WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinese patent medicine

  1. DNA based identification of medicinal materials in Chinese patent medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Chen; Juan Dong; Xin Cui; Wei Wang; Afshan Yasmeen; Yun Deng; Xiaomao Zeng; Zhuo Tang

    2012-01-01

    Chinese patent medicines (CPM) are highly processed and easy to use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The market for CPM in China alone is tens of billions US dollars annually and some of the CPM are also used as dietary supplements for health augmentation in the western countries. But concerns continue to be raised about the legality, safety and efficacy of many popular CPM. Here we report a pioneer work of applying molecular biotechnology to the identification of CPM, particularly well re...

  2. [Treatment of senile diseases should prescribe Chinese patent medicine scientifically].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Xiang

    2014-04-01

    Treatment of senile diseases by Chinese patent medicine should prescribe according to physiological and pathological specialty of the aged. It's necessary for treatment according to syndrome differentiation associating with the disease,reasonable combination of drugs avoiding adverse reactions,gentle medicine character but not fierce,small medicine quantity but not great, the use of Chinese patent medicine mild and tonic used properly but not excessively. PMID:24812911

  3. DNA based identification of medicinal materials in Chinese patent medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Dong, Juan; Cui, Xin; Wang, Wei; Yasmeen, Afshan; Deng, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao; Tang, Zhuo

    2012-12-01

    Chinese patent medicines (CPM) are highly processed and easy to use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The market for CPM in China alone is tens of billions US dollars annually and some of the CPM are also used as dietary supplements for health augmentation in the western countries. But concerns continue to be raised about the legality, safety and efficacy of many popular CPM. Here we report a pioneer work of applying molecular biotechnology to the identification of CPM, particularly well refined oral liquids and injections. What's more, this PCR based method can also be developed to an easy to use and cost-effective visual chip by taking advantage of G-quadruplex based Hybridization Chain Reaction. This study demonstrates that DNA identification of specific Medicinal materials is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed CPM and will assist in monitoring their quality and legality.

  4. Effects of Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine on Essential Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Xingjiang; WANG, PENGQIAN; Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Xiaoke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) is widely used for essential hypertension (EH) in China. However, there is no critically appraised evidence, such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses, regarding the potential benefits and disadvantages of TCPM to justify their clinical use and recommendation. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate and meta-analyze the effects of TCPM for EH. Seven databases, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge...

  5. [Summary and analysis of safety warning on clinical application of anti-cold Chinese patent medicine preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiao-xiao; Lin, Hua; Luo, Yi-ni; Wang, Ying-yan; Duan, Xiao-hong; Wang, Lin; Luo, Rui; Chen, Yan-hong

    2015-04-01

    In China, many surveys have shown that most people do not have a correct understanding about cold and administration of anti-cold Chinese patent medicine preparations. The author conducted a systematic summary and analysis on the actual application of anti-cold Chinese patent medicine preparations as well as the warning on safe application of anti-cold Chinese patent medicine preparations in Clinical Medication Information of China Pharmacopoeia, in the expectation of reducing the blind application of anti-cold Chinese patent medicine preparations and providing traditional Chinese medicine pharmacists new ideas in monitoring the safe application of exterior syndrome-relieving Chinese patent medicine preparations. PMID:26281605

  6. [Analyses on positive influence of harmonous development of traditional Chinese medicine compounds' researchs and patent protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xujie; Xiao, Shiying; Guo, Zan; Wang, Zhimin; You, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Current patent protection of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds is far from being satisfactory with increasing research and development achievements. As patent protection of traditional Chinese medicine compounds is closely related with many fields such as research and development of new TCM drugs, industrial development and TCM internationalization, the development of research and harmonious development of TCM compounds and their patent protection is bound to have a far-reaching influence on domestic and even international societies. PMID:22741453

  7. [Application of ultrasound counter currentextraction in patent of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yan-ni; Wu, Bin; Yue, Xue-lian

    2015-07-01

    The patent information of ultrasound countercurrent extraction used in traditional Chinese medicine was analyzed in this paper by the samples from Derwent World Patent Database (DWPI) and the Chinese Patent Abstracts Database (CNABS). The application of ultrasound countercurrent was discussed with the patent applicant,the amount of the annual distribution, and the pharmaceutical raw materials and other aspects. While the technical parameters published in the patent was deeply analyzed, such as material crushing, extraction solvent, extraction time and temperature, extraction equipment and ultrasonic frequency. Thought above research, various technical parameters of ultrasound countercurrent extraction used in traditional Chinese was summarize. The analysis conclusion of the paper can be used in discovering the technical advantages, optimizing extraction conditions, and providing a reference to extraction technological innovation of traditional Chinese medicine.

  8. [Application of ultrasound counter currentextraction in patent of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yan-ni; Wu, Bin; Yue, Xue-lian

    2015-07-01

    The patent information of ultrasound countercurrent extraction used in traditional Chinese medicine was analyzed in this paper by the samples from Derwent World Patent Database (DWPI) and the Chinese Patent Abstracts Database (CNABS). The application of ultrasound countercurrent was discussed with the patent applicant,the amount of the annual distribution, and the pharmaceutical raw materials and other aspects. While the technical parameters published in the patent was deeply analyzed, such as material crushing, extraction solvent, extraction time and temperature, extraction equipment and ultrasonic frequency. Thought above research, various technical parameters of ultrasound countercurrent extraction used in traditional Chinese was summarize. The analysis conclusion of the paper can be used in discovering the technical advantages, optimizing extraction conditions, and providing a reference to extraction technological innovation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:26666026

  9. The compatibility of patent law and traditional Chinese medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yifu; 陈一孚

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a medical system with a unique medical philosophy that continues to guide the contemporary turning out of new pharmaceutical formulae. The clinically-proved effective components of these formulae are being extracted by means of modern technology. Natural Chinese medicines account for approximately 30% of the global sales volume of all medicines, and the international market-size of the TCM industry is increasing rapidly. The TCM industry depends on the p...

  10. Effects of Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine on Essential Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Xiaoke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) is widely used for essential hypertension (EH) in China. However, there is no critically appraised evidence, such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses, regarding the potential benefits and disadvantages of TCPM to justify their clinical use and recommendation. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate and meta-analyze the effects of TCPM for EH. Seven databases, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database, were searched from their inception to August 2014 for relevant studies that compared one TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs alone. The methodological quality of the included trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The primary outcome measures were mortality or progression to severe complications and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures were blood pressure (BP) and quality of life (QOL). Seventy-three trials, which included 8138 patients, on 17 TCPMs were included. In general, the methodological quality was low. Two trials evaluated the effects of TCPMs on mortality and the progression to severe complications after treatment, and no significant difference was identified compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. No severe adverse events were reported. Thirteen TCPMs used in complementary therapy significantly decreased systolic BP by 3.94 to 13.50 mmHg and diastolic BP by 2.28 to 11.25 mmHg. QOL was significantly improved by TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. This systematic review provided the first classification of clinical evidence for the effectiveness of TCPM for EH. The usage of TCPMs for EH was supported by evidence of class level III. As a result of the methodological drawbacks of the included studies, more rigorously designed randomized

  11. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus oral Chinese patent medicine literature metrology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tong-hua; Li, Yuan-yuan

    2012-09-01

    The CBM, CNKI database 1979-2012 included oral Chinese patent medicine treatment diabetes literature, and the literature published time, periodical distribution, sources of literature and statistical analysis, to explore the treatment of type 2 diabetes medicine clinical literature distribution law and development trend, as in diabetes research related to the clinical and scientific research personnel to provide reference. PMID:23236770

  12. [Application characteristics and situation analysis of volatile oils in database of Chinese patent medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ming; Wang, Ya-Qi; Hu, Peng-Yi; Jie, Xiao-Lu; Han, Fei; Wang, Fang

    2014-09-01

    Aromatic traditional Chinese medicines have a long history in China, with wide varieties. Volatile oils are active ingredients extracted from aromatic herbal medicines, which usually contain tens or hundreds of ingredients, with many biological activities. Therefore, volatile oils are often used in combined prescriptions and made into various efficient preparations for oral administration or external use. Based on the sources from the database of Newly Edited National Chinese Traditional Patent Medicines (the second edition), the author selected 266 Chinese patent medicines containing volatile oils in this paper, and then established an information sheet covering such items as name, dosage, dosage form, specification and usage, and main functions. Subsequently, on the basis of the multidisciplinary knowledge of pharmaceutics, traditional Chinese pharmacology and basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, efforts were also made in the statistics of the dosage form and usage, variety of volatile oils and main functions, as well as the status analysis on volatile oils in terms of the dosage form development, prescription development, drug instruction and quality control, in order to lay a foundation for the further exploration of the market development situations of volatile oils and the future development orientation. PMID:25522633

  13. [Establish research model of post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen-ke; Liu, Zhi; Lei, Xiang; Tian, Ran; Zheng, Rui; Li, Nan; Ren, Jing-tian; Du, Xiao-xi; Shang, Hong-cai

    2015-09-01

    The safety of Chinese patent medicine has become a focus of social. It is necessary to carry out work on post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine. However, there have no criterions to guide the related research, it is urgent to set up a model and method to guide the practice for related research. According to a series of clinical research, we put forward some views, which contained clear and definite the objective and content of clinical safety evaluation, the work flow should be determined, make a list of items for safety evaluation project, and put forward the three level classification of risk control. We set up a model of post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine. Based this model, the list of items can be used for ranking medicine risks, and then take steps for different risks, aims to lower the app:ds:risksrisk level. At last, the medicine can be managed by five steps in sequence. The five steps are, collect risk signal, risk recognition, risk assessment, risk management, and aftereffect assessment. We hope to provide new ideas for the future research. PMID:26983223

  14. Several considerations in using traditional Chinese patent medicine for cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Kwon, Yihyun; Li, Chao; Zhang, Xue-Qi; Zhao, Jian-Guo

    2012-08-01

    Nowadays, a great number of traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) are used more and more widely to treat cerebral infarction in China. When great attention is paid to using TCPM in the real world, several problems can be identified: ignoring the Chinese medicine (CM) therapeutic principle based on syndrome differentiation, a lack of appropriate dosage and usage based on individual patient conditions, and a shortage of evidence from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Furthermore, in terms of evaluation of the TCPM effectiveness, few comprehensive criteria and evaluation methods recognized by the international community exist. This article addresses some opinions regarding the above mentioned problems. PMID:22855032

  15. [Strategy and core technologies for the secondary development of Chinese patent medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhagn, Bo-Li; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yang; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Chegn, Yi-Yu

    2013-11-01

    Secondary development of Chinese Patent Medicine (CPM) is an effective and innovation-driven way for the leaping development of Chinese medicine industry with less investment and faster return. Aim to improving the efficacy, safety and batch-to-batch consistency of CPMs, the theory and methodology for the secondary development of CPMs, mode for cultivating superior CPM, approaches to reforming the pharmaceutical technology and the corresponding core technologies were proposed in this paper, which is summarized as 'One objective, Three analyses, Five definitudes and Seven improvements'. PMID:24558853

  16. Huangqi Injection (a Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine) for Chronic Heart Failure: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shufei Fu; Junhua Zhang; Francesca Menniti-Ippolito; Xiumei Gao; Francesca Galeotti; Marco Massari; Limin Hu; Boli Zhang; Rita Ferrelli; Alice Fauci; Fabio Firenzuoli; Hongcai Shang; Ranieri Guerra; Roberto Raschetti

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a global public health problem. Therefore, novel and effective drugs that show few side-effects are needed. Early literature studies indicated that Huangqi injection is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese patent medicines for CHF in China. As a large number of clinical studies has been carried out and published, it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Huangqi injection. Therefore, we carried out this systematic revie...

  17. [Research on collaborative innovation in traditional Chinese medicine of China based on patent cooperation network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Chen, Xiang-dong

    2015-03-01

    In the situation of global completion, collaborative innovation is becoming increasingly important because its advantage in risk avoiding and innovation efficiency. In order to explore the model of collaborative innovation and its evolution in traditional Chinese medicine of China, the cooperation in traditional Chinese medicine patents of China from 1985 to 2013 has been analyzed by using the method of scientometrics and social network analysis. It is proved that, though the number of grated cooperative patents has increased sharply during the last thirty years, the degree of cooperation innovation in traditional Chinese medicine of China is still not high. Moreover, in spite of the individual subject' s leading role in the past domestic collaborative innovation in traditional Chinese medicine of China, the institutions have been more and more powerful and achieved great improvement. At last, core institutions, represented by universities have played an important role in the collaborative innovation of domestic institutions, because they are key links between many institutions and promote the transferring and diffusion of knowledge. PMID:26226773

  18. Traditional Chinese patent medicines for cancer treatment in China: a nationwide medical insurance data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Min; Lu, Peng; Shi, Luwen; Li, Shao

    2015-01-01

    Based on the nationwide survey into inpatients' utilization of the health service covered by China's urban basic medical insurance from 2008 to 2010, we analyzed the use rate, cancer profile and combined use of anticancer Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) on 51,382 insured cancer patients by using statistical, bi-clustering and network methods. We found that 42.4% of 51,382 cancer patients used 33 anticancer CPMs, and 51.7% used 71 anticancer Western medicines (WMs). The CPMs were most often us...

  19. Analysis of drugs illegally added into Chinese traditional patent medicine using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Huang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Wenfang; Cheng, Zeneng; Chen, Chuanpin; Yin, Lihui

    2013-01-01

    Illegal chemicals, which could cause unpredictable side effects, may be added into traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for a rapid healing effect. In this report, a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) analysis method for five kinds of illegally added drugs (rosiglitazone maleate, phenformin hydrochloride, metformin hydrochloride, pioglitazone hydrochloride and sibutramine hydrochloride) in Chinese traditional patent medicine (CTPM) has been demonstrated, including simultaneous detections of drug mixtures with CTPM. Silver colloidal, prepared by a sodium citrate reaction, was used as a SERS substrate. The optimum pH condition for each drug has also been explored because of its combined effect on protonation, surface charge, repulsion of an analyte and nanoparticles. Furthermore, the simultaneous detection of two or three kinds of these chemicals has been carried out. Characteristic peaks are employed for qualitative analysis. This is the first research using SERS for the analysis of drug mixtures in CTPM without any separation process. PMID:24107564

  20. [Discussion about risk and management of Chinese patent medicine with double identity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yun; Wu, Sai-wei; Gao, Xing-wang; Xu, Dan-hua; Zhai, Yong-song

    2015-06-01

    Chinese patent medicine with double identity was a special phenomenon, and many preparations not only were prescription drugs but also over the counter ( OTC) drugs, which brought a lot of trouble. Based on statistics of list of OTC medicines of CFDA, related varieties, route of administration and functions of these drugs were searched. The causes of insufficient were analyzed and the potential risk was investigated. To ensure the safety of drug usage for the patient, risk management system should be set up by improving the technical requirements for registration, improving the drug labels and manuals, playing the role of pharmacists in pharmacy services and raising awareness of doctor and patient for these drugs. PMID:26552190

  1. [Industry of traditional Chinese patent medicine science and technology development and review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianwei; Wang, Fang; Yan, Dongmei; Luo, Yun; Yang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Fifteen" since, our country Chinese traditional medicine industry science and technology has made remarkable achievements. In this paper, the development of science and technology policy, Chinese medicine industry, platform construction and other aspects were analyzed, showing 10 years of Chinese traditional medicine industry development of science and technology innovation achievement and development, and on the current development of traditional Chinese medicine industry facing the main tasks and guarantee measures are analyzed. PMID:22741452

  2. 我院中成药应用分析%Application analysis of Chinese patent medicine in our hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞国丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价本院中成药应用的现状和发展中存在的问题。方法对本院门诊所使用的中成药的金额、数量、种类进行统计分析。结果本院门诊应用的中成药占药品使用的比例很大,以清热类药居多(48.9%),其次为活血化瘀类(24.5%)和止血类(11.0%)。总体使用规范,但仍存在一些不合理现象。结论提高中成药疗效,规范合理使用中成药需全院全社会共同努力。%Objective To evaluate the problems in current condition and development of Chinese patent medicine application in our hospital.Methods The statistical analysis was made on the consumption sum, quantity, and category of Chinese patent medicine in outpatient service of our hospital.Results Chinese patent medicine accounted for a large proportion in outpatient drug use in our hospital, with a majority of heat-clearing drugs (48.9%) following by promoting circulation and removing stasis drugs (24.5%) and hemostasis drugs (11.0%). The application was basically standard with a few of irrational phenomena.Conclusion Improving the curative effect of Chinese patent medicine and standardizing the rational use of Chinese patent medicine require the concerted efforts in the hospital and society.

  3. Huangqi injection (a traditional Chinese patent medicine for chronic heart failure: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufei Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (CHF is a global public health problem. Therefore, novel and effective drugs that show few side-effects are needed. Early literature studies indicated that Huangqi injection is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese patent medicines for CHF in China. As a large number of clinical studies has been carried out and published, it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Huangqi injection. Therefore, we carried out this systematic review under the support of the framework of the Joint Sino-Italian Laboratory (JoSIL. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Huangqi injection for CHF according to the available scientific knowledge. METHODS: An extensive search including PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, the Cochrane Library and Chinese literature databases was performed up to July 2008. Clinical trials regarding Huangqi injection for the treatment of CHF were searched for, irrespective of languages. The quality of each trial was assessed according to the Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook 5.0, and RevMan 5.0 provided by the Cochrane Collaboration and STATA 9.2 were used for data analysis. RESULTS: After selection of 1,205 articles, 62 RCTs and quasi-RCTs conducted in China and published in Chinese journals were included in the review. The methodological quality of the trials was low. In most trials inclusion and exclusion criteria were not specified. Furthermore, only one study evaluated the outcomes for drug efficacy after an adequate period of time. For these reasons and because of the different baseline characteristics we did not conduct a meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Although available studies are not adequate to draw a conclusion on the efficacy and safety of Huangqi injection (a traditional Chinese patent medicine, we hope that our work could provide useful experience on further studies on Huangqi injections. The overall level of TCM clinical research needs to be improved so that the efficacy of

  4. Estimation of bioaccessibility and potential human health risk of mercury in Chinese patent medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihong; Zhang, Yu; Yun, Zhaojun; He, Bin; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), mainly in cinnabar species, has been used in medicine for thousands of years in China, and worldwide concern has been raised on its toxicity. In this work, the amount of bioaccessible mercury in 16 Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) was measured by using an in vitro simulated digestion system, consisting of simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, to investigate the bioavailability of mercury in CPMs and evaluate its potential risk to human health. Total mercury and mercury in the gastrointestinal extracts were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The levels of total Hg in 16 CPMs ranged from not detected to 11.89 mg/g, with a mean value of 1.13 mg/g, while the extractable Hg ranged from not detected to 4.37 μg/g, with a mean value of 0.42 μg/g. Mercury bioaccessibility varied significantly in the investigated CPMs, depending on the ingredient. Compared to the CPMs without cinnabar (2.5%-30.9%), the percentage of mercury in the gastrointestinal supernatants for CPMs with cinnabar was quite a bit lower (0.037%). By comparing with the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (FAO/WHO) safety guideline, the average daily intake dose (ADD) of Hg in the medicines was then calculated to access the risk of mercury to human health from taking CPMs. PMID:26899642

  5. Shengmai Injection, a Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine, for Intradialytic Hypotension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-yang Chen; Ling-yan Lu; Peng Chen; Kang-ting Ji; Jia-feng Lin; Peng-lin Yang; Ji-fei Tang; Yan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a global public health problem. A rising number of IDH sufferers resort to Chinese patent medicine, Shengmai Injection (SMI) in China. The objectives of present study are to assess the effectiveness and safety of SMI as an adjunct therapy for IDH. A systematic search of 6 medical databases was performed up to December 2011. Randomized trials involving SMI adjuvant therapy versus conventional therapy were identified. RevMan 5.0 was used for data analysis. Ten...

  6. Innovative Strategy in Treating Angina Pectoris with Chinese Patent Medicines by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis: Experience from Combination Therapy in Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Moreover, angina pectoris is one of the most important types of CHD. Therefore, prevention and effective treatment of angina pectoris is of utmost importance in both China and western countries. However, undesirable effects of antianginal therapy do influence treatment adherence to a certain extent. Therefore, it's not surprising that, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including Chinese medicine (CM), are widely welcomed among patients with CHD, hoping that it might complement western medicine. In our previous studies, blood stasis syndrome (BSS) (Xueyu Zheng) was the main syndrome (Zheng-hou) of angina pectoris. Currently, China Food and Drug Administration authoritatively recommended more than 200 Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) as complementary or adjunctive therapies for symptom management and enhancing quality of life along with mainstream care on angina pectoris management in mainland China. This paper reviewed 4 kinds of most frequently-used CPMs by promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in the treatment of angina pectoris. It aims to evaluate the current evidence of CPMs in combination therapy for angina pectoris. This review indicated that CPMs as adjunctive treatment to routine antianginal therapy play an active role in reducing the incidence of primary endpoint events, decreasing anginal attack rate, and improving electrocardiogram. Additionally, CPMs have been proven relatively safe. Further rigorously designed clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the results. PMID:25360837

  7. Effects of traditional Chinese patent medicine on essential hypertension: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Xiaoke

    2015-02-01

    Traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) is widely used for essential hypertension (EH) in China. However, there is no critically appraised evidence, such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses, regarding the potential benefits and disadvantages of TCPM to justify their clinical use and recommendation. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate and meta-analyze the effects of TCPM for EH. Seven databases, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database, were searched from their inception to August 2014 for relevant studies that compared one TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs alone. The methodological quality of the included trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The primary outcome measures were mortality or progression to severe complications and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures were blood pressure (BP) and quality of life (QOL). Seventy-three trials, which included 8138 patients, on 17 TCPMs were included. In general, the methodological quality was low. Two trials evaluated the effects of TCPMs on mortality and the progression to severe complications after treatment, and no significant difference was identified compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. No severe adverse events were reported. Thirteen TCPMs used in complementary therapy significantly decreased systolic BP by 3.94 to 13.50 mmHg and diastolic BP by 2.28 to 11.25 mmHg. QOL was significantly improved by TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. This systematic review provided the first classification of clinical evidence for the effectiveness of TCPM for EH. The usage of TCPMs for EH was supported by evidence of class level III. As a result of the methodological drawbacks of the included studies, more rigorously designed randomized controlled trials

  8. [Method of traditional Chinese medicine formula design based on 3D-database pharmacophore search and patent retrieval].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-su; Sun, Zhi-yi; Zhang, Yan-ling

    2014-11-01

    By using the pharmacophore model of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists as a starting point, the experiment stud- ies the method of traditional Chinese medicine formula design for anti-hypertensive. Pharmacophore models were generated by 3D-QSAR pharmacophore (Hypogen) program of the DS3.5, based on the training set composed of 33 mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. The best pharmacophore model consisted of two Hydrogen-bond acceptors, three Hydrophobic and four excluded volumes. Its correlation coefficient of training set and test set, N, and CAI value were 0.9534, 0.6748, 2.878, and 1.119. According to the database screening, 1700 active compounds from 86 source plant were obtained. Because of lacking of available anti-hypertensive medi cation strategy in traditional theory, this article takes advantage of patent retrieval in world traditional medicine patent database, in order to design drug formula. Finally, two formulae was obtained for antihypertensive. PMID:25850277

  9. [An introduction of Zuotai in Tibetan patent medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Zhao-Ben

    2013-05-01

    Zuotai is an essential part in Tibetan patent medicine, which plays an important role in treating diseases. This paper introduced the invention, preparing process, use, effectiveness, and safety of Zuotai, aimed to provide an insight for traditional Chinese medicine when using heavy mental within Chinese patent medicine. PMID:23947151

  10. Chinese Patent Medicine Tongxinluo Capsule for Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo capsule for hypertension. Search Strategy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, The PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database (CBM, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data started from the first of database to October 28, 2013. No language restriction was applied. We included randomized clinical trials testing Tongxinluo capsule against western medicine, Tongxinluo capsule versus placebo, and Tongxinluo capsule combined with western medicine versus western medicine. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. 25 trials with 1958 participants were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. The blood pressure (BP lowering effect of Tongxinluo capsule plus western medicine was significantly higher than that of western medicine (systolic blood pressure (SBP: −3.87, −5.32 to −2.41, P<0.00001; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP: −2.72, −4.19 to −1.24, P=0.0003. The BP also decreased significantly from baseline with Tongxinluo capsule than placebo (SBP: −9.40, −10.90 to −7.90, P<0.00001; and DBP: −11.80, −12.40 to −11.20, P<0.00001 or western medicine (SBP: −3.90, −4.93 to −2.87, P<0.00001; and DBP: −3.70, −3.83 to −3.57, P<0.00001. 12 trials reported adverse events without details. Conclusions. There is some but weak evidence about the effectiveness of TXL in treating patients with hypertension.

  11. Chinese patent medicine tongxinluo capsule for hypertension: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study was intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo capsule for hypertension. Search Strategy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, The PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data started from the first of database to October 28, 2013. No language restriction was applied. We included randomized clinical trials testing Tongxinluo capsule against western medicine, Tongxinluo capsule versus placebo, and Tongxinluo capsule combined with western medicine versus western medicine. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. 25 trials with 1958 participants were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. The blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of Tongxinluo capsule plus western medicine was significantly higher than that of western medicine (systolic blood pressure (SBP): -3.87, -5.32 to -2.41, P < 0.00001; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP): -2.72, -4.19 to -1.24, P = 0.0003). The BP also decreased significantly from baseline with Tongxinluo capsule than placebo (SBP: -9.40, -10.90 to -7.90, P < 0.00001; and DBP: -11.80, -12.40 to -11.20, P < 0.00001) or western medicine (SBP: -3.90, -4.93 to -2.87, P < 0.00001; and DBP: -3.70, -3.83 to -3.57, P < 0.00001). 12 trials reported adverse events without details. Conclusions. There is some but weak evidence about the effectiveness of TXL in treating patients with hypertension. PMID:24693319

  12. 门急诊含中成药处方点评调查分析%Investigation and Analysis on Comments of Prescriptions Containing Chinese Patent Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边原; 李晋奇; 杨勇; 李刚; 龙恩武; 肖洪涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the rationality situation in the use of Chinese patent medicines in the outpatient and emergency departments of a hospital to provide reference for using Chinese patent medicines reasonably. Methods All the prescriptions containing Chinese patent medicines in the first quarter of 2014 were extracted out by applying the PASS 2. 0 prescription comments system. Then the irrational prescriptions were screened out by the program predicting judgment. Finally,these prescriptions were performed the manual check one by one. Results Total 128 322 pieces of prescription contained the Chinese patent medicines,in which 1 277 pieces of prescriptions were irrational prescriptions The problems such as the non-standardized writing and irrational drug use existed. Conclusion The medical workers should enhance the professional knowledge learning of traditional Chinese medicine and increase the rational use level of Chinese patent medicines.%目的:调查分析某院门急诊中成药使用的合理情况,为医疗机构合理使用中成药提供参考。方法应用PASS 2.0处方点评系统调出2014年第1季度含中成药的全部处方,通过程序预判,先筛查出不合理处方,再对这些处方逐条进行人工核对。结果含有中成药的处方共128322张,其中不合格处方1277张,存在书写不规范、不合理用药等问题。结论医疗工作者应加强中医药专业知识的学习,提高中成药合理使用水平。

  13. 浅析中药纳米技术专利现状%Current status of nanotechnology patents in traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗金锐; 张贵峰; 郗砚彬

    2015-01-01

    随着中药现代化进程的推进,纳米技术在中药领域的应用也日益受到重视。本文简述了中药领域中药纳米技术的专利现状,指出我国中药知识产权保护意识薄弱;分析了中药纳米技术相关专利的发展特点和方向,指出应加强产学研结合,加快专利成果的产业化进程。%With the advancement of modernization in traditional Chinese medicine, the application of nanotechnology in traditional Chinese medicine has been paid increasing attention. This article outlines the current status of nanotechnology patents in traditional Chinese medicine, and indicates that the awareness of intellectual property rights protection in the field of traditional Chinese medicine has been weak in China. This article also analyzes the characteristics and directions of development of nanotechnology-related patents in traditional Chinese medicine, and points out that university-industry cooperation should be strengthened to accelerate the industrialization of the patents.

  14. Analysis of Clinical Application about 1 112 Prescriptions of Chinese Patent Medicine%1112张门诊中成药处方分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娟; 林晓兰; 李慧

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the prescriptions of Chinese patent medicine to promote rational use of drug.Method :1 112 preacriptions of Chinese patent medicine from February 2007 to January 2008 were analyzed with a retmspective analysis method. Result:90% of prescriptions of Chinese patent medicine were used by westem medicine doctors.38. 3% of prescriptions were prescribed to elderly patients. The existing problem of prescriptions of Chinese patent medicine were difference of the diagnosis and drug usage, unreasonable drug compatibility and over-dosage. Conclusion : Pharmacists should focus on the use of the Chinese patent medicine for elderly patients. Checking prescription play an important role in guiding rational use of drug very well.%目的:分析门诊中成药处方,为临床合理使用中成药提供依据.方法:采用回顾性方法,随机抽取宣武医院2007年门、急诊中成药处方1 112张,分析中成药临床应用情况及合理性.结果:90%中成药处方,由西医师开具;老年人使用中成药占到38.3%;中成药处方中存在诊断与用药不符、药品配伍不合理及处方超量等问题.结论:中药师需关注老年人用药;处方审核在临床医生(尤其西医)安全合理用药方面发挥积极作用.

  15. 广东省中成药制造业实施专利战略的SWOT分析%SWOT Analysis of Patent Strategy Implementation in the Manufacturing Industry of Chinese Patent Medicines in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任金玲; 冯毅翀; 程宾; 严艳; 潘华峰; 赵自明; 涂瑶生

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to analyze the environment and situation of patent strategy implementation of manufacturing industry of Chinese patent medicines in G uangdong province . This article pointed out that G uang-dong Chinese patent medicines manufacturing implementation patent strategy faced huge opportunities and chal-lenges. It was suggested that the fully understanding, mastering and using of beneficial conditions as well as con-trolling and eliminating the adverse factors will contribute to the better implementation of Chinese patent medicines manufacturing patent strategy in G uangdong province .%本文通过分析广东省中成药制造业实施专利战略的环境和形势,指出广东省中成药制造业在实施专利战略方面面临巨大的机遇和挑战,并建议应充分认识、掌握和发挥有利条件,控制和化解不利因素,使广东省中成药制造业更好地实施专利战略。

  16. Research and development of the effective components of panaxdiol saponin as new Chinese patent medicine for treating hemocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui-lan; Chong, Beng Hock

    2012-12-01

    Pancytopenia (hemocytopenia) such as pr imary immune primary thrombocytopenia (ITP), aplastic anemia and chronic neutropenia (agnogenic leukocytopenia) were of ten t reated by glucocor t icoids, androgen and often treated glucocorticoids, immunosuppressive agents at present, but the response to these treatments has not been always satisfactory, and may cause serious adverse events. Our research has identified a biological active component in ginseng extract and the active component, panaxadiol saponins component (PDS-C), was isolated from total saponins of ginsenosides, and formulated into capsules named as Painengda. We successfully obtained approval from State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of China in 2010 to conduct clinical trials of PDS-C as class-five new Chinese patent medicine. Phase I and phase II clinical trials of PDS-C and Painengda Capsule were carried out in the treatment of ITP and agnogenic leukocytopenia. The composition and content of PDS-C have been analyzed and defined by high-performance liquid chromatography-chromatographymass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and HPLC using specific monomers of ginsenosides as the reference standards. mass PDS-C is very efficacious for treating mice and rats with ITP and aplastic anemia, and myelosuppression caused by chemotherapy or radiation. Our animal model studies and cell biology and molecular biology experiments demonstrated that PDS-C possessed dual activities, namely that of promoting proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells, and that of regulating the immune function. PDS-C and Painengda Capsule as a new Chinese patent medicine have been successfully transferred to industry. We believe that PDS-C is effective and safe in the treatment of refractory hemocytopenia. The advantages are that it is effective in small doses, it is convenient to use because of its oral administration, its lack of adverse events, it could be used alone or in combination with pharmacological agents

  17. [Determination of five aflatoxins in Chinese patent medicines and medicinal herbs by immunoaffinity extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shen; Liu, Ying; Lu, Meiling; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Jinhua

    2011-07-01

    A method for the determination of five aflatoxins (B1 , B2, G1 , G2, M1 ) in Chinese patent medicines and medicinal herbs by immunoaffinity extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The samples were extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol-water solution, followed by stepwise purification using an immunoaffinity column. The target compounds were then eluted with methanol. The extract was filtered then analyzed. With the gradient elution using a binary mobile phase containing of 0.1% formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution and methanol, the five aflatoxins were separated on an UHPLC BEH C18 column, followed by positive electrospray ionization and multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) provided by a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. The limits of detection for the standard solution of aflatoxins ranged from 0.05-0.3 microg/L. The linear response was observed in the spiked concentration range of 0.5-100 microg/L with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The spiked recoveries were within 62.3%-82.4% at the spiked levels of 1.0 microg/kg and 5.0 microg/kg for all the five aflatoxins with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 10% (n = 6). The developed method is sensitive, accurate, and reproducible with the reasonable recoveries, and can be applied to the determination of the 5 aflatoxins in the Chinese traditional patent medicines, medicinal herbs as well as other similar complex matrices.

  18. [Determination of five aflatoxins in Chinese patent medicines and medicinal herbs by immunoaffinity extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shen; Liu, Ying; Lu, Meiling; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Jinhua

    2011-07-01

    A method for the determination of five aflatoxins (B1 , B2, G1 , G2, M1 ) in Chinese patent medicines and medicinal herbs by immunoaffinity extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The samples were extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol-water solution, followed by stepwise purification using an immunoaffinity column. The target compounds were then eluted with methanol. The extract was filtered then analyzed. With the gradient elution using a binary mobile phase containing of 0.1% formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution and methanol, the five aflatoxins were separated on an UHPLC BEH C18 column, followed by positive electrospray ionization and multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) provided by a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. The limits of detection for the standard solution of aflatoxins ranged from 0.05-0.3 microg/L. The linear response was observed in the spiked concentration range of 0.5-100 microg/L with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The spiked recoveries were within 62.3%-82.4% at the spiked levels of 1.0 microg/kg and 5.0 microg/kg for all the five aflatoxins with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 10% (n = 6). The developed method is sensitive, accurate, and reproducible with the reasonable recoveries, and can be applied to the determination of the 5 aflatoxins in the Chinese traditional patent medicines, medicinal herbs as well as other similar complex matrices. PMID:22097786

  19. Evaluation of hepatotoxicity potential of cinnabar-containing An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan, a patent traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Wu, Qin; Liang, Shi-Xia; Miao, Jia-Wei; Shi, Jing-Shan; Liu, Jie

    2011-07-01

    An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan (AGNH) is a patent traditional Chinese medicine for brain disorders. It contains 10% cinnabar (HgS). Hg is known to produce toxicity to the kidney, brain and liver. Is AGNH safe? Liver is a major organ for drug metabolism, whether the long-term use of AGNH would affect hepatic P450 enzymes is unknown. To address these concerns, mice were given orally cinnabar (300mg/kg), cinnabar-containing AGNH daily for 44days, and liver toxicity was examined and compared with that of methylmercury (MeHg, 2.6mg/kg) and mercuric chloride (HgCl(2), 32mg/kg). Serum aminotransferases were increased by MeHg and HgCl(2) only. Histopathology showed more severe liver damage in MeHg- and HgCl(2)-treated mice than in the cinnabar and AGNH groups. Accumulation of Hg in MeHg- and HgCl(2)-treated mice was 96- and 71-fold higher than controls, respectively, but was only 2-fold after cinnabar and AGNH administration. Expressions of metallothionein-1 and heme oxygenase-1, biomarkers for Hg toxicity, were increased by MeHg and HgCl(2,) but were not altered in cinnabar- and AGNH-treated mice. Expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 genes, such as Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp4a10 was increased only after MeHg and HgCl(2), and the expressions of Cyp3a11and Cyp3a25 were increased by all treatments, indicating the potential Hg-drug interactions after long-term use of cinnabar-containing traditional medicines. Taken together, the results demonstrate that AGNH is much less hepatotoxic than common mercurials, and that the use of total Hg content to evaluate the toxicity of cinnabar-containing traditional Chinese medicines appears to be inappropriate. PMID:21435368

  20. [Study on building index system of risk assessment of post-marketing Chinese patent medicine based on AHP-fuzzy neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming; Fu, Yingkun

    2011-10-01

    Currently massive researches have been launched about the safety, efficiency and economy of post-marketing Chinese patent medicine (CPM) proprietary Chinese medicine, but it was lack of a comprehensive interpretation. Establishing the risk evaluation index system and risk assessment model of CPM is the key to solve drug safety problems and protect people's health. The clinical risk factors of CPM exist similarities with the Western medicine, can draw lessons from foreign experience, but also have itself multi-factor multivariate multi-level complex features. Drug safety risk assessment for the uncertainty and complexity, using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to empower the index weights, AHP-based fuzzy neural network to build post-marketing CPM risk evaluation index system and risk assessment model and constantly improving the application of traditional Chinese medicine characteristic is accord with the road and feasible beneficial exploration. PMID:22292377

  1. Chinese Patent Medicine Tongxinluo Capsule for Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wang; Xingjiang Xiong; Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo capsule for hypertension. Search Strategy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, The PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data started from the first of database to October 28, 2013. No language restriction was applied. We in...

  2. Shengmai Injection, a Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine, for Intradialytic Hypotension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-yang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intradialytic hypotension (IDH is a global public health problem. A rising number of IDH sufferers resort to Chinese patent medicine, Shengmai Injection (SMI in China. The objectives of present study are to assess the effectiveness and safety of SMI as an adjunct therapy for IDH. A systematic search of 6 medical databases was performed up to December 2011. Randomized trials involving SMI adjuvant therapy versus conventional therapy were identified. RevMan 5.0 was used for data analysis. Ten randomized clinical trials with 437 participants were identified. Methodological quality was considered inadequate in all trials. Compared with conventional therapy, SMI adjunct therapy showed significant effects in improving the clinic effective rate (P<0.01, decreasing the incidence of IDH episode (P<0.01, decreasing the frequency of nursing interventions (P<0.01, and increasing diastolic blood pressure (P<0.01. There was no statistical significance in the improvement of mean arterial pressure (P=0.22 and systolic blood pressure (P=0.08 between two groups. Four studies had mentioned adverse events, but no serious adverse effects were reported in any of the included trials. In conclusion, SMI adjunct therapy appears to be potentially effective in treatment of IDH and is generally safe. However, further rigorous designed trials are needed.

  3. Shengmai injection, a traditional chinese patent medicine, for intradialytic hypotension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Yang; Lu, Ling-Yan; Chen, Peng; Ji, Kang-Ting; Lin, Jia-Feng; Yang, Peng-Lin; Tang, Ji-Fei; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a global public health problem. A rising number of IDH sufferers resort to Chinese patent medicine, Shengmai Injection (SMI) in China. The objectives of present study are to assess the effectiveness and safety of SMI as an adjunct therapy for IDH. A systematic search of 6 medical databases was performed up to December 2011. Randomized trials involving SMI adjuvant therapy versus conventional therapy were identified. RevMan 5.0 was used for data analysis. Ten randomized clinical trials with 437 participants were identified. Methodological quality was considered inadequate in all trials. Compared with conventional therapy, SMI adjunct therapy showed significant effects in improving the clinic effective rate (P < 0.01), decreasing the incidence of IDH episode (P < 0.01), decreasing the frequency of nursing interventions (P < 0.01), and increasing diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01). There was no statistical significance in the improvement of mean arterial pressure (P = 0.22) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.08) between two groups. Four studies had mentioned adverse events, but no serious adverse effects were reported in any of the included trials. In conclusion, SMI adjunct therapy appears to be potentially effective in treatment of IDH and is generally safe. However, further rigorous designed trials are needed. PMID:23476700

  4. Danhong Injection (a Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine) for Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pengda Liao; Lei Wang; Liheng Guo; Ruixiang Zeng; Juming Huang; Minzhou Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of Danhong injection (DHI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Methods. We searched several electrical databases and hand searched several Chinese medical journals. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing DHI plus conventional western medicine with conventional western medicine plus placebo and RCTs comparing DHI plus conventional western medicine with conventional western medicine were retrieved. Study scr...

  5. Systematic Review of Compound Danshen Dropping Pill: A Chinese Patent Medicine for Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Luo; Hao Xu; Keji Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This paper systematically evaluated the efficacy and safety of compound Danshen dropping pill (CDDP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing CDDP with no intervention, placebo, or conventional western medicine, were retrieved. Data extraction and analyses were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. We assessed risk of bias for each included study and evaluated the strength of evidence on prespecified ...

  6. 止咳中成药的组方特点研究%Study on Prescription Characteristics of Chinese Patent Medicines for Antitussive Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王张; 谭艺; 李雪; 卿玉玲; 秦少容; 黄静; 彭涛; 江道峰; 张艺; 孟宪丽; 赖先荣; 李亚梅; 王箐竹; 吴龙; 陈彦

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to reveal characteristics of functions, main indications and applications of Chinese patent medicines in order to provide references for development of new Chinese patent medicines for antitussive ef-fect. Chinese patent medicines recorded in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China and the New Na-tional Chinese Patent Medicines were taken as research subjects. Chinese patent medicines classified in the function and indication with key words of "cough-relieving", "cough-suppressing", "cough" and "chronic cough" were col-lected. Analysis was made on the prescription characteristics, such as functions, main indications and applications. The results showed that there were 684 Chinese patent medicines and 462 terms, which were used for a total of 1533 times. The frequently-used terms are antitussive effect with expectorant, antitussive effect, expectorant, heat-clearing and exterior-releasing, antiasthmatic, wind-expelling and antipyretic, antitussive effect with antiasthmatic, purging lung heat, relieving exterior syndrome and moistening the lungs. All 684 Chinese patent medicines were used 48 ma-jor treatments for a total of 1107 times. The main indications include acute and chronic trachitis / bronchitis, exoge-nous wind-heat type of common cold, exogenous wind-cold type of common cold, cough with abundance of phlegm due to phlegm-heat obstructing the lung, acute upper respiratory tract infection, asthma, acute and chronic pharyngi-tis, lung heat cough, and etc. All 684 Chinese patent medicines used a total of 537 kinds of herbs and chemical medicines, including 441 kinds of herbal medicine, 36 kinds of animal medicine, 25 kinds of mineral medicine and 35 kinds of chemical medicine. The top ten herbs in terms of using frequency are Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma, Platycodonis radix, Armeniacae semen amarum, Menthae haplocalycis herba, Citri reticulatae pericarpium, Ephedrae herba, Scutellariae radix, Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt

  7. Analysis of bioactive components and pharmacokinetic study of herb-herb interactions in the traditional Chinese patent medicine Tongmai Yangxin Pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yaya; Man, Shuli; Li, Hongfa; Liu, Yuanxue; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-02-20

    Tongmai Yangxin (TMYX) Pill is a traditional Chinese patent medicine, composed of eleven Chinese medicinal herbs. It has been used to treat coronary heart disease for several decades. In this study, six male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with TMYX methanol extract, and a serum pharmacochemistry technique was used to screen absorbed bioactive compounds by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. By comparing MS spectra to the published literature data, 40 bioactive components were identified. The results indicated that almost 45% of the absorbed compounds were from Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC). Subsequently, a reliable HPLC method was used to determine the concentrations of liquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma following oral administration of GC or the combination of GC and Ramulus Cinnamomi (GZ). The results showed that GZ enhanced the absorption of four bioactive components: liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid. The data demonstrate that herb combination in TMYX Pill exhibit a synergistic action. PMID:26771134

  8. Systematic Review of Compound Danshen Dropping Pill: A Chinese Patent Medicine for Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper systematically evaluated the efficacy and safety of compound Danshen dropping pill (CDDP in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs, comparing CDDP with no intervention, placebo, or conventional western medicine, were retrieved. Data extraction and analyses were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. We assessed risk of bias for each included study and evaluated the strength of evidence on prespecified outcomes. Results. Seven RCTs enrolling 1215 patients were included. CDDP was associated with statistically significant reductions in the risk of cardiac death and heart failure compared with no intervention based on conventional therapy for AMI. In addition, CDDP was associated with improvement of quality of life and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction. Nevertheless, the safety of CDDP was unproven for the limited data. The quality of evidence for each outcome in the main comparison (CDDP versus no intervention was “low” or “moderate.” Conclusion. CDDP showed some potential benefits for AMI patients, such as the reductions of cardiac death and heart failure. However, the overall quality of evidence was poor, and the safety of CDDP for AMI patients was not confirmed. More evidence from high quality RCTs is warranted to support the use of CDDP for AMI patients.

  9. Systematic review of compound danshen dropping pill: a chinese patent medicine for acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Xu, Hao; Chen, Keji

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This paper systematically evaluated the efficacy and safety of compound Danshen dropping pill (CDDP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing CDDP with no intervention, placebo, or conventional western medicine, were retrieved. Data extraction and analyses were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. We assessed risk of bias for each included study and evaluated the strength of evidence on prespecified outcomes. Results. Seven RCTs enrolling 1215 patients were included. CDDP was associated with statistically significant reductions in the risk of cardiac death and heart failure compared with no intervention based on conventional therapy for AMI. In addition, CDDP was associated with improvement of quality of life and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction. Nevertheless, the safety of CDDP was unproven for the limited data. The quality of evidence for each outcome in the main comparison (CDDP versus no intervention) was "low" or "moderate." Conclusion. CDDP showed some potential benefits for AMI patients, such as the reductions of cardiac death and heart failure. However, the overall quality of evidence was poor, and the safety of CDDP for AMI patients was not confirmed. More evidence from high quality RCTs is warranted to support the use of CDDP for AMI patients. PMID:23843882

  10. Therapeutic effect of Chinese patent medicine "Wuhuanghu" on porcine infectious pleuropneumonia and its acute and subchronic toxicity as well as evaluation of safety pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangxi; Kang, Shuai; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Ren-Yong; Lai, Xin; Zhou, Xun; Liang, Xiao-Xia; Li, Li-Xia; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Lv, Cheng; He, Chang-Liang; Ye, Gang; Yin, Li-Zi; Jing, Bo

    2015-09-01

    Chinese patent medicines play an important role in veterinary clinical use. The aim of this study is to research the anti-infection effect of Chinese patent medicine "Wuhuanghu" for the treatment of porcine infectious pleuropneumonia and to evaluate the safety of "Wuhuanghu" in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of its toxicity. The anti-infection results showed that the treatment with "Wuhuanghu" could significantly inhibit pneumonia and decrement of the pneumonia in high, medium and low doses of "Wuhuanghu" groups were 70.97%, 61.29% and 58.06% respectively. The acute toxicity test showed that rats in the highest group (5000mg/kg) had no death and no abnormal response, suggesting the LD50 of "Wuhuanghu" was more than 5000mg/kg. The subchronic toxicity study showed that hematology indexes in all groups had no obvious differences; blood biochemical index, only albumin and total cholesterol in middle and low doses of "Wuhuanghu" groups were significantly decreased when compared with control group. The clinical pathology showed that the target organ of "Wuhuanghu" was liver. The safety pharmacology study indicated that "Wuhuanghu" had no side effects on rats. In conclusion, "Wuhuanghu" has therapeutic and protective effects to porcine infectious pleuropneumonia in a dose-dependent manner and "Wuhuanghu" is a safe veterinary medicine. PMID:26245812

  11. Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine for Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Overview of Systematic Reviews Based on the GRADE Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Xue-Ting; Kang, De-Ying

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study is to conduct an overview of systematic reviews (SRs) to provide a contemporary review of the evidence for delivery of Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine (TCPMs) for patients with acute ischemic stroke.SRs were assessed for quality using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool and the Oxman-Guyatt Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ). We assessed the quality of the evidence of high methodological quality (an AMSTAR score ≥9 or an OQAQ score ≥7) for reported outcomes using the GRADE (the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach.(1) Dan Shen agents: tiny trends toward the improvement in different neurological outcomes (RR = 1.16, 1.10, 1.23, 1.08, 1.12); (2) Mailuoning: a tiny trend toward improvement in the neurological outcome (RR = 1.18); (3) Ginkgo biloba: tiny trends toward improvement in the neurological outcome (RR = 1.18, MD = 0.81); (4) Dengzhanhua: a tiny trend toward an improvement in neurological (RR = 1.23); (5) Acanthopanax: a small positive (RR = 1.17, 1.31) result on neurological improvement reported; (6) Chuanxiong-type preparations: neurological functional improved (MD = 2.90);(7) Puerarin: no better effect on the rate of death or disability (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.35-1.87); (8) Milk vetch: no better effect on the rate of death (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.11-2.83);(9) Qingkailing: rate of death reduced (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.11-2.83). Limitations in the methodological quality of the RCTs, inconsistency and imprecision led to downgrading of the quality of the evidence, which varied by review and by outcome. Consequently, there are currently only weak evidences to support those TCPMs.The 9 TCPMs may be effective in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, as the GRADE approach indicated a weak recommendation for those TCPMs' usage. PMID:27015174

  12. 基本药物中成药的循证文献特征研究%Research into Evidence-based Literatures on the Chinese Patent Medicines on the National Essential Medicine List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮润; 耿向楠; 信枭雄; 陈哲; 施阳; 肖鲁; 史录文

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究我国2009年版《国家基本药物目录》中成药临床循证文献特征,为构建中成药针对证的循证药学评价方法奠定基础.方法 通过中成药循证文献类别划分,分析13个中成药循证文献分布结构、治疗疾病集中度和时间变化特点,结合药品注册管理办法,探讨中成药循证文献的差异.结果 部分中成药循证文献的组间对照试验比例较高,近年数量增加较快,治疗疾病的集中度较高,另一部分中成药循证文献的前后对照试验和经验介绍比例较高,治疗疾病集中度较分散.结论 中成药可以分为两类,现代中成药可部分按以病为导向的循证评价方法评价,传统中成药的循证文献不宜用以病为导向的循证评价方法评价.为体现中成药的特点,必须建立以中医的证为导向的循证评价方法.%OBJECTIVE To examine the characteristics of the evidence-based clinical literatures regarding the Chinese patent medicines on the National Essential Medicine List of China (2009 Edition) so as to lay a foundation for the establishment of an evidence-based pharmaceutical review system for the Chinese patent medicines oriented at treating TCM-syndromes. METHODS The evidence-based literatures on Chinese patent medicines were categorized,and their characteristics were analyzed concerning the distribution of the literatures according to the five levels of evidence,the concentration of the diseases under treatment,and chronological changes; in accordance with the Drug Registration Regulation,the differences among these literatures were explored. RESULTS With regard to the literatures on some Chinese patent medicines,there were a large proportion of randomized controlled trials ( RCTs),with a rapid increase in the number of the literatures in recent years and a clear focus on certain diseases. By contrast,some other Chinese patent medicines had a high proportion of before-after studies and empirical introductions

  13. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapid determination of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in Chinese patent medicine Naosaitong pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Qu, Zhengyi; Wang, Yingping; Yao, Chunlin; Bai, Xueyuan; Bian, Shuai; Zhao, Bing

    2015-03-01

    Ginsenosides in plant samples have been extensively studied because protopanaxadiol saponins are ubiquitous in Chinese patent medicines, in which they can be used in promoting human health as the main active ingredients. A method for rapid determination of two ginsenosides (Rg1 and Re) in Naosaitong (NST) samples using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is studied to determine the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in this work. Partial least square (PLS) regression was used for building the calibration models, and the effects of spectral preprocessing and variable selection on the models are investigated for optimization of the models. A total of 93 samples were scanned by NIRS, and also by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector to determine the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re. The calibration models for Rg1 and Re had high values of the coefficient of determination (R2) (0.9766 and 0.9764) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0136 and 0.0104), and the values of the standard error of prediction set (SEP) are 0.00764 and 0.0103, which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIRS predicted values. The overall results show that NIRS could be applied for the rapid determination of the contents of ginsenosides in Ginseng byproducts for pharmaceuticals that develop high-quality Chinese patent medicines.

