weight in the last 2 years. Participants (60% female, mean age 53 years, 53% Caucasian, mean BMI 32.2 kg/m2 agreed that 5% weight loss, while not reflective of an ultimate goal, would be meaningful and important; benefits were expected to accrue in physical functioning, self-confidence, blood glucose levels, and motivation to keep losing weight. Participants reported the greatest effect of weight loss on energy, physical activity, mobility, pain, and clothes/appearance. Participants reported weight affecting mood, with feelings of depression and frustration most commonly described. This research indicates that weight loss is likely to affect health-related quality of life in obese individuals with T2DM. Given the purported weight loss benefits of many emerging diabetic medications, it will be important to include measures of weight-related quality of life in future clinical trials of these agents.Keywords: health-related quality of life, obesity, type 2 diabetes, weight loss, patient-reported outcomes

  17. Genetic relationships among Chinese and American isolates of Phytophthora sojae assessed by RAPD markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ziying; WANG Yuanchao; ZHANG Zhengguang; ZHENG Xiaobuo


    The genetic diversity of three geographic populations of Phytophthora sojae from China and the United States was determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The purpose was to explore genetic relationships among Chinese and American isolates of the organism. 21 random primers were selected among 200 random primers screened. A total of 223 reproducible RAPD fragments were scored among 111 individuals, of which 199 (89.23%) were polymorphic. Analysis of genetic variation showed that there existed higher genetic variation in the United States population in comparison to the Chinese populations. Nei's genetic identity and principal component analysis indicated that the populations of Fujian and United States are closer to each other than to Heilongjiang populations. Shannon-Wiener diversity index revealed that the United States populations have a higher genetic diversity than that of Chinese populations. These data are in support of the hypothesis that P. Sojae in the United States might not have been introduced from China.

  18. Assessment of the link between Vitamin D receptor TaqI gene polymorphism and periodontitis: a meta-analysis in a Chinese population. (United States)

    Ji, X W; Wang, Y; Cao, C; Zhong, L J


    Although a number of studies have been conducted to determine the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) TaqI polymorphism and periodontitis in the Chinese population, this association remains elusive. To assess the influence of VDR TaqI polymorphism on the risk of periodontitis, a meta-analysis was performed in a Chinese population. Relevant studies were identified using the databases PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biology Medicine, through January 2016. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of the associations. This meta-analysis identified 9 studies, which included 1014 periodontitis cases and 907 controls. In both overall and subgroup analyses, VDR TaqI polymorphism was not associated with the risk of periodontitis. Cumulative analysis also suggested a lack of association between VDR TaqI polymorphism and the risk of periodontitis in the Chinese population. In conclusion, our meta-analysis showed that VDR TaqI polymorphism is not associated with the risk of periodontitis in the Chinese population. Further studies in other ethnic groups are required for definite conclusions.

  19. The European Conformity Assessment Procedures and the Quality Assurance Instruments for Personal Protective Equipment in the Internal Market. (United States)

    Lambert, Joachim


    Conformity assessment procedures prescribed by European legislation are presented and their concrete implementation is illustrated by the example of personal protective equipment (PPE). The different categories of PPE defined by Council Directive 89/686/EEC are explained with reference to the applicable conformity assessment elements. Quality assurance of production is presented as the central element of the conformity assessment procedure for complex PPE. Special emphasis is put on the necessity of having a regular exchange of views and information among notified bodies in Europe. Ways in which third countries can eventually carry out conformity assessment on the basis of a contract with the European Community Commission are explained.

  20. Role of novelty seeking personality traits as mediator of the association between COMT and onset age of drug use in Chinese heroin dependent patients.

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    Ting Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Personality traits such as novelty seeking (NS are associated with substance dependence but the mechanism underlying this association remains uncertain. Previous studies have focused on the role of the dopamine pathway. OBJECTIVE: Examine the relationships between allelic variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene, NS personality traits, and age of onset of drug use in heroin-dependent subjects in China. METHODS: The 478 heroin dependent subjects from four drug rehabilitation centers in Shanghai who were genotyped for eight tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP on the COMT gene completed the NS subscale from the Temperament and Character Inventory. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the potential mediating role of NS personality traits in the association between COMT gene variants and the age of onset of heroin use. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: In the univariate analysis the COMT rs737866 gene variants were independently associated with both NS and age of onset of drug use: those with the TT genotype had higher NS subscale scores and an earlier onset age of heroin use than individuals with CT or CC genotypes. In the multivariate analysis the inclusion of the NS subscore variable weakened the relationship between the COMT rs737866 TT genotype and an earlier age of onset of drug use. Our findings that COMT is associated with both NS personality traits and with the age of onset of heroin use helps to clarify the complex relationship between genetic and psychological factors in the development of substance abuse.

  1. Rethinking on the Value of Assessment of Chinese Academic Achievement%语文学业评价的价值反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Assessment of Chinese academic achievement analyzes and judges the value of student' s ability of speaking practice according to the objectives of Chinese curriculum. This paper rethinks the value tropism of Chinese academic achievement to show some mistakes of assessment of Chinese academic achievement.%语文学业评价是按照语文课程目标,对学生言语实践学习能力所作的价值分析和价值判断。语文学业评价的价值,在于欣赏学生语文学习经验的改变。本文从语文学业评价的价值取向出发,反思语文学业评价中价值错位的几种表现。

  2. 中国传统四维审美人格教育哲学思想探究%Analysis for Aesthetic Personality of Four Dimensions of Traditional Chinese Education Philosophy Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    审美人格是人进行一切生命活动的审美化的力量源泉,是人从事社会生活的价值诉求和意义所在。本文通过对中国传统教育哲学中的审美人格教育思想进行分析和整理,认为中国传统教育哲学在审美人格价值取向上主要体现为四维人格,即仁善人格、恬淡人格、谦逊人格、浪漫人格,要以此四维审美人格作为当代社会人格建构的价值风标。%Aesthetic personality is to man the power of the aesthetics source of all life activities ,is a person engaged in social value aim and meaning of life .Based on the processing of explore and comb ,the paper finds chinese traditional aesthetic personality mainly embodied in four aspects :kind-hearted per-sonality ,romantic personality ,calm personality and humble personality ,w hich hopes to take the four dimensions of personality as the value of the contemporary personality construct weathercock .

  3. Screening for personality disorder in incarcerated adolescent boys: preliminary validation of an adolescent version of the standardised assessment of personality – abbreviated scale (SAPAS-AV

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    Kongerslev Mickey


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality disorder (PD is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time-consuming, it is not routinely assessed in this population. A brief screen for the identification of young people who might warrant further detailed assessment of PD could be particularly valuable for clinicians and researchers working in juvenile justice settings. Method We adapted a rapid screen for the identification of PD in adults (Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale; SAPAS for use with adolescents and then carried out a study of the reliability and validity of the adapted instrument in a sample of 80 adolescent boys in secure institutions. Participants were administered the screen and shortly after an established diagnostic interview for DSM-IV PDs. Nine days later the screen was readministered. Results A score of 3 or more on the screening interview correctly identified the presence of DSM-IV PD in 86% of participants, yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 and 0.86 respectively. Internal consistency was modest but comparable to the original instrument. 9-days test-retest reliability for the total score was excellent. Convergent validity correlations with the total number of PD criteria were large. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence of the validity, reliability, and usefulness of the screen in secure institutions for adolescent male offenders. It can be used in juvenile offender institutions with limited resources, as a brief, acceptable, staff-administered routine screen to identify individuals in need of further assessment of PD or by researchers conducting epidemiological surveys.

  4. The influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction: a study of Chinese college students. (United States)

    Yao, Mike Z; He, Jing; Ko, Deborah M; Pang, Kaichung


    A survey of 2,095 college students in five major cities in China was conducted to examine the influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction. We found that psychoticism and neuroticism were both positively related to Internet addiction. The influence of parental behaviors on Internet addition was also significant. However, fathers' and mothers' behaviors had different impacts on their children's likelihood of being addicted to the Internet. Specifically, we found that fathers' rejection and overprotection, and mothers' rejection would increase the risk for Internet addiction. Furthermore, the influence of emotional warmth from parents on Internet addiction was partially mediated by self-esteem. Finally, we found that parental behaviors of mothers and fathers affected males and females differently in terms the risk of being addicted to the Internet.

  5. Should borderline personality disorder be included in the fourth edition of the Chinese classification of mental disorders?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Jie; LEUNG Freedom


    @@ Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious Bpersonality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disturbances in mood regulation, impulse control, self-image and interpersonal relationships.1 In the United States, the prevalence of BPD has been estimated at 1%-2% of the general population, 10% of psychiatric outpatients, and 20% of inpatients.2,3 According to the 4th text revision of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-Ⅳ-TR),1 about 75% of BPD patients are women. The BPD diagnosis has been associated with heightened risk (8.5% to 10.0% among BPD patients) for completed suicide, a rate almost 50times higher than in the general population.4

  6. The Mind’s Eye on Personal Profiles; How to Inform Initial Trustworthiness Assessments in Virtual Project Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter; Valcke, Martin; Koper, Rob


    Rusman, E., Van Bruggen, J., Sloep, P. B., Valcke, M., & Koper, R. (2010). The Mind’s Eye on Personal Profiles; How to Inform Initial Trustworthiness Assessments in Virtual Project Teams. In G. Kolfschoten, T. Herrmann, & S. Lukosch (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 6257. Collaboration

  7. A person-task-context model for designing curriculum and in-training assessment in postgraduate education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Anne Marie; Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke; Henriksen, Ann-Helen


    The aim of this study was to trial a person-task-context model in designing a curriculum and in-training assessment programme that embraces trainee level of professional development and the work-based context of postgraduate medical education. The model was applied to the design of a programme...

  8. Assessment of personal exposure from radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields in Australia and Belgium using on-body calibrated exposimeters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Billah, Baki; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza


    The purposes of this study were: i) to demonstrate the assessment of personal exposure from various RF-EMF sources across different microenvironments in Australia and Belgium, with two on-body calibrated exposimeters, in contrast to earlier studies which employed single, non-on-body calibrated expos

  9. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false IEEE 1680 Standard for the... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.223-16 IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.706(b)(1), insert the following clause:...

  10. Assessing the Impact of Strategic Culture on Chinese Regional Security Policies in South Asia (United States)


    the British, existed between the Indian territory of Ladakh and Sinkiang on the Chinese side with an elevated tableland known as Aksai Chin in link Sinkiang and Tibet in 1956 with its completion coming just a year later.70

  11. Reflective Learning in a Chinese MBA Programme: Scale Assessment and Future Recommendations (United States)

    Xiao, Qian; Zhu, Pinghui; Hsu, Maxwell K.; Zhuang, Weiling; Peltier, James


    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to use Chinese MBA students to validate the expanded reflective learning continuum and address the concerns raised in this regard in business education; (2) to determine whether the continuum concept holds true in a non-western culture and whether the reflective learning continuum remains a powerful force…

  12. The Little Emperor: Chinese Parents' Assessment of Their Own, Their Partner's and Their Only Child's Intelligence (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Wu, Chun


    This study set out to examine whether Chinese parents, more than people from other nations, over-estimate the intelligence of their son (little emperor) compared to their daughter. In this study, 155 pairs of married couples from mainland China estimated their own, their partner's and their only child's overall intelligence and 13 "multiple…

  13. The influence of impression management scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory in the epilepsy monitoring unit. (United States)

    Purdom, Catherine L; Kirlin, Kristin A; Hoerth, Matthew T; Noe, Katherine H; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Locke, Dona E C


    The Somatic Complaints scale (SOM) and Conversion subscale (SOM-C) of the Personality Assessment Inventory perform best in classifying psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) from epileptic seizures (ES); however, the impact of positive impression management (PIM) and negative impression management (NIM) scales on SOM and SOM-C classification has not been examined. We studied 187 patients from an epilepsy monitoring unit with confirmed PNES or ES. On SOM, the best cut score was 72.5 T when PIM was elevated and 69.5 T when there was no bias. On SOM-C, when PIM was elevated, the best cut score was 67.5 T and 76.5 T when there was no bias. Negative impression management elevations (n=9) were too infrequent to analyze separately. Despite similarities in classification accuracy, there were differences in sensitivity and specificity with and without PIM, impacting positive and negative predictive values. The presence of PIM bias generally increases positive predictive power of SOM and SOM-C but decreases negative predictive power.

  14. 中英征婚广告所体现的价值观对比分析%A Comparative Analysis on Cultural Values Reflected in Chinese and English Personal Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Personal advertisements reflect people's varying viewpoint on marriage. This study aims to reveal different cultural values between the East and the West by analyzing Chinese and English personal advertisements. All these differences root in their traditional cultural backgrounds, historical factors, and political systems.%征婚广告反映了人们婚姻观念的变迁.本研究通过对中英征婚广告的对比分析,得出其中所体现的不同价值观:文化背景、历史和政治体制等是影响价值观的主要因素.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Biryukova


    Full Text Available Introduction: development of international cooperation in different spheres of human activity requires a foreign language proficiency. That is why the issue of improving the process of teaching a foreign language during further education has acquired a special timeliness. In this regard there is a need for monitoring the quality of programmes of further adult education. However, the monitoring process is complicated because of the lack of unified standards and clear criteria for assessment. Materials and Methods: as a basic criterion for evaluating the effeciency of adult education the author explores the level of a learner’s personal development. The paper discusses the main difficulties and barriers that make the learning process more difficult. The results of diagnostics of personal development of students of the educational programme “English without barriers” taught at Mari State University are discussed. Results: monitoring results have revealed positive dynamics for each personal criterion (motivational, cognitive, communicative used to assess the quality of the programme of further adult education: level of language knowledge and skills has increased as well as the level of motivation of achievement; a positive communicative approach has developed; level of learners’ sociability has increased. Discussion and Conclusions: the study showed that one of the most important effects of adult education is represented by students’ personal growth, also traceable in the development of cognitive, motivational and communicative spheres of personality. The highlighted effects can be used as basic criteria to evaluate the effeciency of educational activities of adults.

  16. Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients. (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve


    We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO(2) and ZnO in sunscreens. However

  17. Assessing the underlying breast cancer risk of Chinese females contributed by dietary intake of residual DDT from agricultural soils. (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Zhao, Meirong; Zhou, Shanshan; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping


    The greatest concern over DDT exposure in China arose since the early 1990s for the rising breast cancer incidence, and the cause still remains to be elucidated. An extensive survey of DDT background in agricultural soils, covered the entire region of China, was conducted. DDT at concentrations greater than 100 ng/g (the China's Farmland Environmental Quality Evaluation Standards for Edible Agricultural Products) was found to impact 42.3 million Chinese population. Considering the geographical differences with diverse DDT contributions and different diet products and habits, the average daily dietary intake was modeled and estimated to be 0.34 μg/kg p,p'-DDE (the main bioactive constituent in DDT). Population attributable fraction derived from a case-control study from 78 women with breast cancer and 72 controls was used to assess the DDT exposure risk to breast cancer. Based on the estimated population attributable fraction with a median value of 0.6% (IQR 0.23-2.11%), the excess annual breast cancer incidence rate attributable to p,p'-DDE exposure averaged 0.06×10(-5) with significant spatial variations varying from 0.00021×10(-5) to 11.05×10(-5) in Chinese females. Exposure to DDT is a contributor to breast cancer, but the overall limited relative risk and population attributable fraction imply confounding factors for breast cancer in Chinese females. Exposure risk in a regional scale helps understand the cause and prevention of breast cancer. Our mapping and modeling method could be used to assess other environmental carcinogens and related cancer diseases.

  18. Directory of Chinese American Librarians. (United States)

    Chinese American Librarians Association, River Forest, IL.

    This directory was compiled by the Chinese American Librarians Association based on replies to questionnaires sent to more than 500 Chinese American librarians in the United States and research based on secondary sources. Information provided on each person includes: name, name in Chinese, position/title, institution, institution's address, field…

  19. Confounding of Big Five Personality Assessments in Emotional Disorders by Comorbidity and Current Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; van der Does, Willem; Ormel, Johan; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.


    Foremost cross-sectional studies of personality in common mental disorders show similar Big Five trait profiles [i.e. high neuroticism (N), low conscientiousness (C) and low extraversion (E)]. It remains undecided whether this lack of distinct personality profiles is partly due to comorbidity among

  20. Clinical utility of Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) among patients with first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj;


    , by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. RESULTS: We found, that a cut-off of 3 on the screen correctly identified the presence of comorbid personality disorder in 73.1% of the patients. The sensitivity and specificity were 0.80 and 0.70, respectively. LIMITATIONS: The findings cannot...

  1. Assessing the Effectiveness and Usability of Personalized Internet Search through a Longitudinal Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van Lex; König, Florian; Paramythis, Alexandros


    This paper discusses a longitudinal user evaluation of Prospector, a personalized Internet meta-search engine capable of personalized re-ranking of search results. Twenty-one participants used Prospector as their primary search engine for 12 days, agreed to have their interaction with the system log

  2. Estimating Personal Exposures from Ambient Air Pollution Measures - Using Meta-Analysis to Assess Measurement Error (United States)

    Although ambient concentrations of particulate matter ≤ 10μm (PM10) are often used as proxies for total personal exposure, correlation (r) between ambient and personal PM10 concentrations varies. Factors underlying this variation and its effect on he...

  3. Creating and Assessing Campus Climates That Support Personal and Social Responsibility (United States)

    Reason, Robert D.


    In this article, Robert D. Reason defines personal and social responsibility as a five-component outcome of college, presents a case for thinking about educating for personal and social responsibility through the lens of campus climate that eschews the hunt for a single intervention, and encourages the marshaling of multiple resources in multiple…

  4. Enhancing Student Team Effectiveness: Application of Myers-Briggs Personality Assessment in Business Courses (United States)

    Amato, Christie H.; Amato, Louis H.


    This article examines the relationship between student perceptions of team learning experience and communication style. Student group learning perceptions were evaluated and team communication style was measured using dyads derived from Myers-Briggs personality profiles. Groups containing similar personalities were classified as compatible,…

  5. The Five-Factor Model Personality Assessment for Improved Student Design Team Performance (United States)

    Ogot, Madara; Okudan, Gul E.


    Researchers have long noted the correlation of various personality traits and team performance. Studies relating aggregate team personality traits to team performance are scattered in the literature and may not always be relevant to engineering design teams. This paper synthesizes the results from applicable Five-Factor Model (FFM)-based…

  6. Structure, Fit and Coherence of Two Circumplex Assessments of Personality in a Population with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Lindsay, W. R.; Steptoe, L.; Hogue, T. E.; Mooney, P.; Taylor, J. L.; Morrissey, C.


    Background: Little research has been conducted investigating the way in which personality constructs relate to people with intellectual disabilities. The small amount of research that does exist suggests that underlying personality structure may be considerably different to that found in mainstream research. This hypothesis is, however, untested…

  7. Assessment of private and public self-consciousness: a Chinese replication. (United States)

    Shek, D T


    The Chinese version of the revised Self-Consciousness Scale (C-SCS) of Scheier and Carver (1985) was administered to 500 Chinese university students. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that three factors (Private Self-consciousness, Public Self-consciousness, and Social Anxiety) were abstracted from the scale, and reliability data also showed that the C-SCS and its three subscales are internally consistent. While the present findings are generally consistent with the conceptualization of Scheier and Carver (1985) and the data reported previously, an integration of the present study and the data in the literature suggests that some of the items and their related rationales in the original and revised Self-Consciousness Scale may require refinement and modification.

  8. [Study on building index system of risk assessment of post-marketing Chinese patent medicine based on AHP-fuzzy neural network]. (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming; Fu, Yingkun


    Currently massive researches have been launched about the safety, efficiency and economy of post-marketing Chinese patent medicine (CPM) proprietary Chinese medicine, but it was lack of a comprehensive interpretation. Establishing the risk evaluation index system and risk assessment model of CPM is the key to solve drug safety problems and protect people's health. The clinical risk factors of CPM exist similarities with the Western medicine, can draw lessons from foreign experience, but also have itself multi-factor multivariate multi-level complex features. Drug safety risk assessment for the uncertainty and complexity, using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to empower the index weights, AHP-based fuzzy neural network to build post-marketing CPM risk evaluation index system and risk assessment model and constantly improving the application of traditional Chinese medicine characteristic is accord with the road and feasible beneficial exploration.

  9. Initial validation of the Yin-Yang Assessment Questionnaire for persons with diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yee; Chi; Peggy; Wong; Mei; Che; Samantha


    AIM:To initially test for the content validity,comprehensibility,test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability of the Yin-Yang Assessment Questionnaire(YYAQ).METHODS:The process of initial validity and reliability test covered:(1)content validation from the findings of 18 multiple-case studies,validated Yin-and Yangdeficiency assessment questionnaires,relevant literatures and registered Chinese medicine practitioners;(2)comprehension with the levels of comprehensibility for each item categorized on a 3-point scale(not comprehensible;moderately comprehensible;highly comprehensible).A minimum of three respondents selecting for each item of moderately or highly comprehensible were regarded as comprehensive;(3)test-retest reliability conducted with a 2-wk interval.The intraclass correlation coefficients(ICCs)and their 95%CIs were calculated using a two-way random effects model.Wilcoxon Signed Rank test for related samples was adopted to compare the medians of test-retest scores.An ICC value of 0.85 or higher together with P>0.05,was considered acceptable;and(4)internal consistency of the total items was measured and evaluated by Cronbach’s coefficient alpha(α).A Cronbach’sαof 0.7or higher was considered to represent good internal consistency.RESULTS:Eighteen Yin-deficiency and 14 Yang-deficiency presentation items were finalized from content validation.Five participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM)performed the comprehensibility and testretest reliability tests.Comprehensibility score level of each presentation item was found to be moderate or high in three out of the five participants.Test-retest reliability showed that the single measure ICC of the total Yin-deficiency presentation items was 0.99(95%CI:0.89-0.99)and the median scores on the first and 14thdays were 17(IQR 6.5-27)and 21(IQR 6-29)(P=0.144)respectively.The single measure ICC of the total Yang-deficiency presentation items was 0.88(95%CI:0.79-0.99)and the median scores on the

  10. Subjective assessment of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) personality: reliability and stability of trait ratings. (United States)

    Dutton, Diane M


    A 46-item rating scale was used to obtain personality ratings from 75 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from 7 zoological parks. Factor analysis revealed five personality dimensions similar to those found in previous research on primate personality: Agreeableness, Dominance, Neuroticism, Extraversion and Intellect. There were significant sex and age differences in ratings on these dimensions, with males rated more highly on Dominance and older chimpanzees rated as more agreeable but less extraverted than younger chimpanzees. Interobserver agreement for most individual trait items was high, but tended to be less reliable for trait terms expressing more subtle social or cognitive abilities. Personality ratings for one zoo were found to be largely stable across a 3-year period, but highlighted the effects of environmental factors on the expression of personality in captive chimpanzees.

  11. The Personality Assessment Inventory as a Proxy for the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised: Testing the Incremental Validity and Cross-Sample Robustness of the Antisocial Features Scale (United States)

    Douglas, Kevin S.; Guy, Laura S.; Edens, John F.; Boer, Douglas P.; Hamilton, Jennine


    The Personality Assessment Inventory's (PAI's) ability to predict psychopathic personality features, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), was examined. To investigate whether the PAI Antisocial Features (ANT) Scale and subscales possessed incremental validity beyond other theoretically relevant PAI scales, optimized regression…

  12. Scientific Activity in Higher Education: Personal and Institutional Assessment [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev


    Full Text Available Education and research belong together - this expresses the very university idea. Research should provide the new scientific results. These should be published. The system of scholarly journals is organized in two levels. The first level includes the primary research journals and scholarly journals with more expanded audience. The second level includes the secondary research journals. A few Bulgarian journals are presented there. Citation analysis is of an importance mainly because it is heavily used in science policy and research evaluation professionals. The most popular indicators in such considerations are the impact factor (IF, the immediacy index (II and the response time (t1. The meaning and application of these parameters are explained. The incorrect use of the impact factor in the Bulgarian evaluation practice is mentioned. The new indicators that would characterize quantitatively the scientific achievements of the researchers are proposed: efficiency e=nk, n and k - number of author's publications and thet citations, respectively, and personal impact factor PIF=q/m where q is the number of citations in a given year of m author's publications, published in two previous years. The problem of assessment of higher education institutions is considered in detail. The change of three indicators at least should be identified during the years. These are: S=Q/P (Q stands for the number of citations for a given year for the whole faculty N, which publishes in the year of question P publications, L/M and M/N, M,L - number of prospective/graduated students for a given school year.

  13. Assessment of Self-Contamination During Removal of Personal Protective Equipment for Ebola Patient Care. (United States)

    Casanova, Lisa M; Teal, Lisa J; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E; Anderson, Deverick J; Sexton, Daniel J; Rutala, William A; Weber, David J


    OBJECTIVE Ebola virus disease (EVD) places healthcare personnel (HCP) at high risk for infection during patient care, and personal protective equipment (PPE) is critical. Protocols for EVD PPE doffing have not been validated for prevention of viral self-contamination. Using surrogate viruses (non-enveloped MS2 and enveloped Φ6), we assessed self-contamination of skin and clothes when trained HCP doffed EVD PPE using a standardized protocol. METHODS A total of 15 HCP donned EVD PPE for this study. Virus was applied to PPE, and a trained monitor guided them through the doffing protocol. Of the 15 participants, 10 used alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) for glove and hand hygiene and 5 used hypochlorite for glove hygiene and ABHR for hand hygiene. Inner gloves, hands, face, and scrubs were sampled after doffing. RESULTS After doffing, MS2 virus was detected on the inner glove worn on the dominant hand for 8 of 15 participants, on the non-dominant inner glove for 6 of 15 participants, and on scrubs for 2 of 15 participants. All MS2 on inner gloves was observed when ABHR was used for glove hygiene; none was observed when hypochlorite was used. When using hypochlorite for glove hygiene, 1 participant had MS2 on hands, and 1 had MS2 on scrubs. CONCLUSIONS A structured doffing protocol using a trained monitor and ABHR protects against enveloped virus self-contamination. Non-enveloped virus (MS2) contamination was detected on inner gloves, possibly due to higher resistance to ABHR. Doffing protocols protective against all viruses need to incorporate highly effective glove and hand hygiene agents. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-6.