  14. 部分中成药包装存在的问题及改进建议%Problems and Improvement Suggestions of Some Chinese Patent Medicine Package

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宏建; 赖宗浪

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To provide suggestions for pharmaceutical manufacturers to improve medicine package in China. METHODS:The problems of some Chinese patent medicine package were summed up and analyzed,and improvement suggestions were put forward. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:At present,many defects are observed in Chinese patent drug package,such as large package increasing patients’burden;various package material aggravating resource waste and environmental pollution;indi-vidual package and multilayered package increasing unpacking and peeling time,and bringing risk;non-standard medicine informa-tion carrier easily resulting in medical errors. Pharmaceutical manufacturers are suggested to simplify drug package,increase pack-age capacity,adopt ordinary packagdized,highlight key information and other measures. Through these measures,Chinese patent medicine package could to be more standard,humanized and be convenient for clinical use.%目的:为我国药品生产企业改进药品包装提供建议。方法:对临床使用过程中发现的部分中成药包装存在的问题进行归纳与分析,并提出改进建议。结果与结论:目前,我国部分中成药包装存在的问题包括规格太大,会间接增加患者的就医成本;包装材料多样,会造成资源浪费和环境污染;采用独立包装和多层次包装,会增加医务人员的拆剥时间并带来风险;药品信息载体不规范,易引发医疗差错等。建议药品生产企业可采取适当精简药品包装、增加包装容量、采用普通包装、突出重点信息等措施予以改进,使药品包装更加规范、更加人性化,方便临床使用。

  15. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  16. 我国中药专利保护的现状分析与对策研究%Status analysis and countermeasures research for patent protection of traditional chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程远; 沈爱玲

    2013-01-01

    Strengthening the patent protection of traditional Chinese medicine, on the one hand, it can stimulate the innovation of enterprises, achieving the goal of their economics. On the other hand, it also can improve the international competitiveness of traditional Chinese medicine. This article mainly analyzes the feasibility of the patent protection on the basis of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, make recommendations for the improvement of patent protection for traditional Chinese medicine and establish a patent protection system combined with the situation of our country.%加强中药专利保护,一方面能够激发中药企业的创新力,以实现其经济效应;另一方面,也有利于提高我国中药的国际竞争力.本文基于中医药理论原理,分析我国现有中药专利保护现状,为我国中药专利保护提出建议,建立我国特有的中药专利保护体系.

  17. Danhong Injection (a Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine) for Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pengda; Wang, Lei; Guo, Liheng; Zeng, Ruixiang; Huang, Juming; Zhang, Minzhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of Danhong injection (DHI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Methods. We searched several electrical databases and hand searched several Chinese medical journals. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing DHI plus conventional western medicine with conventional western medicine plus placebo and RCTs comparing DHI plus conventional western medicine with conventional western medicine were retrieved. Study screening, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analysis were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. Results. 13 RCTs enrolling 979 patients were included. Danhong injection could significantly reduce the risk of mortality, recurrent angina, arrhythmia, and heart failure. In addition, DHI was associated with improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and reperfusion. No significant difference of DHI was found on recurrent acute myocardial infarction. However, the safety of DHI remained unknown for limited data. Conclusion. DHI might be a potentially efficacious treatment for AMI patients. Nevertheless, the safety of DHI remained uncertain for limited information. Due to the fact that the overall quality of all included studies is generally low, more high quality RCTs are expected to validate the efficacy and safety of DHI for AMI patients.

  18. Danhong Injection (a Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine for Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengda Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of Danhong injection (DHI for acute myocardial infarction (AMI patients. Methods. We searched several electrical databases and hand searched several Chinese medical journals. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing DHI plus conventional western medicine with conventional western medicine plus placebo and RCTs comparing DHI plus conventional western medicine with conventional western medicine were retrieved. Study screening, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analysis were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. Results. 13 RCTs enrolling 979 patients were included. Danhong injection could significantly reduce the risk of mortality, recurrent angina, arrhythmia, and heart failure. In addition, DHI was associated with improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and reperfusion. No significant difference of DHI was found on recurrent acute myocardial infarction. However, the safety of DHI remained unknown for limited data. Conclusion. DHI might be a potentially efficacious treatment for AMI patients. Nevertheless, the safety of DHI remained uncertain for limited information. Due to the fact that the overall quality of all included studies is generally low, more high quality RCTs are expected to validate the efficacy and safety of DHI for AMI patients.

  19. Danhong Injection (a Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine) for Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pengda; Wang, Lei; Guo, Liheng; Zeng, Ruixiang; Huang, Juming; Zhang, Minzhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of Danhong injection (DHI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Methods. We searched several electrical databases and hand searched several Chinese medical journals. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing DHI plus conventional western medicine with conventional western medicine plus placebo and RCTs comparing DHI plus conventional western medicine with conventional western medicine were retrieved. Study screening, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analysis were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. Results. 13 RCTs enrolling 979 patients were included. Danhong injection could significantly reduce the risk of mortality, recurrent angina, arrhythmia, and heart failure. In addition, DHI was associated with improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and reperfusion. No significant difference of DHI was found on recurrent acute myocardial infarction. However, the safety of DHI remained unknown for limited data. Conclusion. DHI might be a potentially efficacious treatment for AMI patients. Nevertheless, the safety of DHI remained uncertain for limited information. Due to the fact that the overall quality of all included studies is generally low, more high quality RCTs are expected to validate the efficacy and safety of DHI for AMI patients. PMID:26451156

  20. Analysis of the Utilization of Antineoplastic Chinese Patent Medicine in Our Hospital during the Period of 2008-2011%我院2008-2011年抗肿瘤口服中成药使用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉霞; 张磊; 齐伟; 吴志恒

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the status quo of the utilization of antineoplastic Chinese patent medicine in our hospital and to promote rational use of drugs. METHODS: The consumption sum, DDDs.DDC and DUI of antineoplastic Chinese patent medicine in our hospital during the period of 2008—2010 were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The variety of antineoplastic Chinese patent medicine in our hospital was stable during 2008—2011, the consumption sum of drugs increased year by year, suitable price and effective therapeutic efficacy of Chinese patent medicine took the lead on the list of DDDs and DDC. CONCLUSION: In our hospital, the utilization of antineoplastic Chinese patent medicine is rational on the whole. Comprehensive considerations including good effect and reasonable cost should be taken into account during clinical drug use.%目的:评价我院抗肿瘤口服中成药的使用现状,促进合理用药.方法:对我院2008-2011年抗肿瘤口服中成药的销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日用药金额(DDC)、药物利用指数(DUI)进行排序和分析.结果:我院2008-2011年抗肿瘤口服中成药品种基本固定,销售金额呈逐年上升趋势,疗效确切、价格适中的中成药DDDs、DDC、DUI排序靠前.结论:我院抗肿瘤中成药的应用基本合理,在临床用药过程中要综合考虑疗效和经济两方面.

  1. JinQi-Jiangtang tablet, a Chinese patent medicine, for pre-diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jing

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-diabetes is a growing health concern where a large percentage of these patients develop full type 2 diabetes. Effective interventions on pre-diabetes can prevent or delay the occurrence or development of diabetes. Pharmaco-dynamics and pre-clinical of JinQi-Jiangtang tablets (JQJT suggest that it could be benefit for pre-diabetes. Methods/Design Randomized controlled trial (RCT is implemented in this study. The study term is 24 months (12 months for intervention and 12 months for follow up. Participants are recruited from four cities of China: Beijing, Tianjin, Xi'an and Nanning. Four hundred participants are randomized to treatment group (JQJT tablets and control group (Placebo; two hundred participants each. People being included in this study must have been diagnosed as pre-diabetes via western medicine criteria and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM criteria. The end-point indexes include: incidence of diabetes mellitus and reversion rate. Primary outcome indexes include: oral glucose tolerance test; insulin releasing test; glycosylated hemoglobin (HA1c. Secondary outcome indexes include: score of the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36; score of TCM symptoms; blood lipid test. Indexes of safety include: general medical examination; blood and urine regular test; electrocardiogram (ECG, liver function (ALT and renal function (BUN, Creatinine test; record of adverse event, such as headache, faint, etc. Qualitative control will be implemented and a number of standard operating processes (SOPs will be formed throughout the study: laboratory quality control measures; compliance control for researchers and participants; researcher training before study; supervision; investigational drug management and others. Discussion The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of JinQi JiangTang (JQJT tablets for the treatment of patients with pre-diabetes. Trial registration Chinese clinical trials

  2. Analysis on the Factors Influencing the Curative Effect of Chinese Patent Medicine%剖析影响中成药疗效的因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌钢

    2015-01-01

    The factors influencing the curative ef ect of Chinese traditional medicines are medicines variety and quality,Chinese herbal medicine quality of germplasm resources,Chinese herbal medicine planting cultivation and recovery processing,Chinese herbal medicine recovery processing,Chinese herbal medicine standardized cultivation,preparation technique,form,materials and making preparation, Chinese medicine compatibility between preparations.%影响中成药疗效的因素主要有中药材品种及质量、中药材种质资源质量、中药材种植栽培与采收加工、中药材采收加工、中药材规范化种植、炮制技术、剂型、辅料及制备工艺、中药成方制剂之间的配伍。

  3. Analysis on Patent Protection for Newly Approved Traditional Chinese Medicine in China%我国新批准上市中药新药的专利保护状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕茂平

    2016-01-01

    Relevant information of newly approved TCM medicine during 2013 to 2014 was searched. Medicine names, medicine composition and company information in Chinese Patent Search System were combined to obtain medicine relevant patent information. This article summarized the patent condition and features of the medicine, analyzed existing problems in the patent protection for the newly approved TCM and proposed suggestions for strengthening patent protection of new TCM.%通过检索国内2013-2014年新批准上市中药新药的相关信息,结合药品名称、药品组成及企业信息在中国专利检索系统获得药品对应的相关专利信息。本文对这些中药新药的专利情况和特点进行总结,分析目前我国新批准上市中药新药在专利保护中存在的问题,并提出加强中药新药专利保护的建议。

  4. Validation method in microbial limit test for antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines%清热解毒类中成药微生物限度检查方法验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 吴虹

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究清热解毒类中成药的抑菌作用,建立其微生物限度检查方法 .方法 按照<中国药典)2010年版一部的微生物限度检查法进行验证实验.结果 8种清热解毒类中成药均对金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草芽孢杆菌有一定的抑菌作用,可以分别通过培养基稀释法和薄膜过滤法得以消除.结论 分别建立了8种清热解毒类中成药的微生物限度检查方法 ,为该类药品的微生物检查提供参考.%Objective To study the antimicrobial effect of antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines and to establish microbial limit test method for them. Methods According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 Edition,validation method in microbial limit test for the medicines was validated. Results Eight kinds of antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines all showed inhibition effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The effect could be eliminated by culture medium dilution method and filtration membrane method. Conclusion Microbial limit test methods were established for the Chinese patent medicines respectivesly. The results could give experimental evidence for the kind of Chinese patent medicines.

  5. 三苯氧胺联合中成药治疗乳腺增生疗效的Meta分析%Meta-analysis of Effects of Tamoxifen Joined with Chinese Traditional Patent Medicine on Breast Hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      目的:评价三苯氧胺联合中成药治疗乳腺增生的有效性。方法:应用 RevMan4.2软件对三苯氧胺联合中成药治疗乳腺增生的10项对照研究进行同质性检验和合并效应量的估计。结果:联合用药与三苯氧胺比较,差异有统计学意义(字2=19.76,P=0.02);联合用药与中成药比较,差异有统计学意义(字2=19.89,P=0.02)。结论:三苯氧胺联合中成药治疗乳腺增生的效果优于三苯氧胺或中成药单独用药。%Objective:To evaluate the effect of tamoxifen joined with Chinese traditional patent medicine on breast hyperplasia. Method:Meta-analysis was performed on the evaluation of 10 randomized controlled trails of the effect of tamoxifen joined with Chinese traditional patent medicine on breast hyperplasia. Result:The combined treatment compared with tamoxifen,there was significant difference(X2=19.76,P=0.02);The combine treatment compared with Chinese patent drug,there was significant difference( X2=19.89,P=0.02). Conclusion:The effect of tamoxifen joined with Chinese traditional patent medicine on breast hyperplasia has an advantage than using tamoxifen or Chinese traditional patent single.

  6. Rapid characterization of chemical constituents and rats metabolites of the traditional Chinese patent medicine Gegen-Qinlian-Wan by UHPLC/DAD/qTOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Wen-juan; Wang, Qing; Bo, Tao; Ye, Min; Qiao, Xue; Yang, Wen-zhi; Xiang, Cheng; Guan, Xiang-yu; Guo, De-an

    2013-01-01

    Gegen-Qinlian-Wan (GQW) is a popular traditional Chinese patent medicine for the treatment of diarrhea. It is composed of four herbal medicines, Puerariae Radix, Scutellariae Radix, Coptidis Rhizoma, and Glycyrrhizae Radix. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-qTOF-MS) was established to characterize the chemical constituents and rats metabolites of GQW. Samples were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse Plus-C(18) column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) by gradient elution using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase. On the basis of UV and qTOF high-accuracy mass spectral analysis, a total of 62 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized from GQW, including 42 flavonoids, 8 alkaloids, 6 triterpenoids, 3 phenylethanoid glycosides, and 3 other types. Among them, 27 compounds were confirmed by comparing with reference standards. Furthermore, metabolites in rats plasma and urine after oral administration of GQW were also analyzed. A total of 42 compounds were identified, including 29 prototypes and 13 metabolites through metabolic pathways of demethylation, methylation, hydrolysis, sulfate conjugation, and glucuronide conjugation. Glucuronidated flavonoids were the main constituents in the plasma, and were then transformed into aglycones and excreted from urine. This is the first systematic study on the chemical constituents and metabolic profiling of GQW. PMID:23146232

  7. 我院门诊2007-2011年中成药应用分析%Analysis of the Utilization of Chinese Patent Medicines in Outpatient Department in Our Hospital during 2007-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张碧华; 穆林; 金鹏飞; 蔡小兵

    2012-01-01

    目的:为临床合理用药提供参考.方法:对我院门诊中成药的销售金额及构成比、用药频度和科室用药分布情况进行统计分析.结果:我院门诊中成药的种类连续性较好,各类药销售金额及构成比相对固定,同时在临床各科室的用药集中度相对较低.结论:我院在用药品种的选择上基本能够满足临床需求,同时也兼顾了患者的经济承受能力,注重合理用药,保障了临床用药的安全、有效和经济.%OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical utilization of Chinese patent medicines in outpatient department of our hospital during 2007-2011,and to provide reference for clinical rational drug use. METHODS: The utilization of Chinese patent medicines in outpatient department of our hospital was analyzed statistically in respect of consumption sum, constituent ratio, DDDs and departments distribution of drug use. RESULTS: The category continuity of Chinese patent medicines in outpatient department was fairly good. The consumption sum and constituent ratio for various drugs were relatively fixed, the concentration ratio of drug use were lower in clinical departments. CONCLUSIONS: The type selection of Chinese patent medicines in hospital meet the requirement of clinical treatments, and also need to consider the afford ability of patients and rational drug use so as to guarantee safe, effective and economical drug in the clinic.

  8. Use of comparative effectiveness research for similar Chinese patent medicine for angina pectoris of coronary heart disease: a new approach based on patient-important outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Hongbo; Zhai, Jingbo; Mu, Wei; Lei, Xiang; Cao, Hongxia; Liu, Chunxiang; Shang, Hongcai

    2014-01-01

    Background The practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a profound history in many Asian countries. TCM syndrome is a set of characteristic physical signs and symptoms shared by a group of patients. Syndrome diagnosis and treatment assignment according to the identified TCM syndrome is a long-held practice of Chinese medicine. Owing to its distinctive way of interpreting illness and administering care, medical practitioners not well educated in TCM theories and practices are general...

  9. 我国中成药处方中重点保护野生药材的应用状况分析%Analysis on application of key-protected wild medicinal materials in prescription of Chinese patent medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周跃华; 路金才

    2013-01-01

    以《国家重点保护野生药材物种名录》、《国家重点保护野生动物名录》、《国家重点保护野生植物名录(第一批)》、华盛顿公约(CITES)附录1和附录2等名录中收载且具有法定药材标准的动植物物种所对应的药材品种作为国家重点保护野生药材,对其在我国中成药质量标准“处方”项下出现的频次进行了查询,并结合相关药材人工栽培及养殖的文献,对相关重点保护野生药材在中成药中的应用状况进行初步分析,为其可持续利用提供参考.%As state key-protected wild medicinal materials, their species are collected in State Key-protected Wild Medicinal Species List, State Key-protected Wild Animals List, and State Key-protected Wild Plants List {the first) and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix Ⅰ/Ⅱ, and there are legal medicinal material standards. Based on the statistical results of the existence frequency in Chinese patent medicine and the literatures of medicinal materials cultivation and breeding situation, the application of key-protected wild medicinal materials is preliminarily estimated, which would provide the reference for their sustainable utilization.

  10. How a patent eligibility case could affect personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brougher, Joanna T

    2010-01-01

    Personalized medicine may be in danger as the doctrine of patent eligibility -which determines technological innovations that warrant patent protection -faces legal challenges. Diagnostic tests, gene patents, and more are at stake. PMID:22478808

  11. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  12. 浅析《国家基本药物目录》中中成药的辨证应用%Application of Chinese Patent Medicine in Essential Drugs List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志军

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the application of Chinese patent medicine in National Essential Drugs List.METHODS:The main function and component of 102 kinds of Chinese patent medicine in National Essential Drugs List were analyzed according to the treatment theory based on differentiation of symptom-complex, such as yin-yang, exterior and interior, deficiency and excess, chills and fever, ascending, descending, sinking and floating, channel tropism.RESULTS & CONCLUSION: The application of Chinese patent medicine should be in line with package insert.Dosage and usage and the occurrence of ADR should be paid attention and observed.The philosophical characteristics of treatment theory based on differentiation of symptom-complex can be reflected by identifying yin-yang, exterior and interior, deficiency and excess, chills and fever, ascending, descending, sinking and floating, channel tropism%目的:为辨证应用(2009版)中的中成药提供参考.方法:通过分析102种中成药的功能主治和主要成分,按阴阳、表里、虚实、寒热、升降沉浮、归经等中医药的辨证论治思想进行分析.结果与结论:中医药以辨证论治为诊疗特点,临床应用中成药时,应注意辨析其适应证,严格按照说明书的用法用量使用,并密切观察不良反应的发生.

  13. Patent Medicine VendorsAND#8217; Clients: Medicine Use Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Asa Auta; Simeon Omale; Nwamaka C. Anukam; Comfort N. Sariem.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate some medicine use behaviour of Patent Medicine Vendors’ (PMVs) clients including self medication practice and medication sharing behaviour. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted in July 2011, on 361 undergraduate students of the University of Jos, Nigeria who visited PMVs within a month preceding the study. A pretested questionnaire was administered to participating students. Participants responded to questions on demography, and medicine use be...

  14. 基于文本挖掘技术分析西药和中成药治疗再生障碍性贫血的规律%Rules of treating aplastic anemia with Western medicines and Chinese patent medicines based on text mining technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪涛; 吕爱平; 张志华; 郑光; 姜淼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the rules of treating aplastic anemia with Western medicines and Chinese patent medicines by applying text mining technique. Methods The relevant literature about treating aplastic anemia were collected from Chinese Medical Current Contents ( CMCC) and a Access database was established. The data were treated with SQL platform and the administration rules of Western medicines and Chinese patent medicines were analyzed combining artificial noise reduction. Results Stanozolol, cyclosporin A, antithymocyte globulin ( ATG ) , cyclophosphamide and antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) were Western medications with high-frequency in the literature, and Fufang Zaofan Wan and Zaizhang Shengxue Pian were Chinese patent medicines with high-frequency. Conclusion The frequency in literature reports showed the administration rules of Western medicines and Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of aplastic anemia by applying text mining technique. The integrative administration of Western medicines and Chinese patent medicines is worth studying further.%目的 利用文本挖掘技术探索西药、中成药治疗再生障碍性贫血的规律.方法 在中国生物医学文献数据库中收集治疗再生障碍性贫血的相关文献,建立Access数据库,运用SQL数据平台处理数据,并结合人工降噪,分析西药、中成药的用药规律.结果 司坦唑醇、环孢素A、抗胸腺细胞球蛋白、环磷酰胺、抗淋巴细胞球蛋白等为文献中出现的高频西药,复方皂矾丸、再障生血片等为文献中出现的高频中成药.结论 利用文本挖掘的方法,从文献报告频数方面呈现了西药、中成药治疗再生障碍性贫血的用药规律,尤其是西药、中成药联合应用还值得进一步研究.

  15. Evaluation of the Add-On Effect of Chinese Patent Medicine for Patients with Stable or Unstable Angina: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Mao; Vincent C H Chung; Jin-Qiu Yuan; Yuan-Yuan Yu; Zu-Yao Yang; Xin-Yin Wu; Jin-Ling Tang

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used as an adjunct to western medicine in treating angina in China. We carried out this systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of CHM on top of western medicine for angina. This meta-analysis included 46 randomized control trials with 4212 patients. For trials that included stable angina patients, the CHM group had significant lower incidence of total heart events (relative risk (RR) = 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.78), myocar...

  16. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  17. 195首治疗乳腺增生中药专利复方的用药规律分析%Study on Medication Patterns of Chinese Patent Medicine among 195 Breast Hyperplasia Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施学丽; 邓家刚; 蒋筱; 范丽丽; 赵晓芳; 郭超峰

    2013-01-01

    目的:应用数据挖掘技术中关联规则、聚类等方法分析乳腺增生中药专利复方配伍规律。方法:检索治疗乳腺增生中药专利复方,排除外用中药及中西药物合用的复方。对入选的中药专利复方进行术语规范化等处理,抽取信息、建立EXCEL表,应用数据分析软件包R2.15.2对数据进行关联规则分析,网络分析软件Cytoscape2.8.3聚类分析组方配伍规律。结果:195首治疗乳腺增生的中药专利复方中,发现配伍频数较高的中药为柴胡、香附、当归、夏枯草、白芍、栝蒌等;而出现频数极低且不常用的中药为八角枫叶、白鹤草等;常用的药对为柴胡-当归、莪术-三棱、乳香-没药等;强关联规则提示以柴胡、当归等核心药物组成的逍遥散为治疗乳腺增生的基本方;聚类分析结果发现连翘-土茯苓-三桠苦-功劳木-鸡血藤等“中药社团”。结论:通过对药物频数、药对、强关联规则、药物聚类的分析,可以揭示乳腺增生组方的配伍规律,为临床优化处方、提高疗效提供参考依据。%This study was aimed to reveal the medication patterns of Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of breast hyperplasia based on association rules and clustering of data mining technology. Articles on Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of breast hyperplasia were retrieved from databases. External formulas or those mixed with western drugs were excluded. Terminologies in the selected formulas were standardized. Information was extracted to build excelltables. Association rules analysis and cluster analysis were used to reveal the medication patterns of Chi-nese patent medicine in the treatment of breast hyperplasia with software R2.15.2 and Cytoscape 2.8.3. The results showed that Chinese medicinals with higher frequency in 195 formulas were Radix bupleuri, Rhizoma cyperi, Chinese Angelica, Selfheal, White Peony Root, Trichosanthes

  18. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  19. Utilization of Chinese patent medicines for respiratory system in Beijing Hospital during 2008 -2010%2008-2010年北京医院呼吸系统用中成药用药研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张碧华; 高素强; 金鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    目的:对近3年北京医院(以下简称我院)呼吸系统用中成药的临床用药情况进行研究,了解该类中成药的用药特点和变化趋势,以期为临床合理用药提供参考.方法:对我院2008-2010年呼吸系统用中成药的销售金额及构成比、用药频度(defined daily dose system,DDDs)和科室用药分布情况进行统计分析.结果:我院呼吸系统用中成药的销售金额呈现逐年上升趋势,各类药的销售金额及构成比相对固定,其中止咳平喘剂和解表剂分列第一和第二位,在临床各科室的用药集中度相对较低.结论:中成药在呼吸系统疾病的防治中有着重要的地位.医院所选择的用药品种应基本能够满足临床需求,同时也需兼顾患者的经济承受能力,注重合理用药,以保障临床用药的安全、有效和经济.%Objective; To investigate the clinical utilization status of Chinese patent medicines for respiratory system in Beijing Hospital during recent three years and the use characteristics and development tendency, so as to provide references for rational drug use. Methods: The Chinese patent medicines for respiratory system between 2008 and 2010 were statistically analyzed in respects of consumption sum and drug categories, defined daily dose system (DDDs) and use characteristics in different departments. Results: The consumption sum of Chinese patent medicines for respiratory system increased year by year during 2008 -2010. The consumption sum and constituent ratio for various drugs were relatively fixed, antitussive and antiasthmatic drugs and diaphoretic drugs were the first leading two places, and the concentration ratio of drug use was lower in clinical departments. Conclusion; Traditional Chinese medicines play an important role in the therapy of respiratory system diseases. The use of Chinese patent medicines in hospital should meet the requirements of clinical treatments, and also needs to consider the affording ability of

  20. 基于文本挖掘技术分析中成药、西药对慢性胃炎的治疗规律%Based on Text Mining Techniques to Explore Medication Regularity of Chinese Patent Medicine and West Medicine Application for Chronic Gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立; 周奇; 郑光; 郭洪涛; 吕爱平

    2011-01-01

    Objectine; To analyze the regularity of Chinese patent medicine and west medicine application for chronic gastritis with text mining technique. Method; Collected large literature about treatment against chronic gastritis in CBM (Chinese Bio Medical Literature Database). Then, We transfer XML type data sets to the structured database of Microsoft? SQL? And visualize them into different graphs by Excel and Cytoscape software. Result; Sini San, Lizhong Wan were the commonly used Chinese patent medicine. The high frequencies of west medicine against chronic gastritis were amoxicillin, omeprazole and clarithromycin. Chinese patent medicine Sini San as well as west medicine omprazde and ranitidine of the combinated with othor drugs in treatment of the chronic gastrits. Conclusion: The text mining technology can find the medication regularity of Chinese patent medicine and west medicine application for chronic gastritis.%目的:利用文本挖掘技术探索中成药、西药对慢性胃炎的治疗规律.方法:在中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)中收集治疗慢性胃炎的相关文献,建立Access数据库,运用SQL对数据进行处理,结合人工降噪,分析中成药、西药对再障的治疗用药规律.结果:四逆散、理中丸等为中成药治疗慢性胃炎文献中出现的高频药物,阿莫西林、奥美拉唑、克拉霉素等为西药治疗慢性胃炎文献中出现的高频药物,在药物联合应用方面,中药四逆散、西药雪尼替丁和奥美拉唑出现频率较高.结论:利用文本挖掘技术可以从海量的中成药文献中发现治疗慢性胃炎的用药规律,协助规范中西医联合治疗方案.

  1. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  2. 专利制度与中药资源保护的衔接分析%Analysis of connection between patent system and protection of traditional Chinese medicine resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽荣

    2013-01-01

    中药是我国宝贵的民族财富,中药资源具有相当的商业开发和利用价值,具有转换为商业利益的潜力,可以成为开发某种新药的材料或者给予开发某种新药以技术启示.一些发达国家依靠专利制度,利用我国的中药资源获得可供专利保护的客体,我们却承担着由此带来的代价.2008年新修订的《专利法》中增加了对利用遗传资源完成的发明创造申请专利的相关规定,但目前我国《专利法》中无法对上述情形进行相应的规制.本文对专利制度与我国中药资源保护如何衔接进行了探讨,从专利制度的视野对中药资源的保护提出了相应的对策和建议.%Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the treasure of China nation. Under the new historical conditions, TCM meets with unprecedented opportunities and challenges in a new situation of global economy, especially legal protection of intellectual property of TCM after China joined WTO. As knowing the handicap of R&D of new drugs, more and more scientists began to focus on natural medicine. Consequently TCM gets more attention than ever. Based on advanced technology, some developed countries extract active ingredients or compounds from the traditional medicines or medicinal animals and plants coming from China to apply for patents. Amended patent law issued in 2008 added the paragraph in Article 5, "No patent right shall be granted for any invention-creation where acquisition or use of the genetic resources, on which the development of the invention-creation relies, is not consistent with the provisions of the laws or administrative regulations". However, there are no provisions in this Law on invention-creation which relies on resources of TCM , because genetic resources are essentially different from TCM resources. This paper discusses how to protect TCM resources in the patent law indirectly, and gives suggestion as well.

  3. Evaluation of the add-on effect of chinese patent medicine for patients with stable or unstable angina: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chen; Chung, Vincent C H; Yuan, Jin-Qiu; Yu, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Zu-Yao; Wu, Xin-Yin; Tang, Jin-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used as an adjunct to western medicine in treating angina in China. We carried out this systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of CHM on top of western medicine for angina. This meta-analysis included 46 randomized control trials with 4212 patients. For trials that included stable angina patients, the CHM group had significant lower incidence of total heart events (relative risk (RR) = 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33-0.78), myocardial infarction (RR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.72), heart failure (RR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.91), and angina (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.71) than that of control group. For trials that included unstable angina patients, CHM led to significantly lower occurrence of total heart events (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.32-0.66), myocardial infarction (RR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.26-0.54), and angina (RR = 0.36, 95%CI 0.26-0.51). Likewise, for trials that included stable or unstable angina patients, the rates of myocardial infarction (RR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.68) and angina (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.70) in CHM group were significantly lower than that in control group. In conclusion, CHM is very likely to be able to improve the survival of angina patients who are already receiving western medicine. PMID:24416066

  4. Global and Targeted Metabolomics Evidence of the Protective Effect of Chinese Patent Medicine Jinkui Shenqi Pill on Adrenal Insufficiency after Acute Glucocorticoid Withdrawal in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Linjing; Zhao, Aihua; Chen, Tianlu; Chen, Wenlian; Liu, Jiajian; Wei, Runmin; Su, Jing; Tang, Xuelan; Liu, Keyi; Zhang, Ran; Xie, Guoxiang; Panee, Jun; Qiu, Mingfeng; Jia, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids are commonly used in anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory therapies, but glucocorticoid withdrawal can result in life-threatening risk of adrenal insufficiency. Chinese patented pharmaceutical product Jinkui Shenqi pill (JKSQ) has potent efficacy on clinical adrenal insufficiency resulting from glucocorticoid withdrawal. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. We used an animal model to study JKSQ-induced metabolic changes under adrenal insufficiency and healthy conditions. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with hydrocortisone for 7 days with or without 15 days of JKSQ pretreatment. Sera were collected after 72 h hydrocortisone withdrawal and used for global and free fatty acids (FFAs)-targeted metabolomics analyses using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Rats without hydrocortisone treatment were used as controls. JKSQ pretreatment normalized the significant changes of 13 serum metabolites in hydrocortisone-withdrawal rats, involving carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. The most prominent effect of JKSQ was on the changes of FFAs and some [product FFA]/[precursor FFA] ratios, which represent estimated desaturase and elongase activities. The opposite metabolic responses of JKSQ in adrenal insufficiency rats and normal rats highlighted the "Bian Zheng Lun Zhi" (treatment based on ZHENG differentiation) guideline of TCM and suggested that altered fatty acid metabolism was associated with adrenal insufficiency after glucocorticoid withdrawal and the protective effects of JKSQ. PMID:27267777

  5. [A brief history of traditional Chinese medicinal pills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Lu, X; Zhu, J P

    2016-05-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine pill, an archaic medicinal preparation form, is a kind of spherical or spherical-like preparation form produced by medicinal powders or extracts mixed with appropriate excipient or other accessories. It was originated in the Pre-Qin Dynasty, developed and enriched from the Han Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. With the improvement of preparing process, honeyed pill, waxed pill, coating pill and wax-coating pill etc. appeared in succession. In modern times, with the progress of pharmaceutical machine, the medicinal pill is innovated constantly, and at present, it becomes the main form of Chinese patent medicine with batch production. PMID:27485865

  6. Evaluation of the Add-On Effect of Chinese Patent Medicine for Patients with Stable or Unstable Angina: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Mao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese herbal medicine (CHM has been widely used as an adjunct to western medicine in treating angina in China. We carried out this systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of CHM on top of western medicine for angina. This meta-analysis included 46 randomized control trials with 4212 patients. For trials that included stable angina patients, the CHM group had significant lower incidence of total heart events (relative risk (RR=0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.33–0.78, myocardial infarction (RR=0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.72, heart failure (RR=0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.91, and angina (RR=0.46, 95% CI 0.30–0.71 than that of control group. For trials that included unstable angina patients, CHM led to significantly lower occurrence of total heart events (RR=0.46, 95% CI 0.32–0.66, myocardial infarction (RR=0.37, 95% CI 0.26–0.54, and angina (RR=0.36, 95%CI 0.26–0.51. Likewise, for trials that included stable or unstable angina patients, the rates of myocardial infarction (RR=0.34, 95% CI 0.17–0.68 and angina (RR=0.46, 95% CI 0.30–0.70 in CHM group were significantly lower than that in control group. In conclusion, CHM is very likely to be able to improve the survival of angina patients who are already receiving western medicine.

  7. Patent Medicine VendorsAND#8217; Clients: Medicine Use Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Auta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate some medicine use behaviour of Patent Medicine Vendors’ (PMVs clients including self medication practice and medication sharing behaviour. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted in July 2011, on 361 undergraduate students of the University of Jos, Nigeria who visited PMVs within a month preceding the study. A pretested questionnaire was administered to participating students. Participants responded to questions on demography, and medicine use behaviour. Data were entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16 to generate descriptive statistics which were represented in percentages. RESULTS: The results showed that majority of the respondents (91.7% visited the PMVs for self-medication with the common classes of medicines procured by PMVs clients including analgesics (38.4%, antimalarials (22.2% and nutrition/blood preparations (14.1%. About 78.5% of the medicines sold to PMVs clients were in their original package and only 45.9% of clients reported checking the expiry date of their procured medicine prior to use. Medication sharing behaviour was common (60.2% among respondents. Although most respondents (70.2% said they had read a medicine information leaflet in the past, majority of them depended on unreliable sources such as friends/relatives (23.2%, media (10.8% and the internet (9.9% for medicine information. CONCLUSION: The study therefore demonstrated that PMV clients are those on self-medication practices and medication sharing behaviour is high among them. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 681-686

  8. TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930433 A study on relationship between hy-pothyroidism and deficiency of kidney YANG.ZHA Lianglun(查良伦),et al.lnstit Integr TCM& West Med,Shanghai Med Univ,Shanghai,200040.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 1993;13(4):202—204.Thirty—two cases of hypothyroidism causedby various factors were treated for one year withChinese medicinal herbs preparation“Shen Lutablet”(SLT)to warm and reinforce the KidneyYang.34 normal persons were studied as a con-trol group.After treatment with SLT,the clini-cal symptoms of hypothyroidism were markedlyimproved.Average serum concentration of totalT3,T4 increased significantly from 67.06±4.81

  9. 治疗2型糖尿病口服中成药的文献计量学分析%Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus oral Chinese patent medicine literature metrology analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔桐华; 黎元元

    2012-01-01

    The CBM, CNKI database 1979-2012 included oral Chinese patent medicine treatment diabetes literature, and the literature published time, periodical distribution, sources of literature and statistical analysis, to explore the treatment of type 2 diabetes medicine clinical literature distribution law and development trend, as in diabetes research related to the clinical and scientific research personnel to provide reference.%利用CBM,CNKI数据库检索1979年-2012年收录的口服中成药治疗糖尿病的文献,并对文献发表年代、期刊分布、文献来源等进行统计分析,以探讨治疗2型糖尿病中成药的临床文献的分布规律和发展趋势,为从事糖尿病相关研究的临床及科研人员提供参考.

  10. Genome wide expression analysis of the effect of the Chinese patent medicine Zilongjin tablet on four human lung carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Xin; Xiong, Songjin; Wen, Shaoping; Gao, Song; Wang, Lei; Cao, Boyang

    2011-10-01

    Zilongjin (ZLJ) tablet, which is a traditional Chinese medicine, has been approved as a new anti-tumor drug by the State Food and Drug Administration of China; however, its anti-cancer mechanisms remain elusive. The goal of this study was to investigate the underlying anti-cancer activities of ZLJ tablet in vitro. In this study, four lung cancer cell lines, A549, H446, H460 and H520, were treated with 2.2 mg/mL of ZLJ solution for 24 h at 37 °C under 5% CO(2) . RNA was isolated and a microarray experiment using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 plus 2.0 Array was employed to differentiate the expression patterns of cancer-related genes after drug treatment. Of 483 genes in 63 functional categories and 25 different pathways that showed at least a 2-fold change of expression level in the four cancer cell lines, 170 genes were upregulated, and 313 genes were downregulated. Eleven of the 483 genes were cancer-related and belong to the three known pathways: apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. The microarray data were validated by real-time RT-PCR. The results of this investigation suggest possible anti-cancer mechanisms of the ZLJ tablet, and lay a foundation to further analyse its therapeutic roles. PMID:21953710

  11. Chemometric resolution of coeluting peaks of eleven antihypertensives from multiple classes in high performance liquid chromatography: a comprehensive research in human serum, health product and Chinese patent medicine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Wu, Hai-Long; Niu, Jing-Fang; Yu, Yong-Jie; Yu, Li-Li; Kang, Chao; Li, Quan; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2012-08-01

    A novel chemometric-assisted high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was presented for the simultaneous determination of eleven antihypertensives from multiple classes in most concerned matrix systems. With the aid of second-order calibration which enables specific information of analytes to be well extracted, the heavily overlapping profiles between analytes and the coeluting interferences can be successfully separated and thus accurately quantified. A great advantage of the novel strategy lies in the fact that the analysis could be carried out with the same isocratic mobile phase (methanol/KH(2)PO(4): 58:42, v/v, pH 2.60) in a short time regardless of the changes of matrices, such as human serum, health product and Chinese patent medicine. Both qualitative and quantitative results indicate that the hybrid strategy that using HPLC-DAD coupled with second-order chemometric method would be a high performance approach for the purpose of simultaneously quantifying multiple classes of antihypertensives in complex systems. Additionally, the analytical strategy can potentially benefit drug monitoring in both therapeutic research and pharmaceutical quality control. Moreover, the accuracy and reliability of the proposed methodology has been evaluated using several statistical parameters such as root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP), figures of merit (FOM) and reproducibility of inter-day analysis. PMID:22795572

  12. How a Patent Eligibility Case Could Affect Personalized Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    BROUGHER, JOANNA T.

    2010-01-01

    The future of personalized medicine faces an uncertain future as the doctrine of patent eligibility faces legal challenges. In a case not directly related to medicine, diagnostic tests and other medical innovations are nonetheless at stake, writes Joanna T. Brougher, JD.

  13. Clinical Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine Patent Medicine and Physical Therapy on Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation:A Clinical Observation of 200 Cases%中药专利方剂联合物理疗法治疗腰椎间盘突出症200例临床观察*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德元

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of Traditional Chinese medicine patent medicine and physical therapy on lumbar disc herniation related research. Methods: 300 patients of lumbar disc herniation were randomly divided into treat-ment and control group, 100 patients in each group. Patients were treated with Chinese traditional medicine patent medicine and physical therapy in treatment group, and physical therapy in control group, 7 days for a course. The pain severity (VAS score) changes and curative effect were observed. Results: The total effective rate 97.0% and 92.0% respectively in treatment and control group; the efficacy of the treatment group was better than that of the control group, with significant difference ( P<0.05). The pain severity score of VAS decreased both in treatment and the control group after treatment, with significant dif-ference (P<0.01); the lowering of VAS score in the treatment group was better thean that in the control group, and the differ-ence was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Chinese patent drugs and physical therapy can provide exact effect on lumbar disc herniation, relieve back pain symptoms apparently and improve quality of life.%  目的:观察中药专利方剂联合物理疗法治疗腰椎间盘突出症的临床疗效。方法:将300例腰椎间盘突出症患者随机分为治疗组200例和对照组各100例。治疗组采用中药专利方剂联合物理治疗,对照组采用物理治疗,两组均以7 d为1个疗程。观察比较两组患者治疗前后疼痛程度(VAS评分)的变化及临床疗效。结果:总有效率治疗组为97.0%,对照组率为92.0%,两组比较,两组95%CI重叠,差异无统计学意义。结论:中药专利方剂联合物理疗法治疗腰椎间盘突出症有较好疗效,可明显缓解患者腰腿痛症状,提高生活质量。

  14. Scientometric study of patent literature in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Biglu, Mohammad Hossein

    2009-01-01

    A scientometric study was performed to assess the quantitative trend of patent literature in MEDLINE throughout 1965-2005. The kind of languages, publication type, journals, and the origin of published documents were presented. The study showed that the growth of patent literature in MEDLINE with an annual growth of 11.4% was 3.6 times higher than the common growth of the MEDLINE database which had an annual growth of 3.1% through 1965-2005. More than 90% of all documents indexed as "pa...

  15. The key role of Shenyan Kangfu tablets, a Chinese patent medicine for diabetic nephropathy: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui; Mu, Wei; Zhai, Jingbo; Xing, Dongmei; Miao, Shujie; Wang, Jia; Deng, Yueyi; WANG, NIANSONG; Chen, Hongyu; Yang, Hongtao; He, Xuehong; Shang, Hongcai

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major microvascular complication with diabetes. In China, an estimated 34.7 percent of people diagnosed with diabetes have renal complications and a further 50 percent die of renal failure. Hence, identification of alternative treatments for these patients should be given priority. The Shenyan Kangfu tablet (SYKFT) is a new formulation of an existing and widely acclaimed Chinese herbal tea for treating qi-yin deficiency syndrome. Because a considerabl...

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    @@ Further progress has been made in the traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer over the past few years, especially in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment principle, improvement of therapeutic results and prolonging the survival.

  17. IC+BIOLOGICAL CONTACT OXIDATION AND FLOCCULATION TREATMENT OF CHINESE PATENT MEDICINES IN PHARMACEUTICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT%IC+生物接触氧化+絮凝沉淀处理中成药制药废水实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德龙; 张晓东; 朱乐辉; 张亮

    2013-01-01

    中成药制药废水成分复杂、有机物含量高、毒性大、色度深、含盐量高且可生化性差,采用IC厌氧工艺加生物接触氧化加絮凝沉淀工艺处理某中成药制药厂生产废水,使出水水质达污水综合排放标准(GB 8978-1996)一级标准,运行结果表明,COD、NH3-N、SS、色度平均去除率分别达99.25%、89%、88%、99%,采用该工艺处理中成药生产废水,可满足中成药制药废水水量、水质波动大的要求,在技术和经济上可行.%Pharmaceutical wastewater with complex components, high content of organic matter, high toxicity, deep chroma, high salt content and poor biodegradability. In order to satisfy the integrated wastewater discharge standard (GB 8978 -1996) standard level, pharmaceutical factory production wastewater is treated by using IC anaerobic process with biological contact oxidation and flocculation sedimentation process. The results show that: average removal rate of COD, NH,-N, SS, chroma were 99.25%, 89%, 88% and 99%, respectively. The process for the treatment of wastewater from the production of Chinese patent medicine can meet the requirements of pharmaceutical waste water and water quality fluctuation of large requirements, which feasible in technology and economy.

  18. Clinical Service of Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) faces three major challenges:(1)How to enhance its contribution on overall medical service quality? (2) How to best address the unmet medical needs in the contemporary society? (3)How to guarantee that the traditional perspective for disease diagnosis and treatment not be neglected in clinical practice?

  19. Instruction to Authors of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chinese Herbal Medicines, an international journal sponsored by the Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research and Institute of Medicinal Plant Develop-ment. The Journal s purpose is to provide a forum for the studies on Chinese herbal medicines, traditional medicines, and natural products.

  20. 广东省三城市居民中成药用药安全现状调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of the Medication Safety Status of Chinese Patent Medicines for Residents in 3 Cit-ies of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晓慧; 宫瑞松; 姚茜; 侯亚静; 黎颖欣; 赵长鹰

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate the medication safety status of Chinese patent medicines and related influence factors for residents in Guangdong province,and provide reference for better guarantee of medication safety for residents. METHODS:Questionnaires were randomly sent out among the residents in 3 cities of Guangdong province. The cognition,utilization habit and safety awareness,the ways to get the related information of Chinese patent medicines and purchase way were surveyed and ana-lyzed statistically. RESULTS:Totally 530 questionnaires were sent out and 514 valid questionnaires were collected with effective re-covery of 96.98%. There are 64.01% of respondents didn’t know the composition of Chinese patent medicines;50.39% didn’t know the contraindications of Chinese patent medicines;48.44% didn’t know the adverse drug reactions of Chinese patent medi-cines that they were using;23.47% had once broken the tablets when took them;65.18% didn’t know that the old people had less dosage than teenagers and 44.75% didn’t know that Chinese patent medicines couldn’t be taken with some western medicines. There were many ways to get the related information of Chinese patent medicines and purchase them,and the main sources were from doctors and pharmacists in drug stores;90.08% had purchased Chinese patent medicines in drug stores. CONCLUSIONS:During daily medication of Chinese patent medicines,the biggest problem for residents is that the weak awareness of medication safety,unreasonable medication behavior and habit caused by lack of related knowledge of medication safety,which may cause safety risks or happen medication safety problems. Therefore,the residents’education of self-medical knowledge should be intensi-fied,the management of prescription in drug stores should be enhanced,pharmaceutical service function of pharmacists should be played,supervision management of drug advertisement should be strengthened and the contents in drug instructions should be

  1. [Research on distribution of patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular based on cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, Xu-Jie; XIAO, Shi-Ying

    2015-09-01

    To discuss the distribution of patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular, the patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular were cluster analyzed by means of simple statistics and cluster analysis. Clustering variables were composed of patent applications, patent maintained number, related papers' quantity, etc. Chinese herbal compound patents' holders were divided into four categories according to their different scientific research and patent strength. It is the magic weapon for Chinese herbal compound patents' holders that have scientific research patents' transforming and make coordination of patent protection and scientific innovation.

  2. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    2007134 Clinical study on "Jin′s three-needling" in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. LUO Wenzheng(罗文政), et al. Coll Acupunct & Massage, Guangzhou TCM Univ, Guangzhou 510405. Chin J Integr Trad & West Med 2007;27(3):201-203. Objective To study the clinical effect of "Jin′s three-needling" in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Methods Fifty-eight patients with generalized anxiety were randomly assigned to two groups equally. the medication group treated with anti-anxiety drugs and the acupuncture group with "Jin′s three-needling". The treatment course was 6 weeks. The clinical effects were evaluated with Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA), clinical global impression (CGI), and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) before treatment and at the end of 2nd, 4th, 6th week of the treatment course. The concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in platelet, and plasma levels of corticosterone (CS) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured with high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) method before and after treatment. Results The clinical effects in the two groups were equivalent, while the adverse reaction found in the acupuncture group was less than that in the medication group (P<0.05). The platelet concentration of 5-HT and plasma ACTH level decreased significantly in both groups after treatment with insignificant difference between the group (P<0.05). The plasma CS level had no obvious change in the two groups after treatment as compared with that before treatment.Conclusion "Jin′s three-needling" shows similar curative effect on generalized anxiety to routine Western medicine but with less adverse reaction, which may be realized through regulating the platelet 5-HT concentration and plasma ACTH level.