  14. Personality assessment inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with aggression. (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S


    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges.

  15. A genetic risk tool for obesity predisposition assessment and personalized nutrition implementation based on macronutrient intake. (United States)

    Goni, Leticia; Cuervo, Marta; Milagro, Fermín I; Martínez, J Alfredo


    There is little evidence about genetic risk score (GRS)-diet interactions in order to provide personalized nutrition based on the genotype. The aim of the study was to assess the value of a GRS on obesity prediction and to further evaluate the interactions between the GRS and dietary intake on obesity. A total of 711 seekers of a Nutrigenetic Service were examined for anthropometric and body composition measurements and also for dietary habits and physical activity. Oral epithelial cells were collected for the identification of 16 SNPs (related with obesity or lipid metabolism) using DNA zip-coded beads. Genotypes were coded as 0, 1 or 2 according to the number of risk alleles, and the GRS was calculated by adding risk alleles with such a criterion. After being adjusted for gender, age, physical activity and energy intake, the GRS demonstrated that individuals carrying >7 risk alleles had in average 0.93 kg/m(2) of BMI, 1.69 % of body fat mass, 1.94 cm of waist circumference and 0.01 waist-to-height ratio more than the individuals with ≤7 risk alleles. Significant interactions for GRS and the consumption of energy, total protein, animal protein, vegetable protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates and fiber intake on adiposity traits were found after adjusted for confounders variables. The GRS confirmed that the high genetic risk group showed greater values of adiposity than the low risk group and demonstrated that macronutrient intake modifies the GRS association with adiposity traits.

  16. Research about reactor operator's personability characteristics and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan [Tsinghua Univ., Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Beijing (China)


    To predict and evaluate the reactor operator's performance by personality characteristics is an important part of reactor operator safety assessment. Using related psychological theory combined with the Chinese operator's fact and considering the effect of environmental factors to personality analysis, paper does the research about the about the relationships between reactor operator's performance and personality characteristics, and offers the reference for operator's selection, using and performance in the future. (author)

  17. Construction of the Chinese Veteran Clinical Research (CVCR) Platform for the assessment of non-communicable diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Jiping; Li Nan; Gao Jing; Guo Yuhe; Hu Wei; Yang Jinsheng; Yu Baocheng


    Background Based on the excellent medical care and management system for Chinese veterans,as well as the detailed medical documentation available,we aim to construct a Chinese Veteran Clinical Research (CVCR) platform on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and carry out studies of the primary disabling NCDs.Methods The Geriatric Neurology Department of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital and veterans' hospitals serve as the leading and participating units in the platform construction.The fundamental constituents of the platform are veteran communities.Stratified typical cluster sampling is adopted to recruit veteran communities.A cross-sectional study of mental,neurological,and substance use (MNS) disorders are performed in two stages using screening scale such as the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal cognitive assessment,followed by systematic neuropsychological assessments to make clinical diagnoses,evaluated disease awareness and care situation.Results A total of 9 676 among 277 veteran communities from 18 cities are recruited into this platform,yielding a response rate of 83.86%.8 812 subjects complete the MNS subproject screening and total response rate is 91.70%.The average participant age is (82.01±4.61) years,69.47% of veterans are 80 years or older.Most participants are male (94.01%),83.36% of subjects have at least a junior high school degree.The overall health status of veterans is good and stable.The most common NCD are cardiovascular disorders (86.44%),urinary and genital diseases (73.14%),eye and ear problems (66.25%),endocrine (56.56%) and neuro-psychiatric disturbances (50.78%).Conclusion We first construct a veterans' comprehensive clinical research platform for the study of NCDs that is primarily composed of highly educated Chinese males of advanced age and utilize this platform to complete a cross-sectional national investigation of MNS disorders among veterans.The good and stable health condition of the

  18. [Assessment of personality disorders with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II) in a forensic sample]. (United States)

    Winberg Nodal, Máximo; Vilalta Suárez, Ramón J


    In this paper, the presence of personality disorders in a forensic sample is analysed using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II). The sample was made up of 86 individuals from both civil and criminal settings: plaintiffs in family cases and complainants and defendants in various crimes, especially in partner abuse. The results reveal a great number of records of Compulsive Personality Disorder, reaching 70%, regardless of whether they were from the civil or the criminal setting or whether they were a plaintiff or a defendant. It is concluded that this inventory seems to lack statistical validity for this purpose. Moreover, this test may only describe the typical characteristics of forensic evaluation rather than the personality of the individuals assessed, and it is oversensitive to context; hence, the conclusions derived from the use of the MCMI-II in the forensic field may accept as valid a great deal of distorted or unspecific profiles.

  19. An Online Assessment of Personality, Psychological, and Sexuality Trait Variables Associated with Self-Reported Hypersexual Behavior. (United States)

    Walton, Michael T; Cantor, James M; Lykins, Amy D


    "Hypersexual" behavior represents a perceived inability to control one's sexual behavior. To investigate hypersexual behavior, an international sample of 510 self-identified heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men and women completed an anonymous online self-report questionnaire battery. In addition to age and sex (male), hypersexual behavior was related to higher scores on measures of sexual excitation, sexual inhibition due to the threat of performance failure, trait impulsivity, and both depressed mood and anxiety. In contrast, hypersexual behavior was related to lower scores on sexual inhibition due to the threat of performance consequences. Higher neuroticism and extraversion, as well as lower agreeableness and conscientiousness, also predicted hypersexual behavior. Interestingly, interactions among the variables assessed did not significantly predict hypersexual behavior, suggesting the possible existence of multiple and predominantly independent taxa for various persons reporting hypersexual behavior. Core personality features may also be present in persons with hypersexual behavior. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  20. Accurate dose assessment system for an exposed person utilising radiation transport calculation codes in emergency response to a radiological accident. (United States)

    Takahashi, F; Shigemori, Y; Seki, A


    A system has been developed to assess radiation dose distribution inside the body of exposed persons in a radiological accident by utilising radiation transport calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. The system consists mainly of two parts, pre-processor and post-processor of the radiation transport calculation. Programs for the pre-processor are used to set up a 'problem-dependent' input file, which defines the accident condition and dosimetric quantities to be estimated. The program developed for the post-processor part can effectively indicate dose information based upon the output file of the code. All of the programs in the dosimetry system can be executed with a generally used personal computer and accurately give the dose profile to an exposed person in a radiological accident without complicated procedures. An experiment using a physical phantom was carried out to verify the availability of the dosimetry system with the developed programs in a gamma ray irradiation field.

  1. Protocol: Personality assessment as a support for referral and case-work in treatment for substance use disorders (PASRC-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Mads K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of co-morbid personality disorders in substance use disorders may lead to important insights concerning individual patients. However, little is known about the potential value of routine personality disorder assessment in a clinical context. Methods Patients are adults with past-year substance dependence seeking treatment at a centralized intake unit for substance abusers in the City of Copenhagen. A randomized controlled trial of assessment of personality disorders and individual feedback vs. a general life situation interview. Patients are followed at 3 and 6 months post-treatment Discussion If routine personality assessment improves outcomes of substance abuse treatment, the clinical implication is to increase the use of personality disorder assessment in substance abuse treatment settings. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN39851689

  2. Response distortion in personality measurement: born to deceive, yet capable of providing valid self-assessments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This introductory article to the special issue of Psychology Science devoted to the subject of “Considering Response Distortion in Personality Measurement for Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology Research and Practice” presents an overview of the issues of response distortion in personality measurement. It also provides a summary of the other articles published as part of this special issue addressing social desirability, impression management, self-presentation, response distortion, and faking in personality measurement in industrial, work, and organizational settings.

  3. The applicability of Chinese college student personality scale (CCSPS) in a college freshman in Hubei province%中国大学生人格量表在鄂某高校新生中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡一文; 石曼


    Objective To explore the applicability of Chinese College Student Personality Scale (CCSPS) in college freshman in Hubei province and to understand the personality status of college students. Methods CCSPS was used to assess a sample of 4 871 college students. Results The standard scores in activity, self-confidence, rigorous and enthusiasm of these freshmen were obviously higher than those of the nation-wide college student norm, while scores in chattiness, altruism, and sentimen-tality were lower (P < 0. 01). The standard scores in self - confidence and enthusiasm of male students were higher than those of females. The standard scores in sentimentality of Han students were higher than that of Minority students. The standard scores in activity, self-confidence, enthusiasm of litera-ture history students were higher than those of technology students. Students from large cities were more active, altruistic and enthusiastic, while those from rural were more self-confident, rigorous and senti-mental. The standard scores in activity, chattiness, altruism, enthusiasm of the single child were higher than those of non-single child; while scores in rigorous and sentimentality were lower (P<0. 05). Con-clusions To establish of Chinese College Student Personality Scale norms one should consider regional difference. Furthermore, university mental health education should be conducted in respect to different gender, major, family background.%目的 探讨中国大学生人格量表在湖北高校新生中的适用性,了解大学新生的人格特征.方法 应用中国大学生人格量表,按照整群抽样原则调查一所综合性大学4 871例新生.结果 该高校新生人格量表各项因子标准分与全国大学生常模均有显著性差异(P<0.01),活跃、自信、严谨、热情标准分均高于全国大学生常模,爽直、趋利、重情标准分均低于全国常模,差异有显著性(P<0.01).人口统计学特征比较发现,男生自信和热情分

  4. Assessing receipt of medical care and disparity among persons with HIV/AIDS in San Francisco, 2006-2007. (United States)

    Hsu, Ling C; Chen, Mi; Kali, Jessica; Pipkin, Sharon; Scheer, Susan; Schwarcz, Sandy


    We used data from HIV/AIDS surveillance case registry to assess the timing of entry into medical care, level of care received after HIV diagnosis, and to identify characteristics associated with delayed and insufficient care among persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS between 2006 and 2007 in San Francisco. Laboratory reports of HIV viral load and CD4 test results were used as a marker for receipt of medical care. The time from HIV diagnosis to entry into care was estimated using Kaplan-Meier product limit method and independent predictors of delayed entry into care were determined using the proportional hazards model. Insufficient care was defined as less than an average of two viral load/CD4 tests per person-year of follow-up. Predictors of insufficient care were evaluated using a logistic regression model. An estimated 85% of persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS entered care within three months after HIV diagnosis; the proportion increased to 95% within 12 months after diagnosis. Persons who were born outside of the USA and those tested at the public counseling and testing sites were more likely to delay care. Nineteen percent of persons were determined to have received insufficient care. Younger persons and those diagnosed at a hospital were more likely to receive insufficient care. A high proportion of persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in San Francisco established timely and adequate care after HIV diagnosis. However, delays for some individuals in entry into care and markers of insufficient care suggest that there remains a need to improve access to and sustainability of HIV-specific medical care.

  5. Self-report methodology is insufficient for improving the assessment and classification of Axis II personality disorders. (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Bornstein, Robert F; Schmitt, Thomas A


    Current approaches to the assessment and classification of personality disorders (PDs) rely almost exclusively on self-report methodology. In this paper, we document the many difficulties with self-reports, including limitations in their accuracy, the confounding effect of mood state, and problems with the selection and retention of factors in factor analytic approaches to self-report questionnaires. We also discuss the role of implicit processes in self-reports, with special attention directed to the phenomenon of priming and its effect on outcome. To rectify these issues, we suggest a transtheoretical, multimethod, multimodal approach to personality pathology assessment and diagnosis, which utilizes the richness of prototypes and empirical findings on PD categories and pathologies.

  6. Personality assessment and its association with genetic factors in captive Asian and African elephants. (United States)

    Yasui, Saki; Konno, Akitsugu; Tanaka, Masayuki; Idani, Gen'ichi; Ludwig, Arne; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Inoue-Murayama, Miho


    Elephants live in a complex society based on matrilineal groups. Management of captive elephants is difficult, partly because each elephant has a unique personality. For a better understanding of elephant well being in captivity, it would be helpful to systematically evaluate elephants' personalities and their underlying biological basis. We sent elephant' personality questionnaires to keepers of 75 elephants. We also used 196 elephant DNA samples to search for genetic polymorphisms in genes expressed in the brain that have been suggested to be related to personality traits. Three genes, androgen receptor (AR), fragile X related mental retardation protein interacting protein (NUFIP2), and acheate-scute homologs 1 (ASH1) contained polymorphic regions. We examined the association of personality with intraspecific genetic variation in 17 Asian and 28 African elephants. The results suggest that the ASH1 genotype was associated with neuroticism in Asian elephants. Subjects with short alleles had lower scores of neuroticism than those with long alleles. This is the first report of an association between a genetic polymorphism and personality in elephants.

  7. Self-assessed intelligence, personality, and psychometric intelligence: preliminary validation of a model with a selected student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Novikova


    Full Text Available In the current study, self-assessed intelligence (SAI is presented as a multidimensionalconstruct related both to personality and to psychometric intelligence. Onthe basis of data obtained from a Russian student sample (N = 496, the authorsvalidate a structural model in which SAI acts as a mediating variable between latentvariables of measured IQ and the trait of acceptance of uncertainty. Evidencefor signifi cant gender diff erences in SAI in favor of men is also given.