  3. Patent Medicine Sellers: How Can They Help Control Childhood Malaria?

    OpenAIRE

    Akuse, Rosamund M.; Edwin E Eseigbe; Abubakar Ahmed**; Brieger, William R

    2010-01-01

    Roll Back Malaria Initiative encourages participation of private health providers in malaria control because mothers seek care for sick children from them. This study investigated Patent Medicine Sellers (PMS) management of presumptive malaria in children in order to identify how they can assist malaria control. A cross-sectional survey of 491 PMS in Kaduna, Nigeria, was done using interviews and observation of shop activities. Most (80%) customers bought drugs without prescriptions. Only 29....

  4. Is Patent "Evergreening" Restricting Access to Medicine/Device Combination Products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed F Beall

    Full Text Available Not all new drug products are truly new. Some are the result of marginal innovation and incremental patenting of existing products, but in such a way that confers no major therapeutic improvement. This phenomenon, pejoratively known as "evergreening", can allow manufacturers to preserve market exclusivity, but without significantly bettering the standard of care. Other studies speculate that evergreening is especially problematic for medicine/device combination products, because patents on the device component may outlast expired patents on the medicine component, and thereby keep competing, possibly less-expensive generic products off the market.We focused on four common conditions that are often treated by medicine/device product combinations: asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, diabetes, and severe allergic reactions. The patent data for a sample of such products (n = 49 for treating these conditions was extracted from the United States Food and Drug Administration's Orange Book. Additional patent-related data (abstracts, claims, etc were retrieved using LexisNexis TotalPatent. Comparisons were then made between each product's device patents and medicine patents.Unexpired device patents exist for 90 percent of the 49 medicine/device product combinations studied, and were the only sort of unexpired patent for 14 products. Overall, 55 percent of the 235 patents found by our study were device patents. Comparing the last-to-expire device patent to that of the last-to-expire active ingredient patent, the median additional years of patent protection afforded by device patents was 4.7 years (range: 1.3-15.2 years.Incremental, patentable innovation in devices to extend the overall patent protection of medicine/device product combinations is very common. Whether this constitutes "evergreening" depends on whether these incremental innovations and the years of extra patent protection they confer are proportionately matched by

  5. Is Patent “Evergreening” Restricting Access to Medicine/Device Combination Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Reed F.; Nickerson, Jason W.; Kaplan, Warren A.; Attaran, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background Not all new drug products are truly new. Some are the result of marginal innovation and incremental patenting of existing products, but in such a way that confers no major therapeutic improvement. This phenomenon, pejoratively known as “evergreening”, can allow manufacturers to preserve market exclusivity, but without significantly bettering the standard of care. Other studies speculate that evergreening is especially problematic for medicine/device combination products, because patents on the device component may outlast expired patents on the medicine component, and thereby keep competing, possibly less-expensive generic products off the market. Materials and Methods We focused on four common conditions that are often treated by medicine/device product combinations: asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, and severe allergic reactions. The patent data for a sample of such products (n = 49) for treating these conditions was extracted from the United States Food and Drug Administration’s Orange Book. Additional patent-related data (abstracts, claims, etc) were retrieved using LexisNexis TotalPatent. Comparisons were then made between each product’s device patents and medicine patents. Results Unexpired device patents exist for 90 percent of the 49 medicine/device product combinations studied, and were the only sort of unexpired patent for 14 products. Overall, 55 percent of the 235 patents found by our study were device patents. Comparing the last-to-expire device patent to that of the last-to-expire active ingredient patent, the median additional years of patent protection afforded by device patents was 4.7 years (range: 1.3–15.2 years). Conclusion Incremental, patentable innovation in devices to extend the overall patent protection of medicine/device product combinations is very common. Whether this constitutes “evergreening” depends on whether these incremental innovations and the years of extra patent

  6. Chinese integrative medicine:inclusion of a Chinese medicine programme in a conventional medical institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yong Chen; Yibin Feng; Lixing Lao

    2014-01-01

    To meet community demands with optimal Chinese and conventional medical treatment, the University of Hong Kong is promoting integrative medicine by developing Chinese medicine programmes that train students of both Western and Chinese medicine. The programmes emphasize multi-disciplinary training and interaction between the two therapeutic approaches, enabling students to establish reliable, consistent, and respectful mutual cooperation in their future careers.

  7. Chinese traditional medicine for induction of ovulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖碧莲

    2003-01-01

    This is a review paper of some effective recipes of Chinese traditional medicine usedin ovulation induction and treatment of gynecological diseases. Some clinical results bygynecologists using Chinese traditional medicine in combination with western medicineand results from research on traditional medicine with modern technology are presented.A list of frequently used traditional medicine for ovulation induction are selected from the famous Compendium of Materica Medica(本草纲目)by Li Shi-zhen(李时珍).

  8. 我院中成药致不良反应158例分析%Analysis of 158 Cases of ADR Caused by Chinese Patent Medicines in Our Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霖; 何金; 曾琼瑶; 彭杨; 杨培洪; 程模

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate the characteristics and factors of ADR caused by Chinese patent medicine(CPM)and to provide reference for rational drug use and safety evaluation in the clinic. METHODS:158 cases of ADR caused by CPM collect-ed from our hospital during Jan.2009-Dec.2014 were analyzed. RESULTS:The occurrence of ADR caused by CPM was related to patient’s age,route of administration,category of drugs,irrational drug-use and so on. The incidence of ADR in patients over the age of 60 was the highest (31.01%),the largest number of ADR were caused by intravenous injection (79.11%),ADRs were most likely caused by blood-regulating preparation and dissipate blood stasis preparation (79.75%);ADR manifested as lesion of skin and its appendents(43.01%),followed by gastro-intestinal injury(16.06%)and whole-general injury(10.36%). The severe ADR was anaphylactoid reaction;after symptomatic treatment,the prognosis is good. CONCLUSIONS:According to syndrome differentiation and individual difference,CPM should be used rationally,and great importance should be attached to drug use moni-toring to reduce the incidence of ADR.%目的:了解我院中成药致不良反应(ADR)发生的特点及诱发因素,为临床合理用药及安全性评价提供参考。方法:对我院2009年1月-2014年12月上报国家ADR监测中心的158例中成药致ADR报告进行归类、统计、分析。结果:中成药致ADR的发生与患者年龄、给药途径、药品种类、不合理用药有关。ADR发生率以60岁以上的患者比例最高(占31.01%);以静脉滴注给药为主(占79.11%);药品种类主要为理血剂和祛瘀剂(占79.75%)。ADR累及最多的器官/系统为皮肤及其附件(占43.01%),其次是胃肠系统损害(16.06%)和全身性损害(10.36%);严重的ADR为过敏性休克,经过对症处理后,ADR转归较好。结论:临床应根据中医辨证,注重患者个体差异,规范使用中成

  9. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  10. Suggestion on Selection of Chinese Patent Medicine Lists Recorded in Pharmacopoeia of People' s Republic of China Volume I (2015 Version)%对2015年版《中国药典》一部成方制剂收载品种遴选的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓菊

    2012-01-01

    对2015年版《中国药典》一部成方制剂①收载品种的遴选提出建议,②收载品种与《国家基本药物》、《国家基本医疗保险药品目录》收载品种进行比较;③制剂收载品种含濒危动物及国家保护动物品种情况进行分析;对2010年版《中国药典》临床各科用药收载品种以及民族药收载情况进行分析.《中国药典》品种遴选原则和再评价方法,临床各科用药入选的比例,有关野生濒危动物药及人体组织器官药物入药,民族药品种遴选,收载品种与基本药物、医保药物、濒危品种应用脱节等方面尚存在的问题.建议建立《中国药典》一部成方制剂品种遴选基地;明确制定收载品种遴选的原则,兼顾国家基本药物、医疗保险品种;调整临床各科用药入选的比例,满足临床的需要;含濒危动物及国家保护动物品种严格按国家规定执行;加强民族药品种的入选;加强与国家相关部门的沟通、协商与合作.%Make a suggestion concerning the selection of Chinese Patent Medicine lists recorded in pharmacopoeia of the people' s republic of China volume I (2015 version). Analyzing Chinese Patent Medicine lists which contains endangered species and National Protected animals strain, recorded in pharmacopoeia of the people' s republic of China volume I (2010 version) ; Analyzing Clinical Medicine lists and Minority Medicine lists recorded in pharmacopoeia of the people' s republic of China volume I (2010 version) . The Selection principles and the re - estimation of Species in pharmacopoeia of the people' s republic of China volume . The proportion of the selection of Clinical medicine. The selection of medicine which contains endangered species and National Protected animals strain. The selection of national medicine. The selection of medicine species has been disconnected with the application of basic medicine, medicare medicine and endangered species. Expect to

  11. Approaches in Treating AIDS with Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕维柏

    2002-01-01

    @@ Editorial: AIDS is the archenemy of mankind, it also threatened Chinese people seriously. Although anti-retroviral drugs are effective, yet too expensive, the majority of 600 000 Chinese patients can't afford to purchase and use them. Decades ago, some scientists were trying to use Chinese Medicine in treating AIDS, experienc e gained but problems also exposed concerning strategy of research, methodol ogy, racial difference, Chinese drugs screening, integrative Chinese and western medicine, HIV and immunity, etc., sustained and integrative effort would bring safe, effective, and affordable drugs for the fatal pandemic all over the world

  12. RRLC-Q-TOF-NS法测定安神类中成药、保健食品中14种非法添加的催眠类药物%Study on the analysis of illegally added 14 hypnotic drugs in Chinese traditional patent medicine and healthy foods by RRLC-Q-TOF-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自; 严小红; 张玉英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a qualitative and quantitative analysis method of illegally added 14 hypnotic drugs in Chinese traditional patent medicine and healthy foods. Methods RRLC-Q-TOF-NS was as the detection method. The qualitative analysis was based on the retention time,ms spectrometer and ms/ms spectrometer. The quantitative analysis was based on the quasi-molecular ion peak areas of 14 hypnotic drugs. Results The related coefficients of 14 components were all above 0. 99,the recover factors were between 80% ~120%. The qualitative and quantitative analysis method of illegally added 14 hypnotic drugs in Chinese traditional patent medicine and healthy foods was established. Conclusion This method is accu-rate and less interference,the liner relationships and the recover factors of the quantitative results are all well,which is suitable for the analysis of illegally added 14 hypnotic drugs in Chinese traditional patent medicine and healthy foods.%目的:建立安神类中成药、保健食品中非法添加14种催眠类药物的定性和定量测定方法。方法使用RRLC-Q-TOF-NS作为检测方法,化合物准分子离子峰的保留时间、一级质谱和二级质谱作为定性依据;一级质谱准分子离子峰面积作为定量依据。结果建立安神类中成药、保健食品中非法添加14种催眠类药物的定性和定量检验测定方法,14种成分线性相关系数( r)均>0.99,回收率80%~120%。结论 RRLC-Q-TOF-NS法定性准确,干扰少,定量线性及回收率良好,适用于安神类中成药、保健食品非法添加催眠类药品的定性和定量检验。

  13. LC-MS/MS法快速测定中成药与保健食品中非法添加20种化学成分研究%Rapid Determination of 20 Illegally Added Chemical Components in Chinese Traditional Patent Medicine and Health Food by LC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙夏荣; 李丹; 文红梅; 崔福春; 黄亚; 郭春

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立中成药与保健食品中非法添加20种降糖类化学成分的快速测定方法.方法:采用液相色谱-串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS),以SunfireTM C18(100 mm×2.1 mm,5.0 μm)为分析柱,流动相采用乙腈-0.1%甲酸(75:25),电喷雾电离(ESI)、多反应监测(MRM)扫描方式,对中成药、保健食品中非法添加的20种化学成分进行快速定性定量分析.结果:建立了快速分离检测中成药、保健食品中20种非法添加成分的测定方法,检测限低于20 ng.结论:该方法专属性强、灵敏度高,适用于降糖类中成药、保健品中非法添加成分的定性定量分析.%Objective: To establish a liquid chromatography-tandem mass chromatography (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous screening 20 anti-diabetic chemical components in health care food and Chinese traditional patent medicine. Method: This method involved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with SunfireTM C18 cotumn ( 100 mm × 2. 1 mm ,5.0 μm ). The mobile phase consisted of 0. 1% formic and acetonitrile (25:75 ). The target compounds were analyzed with LC-MS/MS-ESI. Multiple-reaction monitoting ( M RM ) was used to screen 20 chemical components in health care food and Chinese traditional patent medicine. Result: A fast and sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometric ( LC/MS ) method for the simultaneous screening of 20 chemical components was described. The detection lowest limit of these substances was below 20 ng. Conclusion: The method is sufficiently selective and sensitive to detect chemical components in health care food and Chinese traditional patent medicine.

  14. Role of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Integrative Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱平; 吕维柏; 吕青平

    2004-01-01

    @@ Complementary & alternative medicine (CAM) is getting more and more important in improving human health. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with her thousands of years history and contributions to the health of Chinese people, definitely is vital in CAM in China. Medical sciences including CAM and mainstream medicine, with unified specific aim, could be integrated and become integrative medicine. During the integration, TCM would contribute much more in the progress with her cultural background and clinical efficacy. This paper will discuss how TCM takes part in the inte gration via her function in clinical practice.

  15. An Overview of Patent Law as Applied to the Field of Veterinary Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, James M.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes some of the challenges that can arise when patent law is applied to the field of veterinary medicine. Topics covered in this article include an overview of the different kinds of inventions that can be patented in the veterinary field; a review of recent legal developments that may affect the patenting of veterinary pharmaceuticals; a discussion of some potential issues related to patents covering assays; and an identification of some special situations where the law aff...

  16. Artemisinin, a miracle of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling Yi; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2015-12-19

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared by Professor Youyou Tu, focused worldwide attention on artemisinin, a natural product antimalarial drug inspired by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first Nobel Prize in natural sciences presented to a Chinese scientist for her impactful research work in China in collaboration with other Chinese scientists. We are delighted to provide the background and implications of the discovery of artemisinin, along with our personal viewpoints toward the affordability of modern medicines from natural products. PMID:26561737

  17. Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The 2006 reception conference of the International Education College of the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine was held April 28 in Beijing, unveiling its overseas students recruitment program this year.

  18. Scope of claim coverage in patents of fufang Chinese herbal drugs: Substitution of ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Jiaher

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herbal ingredients in a Chinese fufang prescription are often replaced by one or several other herbal combinations. As there have been very few Chinese herbal patent infringement cases, it is still unclear how the Doctrine of Equivalents should be applied to determine the scope of 'equivalents' in Chinese fufang prescriptions. Case law principles from cases in other technical areas such as chemical patents and biological drug patents can be borrowed to ascertain a precise scope of a fufang patent. This article summarizes and discusses several chemical and biopharmaceutical patent cases. In cases where a certain herbal ingredient is substituted by another herb or a combination of herbs, accused infringers are likely to relate herbal drug patents to chemical drug patents with strict interpretation whereas patent owners may take advantage of the liberal application of Doctrine of Equivalence in biopharmaceutical patents by analogizing the complex nature of herbal drugs with biological drugs. Therefore, consideration should be given to the purpose of an ingredient in a patent, the qualities when combined with the other ingredients and the intended function. The scope of equivalents also depends on the stage of the prior art. Moreover, it is desirable to disclose any potential substitutes when drafting the application. Claims should be drafted in such a way that all foreseeable modifications are encompassed for the protection of the patent owner's intellectual property.

  19. Chinese Medicine: A Cognitive and Epistemological Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Kavoussi

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementa...

  20. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy.......Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy....

  1. [The apprentice education system of Chinese medicinal industry in modern Kunming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhuqing

    2015-07-01

    In the late Qing Dynasty, following the appearance of the Chinese medicinal materials industry trade association of Kunming, the "master agreement" as a professional regulation, also implemented, marking the beginning of the contractualization and institutionalization of apprentice education in Yunnan. The contents and implementation of the "master agreement" was organized by the Chinese medicinal materials industry trade association of Kunming and its craft union. The apprentice education in Kunming traditional Chinese medicinal industry has the following characteristics: expanding the source of talent; adepting at agricultural production of the accorded apprentice; conforming to the conditions of human manipulation of Chinese traditional medicine; being in line with the characteristics and rules of Chinese medicine skills taught by oral narration and tacit understanding; unity of the medical and pharmaceutical professionals; and non-governmental organization. Apprentice training had trained a number of medical talents, and promoted the transformation of manual workshop to industrialization in Kunming. Apprentice education had catalyzed the establishment of specialized shops selling patent medicines exclusively to separated from those running both crude drugs and patent medicines, to form a set of effective teaching system, thus exerting profound influence on later generations. PMID:26815024

  2. Patent Medicine Sellers: How Can They Help Control Childhood Malaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamund M. Akuse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Roll Back Malaria Initiative encourages participation of private health providers in malaria control because mothers seek care for sick children from them. This study investigated Patent Medicine Sellers (PMS management of presumptive malaria in children in order to identify how they can assist malaria control. A cross-sectional survey of 491 PMS in Kaduna, Nigeria, was done using interviews and observation of shop activities. Most (80% customers bought drugs without prescriptions. Only 29.5% were given instructions about doses. Between 40–100% doses of recommended antimalarials were incorrect. Some (22% PMS did not ask questions about illness for which they were consulted. Most children treated in shops received injections. PMS facilitate homecare but have deficiencies in knowledge and practice. Interventions must focus on training them to accurately determine doses, give advice about drug administration, use oral medication, and ask about illness. Training should be made a prerequisite for registering and reregistering shops.

  3. Patent medicine sellers: how can they help control childhood malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuse, Rosamund M; Eseigbe, Edwin E; Ahmed, Abubakar; Brieger, William R

    2010-01-01

    Roll Back Malaria Initiative encourages participation of private health providers in malaria control because mothers seek care for sick children from them. This study investigated Patent Medicine Sellers (PMS) management of presumptive malaria in children in order to identify how they can assist malaria control. A cross-sectional survey of 491 PMS in Kaduna, Nigeria, was done using interviews and observation of shop activities. Most (80%) customers bought drugs without prescriptions. Only 29.5% were given instructions about doses. Between 40-100% doses of recommended antimalarials were incorrect. Some (22%) PMS did not ask questions about illness for which they were consulted. Most children treated in shops received injections. PMS facilitate homecare but have deficiencies in knowledge and practice. Interventions must focus on training them to accurately determine doses, give advice about drug administration, use oral medication, and ask about illness. Training should be made a prerequisite for registering and reregistering shops. PMID:22332020

  4. The taste sensory evaluation of medicinal plants and Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Masumi; Tokuyama, Emi; Miyanaga, Yohko; Uchida, Takahiro

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of the artificial taste sensor in the evaluation of 11 medicinal plants and 10 Chinese medicines with bitter and/or astringent tastes, and to assess the possible application of the sensor in the evaluation of taste and quality control of medicinal products. Aqueous extracts of the six bitter medicinal plants could be classified into three types, and those of the five astringent medicinal plants into two types, on the basis of sensor output pattern profiles. These differences seem to derive from the different structures of the main components. In the principal component analysis of the taste sensor output of 10 Chinese medicines, a new measure developed, the 'Euclidean distance', defined as the distance between a control and the targeted substance on the principal component map. This measure offers a possibility for indicating the different tastes of Chinese medicines. Lastly, we confirmed that berberine adsorption on the surface of the artificial membrane of the taste sensor was of the Langmuir type. The berberine content in extracts of medicinal plants could be evaluated by the taste sensor, and it was shown to be possible to use the taste sensor for the quality control of medicinal plants.

  5. Study on the irradiation decontamination of traditional Chinese medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) are natural products prepared from plants, minerals and animals, it is easy for contamination by microorganisms to occur; thus causing problems in complying with the requirements laid down for passing microbial limit tests. We selected some kinds of TCMs, including unprocessed materia medica, traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPMs) and chemical constituents for irradiation by 60Co gamma ray and investigating the results in terms of microbiology, chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. We found no evidence of changes in most of the tested items, which indicates that the irradiation method could be employed for decontamination of TCMs. However, some chemical constituents of unprocessed materia medica, such as gentiopicrin in Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside in Radix Polygoni Multiflori, decomposed when these crude materials were irradiated with dose of 5kGy. Further study revealed that although the medicinal were altered by irradiation, the monomers of some of these chemical constituents were not affected. In addition to investigation of the items described above, the doses of irradiation were selected experimentally to ensure that, after irradiation, the TCMs passed the microbial limit tests described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The lowest possible doses were used in order to avoid any impairment of the quality and clinical efficacy of the effective ingredients of the TCMs. (author)

  6. The Transmission of Chinese Medicine in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Garvey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation of CM has offered the path of least resistance, it has also lead to unworkable simplifications and methodological failures. The paper thus argues for a renewed access to the tradition’s primary sources in order to ally the distinctive features and methods of traditional practice with biomedicine, as an alternative to an outright integration into biomedical practice.

  7. Chinese herbal medicine research in eczema treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Ping

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted.

  8. Comparison of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeol Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.

  9. Medicine patent pool--pharma philanthropy or PR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Merck recently signed an agreement with The Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) to license intellectual property relating to pediatric formulations of its integrase HIV drug, raltegravir (Ral) (the 'Agreement'). The Agreement is alleged to clear the way for cheaper formulations for use in developing and some middle income countries and allows for the development of novel pediatric formulations of Ral as well as novel combinations. Merck's license is royalty free and under the terms of the Agreement, manufacturers anywhere in the world who meet the quality assurance criteria, can manufacture and sell pediatric versions of the drug in the licensed countries under the agreed conditions without paying a royalty to Merck. The Agreement covers at least 92 countries and MPP reports that 98.1% of children with HIV in the developing world live in the included countries. The Agreement has been criticized as a public relations exercise. The article asks if the criticism is justified and explores several aspects of the Agreement in addressing the question. PMID:26291460

  10. Chinese herbal medicine for treatment of dislipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyun Wu; Jianwei Bei; Jiao Guo

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence of dislipidemia is increasing rapidly in China and there has been a growing interest in Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of hyperlipidemia both inside and outside China. In this article, lipids regulating effects of 9 herbs or their extracts and 5 herbal formulae which have been published in English-language literature are reviewed. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of these Chinese herbal medicines, few multi-center large-scale clinical trials have been conducted to confirm the efficacy and evaluate their safety.

  11. [Scientific Positioning of Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-ming

    2016-03-01

    Whether traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be categorized as a kind of science or not has been a controversial issue over last century. Part of the confusion is caused by the indistinguishable usage of Chinese words "science" and "scientific" during discussion. According to western academic standards, TCM cannot be considered as pure or conventional science. However, in author's view, the foundation of a majority part of TCM practice is probably scientific, while many TCM theories remain unproved. In this article, medical theories and practices are classified based on scientific content into eight levels: medical science, scientific medicine, medical system, medical theory, medical opinion, medical belief, medical cultism, and medical fraud. Both Western medicine and TCM are positioned in this system accordingly. Currently, the scientific level of TCM is much lower than that of Western medicine, and more research is needed for its improvement.

  12. [Chinese Medicine in Overall Modern Scientific Technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuan-sheng; Zeng Yong

    2015-10-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) develops with the survival, reproduction, growth, and progressing of the Chinese nation. Scientific technologies not only promote continual progressing of human societies, but also provide new ideas and methods for the development of CM. In recent years, great changes have taken place in CM complying with developing modern scientific technologies, mainly manifested in the depth of CM theories at molecular levels, the combination of syndrome differentiation and disease identification, continuous innovation and development of clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, diversified dosages of Chinese materia medica, the academic tendency of education patterns, occupational refinement, diversified medical practice modes, and so on. PMID:26677664

  13. Patent and exclusivity status of essential medicines for non-communicable disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K Mackey

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The threat of non-communicable diseases ("NCDs" is increasingly becoming a global health crisis and are pervasive in high, middle, and low-income populations resulting in an estimated 36 million deaths per year. There is a need to assess intellectual property rights ("IPRs" that may impede generic production and availability and affordability to essential NCD medicines. METHODS: Using the data sources listed below, the study design systematically eliminated NCD drugs that had no patent/exclusivity provisions on API, dosage, or administration route. The first step identified essential medicines that treat certain high disease burden NCDs. A second step examined the patent and exclusivity status of active ingredient, dosage and listed route of administration using exclusion criteria outlined in this study. MATERIALS: We examined the patent and exclusivity status of medicines listed in the World Health Organization's ("WHO" Model List of Essential Drugs (Medicines ("MLEM" and other WHO sources for drugs treating certain NCDs. i.e., cardiovascular and respiratory disease, cancers, and diabetes. We utilized the USA Food and Drug Administration Orange Book and the USA Patent and Trademark Office databases as references given the predominant number of medicines registered in the USA. RESULTS: Of the 359 MLEM medicines identified, 22% (79/359 address targeted NCDs. Of these 79, only eight required in-depth patent or exclusivity assessment. Upon further review, no NCD MLEM medicines had study patent or exclusivity protection for reviewed criteria. CONCLUSIONS: We find that ensuring availability and affordability of potential generic formulations of NCD MLEM medicines appears to be more complex than the presence of IPRs with API, dosage, or administration patent or exclusivity protection. Hence, more sophisticated analysis of NCD barriers to generic availability and affordability should be conducted in order to ensure equitable access to global

  14. Marketing of patent medicines in the nineteenth century via a corkscrew medicine spoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Jack E

    2010-01-01

    The C. T. Williamson spoon with manufactured products from a pharmaceutical company engraved on the bowl of the spoon is one of the earliest examples of a manufacturer marketing products via a drug delivery device. The Burroughs, Wellcome and Company, a British corporation using initially an American patented, and later a British patented, Williamson corkscrew spoon marketed British manufactured medicinal products in the U.S. and England to physicians and pharmacists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Other corkscrew spoons were manufactured in this era without product specific notations contained on the spoons. 40 These corkscrew spoons, such as the Williamson and Noe patented apparatuses, helped patients in more easily consuming liquid medications. They also were items potentially favored by physicians and pharmacists for patient's pro- vided liquid medications. Finally, they allowed patients to open corked containers, consume liquid dosage amounts, and hopefully more appropriately comply with necessary regimens in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Not surprisingly, Burroughs, Wellcome and Company used the Williamson spoon to successfully market company products to physicians, pharmacists, and patients on several continents. PMID:21688730

  15. 基于国际专利分类法的上海中药产业创新技术热点分析%Analysis on Hot Spots of Innovative Technology of Chinese Medicine Industry in Shanghai Based on The IPC Classification of Patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analysis the hot spots of innovative technology of Chinese medicine industry in Shanghai during the recent years.Methods Patent Database of State Intelletual Property Office was retrieved by IPC class numbers combined with keywords and the IPC classification of the Chinese medicine patents in Shanghai area during 2002-2013 were under statistical analysis.Results The hot spot distribution of therapeutic activity of TCM preparations:Antineoplastic is the most important activity of Chinese medicine development, followed by the activities of treatment of inadequate blood flow or cardiovascular system diseases, such as hyperglycemia, high cholesterol, and so on. The activity of treatment of the digestive tract or digestive system diseases, followed by the activities of anti infection, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory treatment, etc. The hot spot distribution of dosage:Researches on new dosage of Chinese medicine were mainly reflected in the improvement of traditional dosage form and development of new formulations. The capsules, tablets, oral liquid, and injections were the new dosage forms under the most researches. The distribution of medical resources:Medicinal plants or animals mainly came from “angiosperm”. Medicinal animals were less than medicinal plants, which mainly belonged to insecta.ConclusionThe hot spots of innovative technology of Chinese medicine industry in Shanghai are mainly distributed in the medicine of anti-tumor, cardiocerebral vascular diseases, digestive system diseases and so on in recent years. The researches of new formulation focus on the traditional dosage form improvement and new formulations development. “Angiosperm” is the key to the development of medicinal plants.%目的:分析近年来我国上海地区中药产业创新技术研究热点。方法采用国际专利分类法(IPC)分类号结合关键词组合检索《国家知识产权局专利数据库》,对2002-2013年

  16. 某院2010~2011年儿科门诊中成药使用情况的分析%2010~2011 in A Hospital Outpatient Department of Pediatrics Analysis of the Use of Chinese Patent Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨钰颋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outpatient department of Pediatrics in our hospital medicine application, provide reference for clinical rational drug use. Methods According to the drug dosage forms and pharmacological effects of classification, comparison of proprietary Chinese medicine sales. At the same time list sales ranked the top 20 Chinese patent medicines. Results The consumption sum of oral liquid, mixture, granules and powder were higher than that of other dosage forms, while Chinese patent drugs were applied extensively in digestive system, respiratory system of Pediatrics. Sales ranked the top 20 Chinese medicine pharmacological effect on the respiratory and digestive systems, these drug dosage forms are mainly liquid dosage form and granule. Conclusion The application of Chinese patent drugs in pediatric out-patient in our hospital is reasonable basically.%  目的 调查我院儿科门诊中成药应用情况,为临床合理用药提供参考依据。方法 利用计算机统计每个中成药品种的出库数量、金额,按剂型、作用系统分类计算销售额,列出前20位的中成药品种、销售额,用金额排序的方法进行统计、分析。结果 销售金额较高的剂型为合剂、糖浆剂、颗粒剂与散剂;中成药在儿科呼吸系统、消化系统疾病方面的应用频率较多;前20位的中成药品种以用于呼吸系统、消化系统的液体剂型、颗粒剂型为主。结论 我院儿科门诊中成药应用基本合理。

  17. Driving a decade of change: HIV/AIDS, patents and access to medicines for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoen Ellen 't

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 2000, access to antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV infection has dramatically increased to reach more than five million people in developing countries. Essential to this achievement was the dramatic reduction in antiretroviral prices, a result of global political mobilization that cleared the way for competitive production of generic versions of widely patented medicines. Global trade rules agreed upon in 1994 required many developing countries to begin offering patents on medicines for the first time. Government and civil society reaction to expected increases in drug prices precipitated a series of events challenging these rules, culminating in the 2001 World Trade Organization's Doha Declaration on the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Public Health. The Declaration affirmed that patent rules should be interpreted and implemented to protect public health and to promote access to medicines for all. Since Doha, more than 60 low- and middle-income countries have procured generic versions of patented medicines on a large scale. Despite these changes, however, a "treatment timebomb" awaits. First, increasing numbers of people need access to newer antiretrovirals, but treatment costs are rising since new ARVs are likely to be more widely patented in developing countries. Second, policy space to produce or import generic versions of patented medicines is shrinking in some developing countries. Third, funding for medicines is falling far short of needs. Expanded use of the existing flexibilities in patent law and new models to address the second wave of the access to medicines crisis are required. One promising new mechanism is the UNITAID-supported Medicines Patent Pool, which seeks to facilitate access to patents to enable competitive generic medicines production and the development of improved products. Such innovative approaches are possible today due to the previous decade of AIDS activism

  18. Driving a decade of change: HIV/AIDS, patents and access to medicines for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoen, Ellen 't; Berger, Jonathan; Calmy, Alexandra; Moon, Suerie

    2011-01-01

    Since 2000, access to antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV infection has dramatically increased to reach more than five million people in developing countries. Essential to this achievement was the dramatic reduction in antiretroviral prices, a result of global political mobilization that cleared the way for competitive production of generic versions of widely patented medicines.Global trade rules agreed upon in 1994 required many developing countries to begin offering patents on medicines for the first time. Government and civil society reaction to expected increases in drug prices precipitated a series of events challenging these rules, culminating in the 2001 World Trade Organization's Doha Declaration on the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Public Health. The Declaration affirmed that patent rules should be interpreted and implemented to protect public health and to promote access to medicines for all. Since Doha, more than 60 low- and middle-income countries have procured generic versions of patented medicines on a large scale.Despite these changes, however, a "treatment timebomb" awaits. First, increasing numbers of people need access to newer antiretrovirals, but treatment costs are rising since new ARVs are likely to be more widely patented in developing countries. Second, policy space to produce or import generic versions of patented medicines is shrinking in some developing countries. Third, funding for medicines is falling far short of needs. Expanded use of the existing flexibilities in patent law and new models to address the second wave of the access to medicines crisis are required.One promising new mechanism is the UNITAID-supported Medicines Patent Pool, which seeks to facilitate access to patents to enable competitive generic medicines production and the development of improved products. Such innovative approaches are possible today due to the previous decade of AIDS activism. However, the Pool is just one of a

  19. Latest Progress on Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) has been recently included in the Wanfang Database-Digital Periodical Group, China Academic Journals Integrated Online Database, Index of Copernicus (IC) in Poland, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) in USA, and Ulrich's Periodicals Directory domestically and abroad.

  20. The remote supervisory and controlling experiment system of traditional Chinese medicine production based on Fieldbus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jinliang; Lu, Pei

    2006-11-01

    Since the quality of traditional Chinese medicine products are affected by raw material, machining and many other factors, it is difficult for traditional Chinese medicine production process especially the extracting process to ensure the steady and homogeneous quality. At the same time, there exist some quality control blind spots due to lacking on-line quality detection means. But if infrared spectrum analysis technology was used in traditional Chinese medicine production process on the basis of off-line analysis to real-time detect the quality of semi-manufactured goods and to be assisted by advanced automatic control technique, the steady and homogeneous quality can be obtained. It can be seen that the on-line detection of extracting process plays an important role in the development of Chinese patent medicines industry. In this paper, the design and implement of a traditional Chinese medicine extracting process monitoring experiment system which is based on PROFIBUS-DP field bus, OPC, and Internet technology is introduced. The system integrates intelligence node which gathering data, superior sub-system which achieving figure configuration and remote supervisory, during the process of traditional Chinese medicine production, monitors the temperature parameter, pressure parameter, quality parameter etc. And it can be controlled by the remote nodes in the VPN (Visual Private Network). Experiment and application do have proved that the system can reach the anticipation effect fully, and with the merits of operational stability, real-time, reliable, convenient and simple manipulation and so on.

  1. Introducing Considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonya E.Pritzker; Ka-Kit Hui

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the document,Considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine, published in PDF form online in both Chinese and English. This 20-page document includes several sections describing why theConsiderations is necessary, the speciifcity of texts in Chinese medicine; the history of translation in Chinese medicine; who constitutes an ideal translator of Chinese medicine; what types of language exist in Chinese medicine; and speciifc issues in the translation of Chinese medicine, such as domestication versus foreignization, technical terminology, period-speciifc language, style, polysemy, and etymological translation. The final section offers a brief advisory for consumers, and concludes with a call to further discussion, and action, specifically in the development of international collaborative efforts towards the creation of more rigorous guidelines for the translation of Chinese medicine. The current article provides an overview of several of these sections, and includes links to the original document.

  2. 治疗心脑血管疾病中成药微量和常量元素含量与疗效的模糊分类法则%Contents of trace and constant elements and therapeutic effects of Chinese patent medicine on cardio-cerebral vascular disease: fuzzy classified principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董顺福; 刘洁; 韩丽琴; 赵文秀; 栾静

    2005-01-01

    ,确定论域上的模糊矩阵,得相关药物的相关系数.r=0.55时,有9种药物聚类相似;相类似药物:血栓心脉宁胶囊,步长脑心通胶囊,利心丸,心宝丸,强力天麻杜仲丸,通塞脉片,脉通胶囊,大活络丹,消栓通络胶囊;r=0.65时,有6种药物聚类相似,相似药物有:步长脑心通胶囊,心宝丸,强力天麻杜仲丸,通塞脉片,脉通胶囊,消栓通络胶囊;r=0.87时,有2种药物聚类相似,相似药物有:步长脑心通胶囊,心宝丸.结论:药物中微量、常量元素含量丰富,相关系数较大的药物,其药物疗效相似,揭示该类药物中微量、常量元素与药物疗效密切相关.本研究运用模糊分类方法从微量元素的角度讨论了常用治疗心脑血管疾病中成药的药效定量指标的相似性,为中成药的质量评价提供一种新的方法.%BACKGROUND: It is discovered that trace elements in Chinese patent medicine play an important role in pharmaceutical efficacy and structural analysis. A new topic has been formed gradually in a further research on pharmaceutical efficacy and effective components of Chinese patent medicine in the view of inorganic trace elements. The fuzzy classified study on the interrelationship between trace and constant elements of Chinese herbs and therapeutic effects is to discuss the trace-element action of drugs in the holistic aspect of trace elenent and research rather scientifically the holistic coordination among trace elements in Chinese herbs.OBJECTIVE: To determine the contents of 21 kinds of trace and constant elements in Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of cardio-cerebral vascular disease. To study with fuzzy classified method the interdependence between trace, constant elements of drugs and therapeutic effects so as to provide a new approach for the quality evaluation of Chinese patent medicine.DESIGN: Testified observed study based on various Chinese patent medicines.SETTING: Chemistry teaching-research room in a

  3. National semantic infrastructure for traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-jun CHEN

    2012-01-01

    1 Introduction Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is "the traditional medicine that originated in China,and is characterized by holism and treatment based on pattern identification/syndrome differentiation" (WHO,2007).In China,traditional medicine accounts for around 40% of all healthcare delivered;in the West,TCM is increasingly adopted by medical practitioners as a form of complementary and altemative medicine (CAM) (WHO,2002).Both in China and in the West,scientists are attempting to bring the ancient heritage of TCM into line with modem standards,through the scientific development of TCM in the direction of evidence-based medicine (Qiu,2007).There is a pressing need for the digital preservation and global access of TCM knowledge assets.

  4. Study on international standard multilingual nomenclature of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Liu, Lu; Li, Wei; Shi, Da-zhuo; Zeng, Wen-ying; Zhu, Mian-sheng; Angles, Michel; Attali, Jean-Raymond; Choy, Pedro; Choy, Joao; Wu, Chi-haur; Zhai, Fu-han; Ramon, Maria Calduch; Chung, Ching

    2010-04-01

    The International Standard Chinese-English Basic Nomenclature of Chinese medicine (ISN) was released in 2007, a nomenclature list consisting of 6 500 Chinese medical terms. ISN was the culmination of several years of collaborative diligent work of over 200 specialists who represent Chinese medicine in 68 countries. The overall goal for devising standard English nomenclature for Chinese medicine is to develop a practical international standard nomenclature for Chinese medical basic terms, to make it compatible with contemporary research and educational standards in the globalized health care service. In this article, provided is an overview of principles and methods for the multilingual translations, the processes behind the particular content of the Chinese-English ISN and an introduction to the ongoing new projects, i.e. the multilingual versions of ISN (International Standards of Chinese-Spanish, Chinese-French and Chinese-Portuguese Basic Nomenclature of Chinese Medicine).

  5. [Study on determination of Chinese medicine flavor and its regularity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Five flavors are basic nature of Chinese medicine. But the labeling of Chinese medicine flavors was in a chaos. Song Jin and Yuan dynasty is a transconformation stage of labeling Chinese medicine flavors. In this article the author put forward that the determination of Chinese medicine flavor shifted from tasting of early and middle age of Northern Song dynasty to categorical analogizing and functional analogizing in the late age of Northern Song dynasty. The latter method had a flourished development in Southern Song, Jin and Yuan dynasty. This regularity conclusion has provided a reference for the standardizing Chinese medicine flavors. PMID:24946566

  6. Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghee Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.

  7. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine in big data era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Boli

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of big data era, our thinking, technology and methodology are being transformed. Data-intensive scientific discovery based on big data, named "The Fourth Paradigm," has become a new paradigm of scientific research. Along with the development and application of the Internet information technology in the field of healthcare, individual health records, clinical data of diagnosis and treatment, and genomic data have been accumulated dramatically, which generates big data in medical field for clinical research and assessment. With the support of big data, the defects and weakness may be overcome in the methodology of the conventional clinical evaluation based on sampling. Our research target shifts from the "causality inference" to "correlativity analysis." This not only facilitates the evaluation of individualized treatment, disease prediction, prevention and prognosis, but also is suitable for the practice of preventive healthcare and symptom pattern differentiation for treatment in terms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and for the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. To conduct clinical studies involved in big data in TCM domain, top level design is needed and should be performed orderly. The fundamental construction and innovation studies should be strengthened in the sections of data platform creation, data analysis technology and big-data professionals fostering and training.

  8. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine in big data era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Boli

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of big data era, our thinking, technology and methodology are being transformed. Data-intensive scientific discovery based on big data, named "The Fourth Paradigm," has become a new paradigm of scientific research. Along with the development and application of the Internet information technology in the field of healthcare, individual health records, clinical data of diagnosis and treatment, and genomic data have been accumulated dramatically, which generates big data in medical field for clinical research and assessment. With the support of big data, the defects and weakness may be overcome in the methodology of the conventional clinical evaluation based on sampling. Our research target shifts from the "causality inference" to "correlativity analysis." This not only facilitates the evaluation of individualized treatment, disease prediction, prevention and prognosis, but also is suitable for the practice of preventive healthcare and symptom pattern differentiation for treatment in terms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and for the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. To conduct clinical studies involved in big data in TCM domain, top level design is needed and should be performed orderly. The fundamental construction and innovation studies should be strengthened in the sections of data platform creation, data analysis technology and big-data professionals fostering and training. PMID:25217972

  9. [Advertisements in newspapers and magazines about patent medicines in the Meiji era (The first dissertation) (Part 2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, H; Kawabuchi, M; Obana, Y; Sugihara, M

    1995-01-01

    On January 20th of the 10th year of the Meiji era (1877) the government enforced the laws regulating patent medicines. Since then patent medicines were frequently attacked in the newspapers. Abuses of patent medicines became the target of criticism. Yukichi Fukuzawa had carried his comments against abusing patent medicines in "Minkanzasshi" for 4 days from March 24th in the 11th year of the Meiji era. Abuses of patent medicines prevented medical science from progressing. He pointed out the responsibility of newspapers which printed advertisement of ineffective patent medicines. "The kanayomi" which was a small newspaper company refuted his comments. Jihei Morita published the magazine "Houtan" in person, and he ran many advertisements about patent medicines. In October in the 15th year of the Meiji era, the law, which imposed a tax on patent medicines was enacted. In addition to the censure against patent medicines were an account in the newspaper successively. However, at the same time, these accounts had serious consequences the traders of medicine and they went to law by the reason which they led to serious interference with their business. PMID:11613528

  10. Roles of Chinese herbal medicines in ischemic heart diseases (IHD) by regulating oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Wang, Jin; Liu, Yuntao; Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) basing on atherosclerosis (AS) is known as a top killer for decades. Oxidative stress, representing excessive oxidation and insufficient elimination, has been proved to be a critical molecular mechanism of IHD and accompanying myocardium dysfunction. Therefore, anti-oxidation therapy may be efficient. Chinese herbal medicine, including extractive compounds, decoctions, patent drugs, and injections, has shown its enormous potential in prevention and treatment of IHD as an effective antioxidant in experimental studies. The aim of this review is to highlight recent studies of Chinese herbal medicine in regulating oxidative stress in IHD. These studies represent recent progress of IHD treatment and indicate the possible pathways and target spots of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:27390948

  11. [Inheritance and innovation of traditional Chinese medicinal authentication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-biao; Xiao, Pei-gen; Guo, Ping; Liang, Zhi-tao; Hung, Fanny; Wong, Lai-lai; Brand, Eric; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Chinese medicinal authentication is fundamental for the standardization and globalization of Chinese medicine. The discipline of authentication addresses difficult issues that have remained unresolved for thousands of years, and is essential for preserving safety. Chinese medicinal authentication has both scientific and traditional cultural connotations; the use of scientific methods to elucidate traditional experience-based differentiation carries the legacy of Chinese medicine forward, and offers immediate practical significance and long-term scientific value. In this paper, a path of inheritance and innovation is explored through the scientific exposition of Chinese medicinal authentication, featuring a review of specialized publications, the establishment of a Chinese medicine specimen center and Chinese medicinal image databases, the expansion of authentication technologies, and the formation of a cultural project dedicated to the Compedium of Materia Medica. PMID:26978977

  12. Integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine and modern medicine promotes the unification of human medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "nThere are two mutually supportive systems in medical profession: modern medicines and traditional medicine. The current status is that although the modern medicine occupies the major position in healthcare system, the therapeutic effect of traditional medicines should not be omitted. If all of them merged and unified as one, it will be beneficial to the development of human medicine. In this paper, the integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM and modern medicine was exemplified to elucidate the mutual complements, mutual benefits of traditional medicines and modern medicine to maintain the unification of human medicine via the development of molecular biology, cytology etc. We believed that TCM theory may share the same mechanism with western medicine at some extent which need to be explored in the future research. In our point of view, although the road may twist and turn, the results are promising.

  13. Theory of traditional Chinese medicine and therapeutic method of diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Ping Lu; Hong-Wei Jia; Cheng Xiao; Qing-Ping Lu

    2004-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine, including herbal medicine and acupuncture, as one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), plays the key role in the formation of integrative medicine. Why do not the modern drugs targeting the specificity of diseases produce theoretical effects in clinical observation? Why does not the traditional Chinese medicine targeting the Zheng (syndrome) produce theoretical effects in clinic?There should have some reasons to combine Western medicine with Chinese herbal medicine so as to form the integrative medicine. During the integration, how to clarify the impact of CAM theory on Western medicine has become an emergent topic. This paper focuses on the exploration of the impact of theory of traditional Chinese medicine on the therapy of diseases in Western medicine.

  14. [Cultural anthropology of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Liu, Jian-ping; Ai, Yan-ke; Li, Liu-ji

    2008-07-01

    Biological, psychological and sociological model of medicine substantializes the old model lacking the social humane attributes. The new medical model makes people take medical anthropology into research and highly evaluate traditional medical system. Cultural anthropology of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is part of medical anthropology with three major characteristics: wide research scope, specificity, and integration. It has developed its own research methods, such as field investigation, comprehensive inspection and comparison study. Cultural anthropology provides an efficient research method for TCM, and its application would further develop TCM theory and form comprehensive evaluation on TCM effects.

  15. Driving a decade of change: HIV/AIDS, patents and access to medicines for all

    OpenAIRE

    Hoen Ellen 't; Berger Jonathan; Calmy Alexandra; Moon Suerie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Since 2000, access to antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV infection has dramatically increased to reach more than five million people in developing countries. Essential to this achievement was the dramatic reduction in antiretroviral prices, a result of global political mobilization that cleared the way for competitive production of generic versions of widely patented medicines. Global trade rules agreed upon in 1994 required many developing countries to begin offering patents on medic...

  16. Comparison of Traditional Chinese Medicine with Western Medicine Cancer Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linlin Gao; Xiongzhi Wu

    2008-01-01

    The interactions among drugs, tumor and host are critical for a response to therapy and for outcome. Anticancer herbs used in Chinese medicine are classified into 4 groups based on their target (tumor, patient and drug) as follows: eliminating pathogenic factors, strengthening the body resistance, enhancing effects of chemotherapy and detoxication of chemotherapy. Correspondingly, anticancer drugs used in Western medicine can be classified into 4 groups as follows: cytotoxic drugs, biological response modifiers, chemosensitizers and chemoprotectants.Based on the theory 0f Chinese medicinal formulas, prescriptions are composed of four constituents,namely,primary constituent(main component of the formula prescription),minister constituent(second component of formula prescription),adjuvant constituent(adjuvant component of the formula prescription)and messenger constituent(component making the formula prescription targeting pathological tissues).To control the interaction among drugs and to modulate the interaction among the tumor,patient and drugs,we suggest that combined therapy for Western medicine might include 4 constituent,i.e.,primary,cooperative,adjuvant and modulatory constituent.Cytotoxic dru gs frequently are used as primary and cooperative constituents.Whereas biological response modifiers and biochemical modu lators are usu ally regarded respectively as adjuvant drugs and modulatory constituents.We believe these new concepts may be helpful for the aim of appropriately designing.evaluating or providing combination therapy.

  17. The use of orchids in Chinese medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Bulpitt, Christopher J.; Li, Yan; Bulpitt, Pauline F; Wang, Jiguang

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the therapeutic uses of five Chinese medicines that contain orchids are discussed, together with a brief report of some of the animal experimentation undertaken. The impression that these preparations have no therapeutic use may be incorrect. However, herbal preparations have not usually been subject to the rigorous characterization and standardization necessary for clinical study, and persuading practitioners that substances in use for many centuries still need to be tested ...

  18. Proteomics and syndrome of Chinese medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chuan-li; Qv, Xiao-Ying; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Syndrome of Chinese medicine is an understanding of the regularity of disease occurrence and development and its performance of symptoms. Syndrome is the key to recognize diseases and the foundation to treat them. However, because of the complexity of the concept and the limitation of present investigations, the research of syndrome is hard to go further. Proteomics has been received extensive attention in the area of medical diagnosis and drug development. In the holistic and system...

  19. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol...

  20. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wang; Fei Lin; Li-li Guo; Xing-jiang Xiong; Xun Fan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we sho...

  1. Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine for Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM. Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go.

  2. Opening up a Way of Evaluating Evidence-based Medicine in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is an authoritative way of evaluating the clinical efficacy of drugs, which provides the direct evidence for clinical medication. The rise of evidence-based medical research brought about the changes in Chinese medicine from the empirical medical era into the era of evidence-based medicine. Chinese medicine, as the experience

  3. 免疫亲和萃取-超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法分离测定中成药及中药材中的5种黄曲霉毒素%Determination of five aflatoxins in Chinese patent medicines and medicinal herbs by immunoaffinity extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩深; 刘萤; 吕美玲; 李建中; 王金花

    2011-01-01

    A method for the determination of five aflatoxins ( B1, B2 , G1 , G2 , M1 ) in Chinese patent medicines and medicinal herbs by immunoaffinity extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( UHPLC-MS/MS ) was developed.The samples were extracted with 80% ( V/V ) methanol-water solution, followed by stepwise purification using an immunoaffinity column. The target compounds were then eluted with methanol. The extract was filtered then analyzed. With the gradient elution using a binary mobile phase containing of 0.1% formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution and methanol,the five aflatoxins were separated on an UHPLC BEH C18 column, followed by positive electrospray ionization and multi-reaction monitoring ( MRM ) provided by a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. The limits of detection for the standard solution of aflatoxins ranged from 0.05 -0.3 μg/L. The linear response was observed in the spiked concentration range of 0.5 -100 μg/L with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The spiked recoveries were within 62.3% - 82.4% at the spiked levels of 1.0 μg/kg and 5.0 μg/kg for all the five aflatoxins with the relative standard deviations ( RSDs ) below 10% ( n = 6 ). The developed method is sensitive. accurate. and reproducible with the reasonable recoveries. and can be applied to the determination of the 5 aflatoxins in the Chinese traditional patent medicines . medicinal herbs as well as other similar complex matrices.%利用免疫亲和萃取结合超高效液相色谱-串联四极杆质谱技术(UHPLC-ESI/QqQ-MS/MS)建立了中成药及中药材中5种黄曲霉毒素(B1、B2、G1、G2和M1)的提取、分离、确证与定量方法.样品经80%(体积分数)的甲醇水溶液提取和免疫亲和固相萃取后,采用UHPLC-ESI/QqQ-MS/MS的多反应监测模式实现分离、鉴定和外标法定量.5种目标毒素标准溶液的检出限(LOD)为0.05~0.3 μg/L.在0.5~100μg/L的

  4. [Establishment of traceability system of Chinese medicinal materials' quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yao-dong; Gao, Shi-man; Liu, Hai-tao; Li, Xi-wen; Wei, Jian-he; Zhang, Ben-gang; Sun, Xiao-bo; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2015-12-01

    The quality of Chinese medicinal materials relates greatly to the clinical curative effect and security. In order to ensure the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal materials, a systematic and operable traceability system needs to be established. It can realize the whole process of quality and safety management of Chinese medicinal materials "from production to consumption" through recording and inquiring information and recalling defective products, which is an important direction for the future development of traditional Chinese medicine. But it is still at the exploration and trial stage. In this paper, a framework of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and safety traceability system was established on the basis of the domestic and international experience about the construction of food and agricultural products traceability systems. The relationship between traceability system of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and GAP, GMP, GSP was analyzed, and the possible problems and the corresponding solutions were discussed. PMID:27141688

  5. Progress of Research in Antitumor Mechanisms with Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩淑燕; 李萍萍

    2009-01-01

    The anti-tumor effects of Chinese herbal medicines and their prescription preparations attracted more and more attention at home and abroad.Thus,it is becoming a hot research topic to exploit the anti-tumor mechanisms of Chinese medicine,and some of them have been partly clarified with the improved research ability to date.In brief,the Chinese herbal medicines possess unique advantages on the treatment of tumors through their multiple actions on multiple targets.

  6. Latest Progress in Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Four journals including Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (CTHD), Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM), Drugs & Clinic (DC), and Drug Evaluation Research (DER) are edited and published by Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines. CTHD was first published in 1970 and has been playing a great role for Chinese materia medica (CMM), especially in its present modernization. CTHD has successively won several honors in recent years, such as the 2nd State

  7. Thinking and practice of accelerating transformation of traditional Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoyan; Zhang, Yanhong; Hu, Jingqing; He, Liyun; Zhou, Xuezhong

    2011-06-01

    The gradual development of Chinese medicine is based on constant accumulation and summary of experience in clinical practice, but without the benefit of undergoing the experimental medicine stage. Although Chinese medicine has formed a systematic and unique theory system through thousands of years, with the development of evidence-based medicine, the bondage of the research methods of experience medicine to Chinese medicine is appearing. The rapid transition and transformation from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine have become important content in the development of Chinese medicine. According to the features of Chinese medicine, we propose the research idea of "taking two ways simultaneously," which is the study both in the ideal condition and in the real world. Analyzing and constructing the theoretical basis and methodology of clinical research in the real world, and building the stage for research technique is key to the effective clinical research of Chinese medicine. Only by gradually maturing and completing the clinical research methods of the real world could we realize "taking two ways simultaneously" and complementing each other, continuously produce scientific and reliable evidence of Chinese medicine, as well as transform and develop Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine. PMID:21695621

  8. [Application of magnetic materials in analysis on Chinese herb medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiu-Rong; Han, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-01

    China is the cradle of Chinese herb medicines,with rich plant resources. However, traditional processing methods have many disadvantages, such as high comsumption of organic solvent, long extraction time and high loss of effective constituents. For the purpose of rational use of Chinese herb medicines and accurate analysis on their constituents,the sample pre-treatment method with magnetic nanoparticles as the carrier brought new opportunities in recent years. after consulting literatures,the essay summarizes traditional extraction methods of Chinese herb medicines, characteristics of magnetic materials and their application in the analysis on Chinese herb medicines. PMID:23477130

  9. Profile of medicinal plants utilization through patent documents: the andiroba example

    OpenAIRE

    Luciene F. Gaspar Amaral; Iolanda M. Fierro

    2013-01-01

    Today, one of the trends of the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food market is the development of products with components of natural origin, rationally exploiting biodiversity. Brazilian population makes secular use of medicinal plants including andiroba, whose oil is used in folk medicine as febrifuge, pain-relieving, anti-parasitic, anti-allergic as well as insect repellant. The present study attempts to evaluate the profile of utilization of andiroba by analyzing the patenting trends based o...

  10. [Technical standards of traditional Chinese medicine industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangping; Song, Jinqi

    2010-06-01

    Basing on the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the technical standards of TCM industry is such a Link that it is to clarify the internal relations between the basic theory of TCM and developing of TCM industry. This article analyzed several problems of technical standards of TCM industry, such as basic theory of TCM and standardization problem of TCM industry. Technical standards of TCM industry must receive the guidance of basic theory of TCM, so that it will promote the process of modernization and internationalization of TCM industry.

  11. Sometimes Patent Medicine Works: A Reply to Braaten, Kauffman, Braaten, Polsgrove, and Nelson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algozzine, Bob; And Others

    1990-01-01

    In this comment to a paper by S. Braaten (EC 210 835), in which the Regular Education Initiative (REI) was described as a "patent medicine" for students with behavioral disorders, it is argued that such students are not misidentified or inappropriately placed and that the REI has been misinterpreted and may work. (JDD)

  12. Chemometrics and modernization of traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Development of chromatographic fingerprinting and its related chemometric methods in the research of quality control of traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs) are discussed. The quality control methods for guarantying the authentication and stability of products and semi-products of TCMs are firstly assessed. The technique based on chromatographic fingerprinting is essentially a kind of high-through put and integral tools to explore the complexity of herbal medicines. In order to further control the comprehensive quality of TCMs,confirmation and identification of their important chemical components are necessary. Some new strategies are proposed to trace the chemical changes of chromatographic fingerprints both in product processing and/or after their administration by modern chromatographic techniques and chemometrics. Combined with systems biology and bioinformatics,it seems possible for one to reveal the working mechanism of TCMs and to further control their intrinsic quality comprehensively.

  13. [Where will Chinese medicine disease names go?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhan-Qing

    2013-06-01

    The statistical survey of "Clinical Articles", one column of Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (24 volumes in total) showed that, of the 151 academic exploration on diseases, Western disease (WM) names were used in 145 articles, constituting 96.03% of the entire column. Obviously, Chinese medicine (CM) disease names were not basically used by CM physicians. Taking Chinese Internal Medicine (2nd edition), a national textbook for students in CM universities, as an example, we could find that the use of disease names was in a chaos logically, disease, syndrome, and symptom were not used clearly. In the general knowledge part, when mentioning a disease, the book sometimes used "disease", sometimes "disease-syndrome". In the classified parts, some diseases were simply named as "A or B syndrome", and when talking about a specific disease, it referred to the symptom-based disease as a kind of "disease-syndrome". Throughout the whole book, the disease names named after symptoms or heavily colored by symptoms amounted to 31, accounting for 59.6% of the listed 52 common diseases. In clinical practices, using CM disease names ran the risk of making wrong diagnosis or failing to diagnose patients in time, and therefore, leading to improper treatment or loss of treatment time. For critical diseases, these names can't reveal the serious situations and help to get rid of possible dangers. For chronic diseases, using these names can't lead to early recognition and prevention of diseases. Considering that CM disease names can't go with clinical practices, and lag behind the development of integrative medicine, the author suggested that we should borrow as many WM disease names as possible in CM, because when compared with CM, WM has a much clearer and more objective knowledge of the location, cause, mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. The classification and naming of diseases in WM is the result of negotiation of WHO and its member countries

  14. [Where will Chinese medicine disease names go?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhan-Qing

    2013-06-01

    The statistical survey of "Clinical Articles", one column of Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (24 volumes in total) showed that, of the 151 academic exploration on diseases, Western disease (WM) names were used in 145 articles, constituting 96.03% of the entire column. Obviously, Chinese medicine (CM) disease names were not basically used by CM physicians. Taking Chinese Internal Medicine (2nd edition), a national textbook for students in CM universities, as an example, we could find that the use of disease names was in a chaos logically, disease, syndrome, and symptom were not used clearly. In the general knowledge part, when mentioning a disease, the book sometimes used "disease", sometimes "disease-syndrome". In the classified parts, some diseases were simply named as "A or B syndrome", and when talking about a specific disease, it referred to the symptom-based disease as a kind of "disease-syndrome". Throughout the whole book, the disease names named after symptoms or heavily colored by symptoms amounted to 31, accounting for 59.6% of the listed 52 common diseases. In clinical practices, using CM disease names ran the risk of making wrong diagnosis or failing to diagnose patients in time, and therefore, leading to improper treatment or loss of treatment time. For critical diseases, these names can't reveal the serious situations and help to get rid of possible dangers. For chronic diseases, using these names can't lead to early recognition and prevention of diseases. Considering that CM disease names can't go with clinical practices, and lag behind the development of integrative medicine, the author suggested that we should borrow as many WM disease names as possible in CM, because when compared with CM, WM has a much clearer and more objective knowledge of the location, cause, mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. The classification and naming of diseases in WM is the result of negotiation of WHO and its member countries

  15. Protecting traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine: concepts and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhua; Gu, Man

    2011-06-01

    With the development of the knowledge economy, knowledge has become one of the most important resources for social progress and economic development. Some countries have proposed measures for the protection of their own traditional knowledge. Traditional Chinese medicine belongs to the category of intangible cultural heritage because it is an important part of Chinese cultural heritage. Today the value of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine has been widely recognized by the domestic and international public. This paper discusses the definition of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and its protection, and evaluates research on its classification. We review the present status of the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and tentatively put forward some possible ideas and methods for the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine. Our goal is to find a way to strengthen the vitality of traditional Chinese medicine and consolidate its foundation. We believe that if we could establish a suitable sui generis(sui generis is a Latin term meaning "of its own kind" and is often used in discussions about protecting the rights of indigenous peoples. Here we use it to emphasize the fact that protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine cannot be achieved through existing legal means of protection alone due to its unique characteristics) system for traditional knowledge, a more favorable environment for the preservation and development of traditional Chinese medicine will ultimately be created. PMID:21695628

  16. Protecting traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine: concepts and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhua; Gu, Man

    2011-06-01

    With the development of the knowledge economy, knowledge has become one of the most important resources for social progress and economic development. Some countries have proposed measures for the protection of their own traditional knowledge. Traditional Chinese medicine belongs to the category of intangible cultural heritage because it is an important part of Chinese cultural heritage. Today the value of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine has been widely recognized by the domestic and international public. This paper discusses the definition of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and its protection, and evaluates research on its classification. We review the present status of the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and tentatively put forward some possible ideas and methods for the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine. Our goal is to find a way to strengthen the vitality of traditional Chinese medicine and consolidate its foundation. We believe that if we could establish a suitable sui generis(sui generis is a Latin term meaning "of its own kind" and is often used in discussions about protecting the rights of indigenous peoples. Here we use it to emphasize the fact that protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine cannot be achieved through existing legal means of protection alone due to its unique characteristics) system for traditional knowledge, a more favorable environment for the preservation and development of traditional Chinese medicine will ultimately be created.

  17. To Discuss the Adverse reaction of Chinese Patent Drug%浅谈中成药的不良反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伦栋

    2014-01-01

    To discuss the adverse reaction of Chinese patent drug, to study and analysis the adverse reaction of Chinese patent drug in clinic, Chinese patent drug, adverse reaction should be valued and prevent drug abusing.%探讨中成药的不良反应,分析研究中成药在临床应用中的不良反应,且对中成药的不良反应应重视并防止滥用。

  18. Chinese herbal medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Shi, Yi;

    2004-01-01

    To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically.......To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically....

  19. 浅析不同来源贝母类药材在中成药中的质量控制%Quality Control of Fritillary in Chinese Patent Medicines from Different Habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅梅; 苏金石; 李玲; 谢铮

    2013-01-01

    目前,药材市场中贝母类药材有川贝母、浙贝母、平贝母等多种贝母,容易导致混用、错用.因此,作者针对2010年版药典中贝母类药材的来源、检测指标及测定方法、所含生物碱类成分及其含量等方面进行综述.结果表明:2010年版药典中所收载的贝母的来源各不相同,性味归经及功能主治各有侧重.所含成分虽均多为生物碱类成分,但川贝母和伊贝母中所含特征生物碱成分为西贝母碱,平贝母和浙贝母多以贝母素甲、贝母素乙为对照进行薄层检查及含量测定.且贝母类药材中所含生物碱的量也各不相同.结论:控制中成药中贝母类药材的质量时应依据不同来源贝母类药材各自的特征性成分、含量高低相应的制定薄层鉴别、含量测定等质量标准,使制剂的质量标准更加准确且具有针对性.%At present, kinds of fritillaries have emerged in medicine material market, such as Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae, Bulbus Frit-illariae Thunbergii and Fritillaria ussuriensis Maxim, which will easily lead to improper mixing and misuse. Thus, this paper briefly reviewed the different habitats, detection quota, detection methods, alkaloid content and constituents of fritillary in pharmacopeia published in 2010. The results indicated that the fritillaries recorded in pharmacopeia published in 2010 had different habitats, and the features and main functions were also different. Although the main content of fritillary is alkaloid, the characteristic alkaloid of Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae and Bulbus fritillariae Pallidiflorae was imperaline. However, the content and thin - layer chromatography analysis of Peimine and Peiminine were mainly determined in Fritillaria ussuriensis Maxim and Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii, meanwhile, alkaloid content of fritillary was also different. Conclusion: Quality standard of fritillary medicine material including thin - layer chromatography and content

  20. Chinese Medicine: A Cognitive and Epistemological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Kavoussi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting–activating model (Yin-Yang, and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents. The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally—and perhaps historically—related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of

  1. The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qihe; Bauer, Rudolf; Hendry, Bruce M.; Fan, Tai-Ping; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Duez, Pierre; Simmonds, Monique SJ; Witt, Claudia M.; Lu, Aiping; Robinson, Nicola; Guo, De-an; Hylands, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great international interest. Recently, a new era for modernisation of TCM was launched with the successful completion of the Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era (GP-TCM) project, the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) ...

  2. Big Data from Pharmaceutical Patents: A Computational Analysis of Medicinal Chemists' Bread and Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nadine; Lowe, Daniel M; Sayle, Roger A; Tarselli, Michael A; Landrum, Gregory A

    2016-05-12

    Multiple recent studies have focused on unraveling the content of the medicinal chemist's toolbox. Here, we present an investigation of chemical reactions and molecules retrieved from U.S. patents over the past 40 years (1976-2015). We used a sophisticated text-mining pipeline to extract 1.15 million unique whole reaction schemes, including reaction roles and yields, from pharmaceutical patents. The reactions were assigned to well-known reaction types such as Wittig olefination or Buchwald-Hartwig amination using an expert system. Analyzing the evolution of reaction types over time, we observe the previously reported bias toward reaction classes like amide bond formations or Suzuki couplings. Our study also shows a steady increase in the number of different reaction types used in pharmaceutical patents but a trend toward lower median yield for some of the reaction classes. Finally, we found that today's typical product molecule is larger, more hydrophobic, and more rigid than 40 years ago. PMID:27028220

  3. [Theoretical model for compatibility of medicinal property combination of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Yan-ling; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun

    2015-08-01

    Medicinal properties are specific attributes of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM). The medicinal property theory is an important principle for the compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines. In this paper, medicinal properties, flavors and meridian tropism were combined to represent TCM medicinal properties; and multiple medicinal properties were further combined into medicinal property combination modes. TCMs and medicinal property combination modes were divided according to their efficacies, which were regarded as the concept of inductive logic programming and finally got medicinal property combination and compatibility rules with different efficacies. These medicinal property combination and compatibility rules were used to form the theoretical model through the entity grammar system, realize the automatic reasoning process from the medicinal property combination and compatibility to the efficacies, verify the reasoning result and analyze their rationality and limitations, in order to provide new ideas for revealing the relations between the TCM compatibility rules and efficacies. PMID:26790316

  4. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  5. Trends of Traditinal Chinese Materia Medica patents entried into China%进入中国的中草药专利态势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许钧钧

    2012-01-01

    Traditinal Chinese Materia Medica patents in China coming from foreign applicants are analyzed statistically, including annual filing distribution, assignee or applicant, field of technology, range of application, and so on. Analysis shows that the patent strategy of Japan in China is similar to that of the USA, and Republic of Korea patent strategy is similar to that of China. The development, application and patent protection of Chinese medicinal herbs in foreign countries have a good reference for China.%本文对中草药领域专利申请中进入中国的国外专利文献进行了统计分析,并详细分析了在中国申请量靠前的美国、日本、韩国的专利文献,包括历年申请分布、主要的申请者、技术领域与应用范围等.分析结果表明,日本与美国在中国具有相类似的专利布局,韩国则与中国国内的申请特点相似,美国、日本和韩国的中草药开发应用,以及中草药药材的专利保护等对中国中草药的研究和开发具有借鉴意义.

  6. Profile of medicinal plants utilization through patent documents: the andiroba example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene F. Gaspar Amaral

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the trends of the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food market is the development of products with components of natural origin, rationally exploiting biodiversity. Brazilian population makes secular use of medicinal plants including andiroba, whose oil is used in folk medicine as febrifuge, pain-relieving, anti-parasitic, anti-allergic as well as insect repellant. The present study attempts to evaluate the profile of utilization of andiroba by analyzing the patenting trends based on information collected on the databases of the World Intellectual Property Organization, European Patent Office and Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property in the period from 1990 to 2011. The following parameters were analyzed: chronological aspect of the applications, countries of priority, international patent classification, technologies and actors in the technological platform. The temporal analysis of the applications shows an evident increase despite a discontinuous evolution of the number of applications. Pharmaceutical, chemical and cosmetic areas were identified as the main areas for commercial application of the plant. Brazil is the country with the largest number of applications even though the majority of the patent technologies are already in public domain, indicating that the technological information contained in these documents could be used for research and investment in several areas.

  7. Pharmacokinetics Applications of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-Ju Li; Ai-Hua Zhang; Hui Sun; Xi-Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in many oriental countries for thousands of years and played an indispensable role in the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially the complicated and chronic ones. It is a very complex mixture containing hundreds or thousands of different components. Pharmacokinetic study on active constituents in TCM preparations is a good way for us to explain and predict a variety of events related to the efficacy and toxicity of TCM. In the drug discovery phases, pharmacokinetics is a key to guide medicinal chemists in the optimization process of a chemical series and to assist pharmacologists to design in vivo studies. To explore the potentially bioactive components in TCM, it is necessary to further study the in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics of multiple absorbed components and find out the optical time-course behavior to providing more substantial research for new leads in drug discovery. Pharmacokinetics screening method could provide a reliable means of prospecting natural products in the search for new leads in drug discovery. This review summarizes the research progress of PK on TCM in the search for suitable lead compounds in recent years.

  8. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more patients have been diagnosed as having chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS in recent years. Western drug use for this syndrome is often associated with many side-effects and little clinical benefit. As an alternative medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has provided some evidences based upon ancient texts and recent studies, not only to offer clinical benefit but also offer insights into their mechanisms of action. It has perceived advantages such as being natural, effective and safe to ameliorate symptoms of CFS such as fatigue, disordered sleep, cognitive handicaps and other complex complaints, although there are some limitations regarding the diagnostic standards and methodology in related clinical or experimental studies. Modern mechanisms of TCM on CFS mainly focus on adjusting immune dysfunction, regulating abnormal activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and serving as an antioxidant. It is vitally important for the further development to establish standards for ‘zheng’ of CFS, i.e. the different types of CFS pathogenesis in TCM, to perform randomized and controlled trials of TCM on CFS and to make full use of the latest biological, biochemical, molecular and immunological approaches in the experimental design.

  9. The Origin of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Thinking on Chinese Medicine Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenkui; Wang Feng; Wang Ling

    2006-01-01

    Although the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed a profound theory system and a fame of outstanding advantage in curative effect, it seems that the TCM is not quite adaptable to the deveiopment and requirement of the modern society. A principle of "Adopting the advanced part of Western medicine to serve the TCM" should be adhered to for the traditional Chinese medicine. First, TCM should strive for a consensus of TCM theory which focuses on the guiding principles of "diagnosis and treatment based on an overall analysis of the illness and the patient's condition" and "the opposite principle of five internal organs". Among these principles, "keeping relative balance of three internal systems"is a valuable guidance of the diagnosis and treatment theory. Secondly, macroscopic should be integrated with microscopic, totality with parts, phenomenology with materialism. A dialectical law should be applied to guide analysis. In treatment,adjustment and balance are basic principles. It is necessary not only prepare the medicine in advance accoding to the predicted disease of the year, but also adopt methods to restrict disease in advance. Basides, TCM dose type should be ameliorated in order to meet the needs of society.

  10. Management of paediatric illnesses by patent and proprietary medicine vendors in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Treleaven, Emily; Liu, Jenny; Prach, Lisa M; Isiguzo, Chinwoke

    2015-01-01

    Background In Nigeria and elsewhere, informal drug sellers, or patent and proprietary medicine vendors (PPMVs), are a common source of care for children with malaria, diarrhoea, and pneumonia. However, their knowledge and stocking of recommended treatments for these common childhood illnesses are not well understood. Methods A census of PPMV shops was conducted in Kogi and Kwara states. A shop survey was conducted on a subset of 250 shops. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess a...

  11. Care-seeking at patent and proprietary medicine vendors in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Prach, Lisa M; Treleaven, Emily; Isiguzo, Chinwoke; Liu, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Background To achieve health development goals, policymakers are increasingly focused on improving primary care in low- and middle-income countries, and private sector drug retailers offer one channel through which basic services may be delivered. In Nigeria, patent and proprietary medicine vendors (PPMVs) serve as a main source of medications, but little is known about their clientele or how care is sought at PPMVs for common illnesses. We explore differences in care-seeking at PPMV shops ba...

  12. MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniyan S .Y.; Sangodere T.A.

    2011-01-01

    The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chl...

  13. Is There a Role for Patent Medicine Vendors in Tuberculosis Control in Southern Nigeria?

    OpenAIRE

    Onyeneho, Nkechi G.; Chukwu, Joseph N.

    2010-01-01

    Patent medicine vendors (PMVs) are a ubiquitous feature of the informal health sector in Nigeria. A previous study on healthcare-seeking behaviour of persons with chronic cough in southern Nigeria found that over 60% of respondents chose the PMV as a healthcare provider of first instance. This study sought to determine the willingness and capability of PMVs to play a role in the national tuberculosis (TB)-control effort. Study sites were selected through a multi-stage sampling process. In tot...

  14. A critique of an argument against patent rights for essential medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    Thomas Pogge has recently argued that the way in which research and development of essential medicines is incentivized, under existing World Trade Organization rules, should be supplemented with an additional incentivizing mechanism. One might hold a stronger view than the one that Pogge currently...... holds, namely that patent rights for essential medicines are morally unjustified per se. Throughout this paper, ‘the strong view’ refers to this view. The strong view is one that enjoys considerable support both within and outside the academic community. This paper critically discusses one specific...

  15. Jingtong Granule: A Chinese Patent Medicine for Cervical Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper systematically assessed the efficacy and safety of Jingtong granule (JG for cervical radiculopathy (CR. Methods. Randomized controlled trials comparing JG with no intervention, placebo, or conventional therapies were retrieved. The trials testing JG combined with conventional therapies versus conventional therapies were also enrolled. Study selection, methodological assessment, data extraction, and analysis were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. The strength of evidence was evaluated according to GRADE approach. Results. Three trials with 400 participants were included. Methodological quality was evaluated as generally low. One study found that JG showed significant difference on decreasing pain scores compared with placebo. Meta-analysis indicated that JG plus conventional analgesic exhibited a significant immediate effect on the pain scores (WMD = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.29 to 1.98; P<0.00001. Additionally, JG combined with analgesic presented beneficial immediate effect on neck disability index. However, the treatment effects of JG demonstrated in the trials were not large, and the safety of JG was unproven. Finally the evidence level was evaluated to be low. Conclusions. Our results indicated that JG showed some potential benefits for CR. Nevertheless, treatment effects are uncertain due to both the methodological concerns and the very modest reported improvements.

  16. Jingtong Granule: A Chinese Patent Medicine for Cervical Radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Liguo Zhu; Jinghua Gao; Jie Yu; Minshan Feng; Jinyu Li; Shangquan Wang; Xu Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This paper systematically assessed the efficacy and safety of Jingtong granule (JG) for cervical radiculopathy (CR). Methods. Randomized controlled trials comparing JG with no intervention, placebo, or conventional therapies were retrieved. The trials testing JG combined with conventional therapies versus conventional therapies were also enrolled. Study selection, methodological assessment, data extraction, and analysis were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. The ...

  17. Jingtong Granule: A Chinese Patent Medicine for Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liguo; Gao, Jinghua; Yu, Jie; Feng, Minshan; Li, Jinyu; Wang, Shangquan; Wei, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This paper systematically assessed the efficacy and safety of Jingtong granule (JG) for cervical radiculopathy (CR). Methods. Randomized controlled trials comparing JG with no intervention, placebo, or conventional therapies were retrieved. The trials testing JG combined with conventional therapies versus conventional therapies were also enrolled. Study selection, methodological assessment, data extraction, and analysis were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. The strength of evidence was evaluated according to GRADE approach. Results. Three trials with 400 participants were included. Methodological quality was evaluated as generally low. One study found that JG showed significant difference on decreasing pain scores compared with placebo. Meta-analysis indicated that JG plus conventional analgesic exhibited a significant immediate effect on the pain scores (WMD = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.29 to 1.98; P < 0.00001). Additionally, JG combined with analgesic presented beneficial immediate effect on neck disability index. However, the treatment effects of JG demonstrated in the trials were not large, and the safety of JG was unproven. Finally the evidence level was evaluated to be low. Conclusions. Our results indicated that JG showed some potential benefits for CR. Nevertheless, treatment effects are uncertain due to both the methodological concerns and the very modest reported improvements. PMID:26064154

  18. Summary of the 2008 Evidence-based Chinese Medicine(EBCM) Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大嵘; 赖世隆; 杨显荣

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Evidence-based Chinese Medicine (EBCM) Workshop,jointly organized by the International Society for Chinese Medicine/Editorial Board of Chinese Medicine(Macao) and the Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine/ Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of

  19. 免疫亲和净化-液相色谱-串联质谱测定中成药中14个真菌毒素%Determination of 14 mycotoxins in Chinese patent medicines by HPLC- MS/MS after immunoaffinity purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵孔祥; 胡筱芸; 何佳; 宓捷波; 葛宝坤

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定中成药中黄曲霉毒素B1、B2、G1、G2,HT-2毒素,T-2毒素,赭曲霉毒素A,伏马毒素B1、B2,玉米赤霉烯酮,α-玉米赤霉烯醇,β-玉米赤霉烯醇,α-玉米赤霉醇以及β-玉米赤霉醇共14个真菌毒素的测定方法.方法:采用PBS溶液和70%甲醇- PBS溶液依次提取样品中真菌毒素,提取液经多功能免疫亲和柱净化,0.1%吐温- PBS溶液和水依次淋洗,甲醇洗脱,氮气流下浓缩定容,测定时采用Waters Xterra Ct8 MS(100 mm ×2.1mm,3.5μm)分析柱,0.3 mL·min -的流速,梯度洗脱,质谱测定采用多反应监测(MRM)模式.结果:14个真菌毒素的最小检出浓度(LOQ)为1.0 ~5.Oμg·kg-1;4个中成药基质的3个不同水平的添加回收率(n=6)为75.7% ~ 97.9%,RSD为5.3% ~ 13.8%.结论:本方法采用了多功能免疫亲和柱净化,质谱定性定量,加快了检测速度,降低了中成药复杂基体的干扰,方法检测限满足了国内外中成药多个真菌毒素限量控制要求.%Objective:To develop a method to determine the content of aflatoxin B1(AFB, ), aflatoxin B2 ( AFB2) , aflatoxin G1(AFG1), aflatoxin G2 ( AFG2) , HT- 2 toxin ( HT-2) , T- 2 toxin (T- 2) , ochratoxin A ( OTA ) , fumonisin B1( FB1 ) , fumonisin B2 ( FB2) , zearalenone, α- zearalenol, β- zearalenol, α- zearalanol, β- zearalanol in Chinese patent medicines.Methods:The mycotoxins in with HPLC- MS/MS after twice extracted by PBS and methanol and purified by high selective immunoaffinity column.The mycotoxins were extracted by PBS firstly and by 70% methanol secondly.A certain amount of extraction solution was added to immunoaffinity column.The column was washed by 0.1% twain- PBS and water and eluted by methanol.The elution was dried under nitrogen, dissolved in 1 mL solution of mobile phase.The mycotoxins were separated on a Waters Xterra C18 MS(100 mm × 2.1 mm,3.5 μm) and the flow rate of gradient elution was 0.3 mL per minute.The MS/MS was performed with

  20. Canada's Patented Medicine Notice of Compliance regulations: balancing the scales or tipping them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexchin Joel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to comply with the provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement, in 1993 the Canadian federal government introduced the Patented Medicine Notice of Compliance Linkage Regulations. These regulations were meant to achieve a balance between the timely entry of generic medicines and the rights of patent holders. The regulations tied the regulatory approval of generic medicines to the patent status of the original brand-name product. Discussion Since their introduction the regulations have been a source of contention between the generic and the brand-name industry. While the regulations have generated a considerable amount of work for the Federal Court of Canada both sides dispute the interpretation of the "win rate" in the court cases. Similarly, there is no agreement on whether multiple patents on single drugs represent a legitimate activity by the brand-name industry or an "evergreening" tactic. The generic industry's position is that the regulations are being abused leading to the delay in the introduction of lower cost generic products by as much as 8 years. The brand-name companies counter that the regulations are necessary because injunctions against the introduction of generic products are frequently unavailable to them. The regulations were amended in 2006 and again in 2008 but both sides continue to claim that the regulations favour the other party. The battle around the regulations also has an international dimension with interventions by PhRMA, the trade association representing the United States based multinational companies, arguing that the regulations are not stringent enough and that Canada needs to be placed on the U.S. Priority Watch List of countries. Finally, there are multiple costs to Canadian society as a result of the NOC regulations. Summary Despite the rhetoric there has been almost no empiric academic research done into the effect of the regulations. In order to develop rational policy

  1. [Study on dosage form design for improving oral bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Yao, Dong-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Both chemical drugs and traditional Chinese medicines have the problem of low bioavailability. However, as traditional Chinese medicines are a multi-component complex, their dosage forms are required to be designed in line with their characteristics, in order to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines. Traditional Chinese medicines are mostly prepared into pill, powder, paste, elixir and decoction, but with such drawbacks as high administration dose and poor efficacy. With the process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicines, new-type preparations have be developed and made outstanding achievements. However, they fail to make an organic integration between traditional Chinese medicine theories and modern preparation theories. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines are required to be taken into account during the development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the article, multi-component preparation technology was adopted to establish a multi-component drug release system of traditional Chinese medicines on the basis of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines.

  2. Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Prevention of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Ardila Jaimes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditional Chinese medicine is based on the oriental philosophy developed thousands of years ago, their understanding involves a deep understanding and knowledge of it. Materials and methods: This article seeks to reflect on the philosophy behind Chinese medicine and the role it has played in preventing the disease. Results: Three perspectives related to the philosophical foundations of traditional Chinese medicine and prevention analysis, the rise and popularity of its use in the prevention and the role of science in strengthening the evidence in the therapeutic of Traditional Chinese Medicine addresses. Conclusion: The contribution of TCM to the prevention of diseases can be magnified to the extent that their study will expand and further substantiate its effectiveness.

  3. How does Chinese medicine target cytokine imbalance in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Sun, Yue

    2013-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) manifests as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokine imbalance is suggested to play critical roles in the development of RA. Currently, various treatments for RA, including biological agents such as antibodies against inflammation mediators, or Chinese herbal medicines, intervene the disease by restoring the balance of cytokines. Chinese medicine (CM) can not only suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but also induce the expression of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Thus, Chinese medicine can effectively reduce inflammatory cell infiltration into synovial tissue, pannus formation, and degradation of the extracellular matrix surrounding cartilage cells, thereby reducing subchondral bone damage. This paper reviews the changes of cytokine profiling during development of RA and discuss the mechanisms by which Chinese medicine restores the cytokine balance.

  4. How does Chinese medicine target cytokine imbalance in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Sun, Yue

    2013-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) manifests as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokine imbalance is suggested to play critical roles in the development of RA. Currently, various treatments for RA, including biological agents such as antibodies against inflammation mediators, or Chinese herbal medicines, intervene the disease by restoring the balance of cytokines. Chinese medicine (CM) can not only suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but also induce the expression of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Thus, Chinese medicine can effectively reduce inflammatory cell infiltration into synovial tissue, pannus formation, and degradation of the extracellular matrix surrounding cartilage cells, thereby reducing subchondral bone damage. This paper reviews the changes of cytokine profiling during development of RA and discuss the mechanisms by which Chinese medicine restores the cytokine balance. PMID:24170633

  5. Application of microdialysis technique in the traditional chinese medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shaomin; Zeng, Xianghui; Xu, Xiaohong;

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of extracellular neurotransmitters can be dynamically measured by in vivo microdialysis. This technique can apply to quantitatively evaluating the beneficial effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In the present study, the protective effects of Puerarin (Pur) on cerebral...

  6. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Senile Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has a 3000 years' history of human use. A literature survey addressing traditional evidence from human studies was done, with key result that top 10 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos, Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae were prioritized for highest potential benefit to dementia intervention, related to the highest frequency of use in 236 formulae collected from 29 ancient Pharmacopoeias, ancient formula books, or historical archives on ancient renowned TCM doctors, over the past 10 centuries. Based on the history of use, there was strong clinical support that Radix polygalae is memory improving. Pharmacological investigation also indicated that all the five ingredients mentioned above can elicit memory-improving effects in vivo and in vitro via multiple mechanisms of action, covering estrogen-like, cholinergic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neurogenetic, and anti-Aβ activities. Furthermore, 11 active principles were identified, including sinapic acid, tenuifolin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide, coniferyl ferulate and 11-angeloylsenkyunolide F, and catalpol. It can be concluded that TCM has a potential for complementary and alternative role in treating senile dementia. The scientific evidence is being continuously mined to back up the traditional medical wisdom.

  7. [HRM identification of Chinese medicinal materials Mutong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Zhan, Zhi-lai; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Liu, Yong

    2015-06-01

    High resolution melting (HRM), an important technology for genotyping and mutation scanning, has broad prospects in the authentification of traditional Chinese medicine. This paper selected universal trnH-psbA primers and used HRM to establish a new methods for identification of Akebia herbs. PCR was conduct at the annealing temperature of 58 degrees C and 35 cycles. The range of the DNA template concentration, the primer concentration and the Mg2+ ion concentration were further analyzed. The results showed the Tm values of Caulis Akebiae was (81.84 ± 0.16), (85.28 ± 0.16) degrees C and Caulis Clematidis Armandii was (83.22 ± 0.19) degrees C and Caulis Aristolochiae manshuriensis was (81.67 ± 0.14) degrees C, (84.24 ± 0.10) degrees C with 5-125 mg - L-' DNA template, 0.4 μmol x L(-1) primer, 2.0 mmol x L(-1) Mg2+. This method can achieve the authentification of Akebia herbs and is simple, fast, high-throughput, visual. PMID:26591514

  8. Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of opiate addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie SHI; Yan-li LIU; Yu-xia FANG; Guo-zhu XU; Hai-fen ZHAI; Lin LU

    2006-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Chinese medicine consists of natural products including plants, animals and minerals. TCM has been practiced in China for more than 2000 years, and for the past 200 years has been used in treatment of drug addiction. Ten Chinese medicines for the treatment of opiate addiction have been approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), and at least 6 are in clinical trials. The general therapeutic principle of Chinese medicine developed was based on its unique theory of "reinforcing healthy Qi and resolving and removing effects of toxicity". Acupuncture, another essential part of TCM, which was developed based on the principle that "functions of the human body are controlled by the 'Jing-Luo' and 'Qi-Xue' system", has been used not only in China, but also in Europe, the USA and other countries, for controlling opiate addiction. There are some advantages in using TCM for opiate detoxification, including less harmful side effects, high safety and ideal effects in the inhibition of protracted withdrawal symptoms and relapse. Co-administration of TCM with modern medicine shows some synergistic effects in detoxification. Many TCM for detoxification also have efficacy in the rehabilitation of abnormal body functions induced by chronic drug use, including improving immune function, increasing working memory and preventing neurological disorder. Given that TCM is effective in the prevention of relapse and causes fewer side effects, it may be used widely in the treatment of opiate addiction.

  9. THE NEW YEAR MESSAGE FROM CHINESE JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈可冀

    2003-01-01

    @@ Two months into the year 2003 and one month into the Chinese lunar New Year of goat, on behalf of the editorial board of the Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, I wish our readers, contributors and board members around the world a prosperous and successful new year.

  10. Opening up a Way of Evaluating Evidence-based Medicine in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhen-hua

    2009-01-01

    @@ dence-based medicine is an authoritative way of evaluating the clinical efficacy of drugs,which provides the direct evidence for clinical medication.The rise of evidence-based medical research brought about the changes in Chinese medicine from the empirical medical era into the era of evidence-based medicine.

  11. The pharmaceutical sector, patents and access to medicines in the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Barrutia Etxebarría

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the lack of access to drug treatments experienced by the poor in the economic South. First, it studies the extraordinarily profitable pharmaceutical industry, whose research forgets about the illnesses typical of the South, given its greatbusiness and market concentration in the countries of the North, where marketing is decisive. Then, it deals with the relationship between the high prices of medicines and a patent system which is greatly strengthened by the rules of the WTO and which clasheswith people’s right to health, as revealed by the case of HIV-AIDS treatment in the countries of the South. The paper concludes by underscoring the need for an active intervention by the public sector, both at a national and international level, which wouldlimit the patents on drugs and promote research on the forgotten diseases.

  12. 腹痛的中医内科治疗分析%Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment of Abdominal Pain in Department of Internal Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靖春梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective Study on the abdominal pain’s treatment by the method of Internal Medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Methods Analyse the sixty cases of patients’ abdominal pain treatment datum who were treated by the method of Traditional Chinese Medicine in January,2012 to June, 2014. Results We can treat the patient as abdominal pain’s initial diagnosis when the disease cannot be determined, and conduct a series of dialectical treatments. Conclusion Now, I will analyse the methods that treat abdominal pain with Traditional Chinese Medicine,such as dialectical prescription, Chinese patent medicine, effective medical prescription, diet therapy, acupuncture and other methods.%目的:探讨腹痛的中医内科治疗方法。方法对2012年1月~2014年6月收治的腹痛患者60例中医治疗资料进行分析。结果腹痛的病种尚不能确定时,可以腹痛待查作为初步诊断,并进行辨证论治。结论现对中医治疗腹痛方法中辨证组方、中成药、单方验方、饮食疗法、针灸等方法进行分析。

  13. Structure analysis of active components of traditional Chinese medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Qinglei; Liu, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) have been widely used for healing of different health problems for thousands of years. They have been used as therapeutic, complementary and alternative medicines. TCMs usually consist of dozens to hundreds of various compounds, which are extracted from raw...

  14. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics. PMID:27062803

  15. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics.

  16. Clinical application of common oral Chinese patent drugs for the treatment of hand-foot-mouth disease%治疗手足口病的常用口服中成药制剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟现民; 申理; 张永信; 董平

    2014-01-01

    手足口病近年来在国内时有流行报告,而临床经验证明传统中医药治疗手足口病有显著疗效。为了充分继承和发挥祖国传统中医药的优势、丰富医学理论建设以及为中成药制剂治疗手足口病的临床实践提供参考,本文就用于治疗手足口病的常用口服中成药制剂及临床研究数据作一总结和介绍。%There are several reports about hand-foot-mouth disease being epidemic in China recent years. It has been conifrmed in clinic that traditional Chinese medicine is of signiifcant beneift to the diagnosis and treatment of hand-foot-mouth disease, and many articles on Chinese patent drugs for hand-foot-mouth disease have been published. In order to fully inherit and promote the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine, enrich its medical theory and provide a reference for the clinical practice of Chinese patent drugs for the treatment of hand-foot-mouth disease, we summarize some clinical results from articles on common oral preparations of Chinese patent drugs that are effective for hand-foot-mouth disease in this review.

  17. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  18. Intercellular communication, NO and the biology of Chinese medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralt Dina

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New multiple categories of health disciplines have become popular in the west and integration between the medicinal approaches has become essential. The hypothesis presented here suggests a novel integrative view that combines Western biochemistry with the Chinese medicinal concept of qi. The core for this hypothesis is that transmission of qi along the meridians is based on informational molecules that travel via an intercellular communication system. Acupuncture at specific points enhances the flow of the signaling molecules through this communication system. Nitric oxide is suggested as a prime candidate for such a signaling molecule in the meridian system. The biochemistry of nitric oxide can shed light on the biology underlying Chinese medicine while Chinese medicinal data can provide a clue to the sought after framework for nitric oxide.

  19. Traditional Chinese and Thai medicine in a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. PMID:26645523

  20. Study designs of randomized controlled trials not based on Chinese medicine theory are improper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Yan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current biomedical research methods to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese medicine interventions are often conceptually incompatible with the theory and clinical practice of Chinese medicine. In this commentary, we (1 highlight the theory and principles underlying Chinese medicine clinical practice; (2 use ginseng as an example to describe clinical indications in Chinese medicine; (3 propose a framework guided by Chinese medicine theory for the evaluation of study designs in Chinese medicine research; and (4 evaluate 19 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of ginseng. Our analysis indicates that all 19 trials with both positive and negative results confirm the specific effects of ginseng indicated by Chinese medicine theory. Study designs guided by Chinese medicine theory are necessary to validate and improve future randomized controlled clinical trials in Chinese medicine.

  1. Contrast between Western Medicine and Traditonal Chinese Medicine on their application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管隽

    2011-01-01

    It appears that integrating traditional Chinese medicine with western medicine could be of benefit to solve medical problems or improve therapeutic effects.It is concluded that western medicine is more appropriate in treating some diseases which are acute,with a explicit cause,and single-system diseases while traditional Chinese medicine treatment can provide better results in treating some diseases especially which are chronic,without clear cause,and multi-system diseases.It seems possible that this discussion will highlight some diseases which need to be considered seriously to select more effective and reasonable treatments.

  2. 中药天癸胶囊治疗多囊卵巢综合征的随机对照疗效观察%Efficacy of Chinese patent medicine Tian Gui Capsule in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome:a randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭素璇; 王文君; 归绥琪

    2011-01-01

    Background:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal disorder and one of the most common reproductive endocrinology abnormalities in women.Recently,many studies have been conducted assessing Chinese herbal medicine as an alternative treatment for women with PCOS,it is,therefore,worthwhile to analyze and observe the curative effects of traditional Chinese medicine treatment in PCOS.Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of the Chinese patent medicine Tian Gui Capsule,in women with PCOS and compare its effects with metformin and ethinyl estradiol plus cyproterone acetate (Diane-35).Design,setting,participants and intervention:A total of 47 PCOS outpatients from the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University were randomly divided into 3 groups.Patients in group A (n =19) were given Tian Gui Capsule,patients in group B (n =17) were given metformin,and patients in group C (n=11) were given Diane-35.The 3 groups of patients were treated for 3 months.Main outcome measures:Serum testosterone (T),sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels,free androgen index (FAI),fasting blood glucose (FPG),fasting insulin (FINS),homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR),insulin sensitive index (ISI) and left and right ovary volumes of the 3 groups were evaluated before and after treatment.Results:After 3 months of treatment,when compared with before treatment data,group A patients showed decreased serum T and SHBG levels,FAI,FINS,and left and right ovary volumes (P<0.05),and increased serum DHEA-S (P<0.05),while the FPG level showed no significant change.Although the level of serum T and FINS among the 3 groups after the treatment were similar,group A demonstrated better results than group B in reducing the FAI and increasing the serum SHBG,but less significant results than group C besides,group B was the only group showed improved insulin sensitivity.Although the level of FPG of the 3 groups after

  3. Empirical Analysis on Chinese Enterprise-enterprise Patent Cooperation in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanqing Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the multidisciplinary knowledge network of Chinese enterprise-enterprise patent cooperation in food industry. Multidisciplinary knowledge network which come from enterprise-enterprise patent cooperation is an important network platform to improve innovation performance and to implement multidisciplinary and multi-sectoral cooperation. The actual dynamic variation and structure characteristics of the network and the distribution characteristics of disciplines in the network besides are analyzed by the method of social network analysis based on 36731 pieces of enterprise-enterprise cooperation patent in food industry which come from State Intellectual Property Office of the People’ Republic of China from 1985 to 2010. The multidisciplinary knowledge network whose structure is comparative perfect as the result shows that its carriers, the enterprises, play a positive role on knowledge flow and innovation performance in food development. At the same time, the method and the result of analysis in this study are provided both for the government and enterprises as theoretical reference and empirical material to their innovation strategy.

  4. [Intervention effect of Tibetan patent medicine Ruyi Zhenbao pills in acute ischemic stroke in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-ying; Wu, Wei-jie; Tan, Rui; Xie, Bin; Zhong, Zhen-dong; He, Jing-ping; Chen, Yao; Kang, Xin-li

    2015-02-01

    Ischemic stroke is a primary cause of death and long-term disability all over the world. This disease is resulted from ischemia and hypoxia in brain tissues because of insufficient blood supply and causes a series of physiochemical metabolism disorders and physiological dysfunction. Its high disability ratio has bright huge burdens to society, governments and families. However, there is not efficacious medicine to treat it. In this study, a right middle cerebral artery occlusion was established in rats to observe the multi-path and multi-aspect intervention effects of Tibetan patent medicine Ruyi Zhenbao pills in reducing injuries to Nissl bodies, cerebral edema and inflammatory reactions and preventing cellular apoptosis, in order to lay a foundation for defining its therapeutic mechanism in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:26084187

  5. Multi-disciplinary Research in Traditional Chinese Medicine--An Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mo Feizhi

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the present state of Traditional Chinese Medicine being divided into three leading lines of thought, namely, the Clinical line,the Integration of Western and Chinese Medicine line and the Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine line. It also describes the position of Traditional Chinese Medicine being a medical science rich in philosophy and wisdom and a culture centred upon medical science and technology. It outlines the basic characteristic of Traditional Chinese pointed out various flaws in methodology in Integration of Western and Chinese Medicine research. It also stresses that in order to make fruitful progress in the development of Traditional Chinese Medicine,multi-discipline research in Traditional Chinese Medicine should be made on a thoroughly understanding of the basic methodology of Traditional Chinese Medicine and follow its established principles.

  6. Globalization of Traditional Chinese Medicinal products And New Regulatory Structures in the European Union

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emiel Van Galen; Burt Kroes

    2009-01-01

    @@ Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) , Registration, EU pharmaceutical legislation, Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products, tHMP, quality, safety, efficacy, traditional use, EMEA, European Medicines Agency, European Pharmacopoeia, Herbal Medicinal Products Committee, HMPC, Community Monographs, Commu-nity List.

  7. Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Patwardhan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets.