  8. Can Smartphones and Privacy Coexist Assessing Technologies and Regulations Protecting Personal Data on Android and iOS Devices (United States)


    Experience Returns for Security (BADGERS), September 11, 2014. Lockheimer, Hiroshi, “ Android and Security ,” Google Mobile Blog, February 2, 2012. As...C O R P O R A T I O N Can Smartphones and Privacy Coexist? Assessing Technologies and Regulations Protecting Personal Data on Android and iOS...from unknown sources even if they have not been approved for the app store (“Google Report: Android Security 2014 Year in Review,” 2014). This makes

  9. Application of microcalorimetry of Escherichia coli growth and discriminant analysis to the quality assessment of a Chinese herbal injection (Yinzhihuang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshen Ren


    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel approach to the quality control of a Chinese herbal injection based on microcalorimetric determination of its effect on the biothermal active fingerprint (BTAF of Escherichia coli (E. coli growth. Yinzhihuang Injection (YZHI was selected for this proof of concept study. Reference samples of YZHI were collected and compared with test (stressed samples prepared under different stress conditions. The BTAF of E. coli growth was found to be affected by YZHI and the changes were analyzed on the basis of eleven biothermokinetic parameters. Similarity and multivariate statistical analysis were used to investigate the differences between reference and test samples and discriminant analysis was used to delineate the altered samples. Reference samples were found to have coincident BTAFs with similarity index >0.99. Stressed samples showed differences in the BTAF which increased in line with decreased quality. Discriminant formulae were developed based on a sensitivity parameter which could identify all altered samples. In conclusion, BTAF can be used to assess the quality of YZHI both qualitatively and quantitatively and has the potential to provide a sensitive method for quality control of Chinese herbal injections.

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of 10 Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds assessed by microsatellite polymorphism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Hui-Fang; Song Wei-Tao; Shu Jing-Ting; Chen Kuan-Wei; Zhu Wen-Qi; Han Wei; Xu Wen-Juan


    The genetic structure and diversity of 10 Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds were investigated using 29 microsatellite markers. The total number of animals examined were 569, on average 57 animals per breed were selected. The microsatellite marker set analysed provided 177 alleles (mean 6.1 alleles per locus, ranging from 3 to 10). All populations showed high levels of heterozygosity with the lowest estimate of 0.539 for the Jinding ducks, and the highest 0.609 observed for Jingjiang partridge ducks. The global heterozygote deficit across all populations ($F_{\\text{IT}}$) amounted to $-0.363$. About 10% of the total genetic variability originated from differences among breeds, with all loci contributing significantly. An unrooted consensus tree was constructed using the NeighborNet tree based on the Reynold’s genetic distance. The structure software was used to assess genetic clustering of these egg-type duck breeds. Clustering analysis provided an accurate representation of the current genetic relations among the breeds. An integrated analysis was undertaken to obtain information on the population dynamics in Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds, and to better determine the conservation priorities.

  11. Seismic fragility assessment of RC frame structure designed according to modern Chinese code for seismic design of buildings (United States)

    Wu, D.; Tesfamariam, S.; Stiemer, S. F.; Qin, D.


    Following several damaging earthquakes in China, research has been devoted to find the causes of the collapse of reinforced concrete (RC) building sand studying the vulnerability of existing buildings. The Chinese Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (CCSDB) has evolved over time, however, there is still reported earthquake induced damage of newly designed RC buildings. Thus, to investigate modern Chinese seismic design code, three low-, mid- and high-rise RC frames were designed according to the 2010 CCSDB and the corresponding vulnerability curves were derived by computing a probabilistic seismic demand model (PSDM).The PSDM was computed by carrying out nonlinear time history analysis using thirty ground motions obtained from the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Finally, the PSDM was used to generate fragility curves for immediate occupancy, significant damage, and collapse prevention damage levels. Results of the vulnerability assessment indicate that the seismic demands on the three different frames designed according to the 2010 CCSDB meet the seismic requirements and are almost in the same safety level.

  12. Applicability of various estimation formulas to assess renal function in Chinese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Du; Ting-Ting Sun; Ling Hou; Jin-Jie Guo; Xiu-Li Wang; Yu-Bin Wu


    Background: This study was to evaluate the relative applicability of the most commonly used estimation formulas for renal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of Chinese children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: One hundred CKD patients of less than 17 years old were divided into two groups by sex which was further categorized intofi ve subgroups based on CKD staging according to the "reference" GFR (rGFR) determined by Tc-99m-DTPA renal dynamic imaging. Four GFR markers including serum cystatin C (CysC),β2-microglobulin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were measured. Results: Among all four markers, CysC best refl ected the extent of glomerular damages for CKD stage 1. The value for estimation of GFR (eGFR) was derived from five different formulas either over-estimated or under-estimated GFR as referenced to rGFR, and the extent of deviations was dependent on gender, age and CKD stage. The Counahan-Barratt formula and the Schwartz formula gave the most accurate estimations of GFR for CKD stages 1 and 2-3, respectively regardless of gender and age differences. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that the Counahan-Barratt formula has the highest diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion: The Counahan-Barratt formula provides the best approximation to rGFR, thereby the highest applicability to Chinese children with CKD of different genders, ages and CKD stages.

  13. The Use of Weblogs in Learning and Assessment in Chinese Higher Education: Possibilities and Potential Problems (United States)

    Chen, WeiChao; Bonk, Curtis


    Weblogs are beginning to be used in educational settings in China, sending hope for changes in both learning and assessment. This article summarizes two recent Weblogs studies involving new ideas of student assessment in China. While these case studies focus on how Weblogs could facilitate innovation in the assessment field, they simultaneously…

  14. The disjuncture of learning and recognition:credential assessment from the standpoint ofChinese immigrant engineers in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Shan


    Full Text Available To better recognise foreign qualifications, many OECD countries have promoted liberalfairness epitomised by universal standards and institutional efficiency. This paperdeparts from such a managerial orientation towards recognition. Building onrecognitive justice, it proposes an alternative anchoring point for recognition practices:the standpoint or everyday experiences of immigrants. This approach is illustrated witha qualitative study of the credential recognition practices of the engineering professionin Canada. From the standpoint of Chinese immigrants, the study identifies adisjuncture between credential recognition practices and immigrants’ career stagepost-migration. Taking this disjuncture as problematic, it further pinpoints recognitionissues such as redundancy and arbitrariness, a narrow focus on undergraduateeducation, and a deficit view of training from other countries. While some of theseissues may be addressed by improving administrative procedures, others demand aparticipatory space allowing immigrants to become partners of assessment, rather thanmerely its objects.

  15. 语文教科书适切性评价维度与指标构建%The Construction of Relevance Assessment Indexes of Chinese Textbooks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王标; 徐永清


    语文教科书一纲多本的现实状况要求研究者更多地关注语文教科书的使用过程。语文教科书适切性评价是指在使用过程中,分析评判某种语文教科书与某一区域学校学生的实际情况、教师的素养水平以及当地的语文课程资源的匹配情况,其评价可从学生、教师、社会的不同需求等维度来确定具体指标。适切性评价有助于语文教科书自身的发展,同时有助于更好地选用符合实际需要的语文教科书,为全面提高学生的语文素养服务。%Under the current situation of the existence of “One Guide-Multiple Texts” ,the process of the use of Chinese textbooks should be stressed .The relevance assessment of Chinese textbooks refers to the analysis of the degree of one set of Chinese textbooks matching the actual situation of students in a certain area ,teachers'quality and local Chinese language curriculum resources in the use of text-books .Its indexes could be constructed from the needs of students ,teachers ,schools ,communities , and families .Relevance assessment could facilitate the development of Chinese language textbooks , help the choice of more proper Chinese textbooks that could both meet the actual needs and improve students'Chinese accomplishment .

  16. A critical assessment of supported decision-making for persons aging with intellectual disabilities. (United States)

    Kohn, Nina A; Blumenthal, Jeremy A


    Supported decision-making is increasingly being promoted as an alternative to guardianship for persons aging with intellectual disabilities. Proponents argue that supported decision-making, unlike guardianship, empowers persons with disabilities by providing them with help in making their own decisions, rather than simply providing someone else to make decisions for them. To evaluate the empirical support for these claims, we reviewed the evidence base on supported decision-making. Our review found little such empirical research, suggesting that significant further research is warranted to determine whether--and under what conditions--supported decision-making can benefit persons with intellectual disabilities. Indeed, without more empirical evidence as to how supported decision-making functions in practice, it is too early to rule out the possibility it may actually disempower individuals with disabilities by facilitating undue influence by their alleged supporters. We therefore suggest several key areas for future research.

  17. The methodological basis of the assessment of politicians’ perceived personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.S. Gorbaniuk


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Numerous studies show that the key role in a politician’s image play voters’ beliefs concerning the politician’s personality traits. In order to be able to manage a politician’s image, one should answer two strictly interrelated questions: (1 what personality traits of politicians are important to voters and (2 how to measure them? There are three different solutions concerning the number of traits and the manner of dispositional measurement of politicians’ personality. The first group of researchers investigate politicians’ image using questionnaires developed ad hoc for the purposes of specific studies, not based on any models of personality. The second group of researchers start from the implicit or explicit assumption that voters perceive politicians on the same dimensions on which ordinary people is perceived; consequently, they measure perceived personality traits with the same tools that are used in psychological counselling centres. The results of numerous studies prove, however, that politicians’ personality is perceived on a smaller number of dimensions than ordinary people’s personality, which suggests the need for a systematisation of politicians’ personality traits as perceived by voters and the need to develop measurement scales corresponding to the dimensions identified. The third group of researchers have adapted the methodology of psycholexical research in personality psychology and used it for the purpose of studying the image of several dozen Ukrainian politicians in the years 2011-2014. The aim of the paper was to verify the findings of previous studies on the perception of Ukrainian politicians and to develop a scale for measuring politicians’ personality traits. The results of the analysis. In order to verify the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the scales, research with 210 students as participants was conducted before the 2012 parliamentary election in Ukraine

  18. There Is Another Choice: An Exploration of Integrating Formative Assessment in a Chinese High School Chemistry Classroom through Collaborative Action Research (United States)

    Yin, Xinying; Buck, Gayle A.


    This study explored integrating formative assessment to a Chinese high school chemistry classroom, where the extremely high-stakes testing and Confucian-heritage culture constituted a particular context, through a collaborative action research. One researcher worked with a high school chemistry teacher in China to integrate formative assessment…

  19. An Assessment of the January 2007 Chinese ASAT Test on the LEO Environment (United States)

    Talent, D.

    Over the past several decades there has been increasing concern regarding the growth of the orbital debris population in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Even under the best of circumstances the debris population may be expected to increase under conditions of ambient use by the space-faring nations of the world. It is easy to see that such a situation will obtain since the operational lifetimes of most on-orbit systems are typically less than a decade, while their orbital lifetimes may be many decades to hundreds of years or more. Historically, very little has been done regarding the removal of defunct orbital systems. Making matters worse, there have been many cases of spontaneous explosion of derelict upper stages on orbit. In such an event, a single large "hazard to navigation" becomes hundreds to thousands of pieces of orbiting shrapnel. As the numbers of debris objects increases, for whatever reason, so does the threat of collision with high-value operational assets. Thus, given the importance of minimizing orbital debris in LEO, it is obvious that any nation conducting anti-satellite (ASAT) tests should do so in a responsible fashion - minimizing the long-term deposition of large numbers of orbital debris objects at operational LEO altitudes. It is the thesis of this paper that the January 2007 ASAT test conducted by the Chinese government was particularly careless in this regard. In support of this statement, Oceanit's LEO environment model, PODEM (patented in 2004), was employed. The Chinese ASAT test was conducted successfully at an altitude of about 850 km producing large numbers of debris objects. Results, based on an approximation to this recent event, utilizing the PODEM model, suggest that meter-size debris pieces may remain in the LEO environment for hundreds of years. By contrast, debris ranging in size from one to several centimeters may be expected to drift down, due to drag, through lower LEO altitudes producing a transient spike in hazard

  20. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon


    This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension...... (GHQ). The Korean DS14 was internally consistent and stable over time. 27% of the subjects were classified as Type D. Type D individuals had significantly higher mean scores on the STAI-S, CESD, and GHQ compared to non-Type D subjects in each group. The Korean DS14 was a valid and reliable tool...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nikpour


    Full Text Available In this study a base-scale is prepared for the evaluation of the personality grounds of the Tehran University of Medical Science students. Such a scoring scale may be useful to help the medical science students in career development, psychosocial consultations, and appropriate supportive care plans. A sample of 205 female and male students resident in dormitories were evaluated using “Bernreuter” personality questionnaires and computer programs prepared in this center. The percentiles of each scale is scored and represented in a systematic framework. Considering the normal distribution of the results using their means and standard deviations, the important percentages in each scale is tabulated.

  2. Assessing the need for a medical respite: perceptions of service providers and homeless persons. (United States)

    Biederman, Donna J; Gamble, Julia; Manson, Marigny; Taylor, Destry


    For homeless persons, posthospitalization care is increasingly provided in formal medical respite programs, and their success is now reported in the literature. However, there is a dearth of literature on posthospitalization transitional care for homeless persons in the absence of a respite program. Through this formative study, we sought to understand the process of securing posthospitalization care in the absence of a formal homeless medical respite. Results demonstrated a de facto patchwork respite process that has emerged. We describe both human and monetary costs associated with patchwork respite and demonstrate opportunities for improvement in homeless health care transitions.

  3. Assessment on Application of Chinese Herbal Medicine in the Process of Corticosterone Reduction in Nephrotic Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: To evaluate the effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the process of corticosterone (CS) reduction in nephrotic syndrome. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome sensitive to prednisone treatment were divided into two groups randomly. The dosage of prednisone used was conventionally reduced in both groups but CHM herbal treatment was added to the treated group in the period of prednisone reduction. The effect of CHM was estimated by observing the recurrence rate of disease and side-effects of prednisone. Results: The recurrence rate of disease and the occurrence rate of side-effects of prednisone in the treated group were less than those in the control group significantly (P<0.01). Conclusion: Additional CHM in the process of CS reduction in treating CS sensitive nephrotic syndrome could markedly abate the recurrence rate of disease and the side-effect of CS reduction.

  4. Assessing Conscientious Personality in Primary Care: An Opportunity for Prevention and Health Promotion (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.


    The articles in this special section bolster the already strong evidence base that personality differences in the trait of conscientiousness predict health. What is now needed is a research agenda for translating documented risk associations between low conscientiousness and poor health into policies and interventions that improve health outcomes…

  5. Does assessment of personal exposure matter during experimental neurocognitive testing in MRI-related magnetic fields?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Lotte E; Christopher-de Vries, Y.; Slottje, Pauline; Kromhout, Hans


    PURPOSE: To determine whether the use of quantitative personal exposure measurements in experimental research would result in better estimates of the associations between static and time-varying magnetic field exposure and neurocognitive test performance than when exposure categories were based sole

  6. Assessing Mothers' and Children's Perceptions of Power through Personal, Conventional, and Prudential Conflict Situations (United States)

    Porta, Sandra Della; Howe, Nina


    Mothers' and school-aged children's perceptions of types of power executed (coercive, reward, legitimate, information, negotiation, and sneaky) in three domains of conflict (personal, conventional, and prudential) were investigated. Participants included 41 children ranging from 7 to 12 years (M = 10.12, SD = 1.42) and their mothers. Perceptions…

  7. Clinical Assessment of Attachment Patterns and Personality Disorder in Adolescents and Adults (United States)

    Westen, Drew; Nakash, Ora; Thomas, Cannon; Bradley, Rebekah


    The relevance of attachment theory and research for practice has become increasingly clear. The authors describe a series of studies with 3 aims: (a) to validate measures of attachment for use by clinicians with adolescents and adults (b) to examine the relation between attachment and personality pathology, and (c) to ascertain whether factor…

  8. Assess, compare and enhance the status of Persons with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugliatti, M; Eskic, D; Mikolcić, T;


    Persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) experience health-related quality of life (HRQoL) problems greatly differing across Europe, and the European Union (EU) faces deep inequalities in MS management from country to country. Through the establishment of a European MS Register (EUReMS), an effective...

  9. An Experimental Approach to Assessing the Perceived Value of Personal and Social Responsibility (United States)

    Daugherty, Timothy K.


    Personal and social responsibility (PSR), one of four essential learning outcomes identified by the Liberal Education and America's Promise (LEAP) Report (AAC&U, 2007), was rated as "very" or "extremely" important by 88% of the participants in the study. To supplement the expected results from the traditional survey methods…

  10. The Hierarchy Consistency Index: Evaluating Person Fit for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Leighton, Jacqueline P.


    In this article, we introduce a person-fit statistic called the hierarchy consistency index (HCI) to help detect misfitting item response vectors for tests developed and analyzed based on a cognitive model. The HCI ranges from -1.0 to 1.0, with values close to -1.0 indicating that students respond unexpectedly or differently from the responses…

  11. Assessing "Inexperienced" Students' Ability to Self-Assess: Exploring Links with Learning Style and Academic Personal Control (United States)

    Cassidy, Simon


    The study sought to establish the level of students' self-assessment skill--particularly "inexperienced" students--and to examine the relationship between self-assessment skill and learning style, student perceptions of academic locus of control and academic self-efficacy. Students were asked to evaluate and provide estimated marks for their own…

  12. Validation of an osteoporosis self-assessment tool to identify primary osteoporosis and new osteoporotic vertebral fractures in postmenopausal Chinese women in Beijing


    Yang, Yong; Wang, BingQiang; Fei, Qi; Meng, Qian; Li, Dong; Tang, Hai; Li, Jinjun; Su, Nan


    Background This study aimed to validate the effectiveness of the Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis and painful new osteoporotic vertebral fractures in a large selected Han Chinese population in Beijing. Methods We assessed the performance of the OSTA in 1201 women. Subjects with an OSTA index > -1 were classified as the low risk group, and those with an index ≤ -1 were classified as the increased r...

  13. [Critical review of instruments to assess pain in the non communicative brain injured persons in intensive care]. (United States)

    Roulin, Marie-José; Goulet, Céline; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie


    The purpose of this review is to critically appraise the pain assessment tools for non communicative persons in intensive care available in the literature and to determine their relevance for those with brain injury. Nursing and medical electronic databases were searched to identify pain tools, with a description of psychometric proprieties, in English and French. Seven of the ten tools were considered relevant and systematically evaluated according to the criteria and the indicators in the following five areas: conceptualisation, target population, feasibility and clinical utility, reliability and validity. Results indicate a number of well designed pain tools, but additional work is necessary to establish their accuracy and adequacy for the brain injured non communicative person in intensive care. Recommendations are made to choose the best tool for clinical practice and for research.

  14. Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment in Chinese Contexts: A Tripartite Model of Accountability, Improvement, and Irrelevance (United States)

    Brown, Gavin T. L.; Hui, Sammy K. F.; Yu, Flora W. M.; Kennedy, Kerry J.


    The beliefs teachers have about assessment influence classroom practices and reflect cultural and societal differences. This paper reports the development of a new self-report inventory to examine beliefs teachers in Hong Kong and southern China contexts have about the nature and purpose of assessment. A statistically equivalent model for Hong…

  15. Translation and validation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) Version 4 quality of life instrument into traditional Chinese. (United States)

    Lau, A K L; Chang, C H; Tai, J W M; Eremenco, S; Liang, R; Lie, A K W; Fong, D Y T; Lau, C M


    The need for a culturally sensitive instrument to assess quality of life (QOL) of patients in international oncology clinical trials has been well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the traditional Chinese translation (TCHI) of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) Version 4. The FACT-BMT consists of the FACT-General and treatment-specific concerns of bone marrow transplantation. The Chinese translation follows the standard Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) translation methodology. Bilingual teams from the United States and Hong Kong reviewed the translation to develop a provisional TCHI FACT-BMT, which was then pre-tested by interviewing 20 native Chinese-speaking BMT patients in Hong Kong. The pre-test results indicated good content coverage and overall comprehensibility. A refined translation, taking into account patient comments, was validated by 134 BMT patients in Hong Kong. The results indicated the high internal consistency of the TCHI FACT-BMT scales, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from 0.71 (emotional well-being) to 0.92 (FACT-BMT total). The FACT-BMT also demonstrated good construct validity when correlated with SF-36 Health Survey scales. The QOL of Chinese BMT patients can now be evaluated using a well-validated international QOL instrument in their own language.

  16. Genome-wide screening for highly discriminative SNPs for personal identification and their assessment in world populations. (United States)

    Li, Liming; Wang, Yi; Yang, Shuping; Xia, Mingying; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Jiucun; Lu, Daru; Pan, Xingwei; Ma, Teng; Jiang, Pei; Yu, Ge; Zhao, Ziqin; Ping, Yuan; Zhou, Huaigu; Zhao, Xueying; Sun, Hui; Liu, Bing; Jia, Dongtao; Li, Chengtao; Hu, Rile; Lu, Hongzhou; Liu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Wenqing; Mi, Qin; Xue, Fuzhong; Su, Yongdong; Jin, Li; Li, Shilin


    The applications of DNA profiling aim to identify perpetrators, missing family members and disaster victims in forensic investigations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based forensic applications are emerging rapidly with a potential to replace short tandem repeats (STRs) based panels which are now being used widely, and there is a need for a well-designed SNP panel to meet such challenge for this transition. Here we present a panel of 175 SNP markers (referred to as Fudan ID Panel or FID), selected from ∼3.6 million SNPs, for the application of personal identification. We optimized and validated FID panel using 729 Chinese individuals using a next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. We showed that the SNPs in the panel possess very high heterozygosity as well as low within- and among-continent differentiations, enabling FID panel exhibit discrimination power in both regional and worldwide populations, with the average match probabilities ranging from 4.77×10(-71) to 1.06×10(-64) across 54 world populations. With the advent of biomedical research, the SNPs connecting physical anthropological, physiological, behavioral and phenotypic traits will be eventually added to the forensic panels that will revolutionize criminal investigation.

  17. Clinical measures are feasible and sensitive to assess balance and gait capacities in older persons with mild to moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enkelaar, L.; Smulders, E.; Schrojenstein Lantman, H.M.J. van; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Geurts, A.C.H.


    Mobility limitations are common in persons with Intellectual Disabilities (ID). Differences in balance and gait capacities between persons with ID and controls have mainly been demonstrated by instrumented assessments (e.g. posturography and gait analysis), which require sophisticated and expensive

  18. Clinical Measures Are Feasible and Sensitive to Assess Balance and Gait Capacities in Older Persons with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Enkelaar, Lotte; Smulders, Ellen; Lantman-de Valk, Henny van Schrojenstein; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Geurts, Alexander C. H.


    Mobility limitations are common in persons with Intellectual Disabilities (ID). Differences in balance and gait capacities between persons with ID and controls have mainly been demonstrated by instrumented assessments (e.g. posturography and gait analysis), which require sophisticated and expensive equipment such as force plates or a 3D motion…

  19. Personal and ambient PM2.5 exposure assessment in the city of Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habil


    Full Text Available Human exposure to fine particles can have significant harmful effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular system. To investigate daily exposure characteristics to PM2.5 with ambient concentrations in an urban environment, a personal exposure measurements were conducted for school children, office workers and at their residents, in the city of Taj ‘Agra’, India. In order to account for all the sources of particulate matter exposure, measurements on several different days during December 2013 to February 2014 were carried out. Personal environment monitors (PEM and APM 550 were used to measure PM2.5 concentration. The research findings provide insight into possible sources and their interaction with human activities in modifying the human exposure levels.

  20. Using personal and fictional documents to assess psychosocial development: a case study of Vera Brittain's generativity. (United States)

    Peterson, B E; Stewart, A J


    Adult diaries and novels written by the British feminist and pacifist Vera Brittain (1893-1970) were content analyzed for Eriksonian themes of identity, intimacy, and generativity. Brittain's concerns with identity and intimacy decreased over time, while her generative concerns increased, suggesting that she expressed the issue of generativity vs. stagnation in her mid-life diaries and fiction. The large number of identity themes relative to both intimacy and generativity provokes speculations about Brittain's personality, the characteristics of writers, the influence of gender, the impact of society, and the possibility that the crisis of identity vs. role confusion involves the last major structural change in personality development. This archival case study is consistent with Erikson's notion of a sequence of concerns with psychosocial issues, although directions for theoretical revision and elaboration are discussed.

  1. Personal radiation monitoring and assessment of doses received by radiation workers (1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, N.D.


    Since late 1986, all persons monitored by the Australian Radiation Laboratory have been registered on a data base which maintains records of the doses received by each individual wearer. At present, the Service regularly monitors approximately 30,000 persons, which is roughly 90 percent of those monitored in Australia, and maintains dose histories of over 75,000 people. The skin dose for occupationally exposed workers can be measured by using one of the five types of monitor issued by the Service: Thermoluminescent Dosemeter (TLD monitor), Finger TLD 3, Neutron Monitor, Special TLD and Environmental monitor. The technical description of the monitors is provided along with the method for calculating the radiation dose. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. Assessing psychological health and empowerment in women: the Personal Progress Scale Revised. (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M; Worell, Judith; Chandler, Redonna K


    Empowerment is a primary outcome of many health interventions with women. Typical outcome measures, however focus exclusively on specific symptoms, neglecting the clinically important attitudes and behaviors associated with increased empowerment and well-being. Empowerment is conceptualized as enabling women to access skills and resources to cope more effectively with current as well as future stress and trauma. This study investigated a new measure of personal empowerment in women, the Personal Progress Scale-Revised (PPS-R). Results suggest that the PPS-R is a promising measure of empowerment in women, demonstrating excellent reliability and validity in diverse sample of women. Additionally, the PPS-R demonstrated preliminary utility with a subgroup of abused women, a vulnerable group of women for whom empowerment is a variable of high importance.