  8. Incorporating pattern identification of Chinese medicine into precision medicine: An integrative model for individualized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-gen; Xu, Hao

    2015-11-01

    On 20 January, 2015, U.S. President Obama announced an ambitious plan called "Precision Medicine (PM) Initiative", aiming to deliver genetics-based medical treatments. PM has shown a promising prospect by tailoring disease treatments and preventions to individuals. However, a predominantly genetics-based method restricts its benefit and applicability in most chronic and complex diseases. Pattern identification (PI) is one of the representative characteristics of Chinese medicine implying the concept of holism and individualized treatment. It is another classification method taking environmental, psychosocial and other individual factors into account. Integrating PI with disease diagnosis of Western medicine will provide a strong complement to genetics-based PM, thus establish an integrative model for individualized medicine. PI provides new perspectives for PM, not only in clinical practice, but also in new drug development and clinical trial design. It is for sure that the integrative approach will ultimately lead to a safer, more convenient and effective patient-centered healthcare and most patients will benefit in the era of PM.

  9. Study on Analgesic Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shan; XU Ling; WEI Pin-kang; QIN Zhi-feng; LI Jun; PENG Hai-dong

    2008-01-01

    Chinese medicine has been used in treating pain for a long time.Much progress has been made in studies on the mechanism of the analgesic effect of Chinese medicine in animal experiments.It is found that the analgesic action may be related to the following actions:(1)Reducing the secretion of peripheral algogenic substances and inducing the secretion of pain-sensitive substances;(2)Alleviating the accumulation of local algogenic substances;(3)Increasing the release of endogenous analgesic substances;(4)Regulating c-fos gene and increasing the secretion of such substances in the central newous system,etc.In this paper,the experimental methods and analgesic effect of Chinese medicines are reviewed.

  10. Progress of Research on Organic Fibrosis with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Lan Wang; Xiao-Ning Wang; Ping Liu

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis is the remodeling and repair processes of chronic injuries. There are few effective therapies. Chinese medicine formula, the main pattern of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in clinic, applies a multi-component, multi-target and complicated approach in the treatment of diseases, and certainly shows good comprehensive therapeutic effects on fibrosis. In this review, the clinical study, effects and mechanism of action of Fuzheng Huayu recipe in the treatment of liver, pulmonary, and renal fibrosis was analyzed and evaluated. Meanwhile, based on the understanding of TCM pathogenesis for liver cirrhosis, this review will also briefly introduce the research of different classical Chinese medicine formulae with various functions in the treatment of experimental liver fibrosis induced by different methods, including comparing the efficacy, analyzing the action characteristics and mechanism of effective formulae, exploring pathological and biological basis of TCM diagnostic and therapeutic pattern, which will contribute to the research of TCM in the treatment of organ fibrosis.

  11. 关国授权的全球传统医药专利分析%Analysis on Patents of International Traditional Medicine Issued by U.S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅俊英; 曹燕

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解世界传统医药专利的分布,加强中医药的知识产权保护.方法:以ISTIC-美国专利分析数据库的授权专利为数据源,利用专利计量方法,研究全球传统医药的授权专利情况.结果:共检索到授权专利5335件.1976-1990年为专利授权的萌芽阶段,1991-1996年为缓慢增长阶段,1997年开始进入快速增长阶段,并在2002年达到峰值446件后呈现下降趋势.美国、日本、法国、印度和德国获得了较多专利授权,中国排名第10位.印度的科学与工业研究理事会是获得最多专利授权的机构.美国的传统医药专利发明人最多,而中国香港的Cheung,Ling Yuk发明的专利数居世界第5位.传统医药相关专利具体涉及含有植物材料的生物杀灭剂、害虫驱避剂或引诱剂、植物生长调节剂,以及作为活性组分的未明成分植物材料或植物提取物.结论:中国有悠久的传统医药历史,并有系统的中医药现代教育、临床和科研体系,但其知识产权保护的意识和途径亟待加强.%This article aimed to analyze the distribution of patents of international traditional medicine (TM) in order to enhance the intellectual property protection of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).Issued patents of the ISTICUSPAD were used as data source in the analysis of international TM patents with patentometrics.The searching result was that there are 5335 issued patents.The gemination phase of issued patents is from 1976 to 1990.And the development phase is from 1991 to 1996 for TM patents.The maturation phase started from 1997.And the issued patent amount reached its peak number of 466 in 2002.The acquired patent amount in the U.S., Japan, France, India and Germany is more than the amount in other countries or areas.China ranked as the lOth position.The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) was the institute with the most issued patents.The U.S.was reviewed as the one with the most TM patent

  12. [Study on Chinese Acup-Mox Medicine by YAO Tianmin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianrong; Huang, Longxiang; Du, Guangzhong; Gang, Weijuan

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics and academic thoughts of Chinese Acup-Mox Medicine written by YAO Tianmin during the Republic of China was studied and analyzed in this paper. The academic thoughts of this book were confluence of Chinese and western knowledge, respecting for classics culture but not stubborn, using western science and medicine without worshiping it. The main characteristics were the scientific meridian-acupoint theory, extensive acupoint selection, "qie" method of acupuncture, high recommendation on medicated thread and ironing moxibustion, reinforcing and reducing based on the meridian direction in infantile massage, using acupuncture and cream formula for surgical treatment, and creating his own acupuncture codes.

  13. GAP - A Milestone in Traditional Chinese Medicine Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENGJIE; YUJIE

    2004-01-01

    IT is clear that in order for TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) production to meet world standards and enter the international market, herb plantation in China must be standardized. In late September 2003, the US FDA(Food and Drug Administration)held a seminar on the standardization of TCM development and quality control. It reached the conclusion that as long as the Chinese medicine production process meets GAP (Good Agricultural Practice,meaning standardized herbal material plantation), GLP (Good Laboratory Practice, meaning standardized experimental research)and GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice, meaning standardized extraction and preparation technology) standards, TCM products merit certification.

  14. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL. A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p<0.05 in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views.

  15. Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs The journal started publication monthly since January 1970, is an academic and technical journal sponsored by Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research. The journal which has a long history over 40 years offers the columns of research papers, brief reports, reviews, dissertation, and special treatises to report the recent achievements of the basic study, production, quality

  16. Discussion on How to Promote the Patent Value Based on the Statistical Analysis of Chinese Patent Golden Award%基于中国专利金奖统计分析的专利价值提升研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金柳欣; 李曦; 段丽斌; 刘央央; 郑凯

    2014-01-01

    Taking the award-winning projects of 1st~15th Chinese Patent Golden Award as the research objects, this paper makes deep analysis on the award-winning patents emphatically based on the factors influencing the patent value such as the patent family, patent citation and patent application, and based on this, probes into the problem of how to promote the patent value in practice.%以第1届到第15届的中国专利金奖获奖项目为研究对象,重点基于专利价值影响因素(如同族和引证情况、专利运用情况)对获奖专利进行了深入分析,并据此探讨了如何在实践中提升专利价值的问题。

  17. [Innovation guidelines and strategies for pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine and their industrial translation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly analyzes the bottlenecks and major technical requirements for pharmaceutical industry of Chinese medicine, providing current status of pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine. The innovation directions and strategies of the pharmaceutical engineering for manufacturing Chinese medicine are proposed along with the framework of their core technology. As a consequence, the development of the third-generation pharmaceutical technology for Chinese medicine, featured as "precision, digital and intelligent", is recommended. The prospects of the pharmaceutical technology are also forecasted.

  18. Measuring science–technology interactions using patent citations and author-inventor links: an exploration analysis from Chinese nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article contributes to the growing study on the interactions between science and technology with China’s evidence in the field of nanotechnology, based on the database of United States Patent and Trademark Office. The analysis is focused during the period of 1991–2008, a rapid increasing period for the development of nanotechnology. Using the non-patent references cited by patents, we first investigate the science–technology connections in the context of Chinese nanotechnology, especially in institutional sectors and its application fields. Those patents, produced by academic researchers and directed towards basic scientific knowledge, generally cite more scientific references with a higher proportion of self-citations. It is interesting to find that patents contributed by collaborations between public organizations and corporations seldom contain scientific references. Following an interesting path on matching the data of publications and patents, we establish the author-inventor links in this emerging field. Author-inventors, who are co-active in publishing and patenting, are at the very top of the most prolific and highly cited researchers. Finally, we employ social network analysis to explore the characteristics of scientific and technological networks generated by co-authorship and co-invention data, to investigate the position and the role of patenting–publishing scientists in these research networks.

  19. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jingxiang; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yanli; Fu, Jialei; Zhao, Xiaolei; Yang, Meina; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Nie, Xiaoyan; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL). A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views. PMID:27478482

  20. The biosynthetic products of chinese insect medicine, Aspongopus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Zheng; Jiang, Hai-Long; Yang, Jun-Li; Crews, Phillip; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Wu, Quan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    A new oxazole (1) was obtained from chinese insect medicine Aspongopus chinensis, along with three known N-acetyldopamine derivatives (2–4). Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS analyses. The possible biosynthetic pathways of the isolated compounds are discussed. Cytotoxicities of those compounds against 10 selected cancer cells were measured in vitro. PMID:22430116

  1. Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Congestive Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海玲; 李海芸; 江时森

    2002-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) belongs to the category of "palpitation", "chest pain", "retention of phlegm and fluid" etc. in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The medical books of past generations recorded a lot of important prescriptions to treat above-mentioned symptoms. This article briefly summarized certain TCM prescriptions on pharmacological actions and therapeutic effects of CHF.

  2. A Systematic Review of the Role of Proprietary and Patent Medicine Vendors in Healthcare Provision in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi Beyeler; Jenny Liu; Maia Sieverding

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions to reduce the burden of disease and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa increasingly recognize the important role that drug retailers play in delivering basic healthcare services. In Nigeria, owner-operated drug retail outlets, known as patent and proprietary medicine vendors (PPMVs), are a main source of medicines for acute conditions, but their practices are not well understood. Greater understanding of the role of PPMVs and the quality of care they provide is needed in...

  3. Strategies for the Development of Chinese Medicine Experience of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@While practitioners of western medicine are the main health care providers in Hong Kong, Chinese medicine plays a significant role in the health care system in Hong Kong. Its popularity of use and its strength in contributing to the health of the community provides the drive for its development. The following summarises the role played by Chinese medicine in the health care system and our strategies in developing Chinese medicine in a western medicine dominant health care system.

  4. The Regular Education Initiative and Patent Medicine: A Rejoinder to Algozzine, Maheady, Sacca, O'Shea, and O'Shea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This rejoinder to EC 230 272 defends the original paper (EC 210 835) and argues that the critique reflects a misunderstanding of the nature of the Regular Education Initiative, the inclusion of students with behavioral disorders in reform proposals, the seriousness of the problems of these students, and the nature of patent medicine. (JDD)

  5. Analysis of active patents to investigate the frequency and patterns of Chinese herbal extract combinations claiming to treat heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangxue Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Most of the high-frequency Chinese herbs in the patents investigated belong to the high-frequency herbal families, and herb pairs were commonly selected to coincide with the commonly-used herbal family pairs. Low-frequency Chinese herbs were also used, but generally belonged to the high-frequency herbal families, and were therefore similar to the high-frequency herbs in terms of traditional categories of taste and channel entered. The results reflect the use of traditional principles of formula composition, and suggest that these principles may indeed be an effective guide for further research and development of Chinese herbal extract combinations to prevent and treat heart diseases.

  6. Patent Medicine Dealers and Irrational Use of Medicines in Children: The Economic Cost and Implications for Reducing Childhood Mortality in Southeast Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. C.; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Chinenye Okwuosa; Ogochukwu P Ibe

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the economic costs of irrational medicine use by Patent Medicine Dealers (PMDs) for malaria, acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhea diseases (DD) in Nigeria. Exit interviews were conducted with 395 respondents who sought care for their children from 15 PMDs in Abakpa district of Enugu state Nigeria. Of the total respondents, 80.0% received treatment for malaria while 12.0% and 8.0% received treatment for DD and ARI respectively. The average number of drugs dispense...

  7. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes. PMID:25272514

  8. Cultivating Chinese Indigenous Innovation and Knowledge Creativity in Food Industry: Government Supports in Patent Application, Protection, Sharing and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Luo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the Chinese indigenous innovation and knowledge creativity in food industry. A set of Intellectual Property (IP policies and high-level strategies, established by Chinese central government, were evaluated to cultivate and encourage indigenous innovations and creation of knowledge in food industry through enhancing the application, transfer and protection of patents. This study surveyed 80 food production related enterprises located in Jiangsu province, including 60 private-owned, 11 state-owned and 9 joint ventures. Then, 200 questionnaires were distributed through the Intellectual Property Office of Jiangsu, 102 were returned, in which 98 were evaluated as valid. The data collected exhibit that patent application has been widely employed as an effective approach not only to protect food products and service innovations, but also to promote enterprises’ reputation, attract government financial and political supports, generate monetary or other profits from licensing or transferring patents and be eligible for tax reduction and exemption. Thus, the data analysis indicated that the governmental IP policies and strategies have strongly strengthened the indigenous innovations in food industry. However, the analysis also pointed out a series of problems and barriers in patent utilization. The conclusions thus advocate completing the national legislation system in IP and formulating specific supporting strategies at regional level by individual provincial IP administrative offices. The research study reported in this study is of interests to China IP policy makers and politicians, as well as the managers of Chinese enterprises interested in increasing organizational creativity and protecting their innovations.

  9. [Changes and establishment of the principle of "Unity of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian

    2014-11-01

    "Unity of traditional Chinese and western medicine" was one of the three major health work principles at the early founding of the People's Republic of China. It was not only a choice of political strategy in line with the lack of contemporary health-care resources, but also a part of the revolutionary heritage for more than 20 years in the process of the Chinese Communist Party from the preliminary "application of both traditional and western medicine" to the making of the principles of both "cooperation of traditional Chinese and western medicine" and "unity of traditional Chinese and western medicine". All this was closely related to the concrete environment of the Chinese health work of various stages of Yan'an period with strong revolutionary atmosphere and was not the professional demand of the health workers, rather, this principle set up in 1950 was the result of the careful consideration of Mao Zedong and an adjustment guided under the revolutionary framework of Neo-democracy set up under the guidance of the Common Principle which was a bettered adaptation to the contemporary national condition.

  10. Systems Pharmacology Dissection of the Integrated Treatment for Cardiovascular and Gastrointestinal Disorders by Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Tao, Qin; Guo, Zihu; Fu, Yingxue; Chen, Xuetong; Shar, Piar Ali; Shahen, Mohamed; Zhu, Jinglin; Xue, Jun; Bai, Yaofei; Wu, Ziyin; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-09-06

    Though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and gastrointestinal disorders (GIDs) are different diseases associated with different organs, they are highly correlated clinically. Importantly, in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), similar treatment strategies have been applied in both diseases. However, the etiological mechanisms underlying them remain unclear. Here, an integrated systems pharmacology approach is presented for illustrating the molecular correlations between CVDs and GIDs. Firstly, we identified pairs of genes that are associated with CVDs and GIDs and found that these genes are functionally related. Then, the association between 115 heart meridian (HM) herbs and 163 stomach meridian (SM) herbs and their combination application in Chinese patent medicine was investigated, implying that both CVDs and GIDs can be treated by the same strategy. Exemplified by a classical formula Sanhe Decoration (SHD) treating chronic gastritis, we applied systems-based analysis to introduce a drug-target-pathway-organ network that clarifies mechanisms of different diseases being treated by the same strategy. The results indicate that SHD regulated several pathological processes involved in both CVDs and GIDs. We experimentally confirmed the predictions implied by the effect of SHD for myocardial ischemia. The systems pharmacology suggests a novel integrated strategy for rational drug development for complex associated diseases.

  11. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojtaba Heyadri; Mohammad Hashem Hashempur; Mohammad Hosein Ayati; Detlev Quintern; Majid Nimrouzi; Seyed Hamdollah Mosavat

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; “Chinese herb”), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era.

  12. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era. PMID:26559361

  13. New exploration and understanding of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xutian, Stevenson; Zhang, Jun; Louise, Wozniak

    2009-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), originating from oriental philosophy and culture, has been developing through a series of special research and experiments with meditation, accumulation of experiences, and a complete comprehension of ancient theories and methods. However, compared with Conventional Western Medicine (CWM), the theory of TCM is complicated and not easily accepted by Westerners. It is important to explore TCM by using modern scientific techniques and theories. Utilizing his frontier experience and up-to-date scientific knowledge, Dr. Qian Xuesen has been trying to incorporate some key principles with the comprehensive understanding of TCM and clarify difficult but important concepts and principles. Some examples are the existence of invisible matter; 'Qi' and 'Qi monism'; the Heart representing the 'whole will' of human beings; the water environment functioning as a fundamental condition of life; the human body being united with nature and universe as one; the spirit and physical body always being considered unified and connected with the five viscera, especially with the Heart; and the Chinese herbal formula working with different principles than CWM drugs. These works are important for understanding the essence of TCM, the promoting of the modernization of TCM theories by means of the latest of achievements in scientific developments, establishing the direction for future medicines with TCM characteristics, uniting Chinese and Western medicines, and exploiting a bright future for the health of mankind. PMID:19606504

  14. Advances of Chinese and Western Medicine on Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-na HE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a kind of chronic general immunological disease with primary clinical characteristic being joint synovitis, and no specific treatment has been found at present. In China, its morbidity is in an increasing trend, and also shows a trend of getting younger. RA is complicated in symptoms and chronic disease course, leading to joint ankylosis, deformity and even disability, which seriously threaten patients' psychological and physical health as well as the quality of life (QOL. RA, which belongs to “ Bi” symdrome, is termed as “arthroncus of knee” or “severe and migratory arthralgia” in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, for which TCM focuses on expelling wind to remove cold, tonifying qi to activate blood and dispelling dampness to smooth collaterals while the western medicines mainly based on the principles of anti-inflammation, analgesia and inhibiting autoimmune response. However, both Chinese and western medicines have certain advantages in treating RA. Therefore, this study primarily reviewed the advances of Chinese and western medicines in RA treatment in the hope of providing theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of RA.

  15. Advances of Chinese and Western Medicine on Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Na-na; WU Zhi-sen; XING Zhen-long; ZHANG Zhi-gang; SUN Shi-xuan; LIN Fa-cai

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a kind of chronic general immunological disease with primary clinical characteristic being joint synovitis, and no speciifc treatment has been found at present. In China, its morbidity is in an increasing trend, and also shows a trend of getting younger. RA is complicated in symptoms and chronic disease course, leading to joint ankylosis, deformity and even disability, which seriously threaten patients’ psychological and physical health as well as the quality of life (QOL). RA, which belongs to“Bi”symdrome, is termed as“arthroncus of knee”or“severe and migratory arthralgia”in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), for which TCM focuses on expelling wind to remove cold, tonifying qi to activate blood and dispelling dampness to smooth collaterals while the western medicines mainly based on the principles of anti-inflammation, analgesia and inhibiting autoimmune response. However, both Chinese and western medicines have certain advantages in treating RA. Therefore, this study primarily reviewed the advances of Chinese and western medicines in RA treatment in the hope of providing theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of RA.

  16. A critique of an argument against patent rights for essential medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorn Sonderholm

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Pogge has recently argued that the way in which research and development of essential medicines is incentivized, under existing World Trade Organization rules, should be supplemented with an additional incentivizing mechanism. One might hold a stronger view than the one that Pogge currently holds, namely that patent rights for essential medicines are morally unjustified per se. Throughout this paper, ‘the strong view’ refers to this view. The strong view is one that enjoys considerable support both within and outside the academic community. This paper critically discusses one specific argument in favor of the strong view. This argument is named the ‘Poggean argument’. This denominator is appropriate because a number of the essential premises of the argument are constituted by propositions that Pogge at some point has defended. The Poggean argument is valid, and defenders of the strong view also have some grounds for believing that the argument is sound. This belief comes, however, with what is arguably a too high cost, namely that the global institutional order becomes very demanding on taxpaying citizens of high-income countries if it is to be just. One may find acceptance of this cost relatively unproblematic, but this cost is, it is argued, unacceptable to anyone who has views on distributive justice that are sympathetic to the core tenets of libertarianism.

  17. The efficacy of Chinese medicine for SARS: a review of Chinese publications after the crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ping-Chung

    2007-01-01

    During the SARS crisis in China, 40-60% infected patients, at some stages of their treatment, received Chinese medicine treatment on top of the standard modern medicine treatment. This practice was endorsed and encouraged by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and some details of the herbal treatment were recommended. A review of the publications during and after the SARS crisis enabled us to get an objective view of the true value of the adjuvant therapy using Chinese medicinal herbs. Of the 130 articles searched, 90 were of reasonable quality and contained sufficient information for the enlightenment of the situation. These were reviewed. The results revealed positive but inconclusive indications about the efficacy of the combined treatments using Chinese medicine as an adjuvant. Positive effects using adjuvant herbal therapy included better control of fever, quicker clearance of chest infection, lesser consumption of steroids and other symptoms relief. In a few reports, some evidences of immunological boosterings were also found. More caution is required on the allegation about the efficacy of herbal medicine for the treatment or prevention of viral infection affecting the respiratory tract, while more clinical studies are indicated.

  18. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Hong; Ning Wang; Hor Yue Tan; Sai-Wah Tsao; Yibin Feng

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of ne...

  19. A Brief on Pain and Its Patterns in Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOJTABAVI; Seyed; Javad; 郭长青; 陈幼楠

    2009-01-01

    Pain is the most common symptom in clinics.Therefore,the quality,time course and location of pain are important for the diagnosis and treatment.However,pain is very difficult to define,and it is one of the conditions poorly understood by the medical sciences.In Western medicine pain is often described in terms of a penetrating or tissue-destructive process and/or emotional reactions,but in Chinese medicine the pathogenesis and description of pain are different.It is described based on the theories and pa...

  20. To Set Up a Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Hepatotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Chen, Lingxiu; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs.

  1. Reason Analysis and Risk Prevention of Soaring Price of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,the price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials soars continuously,and the resulting price risk increasingly looms large,which has critically affected midstream and downstream industries and peoples’ demand for drug,and imperiled healthy and orderly development of traditional Chinese medicinal industries.Based on the status quo of continuous skyrocketing price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials at present,we winkle out the root cause of soaring price as follows:the supply and demand lose balance;the production costs hike up;there are other factors responsible for soaring price.This paper further analyses the impact of sharp increase in price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials on all links of industry chain as follows:the medicinal herb growers never benefit from soaring price;the counterfeiters and forgers in midstream industry increase;the gross profit rate of Chinese medicine enterprises declines.In accordance with the risk arising from abnormal fluctuation in price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials,corresponding precautionary measures are put forward as follows:promote the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of value chain;curtail the production and management cost of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of organization chain;stabilize price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of information chain;reduce transaction cost of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of logistics chain.

  2. Promoting the Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘静

    2001-01-01

    @@Reviewing the past, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the 20th century experienced vicissitude. Since the founding the People's Republic of China, especially for the past twenty years, traditional Chinese medicine undertaking, full of vigor and vitality, has made an unprecedented development in China. The legal status and scientific status of traditional Chinese medicine and pharmacology have already been established. The medical system of traditional Chinese medicine, which is composed of traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, ethnic minority medicine hospitals, integration of traditional and western medicine hospitals and comprehensive hospitals, is playing an important role in preventing, treating diseases and enhancing people's health level. The system of production and circulation for traditional Chinese medicine has basically guaranteed the people's demand for Chinese medicine, with the principles of producing medicinal materials as basis, taking Chinese medicine industry as pillar and Chinese medicine as link. Remarkable achievements have been scored in the research of TCM development as well as research of TCM basic theory and clinical treatment. A number of scientific and technological results have been transformed into productive forces. TCM education has formed a rational pattern based on inheriting traditional way of transmission from master to disciple as well as taking the university and college education as the main part. Minority medical science has been further explored and sorted out; the level of medical treatment, teaching and scientific research for ethnic minority medicines has been improved. As the contingent of integrated traditional and western medicine is growing steadily, medical treatment system, scientific research system and teaching system for integrated traditional and western medicine takes shape progressively. International exchange and cooperation on traditional Chinese medicine has been greatly promoted. Various forms of

  3. Commentary: "A systems view on the future of medicine: Inspiration from Chinese medicine?"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorte, R.; Crommelin, D.; Danhof, M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Schuitmaker, H.; Greef, de J.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Chinese medicine could serve as a source of inspiration for drug development. Using systems biology in combination with reverse pharmacology is a novel way for the discovery of novel biological active compounds and targets as well as for proving the occurrence of synergy and prodrugs. A key factor f

  4. Treatment of Chinese Traditional Medicine Wastewater by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You-zhi; WANG Feng-jun; BAO Li

    2005-01-01

    The influence factors treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction by photosynthetic bacteria are tested and discussed. The results indicate that the method of photosynthetic bacteria can eliminate COD and BCD from wastewater in high efficiency. And it also has high load shock resistance. On the conditions of slight aerobic and semi-darkness, treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction, the method has better efficiency to eliminate COD and BOD from the wastewater than those by anaerobic illumination and aerobic darkness treatments. After pretreatment of hydrolytic acidization, the removal rate of COD in the wastewater reached more than 85 %, and that rate of BOD reached more than 90% in the treating system of photosynthetic bacteria. It may be more feasible and advantageous than traditional anaerobic biological process to treat organic wastewater using PSB system.

  5. Molecular Imaging in Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy for Neurological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zefeng Wang; Haitong Wan; Jinhui Li; Hong Zhang(Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul, 121-742 Korea); Mei Tian

    2013-01-01

    With the speeding tendency of aging society, human neurological disorders have posed an ever increasing threat to public health care. Human neurological diseases include ischemic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injury, which are induced by impairment or specific degeneration of different types of neurons in central nervous system. Currently, there are no more effective treatments against these diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is focused on, ...

  6. Chinese Medicinal Leech: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Han; Ren, Ji-Xiang; Wang, Jing-Jing; Ding, Li-Shuai; Zhao, Jian-Jun; Liu, Song-Yan; Gao, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    Hirudo (Shuizhi in Chinese) is an important Chinese medicine, which possesses many therapeutic properties for the treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage and other thrombosis-related diseases. The phytochemical investigation gave more than 51 compounds including pteridines, phosphatidylcholines, glycosphingolipids, and sterols, as well as some bioactive peptides from the Shuizhi derived from three animal species recorded in the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The pharmacological studies on the Shuizhi have revealed various activities such as anticoagulation, antithrombosis, antiatherosclerosis, antiplatelet aggregation, antitumor and anti-inflammatory as well as hemorheology improvement, and protective effects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, some important issues based on the traditional uses of Shuizhi are still not clear. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Shuizhi. It will provide a potential guidance in exploring main active compounds of Shuizhi and interpreting the action mechanism for the further research. PMID:27274755

  7. Chinese Medicinal Leech: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hirudo (Shuizhi in Chinese is an important Chinese medicine, which possesses many therapeutic properties for the treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage and other thrombosis-related diseases. The phytochemical investigation gave more than 51 compounds including pteridines, phosphatidylcholines, glycosphingolipids, and sterols, as well as some bioactive peptides from the Shuizhi derived from three animal species recorded in the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The pharmacological studies on the Shuizhi have revealed various activities such as anticoagulation, antithrombosis, antiatherosclerosis, antiplatelet aggregation, antitumor and anti-inflammatory as well as hemorheology improvement, and protective effects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, some important issues based on the traditional uses of Shuizhi are still not clear. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Shuizhi. It will provide a potential guidance in exploring main active compounds of Shuizhi and interpreting the action mechanism for the further research.

  8. 浅论中医与道教%Analysis on Traditional Chinese Medicine and Taoism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕宣新; 吕迪阳

    2014-01-01

    道教是中国的本土宗教,中医是中华民族的特色医药学。中医从起源到发展和道教一直密不可分。做一个真正的中医医生,需要了解道教对中医的影响。%Taoism was China's indigenous religion .Traditional Chinese medicine was the Chinese nation's characteristic medicine .From its origins to the development of traditional Chinese medicine and Taoism had been inseparable .Traditional Chinese physician did a real need to understand the impact of Taoism on Chinese medicine .

  9. Chinese medicine treatment of insomnia%中医论治失眠研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱尧; 夏伟; 刘溦溦; 顾宁

    2016-01-01

    Objective From TCM understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of insomnia,as well as the treat-ment based on syndrome differentiation,self-prescription,Chinese patent medicine,acupuncture,evidence based medi-cal research,experimental study,to explore the research progress of TCM in the understanding and treatment of insom-nia. Methods Using the method of literature search on CNKI,reference for 30 articles from 2003 to 2015 was includ-ed and discussed. Results Dysfunction of Zang and Fu organs is the important pathological basis of insomnia. The main syndromes of insomnia are fire excess from yin deficiency,insufficiency of heart and spleen,and type of phlegm-heat attacking the heart. Traditional Chinese Medicine can significantly improve patients’symptoms,and increase the sleep time,by syndrome differentiation,self-prescription,Chinese patent medicine,and acupuncture. Moreover,many evidence based medical researches and experimental studies have shown that the efficacy of traditional Chinese medi-cine for insomnia is reliable. Conclusion The traditional Chinese medicine has a good control effect on this disease, can increase the sleep time and relieve the clinical symptoms,but rigorous evidence based medical research and norm-ative experimental studies are still lacking,evaluation of therapeutic methods and curative effect is not uniform,it still needs to be further studied.%目的:从中医对失眠症的病因病机认识,对失眠症的辨证论治、自拟方药、中成药、针灸疗法、循证医学研究、实验研究等方面总结,阐述了近年来中医治疗失眠症的进展。方法通过中国知网,运用文献查找的方法引用了2003—2015年的文献30篇进行论述。结果脏腑的功能失调是失眠的主要病机,失眠的证候主要包括阴虚火旺、心脾两虚、痰热扰心,中医临床通过辨证论治、自拟方药、中成药、针灸等治疗可明显改善患者症状,增加睡眠时间。结论中

  10. [Preliminary study on main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian

    2013-05-01

    The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry. PMID:23944085

  11. Knowledge sharing in Chinese hospitals identifying sharing barriers in traditional Chinese and Western medicine collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to identify, understand and qualify barriers to the patient-centred knowledge sharing (KS) in interprofessional practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Western Medicine (WM) healthcare professionals in Chinese hospitals.  This collaboration is particularly crucial and unique to China since, contrary to Western practice, these two types of professionals actually work together complimentary in the same hospital. This study adopted a Grounded Theory approach as the overarching methodology to guide the analysis of the data collected in a single case-study design.  A public hospital in central China was selected as the case-study site, at which 49 informants were interviewed by using semi-structured and evolving interview scripts.  The research findings point to five categories of KS barriers: contextual influences, hospital management, philosophical divergence, Chinese healthcare education and interprofessional training.  Further conceptualising the research findings, it is identifie...

  12. [Present situation and development strategies of Chinese medicine preparation in medical institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Qiao, Xi-Yao; Lin, Fei

    2015-11-01

    As the actual clinical reflecting of transform Chinese medicine special curative effect, Chinese medicine preparation not only satisfies the need of hospital clinic, scientific research and teaching, but also plays an important role in deepening medical and health system reform, improving people's health level and contributing to the economic growth. However, some problems about administration and approval (tending to western medicine), contraction of the scale, lack of synchronization for clinic and scientific research, and the imbalance of regional development make Chinese medicine preparation move forwards slowly in contradiction. It has not only reduced the effectiveness of the Chinese medicine preparation in hospital clinic, but also brought bad effect on modernized development of Chinese medicine preparation. Research shows that main influencing factors of status quo of Chinese medicine preparation in medical institution include imperfect laws and regulations, high cost than income, and shortage of talents in preparation research. The analysis indicated that the necessary measures to break the contradiction, improve clinical effect of Chinese medicine, and promote the modernization development of Chinese drugs preparation were as follows: government and related departments should strengthen the supporting force in policy by adjusting the examination and approval policy, speeding up dispensing use, reforming pricing system, including into medicare reimbursement, integrating advantage resources and so on; medical institution should actively carry out research and development of traditional Chinese Medicine through drawing the traditional and modern essence, reserving professional talents, and developing characteristic preparation; companies cooperate with hospitals for complementary advantages, which can rapidly transform Chinese medicine preparation into clinical practice.

  13. A rural-urban comparison of client-provider interactions in patent medicine shops in South west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajola, Akinwunmi; Asuzu, Michael C; Owoaje, Eme T; Asuzu, Chioma C; Ige, Olusimbo K; Oladunjoye, Olubunmi O; Asinobi, A

    The increasing prominence of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) in healthcare provision makes information about how they operate of interest. This study assessed consumers' behavior and PMVs' performance in the treatment of childhood illnesses in rural and urban communities in South West Nigeria. Non-participatory observations were carried out in 163 licensed patent medicine stores in Oyo State, Nigeria. Many PMV shops (70.6% rural and 61.9% urban; p = 0.141); stocked non proprietary drugs. Clients often requested for drugs by name (75.4% urban versus 62.2% rural; p = 0.002) and PMVs mostly sold drugs as requested without questions (65.3% urban 57.8% rural; p = 0.07). Inappropriate treatment practices and invasive procedures were observed more often in urban PMVs shops (p < 0.001). PMVs functioned mostly as sales persons supplying clients' drug requests. Strategies to improve PMV treatment practices should include caregiver education to be effective. PMID:23353561

  14. Tragic result of traditional Chinese medicine manipulation: an unusual case report of bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chiu-Liang; Chiu, Shin-Lin; Chu, Chiao-Lee; Lan, Shou-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Background In Taiwan, there is a good universal healthcare system to the patients; however, the majority of Taiwanese seek the complementary and alternative medicine when they are injured or ill. The traditional Chinese medicine, which is a branch of complementary alternative medicine, is prevalent in Taiwan. Without proper sequence of maneuvers, either traditional Chinese medicine or conventional medicine might cause unexpected complications. We report a case of 76-year-old woman who was man...

  15. Model Organisms and Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is an ancient medical system with a unique cultural background. Nowadays, more and more Western countries due to its therapeutic efficacy are accepting it. However, safety and clear pharmacological action mechanisms of TCM are still uncertain. Due to the potential application of TCM in healthcare, it is necessary to construct a scientific evaluation system with TCM characteristics and benchmark the difference from the standard of Western medicine. Model organisms have played an important role in the understanding of basic biological processes. It is easier to be studied in certain research aspects and to obtain the information of other species. Despite the controversy over suitable syndrome animal model under TCM theoretical guide, it is unquestionable that many model organisms should be used in the studies of TCM modernization, which will bring modern scientific standards into mysterious ancient Chinese medicine. In this review, we aim to summarize the utilization of model organisms in the construction of TCM syndrome model and highlight the relevance of modern medicine with TCM syndrome animal model. It will serve as the foundation for further research of model organisms and for its application in TCM syndrome model.

  16. Mothers’ perception of recovery and satisfaction with patent medicine dealers’ treatment of childhood febrile conditions in rural communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ibeneme, Georgian Chiaka; Nwaneri, Ada Caroline; Ibeneme, Sam Chidi; Ezenduka, Pauline; Strüver, Vanessa; Fortwengel, Gerhard; Okoye, Ifeoma Joy

    2016-01-01

    Background Infant mortality in rural areas of Nigeria can be minimized if childhood febrile conditions are treated by trained health personnel, deployed to primary healthcare centres (PHCs) rather than the observed preference of mothers for patent medicine dealers (PMDs). However, health service utilization/patronage is driven by consumer satisfaction and perception of services/product value. The objective of this study was to determine ‘mothers’ perception of recovery’ and ‘mothers’ sati...

  17. Recents patents for isolating, delivering and tracking adult stem cells in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2010-06-01

    The field of regenerative medicine offers nowadays the potential to significantly impact a wide spectrum of healthcare issues, from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes, T1D) to cardiovascular disease. In tissue engineering biomaterials, biological factors, regeneration competent cells are used in the process of creating functional tissue. Regarding the type of stem or progenitor cells which represents the best candidate for therapy, embryonic stem cells have been considered the master cells capable of differentiating into every type of cells either in vitro or in vivo, in spite of serious ethical concerns. Nevertheless experimental evidence suggests that adult stem cells and even terminally differentiated somatic cells under appropriate microenvironmental treatments can be reprogrammed and contribute to a much wider spectrum of differentiated progeny than previously anticipated. One of the main goals is to exploit novel technologies aiming to isolate, expand and enrich sources of regeneration competent cells, especially adult somatic stem cells. Researchers are also trying to develop innovative strategies for effectively delivering regenerative cell populations and to implement 'tracking' tools to verify their engraftment and destiny in vivo. Here we review recent patents on the field issued over the past five years.

  18. MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyan S.Y.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chloroquine phosphate syrups respectively exceeding the tolerance limit of permissible microorganisms specified officially for syrups. The contaminant organisms isolated from analyzed syrups include bacteria: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal isolates include: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillum notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Mucor specie. Bacilus subtilis were found to be most predominant bacterial isolates while Aspergillus niger was the predominant fungal isolate. The pH values of the analyzed syrups ranged from 2.71-3.94 with the exception of Paracetamol syrups,brands of Vitamin C and Chloroquine phosphate syrups which had pH range of 5.28-7.11, 5.30-5.32 and 4.83-4.88 respectively. The susceptibility patterns of each bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents showed resistance to Nalixidic acid,Ampicillin,Rocephin,Ampiclox and Amoxacillin, with high sensitivity to Pefloxacin,Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin and Septrin.

  19. The knowledge of emergency contraception and dispensing practices of Patent Medicine Vendors in South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, Mojisola M; Oduola, Olufemi L; Ogbuji, Queen C; Osinowo, Kehinde A; Oyewo, Adejoke E; Osiberu, Olabimpe M

    2010-09-01

    Patent Medicine Vendors (PMVs) can play a critical role in increasing access to emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) in developing countries, but few studies have examined their knowledge and dispensing practices. Using cluster sampling, the authors selected and interviewed 97 PMVs (60.8 per cent female) in Oyo and Ogun States of Nigeria to assess their knowledge, dispensing practices, and referral for ECPs. About one-third (27.8 per cent) of respondents were not aware of ECPs, and only half knew that ECPs could prevent pregnancy. Forty per cent had ever dispensed ECPs. Reasons proffered by those who do not dispense ECPs included barriers from the State Ministry of Health, police, other regulatory agencies, and religious beliefs. Only 50.5 per cent have referral arrangements for clients. Strategies to increase access to ECPs through PMVs include training on counseling techniques and referral, effective government regulation, and community involvement. Where unsafe abortion is a major cause of maternal mortality, these strategies offer protection for many women in the future. PMID:20805800

  20. 中医药治疗幽门螺旋杆菌感染的现状研究%Research status about treating Helicobacter.pylori with Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄磊

    2015-01-01

    His paper aims to summarize the current status of treating Helicobacter pylori with Chinese medicine,Explore the Chinese medicine understanding of Helicobacter pylori, and single herb medicine, Chinese herbal compound, Chinese patent medicine for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori effect, for clinical treatment of Helicobacter pylori diversification to provide evidence.%本文旨在归纳总结目前中医药治疗幽门螺旋杆菌的现状,探讨中医对幽门螺旋杆菌的认识,及中药单味、中药复方、中成药对幽门螺旋杆菌对治疗效果,为临床多样化治疗幽门螺旋杆菌感染提供依据。

  1. [Research about re-evaluation of screening of traditonal Chinese medicine symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of post-marketing Chinese medicine re-evaluation is to identify Chinese medicine clinical indications, while designing scientific and rational of Chinese medicine symptoms items are important to the result of symptoms re-evaluation. This study give screening of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang re-evaluation as example that reference to principle dyslipidemia clinical research, academic dissertations, Xuezhikang directions, clinical expert practice experience etc. while standardization those symptom names and screening 41 dyslipidemia common symptoms. Furthermore, this paper discuss about the accoerdance and announcements when screening symptoms item, so as to providing a research thread to manufacture PRO chart for post-marketing medicine re-evaluation. PMID:22292395

  2. Analysis on current situation of compound Chinese materia medica patent entried into China%进入中国的复方中药专利现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许钧钧; 张辉; 唐力英; 吴宏伟

    2012-01-01

    为了解国外申请人在我国天然药物尤其是复方药物的专利布局特点,采用国家知识产权局自主开发的专利检索与服务系统(Patent Search and Service System of SIPO)的中国专利文摘数据库(CNABS),对1985-2012年5月的不同国家地区来源的专利申请进行检索,以国际专利分类表中涉及植物、藻类、苔藓、真菌等涵盖中药的分类号为检索目标,采用人工及软件辅助分析的方法对检索结果,尤其是中药复方专利进行多角度的分析(包括申请人、治疗领域、重点专利技术),以期掌握中药复方专利申请中的发展态势,并籍此分析国外复方专利技术的布局状况与技术发展路径,为国内专利制度下中药复方产业的长足发展提供参考.%In order to learn about the patent layout features of natural drugs, especially compound Chinese materia medica (CMM) patents in China applied by foreign applicants, the patent applications from the different countries during 1985-May, 2012 were searched and analyzed based on Patent Search and Service System of SIPO. The searches are targeted at the classification numbers of CMM, such as plant, algae, moss, fungi, in the international patent classification. The search results, particularly multi-angle analysis on compound CMM patents, including applicants, therapeutic field, and important patent technology, were analyzed by manpower and assistant software. The results could help us to know more about the development trend in the application of compound CMM patents on which the foreign situation and technology development path of patent medicine will be analyzed so as to provide a strategic value for the rapid development of CMM enterprises in China under the domestic patent system.

  3. Development and tuning of an original search engine for patent libraries in medicinal chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Kreim, Olivier; Oezdemir-Zaech, Fatma; Vachon, Therese; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The large increase in the size of patent collections has led to the need of efficient search strategies. But the development of advanced text-mining applications dedicated to patents of the biomedical field remains rare, in particular to address the needs of the pharmaceutical & biotech industry, which intensively uses patent libraries for competitive intelligence and drug development. METHODS: We describe here the development of an advanced retrieval engine to search information ...

  4. [Enlightenment of adverse reaction monitoring on safety evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Guo, Xiao-xin; Pang, Yu

    2015-04-01

    The adverse reaction monitoring is important in warning the risks of traditional Chinese medicines at an early stage, finding potential quality problems and ensuring the safe clinical medication. In the study, efforts were made to investigate the risk signal mining techniques in line with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines, particularly the complexity in component, processing, compatibility, preparation and clinical medication, find early risk signals of traditional Chinese medicines and establish a traditional Chinese medicine safety evaluation system based on adverse reaction risk signals, in order to improve the target studies on traditional Chinese medicine safety, effective and timely control risks and solve the existing frequent safety issue in traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:26281610

  5. Computational network pharmacological research of Chinese medicinal plants for chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between drug molecules and target proteins is the basis of pharmacological action.The pharmacodynamic mechanism of Chinese medicinal plants for chronic kidney disease(CKD) was studied by molecular docking and complex network analysis.It was found that the interaction network of components-proteins of Chinese medicinal plants is different from the interaction network of components-proteins of drugs.The action mechanism of Chinese medicinal plants is different from that of drugs.We also found the interaction network of components-proteins of tonifying herbs is different from the interaction network of components-proteins of evil expelling herbs using complex network research approach.It illuminates the ancient classification theory of Chinese medicinal plants.This computational approach could identify the pivotal components of Chinese medicinal plants and their key target proteins rapidly.The results provide data for development of multi-component Chinese medicine.

  6. Chinese Medicine Shenfu Injection for Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wen-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Heart failure (HF is a global public health problem. Early literature studies manifested that Shenfu injection (SFI is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese patent medicine for HF in China. This article intended to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of SFI for HF. Methods. An extensive search was performed within 6 English and Chinese electronic database up to November 2011. Ninety-nine randomized controlled trails (RCTs were collected, irrespective of languages. Two authors extracted data and assessed the trial quality independently. RevMan 5.0.2 was used for data analysis. Results. Compared with routine treatment and/or device support, SFI combined with routine treatment and/or device support showed better effect on clinical effect rate, mortality, heart rate, NT-proBNP and 6-minute walk distance. Results in ultrasonic cardiography also showed that SFI combined with routine treatment improved heart function of HF patients. There were no significant difference in blood pressure between SFI and routine treatment groups. Adverse events were reported in thirteen trails with thirteen specific symptoms, while no serious adverse effect was reported. Conclusion. SFI appear to be effective for treating HF. However, further rigorously designed RCTs are warranted because of insufficient methodological rigor in the majority of included trials.

  7. Barriers and countermeasures in developing traditional Chinese medicine in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunfang; Yang, Zhiping; Cheng, Jing; Fan, Daiming

    2016-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the unique cultural treasures of Chinese; it represents a significant feature and prominent advantage of the healthcare cause in China. Data in this paper were fromWorld Health Organization, Chinese Bureau of Statistics, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and PubMed. In recent years, TCM has established a solid foundation in Europe, which made great strides in legislation, education, research, and international exchange, and has enjoyed a vast development space in the continent. Now, TCM is embracing unprecedented development opportunities in Europe. At the same time, the stiff international competition poses a grave threat to China's TCM industry. With multiple cultural, legal, and institutional challenges, as well as talent shortages in the way, TCM is now facing many difficulties in Europe. To fully prepare and enact active and vigorous steps to seize opportunities, we should have a clear picture about the serious challenges hampering TCM development in Europe. The TCM development at overseas markets has shifted from a spontaneous trade activity into a national strategy spearheaded by the government and participated in by multiple stakeholders. We should make a systematic, comprehensive, and sustainable push in fields such as TCM therapy, healthcare, education, research, culture, and industry development. The ultimate goal is to bring TCMs to the global market and allow them to play a role in safeguarding public health along with modern medicines. PMID:27465827

  8. An overview on adverse drug reactions to traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kelvin; Zhang, Hongwei; Lin, Zhi-Xiu

    2015-10-01

    The safe use of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and products in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice conventionally relies on correct pharmacognostic identification, good agricultural and manufacturing practices based on pharmacopoeia standards and rational/correct CMM combinations with TCM-guided clinical prescribing. These experience-based principles may not absolutely ensure safety without careful toxicological investigations when compared with development of new pharmaceutical drugs. Clinically observed toxicity reports remain as guidance for gathering toxicological evidence, though essential as pharmacovigilance, but are considered as late events for ensuring safety. The overview focuses on the following factors: global development of TCM that has affected conventional healthcare; examples of key toxic substances in CMM; reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) consequential to taking CMM and TCM products; and proposals on rational approaches to integrate the knowledge of biomedical science and the principles of TCM practice for detecting early ADRs if both TCM products and orthodox drugs are involved. It is envisaged that good control of the quality and standards of CMM and proprietary Chinese medicines can certainly reduce the incidence of ADRs in TCM practice when these medications are used. PMID:25619530

  9. Experimental research of integrative Chinese medicine in multiple sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Ying Zhu; Zheng Kang; Yan Chen; Gen-Cheng Wu; Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    多发性硬化症是一种严重的神经退行性疾病,会给患者及其家属带来难以估量的痛苦及负担,且目前没有可以根治的办法。因此,有必要从不同的医学体系中寻找能够治疗多发性硬化的治疗方法。中医是最为主要的一类传统与替代医学疗法,且在世界范围内长期被广泛用于治疗包括多发性硬化在内的神经系统疾病。本文主要总结了不同中医疗法在多发性硬化动物模型——实验性变态反应性脑脊髓炎模型中的研究现状,包括中药复方,中药提取物如石杉碱甲、毛萼乙素、姜黄素等,以及针灸。这些研究为多发性硬化证的治疗提供了新的思路,同时也有利于进一步阐明中医中医治疗多发性硬化症的疗效机制。%Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease which brings overwhelming sufferings to patients and their families with no radical cure heretofore. Thus, studies of different medicine field and diverse treating methods aiming at the cure for MS should be promoted. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as one of the most important complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), has long been applied to treat MS in China and other nervous system diseases worldwide. Our review aims to summarize the findings of Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture in the prevention and treatment on animal model of MS, mainly based on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. In this review, experimental research advances of Traditional Chinese medicine in the studies of MS are involved, including Chinese herb decoctions, herb extracts like huperzine A, Eriocalyxin B, Curcumin and also, acupuncture. All of this researches hew out new thoughts towards the treatment of MS and concomitantly, the understanding of the effective mechanism of TCM on MS.

  10. [Evolution, characteristics and enlightenment of self-innovation of traditional Chinese medicine industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-pei; Tao, Qun-shan; Peng, Dai-yin; Wei, Hua

    2015-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine industry is China's strategic emerging industry with great potential for self-innovation. Traditional Chinese medicine industry has successively experienced four stages which are the foundation (laying stage), the core status (establishing stage), the modern system (exploring stage), and the modernization system (constructing stage). Throughout the evolution of the self-innovation in traditional Chinese medicine industry, it presents distinct characteristics which we can explore the beneficial enlightenment. PMID:26552191

  11. Reason Analysis and Risk Prevention of Soaring Price of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Huan; Liu, Jian-qiu; Qu, Kai-yue; Feng, Li; He, Yi

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials soars continuously, and the resulting price risk increasingly looms large, which has critically affected midstream and downstream industries and peoples' demand for drug, and imperiled healthy and orderly development of traditional Chinese medicinal industries. Based on the status quo of continuous skyrocketing price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials at present, we winkle out the root cause of soaring price as foll...

  12. Chinese Medicines Induce Cell Death: The Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms for Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Xuanbin Wang; Yibin Feng; Ning Wang; Fan Cheung; Hor Yue Tan; Sen Zhong; Charlie Li; Seiichi Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    Chinese medicines have long history in treating cancer. With the growing scientific evidence of biomedical researches and clinical trials in cancer therapy, they are increasingly accepted as a complementary and alternative treatment. One of the mechanisms is to induce cancer cell death. Aim. To comprehensively review the publications concerning cancer cell death induced by Chinese medicines in recent years and provide insights on anticancer drug discovery from Chinese medicines. Materials and...