  3. Translation, modification and validation of the Chinese version of a knowledge assessment instrument regarding pressure ulcer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Liu; Hao-Bin Yuan; Wei-Ju Chen; Chiuyin Poon; Meihua Hsu; Bo Zhang


    Objective: This study sought to translate, modify and validate an instrument developed by Beckman and colleagues to assess the knowledge of clinical nurses regarding pressure ulcers. Methods: A methodological study design was used. The instrument was translated into Chinese and back-translated into English. A six-expert panel was invited to evaluate the content validity, and a pilot test was subsequently performed on the test-retest stability of the translated instrument. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit 240 nurses from a university teaching hospital in the Mainland of China. In total, 186 valid questionnaires were collected with a 77.5%valid return rate. The validity of the multiple-choice test items (item difficulties and discriminating indices) and internal consistency reli-ability were evaluated. Results: The translated and modified instrument demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties, as follows: (1) the overall content validity index (CVI) was 0.91, (2) the overall test-retest reliability was 0.826, (3) the item difficulty indices were between 0.46 and 0.93, (4) the overall values for discrimination were 0.28e0.55, and (5) the Cronbach's a for the internal consistency were 0.792 for the overall in-strument and 0.426e0.804 for the sub-themes. Conclusions: This study represents the first trial to translate and modify an existing instrument that measures the knowledge of pressure ulcers in a Chinese Mainland sample. The instrument demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and could be applied in cross-cultural nursing practices, including nursing education, research and practice, to evaluate knowledge about pressure ulcer prevention.

  4. Causative agent distribution and antibiotic therapy assessment among adult patients with community acquired pneumonia in Chinese urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of predominant microbial patterns in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP constitutes the basis for initial decisions about empirical antimicrobial treatment, so a prospective study was performed during 2003–2004 among CAP of adult Chinese urban populations. Methods Qualified patients were enrolled and screened for bacterial, atypical, and viral pathogens by sputum and/or blood culturing, and by antibody seroconversion test. Antibiotic treatment and patient outcome were also assessed. Results Non-viral pathogens were found in 324/610 (53.1% patients among whom M. pneumoniae was the most prevalent (126/610, 20.7%. Atypical pathogens were identified in 62/195 (31.8% patients carrying bacterial pathogens. Respiratory viruses were identified in 35 (19% of 184 randomly selected patients with adenovirus being the most common (16/184, 8.7%. The nonsusceptibility of S. pneumoniae to penicillin and azithromycin was 22.2% (Resistance (R: 3.2%, Intermediate (I: 19.0% and 79.4% (R: 79.4%, I: 0%, respectively. Of patients (312 from whom causative pathogens were identified and antibiotic treatments were recorded, clinical cure rate with β-lactam antibiotics alone and with combination of a β-lactam plus a macrolide or with fluoroquinolones was 63.7% (79/124 and 67%(126/188, respectively. For patients having mixed M. pneumoniae and/or C. pneumoniae infections, a better cure rate was observed with regimens that are active against atypical pathogens (e.g. a β-lactam plus a macrolide, or a fluoroquinolone than with β-lactam alone (75.8% vs. 42.9%, p = 0.045. Conclusion In Chinese adult CAP patients, M. pneumoniae was the most prevalent with mixed infections containing atypical pathogens being frequently observed. With S. pneumoniae, the prevalence of macrolide resistance was high and penicillin resistance low compared with data reported in other regions.

  5. Assessing cultural intelligence, personality and identity amongst young white Afrikaans-speaking students: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Nel


    Full Text Available Orientation: Cultural intelligence (CQ is a relatively new construct to academia that has recently gained increasing attention. Its relevance in a multicultural context like South Africa is apparent since cultural interaction between different ethnic groups is unavoidable.Research purpose: The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between personality, identity and CQ amongst young Afrikaans-speaking South Africans.Research approach, design and method: A quantitative research design was used in this study. This study was cross-sectional in nature. For the purpose of this study, a sample of young South African university students (N = 252 was used. The personal identity subscale from the Erickson Psychosocial Stage Inventory, the Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure, the Religious Identity Short Scale, the South African Personality Inventory questionnaire and the Four Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence Scale were applied as the measuring instruments.Main findings: Religious identity and ethnic identity have a relationship with cognitive CQ. Soft-heartedness and conscientiousness have a relationship with behavioural CQ. Also, soft-heartedness, facilitating, extroversion and religious identity have a relationship with motivational CQ.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations within South Africa will gain a better understanding of CQ and the benefits of having a culturally intelligent workforce as a strengths-based approach. Culturally intelligent employees will be able to adjust to working with co-workers from another culture, not feel threatened when interacting with co-workers and clients and be able to transfer knowledge from one culture to another, which will aid the organisation in completing overseas assignments, cross-cultural decision-making, leadership in multicultural environments and managing international careers.Contribution/value-add: CQ is a relatively new concept and empirical research on positive subjects is

  6. Forensic mental health professionals' perceptions of psychopathy: a prototypicality analysis of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality in Sweden. (United States)

    Sörman, Karolina; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Svensson, Olof; Howner, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne; Fischer, Håkan


    Assessments of psychopathic traits are used on a routine basis in forensic evaluations across Westernized countries. Despite this, consensus has not yet emerged concerning what exactly are the "core" features of this construct. Moreover, relatively little is known about how practitioners in the field construe this disorder. This study explored perceptions and attitudes regarding psychopathy among individuals working in the forensic mental health system (N = 90) in Sweden. Participants provided prototype ratings of what they considered to be core psychopathy features based on the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP), a model that increasingly is the focus of research in North America and Europe. The study protocol also included questions regarding (a) global perceptions and attitudes about a number of aspects of the psychopathy construct (e.g., personal experience, perceived prevalence), and (b) attitudinal scales that assessed perceived correlates of psychopathic traits across a variety of domains (e.g., violence proneness, treatment amenability) and moral judgments and attitudes concerning how psychopathic offenders should be treated within the legal system. The majority of the 33 individual CAPP items and the six CAPP scales were rated as at least moderately prototypical of psychopathy, with Dominance, Self, and Attachment domains obtaining the highest mean ratings. Participants viewed psychopaths as more likely to commit crimes than the average criminal, without being blatantly "evil" people. We believe our results help to advance our understanding of the psychopathy construct by exploring forensic professionals' perceptions of this disorder in general and in relation to the CAPP model specifically.

  7. Assessment of genetic variability of fish personality traits using rainbow trout isogenic lines. (United States)

    Millot, Sandie; Péan, Samuel; Labbé, Laurent; Kerneis, Thierry; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Bégout, Marie-Laure


    The study of inter-individual variability of personality in fish is a growing field of interest but the genetic basis of this complex trait is still poorly investigated due to the difficulty in controlling fish genetic origin and life history. When available, isogenic lines that allow performing independent tests on different individuals having identical genotype constitute a very relevant experimental material to disentangle the genetic and environmental components of behavioural individuality. We took advantage of heterozygous isogenic lines to investigate the personality in rainbow trout through the analysis of their reactions to different experimental situations. To this end, seven to ten rainbow trout isogenic lines were screened for their spatial exploratory behaviour, their flight response toward a stressor and their risk taking behaviour. Results showed that some lines seemed less sensitive to new events or environmental changes and could be defined as low responsive, while others were very sensitive and defined as high responsive. The use of isogenic lines highlighted the importance of genetic factors, in combination with life history, in the expression of personality in domesticated fish.

  8. Associations Between Personality Traits and Adherence to Antidepressants Assessed Through Self-Report, Electronic Monitoring, and Pharmacy Dispensing Data : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya Fh; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R; Egberts, Antoine Cg; Gardarsdottir, Helga


    Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality "traits." Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed

  9. Sorption, degradation and mobility of microcystins in Chinese agriculture soils: risk assessment for groundwater protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wei [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Donghu Nanlu No 7, Wuhan 430072 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Song Lirong [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Donghu Nanlu No 7, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail:; Gan Nanqin [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Donghu Nanlu No 7, Wuhan 430072 (China); Li Lin [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Donghu Nanlu No 7, Wuhan 430072 (China)


    In the present paper, sorption, persistence, and leaching behavior of three microcystin variants in Chinese agriculture soils were examined. Based on this study, the values of capacity factor and slope for three MCs variants in three soils ranged from 0.69 to 6.00, and 1.01 to 1.54, respectively. The adsorption of MCs in the soils decreased in the following order: RR>Dha{sup 7} LR>LR. Furthermore, for each MC variant in the three soils, the adsorption rate in the soils decreased in the following order: soil A>soil C>soil B. The calculated half-time ranged between 7.9 and 17.8 days for MC-RR, 6.0-17.1 days for MC-LR, and 7.1-10.2 days for MC-Dha{sup 7} LR. Results from leaching experiments demonstrated that recoveries of toxins in leachates ranged from 0-16.7% for RR, 73.2-88.9% for LR, and 8.9-73.1% for Dha{sup 7} LR. The GUS value ranged from 1.48 to 2.06 for RR, 1.82-2.88 for LR, and 1.76-2.09 for Dha{sup 7} LR. Results demonstrated the use of cyanobacterial collections as plant fertilizer is likely to be unsafe in soils. - The use of cyanobacterial blooms as plant fertilizer is likely to be unsafe in soils.

  10. [Rapid assessment of critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (II): strategy of NIR assignment]. (United States)

    Pei, Yan-Ling; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Zhou, Lu-Wei; Qiao, Yan-Jiang


    The present paper firstly reviewed the research progress and main methods of NIR spectral assignment coupled with our research results. Principal component analysis was focused on characteristic signal extraction to reflect spectral differences. Partial least squares method was concerned with variable selection to discover characteristic absorption band. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy was mainly adopted for spectral assignment. Autocorrelation peaks were obtained from spectral changes, which were disturbed by external factors, such as concentration, temperature and pressure. Density functional theory was used to calculate energy from substance structure to establish the relationship between molecular energy and spectra change. Based on the above reviewed method, taking a NIR spectral assignment of chlorogenic acid as example, a reliable spectral assignment for critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (CMM) was established using deuterium technology and spectral variable selection. The result demonstrated the assignment consistency according to spectral features of different concentrations of chlorogenic acid and variable selection region of online NIR model in extract process. Although spectral assignment was initial using an active pharmaceutical ingredient, it is meaningful to look forward to the futurity of the complex components in CMM. Therefore, it provided methodology for NIR spectral assignment of critical quality attributes in CMM.

  11. Shame as a Cultural Artifact: A Call for Self-Awareness and Reflexivity in Personality Assessment. (United States)

    Aschieri, Filippo


    It has become common for assessors to face therapeutic impasses and dilemmas when practicing within the Therapeutic Assessment (TA) model. This is due to the explicit goal of producing therapeutic changes in clients. In this article the author discusses the importance of assessors being aware of how their clinical practices relate to their assessment outcomes. To enhance such awareness, the author reviews the characteristics of psychological assessment practices as derived from 3 paradigms developed almost 1.5 centuries ago in Europe by the forefathers of psychology as a scientific discipline. Current assessment practices are deeply ingrained in specific cultural, social, and political frameworks originating in these paradigms. Being aware of such a historical and cultural background might help the assessor avoid blindly reenacting the values, norms, and latent relational schemas implied by different assessment methods, and instead use assessment tools as potent aids in the service of clients' change. Finally, the author illustrates how the experience of clients' shame in psychological assessment might also be understood as a by-product of the specific cultural and historical background of certain common assessment practices.

  12. Cognitive Ability, Self-Assessed Intelligence and Personality: Common Genetic but Independent Environmental Aetiologies (United States)

    Bratko, Denis; Butkovic, Ana; Vukasovic, Tena; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; von Stumm, Sophie


    Self-perceived abilities (SPA), which play an important role in academic achievement, have been recently reported to be fully attributable to genetic and non-shared environmental influences. To replicate and extend this finding, 732 Croatian twins (15-22 years old) were assessed on cognitive ability, self-assessed intelligence (SAI), and Five…

  13. A preliminary assessment of legged mobility provided by a lower limb exoskeleton for persons with paraplegia. (United States)

    Farris, Ryan J; Quintero, Hugo A; Murray, Spencer A; Ha, Kevin H; Hartigan, Clare; Goldfarb, Michael


    This paper presents an assessment of a lower limb exoskeleton for providing legged mobility to people with paraplegia. In particular, the paper presents a single-subject case study comparing legged locomotion using the exoskeleton to locomotion using knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) on a subject with a T10 motor and sensory complete injury. The assessment utilizes three assessment instruments to characterize legged mobility, which are the timed up-and-go test, the Ten-Meter Walk Test (10 MWT), and the Six-Minute Walk Test (6 MWT), which collectively assess the subject's ability to stand, walk, turn, and sit. The exertion associated with each assessment instrument was assessed using the Physiological Cost Index. Results indicate that the subject was able to perform the respective assessment instruments 25%, 70%, and 80% faster with the exoskeleton relative to the KAFOs for the timed up-and-go test, the 10 MWT, and the 6 MWT, respectively. Measurements of exertion indicate that the exoskeleton requires 1.6, 5.2, and 3.2 times less exertion than the KAFOs for each respective assessment instrument. The results indicate that the enhancement in speed and reduction in exertion are more significant during walking than during gait transitions.

  14. Seafood consumption among Chinese coastal residents and health risk assessment of heavy metals in seafood. (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Yan, Shuangshuang; Liu, Min; Wang, Bi; Hu, Dong; Guo, Dongbei; Wang, Juan; Xu, Wanting; Fan, Chun


    The aims of the present study were to obtain the seafood dietary patterns of coastal residents, to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, and to evaluate the possible health risks caused by seafood intake. The daily food intakes of 24 types of seafood were collected from 738 participants from Xiamen, a southern Chinese coastal city, using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and dietary history method. One hundred and fifty-six samples of 14 types of highest intake seafood were collected from local markets for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) determination. Health risks via seafood consumption were evaluated by calculating the target hazard quotient (THQ) and the total hazard index (HI) for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the seafood daily intake of Xiamen residents was 61.5 (2.14, 115) g/day. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in seafood were ND-0.45 mg/kg, ND-0.19 mg/kg, ND-0.80 mg/kg, ND-0.70 mg/kg, and 0.32-16.9 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of Cd and As in some samples were higher than national limitation standards. Consumption of 14 common types of seafood would not pose non-carcinogenic risk. However, some types, such as sparuslatus, oyster, and porphyra tenera, would form a carcinogenic risk. Regardless of a carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic risk, As posed the highest risk on humans. The observed HI value for non-carcinogenic effect of all metals in all seafood reached 0.69-2.20, and the metal orders of risk can be listed as As > Hg > Cr > Cd > Pb, reiterating the risk of As is a matter of concern in seafood from Xiamen markets.

  15. 四种人格障碍检测工具信度比较研究——人格障碍检测工具系列研究 I%Four Existing Instruments for Assessing Personality Disorders (Study I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢宁; 刘协和; 朱昌明; 杨彦春; 谢聪; 岳振雷


    目的:将来自西方的四种人格障碍检测工具IPDE、SCID-Ⅱ、SCID-ⅡPQ和PDI-Ⅳ中文版本(简称IPDE、 SCID-Ⅱ、SCID-ⅡPQ和PDI-Ⅳ)在中国文化背景下进行检测和信度比较研究。方法:以上述四个人格障碍检测工具分别检测153名被试(缓解期重型精神病患者42名,病情稳定的神经症患者41名,人格障碍者29名,正常对照被试41名)并对其信度进行了系统检验和比较。结果:信度检验显示,强迫型、回避型(IPDE中为焦虑/回避型)、依赖型、表演型、边缘型(IPDE中为情绪不稳定型)、反社会型(IPDE中为社交紊乱型)、分裂样型和偏执型等8个人格障碍分量表的重测信度、评定者信度、分半信度和同质性信度较好;在四个人格障碍检测工具中,IPDE的信度较其它人格障碍工具更好。结论:强迫型、回避型(IPDE中为焦虑/回避型)、依赖型、表演型、边缘型(IPDE中为情绪不稳定型)、反社会型(IPDE中为社交紊乱型)、分裂样型和偏执型等8个人格障碍型别具有较好的稳定性、客观性、内部同源性。IPDE有较为完善的信度。%Objective: To compare and study the reliability of the four instruments for assessment of personality disorders in Chinese subjects. Method: 42 patients with psychosis in remission, 41 patients with neurosis in stable state, 29 subjects with personality disorder and 41 normal control were evaluated using the four instruments: IPDE (International Personality Disorder Examination), SCID-II (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorder), SCID-II PQ (SCID-II Patient Questionnaire), PDI-IV (Personality Disorder Interview for DSM-IV). Their reliabilities in Chinese subjects were tested. Result: It was found that obsessive-compulsive, avoidant (IPDE: anxious/avoidant), deppendent, histrionic, borderline (IPDE: emotionally unstable), antisocial (IPDE: dissocial), schizoid

  16. Quantifying human exposure to air pollution - moving from static monitoring to spatio-temporally resolved personal exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E


    distributions. New developments in sensor technology now enable us to monitor personal exposure to air pollutants directly while people are moving through their activity spaces and varying concentration fields. The literature review on which this paper is based on reflects recent developments in the assessment......Quantifying human exposure to air pollutants is a challenging task. Ambient concentrations of air pollutants at potentially harmful levels are ubiquitous in urban areas and subject to high spatial and temporal variability. At the same time, every individual has unique activity-patterns. Exposure...... results from multifaceted relationships and interactions between environmental and human systems, adding complexity to the assessment process. Traditionally, approaches to quantify human exposure have relied on pollutant concentrations from fixed air quality network sites and static population...

  17. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for chronic nightmares in trauma-exposed persons: assessing physiological reactions to nightmare-related fear. (United States)

    Rhudy, Jamie L; Davis, Joanne L; Williams, Amy E; McCabe, Klanci M; Bartley, Emily J; Byrd, Patricia M; Pruiksma, Kristi E


    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) that target nightmares are efficacious for ameliorating self-reported sleep problems and psychological distress. However, it is important to determine whether these treatments influence objective markers of nightmare-related fear, because fear and concomitant physiological responses could promote nightmare chronicity and sleep disturbance. This randomized, controlled study (N=40) assessed physiological (skin conductance, heart rate, facial electromyogram) and subjective (displeasure, fear, anger, sadness, arousal) reactions to personally relevant nightmare imagery intended to evoke nightmare-related fear. Physiological assessments were conducted at pretreatment as well as 1-week, 3-months, and 6-months posttreatment. Results of mixed effects analysis of variance models suggested treatment reduced physiological and subjective reactions to nightmare imagery, gains that were generally maintained at the 6-month follow-up. Potential implications are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Biryukova


    Full Text Available The aim of the presented publication consists in revision of approaches to additional education of adults in general; and particularly – in improvement of foreign language training process in the sphere of continuous training.The necessity of active foreign language skills by each modern person is caused by development of international cooperation in the most different spheres of activity. With respect thereto the organization of monitoring of quality of programs of additional education of adults acquires special relevance. However, the assessment of this quality is significantly complicated by lack of single standards and well-defined evaluation criteria.Methods. The classical and modern works devoted to the general questions of an assessment of quality of education and additional education of adults have been analysed during the research. D. Matyushkina’s model for an assessment of quality of additional education, Yu. M. Orlov’s technique «The requirement for achievement» and V. F. Ryakhovsky’s test for determination of the general level of sociability are used as diagnostic tools.Results and scientific novelty. The author of the article suggests to consider the level of the trainee’s personal development as the basic criterion for evaluation of productivity of education of adults. The main difficulties connected with studying by adults of a foreign language are analysed; the results of diagnostics of personal adult development mastering additional educational program «English without barriers» developed at the Mari state university are provided. The found positive dynamics following the results of monitoring on every personal (motivational, cognitive, communicative program quality criterion proves its solvency and efficiency: the trainees’ level of language knowledge and abilities, motivation of achievement of success have considerably increased; positive communicative installations are created; the incentives for further self

  19. The National Single Assessment Tool (SAT) a pilot study in older persons care-survey results. (United States)

    McDermott-Scales, L; Beaton, D; McMahon, F; Vereker, N; McCormack, B; Coen, R F; O'Keefe, S T


    Following a consultation and review process, the interRAI suite of assessment tools was chosen as the most suitable instrument for assessment of the care needs of older people in Ireland. We used previously validated questionnaires to examine the usability, practicality and acceptability of these tools to professionals, carers and clients in rural and urban acute, long-term care and community settings. Of the 45 professionals, 42-44 (93-98%) agreed or strongly agreed with 14 of 15 positive statements regarding the acceptability, clinical value and ease of use of the interRAl tools; 39 (87%) felt the terminology was consistent and familiar, although 35 (78%) felt some areas would require further explanation. Responses from carers (n = 15) and clients (n = 68) were similarly overwhelmingly positive regarding the experience of being assessed using these tools. These results support the clinical utility and practicality of using this approach to assess older people in Irish clinical practice.

  20. Evaluation of Life-Cycle Assessment Studies of Chinese Cement Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongyou; Masanet, Eric; Price, Lynn


    The use of life-cycle assessment (LCA) to understand the embodied energy, environmental impacts, and potential energy-savings of manufactured products has become more widespread among researchers in recent years. This paper reviews recent LCA studies in the cement industry in China and in other countries and provides an assessment of the methodology used by the researchers compared to ISO LCA standards (ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006, and ISO/TR 14048:2002). We evaluate whether the authors provide information on the intended application, targeted audience, functional unit, system boundary, data sources, data quality assessment, data disaggregation and other elements, and draw conclusions regarding the level of adherence to ISO standards for the papers reviewed. We found that China researchers have gained much experience during last decade, but still have room for improvement in establishing boundaries, assessing data quality, identifying data sources, and explaining limitations. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future LCA research in China.

  1. Assessment of Creative Writing: The Case of Singapore Secondary Chinese Language Curriculum (United States)

    Tung, Chan Kwong


    In Singapore and in elsewhere alike, educators nowadays are paying much more attention on the set of teaching and assessment recommendations called the 21st century skills that include creativity at the policy, programmatic, school and classroom levels. As these education systems develop and respond to the demands of the new century, educators are…

  2. Regulatory Mechanism of Self-Determination Involvement in Higher Education: Assessing Chinese Students' Experiences (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhe; Liu, Jinlan; Chi, Xianglan


    Investment in higher education facilities in terms of both hardware and software has witnessed significant growth on a yearly basis since the reintroduction of the college entrance examination known as the NMT in 1977. However, a social assessment of graduates' qualities seems to indicate that the improvement in skill levels and graduates' general…

  3. What's Wrong with Current Chinese College English Assessment System? Reform or Not? (United States)

    Gao, Fen


    The author expounds the "status quo" of college English assessment system in China and objectively points out some major problems that have negative impacts on college English teaching and learning. On the basis of pros and cons towards the issue, the author intends to come up with some effective countermeasures, including converting the…

  4. Marginal Generation Technology in the Chinese Power Market towards 2030 Based on Consequential Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Guerrero, Josep M.; Pei, Yingying


    Electricity consumption is often the hotspot of life cycle assessment (LCA) of products, industrial activities, or services. The objective of this paper is to provide a consistent, scientific, region-specific electricity-supply-based inventory of electricity generation technology for national...

  5. Dimensional assessment of self- and interpersonal functioning in adolescents: implications for DSM-5's general definition of personality disorder. (United States)

    DeFife, Jared A; Goldberg, Melissa; Westen, Drew


    Central to the proposed DSM-5 general definition of personality disorder (PD) are features of self- and interpersonal functioning. The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Rating Method (SCORS-G) is a coding system that assesses eight dimensions of self- and relational experience that can be applied to narrative data or used by clinically experienced observers to quantify observations of patients in ongoing psychotherapy. This study aims to evaluate the relationship of SCORS-G dimensions to personality pathology in adolescents and their incremental validity for predicting multiple domains of adaptive functioning. A total of 294 randomly sampled doctoral-level clinical psychologists and psychiatrists described an adolescent patient in their care based on all available data. Individual SCORS-G variables demonstrated medium-to-large effect size differences for PD versus non-PD identified adolescents (d = .49-1.05). A summary SCORS-Composite rating was significantly related to composite measurements of global adaptive functioning (r = .66), school functioning (r = .47), externalizing behavior (r = -.49), and prior psychiatric history (r = -.31). The SCORS-Composite significantly predicted variance in domains of adaptive functioning above and beyond age and DSM-IV PD diagnosis (ΔR(2)s = .07-.32). As applied to adolescents, the SCORS-G offers a framework for a clinically meaningful and empirically sound dimensional assessment of self- and other representations and interpersonal functioning capacities. Our findings support the inclusion of self- and interpersonal capacities in the DSM-5 general definition of personality disorder as an improvement to existing PD diagnosis for capturing varied domains of adaptive functioning and psychopathology.

  6. Journeys through the valley of death: multimethod psychological assessment and personality transformation in long-term psychotherapy. (United States)

    Finn, Stephen E


    The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM Task Force, 2006) is based on the assumption that an in-depth understanding of clients' underlying emotional, personality, and interpersonal patterns will facilitate their treatment. In this article I show how such an understanding can be achieved through multimethod psychological assessment, and how useful such information can be in long-term psychotherapy with high-achieving, successful clients who struggle with forming and maintaining intimate relationships. Such treatments are extremely difficult, because when these clients attach to their psychotherapists, many of them temporarily become more symptomatic. I illustrate these points with a detailed account of my long-term therapy with a resilient but highly traumatized young man. Repeated use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Disorder-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and Rorschach with my client helped guide us in our work, and also helped create an important therapeutic "opening" into the underlying traumatic material. This and other experiences have convinced me that it is extremely useful for psychologists to have training in both assessment and psychotherapy.

  7. Toward a model for assessing level of personality functioning in DSM-5, part II: empirical articulation of a core dimension of personality pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Morey; H. Berghuis; D.S. Bender; R. Verheul; R.F. Krueger; A.E. Skodol


    The extensive comorbidity among Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) personality disorders might be compelling evidence of essential commonalities among these disorders reflective of a general level of personality functionin

  8. 古诗英译中人称代词缺省的处理:以物观物%Impersonal view of universal things:solution for personal pronoun default in English translation of classical Chinese poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田华; 孙凤兰


    为了保留古典诗歌人称代词缺省给读者留下的想象空间,采用文献综述法和对比法,分析人称代词缺省的"以物观物"英译原则和相关策略:物称、修辞、名词短语、非谓语动词、被动语态、疑问句。结果表明:在一定程度上保留人称代词缺省是必要的,因为这是创作意识与接受意识的桥梁。%In order to preserve for TL readers imagination space from personal pronoun default in clas-sical Chinese poetry,analyses,based on literature review and comparison,were made of its English translation principle of "impersonal view of universal things " and corresponding strategies: impersonal expression,figure of speech,noun phrase,non-finite verb,passive voice and interrogative sentence.The results show that it is necessary to reserve personal pronoun default in English translation of classical Chinese poetry because it bridges creation intention and reception consciousness.