  13. A new dawn for the use of traditional Chinese medicine in cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Ming Q; Liu Gang; Parekh Harendra S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Although traditional Chinese medicine has benefitted one fifth of the world's population in treating a plethora of diseases, its acceptance as a real therapeutic option by the West is only now emerging. In light of a new wave of recognition being given to traditional Chinese medicine by health professionals and regulatory bodies in the West, an understanding of their molecular basis and highlighting potential future applications of a proven group of traditional Chinese medicine in th...

  14. [Process on researching methods of ecology of Chinese traditional medicine resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingqun; Cao, Hailu; Zhao, Runhuai; Chen, Shilin

    2011-02-01

    Though the study on ecology of Chinese traditional medicinal resources methods has achieved great progress in recent years, it is not able to catch the pace of the development of ecology science. Based on the analysis of recent literatures about ecology development trend and Chinese traditional medicinal ecology methods, the progress of Chinese traditional medicinal ecology methods was reviewed, and future study trend was discussed.

  15. Life after Myriad: the uncertain future of patenting biomedical innovation and personalised medicine in an international context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Schwartz, Robert; Minssen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    of these decisions on the biomedical sector and personalized medicine,as well the methodology used by the generalist Supreme Court in reversing a specialized CAFC judgment is particularly interesting from a comparative perspective. This paper analyses and discusses these U.S. developments, and compares them...... with the situation in Australia and in the EU.   Keywords: biotechnology, comparative patent law, US, Europe, Australia, DNA, Myriad, patent-eligibility,personalized medicine, genetic diagnostics, USPTO 2014 Guidelines, methods,innovation, Unified Patent Court....

  16. Challenges in Research and Development of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This review is briefly to recall the history of research and development (R&D) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and to discuss the challenges of Chinese traditional and herbal medicines (CTHM) facing the modern science and technology. The R&D of CTHM is thought to be an important pathway for new drug discovery. Since1949, about 140 approved new drugs have been developed, among which about 80 originated directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. CTHM has gained interest from the international medical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical institutions as a valuable source of potential medicines. For the modernization of CMM and innovative research of CTHM, there are following challenges to be faced: (1) to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacological properties, action mechanism, and active chemical constituents; (2) to develop new methodologies for the quality and safety of CTHM; (3) to apply new "-omics" techniques to accelerate drug discoveries developed from CTHM; and (4) to apply international practices including good agricultural practice, good manufacturing practice, good laboratory practice, and good clinical practice in the R&D of CTHM.

  17. [Analysis of toxicity of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and its connotation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qi; Xie, Ming

    2009-02-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicine theory and clinical experience, traditional Chinese herbal drug toxicity has its own special connotation. From the perspective of history and logic, the different comprehension of toxicity between Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine was discussed after retracing the meaning of "drug toxicity" in traditional Chinese medicine. The authors suggest that it's not feasible to study the Chinese medicine coping mechanically and applying indiscriminately the concept and the research idea about modern drug toxicity since there is different understanding of "drug toxicity" between traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Many control elements are involved in the use of traditional Chinese herbal drugs, and Chinese drug components and actions are complex as compared with Western drugs. More and more drugs with toxicity will be found due to the relativity of drug toxicity. Currently, the study of Chinese drug toxicity should pay more attention to the relation between the toxicity and Chinese drug nature, compatibility and the corresponding disease or syndrome pattern after making definition of Chinese drug toxicity and its connotation. PMID:19216849

  18. [Problems in quality standard research of new traditional Chinese medicine compound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; He, Yan-Ping

    2014-09-01

    The new traditional Chinese medicine compound is the main part of the research of new drug of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and the new Chinese herbal compound reflects the characteristics of TCM theory. The new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard research is one of the main content of pharmaceutical research, and is also the focus of the new medicine pharmaceutical evaluation content. Although in recent years the research level of new traditional Chinese medicine compound has been greatly improved, but the author during the review found still some common problems existing in new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard research data, this paper analyzed the current quality standards for new traditional Chinese medicine compound and the problems existing in the research data, respectively from measurement of the content of index selection, determine the scope of the content, and the quality standard design concept, the paper expounds developers need to concern. The quality of new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard is not only itself can be solved, but quality standards is to ensure the key and important content of product quality, improving the quality of products cannot do without quality standards. With the development of science and technology, on the basis of quality by design under the guidance of the concept, new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard system will be more scientific, systematic and perfect.

  19. [The technological innovation strategy for quality control of Chinese medicine based on Big Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-hao; Qian, Zhong-zhi; Cheng, Yi-yu

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of the quality control concepts of medical products within the global context and the development of the quality control technology of Chinese medicine are briefly described. Aimed at the bottlenecks in the regulation and quality control of Chinese medicine, using Big Data technology to address the significant challenges in Chinese medicine industry is proposed. For quality standard refinements and internationalization of Chinese medicine, a technological innovation strategy encompassing its methodology, and the R&D direction of the subsequent core technology are also presented. PMID:26978975

  20. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Guosheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, β-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.

  1. Bilski: assessing the impact of a newly invigorated patent-eligibility doctrine on the pharmaceutical industry and the future of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    The patent-eligibility doctrine serves a gatekeeper role in excluding from patent protection natural phenomena, principles of nature, abstract ideas, and mental processes. Beginning around 1980, the U.S. patent system embarked upon a pronounced expansion in its definition of patent-eligible subject matter, particularly with respect to software and business method inventions, but also in the life sciences. In recent years, however, we have seen a backlash, with many critics from the public and private sectors arguing that the threshold for patent-eligibility needs to be raised in order to ensure that patents fulfill their constitutional objective of encouraging innovation rather than impeding it. The courts and PTO appear to have heard these critics, and have begun to actively rein in the scope of patent-eligible subject matter. This shift in the swing of the patent-eligibility pendulum will likely have a profound impact on the patentability of innovations arising out of the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, particularly those relating to diagnostics and personalized medicine. In this article, I discuss the current status of the patent-eligibility doctrine, how it is that we got here, and what the future might hold, particularly for the life science industries. PMID:20615185

  2. 纳米中药制剂的研究介绍%Introduction of nano chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Traditional Chinese medicine has been used for thousands of years, and has been contributing to human health. It is considered as a great treasure of mankind. However, nowadays, Traditional Chinese medicine falls behind of modern medicine. It has not been accepted extensively in the worldwide. How can we change this situation? Modernizing traditional Chinese medicine is an effective way. We must improve traditional Chinese medicine with modern science and technology.

  3. Is there a role for patent medicine vendors in tuberculosis control in southern Nigeria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeneho, Nkechi G; Chukwu, Joseph N

    2010-12-01

    Patent medicine vendors (PMVs) are a ubiquitous feature of the informal health sector in Nigeria. A previous study on healthcare-seeking behaviour of persons with chronic cough in southern Nigeria found that over 60% of respondents chose the PMV as a healthcare provider of first instance. This study sought to determine the willingness and capability of PMVs to play a role in the national tuberculosis (TB)-control effort. Study sites were selected through a multi-stage sampling process. In total, 388 PMVs, 17 principal officers of PMV associations, and 17 community leaders were purposively selected. Sets of structured questionnaire were administered to the PMVs while information from the principal officers of PMV associations and community leaders was elicited through in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions (FGDs). Quantitative data were collated using the Epi Info software (version 6.04) and analyzed using the SPSS software (version 15). Most (90%) PMVs indicated that they would be ready to cooperate with the national TB-control programme, if trained. Seventy-three percent attended persons with prolonged cough in the course of their career. However, 48% did not know the cause of TB. Only 3% ever-attended a training session on TB control. Sixty-six percent completed at least 12 years of schooling with secondary school certificate. Eighty percent of the community leaders were happy with the work of PMVs. About two-thirds (65.6%) of the PMVs were male. The PMVs are positively disposed to playing roles in TB control. Given this positive disposition and their widespread acceptance in healthcare-delivery in the communities, they have potentials for playing a role in TB control in southern Nigeria. PMID:21261202

  4. Discrimination of Chinese Herbal Medicine by Machine Olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Shao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available “Small Sample Size” (SSS problem would occur while using linear discriminant analysis (LDA algorithm with traditional Fisher criterion if the within-class scatter matrix is singular. The combination of maximum scatter difference (MSD criterion and LDA algorithm for solve SSS problem is described. It is employed to detect three kinds of Chinese herbal medicines from different growing areas by machine olfaction. Compared with PCA or PCA + LDA algorithm, the classification result was enhanced. It works out that only a few samples of Anhui Atractylodes are classified incorrectly, however, the classification rate reaches 97.8%.

  5. [Origin and development of umbilical therapy in traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Wei; Jia, Hong-Ling

    2014-06-01

    The origin and development of umbilical therapy in traditional Chinese medicine is explored from related literature in the history. As a result, the Shang period is regarded as initial period of umbilical therapy, while periods from Han Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Southern-Northern Dynasties to Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty could be taken as stage of primary development. Time from Song Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty to Ming and Qing Dynasties is believed as mature stage. Also the manipulation, application principle, indications and contraindications of umbilical therapy are explained. A brief overview of modern development of umbilical therapy is also described. PMID:25112106

  6. Touriam Health Care Center of Xiyuan Hospital China Academy of Traditioal Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Brief Introduction to Xiyuan Hospital Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) was founded in 1955.It is a large comprehensive hospital directly attached to the Chinese Ministry of Health and State Administration of TOM. This hospital governs First Clinical Medical Institute, Gerontology Institute and Clinical Pharmacological Institute of China Academy of TOM, and Clinical Pharmacological Base of the Health Ministry. It is a component of WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine. It also administers the Agency of Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, the Society of Clinical Pharmacology of Chinese Drugs of China TOM Association, the Professional Committee of Hematology and Activating Blood-circulation and Removing Blood Stasis of Chinese Society of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine.

  7. Use of Chinese medicine by cancer patients: a review of surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Caroline A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chinese medicine has been used to treat a variety of cancer-related conditions. This study aims to examine the prevalence and patterns of Chinese medicine usage by cancer patients. We reviewed articles written in English and found only the Chinese medicine usage from the studies on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Seventy four (74 out of 81 articles reported rates of CAM usage ranging from 2.6 to 100%. Acupuncture was reported in 71 out of 81 studies. Other less commonly reported modalities included Qigong (n = 17, Chinese herbal medicine (n = 11, Taichi (n = 10, acupressure (n = 6, moxibustion (n = 2, Chinese dietary therapy (n = 1, Chinese massage (n = 1, cupping (n = 1 and other Chinese medicine modalities (n = 19. This review also found important limitations of the English language articles on CAM usage in cancer patients. Our results show that Chinese medicine, in particular Chinese herbal medicine, is commonly used by cancer patients. Further research is warranted to include studies not written in English.

  8. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics of nanodrugs from Chinese medicines and natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Xiao; Si, Duan-Yun; Xiao, Xue-Feng; He, Xin; Li, Ya-Zhuo

    2012-06-01

    Over the past few years, nanoscale Chinese medicine has become one of focuses in modern Chinese medicine research. There is an increasing need for a more systematic study on the basic issues involved in traditional Chinese medicine and a more active participation of researchers in the application area of nanoscale traditional Chinese drugs. In this review, author analyzed the current applications of nanotechnology in research and development of drugs from natural products and herbal medicines involving traditional Chinese medicines, and also discussed the bio-medicinal evaluation issues on ADME including bio-distribution and metabolism of nanodrugs. Author noted that great challenges faced in nanodrugs from herb drugs and natural products are the follows: (1) the first challenge is to prepare nanodrug delivery system and quantitatively evaluate the therapeutic effects and safety; (2) the second challenge is to clarify the concrete metabolism course; and (3) the third challenge is to study the pharmacokinetics of nanodrugs. PMID:22475334

  9. Off-patent generic medicines vs. off-patent brand medicines for six reference drugs: a retrospective claims data study from five local healthcare units in the Lombardy Region of Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio L Colombo

    Full Text Available The scientific documentation supporting the potential clinical and economic benefits of a growing use of off-patent generic drugs in clinical practice seems to be limited in Italy as yet.We compared differences in outcomes between off-patent generic drugs and off-patent brand drugs in real clinical practice. The outcomes were: persistence and compliance with therapy, mortality, and other health resources consumption (hospitalizations, specialist examinations, other drugs and total costs. Retrospective analysis was carried out by using the administrative databases of five Local Healthcare Units (ASLs - Aziende Sanitarie Locali in the Lombardy Region of Italy. Data from the five ASLs were aggregated through a meta-analysis, which produced an estimate indicator of the mean or percentage difference between the two groups (branded vs. generic and their respective significance tests. The therapeutic areas and studied drugs were: diabetes: metformin - A10BA02; hypertension: amlodipine - C08CA01; dyslipidemia: simvastatin - C10AA01; psychiatry: sertraline - N06AB06; cardiology: propafenone - C01BC03; osteoporosis: alendronate - M05BA04.The 5 Local Healthcare Units (ASL represent a population of 3,847,004 inhabitants. The selected sample included 347,073 patients, or 9.02% of the total ASL population; 67% of the patients were treated with off-patent brand drugs. The average age was 68 years, with no difference between the two groups. After 34 months of observation, compliance and persistence were in favor to generic drugs in all therapeutic areas and statistically significant in the metformin, amlodipine, simvastatin, and sertraline groups. The clinical outcomes (hospitalizations, mortality, and other health costs show no statistically significant differences between off-patent generic vs. off-patent brand medicines.Off-patent generic drugs appear to be a therapy option of choice in Italy as well, based on clinical outcomes and economic consequences

  10. Therapeutic Effects of Integrated Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine in Treating Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王融冰; 刘军民; 江宇泳; 吴云忠; 王晓静; 池频频; 孙凤霞; 高连印

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To improve the effects of treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and to explore the clinical significance of integrated traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine (ICWM) in the treatment of SARS and its influence on the chief indexes in the process of the disease. Methods: The clinical study involving observation of 135 patients of SARS was conducted in the randomized, synchronously controlled and open way. The patients were divided into two groups, 68 in the ICWM group and 67 in the control group, all of whom were treated with the same basic treatment of western medicine, but to the ICWM group, Chinese drugs for clearing Heat, detoxifying and removing Dampness were given additionally. The comprehensive effect on relieving fever, cell-mediated immunity, pulmonary inflammation and secondary infection was compared between the two groups. Results: The therapeutic effect in the ICWM group was better than that in the control group in such aspects as steadily lowering body temperature, alleviating general symptoms, accelerating the absorption of pulmonary infiltration and easing cellular immunity suppression. Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of ICWM is better in treating SARS than that of western medicine alone.

  11. Access to medicine and the dangers of patent linkage: lessons from Bayer Corp v. Union of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Mabel

    2011-03-01

    In February 2010, the Delhi High Court delivered its decision in Bayer Corp v Union of India in which Bayer had appealed against an August 2009 decision of the same court. Both decisions prevented Bayer from introducing the concept of patent linkage into India's drug regulatory regime. Bayer appealed to the Indian Supreme Court, the highest court in India, which agreed on 2 March 2010 to hear the appeal. Given that India is regarded as a global pharmaceutical manufacturer of generic medications, how its judiciary and government perceive their international obligations has a significant impact on the global access to medicines regime. In rejecting the application of patent linkage, the case provides an opportunity for India to further acknowledge its international human rights obligations. PMID:21528741

  12. 基于中文分词的专利挖掘分析方法研究%The patent mining analysis method based on Chinese word segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐河杭; 顾新建; 陈国海; 王海军; 张玉梅

    2011-01-01

    As the world' s largest source of the technical information, patents have received increasing attention by the enterprise. A patent mining and analysis process is presented based on Chinese word segmentation. First, the patent information is searched, extracted, and cleaned. Then some keywords have been extracted from patent title based on Chinese word segmenta- tion, and the patent title, abstracts, and other patent information are refined. Last, patent technology roadmaps, the association between different technologies, similar patent cluster, etc. have been mined based on the previous research. This process and method has been applied to the patent of air - conditioning industry. It helps the enterprise in the patent mapping, technical development, and implementation of patent strategy.%专利作为世界上最大的技术信息源,受到企业的日益重视。本文提出了一种基于中文分词的专利挖掘分析过程,首先进行专利信息的检索、提取和清洗,然后利用中文分词对专利名称进行关键词组的提取,细化专利名称、摘要等专利信息,最后在此基础上挖掘出专利的技术发展路线,不同技术之间的关联关系以及相似专利簇等。该过程方法在空调行业专利数据中得到了应用,有助于企业进行专利地图绘制、技术研发和专利战略实施。

  13. A Study on the patent application strategy for China from the viewpoint of the patent application procedure and patent application conditions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yaji, Kazufumi

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines strategies for patent applications in China, focusing on the differences between Chinese patent law and Japanese patent law about the process of filling patent applications and the data on the number of patent applications to China in various technology fields. Strategies for patent applications in China for Japanese companies are proposed taking account of differences between Chinese patent law and Japanese patent law and the viewpoint of patent application data.

  14. In vitro anticancer activity of twelve Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Mark; Hamilton, Bobbi; Dairkee, Schanaz H; Cohen, Isaac; Campbell, Michael J

    2005-07-01

    Aqueous extracts of 12 Chinese medicinal herbs, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Artemisia argyi, Commiphora myrrha, Duchesnea indica, Gleditsia sinensis, Ligustrum lucidum, Rheum palmatum, Rubia cordifolia, Salvia chinensis, Scutellaria barbata, Uncaria rhychophylla and Vaccaria segetalis were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on eight cancer cell lines as well as on normal human mammary epithelial cells. Five human and three murine cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung, pancreas and prostate) were used. All the crude aqueous extracts demonstrated growth inhibitory activity on some or all of the cancer cell lines, but only two showed activity against the normal mammary epithelial cells. Overall, the murine cell lines tended to be more sensitive to most of the extracts compared with the human cell lines. Among the human cell lines, cell type specificity was observed for two extracts. These results indicate the potential use of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs as antineoplastic agents and suggest that further studies evaluating their mechanism(s) of action and the isolation of active antitumor compounds are warranted.

  15. Terminology Standardization in Chinese Medicine:The Perspective from UCLA Center for East-West Medicine(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka-Kit Hui; Sonya Pritzker

    2007-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTlON by Ka-kit Hui,M.D. Because we recognize the clinical,educational,and cultural importance of translation and terminology in Chinese medicine,we feel that it is imperative to understand the perspectives of all concerned parties.This article thus addresses the issue of terminology standardization in English language Chinese medical Publications from the Point of View of multiple stakeholders in this field at the UCLA Center for East-West Medicine.

  16. Cardiac protection of new compounds from scientific Chinese medicine (SCM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yi-zhun

    2008-01-01

    Objective Purification and Standardization of Chinese herbal extracts became a hot topic since last decade. Though traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used as a mixture from several herbs for centuries, it has been drawn much attention for studying the standardized Chinese herbs using modern technology. Methods Recently, we compared purified Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (PSME) with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, Rarnipril, in in vitro experiments and also in vivo using animal model of myocardial infarction. Results PSME was found to have a significantly higher trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity which indicated a great capacity for scavenging free radicals. PSME could also prevent pyrogalto red bleaching and DNA damage. After 2 weeks treatment with PSME or Ramipril, survival rates of rats with experimental myocardial infarction were marginally increased (68.2% and 71.4%) compared with saline (61.5%). In another recent study, we evaluated the cardioprotective effects of PSME on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts and in hypoxic vascular smooth muscle calls. We found that PSME treated hearts showed significant postischemic contractile function recovery (develop pressure recovered to 44.2±4.9 % versus 17.1±5.7 %, P<0.05; maximum contraction recovered to 57.2±5.9 % versus 15.1±6.3%, P<0. 001; maximum relaxation restored to 69.3±7.3% versus 15.4±6.3%, P<0.001 in PSME and control group respectively). Conclusions Significant elevated in end-diastolic pressure, which indicated LV stiffening in PSME hearts might be resulted by exceed dose of PSME used. Purified and standardized Chinese herb could provide an alternative regimen for the prevention of ischemic heart disease.

  17. Determining method and conditional factors of electrochemical fingerprint of Chinese traditional medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG TaiMing; LIANG YiZeng; YUAN Bin; DING Feng; ZHANG YaPeng; WEI ManQiong; CHEN Xu

    2007-01-01

    The thermodynamic systems and kinetic model suitable for the electrochemical token of the component throng in Chinese traditional medicines have been analyzed.It has been indicated that the damp oscillatory reactions in the non-equilibrium close system and open system without the supplement of dissipative substance have important significance for the throng token and analysis of chemical components in Chinese traditional medicines.Various factors influencing the electrochemical fingerprint, such as reactant species and their concentrations, electrode types, temperature, stir rate, the kind, dosage and granularity of Chinese traditional medicines, have amply been researched by the B-Z oscillatory reaction which used malonic acid as a main dissipative substance.In addition, the quantitative information about the chemical components in Chinese traditional medicines has been discussed in detail.The method and its conditions for determining the electrochemical fingerprint used in scientifically distinguishing and evaluating Chinese traditional medicines have successfully been put forward.

  18. [Construction and implementation of quality control index for clinical safety of Chinese medicine injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun-jie; Xie, Yan-ming

    2015-12-01

    In order to ensure the authenticity and accuracy of traditional Chinese medicine injection safety monitoring data, Chinese medicine injection safety monitoring quality control indicators, including the monitoring center, monitoring personnel, hardware conditions, monitoring progress and the number of patients into the group, original documents and archives management, electronic data, adverse events, quality management were constructed. Its application in the creation of major new drugs technology major projects, 10 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine injections clinical safety monitoring quality control work, found the missing case surveillance, not reported adverse events, only reported adverse reactions, electronic data reporting lag, lack of level of efforts to control the problem, and corrected, the traditional Chinese medicine injection safety monitoring of quality control and quality assurance, and subsequent Chinese medicine safety monitoring quality control to provide the reference. PMID:27245020

  19. Harmonization of monographic standards is needed to ensure the quality of Chinese medicinal materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Sandy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview on the regulations of Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs in various countries and regions. Harmonization of CMM monographs would provide standards for the quality control of CMM products and play an important role in the modernization and globalization of Chinese medicine. A harmonized regulatory system would improve the quality of CMMs thereby ensuring the safety of the products and assisting Chinese medicine practitioners in their practice. The fast growing demand worldwide for traditional medicines calls for harmonized monographic standards to safeguard the safety and quality of CMM products.

  20. Rare Disease Drug Policy and Inheritance and Innovation of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Baxian Yi; Guangping Wang; Xiaoming Wu

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is an important component of the health care system in Chinese medical treatment and public health. Rare disease drugs in difficult miscellaneous diseases in traditional Chinese medicine have similar characteristics with the rare disease drugs (orphan drugs) in European and American countries, which both are characterized by individualized medical treatment. The two are different in the development thought. Treatment of difficult miscellaneous diseases in the trad...

  1. The research progress of Chinese medicine in hepatic cancer immunotherapy%中医药在肝癌免疫治疗中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高舒; 华海清

    2013-01-01

    Summarized and analyzed the experiment of Chinese medicine curing hepacarcinoma,and gave a summary and conclusion of the effective components,compound in Chinese medicine and Chinese patent medicines in regulating hepacarcinoma immune function Also investigated the main problems in the research.Resaults Chinese medicine has better regulation of tumor patients immune function,which could prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis by strengthening and consolidating body resistance,inhibit tumor progression.%归纳和分析近年来中医药治疗肝癌的实验及临床研究的相关文献.对中药有效成分、中药复方、中成药调节肝癌免疫功能分别进行概括和总结,并探讨存在的主要问题.表明中医药具有较好的调节肿瘤患者免疫功能的作用,通过扶正固本达到防止肿瘤复发和转移、抑制肿瘤进展、延长患者生存时间的目的.

  2. Comments on Nigel Wiseman's A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine ( Ⅱ )-- On the Use of Western Medical Terms to Express the Concepts of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Mr. Wiseman believes that Western medical terms chosen as equivalents of Chinese medical terms should be the words known to all speakers and not requiring any specialist knowledge or instrumentation to understand or identify, and strictly technical Western medical terms should be avoided regardless of their conceptual conformity to the Chinese terms. Accordingly, many inappropriate Western medical terms are selected as English equivalents by the authors of the Dictionary, and on the other hand, many ready-made appropriate Western medical terms are replaced by loan English terms with the Chinese style of word formation.The experience gained in solving the problems of translating Western medical terms into Chinese when Western medicine was first introduced to China is helpful for translating Chinese medical terms into English. How-ever, the authors of the Dictionary adhere to their own opinions, ignoring others experience. The English terms thus created do not reflect the genuine meaning of the Chinese terms, but make the English glossary in chaos. The so-called true face of traditional Chinese revealed by such terms is merely the Chinese custom of word formation and metaphoric rhetoric. In other words, traditional Chinese medicine is not regarded as a system of medicine but merely some Oriental folklore.

  3. [Present situation and development strategies of Chinese medicine preparation in medical institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Qiao, Xi-Yao; Lin, Fei

    2015-11-01

    As the actual clinical reflecting of transform Chinese medicine special curative effect, Chinese medicine preparation not only satisfies the need of hospital clinic, scientific research and teaching, but also plays an important role in deepening medical and health system reform, improving people's health level and contributing to the economic growth. However, some problems about administration and approval (tending to western medicine), contraction of the scale, lack of synchronization for clinic and scientific research, and the imbalance of regional development make Chinese medicine preparation move forwards slowly in contradiction. It has not only reduced the effectiveness of the Chinese medicine preparation in hospital clinic, but also brought bad effect on modernized development of Chinese medicine preparation. Research shows that main influencing factors of status quo of Chinese medicine preparation in medical institution include imperfect laws and regulations, high cost than income, and shortage of talents in preparation research. The analysis indicated that the necessary measures to break the contradiction, improve clinical effect of Chinese medicine, and promote the modernization development of Chinese drugs preparation were as follows: government and related departments should strengthen the supporting force in policy by adjusting the examination and approval policy, speeding up dispensing use, reforming pricing system, including into medicare reimbursement, integrating advantage resources and so on; medical institution should actively carry out research and development of traditional Chinese Medicine through drawing the traditional and modern essence, reserving professional talents, and developing characteristic preparation; companies cooperate with hospitals for complementary advantages, which can rapidly transform Chinese medicine preparation into clinical practice. PMID:27071242

  4. [Identification of ancient Chinese medicinal specimens preserved at Natural History Museum in London].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Zhao, Kai-cun; Brand, Eric

    2015-12-01

    On-site field investigation was conducted to authenticate a batch of ancient Chinese medicinal decoction pieces that have been preserved in a rare collection at the Natural History Museum in London. These treasured artifacts comprise a portion of the Sloane Collection, and the nearly one hundred Chinese medicinal specimens examined within provide an objective record of the real situation regarding the Chinese medicinal materials in commercial circulation three hundred years ago. The precious data from this collection pro-vides an extremely valuable reference for the research into the history of medicinal exchange between China and the West during the Age of Exploration, shedding light on the evolution and historical changes in the species used in Chinese medicine, as well as the history of medicinal processing and decoction pieces.

  5. [Analysis on prescription rules of treating senile dementia based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance auxiliary systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xin; Ji, Xu-Ming; Wei, Feng-Qin; Shi, Zuo-Rong

    2014-02-01

    This is designed to analyze and summarize medication rules for treating senile dementia with Chinese medicine in CNKI according to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance auxiliary system. Collect documents in CNKI that account treating senile dementia with Chinese formula; filter and establish a formula database, and then to search for medication rules on the TCM inheritance auxiliary system. It is filtered that 104 formulas are used for treating senile dementia screening treat senile dementia, involving 147 kinds of Chinese medicine. Tonic medicine are most frequently used, followed by the medicine of activating blood circulation and resuscitating; medicine pair most used is Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort-Acorus tatarinowii, accounting for 27.9% of all formula. And then 8 core pairs and 4 new formulas are evolved. Analysis on formulas for treating senile dementia filtered form CNKI by TCM inheritance auxiliary system shows prescription is mainly tonifying, activating blood circulation and resuscitating, that reveals prescription rules, to provide a reference for clinical treatment.

  6. Progresses in Applications of Stable Isotope Technology to Determining Geographical Origins of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Li-ming

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of proper geographical origin of traditional Chinese medicine is critical for guaranteeing the quality and efficacy of the medicine, safeguarding the market order, and reducing the medical negligence rate due to fake products. Stable isotope technology, as one of the most efficient methods to determine agricultural products authenticity and traceability, have great advantages and theoretical basis for determining geo-origin of traditional Chinese medicine, and it has been applied to many expensive herbs. In this review, the basic principles of isotopic traceability were firstly introduced. We then elaborate in details the frequently-used isotopic indicators in the geo origin studies of traditional Chinese medicine. We also provide a summary of current research progresses and point out some directions for future research. The purpose of this paper is to promote the applications of stable isotopes to traditional Chinese medicine traceability studies and the establishment of the isotopic database and the improvement of the medicine traceability.

  7. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Explain Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine among Hong Kong Chinese in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Tina L. Rochelle; Shardlow, Steven M.; Sik Hung Ng

    2015-01-01

    The UK Chinese are known for their underutilisation of western healthcare services. Reasons for this underutilisation are complex. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is a widely used model of social cognition, which in the present study is being applied to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) utilisation and satisfaction with TCM services. Two hundred and seventy-two UK Chinese aged between 15 and 91 years (M = 46.55; SD = 18.53) enrolled in the study. TCM utilisation was associated with gen...

  8. Chinese Medicines Induce Cell Death: The Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanbin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese medicines have long history in treating cancer. With the growing scientific evidence of biomedical researches and clinical trials in cancer therapy, they are increasingly accepted as a complementary and alternative treatment. One of the mechanisms is to induce cancer cell death. Aim. To comprehensively review the publications concerning cancer cell death induced by Chinese medicines in recent years and provide insights on anticancer drug discovery from Chinese medicines. Materials and Methods. Chinese medicines (including Chinese medicinal herbs, animal parts, and minerals were used in the study. The key words including “cancer”, “cell death”, “apoptosis”, “autophagy,” “necrosis,” and “Chinese medicine” were used in retrieval of related information from PubMed and other databases. Results. The cell death induced by Chinese medicines is described as apoptotic, autophagic, or necrotic cell death and other types with an emphasis on their mechanisms of anticancer action. The relationship among different types of cell death induced by Chinese medicines is critically reviewed and discussed. Conclusions. This review summarizes that CMs treatment could induce multiple pathways leading to cancer cell death, in which apoptosis is the dominant type. To apply these preclinical researches to clinic application will be a key issue in the future.

  9. An in-depth study of patent medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria in a rural Nigerian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Henrietta U

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major cause of mortality among under five children in Nigeria. Most of the early treatments for fever and malaria occur through self-medication with antimalarial drugs bought from medicine sellers. These have led to increasing calls for interventions to improve treatment obtained in these outlets. However, information about the current practices of these medicine sellers is needed before such interventions. This study aims to determine the medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria and the determinants that underlie their dispensing patterns of antimalarial drugs. Methods The study was conducted in Ugwugo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria. It involved in-depth interviews with 13 patent medicine sellers. Results A majority of the medicine sellers were not trained health professionals and malaria is recognized as a major health problem by them. There is poor knowledge and poor dispensing behaviour in relation to childhood malaria episodes. Although referral of severe malaria is common, there are those who will not refer. Verbal advice is rarely given to the care-givers. Conclusion More action research and interventions to improve prescription and referral practices and giving verbal advice to care-givers is recommended. Ways to integrate the drug sellers in the health system are also recommended.

  10. An in-depth study of patent medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria in a rural Nigerian community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Theodora A; Uzochukwu, Benjamin SC; Okafor, Henrietta U

    2006-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major cause of mortality among under five children in Nigeria. Most of the early treatments for fever and malaria occur through self-medication with antimalarial drugs bought from medicine sellers. These have led to increasing calls for interventions to improve treatment obtained in these outlets. However, information about the current practices of these medicine sellers is needed before such interventions. This study aims to determine the medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria and the determinants that underlie their dispensing patterns of antimalarial drugs. Methods The study was conducted in Ugwugo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria. It involved in-depth interviews with 13 patent medicine sellers. Results A majority of the medicine sellers were not trained health professionals and malaria is recognized as a major health problem by them. There is poor knowledge and poor dispensing behaviour in relation to childhood malaria episodes. Although referral of severe malaria is common, there are those who will not refer. Verbal advice is rarely given to the care-givers. Conclusion More action research and interventions to improve prescription and referral practices and giving verbal advice to care-givers is recommended. Ways to integrate the drug sellers in the health system are also recommended. PMID:17078875

  11. Research progress of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of diabeticnephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Wu; Na Zhang; Yanbin Gao

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the main reason of the end-stage renal failure and endanger human health seriously.Ef-fective treatment of diabetic nephropathy is in an urgent demand.In recent years,we confirmed the good effect of TCM on dia-betic nephropathy by evidence based medicine method.We also explored the treatment mechanism of TCM on diabetic ne-phropathy from overall level,cellular level and molecular level and found that both single herb and Chinese herbal compound can treat diabetic nephropathy by multiple targets control.TCM may become one of the effective methods for treating diabetic ne-phropathy.This paper will review the advances in this research field of recent years and provide references for future researches.

  12. Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields

  13. Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. (Institute of Space Medico-Engineering, Beijing (China))

    1990-08-01

    Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.

  14. Novel PDE4 inhibitors derived from Chinese medicine forsythia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany A Coon

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is a crucial intracellular second messenger molecule that converts extracellular molecules to intracellular signal transduction pathways generating cell- and stimulus-specific effects. Importantly, specific phosphodiesterase (PDE subtypes control the amplitude and duration of cAMP-induced physiological processes and are therefore a prominent pharmacological target currently used in a variety of fields. Here we tested the extracts from traditional Chinese medicine, Forsythia suspense seeds, which have been used for more than 2000 years to relieve respiratory symptoms. Using structural-functional analysis we found its major lignin, Forsynthin, acted as an immunosuppressant by inhibiting PDE4 in inflammatory and immune cell. Moreover, several novel, selective small molecule derivatives of Forsythin were tested in vitro and in murine models of viral and bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and cytokine-driven systemic inflammation. Thus, pharmacological targeting of PDE4 may be a promising strategy for immune-related disorders characterized by amplified host inflammatory response.

  15. Novel PDE4 Inhibitors Derived from Chinese Medicine Forsythia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Tiffany A.; McKelvey, Alison C.; Weathington, Nate M.; Birru, Rahel L.; Lear, Travis; Leikauf, George D.; Chen, Bill B.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a crucial intracellular second messenger molecule that converts extracellular molecules to intracellular signal transduction pathways generating cell- and stimulus-specific effects. Importantly, specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) subtypes control the amplitude and duration of cAMP-induced physiological processes and are therefore a prominent pharmacological target currently used in a variety of fields. Here we tested the extracts from traditional Chinese medicine, Forsythia suspense seeds, which have been used for more than 2000 years to relieve respiratory symptoms. Using structural-functional analysis we found its major lignin, Forsynthin, acted as an immunosuppressant by inhibiting PDE4 in inflammatory and immune cell. Moreover, several novel, selective small molecule derivatives of Forsythin were tested in vitro and in murine models of viral and bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and cytokine-driven systemic inflammation. Thus, pharmacological targeting of PDE4 may be a promising strategy for immune-related disorders characterized by amplified host inflammatory response. PMID:25549252

  16. Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis with Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiao-ling; FENG Yu-xiong; PENG Yong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,laboratory reports,medication rules,formulating principles,and research methods are summarized and analyzed,including single herb,compound herbs,and the problems in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis(OP)within the past decade.With widely recognized efficacy,satisfying achievements have been achieved in preventing and treating OP with Chinese herbal medicines(CHM).However,due to the complex constituents,the pharmacological activities and mechanism of CHM are not clear yet,and there is no unified standard on the diagnosis and syndrome differentiation of OP and the efficacy evaluation of CHM in the treatment.Accordingly,the research in the future should focus on the pharmacology and standardization of CHM in treating OP.

  17. Research advances in traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Luo, Yun-quan; Wang, Wen-hai; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qi; Su, Shi-bing

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, also known as TCM ZHENG or TCM pattern, is an integral and essential part of TCM theory that helps to guide the design of individualized treatments. A TCM syndrome, in essence, is a characteristic profile of all clinical manifestations in one patient that can be readily identified by a TCM practitioner. In this article, the authors reviewed the presentations of TCM syndromes in seven common malignancies (liver, lung, gastric, breast, colorectal, pancreatic and esophageal cancers), the objectivity and the standardization of TCM syndrome differentiation, the evaluation of TCM syndrome modeling in cancer research, and syndrome differentiation-guided TCM treatment of cancers. A better understanding of TCM syndrome theory, as well as its potential biological basis, may contribute greatly to the clinical TCM diagnosis and the treatment of cancer.

  18. Functional Somatic Syndromes: Emerging Biomedical Models and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Tan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called functional somatic syndromes comprise a group of disorders that are primarily symptom-based, multisystemic in presentation and probably involve alterations in mind-brain-body interactions. The emerging neurobiological models of allostasis/allostatic load and of the emotional motor system show striking similarities with concepts used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to understand the functional somatic disorders and their underlying pathogenesis. These models incorporate a macroscopic perspective, accounting for the toll of acute and chronic traumas, physical and emotional stressors and the complex interactions between the mind, brain and body. The convergence of these biomedical models with the ancient paradigm of TCM may provide a new insight into scientifically verifiable diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for these common disorders.

  19. Analysis of patent operation of the medicine enterprises in China%浅析我国医药企业的专利运营

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周嘉; 董丽; 曹婷

    2013-01-01

    文中介绍了我国医药企业专利运营没有得到有效开展的基本情况及其原因.详细解析并比较了主要的专利运营方式,包括企业自己实施、专利转让、专利许可、合作、合资、质押、专利投资.进而提出通过增强专利运营意识,提高专利质量,熟练运用专利信息,建立科学的专利资产价值评估机制,培养人才以及建立健全专利运营相关政策体系和工作机制等相关策略促进我国医药企业的专利运营.%In this paper,we introduced the situations and analyzed the reasons why the patent operation of the medicine enterprises has not effectively been carried out in our country.We analyzed and compared in detail the main ways of patent operation containing patent transfer,patent permission,cooperation,joint venture,pledge and patent investment.Then,we proposed related strategies to promote patent operation by strengthening patent operation consciousness,improving patent quality,expertly using patent information,establishing a scientific value assessment mechanism of patent assets,cultivating talents and establishing and perfecting related policy system and working mechanism of patent operation.

  20. Online Chinese Patent Family Retrieval Based on Open Patent Service%基于开放专利服务在线检索中国同族专利

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡书明

    2012-01-01

    Based on the free online EPO' s Open Patent Service(OPS) ,the paper uses three key service include Family Service, Le- gal Service and Published - data Service to retrieve patent information from EPO. The paper first retrieved all INPADOC extended patent family members of one patent number and categorized them based on Faimily ID, then picked out all Chinese patents and retrieved the bibliography data and legal status history of the Chinese patents,lastly displayed all information in one webpage. Addtionally,the information in the webpage could be cross - validated with some link - out official patent websites, and some value - added service would be found in the websites.%建立流程应用免费在线开放专利服务(OPS)中的Family专利族服务、Legal法律状态服务、Published—data著录项服务,获得指定专利文献国际专利文献中心(INPADOC)扩展专利族所有成员并按简单专利族编号归类,筛选出所有中国专利成员,最终在同一页面显示中国专利文献著录项信息及法律状态变化历史,并保持专利数据信息与欧洲专利局(EPO)官方网站同步更新。另外,使用链接构造功能将专利信息链接至权威官方专利网站,从而实现专利信息的交叉验证以及相应的增值服务。

  1. Systems biology-based diagnostic principles as pillars of the bridge between Chinese and Western medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, J. van der; Wietmarschen, H. van; Schroën, J.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Xu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative systems approaches to develop medicine and health care are emerging from the integration of Chinese and Western medicine strategies, philosophies and practices. The two medical systems are highly complementary as the reductionist aspects of Western medicine are favourable in acute disease

  2. Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture for the treatment of cardiovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Xu; Haiyun Wu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the world's oldest healing systems. TCM includes herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, massage, food therapy, and physical exercise, such as shadow boxing. In modern China, TCM is a fully institutionalised part of health care and widely used with Western medicine.

  3. 中药名与中医药文化%Traditional Chinese Medicine Name and Chinese Medical Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明举

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine name is the carrier of culture of Chinese medicine,the crystallization of marriage of Chinese medicine and cultural art,which contains rich thoughts of humanities and philosophy. Since ancient times,it has spread more,and is a unique cultural landscape in the history of Chinese,it is precious wealth conceived of the development of Chinese medicine business by people,which has shown the cultural characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine incisively and vividly.%中药名是中医药文化的载体,是中医药与文化艺术联姻的结晶,蕴含着丰富的人文科学和哲学思想。自古多有流传,可谓华夏史上一道奇特的文化景观,是人民在千百年的中医药事业奋斗发展中孕育出来的宝贵财富,把中医学的文化特色彰显得淋漓尽致。

  4. [Sample size calculation in clinical post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yingkun; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, as the Chinese government and people pay more attention on the post-marketing research of Chinese Medicine, part of traditional Chinese medicine breed has or is about to begin after the listing of post-marketing evaluation study. In the post-marketing evaluation design, sample size calculation plays a decisive role. It not only ensures the accuracy and reliability of post-marketing evaluation. but also assures that the intended trials will have a desired power for correctly detecting a clinically meaningful difference of different medicine under study if such a difference truly exists. Up to now, there is no systemic method of sample size calculation in view of the traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, according to the basic method of sample size calculation and the characteristic of the traditional Chinese medicine clinical evaluation, the sample size calculation methods of the Chinese medicine efficacy and safety are discussed respectively. We hope the paper would be beneficial to medical researchers, and pharmaceutical scientists who are engaged in the areas of Chinese medicine research. PMID:22292397

  5. Anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic Chinese herbal medicines: A mechanistic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Alex; Yang, Yan; Asenso, James; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is an integral component of complementary/alternative medicine and it is increasingly becoming the preferred therapeutic modality for the treatment of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has attested to the popularity and efficacy of indigenous herbal therapies including CHM as a first line of treatment for some diseases including liver disorders. However, the WHO and drug discovery experts have always recommended that use of indigenous herbal remedies must go hand-in-hand with the requisite mechanistic elucidation so as to constitute a system of verification of efficacy within the ethnobotanical context of use. Although many CHM experts have advanced knowledge on CHM, nonetheless, more enlightenment is needed, particularly mechanisms of action of CHMs on fibro-hepato-carcinogenesis. We, herein, provide in-depth mechanisms of the action of CHMs which have demonstrated anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic effects, in pre-clinical and clinical studies as published in PubMed and other major scientific databases. Specifically, the review brings out the important signaling pathways, and their downstream targets which are modulated at multi-level by various anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic CHMs. PMID:27366355

  6. Publishing Chinese medicine knowledge as Linked Data on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinese medicine (CM draws growing attention from Western healthcare practitioners and patients. However, the integration of CM knowledge and Western medicine (WM has been hindered by a barrier of languages and cultures as well as a lack of scientific evidence for CM's efficacy and safety. In addition, most of CM knowledge published with relational database technology makes the integration of databases even more challenging. Methods Linked Data approach was used in publishing CM knowledge. This approach was applied to publishing a CM linked dataset, namely RDF-TCM http://www.open-biomed.org.uk/rdf-tcm/ based on TCMGeneDIT, which provided association information about CM in English. Results The Linked Data approach made CM knowledge accessible through standards-compliant interfaces to facilitate the bridging of CM and WM. The open and programmatically-accessible RDF-TCM facilitated the creation of new data mash-up and novel federated query applications. Conclusion Publishing CM knowledge in Linked Data provides a point of departure for integration of CM databases.

  7. Anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic Chinese herbal medicines: A mechanistic overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Alex; Yang, Yan; Asenso, James; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is an integral component of complementary/alternative medicine and it is increasingly becoming the preferred therapeutic modality for the treatment of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has attested to the popularity and efficacy of indigenous herbal therapies including CHM as a first line of treatment for some diseases including liver disorders. However, the WHO and drug discovery experts have always recommended that use of indigenous herbal remedies must go hand-in-hand with the requisite mechanistic elucidation so as to constitute a system of verification of efficacy within the ethnobotanical context of use. Although many CHM experts have advanced knowledge on CHM, nonetheless, more enlightenment is needed, particularly mechanisms of action of CHMs on fibro-hepato-carcinogenesis. We, herein, provide in-depth mechanisms of the action of CHMs which have demonstrated anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic effects, in pre-clinical and clinical studies as published in PubMed and other major scientific databases. Specifically, the review brings out the important signaling pathways, and their downstream targets which are modulated at multi-level by various anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic CHMs. PMID:27366355

  8. Management of SAH with traditional Chinese medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxue; Zhao, Xingquan; Mao, Shujing; Wang, Yongjun; Cui, Xiangning; Pu, Yuehua

    2006-06-01

    China lacks large scale authorized epidemiological study results in allusion to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) within recent 15 years since MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) study revealed SAH situation in China in 2000. The main cause of SAH in China is aneurysm which takes up 30-50%, while over 90% aneurysm locates at Willis circle. Early surgery for SAH after aneurysm rupture is the dominant procedure to deal with SAH in China. Moreover, calcium antagonists rank the absolute leading position for cerebral vascular spasm (CVS) among medication-based treatment options. However, traditional Chinese medicine such as Salvia miltiorrhiza, Acanthopanax senticosus, Ginkgo biloba, Pueraria lobata, Liguisticum chuanxiong, cow bezoar, Diospyros kaki and Gynostemma pentaphyllum have been proven beneficial in CVS prevention and treatment, while Salvia miltiorrhiza and TCM soup have unique effects on bleeding absorption. In addition, aescine and some TCM soup might relieve strong headache after SAH. In general, TCM integrated with western medicine have shown unique advantages in the current treatment of SAH in China. However, it is a pity that China still lacks larger scale randomized controlled trials and research on SAH treatment focusing on TCM and the related mechanism of TCM on SAH still need to be investigated further.

  9. Anticancer effects of Chinese herbal medicine, science or myth?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Wen-jing; LAI Mao-de; ZHOU Jian-guang

    2006-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest among oncologists to find anticancer drugs in Chinese herbal medicine (CHM).In the past, clinical data showed that some herbs possessed anticancer properties, but western scientists have doubted the scientific validity of CHM due to the lack of scientific evidence from their perspective. Recently there have been encouraging results, from a western perspective, in the cancer research field regarding the anticancer effects of CHM. Experiments showed that CHM played its anticancer role by inducing apoptosis and differentiation, enhancing the immune system, inhibiting angiogenesis, reversing multidrug resistance (MDR), etc. Clinical trials demonstrated that CHM could improve survival, increase tumor response, improve quality of life, or reduce chemotherapy toxicity, although much remained to be determined regarding the objective effects of CHM in human in the context of clinical trials. Interestingly, both laboratory experiments and clinical trials have demonstrated that when combined with chemotherapy, CHM could raise the efficacy level and lower toxic reactions. These facts raised the feasibility of the combination of herbal medicines and chemotherapy, although much remained to be investigated in this area.

  10. Inhibition of Urogenital Chlamydia Trachomatis in Vitro by 12 Diuretic Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianjun(李建军); TU Yuying(涂裕英); TONG Juzhen(佟菊贞); WANG Peitu(汪培土)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To detect the inhibition of urogenital chlamydia trachomatis (CT) by 12 traditional Chinese medicines in vitro.Methods: The inhibition of CT isolates by these medicines was detected by micro-culture technique with McCoy cells in vitro.Results: All the diuretic traditional Chinese medicines inhibited urogenital CT. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.122 mg ml-1 to 62.5 mg ml-1. Diathus superbus L., Poria cocos (Shcw.) Woft,Polyporus umbellatus (Pets.) Fries, and Artemisia capillaries Thunb showed stronger inhibition than the other eight traditional Chinese medicines. The numbers and sizes of inclusions bodies reduced gradually and disappeared finally with the increase of the concentrations.Conclusion: All the 12 diuretic traditional Chinese medicines inhibited urogenital CT.

  11. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Immunohistochemistry of Harder's Glands of Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ping; GAO Guisheng; SHI Qiumei; LI Min

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of action of Chinese herbal medicine, the immunocells of Harder's glands were observed.The healthy Hy-Line Brown chickens of 12-day-old were divided into three groups randomly. The chickens in group 1 and 2 drank the water with 0.5% and 1% Chinese herbal medicine immunopromoter every day. The chickens in group 3 as control drank pure water. The Harder's glands of the chickens from 0.5% group, 1% group and control group at 24, 36 and 48 d after drinking medicine respectively were made into histological section. And then the histological sections were observed histologically. The results showed that Chinese herbal medicine could increase the quantity of the immunocells in glandular organs conspicuously. Immunopotentiator of Chinese herbal medicine could promote the amount and growth of secreted immunoglobuline and elevate the immune level of the organism, and the effect of 1% group was higher than that of 0.5% group.

  12. Integrating traditional Chinese medicine into mainstream healthcare system in Hong Kong, China-A model of integrative medicine in the HKU-SZ Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Lixing; Ning, Zhipeng

    2015-11-01

    The European Congress for Integrative Medicine 2015 Global Summit on Integrative Medicine and Healthcare in Greater Copenhagen has successfully promoted integrative medicine to the public once again. Integrative medicine, which is called the art and science of healthcare by Nordic Integrative Medicine, has been widely used in the world. In Hong Kong, integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine, which is also known as the Chinese version of integrative medicine, provides a valuable reference for the development of integrative medicine in the world. In this article, we introduce the development of traditional Chinese medicine in Hong Kong and an integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine model in the University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital.