  9. Genomics in personalized cancer medicine and its impact on early drug development in China:report from the 6th Annual Meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) at the 50th ASCO Annual Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Shi-Yuan Cheng; Li-Fang Hou; Li Yan; Yun-Guang Tong


    The 6th Annual Meeting of the United States Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) was held in conjunction with the 50th Annual Meeting of American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) on May 30, 2014 in Chicago, Illinois, the United States of America. With a focus on personalized medicine, the conference featured novel approaches to investigate genomic aberrations in cancer cells and innovative clinical trial designs to expedite cancer drug development in biomarker-defined patient populations. A panel discussion further provided in-depth advice on advancing development of personalized cancer medicines in China. The conference also summarized USCACA key initiatives and accomplishments, including two awards designated to recognize young investigators from China for their achievements and to support their training in the United States. As an effort to promote international col aboration, USCACA wil team up with Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) to host a joint session on“Breakthrough Cancer Medicines”at the upcoming CSCO Annual Meeting on September 20th, 2014 in Xiamen, China.

  10. Associations Between Personality Traits and Adherence to Antidepressants Assessed Through Self-Report, Electronic Monitoring, and Pharmacy Dispensing Data: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya F H; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R; Egberts, Antoine C G; Gardarsdottir, Helga


    Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality "traits." Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed by a single method. Hence, we investigated associations between the Big Five personality traits and adherence assessed by self-report, electronic drug use monitoring, and dispensing data. Using the Big Five Inventory, we assessed the personality traits "openness," "conscientiousness," "extraversion," "agreeableness," and "neuroticism" of patients treated with antidepressants who were invited through community pharmacies. Self-reported adherence was assessed with the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (score >24), electronic monitoring with medication event monitoring system (MEMS) devices (therapy days missed ≤ 10% and personality traits, the third and fourth quartiles of "conscientiousness" were associated with better self-reported adherence (odds ratio, 3.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-9.86 and odds ratio, 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-8.08; P ≤ 0.05). No relationships were found between personality traits and adherence assessed through electronic drug use monitoring or dispensing data. We therefore conclude that adherence to antidepressant therapy seems to be largely unrelated to personality traits.

  11. The Factorial Structure Study of the Positive Personality Traits Questionnaire for Chinese College Students%积极人格特质问卷PPTQ在中国大学生中的因素结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙妍; 郑静; 胡朝兵


    The factorial structure of Positive Personality Traits Questionnaire (PPTQ) in a sample of Chinese college students is explored. A total of 648 college students are recruited for this study;half of the samples are used for exploratory factor analysis and the others for confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis shows positive self image, extraversion and culture identification. The results of confirmatory factor analysis (χ2/df=2.230, GFI=0.841, AGFI=0.816, CFI=0.822, RMSEA=0.062) indicates that this model provides a reasonable good fit for Chinese college students. The study indicates that the three-factor model of PPTQ is adaptable to Chinese college students.%  探索积极人格特质问卷(PPTQ)在中国大学生中的因素结构。采用积极人格特质问卷(Positive Personality Traits Questionnaire)中文版,对648名大学生施测,对其中一半数据使用PASWStatistics18进行探索性因素分析,另一半数据使用AMOS16.0进行验证性因素分析(CFA)。探索性因素分析得出积极自我意象、外向性和文化认同三因素结构。累计解释率为50.457%,验证性因素分析结果显示:χ2/df=2.230,GFI=0.841。AGFI=0.816,CFI=0.822,RMSEA=0.062,中文版三因素结构在中国大学生人群中较为合理。

  12. Validation of the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale in a Sample of Chinese University Students (United States)

    Ye, Shengquan


    The study aims at validating the Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale (TSWLS; Pavot et al., 1998, "The Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale", Journal of Personality Assessment 70, pp. 340-354) in a non-western context. Data from 646 Chinese university students (330 females and 316 males) supported the three-factor structure of the TSWLS.…

  13. 个人信息犯罪的刑法规制--以内地和澳门为比较%Criminal Regulation of Personal Information---Comparative Research on Chinese Mainland and Macau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Criminal law attribute serious infringement of personal information behavior to crime, showing the im-portance of personal characteristics, economic value and social attributes in personal information.Personal infor-mation crime legislation is established and optimized through two amendments in mainland China, and mean-while, as a part of China, Macau has its unique legal culture due to influence by the Portuguese legislation in a long history.The Personal Data Protection Law of Macau provides specialized and systematic legal basis in the area of personal information protection.Based on comparative research, Chinese mainland could learn lessons of advanced legislative experience from Macau, such as legislation model, regulation method and prosecuting mechanism.%刑法将严重侵犯个人信息的行为予以犯罪化,表明了个人信息包含的人身特性、经济价值和社会属性的重要性。中国内地通过两部刑法修正案确立和优化了个人信息犯罪立法,澳门因深受葡萄牙立法影响而具有独特法律品格。《澳门个人资料保护法》作为澳门规制个人信息犯罪的主要依据,为澳门个人信息安全提供了专门性和体系性的法律保护。通过比较研究,内地可在立法模式、规制方式和追诉机制方面借鉴澳门的有益立法经验。

  14. Comparison of passive and active radon measurement methods for personal occupational dose assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanzadeh Elham


    Full Text Available To compare the performance of the active short-term and passive long-term radon measurement methods, a study was carried out in several closed spaces, including a uranium mine in Iran. For the passive method, solid-state nuclear track detectors based on Lexan polycarbonate were utilized, for the active method, AlphaGUARD. The study focused on the correlation between the results obtained for estimating the average indoor radon concentrations and consequent personal occupational doses in various working places. The repeatability of each method was investigated, too. In addition, it was shown that the radon concentrations in different stations of the continually ventilated uranium mine were comparable to the ground floor laboratories or storage rooms (without continual ventilation and lower than underground laboratories.

  15. The Adjective Check List as an outcome measure: assessment of personality change in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Itzhar-Nabarro, Zohar; Silberschatz, George; Curtis, John T


    To investigate the value of the Adjective Check List (ACL) as a psychotherapy outcome measure, the ACL and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) were administered at four times (before therapy, immediately after therapy, and at 6-month and 1-year follow-ups) to 38 patients in brief dynamic psychotherapy. High correlations between selected ACL scales and SCL-90-R Global Severity Index scores (GSI) were found. GSI change from before to after therapy correlated with change on the ACL scales. Changes from before to after therapy were detected for ACL scales at both the mean group and the individual levels. Because the ACL provides valuable information on personality dimensions as well as concurrent levels of distress, it is a particularly promising psychotherapy outcome measure.

  16. Personality assessment in personnel selection using the MMPI-2: A cross-cultural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zapata-Sola


    Full Text Available El Inventario de Personalidad Multifásico de Minnesota -2 (MMPI-2 es el más ampliamente utilizado y estudiado en el contexto de la evaluación de la personalidad en selección de personal. Este estudio instrumental se ha ocupado de comparar la utilización del MMPI-2 en la evaluación de empleados hispanohablantes con la ejecución de los empleados anglosajones. Una muestra de 332 reparadores e instaladores de líneas eléctricas puertorriqueños a la que se administró el test en español fue comparada con otra muestra de de 327 empleados anglosajones en los Estados Unidos. La ejecución general en MMPI-2 de ambos grupos de participantes fue altamente parecida y se encontró dentro del rango normal con la mayoría de las escalas dentro del error estándar de la medida. Algunas escalas, tales como la escala de la Mentira (L mostraron pequeñas diferencias, ya que los hispanos puntuaron más alto que los anglosajones, lo cual ya se había encontrado en otros estudios. Las puntuaciones en escalas de síntomas del MMPI-2 en los hispanos son generalmente parecidas a las de los anglosajones y no requieren ajustes en las estrategias de interpretación. En selección de personal, donde la defensividad en una prueba es común, los interpretadores necesitan asegurarse que la puntuación del solicitante en la escala L esté dentro del rango de interpretación.

  17. Objective and Personalized Longitudinal Assessment of a Pregnant Patient with Post Severe Brain Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B Torres


    Full Text Available Background: Following severe trauma to the brain (whether internally generated by seizures, tumors or externally caused by collision with or penetration of objects individuals may experience initial coma state followed by slow recovery and rehabilitation treatment. At present there is no objective biometric to track the daily progression of the person for extended periods of time.Objective: We introduce new analytical techniques to process data from physically wearable sensors and help track the longitudinal progression of motions and physiological states upon the brain trauma. Settings and Participant: The data used to illustrate the methods were collected at the hospital settings from a pregnant patient in coma state. The patient had brain trauma from a large debilitating seizure due to a large tumor in the right pre-frontal lobe.Main Measures: We registered the wrist motions and the surface-skin-temperature across several daily sessions in four consecutive months. A new statistical technique is introduced for personalized analyses of the rates of change of the stochastic signatures of these patterns.Results: We detected asymmetries in the wrists’ data that identified in the dominant limb critical points of change in physiological and motor control states. These patterns could blindly identify the time preceding the baby’s delivery by C-section when the patient systematically brought her dominant hand to her abdominal area. Changes in temperature were sharp and accompanied by systematic changes in the statistics of the motions that rendered her dominant wrist’s micro-movements more systematically reliable and predictable than those of the non-dominant wrist.Conclusions: The new analytics paired with wearable sensing technology may help track the day-by-day individual progression of a patient with post brain trauma in clinical settings and in the home environment.

  18. Non-suicidal self-injury (Nssi in adolescent inpatients: assessing personality features and attitude toward death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrara Mauro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is a common concern among hospitalized adolescents, and can have significant implications for short and long-term prognosis. Little research has been devoted on how personality features in severely ill adolescents interact with NSSI and "attitude toward life and death" as a dimension of suicidality. Developing more specific assessment methodologies for adolescents who engage in self-harm without suicidal intent is relevant given the recent proposal of a non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI disorder and may be useful in predicting risk in psychiatrically impaired subjects. Methods Consecutively hospitalized adolescents in a psychiatric unit (N = 52; 71% females; age 12-19 years, reporting at least one recent episode of self-harm according to the Deliberate Self-harm Inventory, were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Mental Disorders and Personality Disorders (SCID I and II, the Children's Depression Inventory and the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale (MAST. Results Mean age onset of NSSI in the sample was 12.3 years. All patients showed "repetitive" NSSI (high frequency of self-harm, covering different modalities. Results revealed that 63.5% of adolescents met criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD and that the rest of the sample also met criteria for personality disorders with dysregulated traits. History of suicide attempts was present in 46.1% of cases. Elevated depressive traits were found in 53.8%. Results show a statistically significant negative correlation between the score on the "Attraction to Life" subscale of the MAST and the frequency and diversification of self-harming behaviors. Conclusions Most adolescent inpatients with NSSI met criteria for emotionally dysregulated personality disorders, and showed a reduced "attraction to life" disposition and significant depressive symptoms. This peculiar psychopathological configuration must be addressed in the

  19. Core personal competencies important to entering students' success in medical school: what are they and how could they be assessed early in the admission process? (United States)

    Koenig, Thomas W; Parrish, Samuel K; Terregino, Carol A; Williams, Joy P; Dunleavy, Dana M; Volsch, Joseph M


    Assessing applicants' personal competencies in the admission process has proven difficult because there is not an agreed-on set of personal competencies for entering medical students. In addition, there are questions about the measurement properties and costs of currently available assessment tools. The Association of American Medical College's Innovation Lab Working Group (ILWG) and Admissions Initiative therefore engaged in a multistep, multiyear process to identify personal competencies important to entering students' success in medical school as well as ways to measure them early in the admission process. To identify core personal competencies, they conducted literature reviews, surveyed U.S and Canadian medical school admission officers, and solicited input from the admission community. To identify tools with the potential to provide data in time for pre-interview screening, they reviewed the higher education and employment literature and evaluated tools' psychometric properties, group differences, risk of coaching/faking, likely applicant and admission officer reactions, costs, and scalability. This process resulted in a list of nine core personal competencies rated by stakeholders as very or extremely important for entering medical students: ethical responsibility to self and others; reliability and dependability; service orientation; social skills; capacity for improvement; resilience and adaptability; cultural competence; oral communication; and teamwork. The ILWG's research suggests that some tools hold promise for assessing personal competencies, but the authors caution that none are perfect for all situations. They recommend that multiple tools be used to evaluate information about applicants' personal competencies in deciding whom to interview.

  20. A Study of the Relationship between Tutor's Personality and Teaching Effectiveness: Does Culture Make a Difference? (United States)

    Chan, Bobbie


    The Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory was completed by 59 Hong Kong open university tutors who had completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Results were compared with student evaluations of teaching, indicating that Renqing (social favors), face, harmony, and leadership predicted teaching effectiveness. Facets derived from Chinese…