  13. Integrating traditional Chinese medicine into mainstream healthcare system in Hong Kong, China-A model of integrative medicine in the HKU-SZ Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Lixing; Ning, Zhipeng

    2015-11-01

    The European Congress for Integrative Medicine 2015 Global Summit on Integrative Medicine and Healthcare in Greater Copenhagen has successfully promoted integrative medicine to the public once again. Integrative medicine, which is called the art and science of healthcare by Nordic Integrative Medicine, has been widely used in the world. In Hong Kong, integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine, which is also known as the Chinese version of integrative medicine, provides a valuable reference for the development of integrative medicine in the world. In this article, we introduce the development of traditional Chinese medicine in Hong Kong and an integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine model in the University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital. PMID:26559359

  14. Integrating traditional Chinese medicine into mainstream healthcare system in Hong Kong, China-A model of integrative medicine in the HKU-SZ Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixing Lao; Zhipeng Ning

    2015-01-01

    The European Congress for Integrative Medicine 2015 Global Summit on Integrative Medicine and Healthcare in Greater Copenhagen has successfully promoted integrative medicine to the public once again. Integrative medicine, which is called the art and science of healthcare by Nordic Integrative Medicine, has been widely used in the world. In Hong Kong, integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine, which is also known as the Chinese version of integrative medicine, provides a valuable reference for the development of integrative medicine in the world. In this article, we introduce the development of traditional Chinese medicine in Hong Kong and an integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine model in the University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital.

  15. Regulating Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen E. Randall

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Ontario government passed the Traditional Chinese Medicine Act, which granted Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners and Acupuncturists (TCM/A practitioners self-regulatory status under the Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991. The goal of the legislation was to create a new regulatory college that would set and enforce high standards of care and safety in order to enhance public protection and access to a range of traditional and alternative therapies. In April 2013, the College of Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists of Ontario was officially launched. Several factors account for the government’s decision to delegate self-regulatory authority to TCM/A practitioners through the creation of a regulatory college. In particular, the government’s decision seems to have been influenced by lobbying of some practitioners, greater public acceptance of alternative medicines, patient safety concerns related to acupuncture cases in the media, and the precedence of self-regulatory status being granted to these practitioners in other provinces. The degree to which the legislation has achieved its goals is difficult to determine given the short period of time the regulatory college has existed. However, the fact that the college has developed standards of practice to guide TCM/A practitioners and has a process in place to address public complaints is an early indication of movement toward achieving the policy’s goals. Le gouvernement de l'Ontario a fait voter en 2006 la Loi sur les praticiens en médecine traditionnelle chinoise, qui accorde aux praticiens en médecine traditionnelle chinoise et aux acupuncteurs (praticiens en MTC/A le statut de profession autonome dans le cadre la Loi sur les professions de la santé réglementées de 1991. Le but de la Loi était de créer un ordre professionnel capable d'établir et appliquer des normes de qualité et de sécurité des soins, ceci dans le but d

  16. Hypertension knowledge in urban elderly patients: comparison between adherents to traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangping Lin; Huining Lei; Fang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare knowledge about hypertension between elderly Chinese urban patients with preferences for either traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) or Western medicine (WM).Methods Elderly (≥ 65 years old) patients with hypertension who prefer TCM treatment (n=112) or WM (n=126) were questioned about hypertension.Their answers were compared.Results Only 32.6% of participants correctly identified hypertension as a main risk factor of coronary heart disease and stroke,22.3% of patients answered that the main purpose of hypertension control was preventing cardiovascular disease.Other major reasons for these patients to seek medical treatment for their hypertension included:persuasion by physicians or their family members (21.6%),alleviating symptoms such as headache and dizziness (16.8%),lowering blood pressure without knowing specific reason (12.4%).The predictors for poor knowledge of hypertension were similar irrespective of preference for WM or TCM treatment,and included those with lower levels of education and older age.Television and newspaper (46.8%) were the most frequent sources of hypertension information for both groups.Among those who preferred TCM treatment,"TCM has fewer side effects than WM" and "TCM cures disease while WM only alleviates symptoms" were common beliefs held.Conclusion This study shows that knowledge of hypertension is similar among Chinese urban patients with preferences for either WM or TCM treatment and that misunderstandings about hypertension are common among the elderly patients.In order to control hypertension effectively,public health education is necessary.This should target those with a lower level of education and older age.

  17. Progress in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Treatments and Nursing Care of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hua Shen; Yi Cui

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the causes of knee osteoarthritis, traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapies and nursing research progress and indicates that traditional Chinese and Western medicine have gradually recognized the cause of knee osteoarthritis. Knee osteoarthritis has been treated with various treatments and nursing care planning, and the combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine has constantly been improved. Nurses should instruct the discharged patient to correctly treat their disease, adopt the health education, and, via the establishment of a healthy lif-estyle, insist on a functional exercise to relieve the pain, delay disease progression, and improve quality of life.

  18. Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice.METHODS:A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H.pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method.Anti-H.pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).RESULTS:The ...

  19. Speech at the Meeting Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of Chairman MAO Ze-dong's Important Instruction on Western Medicine Doctors Learning Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Respected leaders, distinguished guests, venerable seniors and comrades, Today, the Meeting Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of Chairman MAO Ze-dong's Important Instructions on Western Medicine Doctors Learning Traditional Chinese Medicine was inaugurated by the Chinese Association of Integrative Medicine, and it is also an important occasion to review the past and look forward to the future.

  20. Prof. CHEN Ke-ji Winning the Prize of "Ren Ji Cup" for International Contribution to Chinese Medicine by WFCMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In order to promote the exchange and cooperation of Chinese medicine among the states and regions globally and fasten the step of Chinese medicine to the world, the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies (WFCMS) has set up an award for those who have greatly contributed to medical treatment, education, scientific research of Chinese medicine, and the establishment of the statutory registration of Chinese medicine. The First International Contribution to Chinese Medicine Award Ceremony was held on April 10 at the Great Hall of the People in China. Prof. CHEN Ke-ji (China), Lin Tzi Chang (Australia) and David Molony (U.S.A) were awarded "Ren Ji Cup", the Prize for International Contribution to Chinese Medicine.

  1. Establishing Chinese medicine characteristic tumor response evaluation system is the key to promote internationalization of Chinese medicine oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Lei; Liu, Rui; Lin, Hong-sheng

    2012-10-01

    The features and advantages of Chinese medicine (CM) in cancer comprehensive treatment have been in the spotlight of experts both at home and abroad. However, how to evaluate the effect of CM more objectively, scientifically and systematically is still the key problem of clinical trial, and also a limitation to the development and internationalization of CM oncology. The change of tumor response evaluation system in conventional medicine is gradually consistent with the features of CM clinical effect, such as they both focus on a combination of soft endpoints (i.e. quality of life, clinical benefit, etc.) and hard endpoints (i.e. tumor remission rate, time to progress, etc.). Although experts have proposed protocols of CM tumor response evaluation criteria and come to an agreement in general, divergences still exist in the importance, quantification and CM feature of the potential endpoints. Thus, establishing a CM characteristic and wildly accepted tumor response evaluation system is the key to promote internationalization of CM oncology, and also provides a more convenient and scientific platform for CM international cooperation and communication.

  2. Recent progress on anticancer candidates in patents of herbal medicinal products

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, N.; Zhu, M.; Li, H.; Feng, Y.; Tsao, S

    2011-01-01

    Herbal medicines in treatment of cancer as complementary and alternative therapy are accepted increasingly with growing scientific evidences of biomedical research and clinical trials. Anticancer drugs discovered from herbal medicines have a long history and some of them have been used in clinical setting as the conventional anticancer drugs. Actually, herbal medicines are a source for anticancer drug discovery and drug development. Recently, research continuously focuses on clues from tradit...

  3. [A new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies: coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-kun; Yang, Ming; Han, Xue; Lin, Jun-zhi; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-08-01

    The stable and controllable quality of decoction pieces is an important factor to ensure the efficacy of clinical medicine. Considering the dilemma that the existing standardization of processing mode cannot effectively eliminate the variability of quality raw ingredients, and ensure the stability between different batches, we first propose a new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies that coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics. In order to explain this thinking, an individual study case about different grades aconite is provided. We hope this strategy could better serve for clinical medicine, and promote the inheritance and innovation of Chinese medicine processing skills and theories. PMID:26790315

  4. Principle, traits and functions of electrochemical fingerprint of Chinese traditional medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In regard to such challenging analysis problems as scientific identification and quality evaluation of Chinese traditional medicine, the electrochemical fingerprint technique of Chinese traditional medicine has been researched. The principle, traits, functions, etc., of the electrochemical fingerprint have detailedly been analyzed and discussed by the B-Z oscillatory system using malonic acid as main dissipation substance, characterized by the fact that different influences of different Chinese traditional medicines on the mechanism of the oscillatory reaction cause different changes of the shape of the potential-time curve of the oscillatory system under the conditions of constant temperature and pressure. An economical, simple and convenient, easy pushing and effective scientific method for distinguishing and evaluating multifarious Chinese traditional medicines has successfully been put forward.

  5. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  6. Effects and Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Ameliorating Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR injury is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, which accounts for approximately 450,000 deaths a year in the United States alone. Chinese herbal medicine, especially combined herbal formulations, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial infarction for hundreds of years. While the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we highlight recent studies which are focused on elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms using extracted compounds, single herbs, or herbal formulations in experimental settings. These studies represent recent efforts to bridge the gap between the enigma of ancient Chinese herbal medicine and the concepts of modern cell and molecular biology in the treatment of myocardial infarction.

  7. Thirty-five Infantile Purpura Nephritis Patients Treated with Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Tian-wen

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-five patients of infantile purpura nephritis (IPN) were treated with integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine (TCM-WM) from January 1994 to December 1998, with good efficacy obtained, and following is the report.

  8. Screening for hemostatic activities of popular Chinese medicinal herbs in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Ohkura

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion Some popular Chinese medicinal herbs have potential as hemostatic agents and could thus be developed as new strategies for the treatment and prevention of bleeding. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 19-23

  9. [Opportunity and challenge of post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao-Xi; Song, Hai-Bo; Ren, Jing-Tian; Yang, Le; Guo, Xiao-Xin; Pang, Yu

    2014-09-01

    Post-marketing evaluation is a process which evaluate the risks and benefits of drug clinical application comprehensively and systematically, scientific and systematic results of post-marketing evaluation not only can provide data support for clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine, but also can be a reliable basis for the supervision department to develop risk control measures. With the increasing demands for treatment and prevention of disease, traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used, and security issues are also exposed. How to find risk signal of traditional Chinese medicine in the early stages, carry out targeted evaluation work and control risk timely have become challenges in the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. PMID:25532372

  10. [Study on identification of "Digeda" raw materials in Mongolian patent medicine by PCR amplification of specific alleles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhan-hu; Huang, Xian-zhang; Long, Ping; Zhang, Le; Zhao, Dong-dong; Wang, Ying-li; Li, Min-hui

    2015-03-01

    To explore a new method for identification of Mongolian patent medicine (MPM) by PCR amplification of specific alleles. Eight kinds of MPM were used to study the identification of "Digeda" raw materials. The total DNA of Lomatogonium rotatum and Corydalis bungeana samples were extracted through modified CTAB method, psbA-trnH sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced directionally. Specific primer was designed. The DNA of 8 kinds of MPM also was extracted and purified by the commercial DNA purification kits. The rbcL and two pair of specific primers sequences were amplified. The specific amplified products were sequenced in forward directions. All specific sequences were aligned and were analyzed. The results indicated that L rotatum can be identified by specific primers from Digeda-4 Tang, Digeda-8 San, Digeda-4 San, and C. bungeana medicinal materials can be identified by specific primers from Li Dan Ba Wei San, Yi He Ha Ri-12 and A Ga Ri-35. PCR amplification of specific alleles can stably and accurately distinguish raw medicinal materials in MPM. PMID:26087535

  11. Interfacing of Science, Medicine and Law: The Stem Cell Patent Controversy in the United States and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Davey, Sonya; Davey, Neil; Gu, Qian; Xu, Na; Vatsa, Rajet; Devalaraja, Samir; Harris, Paul; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Dave, Raj; Chakrabarty, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    The patent eligibility of stem cells–particularly those derived from human embryos–has long been under debate in both the scientific and legal communities. On the basis of moral grounds, the European Patent Office (EPO) has refrained from granting patents for stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos. On the contrary, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has historically granted patents regarding the isolation and use of human embryonic and other stem cells...

  12. Interfacing of science, medicine and law: The stem cell patent controversy in the United States and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Sonya eDavey; Neil eDavey; Qian eGu; Na eXu; Rajet eVatsa; Samir eDevalaraja; Paul eHarris; Sreenivas eGannavaram; Raj eDave; Ananda eChakrabarty

    2015-01-01

    The patent eligibility of stem cells – particularly those derived from human embryos – has long been under debate in both the scientific and legal communities. On the basis of moral grounds, the European Patent Office (EPO) has refrained from granting patents for stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos. On the contrary, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has historically granted patents regarding the isolation and use of human embryonic and other stem c...

  13. The radiotoxicology of Radithor: Analysis of an early case of latrogenic poisoning by a radioactive patent medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radithor was a radioactive patent medicine that was touted as a metabolic stimulant and aphrodisiac. The authors have obtained several original samples of Radithor and have used these historical specimens and a computer-based calculation model to perform a retrospective analysis of a famous case of Radithor-related radium poisoning. Their data suggest that the victim's cumulative skeletal radiation dose may have exceeded 350 Sv by the time he died. This figure far exceeds most current estimates of what radiation exposure level would constitute a rapidly lethal dose if given acutely. The physiological response to long-term internal radiation exposure and the highly localized nature of alpha particle irradiation may require the development of new models for the assessment of risk in cases of internal alpha particle irradiation

  14. The radiotoxicology of Radithor: Analysis of an early case of latrogenic poisoning by a radioactive patent medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macklis, R.M.; Bellerive, M.R.; Humm, J.L. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Radithor was a radioactive patent medicine that was touted as a metabolic stimulant and aphrodisiac. The authors have obtained several original samples of Radithor and have used these historical specimens and a computer-based calculation model to perform a retrospective analysis of a famous case of Radithor-related radium poisoning. Their data suggest that the victim's cumulative skeletal radiation dose may have exceeded 350 Sv by the time he died. This figure far exceeds most current estimates of what radiation exposure level would constitute a rapidly lethal dose if given acutely. The physiological response to long-term internal radiation exposure and the highly localized nature of alpha particle irradiation may require the development of new models for the assessment of risk in cases of internal alpha particle irradiation.

  15. Prescriptions of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Insomnia in Taiwan during 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Fang-Pey Chen; Maw-Shiou Jong; Yu-Chun Chen; Yen-Ying Kung; Tzeng-Ji Chen; Fun-Jou Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Dis...

  16. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities from 28 Chinese Herbal Medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Yang Lin; Li-Yeh Chuang; Hsueh-Wei Chang; Cheng-Hong Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many Chinese medicines have been reported to exhibit high antimicrobial and antioxidantactivities. In this study, 28 traditional Chinese herbal medicines were tested for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.Materials and Methods: Total flavonoid content of the ethanol extracts were determined by a colorimetric method. Total phenol content was estimated as gallic acid equivalents. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by various antioxidant assays, inc...

  17. [Research on our hospital inventory management status quo of traditional Chinese medicine drugs and treatment method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Nan; Xu, Wen

    2014-03-01

    Under the background of the new medical reform, a large variety of traditional Chinese medicine from complicated sources, Chinese traditional medicine of actor of true and false of the quality directly affect the drug safety and clinical efficacy, but also relate to the social and economic benefits of hospital. Along with the development of the modern management of medical institutions and drug circulation circulation system reform in our country, the hospital drug inventory, supply and management work is an important topic for the pharmaceutical trading. However, there is always contradiction, dispensary need to supple pharmacy, in order to satisfy the demands of hospital patients with normal diagnosis and treatment work. However, if the drug inventory is too much, not only increases the drug monitoring problem, at the same time, but also causes storage costs rise. Therefore, completing scientific and reasonable storage and management becomes urgent problems at present. Wherefore, our country administration of traditional Chinese medicine in 2007 promulgated the "Chinese traditional medicine yinpian management norms in hospital", aims to standardize management of Chinese traditional medicine quality and improve the safety of drugs. The author through looking up information and visiting survey, to understand the currently existing problems, and summarizes the literature inland and abroad in recent years Chinese medicine drug inventory management work experience, in view of status quo of Chinese medicine inventory management in China, put forward the solution. To guarantee TCM pharmacy management more standardized, more standard, to adapt to the new reform of Chinese traditional medicine industry, improve the management level of hospital, defend the hospital's reputation and the patient's interests.

  18. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON TREATMENT OF CHRONIC PHARYNGITIS WITH ACUPUNCTURE PLUS CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂荣华

    2003-01-01

    @@ Chronic pharyngitis is the diffuse inflammation of the pharyngeal mucus, submucosal and lymph tissues. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) considers it to be the category of "Meiheqi" (梅核气,globus hystericus), "Shiyin" (失音,aphonia) and "Houbi" (喉痹,inflammation of the throat). According to the theory of TCM, the author of the present paper adopted acupuncture plus Chinese herbal medicines to treat it from 1990 to 2002, and achieved a satisfactory result. It is reported as follows.

  19. Antiviral Activities of Several Oral Traditional Chinese Medicines against Influenza Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Lin Ma; Miao Ge; Hui-Qiang Wang; Jin-Qiu Yin; Jian-Dong Jiang; Yu-Huan Li

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is still a serious threat to human health with significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses poses a great challenge to existing antiviral drugs. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) may be an alternative to overcome the challenge. Here, 10 oral proprietary Chinese medicines were selected to evaluate their anti-influenza activities. These drugs exhibit potent inhibitory effects against influenza A H1N1, influenza A H3N2, and influenza B virus...

  20. Analysis and Research on Chinese and Foreign Patent Search%中外专利检索分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴谦

    2015-01-01

    随着社会科学技术的飞速发展和进步,将会有越来越多的专利技术面世,专利技术对于专利研究者研究与分析国内外科学技术的发展趋势有着重要的作用,因此专利检索也将会越来越重要。中外专利检索的服务与平台随着信息网络技术的发展也不断改进和完善,这将为专利信息者掌握专利的技术状况、作者等情况提供大量有用信息。现以我国、美国、英国三个国家为代表来剖析世界专利检索的发展状况。%With the rapid development and progress of social sci-ence and technology, there will be an increasing number of patented technologies available. Patented technologies play an important role in patent researchers' research and analysis of the development trends of domestic and foreign science and technol-ogy, so patent search will also be increasingly important.Chinese and foreign patent search services and platforms have also been improved and perfected with the development of information net-work technology, which will help patent owners grasp the techno-logical conditions of patents and provide patent workers with a large amount of useful information. With China, the United States and the United Kingdom as the representatives, the development of patent search in the world will be analyzed.

  1. A meta-analysis of Chinese herbal medicines for vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiude Qin; Yu Liu; Yanqing Wu; Shuo Wang; Dandan Wang; Jinqiang Zhu; Qiaofeng Ye; Wei Mou; Liyuan Kang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of patients with vascular dementia.DATA RETRIEVAL: We retrieved publications from Cochrane Library (2004 to July 2011), PubMed (1966 to July 2011), the Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1977 to July 2011), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 to July 2011), Google Scholar (July 2011), and the Chinese Biomedical Database (1977 to July 2011) using the key words "Chinese medicine OR Chinese herbal medicine" and "vascular dementia OR mild cognition impair OR multi-infarct dementia OR small-vessel dementia OR strategic infarct dementia OR hypoperfusion dementia OR hemorrhagic dementia OR hereditary vascular dementia".MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effective rate, Mini-Mental State Examination scores, Hasegawa Dementia Scale scores, and incidence of adverse reactions.CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal medicine appears to be safer and more effective than control measures in the treatment of vascular dementia. However, the included trials were generally low in quality. More well-designed, high-quality trials are needed to provide better evidence for the assessment of the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines for vascular dementia.

  2. Traditional Chinese medicine in diagnosis and treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, R; Vieth, T; Geiger, G

    2010-11-01

    Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FS) is known for the difficulties arising from classification. The accompanying pain in skeletal muscles, myofascial peri-articular structures and a number of polymorphic symptoms cannot be separated into complexes of symptoms. The application of principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) helps in analyzing the symptoms of FS to detect a leading syndrome and thereby establish an individual therapy. Medical histories and objective examinations of 25 patients with FS and 22 patients with vertebrogenic pain syndromes were analyzed according to TCM. A questionnaire was used to determine the leading constitutional type according to the 5-elements-theory. Analyses of the results showed that 83% of patients with FS were of constitutional type of the element earth. The following syndromes were found to be important in FS: 1) liver-Qi-stagnation, 2) Yin and blood deficiency of the liver, 3) Yang-weakness of the spleen and kidney, 4) Yin-weakness of the kidney. Applying TCM for FS allows for separating a group of symptoms and thus individual therapy. The determination of the constitutional type according to the 5-elements-theory may be used for a better understanding of the disharmony pattern.

  3. The Progress of Metabolomics Study in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Qiuhong; Yang, Bingyou; Zhao, Shan; Kuang, Haixue

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played important roles in health protection and disease treatment for thousands of years in China and has gained the gradual acceptance of the international community. However, many intricate issues, which cannot be explained by traditional methods, still remain, thus, new ideas and technologies are needed. As an emerging system biology technology, the holistic view adopted by metabolomics is similar to that of TCM, which allows us to investigate TCM with complicated conditions and multiple factors in depth. In this paper, we tried to give a timely and comprehensive update about the methodology progression of metabolomics, as well as its applications, in different fields of TCM studies including quality control, processing, safety and efficacy evaluation. The herbs investigated by metabolomics were selected for detailed examination, including Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Atractylodes macrocephala Kidd, Pinellia ternate, etc.; furthermore, some valuable results have been obtained and summarized. In conclusion, although the study of metabolomics is at the early phase and requires further scrutiny and validation, it still provides bright prospects to dissect the synergistic action of multiple components from TCM. Overall, with the further development of analytical techniques, especially multi-analysis techniques, we expect that metabolomics will greatly promote TCM research and the establishment of international standards, which is beneficial to TCM modernization. PMID:26477800

  4. Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Hsiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a cancer that immature white blood cells continuously overproduce in the bone marrow. These cells crowd out normal cells in the bone marrow bringing damage and death. Methotrexate (MTX is a drug used in the treatment of various cancer and autoimmune diseases. In particular, for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, it had significant effect. MTX competitively inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, an enzyme that participates in the tetrahydrofolate synthesis so as to inhibit purine synthesis. In addition, its downstream metabolite methotrexate polyglutamates (MTX-PGs inhibit the thymidylate synthase (TS. Therefore, MTX can inhibit the synthesis of DNA. However, MTX has cytotoxicity and neurotoxin may cause multiple organ injury and is potentially lethal. Thus, the lower toxicity drugs are necessary to be developed. Recently, diseases treatments with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM as complements are getting more and more attention. In this study, we attempted to discover the compounds with drug-like potential for ALL treatment from the components in TCM. We applied virtual screen and QSAR models based on structure-based and ligand-based studies to identify the potential TCM component compounds. Our results show that the TCM compounds adenosine triphosphate, manninotriose, raffinose, and stachyose could have potential to improve the side effects of MTX for ALL treatment.

  5. New Effective Treatment of Liver Fibrosis by Chinese Herbal Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国梁

    2002-01-01

    @@ Liver fibrosis is an abnormal proliferation pathologic process of intrahepatic fibrous connective tissue that occurs after liver cells have been necrotized and stimulated by inflammatory factors. It is called fibrosis when the pathological change is mild, and liver cirrhosis when the change becomes so severe as to reconstruct the liver lobuli to form pseudolobuli and nodule(1). Liver fibrosis is an important pathological characteristic of chronic hepatopathy and the chief intermediate link to further develop of liver cirrhosis. No ideal remedy for treatment of chronic hepatitic cirrhosis has been found so far. Although some drugs, such as colchicine and penicillamine, had been reported to have the effect of fibrosis inhibition, their clinical application is still limited for the rather severe toxic-side effects. Certain progress have been made from the clinical and experimental studies on anti-fibrosis treatment by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) carried out widely in China in recent ten years. And here is a general review of the drugs used.

  6. Insomnia in Chinese Medicine: The Heart of the Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kylie; Weber, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Chronic insomnia affects a significant proportion of the general population worldwide, and is associated with several serious medical conditions. From the Western scientific literature, hyper-arousal (on the cognitive-emotional, behavioral, autonomic, or central nervous system level) is a final common pathway involved in its pathogenesis. However, from a Chinese medicine (CM) perspective, it is the Heart, capitalized to denote the functional system as described in CM theory, that is the key organ involved in insomnia due to its role as the "seat of consciousness." This article explores how insomnia is understood from the CM perspective, in particular the role of the Heart, and some of the neurophysiological evidence that supports these ancient theoretical understandings. The potential role of the vagus nerve and its relationship with the (biomedical) heart and CM Heart is also examined. Finally, some of the evidence in association with mechanisms of action of acupuncture in insomnia, in particular its impact on cardiovascular variables associated with insomnia, is presented, along with findings of systematic reviews. PMID:27526331

  7. The mechanisms in treatment of acute pancreatitis by traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiping Zhang; Ying Wang; Yan Shi

    2006-01-01

    As common acute abdomen, most of acute pancreatitis(AP) are self-restricted. Only a few patients may develop into worse state with local complications or organ failures, and finally neastic acute pancreatitis (NAP). With the change of people's dietaries, cholelithiasis morbidity and popularization of wine in recent years, the number of AP patients has increased.Although people conducted enormous studies on pathogenesis of AP and brought forward many be valuable theories, yet the exact mechanism is still unclear by far. There are many therapies of AP which should be unexceptionally classified as operative therapy and non-operative therapy. With the increasing understanding of the disease in recent years, we found many defects of operation and good therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine in AP. Traditional Chinese medicine as an auxiliary therapy has been generally paid close attention in clinical practices. Traditional Chinese medicine is a treasure-house of China. This article summarizes the main mechanisms of AP treatment by traditional Chinese medicine and the progress of laboratory studies. It aims to help people recognize the multiple-target treatment effects and conspicuous efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine and promote the popularization of traditional Chinese medicine in AP treatment.

  8. Quality and safety of Chinese herbal medicines guided by a systems biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Heijden, R. van der; Spruit, S.; Hankermeier, T.; Chan, K.; Greef, J. van der; Xu, G.; Wang, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicines, often referred as Chinese materia medica (CMM), are comprised of a complex multicomponent nature. The activities are aimed at the system level via interactions with a multitude of targets in the human body. This review aims at the toxicity aspects of CMM and its preparation

  9. Meeting Minutes of International Conference on Prevention and Treatment of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome with Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; WANG Jie; LIN Hong-sheng; WU Xin-fang; LIU Jie; TANG Yan-li; NAN Ji-hong

    2011-01-01

    @@ The International Conference on Prevention and Treatment of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) with Chinese Medicine (CM) was held in Beijing International Hotel from October 16to 17,2010.It was cosponsored by Guang'anmen Hospital,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences (CACMS),and the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  10. Book Review on the Illustrated Seeds of Chinese Medicinal Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo QS; Wang QY; Liu L; HE Shan-an

    2010-01-01

    @@ Medicinal plants are important source for Oriental and Western medicines. There are more than 500 herbs commonly used today in China, in which near 30% of them are seed medicines and over 65% are propagated from seed.

  11. [Study on characteristics of pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along stomach meridian based on medicinal property combination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bai-Xia; Gu, Hao; Guo, Hong-Ling; Ma, Li; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    At present, studies on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) properties are mostly restricted to a single or two kinds of medicinal properties, but deviated from the holism of the theoretical system of TCMs. In this paper, the characteristics of pharmacological effects of different property combinations of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian were take as the study objective. The data of properties of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was collected from the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2005). The data of pharmacological effects of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was collected from all of literatures recorded in Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CNKI) since 1980, Science of Chinese Materia Medica (Yan Zhenghua, People's Medical Publishing House, 2006) and Clinical Science of Chinese Materia Medica (Gao Xuemin, Zhong Gansheng, Hebei Science and Technology Publishing House, 2005). The corresponding pharmacological effects of property combinations of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was mined by the method of association rules. The results of the association rules were consistent with the empirical knowledge, and showed that different medicinal property combinations had respective pharmacological characteristics, including differences and similarities in pharmacological effects of different medicinal property combinations. Medicinal property combinations with identical four properties or five tastes showed similar pharmacological effects; whereas medicinal property combinations with different four properties or five tastes showed differentiated pharmacological effects. However, medicinal property combinations with different four properties or five tastes could also show similar pharmacological effects. In this study, the medicinal property theory and the pharmacological effects of TCMs were combined to reveal the main characteristics and regularity of pharmacological effects of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian

  12. Retinitis Pigmentosa Treatment with Western Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Peng, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Current management of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) includes an attempt at slowing down the degenerative process through therapies that use either Western or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Novel therapies in Western medicine (WM) include use of tailor-made gene therapy, transplantation of stem cells, or neuroprotection treatment. TCM treatment includes two major approaches. These are orally applied herbal decoctions and acupuncture. In fact, all TCM treatments are based on the differentiation of a symptom-complex, which is the characteristic essence of TCM. Thus, diagnosed RP may be treated via the liver, the kidney, and the spleen. The principle behind these treatments is to invigorate the blood and brighten the eyes by toning up the liver and the kidney. Also treatments to cope with deficiencies in the two concepts that are unique and fundamental to TCM are considered: Qi or "vital energy" and Yin and Yang or the harmony of all the opposite elements and forces that make up existence. In particular, the Qi deficiency that results from blood stasis is addressed in these treatments. This paper also puts forward the existing problems and the prospect of the future development on integrating TCM with WM. PMID:26124961

  13. Tibetan traditional medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Tibetan medicine companies in T.A.R can manufacture more than 360 Tibetan patent medicines. There are 18 Tibetan medicine factories in Tibet, and total out value exceeds 3 billion yuan. 24 kinds of Tibetan patent medicines have been incorporated into State Fundamental Medicine List, in which 14 Tibetan patent medicines are listed in national protected traditional medicine category.

  14. TRIPS and the PHILIPPINES : Pharmaceutical patents and the right to health on access to essential medicines

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This thesis discusses about the key provisions of the TRIPS Agreement and their effects on the realization of the right to health on access to essential medicines. It explores also the relationship between the trade right to intellectual property and the fundamental human rights to health on access to affordable medicines and how can such be reconciled.The Philippines' experience with regard to property rights is used in the illustration.

  15. 轮胎技术领域中国发明专利分析%Analysis on Chinese Patents of Tire Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会景; 凌锋

    2014-01-01

    通过对中国发明专利进行数据检索,分析中国轮胎技术领域的专利逐年申请趋势、申请人地域和属性构成,结果表明中国轮胎产业处于快速发展期,企业是轮胎技术领域的创新主体。结合重点轮胎制造企业的专利申请量、专利授权率、专利维持时间、发明人数量、技术分布等因素,分析重点企业的专利竞争情况。%The whole situation of tire technology in China was reviewed by searching and analyzing Chinese patents of invention. Patent application trend and regional distribution of applicant were analyzed. The results show that the tire technology and its application in China has good development prospect, and applicants from a few countries or districts have applied a lot of patents in China. The amount of patent application, authorization ratio, patent maintenance, total number of inventors, vital technology layout of the key companies as patent applicants were discussed.

  16. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Explain Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine among Hong Kong Chinese in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L. Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The UK Chinese are known for their underutilisation of western healthcare services. Reasons for this underutilisation are complex. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB is a widely used model of social cognition, which in the present study is being applied to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM utilisation and satisfaction with TCM services. Two hundred and seventy-two UK Chinese aged between 15 and 91 years (M=46.55; SD = 18.53 enrolled in the study. TCM utilisation was associated with gender, age, cultural attachment, and subjective norms. TCM users were more likely to be female and older and have a strong attachment to Chinese culture, and be influenced by the views of important others. Findings highlight the potential of the TPB in exploring TCM utilisation, whilst also throwing light on other factors influential in the use of TCM and satisfaction with TCM service provision among Chinese in the UK.

  17. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Explain Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine among Hong Kong Chinese in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Tina L; Shardlow, Steven M; Ng, Sik Hung

    2015-01-01

    The UK Chinese are known for their underutilisation of western healthcare services. Reasons for this underutilisation are complex. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is a widely used model of social cognition, which in the present study is being applied to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) utilisation and satisfaction with TCM services. Two hundred and seventy-two UK Chinese aged between 15 and 91 years (M = 46.55; SD = 18.53) enrolled in the study. TCM utilisation was associated with gender, age, cultural attachment, and subjective norms. TCM users were more likely to be female and older and have a strong attachment to Chinese culture, and be influenced by the views of important others. Findings highlight the potential of the TPB in exploring TCM utilisation, whilst also throwing light on other factors influential in the use of TCM and satisfaction with TCM service provision among Chinese in the UK. PMID:26504477

  18. Comparison on Temperament Theory between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Le

    2002-01-01

    This study has explained and compared temperament theory between traditional Chinese medicine and modernrn psychology on five aspects of concept, characteristics, classification, influential factors and practical significance. And we thought that this study had guiding effect on clinical practice under the new medicine model.

  19. Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine Approach In Treating 64 Patients with Anovular Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严凤; 张继华; 李瑞芳; 宋兰萍

    2003-01-01

    @@ Sixty-four women with anovular infertility were treated with the integrative Chinese and western medicine (ICWM) approach in our hospital from December 1997 to December 1998. Compared them with 50 women who were treated with Western Medicine (WM) alone, the difference was significant, the report is as follows.

  20. Tonic Herbs and Herbal Mixtures in Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review results from a PubMed-based data-mining of scientific literature concerning typical tonic herbs and formulas of Chinese herbal medicine and their application principle under the theory of CM. We have focused on two aspects of tonic activity: body tonification against qi气-, blood血-, yin阴- and yang阳-deficiency, respectively, and organ (Zang 脏and Fu腑 tonification against heart-, liver-, spleen/stomach-, lung-, and kidney-deficiency, respectively. Body-tonifying herbs are: Astragalus Membranaceus Radix (Huang-qi黄芪 and Panax Ginseng Radix (Ren-shen人参 for qi-tonification; Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Dang-gui当归 and Rehmannia Glutinosa Radix Preparata (Shu-di熟地 for blood-tonification; Ophiopogon Japonicus Radix (Mai-dong麦冬 and Scrophularia Ningpoensis Radix (Xuan-shen玄参 for yin-deficiency; Myristica Fragrans Semen (Rou-dou-kou肉豆蔻 and Psoralea Corylifolia Fructus (Bu-gu-zhi补骨脂 for yang-deficiency. The corresponding CM formulas are: Bu-zhong-yi-qi decoction (补中益气汤 for qi-tonification; Si-wu decoction (四物汤 for blood-tonification; Zeng-ye decoction (增液汤 for yin-tonification; Si-shen pill (四神丸 for yang-tonification. Organ-tonifying herbs are: Glycyrrhizae Uralensis Radix Preparata (Zhi-gan-cao炙甘草 and Rehmannia Glutinosa Radix (Di-huang地黄 for heart-tonification; Lycium Barbarum Fructus (Gou-qi-zi枸杞子 and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Dang-gui当归 for liver-tonification; Panax Ginseng Radix (Ren-shen人参 and Atractylodis Macrocephala Rhizoma (Bai-zhu白术 for spleen/stomach-tonification; Panax Ginseng Radix (Ren-shen人参 and Astragalus Membranaceus Radix (Huang-qi黄芪 for lung-tonification; Cornus Officinalis Fructus (Shan-zhu-yu山茱萸 and Dioscorea Opposite Rhizoma (Shan-yao山药 for kidney-tonification. The corresponding CM formulas are: Zhi-gan-cao decoction (炙甘草汤 for heart-tonification; Yi-guan decoction (一贯煎 for liver

  1. Applications of HPLC/MS in the analysis of traditional Chinese medicines%Applications of HPLC/MS in the analysis of traditional Chinese medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Li; Xiao- Fang Hou; Jie Zhang; Si-Cen Wang; Qiang Fu; Lang- Chong He

    2011-01-01

    In China, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been used in clinical applications for thousands of years. The successful hyphenation of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) has been applied widely in TCMs and biolo

  2. Review of the use of botanicals for epilepsy in complementary medical systems--Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fenglai; Yan, Bo; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Dong

    2015-11-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, botanical remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. This review aimed to summarize the botanicals that have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat epilepsy. We searched Chinese online databases to determine the botanicals used for epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine and identified articles using a preset search syntax and inclusion criteria of each botanical in the PubMed database to explore their potential mechanisms. Twenty-three botanicals were identified to treat epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. The pharmacological mechanisms of each botanical related to antiepileptic activity, which were mainly examined in animal models, were reviewed. We discuss the use and current trends of botanical treatments in China and highlight the limitations of botanical epilepsy treatments. A substantial number of these types of botanicals would be good candidates for the development of novel AEDs. More rigorous clinical trials of botanicals in traditional Chinese medicine for epilepsy treatment are encouraged in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy".

  3. Social support in the practices of informal providers: The case of patent and proprietary medicine vendors in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, Maia; Liu, Jenny; Beyeler, Naomi

    2015-10-01

    The social and institutional environments in which informal healthcare providers operate shape their health and business practices, particularly in contexts where regulatory enforcement is weak. In this study, we adopt a social capital perspective to understanding the social networks on which proprietary and patent medicine vendors (PPMVs) in Nigeria rely for support in the operation of their shops. Data are drawn from 70 in-depth interviews with PPMVs in three states, including interviews with local leaders of the PPMV professional association. We find that PPMVs primarily relied on more senior colleagues and formal healthcare professionals for informational support, including information about new medicines and advice on how to treat specific cases of illness. For instrumental support, including finance, start-up assistance, and intervention with regulatory agencies, PPMVs relied on extended family, the PPMVs with whom they apprenticed, and the leaders of their professional association. PPMVs' networks also provided continual reinforcement of what constitutes good PPMV practice through admonishments to follow scope of practice limitations. These informal reminders, as well as monitoring activities conducted by the professional association, served to reinforce PPMVs' concern with avoiding negative customer health outcomes, which were perceived to be detrimental to their business reputations. That PPMVs' networks both encouraged practices to reduce the likelihood of poor health outcomes, and provided advice regarding customers' health conditions, highlights the potential impact of informal providers' access to different forms of social capital on their delivery of health services, as well as their success as microenterprises. PMID:26331864

  4. [Herbal textual research on origin and development of traditional Chinese medicine "duhuo" and "qianghuo"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Feng; Yuan, Yuan; Hao, Jin-Da; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-09-01

    To clarify the origin and development of the traditional Chinese medicine "Duhuo" and "Qianghuo" with medicinal literatures. Medical literatures of past dynasties were analysed and combined with the modern material. The "Duhuo" in Herbal writing Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing include traditional Chinese medicine "Duhuo" and "Qianghuo", "Qianghuo" was separated from "Duhuo" due to the distinguish of clinical application. The origin of "Qianghuo" is Notopterygium incisum and N. forbesii, However, The origin of "Duhuo" is very complex, Angelica pubescens f. biserrata as authentic "Duhuo" was used from Song Dynasty. "Qianghuo" was originated from "Duhuo". PMID:25522638

  5. Marketing strategy for a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinic in Vancouver

    OpenAIRE

    Janjua, Qaiser Rashid

    2006-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) has gained worldwide acceptance in the recent past. Apart from all other modalities of CAM, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has gained enormous interest globally. TCM has become a mainstream medicine in several underdeveloped countries and is rapidly gaining recognition in developed countries such as in the U.S and especially Canada. British Columbia is the only jurisdiction in North America that officially recognizes TCM. Consequently, the loca...

  6. 中药退热机制研究进展%Research Progress of Antipyretic Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩庆荣; 张永科; 刘明云

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Tò summarize the antipyretic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine.Methods:Retrieve and analyze relevant literature about antifebrile by traditional Chinese medicine.Results:Single traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese medicine formula have certain superiority in the treatment of febrile disease.Chinese medicine for antipyretic is variety in resources.Conclusion:The antifebrile effect of traditional Chinese medicine is better.%目的:探讨中药的退热机制.方法:检索有关中医药退热方面的文献,并进行分析.结果:单味中药、中药组方对于发热疾病的治疗有一定的优越性,中药解热药种类繁多,资源丰富.结论:中医药退热效果较好.

  7. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Ming; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor Yue [School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Tsao, Sai-Wah [Department of Anatomy, Li KaShing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Feng, Yibin, E-mail: yfeng@hku.hk [School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-08-24

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products.

  8. The Mechanism for the Effect of Chinese Medicine on Strait Episode of Complex Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Complex diseases always involve some strait episode, such as myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis caused by hypertension, microcirculation dysfunction and injury in heart, brain, lever, and intestine following ischemia and reperfusion, endotoxin induced multiorgan injury, and recovery after intestinal mucosa damage, for which intervention by a single medicine remains unsatisfied in clinic.Chinese medicine has been applied in clinic for more than two thousand years, which presents as a healthcare system using compound formula preparation, treatment based on syndrome differentiation and individualization thus has advantage in dealing with strait episode of complex diseases. However, the mechanism underlying Chinese medicine is not fully understood up till now.This report will explain the mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of Chinese medicine in therapy of strait episode of complex diseases based on the resent outcomes in study of aforementioned complex diseases. The speaker, using the theory of blood stasis and activating blood to remove stasis in Chinese medicine, classified microcirculation dysfunction induced by different causes, such as ischemia and reperfusion, stress, LPS, common cold, investigated the pathogenesis and progressing of each of which. Furthermore, the report explored the material basis and mechanism for compound formula of Chinese medicine with potential of tonifying Qi and activating blood, removing heat to cool blood, identified the ingredient in the compound formula responsible for respective effect.(Presented at the 1920th Meeting, June 3, 2016). PMID:27349663

  9. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Hong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products.

  10. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products

  11. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ming; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor Yue; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Feng, Yibin

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products. PMID:26305257

  12. Interfacing of science, medicine and law: The stem cell patent controversy in the United States and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya eDavey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The patent eligibility of stem cells – particularly those derived from human embryos – has long been under debate in both the scientific and legal communities. On the basis of moral grounds, the European Patent Office (EPO has refrained from granting patents for stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos. On the contrary, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO has historically granted patents regarding the isolation and use of human embryonic and other stem cells. To date, these US patents remain valid despite an increasing onslaught of challenges in court. However, recent precedents established in US courts significantly narrow the scope of patent eligibility within biotechnology. This article compares the implications of recent legal changes on stem cell patent eligibility between the EU and US.

  13. Interfacing of Science, Medicine and Law: The Stem Cell Patent Controversy in the United States and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Sonya; Davey, Neil; Gu, Qian; Xu, Na; Vatsa, Rajet; Devalaraja, Samir; Harris, Paul; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Dave, Raj; Chakrabarty, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    The patent eligibility of stem cells-particularly those derived from human embryos-has long been under debate in both the scientific and legal communities. On the basis of moral grounds, the European Patent Office (EPO) has refrained from granting patents for stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos. On the contrary, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has historically granted patents regarding the isolation and use of human embryonic and other stem cells. To date, these US patents remain valid despite an increasing onslaught of challenges in court. However, recent precedents established in US courts significantly narrow the scope of patent eligibility within biotechnology. This article compares the implications of recent legal changes on stem cell patent eligibility between the EU and US. PMID:26618158

  14. Genetic authentication of ginsengand other traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CCHON; YCCHOW; FYZENG; FCCLEUNG

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to review the chemical and genetic methods used in authentication ofginseng, especially the recent advances in microsatellite genotyping and its application to the authentication of othertraditional Chinese medicines (TCM). The standardization and modernization of TCM hinge on the authenticationof their botanical identities. Analysis of well-characterized marker compounds is now the most popular method foridentifying the herbal materials and quality control of TCM, eg, ginsenoside profiling for authentication of Panaxspecies. However, in many herbal species the chemical composition of the plant changes with the external environment and processing conditions, which lowers the reliability of these authentication methods. In the light of theadvances in molecular biotechnology in the past few decades, genetic tools are now considered to provide morestandardized and reliable methods for authentication of herbal materials at the DNA level. These genetic toolsinclude random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), DNA fingerprinting using multi-loci probes, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and microsatellite markertechnology. The practicality of these methods varies in terms of their sensitivity, reliability, reproducibility, andrunning cost. Using ginseng as an example, we reviewed the advantages and limitations of these molecular tech-niques in TCM authentication. We have developed a set of microsatellite markers from American ginseng that areable to differentiate Panax ginseng and Panax quinquetolius with the resolution down to farm level, ie, confirmationof its botanical identity and origin. Compared with other molecular techniques, microsatellite marker technology ismore robust, accurate, reproducible, reliable, and sensitive. This is essential for large-scale TCM authenticationcenters.

  15. Treatment of cholecystitis with Chinese herbal medicines: A systematic review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Dong; Guan-Liang Wang; Xing Liu; Jia Liu; De-Zeng Zhu; Chang-Quan Ling

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the literature on the use of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of cholecystitis.METHODS:The literature on treatment of cholecystitis with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) was analyzed based on the principles and methods described by evidence-based medicine (EBM).Eight databases including MEDLINE,EMbase,Cochrane Central (CCTR),four Chinese databases (China Biological Medicine Database,Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database,Database of Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals,Database of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology) and Chinese Clinical Registry Center,were searched.Full text articles or abstracts concerning TCM treatment of cholecystitis were selected,categorized according to study design,the strength of evidence,the first author's hospital type,and analyzed statistically.RESULTS:A search of the literature published from 1977 through 2009 yielded 1468 articles in Chinese and 9 in other languages; and 93.92% of the articles focused on clinical studies.No article was of level I evidence,and 9.26% were of level Ⅱ evidence.The literature cited by Science Citation Index (SCI),MEDLINE and core Chinese medical journals accounted for 0.41%,0.68% and 7.29%,respectively.Typically,the articles featured in case reports of illness,examined from the perspective of EBM,were weak in both quality and evidence level,which inconsistently conflicted with the fact that most of the papers were by authors from Level-3 hospitals,the highest possible level evaluated based on their comprehensive quality and academic authenticity in China.CONCLUSION:The published literature on TCM treatment of cholecystitis is of low quality and based on low evidence,and cognitive medicine may functions as a useful supplementary framework for the evaluation.

  16. Patent medicine dealers and irrational use of medicines in children: the economic cost and implications for reducing childhood mortality in southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin S C; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Ibe, Ogochukwu P

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the economic costs of irrational medicine use by Patent Medicine Dealers (PMDs) for malaria, acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhea diseases (DD) in Nigeria. Exit interviews were conducted with 395 respondents who sought care for their children from 15 PMDs in Abakpa district of Enugu state Nigeria. Of the total respondents, 80.0% received treatment for malaria while 12.0% and 8.0% received treatment for DD and ARI respectively. The average number of drugs dispensed per patient was 6.8, average percentage of patients given injections was 72.5%, average percentage of patients given one or more antibiotics was 59.7%, while the percentage of patients given non essential drugs was 45.9%. The additional costs to the standard treatment in Naira was 255, 350 and 175 for malaria, ARI and DD respectively. The losses attributable to irrational dispensing was 4,500 Naira. However, more than half of the drugs were on essential drug list, implying some cost savings for the consumers, but the high number of drugs (6.8) on average/patient is likely to increase the total cost of drugs cancelling out the cost savings to consumers arising from dispensing essential drugs. PMID:24621618

  17. Patent medicine dealers and irrational use of medicines in children: the economic cost and implications for reducing childhood mortality in southeast Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S C Uzochukwu

    Full Text Available This study assessed the economic costs of irrational medicine use by Patent Medicine Dealers (PMDs for malaria, acute respiratory infection (ARI and diarrhea diseases (DD in Nigeria. Exit interviews were conducted with 395 respondents who sought care for their children from 15 PMDs in Abakpa district of Enugu state Nigeria. Of the total respondents, 80.0% received treatment for malaria while 12.0% and 8.0% received treatment for DD and ARI respectively. The average number of drugs dispensed per patient was 6.8, average percentage of patients given injections was 72.5%, average percentage of patients given one or more antibiotics was 59.7%, while the percentage of patients given non essential drugs was 45.9%. The additional costs to the standard treatment in Naira was 255, 350 and 175 for malaria, ARI and DD respectively. The losses attributable to irrational dispensing was 4,500 Naira. However, more than half of the drugs were on essential drug list, implying some cost savings for the consumers, but the high number of drugs (6.8 on average/patient is likely to increase the total cost of drugs cancelling out the cost savings to consumers arising from dispensing essential drugs.

  18. Crisis of American Patent System and Its Enlightenment to Construction of Chinese Patent System%美国专利制度危机及其对中国专利制度建设的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏玉华

    2012-01-01

    Since 1980s, the American Patent System has greatly changed, not only the running way, but also the legislation. From then on, doubting and criticism to these changes never stopped, and became more and more fierce. Without exaggeration, the American Patent System is now sunk in the severest credit crisis since its birth. Investigation on this crisis is not only helpful for us to know the relationship between patent and innovation, but also helpful for the construction of Chinese Patent System.%20世纪80年代以来,随着美国专利系统运作方式发生的两次重大变化,以及与专利有关的立法的调整,美国专利制度正日益受到美国各界广泛的质疑和指责,正陷入其成立建立以来最严重的信任危机.审视此次危机将有助于我们正确认识知识产权保护和创新的关系,从而为我国专利制度建设指明正确的方向.

  19. Therapeutic uses of animal biles in traditional Chinese medicine: an ethnopharmacological, biophysical chemical and medicinal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David Q-H; Carey, Martin C

    2014-08-01

    Forty-four different animal biles obtained from both invertebrates and vertebrates (including human bile) have been used for centuries for a host of maladies in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) beginning with dog, ox and common carp biles approximately in the Zhou dynasty (c. 1046-256 BCE). Overall, different animal biles were prescribed principally for the treatment of liver, biliary, skin (including burns), gynecological and heart diseases, as well as diseases of the eyes, ears, nose, mouth and throat. We present an informed opinion of the clinical efficacy of the medicinal uses of the different animal biles based on their presently known principal chemical components which are mostly steroidal detergent-like molecules and the membrane lipids such as unesterified cholesterol and mixed phosphatidylcholines and sometimes sphingomyelin, as well as containing lipopigments derived from heme principally bilirubin glucuronides. All of the available information on the ethnopharmacological uses of biles in TCM were collated from the rich collection of ancient Chinese books on materia medica held in libraries in China and United States and the composition of various animal biles was based on rigorous separatory and advanced chemical identification techniques published since the mid-20(th) century collected via library (Harvard's Countway Library) and electronic searches (PubMed and Google Scholar). Our analysis of ethnomedical data and information on biliary chemistry shows that specific bile salts, as well as the common bile pigment bilirubin and its glucuronides plus the minor components of bile such as vitamins A, D, E, K, as well as melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) are salutary in improving liver function, dissolving gallstones, inhibiting bacterial and viral multiplication, promoting cardiac chronotropsim, as well as exhibiting anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-oxidant, sedative, anti-convulsive, anti-allergic, anti-congestive, anti-diabetic and anti

  20. [Construction of Research-Oriented State Key Clinical Department by Highlighting the Characteris- tics and Advantages of Chinese Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-yu; Guo, Li-heng; Han, Yun; Li, Jian; Zhang, Min-zhou

    2016-04-01

    As the largest research-oriented specialty department in national traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, the Department of Critical Care Medicine in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine insists on the development mode combined with clinical medicine and scientific research. By taking clinical and basic researches for integrative medicine preventing and treating acute myocardial in-farction and sepsis as a breakthrough, authors explored key problems of Chinese medicine in improving the prognosis related diseases and patients' quality of life. In recent 3 years our department has successively become the principal unit of the national key specialties cooperative group of critical care medicine (awarded by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine), the key clinical specialties (awarded by National Health and Family Planning Commission), and Guangzhou key laboratory construction unit, and achieved overall lap in clinical medical treatment, personnel training, scientific research, and social service.

  1. Studies on Treating Eczema by Chinese Herbal Medicine with Anti-Type Ⅳ Allergic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study Chinese herbal prescription for treatment of eczema on the basis of the suppressive effect of Chinese herbal medicine with type Ⅳ allergic reaction. Methods: Various formulae composed of Chinese herbal medicines possessing suppressive effect on murine allergic contact dermatitis were formed following the therapeutic principles of traditional Chinese medicine in treating eczema, and their effect on ear swelling, ear flake weight, dermal inflammatory infiltration cell count and plasma level of calcitonin gene related peptide ( CGRP) were examined in mice with dinitrofluorobenzene induced dermatitis. The prescription, Composite Poria Decoction was formulated and made into granule form, which was used to treat 63 cases of eczema (atopic dermatitis was excluded), and compared with 59 cases treated with antihistaminic that was aimed at the type I allergic reaction. Results: Experimental study showed that all the 4 Chinese prescriptions had the effect of anti-type Ⅳ allergic reaction, among them, the formula for cooling blood and removing Heat, Wind and Dampness evil possessed the most potent effect in suppressing murine dermatitis, and it was also able to up-regulate the plasma CGRP concentration. The clinical cure rate of Composite Poria Granule treatment was 47.6%, and that of the control was 22.0%. The difference was significant between the two groups (u=2.9555, P<0.01). Conclusions: Chinese herbal medicine has the effect of anti-type Ⅳ allergic reaction. Composite Poria Granule has good effect in treating eczema.

  2. Patent and Exclusivity Status of Essential Medicines for Non-Communicable Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, Tim K.; Liang, Bryan A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The threat of non-communicable diseases ("NCDs") is increasingly becoming a global health crisis and are pervasive in high, middle, and low-income populations resulting in an estimated 36 million deaths per year. There is a need to assess intellectual property rights ("IPRs") that may impede generic production and availability and affordability to essential NCD medicines. METHODS: Using the data sources listed below, the study design systematically eliminated NCD drugs that had no ...

  3. TREATMENT OF PRIMARY PALPEBRAL RETRACTION WITH ACUPOINT—INJECTION AND CHINESE MEDICINAL HERBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱新民; LiPeifang

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper,the therapeutic effect of combined therapy of acupoint-injection and Chinese medicinal herbs was observed in 59cases of primary palpebral retraction patients.These 59patients were divided into treatment group(n=38,treated with acupoint-injection and Chinese medicinal herbs)and control group(n=21,treated with Chinese medicinal herbs alone).After3 courses of treatment.of the 38cases in treatment group,25(65.8%)were cured,8(21.1%)had marked improement and5(13.2%)had improement;of the 21cases in control group,8(38.1%)were cured,9(42.9%)had marked improement,2(9.5%)had improement6 and2(9.5%)were ineffective.Statistical analysis showed a si9gnificant difference between the two groups in the therapeu-tic effect.The cure rate of experimental group was apparently higher than athat of the control group,i.e.the therapeutic effect of the combined therapy of acupoint-injection and Chinese medicinal herbs was superior to that of Chinese medicinal herbs alone.

  4. Traditional Chinese medicine valuably augments therapeutic options in the treatment of climacteric syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Sarah; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Climacteric syndrome refers to recurring symptoms such as hot flashes, chills, headache, irritability and depression. This is usually experienced by menopausal women and can be related to a hormonal reorganization in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, originating 1000s of years ago, above-mentioned symptoms can be interpreted on the basis of the philosophic diagnostic concepts, such as the imbalance of Yin and Yang, the Zang-Fu and Basic substances (e.g. Qi, Blood and Essence). These concepts postulate balance and harmonization as the principle aim of a treatment. In this context, it is not astounding that one of the most prominent ancient textbooks dating back to 500-200 BC, Huang di Neijing: The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine gives already first instructions for diagnosis and therapy of climacteric symptoms. For therapy, traditional Chinese medicine comprises five treatment principles: Chinese herbal medicine, TuiNa (a Chinese form of manual therapy), nutrition, activity (e.g. QiGong) and acupuncture (being the most widespread form of treatment used in Europe). This review provides an easy access to the concepts of traditional Chinese medicine particularly regarding to climacteric syndrome and also focuses on current scientific evidence. PMID:27040419

  5. Screening of Chinese Herbal Medicines Resistant to Chicken Escherichia coli and Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to screen Chinese herbal medicines resistant to Chicken Escherichia coli and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. [Methed] Conven- tional punch method, test tube method and plate dilution method were adopted for in vitro susceptibility test of chicken E, coil strains O5 and O8 using 13 kinds of Chi- nese herbal medicines including Sanguisorba officinalis, Coptis chinensis, Anemar- rhena asphodeloides, Strobilanthes cusia, Agastache rugosa, etc.; chicken embryo inoculation experiment was adopted to screen Chinese herbal medicines resistant to chicken infectious laryngotracheitis virus. [Result] Sanguisorba officinalis, Fructus mume, Rheum officinale, Coptis chinensis, Herba Taraxaci, Anemarrhena asphode- Ioides, Scutellaria baicalensis and Rhizoma Fagopyri Cymosi had ideal antibacterial effect against chicken E. coil strain O5; Sanguisorba officinalis, Fructus mume, Rheum officinale, Coptis chinensis, Herba taraxaci and Rhizoma Fagopyri Cymosi had ideal antibacterial effect against chicken E. coil strain 08; other Chinese herbal medicines showed relatively poor or no antibacterial effect. Results of chicken embryo inoculation experiment showed that nine kinds of Chinese herbal medicines showed relatively strong anti-lLTV effect, including Forsythia suspensa, Radix Isatidis, Fofium isatidis, Flos Ionicerae, Radix codonopsis, Radix astragali, Atractylodes, Radix gly- cyrrhizae, and Pericarpium granati. [Conclusion] The study laid the foundation for fur- ther development of Chinese herbal compound preparations to treat chicken cofibacil- Iosis, infectious laryngotracheitis and other bacterial, viral diseases.

  6. Effect of Chinese Medicines on the Subretinal Fluid Absorption after Operation for Retinal Detachment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YeziLiu

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To determine the effects of traditional Chinese medicines on subretinal fluld absorption after Operation for retinal detachment.Mehods:Among100eyes with operations fo retinal detachment without drainage of fluid,there were 50eyes in traditional Chinese medicine treatment group and 50eyes in the control group.and there were no significant difference between the two groups in age,myopia and retinal detachment area.We observed the time for the absorption of subretinal fluid and visual acuity improvement aftr the opera-tions for retinal detachment.Results;he result showed that the average time for the absorption of subretinal fluid was14.5days in the traditional Chinese medicine treatment group,21.7days in the control group and the visual acuity was better in the former than in the latter.Conclusions:The taditional Chinese medicine treatment could increase the ab-sorption of subretional fluid,the mechanisms of which may be that Chinese medicines regulated and impved the general blood circulation and local eye blood criculation and the function of blood-retinal barrier so that they increase the out-ward osmotic suction forces of the pigment epithelium.

  7. Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Miyaoka

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described according to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine. Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya, inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium, inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan. In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events is needed.

  8. Chinese medicine compound Changtong oral liquid on postoperative intestinal adhesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Xiao Yang; Han-Ping Shi; Lian-Bing Hou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of a Chinese medicine compound Changtong oral liquid (CT) on tissue plasminogen activity (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), TGF-β1 and hydroxyproline (OHP).METHODS: Two sets of animal experiments were performed in the present study. Forty New Zealand rabbits and 48 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned randomly to one of the five groups: sham adhesion, adhesion with saline, adhesion with low dosage of the CT, adhesion with middle dosage of the CT and adhesion with high dosage of the CT. t-PA and PAI activity in plasma, OHP and TGF-β1 expression in adhesion were investigated. Analysis of variance was used to test differences among groups.RESULTS: CT treatment increased plasma t-PA activity in rabbits but decreased TGF-β1 activity in rats. The data were expressed from low to high dose respectively as follows: t-PA, 46.1±8.6 μkat/L, 59.6±10.1 μkat/L, 64.0±11.5 μkat/L; TGF-β1 28±7.23%, 31±3.05%, 30±4.04%. There were significant differences compared with saline-treated animals (t-PA 26.4±5.1 μkat/L, TGF-β1 54±5.51%). OHP content in cecum of rabbits from middle and high but not low dose of CT lowered significantly as compared with saline-treated rabbits, 0.3641±0.1373, 0.3348±0.0321, 0.2757±0.0497 mg/g vs0.4183±0.0883 mg/g of protein, P>0.05, P<0.05, P<0.05 respectively. The rabbit plasma PAI activity and OHP content in abdominal wall had no difference in all groups.CONCLUSION: CT treatment significantly enhanced t-PA activity in rabbits, but decreased TGF-β1 content in rats, OHP content in cecum of rabbits, and failed to affect the activity of PAI and OHP content in abdominal wall in rabbits,compared with saline group. The result suggests that CT could effectively prevent adhesions without interfering wound healing.

  9. Promoting integrative medicine by computerization of traditional Chinese medicine for scientific research and clinical practice: The SuiteTCM Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur de Sá Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Chinese and contemporary Western medical practices evolved on different cultures and historical contexts and,therefore,their medical knowledge represents this cultural divergence.Computerization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is being used to promote the integrative medicine to manage,process and integrate the knowledge related to TCM anatomy,physiology,semiology,pathophysiology,and therapy.METHODS:We proposed the development of the SuiteTCM software,a collection of integrated computational models mainly derived from epidemiology and statistical sciences for computerization of Chinese medicine scientific research and clinical practice in all levels of prevention.The software includes components for data management (DataTCM),simulation of cases (SimTCM),analyses and validation of datasets (SciTCM),clinical examination and pattern differentiation (DiagTCM,Tongue TCM,and Pulse TCM),intervention selection (AcuTCM,HerbsTCM,and DietTCM),management of medical records (ProntTCM),epidemiologic investigation of sampled data (ResearchTCM),and medical education,training,and assessment (StudentTCM).DISCUSSION:The SuiteTCM project is expected to contribute to the ongoing development of integrative medicine and the applicability of TCM in worldwide scientific research and health care.The SuiteTCM 1.0 runs on Windows XP or later and is freely available for download as an executable application.

  10. A systematic review of the role of proprietary and patent medicine vendors in healthcare provision in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Beyeler

    Full Text Available Interventions to reduce the burden of disease and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa increasingly recognize the important role that drug retailers play in delivering basic healthcare services. In Nigeria, owner-operated drug retail outlets, known as patent and proprietary medicine vendors (PPMVs, are a main source of medicines for acute conditions, but their practices are not well understood. Greater understanding of the role of PPMVs and the quality of care they provide is needed in order to inform ongoing national health initiatives that aim to incorporate PPMVs as a delivery mechanism.This paper reviews and synthesizes the existing published and grey literature on the characteristics, knowledge and practices of PPMVs in Nigeria. We searched published and grey literature using a number of electronic databases, supplemented with website searches of relevant international agencies. We included all studies providing outcome data on PPMVs in Nigeria, including non-experimental studies, and assessed the rigor of each study using the WHO-Johns Hopkins Rigor scale. We used narrative synthesis to evaluate the findings.We identified 50 articles for inclusion. These studies provided data on a wide range of PPMV outcomes: training; health knowledge; health practices, including drug stocking and dispensing, client interaction, and referral; compliance with regulatory guidelines; and the effects of interventions targeting PPMVs. In general, PPMVs have low health knowledge and poor health treatment practices. However, the literature focuses largely on services for adult malaria, and little is known about other health areas or services for children.This review highlights several concerns with the quality of the private drug retail sector in Nigeria, as well as gaps in the existing evidence base. Future research should adopt a more holistic view of the services provided by PPMV shops, and evaluate intervention strategies that may improve the services provided in

  11. Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine with Antiquorum Sensing Activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Chu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria.

  12. Progress of Research in Treatment of Hyperlipidemia by Monomer or Compound Recipe of Chinese Herbal Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Xiao-bing; WO Xing-de; FAN Chun-lei

    2008-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is the No.1 risk factor for patients with atherosclerosis (AS) and is directly related to the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease. Therefore, prevention and treatment of AS is of great importance and of practical significance in controlling the incidence and mortality of CAD. With its peculiar syndrome-dependent therapy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated abundant practical experiences in this field and good clinical effects have been achieved. Chinese herbal medicine, with its particularly unique advantages and high potentials yet to be tapped, displays its huge strength in HLP prevention and treatment. The progress of studies concerning prevention and treatment of HLP by Chinese herbal medicines, in the form of monomers or compound recipes, is reviewed in this paper.

  13. The Impact of a Cultural Immersion Study Abroad Experience in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Shelley F; Taggart, Helen M

    2016-09-01

    Study abroad programs have increased dramatically. Most programs are short-term and include a cultural immersion as well as classroom and/or service learning. In this article, the authors discuss a study abroad program to China that included cultural immersion and classroom learning specific to traditional Chinese medicine. Participants kept journals with specific writing assignments and reflections about their experiences during the trip. At the conclusion of the trip, a qualitative survey was administered to the participants. Outcomes included the benefits of cultural immersion and a greater appreciation of cultural diversity, complementary and alternative medicine and holistic health care. Participants were able to describe transformational experiences of living in and learning from the Chinese culture and peoples. They intended to incorporate their experiences and enhanced understanding of traditional Chinese medicine and complementary and alternative therapies to provide culturally competent holistic health care in their nursing practice. PMID:26351293

  14. Mining Compatibility Rules from Irregular Chinese Traditional Medicine Database by Apriori Agorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to mine the knowledge and rules on compatibility of drugs from the prescriptions for curing arrhythmia in the Chinese traditional medicine database by Apriori algorithm. For data preparation, 1 113 prescriptions for arrhythmia, including 535herbs (totally 10884 counts of herbs) were collected into the database. The prescription data were preprocessed through redundancy reduction, normalized storage, and knowledge induction according to the pretreatment demands of data mining. Then the Apriori algorithm was used to analyze the data and form the related technical rules and treatment procedures. The experimental result of compatibility of drugs for curing arrhythmia from the Chinese traditional medicine database shows that the prescription compatibility obtained by Apriori algorithm generally accords with the basic law of traditional Chinese medicine for arrhythmia. Some special compatibilities unreported were also discovered in the experiment, which may be used as the basis for developing new prescriptions for arrhythmia.

  15. Acupuncture plus Chinese Medicinal Fumigation and Washing for Edema of the Stroke-affected Limb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture plus Chinese medicinal fumigation and washing in treating edema of the affected limb in post-stroke hemiplegia. Methods: Two hundred patients with edema of the stroke-affected limb from our hospital were randomized into two groups according to their visiting sequence. In the observation group, 100 subjects were intervened by acupuncture plus Chinese medicinal fumigation and washing in addition to oral administration of diuretics, while the other 100 subjects in the control group were only given diuretics. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated after successive 2-week treatments. Results: The total effective rate was 90.0% in the observation group, significantly higher than 66.0% in the control group, indicating that there was a significant difference in comparing the overall therapeutic effect (P Conclusion: Acupuncture plus Chinese medicinal fumigation and washing in addition to oral administration of diuretics is effective in treating edema of the affected limb in post-stroke hemiplegia.

  16. Patent Research Progress of Resveratrol on Health-care and Medicine%白藜芦醇保健医药专利研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕海丹

    2011-01-01

    系统论述了国内外以白藜芦醇为基础申请保健和医药方面专利的研究进展,为我国白藜芦醇的研究提供参考.%The patent research progress of resveratrol on health-care and medicine at home and abroad were discussed systematically in this study, aiming at providing reference for the research and development of resveratrol in China.

  17. Are Patent Medicine Vendors Effective Agents in Malaria Control? Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to Assess Quality of Practice in Jigawa, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Sima Berendes; Olusegun Adeyemi; Edward Adekola Oladele; Olusola Bukola Oresanya; Festus Okoh; Joseph J Valadez

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patent medicine vendors (PMV) provide antimalarial treatment and care throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, and can play an important role in the fight against malaria. Their close-to-client infrastructure could enable lifesaving artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) to reach patients in time. However, systematic assessments of drug sellers' performance quality are crucial if their role is to be managed within the health system. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) could be an eff...

  18. [A brief history of Chinese royal court medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Sheng

    2010-09-01

    With the establishment of an emperor and a royal court, the court physician came into being and the royal court medicines gradually began to evolve. In the first year of Kai Huang of the Sui dynasty (581), King Wendi of the Sui dynasty established the imperial medical bureau. Since then the royal court medicines entered a period of development and prosperity. In the Yuan dynasty, the scope of official duty of the imperial hospital narrowed, the development of royal court medicines lacked new growth. To the Ming and Qing dynasties, the royal court medicine began to decline and eventually ended with the demise of the Qing dynasty. PMID:21163077

  19. [Controllability pyramid: an integrated control system of quality for traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-He; Zhang, Ding-Kun; Wang, Jia-Bo; Yang, Ming; Peng, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Quality control is one of the key scientific tissues in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). In order to overcome the deficiencies of assessment indexes, including little systematization and quantification, as well as loose association with clinical efficacy and dosage, a new integrated method named controllability pyramid ( CP) is first proposed in this paper. In addition, some study cases are used to explain how this model is constructed. We hope the establishment of CP could promote the clinical-orien- ted integrated innovation research of TCM, and provide control strategy and technology examples for improving the quality of Chinese medicines and clinical efficacy.

  20. Clinical Study on Treatment of Hyperuricaemia by Retention Enema of Chinese Herbal Medicine Combined with Allopurinol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茜; 马丽; 阿克拜尔·乌普

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of retention enema of Chinese herbal medicine combined with allopurinol in treating hyperuricaemia(HUE).Methods:Seventy-eight patients with HUE were assigned to two groups,the 40 patients in the treated group were treated with retention enema of Chinese herbal medicine combined with oral intake of allopurinol,and the 38 patients in the control group were treated with allopurinol alone. The therapeutic course for all was 6 weeks.The clinical efficacy,changes of symptoms,blood...

  1. [Changes of career of traditional Chinese medicine in Hong Kong Donghua Hospital in modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H

    2016-05-01

    Founded in 1872, the Hong Kong Donghua Hospital (Tung Wah Group of Hospitals later) was the earliest traditional Chinese hospital in modern times, which has made positive contributions in exploring the shape and structure of TCM hospital and promoting science of TCM in Hong Kong. Unfortunately, TCM didn't acquire a legal status in Hong Kong, the practice of TCM in Donghua Hospital was thus restricted by the government, and ultimately, it changed into a comprehensive hospital mainly use western medicine. The change of TCM business in Hong Kong Donghua Hospital reflected the problems and situation of traditional Chinese medicine encountered in modern times. PMID:27485869

  2. Application of Systems Biology Technology in Research of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; YANG Li-ping; GONG Yue-wen

    2009-01-01

    Systems biology is an emerging science of the 21 st century and its method and design of study resemble those of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Adopting systems biology technology will help to understand TCM Syndromes and modernize Chinese herbal medicine. The technology platforms of systems biology,especially proteomics can provide useful tools for exploring essence of TCM syndromes and understanding principle of herbal formulation. Moreover, compared with methods of molecular biology, such as genomics and proteomics, metabolomics provide more direct, rapid, concise and effective methods for study of kidney disease especiallv in the case of prevention and treatment with TCM.

  3. Research advances on the anti-aging profile of Fructus lycii: An ancient Chinese herbal medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, SCW; Chang, RCC; Zhang, KY; Tong, Y; Song, J.; Wong, RNS

    2008-01-01

    Fructus lycii is a common Chinese herbal medicine used in China for nearly 2000 years. It has beneficial effects on eyes, liver and kidneys; and it has long been considered to be an anti-aging herb in ancient Chinese medicine. Modern studies have partially probed the magic anti-aging property of F. lycii. The beneficial effects of F. lycii on aging are largely attributed to its bioactive components such as polysaccharides, carotenoids and flavonoids. This review focuses on the anti-aging aspe...

  4. The carbon isotope ratios and contents of mineral elements in leaves of Chinese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaf carbon isotope ratios and 13 kinds of mineral elements were measured on 36 species of common Chinese medicinal plants in a subtropical monsoon forest of Ding Hu Shan in Guangdong Province. The .delta.13C value were from -26.4 to -32.6%, indicating that all of the species belonged the photosynthetic C3 types. The relative lower value of δ13C was observed in the life form of shrubs. The contents of 7 elements (N, P, K, Ca, Na Mg, Si) were dependent upon the species, life form, medicinal function and medicinal part. Herb type medicine and the used medicinal part of leaves or whole plant showed higher levels of above elements than the others. Among the nine groups with different medicinal functions, it was found that more nitrogen was in the leaves of medicinal plants for hemophthisis, hypertension and stomachic troubles, more phosphorus and potassium were in the leaves for cancer and snake bite medicines, but more calcium and magnesium were in the leaves for curing rheumatics. Ferric, aluminium and manganese were the main composition of microelements in leaves. There were higher content of ferric in leaves for hemophthisis medicine, higher zinc in leaves for cold and hypertension medicine, and higher Cup in leaves of stomachic medicine. It was suggested that the pattern of mineral elements in leaves of Chinese medicinal plants reflected the different properties of absorption and accumulation. Some additional effect due to the high content of certain element might be associated with the main function of that medicine

  5. Treatment of 140 cerebral palsied children with a combined method based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xue-juan; ZHENG Kun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe and evaluate a method that is effective and practical for treatment of cerebral palsied (CP)children in China. Method: The patient's age and disease type and individual specific conditions were considered in choosing therapy methods accordingly: Chinese herbs, acupuncture, auricular seed pressure, point finger pressing, massage, orthopedic hand manipulation, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, language therapy, etc. Meanwhile we created a new CP treatment model that combines hospitalized treatment with family therapy. Results: The majority of CP patients improved greatly in motor and social adaptation capacities after treatment. Wilcoxon paired rank sum test analysis showed that there were significant differences between the data before and after treatment (P<0.01). Conclusion: This combined therapy method, based on traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine plus family supplemental therapy, is an effective and practical treatment strategy for CP children in China.

  6. Synergistic effects of Chinese herbal medicine: a comprehensive review of methodology and current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilised complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of Chinese herbal medicine, misconceptions about synergy, methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengthen and weakness of these models in the context of Chinese herbal medicine and summarise the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations.

  7. Current Status and Future Perspective in the Globalization of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ying Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of traditional Chinese medicines started around 1996, which was initiated by the Chinese government. However, substantial progress was only achieved in recent years including the adoption of TCM quality monographs in the western pharmacopoeias (United States Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia and registration in main stream drug regulatory agencies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA. So far, several TCM herbal quality monographs were adopted by the United States Pharmacopoeia including Chinese Salvia, Ganoderma lucidum and Panax notoginseng, etc. Over 45 TCM quality monographs were recorded in the European Pharmacopoeia with 20 more in progress. After the successful registration of the first TCM product named Diao Xin Xue Kang as traditional medicine via the Medicines Evaluation Board of the Netherlands, several other TCM herbal products are in the registration process in several European member states. So far, there has been still not any TCM product authorized as a drug by the FDA regardless of a few TCM products in phase III or phase II clinical trials. This review summarizes the progress made in the globalization of traditional Chinese medicines in recent years and future issues in this regard.

  8. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources.

  9. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in Pu...

  10. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for Facial Complexion in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Changbo Zhao; Guo-zheng Li; Fufeng Li; Zhi Wang; Chang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as ...

  11. Review on the course of Chinese medicine regulation in the UK of the last 10 years.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ming Zhao; Shen, Huijun

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the course of work in the last ten years of developing a system of statutory regulation of practitioners of acupuncture, herbal medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine. It tracks from the House of Lords Science Select Committee report on complementary medcine in 2000 till the recent 2nd Department of Health's consultation on the regulation of these professionals. It would be very interesting to see what decision of the DH is to make on regualtion of these pratitioners.

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Three Bioactive Compounds in Traditional Chinese Medicine Patent Prescription Zuojin Pill by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jinzhang; Huang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Chan; Xu, Ren-ai; Lin, Chongliang; Lin, Guanyang; Wang, Xianqin

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with ultraviolet (UV) detection has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of berberine hydrochloride, evodiamine and rutaecarpine in Zuojin Pill. Chromatographic separation were achieved on a ODS-C18 column (250×4.6 mm i.d., 5.0 μm particle) through a 25 min gradient delivery of a mixture of A (acetonitrile) and B (0.3 % phosphoric acid-0.3 % triethylamine) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min at 40 °C. All of the a...

  13. Chinese Herbal Medicine in Folk Custom%民俗中的中草药略识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐敏; 李春芳

    2009-01-01

    There are large amount of Chinese herbal medicine used in folk custom of our country. Most of these medicines are related with hygiene and health care. The usage of these medicine included avoiding dirty, preventing diseases, restoring convalescence, health protection, cosmetology, bathing, and daily effective medical prescription. Folk custom has the characteristics of regionality, consistency, and nationality,ete. Some of traditional Chinese medicine originates from folk custom. Therefore, the research of medicine used in folk custom may help to the development of traditional Chinese medicine.%在我国传统民俗中流传有大量中草药,其用途主要包括辟秽防病、康复保健、美容化妆、服饰佩物、洗浴、日常疗病等.民俗为群体性、倾向性的社会行为,并有地域性、传承性、历史性、民族性等特点,同时中草药中的一部分药物也来源于民俗,研究民俗中的药物可有助于研发中药新药.

  14. Utilization of and Attitudes towards Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies in a Chinese Cancer Hospital: A Survey of Patients and Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    McQuade, Jennifer L.; ZhiQiang Meng; Zhen Chen; Qi Wei; Ying Zhang; WenYing Bei; J. Lynn Palmer; Lorenzo Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Background. In China, the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is very popular, but little is known about how it is integrated with conventional cancer care. We conducted parallel surveys of patients and physicians on TCM utilization. Methods. Two hundred forty-five patients and 72 allopathic physicians at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center completed questions on their use of and attitude towards TCM. Results. Patient mean age was 51, with 60% female. Eighty-three percent of pa...

  15. Data-mining of potential antitubercular activities from molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jamal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a well established alternate system of medicine based on a broad range of herbal formulations and is practiced extensively in the region for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. In recent years, several reports describe in depth studies of the molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines on the biological activities including anti-bacterial activities. The availability of a well-curated dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and accurate in-silico cheminformatics models for data mining for antitubercular agents and computational filters to prioritize molecules has prompted us to search for potential hits from these datasets. Results. We used a consensus approach to predict molecules with potential antitubercular activities from a large dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines available in the public domain. We further prioritized 160 molecules based on five computational filters (SMARTSfilter so as to avoid potentially undesirable molecules. We further examined the molecules for permeability across Mycobacterial cell wall and for potential activities against non-replicating and drug tolerant Mycobacteria. Additional in-depth literature surveys for the reported antitubercular activities of the molecular ingredients and their sources were considered for drawing support to prioritization. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that datasets of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines offer a new opportunity to mine for potential biological activities. In this report, we suggest a proof-of-concept methodology to prioritize molecules for further experimental assays using a variety of computational tools. We also additionally suggest that a subset of prioritized molecules could be used for evaluation for tuberculosis due to their additional effect against non-replicating tuberculosis as well as the additional hepato

  16. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin.

  17. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    Full Text Available Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin.

  18. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin. PMID:27258404

  19. Integrated Development of Chinese Herbal Medicine Planting and Tourist Commodities: A Case Study of Green Handmade Soap Development in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu; LI; Mengxuan; CHEN; Xiaoli; SONG

    2015-01-01

    Combining current situations of Chinese herbal medicine planting industry in Shandong,in line with existing problems of Chinese herbal medicine planting industry,this paper analyzed development prospect of tourist commodity industry in Shandong Province,and came up with actual selection and recommendations for integrated development of Chinese herbal medicine planting and tourist commodities.

  20. Evaluation on Common Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Treated by Integrative Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-liang Zhang; Qing-xiong Zhu; Tong Yang; Zi-qiang Zhuo; Yi-mei Tian; Hao-jie Zheng; Liu-ping Tang; Xin-ying Zou; Tao Wen; Xiu-hui Li; Jian-bo Ding; Shuang-jie Li; Xi Zhang; Yi Xu; Hua-sheng Yang; Dan Wei; Qin Li; Qing-sheng Shi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efifcacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with common hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial. Methods A total of 452 patients with common HFMD were randomly assigned to receive Western medicine alone (n=220) or combined with TCM (Reduning or Xiyanping injections) (n=232). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of rash/herpes disappearance within 5 days, while secondary outcomes included the incidence rate for fever, cough, lethargy, agitation, and vomiting clearance within 5 days. Results The rash/herpes disappearance rate was 45.5% (100/220) in Western medicine therapy group, and 67.2% (156/232) in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group, with significant difference (P Conclusions It’s suggested that the integrative TCM and Western medicine therapy achieved a better therapeutic efficacy. TCM may become an important complementary therapy on relieving the symptoms of HFMD.

  1. [A comparative study on the ethics of Western and traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-xue; Liu, Sheng

    2008-10-01

    The ethics of Western medicine and that of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) developed separately in their own ways. The formation and development of ancient medical ethics of China were extensively and deeply influenced by Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and other religious thought, while the ancient ethic basis of western society was influenced by traditional Judaism, Christianism, Catholicism and other natural philosophical thinking of ancient Greece and Rome. With the progress of medical and life sciences, the medical ethics begins to transfer into the life ethics, thus giving rise to new questions in the ethics of Western medicine and TCM. PMID:19141202

  2. Three advantages of using traditional Chinese medicine to prevent and treat tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-quan Ling; Xiao-qiang Yue; Chen Ling

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an important component of complementary and alternative medicine, has evolved over thousands of years with its own unique system of theories, diagnostics and therapies. TCM has been increasingly used in the last decades and become well known for its significant role in preventing and treating cancer. We believe that TCM possesses advantages over Western medicine in specific aspects at a certain stage of cancer treatment. Here we summarize the advantages of TCM from three aspects: preventing tumorigenesis; attenuating toxicity and enhancing the treatment effect; and reducing tumor recurrence and metastasis.

  3. Pulse waveform analysis as a bridge between pulse examination in Chinese medicine and cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Ferreira, Arthur; Lopes, Agnaldo José

    2013-04-01

    Pulse examination was probably the earliest attempt to distinguish between health and illnesses. Starting at the pre-Hippocratic era, Chinese medicine practitioners developed techniques for pulse examination and defined pulse images based on their perceptions of pulse waveforms at the radial artery. Pulse images were described using basic variables (frequency, rhythm, wideness, length, deepness, and qualities) developed under philosophical trends such as Taoism and Confucianism. Recent advances in biomedical instrumentation applied to cardiology opened possibilities to research on pulse examination based on ancient Chinese medical theories: the pulse wave analysis. Although strongly influenced by philosophy, some characteristics used to describe a pulse image are interpretable as parameters obtained by pulse waveform analysis such as pulse wave velocity and augmentation index. Those clinical parameters reflect concepts unique to Chinese medicine - such as yinyang - while are based on wave reflection and resonance theories of fluids mechanics. Major limitations for integration of Chinese and Western pulse examination are related to quantitative description of pulse images and pattern differentiation based on pulse examination. Recent evidence suggests that wave reflection and resonance phenomena may bridge Chinese medicine and cardiology to provide a more evidence-based medical practice. PMID:23546634

  4. Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treatment of Polyhydramnios:a Meta-analysis and Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fen Zhou; Yu-fang Hao; Yan Chen; Tong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tocompare the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (therapy A) or Chinese herbal medicine plus indomethacin (therapy B) with that of indomethacin alone (therapy C) in treating polyhydramnios.MethodsLiteratures published up toApril 2012 were retrieved from PubMed, Embase and Cochranelibrary, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific and Technological Periodical Database (VIP), Wangfang, and Traditional Chinese Medicine online.Two researchers collected data independently.The assessment of methodological quality was based on Cochrane handbook and the materials were analyzed with software RevMan 5.1.2. The outcome measure index was relative risk or difference ofmean value (95% confidence interval). The following outcomes were evaluated: (1) general clinical improvement rate; (2) maximum vertical pocket depth; (3) amniotic fluid index (AFI) value; (4) rate of fetalductus arteriosus constriction; (5) incidence of adverse events.ResultsBased on the search strategy, 5 trails involving 1017 patients were finally included. Comparedwith therapy C, therapy A decreased the rate of fetal ductus arteriosus constriction (P<0.01). Therapy B was more effective than therapy C in general clinical improvement and decrease of AFI for polyhydramnios (P<0.01). No serious adverse events were reported in therapy A and therapy B.ConclusionsCompared with therapy C, therapy A and therapy B may appear to be moreeffective for polyhydramnios. However, the exact effectneeds to beconfirmed with well-designedlarge-scale clinical trials.

  5. Treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome in severe acute pancreatitis patients with traditional Chinese medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Min-Jie; Zhang, Guo-Lei; Yuan, Wen-Bin; Ni, Jun; Huang, Li-Feng

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese traditional medicines Da Cheng Qi Decoction (Timely-Purging and Yin-Preserving Decoction) and Glauber’s salt combined with conservative measures on abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients.

  6. FOULING PREVENTION WITH FLUIDIZED PARTICLES IN EVAPORATION OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE EXTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingyan Liu; Xiulun Li; Ruitai Lin; Wanda Nie; Rucheng Zhang; Ningsheng Ling

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation shows that comparing with the evaporation of vapor-liquid two-phase flow boiling system, heat transfer is enhanced by adding proper inert solid particles into the traditional Chinese medicine liquid which is under evaporation. As a result, fouling prevention effects are evident in such three-phase flow boiling evaporator.

  7. Chinese medicinal herbs for asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B virus infection. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2000-01-01

    About 350 million people are chronically infected carriers of hepatitis B virus and are at a higher risk of serious illness and death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Chinese medicinal herbs have been used widely for more than 2000 years to treat chronic liver disease....

  8. Methodology and Technology for Developing Multi-Component Chinese Medicine-Standardization and Resourcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG XinMiao; ZHANG XiuLi; XUE XingYa; FENG JiaTao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Presently,Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is an important resource to treat many diseases,which has a long history in China,and is very complicated in chemical composition and pharmacology.Therefore,modernization of TCM is very necessary,including standardization,resourcing,quality control and research on chemical composition and pharmacology.

  9. Clinical Progress in the Treatment of Severe Acute Pancreatitis with Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), one of the crucial acute abdominal diseases, has high mortality for its quick initiation, severe condition, long duration, and frequent complication with multiple organ failure. In this paper, the clinical progress in the treatment of SAP with integrative Chinese and Western medicine is inspected and summarized.

  10. Dr. Lu Renhe's Experience in Treating Latent Nephritis with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jie

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dr. Lu Renhe of the First Clinical Medical College affiliated to Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine has engaged in clinical practice,teaching and research for more than 40 years and accumulated rich experience of treating various kinds of nephritis, diabetes and their complications.The following is an introduction to his experience of treating latent nephritis.

  11. Effects of Immunopotentiator of the Traditional Chinese Medicine on T Lymphocytes in Chicken Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Qiumei; LI Chunling; GAO Guisheng; SHEN Ping; TANG Shengling

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of action of immunoenhancer, the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine immunopromoter on the quantity and the transformation rates of T lymphocytes in the chicken blood were determined. Total 120 chickens were randomly assigned into three groups. The 1% and the 0.5% of the Chinese medicine immunopromoter were added to the chicken drinking water, respectively. The quantity of T lymphocytes in each group was measured by a-Naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining. The results showed that the percentages of T lymphocytes of the treatment groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05), and the percentage of the 1% group significantly higher than that of the 0.5% group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the transformation rates of T lymphocytes showed that the Chinese medicine immunopromoter had the significant enhancing effect on the transformation rates of T lymphoeytes of the treated chickens. The traditional Chinese medicine immunopromoter had the distinct function to promote the quantity and the transformation rate of T iymphocytes.

  12. Recent advances in ultra-high performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of traditional chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases for thousands of years in China. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) is a relatively new technique offering new possibilities in liquid chromatography. This paper reviews recen...

  13. A General Introduction of HIV/AIDS Treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a general introduction of HIV/AIDS treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China during the past 20 years. Although the role of TCM in treatment of HIV/AIDS is promising, there is still a long way to go.

  14. Plasma metabolomics combined with personalized diagnosis guided by Chinese medicine reveals subtypes of chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: This study suggests that combining metabolomics with traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis can reveal metabolic signatures for CHF syndrome subtypes. The plasma metabolites identified might be of special clinical relevance for subtypes of CHF, which could lead to further understanding of mechanisms involved and an improvement in personalized treatment for CHF.

  15. Fifty-Four Infantile Intractable Diarrhea Patients Treated with Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Infantile intractable diarrhea (IID) was usually complicated with malnutrition, growth retardation and pulmonary infection, etc. It is difficult to cure, and mortality is rather high. The authors used integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine therapy to treat it, and satisfactory result has been obtained and reported as follows.

  16. Effective Application of Knowledge Management in Evidence-based Chinese Medicine: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Garry; Li, Chun Guang; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2009-01-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) practice, as a knowledge-based industry, has not embraced knowledge management (KM) techniques widely. However, KM may facilitate the adaptation and promotion of evidence-based CM. A KM framework was introduced to its activities in evidence-based CM through the development of a CM portal. A codification strategy was used to codify and store knowledge systematically in a database. Several approaches were developed and implemented to address specific needs for CM such as centralizing the information, encouraging collective efforts, promoting integration of explicit and tacit knowledge, and developing a flexible technology and support system. Following the established KM framework, the RMIT Chinese Medicine Portal (www.chinese-medicine.com.au) was built up with four major components: organizational knowledge, knowledge workers, KM processes and information technology. Knowledge on Chinese herbs was classified into core, advanced and innovative categories, which involved the development of the monograph template. A working group was organized including CM, pharmacology and information technology professionals to implement this proposal with following sequential development stages: knowledge creation/acquisition, storage/organization, distribution and application. User interface and web language were also defined and accomplished. This case study demonstrates the applicability of KM in evidence-based CM through a multidisciplinary collaboration, such as, an effective collaboration between CM and information technology. The study also shows the potential of KM application in other disciplines of complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:18955285

  17. Literature review and analysis of the application of health outcome assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Pei-wu Li; Qian-wen Li; Nelson Xie; Jing-wei Li

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:To evaluate the application of health assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:According to a pre-defined search strategy,a comprehensive literature search for all articles published in China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted.The resulting articles that met the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were used for analysis.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine have been used in fundamental and theoretical research,and 14 of these were also used in 29 clinical trials that were randomized controlled trials,or descriptive or cross-sectional studies.In 2 152 Chinese medicine-based studies that used instruments in their methodology,more than 150 questionnaires were identified.Among the identified questionnaires,51 were used in more than 10 articles (0.5%).Most of these instruments were developed in Western countries and few studies (4%) used the instrument as the primary evidence for their conclusions.CONCLUSION:Usage of instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,current limitations include selection rationale,result interpretation and standardization,which must be addressed accordingly.

  18. Neural Correlates of Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Advantageous Risk-Taking Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tiffany M. Y.; Guo, Li-guo; Shi, Hong-zhi; Li, Yong-zhi; Luo, Yue-jia; Sung, Connie Y. Y.; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2009-01-01

    This fMRI study examined the neural correlates of the observed improvement in advantageous risk-taking behavior, as measured by the number of adjusted pumps in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), following a 60-day course of a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) recipe, specifically designed to regulate impulsiveness in order to modulate…

  19. Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine in Treating 37 Psoriatic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Hong-pu

    2001-01-01

    Psoriasis is a kind of chronic relaptic skin disease, and at present there are no appropriate therapeutical methods. From March 1998 to May 1999, we used the traditional Chinese and western medicine (TCM-WM) approach in treating this disease, and satisfactory result was obtained. We clinically observed this method in treating psoriasis, with hemorrheological examinations performed, and it is reported as follows.

  20. Artemisinin-A Gift from Traditional Chinese Medicine to the World (Nobel Lecture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Youyou

    2016-08-22

    Malaria has long been a devastating and life-threatening global epidemic disease in human history. Artemisinin, the active substance against malaria, was first isolated and tested in the 1970s in China. The important role played by traditional Chinese medicine in the discovery of artemisinin is described by Y. Tu in her Nobel Lecture.

  1. [Analysis on layout of traditional Chinese medicine industry based on location quotient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Yu, Yuanyuan; Hu, Yuanjia; Wang, Yitao

    2012-03-01

    To observe the layout and evolution of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) medical industry, classify the industry by region and conduct a preliminary study on its professional advantages, competitiveness and possible cause by using the theory of location quotient in regional economics, in order to provide suggestions for the layout of the TCM medical industry.

  2. Randomized controlled trial assessing a traditional Chinese medicine remedy in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, S.; Jin, X.; Yu, H.; Zhong, S.; Magill, P.; Vliet, T. van; Kistemaker, C.; Voors, C.; Pasman, W.

    2006-01-01

    A proof-of-concept study to assess the safety and efficacy of a traditional Chinese medicine formula as treatment for primary dysmenorrhea showed no statistically significant benefit over placebo. However, some efficacy parameters suggested possible superiority of the active treatment and so a large

  3. Chinese Medicine Injection Qingkailing for Treatment of Acute Ischemia Stroke: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafeng Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Qingkailing (QKL injection was a famous traditional Chinese patent medicine, which was extensively used to treat the acute stages of cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the quantity, quality and overall strength of the evidence on QKL in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Methods. An extensive search was performed within MEDLINE, Cochrane, CNKI, Vip and Wan-Fang up to November 2011. Randomized controlled trails (RCTs on QKL for treatment of acute stroke were collected, irrespective of languages. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards, and RevMan5 was used for data analysis. Results. 7 RCTs (545 patients were included and the methodological quality was evaluated as generally low. The pooled results showed that QKL combined with conventional treatment was more effective in effect rate, and the score of MESSS and TNF-α level compared with conventional treatment alone, but there was no significant difference in mortality of two groups. Only one trial reported routine life status. There were four trials reported adverse events, and no obvious adverse event occurred in three trials while one reported adverse events described as eruption and dizziness.

  4. 中医药在非洲%Traditional Chinese medicine in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代金刚; 朱建平; 宋丽娟; 肇红

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究中医药在非洲的传播、发展历史及现状和趋势,为更好地促进中非中医药合作提供参考。方法采用文献学和史学的研究方法,回顾中医药传入非洲的过程,并对典型事件进行分析。结果中医药传入非洲的历史要追溯到郑和下西洋时期。1963年,中国向非洲派遣医疗队,开启了中医药在非洲全面传播的历程,为中医国际发展做出了贡献。2005年,中国向非洲派遣了首批志愿者,中医向非洲传播有了新模式。结论通过援非医疗队、志愿者的教育培训、学术会议等中医药逐渐被非洲人民所熟知。目前,在政府推动下,中医药在非洲呈现出较快的发展势头,应该抓住机遇,促进中医药在非洲全面发展。%Objective Study on the spread and the development history of traditional Chinese medicine in Africa, as well as the present situation and trend, provide reference for better promoting China-Africa cooperation of traditional Chinese medicine. Methods Literature review and historical research methods are used to retrospect the process of traditional Chinese medicine into Africa, and analyze the typical event. Results traditional Chinese medicine was introduced into Africa's history dates back to the period of Zheng He's voyage. In 1963, China sent medical teams to Africa, the TCM comprehensive spread in Africa started. In 2005, China sent the first group of traditional Chinese medicine volunteers to Africa, which a new pattern of TCM spread. Conclusions By sending the medical teams, volunteers, and education training, academic conferences, traditional Chinese medicine was gradually known by the African people. TCM is developing rapidly by the supporting of the government. The opportunity should be seized to promote the comprehensive development of traditional Chinese medicine in Africa.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Medicinal Herbs for the Treatment of Hyperuricemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chinese medicinal herbs may be useful for the treatment of hyperuricemia, but there has been no systematic assessment of their efficacy and safety. Objectives. To systematically assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Methods. Six electronic databases were searched from their inception to December 2015. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs were included. Cochrane criteria were applied to assess the risk of bias. Data analysis was performed using RevMan software version 5.2. Results. Eleven RCTs with 838 patients were included. There was no significant difference in serum uric acid between Chinese medicinal herbs and traditional Western medicine (SME: 0.19, 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.43; p=0.10. In terms of overall efficacy, the Chinese medicinal herbs were significantly superior to Western medicine (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.17; p=0.0007. The Chinese medicinal herbs were better than Western medicine in reducing the adverse reactions (RR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.62; p=0.001. And all these funnel plots showed unlikelihood of publishing bias. Conclusions. The results indicate that Chinese medicinal herbs may have greater overall efficacy with fewer adverse drug reactions, although the evidence is weak owing to the low methodological quality and the small number of the included trials.

  6. Chinese translation of English textbooks on internal medicine from the 1850s to the 1940s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chuang-Ye; Wang, Fu-Mei

    2014-06-01

    During the 100 years from 1850 to 1949, six English textbooks on internal medicine were translated into Chinese and published. Publication of these books was a response to the increased demand for Chinese textbooks after the opening of several Western-style hospitals and medical schools in China where the instruction was in Chinese. Throughout this period, textbooks translated from English were regarded as symbols of mainstream and authority within medical communities in China. There was a shift of translators from British and American medical missionaries to Chinese medical elites. Publishers also changed from missionary hospitals or missionary organizations to the Chinese Medical Association, which was led by ethnic Chinese. After the 1950s, translation activity continued in Taiwan, but it was halted in China until after the Cultural Revolution. This paper provides bibliographic information about these books. The transition of medical authority in China during this 100-year period is also reviewed through the successive publication of translated textbooks on internal medicine. PMID:24820159

  7. [Several common types of counterfeit and inferior drugs in Chinese medicinal materials market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yimei; Chen, Keli

    2012-04-01

    Though there are many species of counterfeit and inferior drugs of Chinese Medicinal Materials in the market, the means of fabrication is common. According to our investigating and reports in the literature it is found that the counterfeits and inferior drugs exist in 4 styles: counterfeits, reused medicinal materials and their slices which have been extracted by boiling water or ethanol, medicinal materials and their slices which have been added with non-medicinal parts or chemicals, medicinal materials which have no enough growth time or have been reserved for a long time. Through summarizing the styles and their common characteristics of the counterfeits and inferior drugs,it is helpful to raise vigilance and detect them.

  8. Drug discovery from Chinese medicine against neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's and vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Kwok-Fai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are two major diseases associated with dementia, which is common among the elderly. While the etiology of dementia is multi-factorial and complex, neurodegeneration may be the major cause of these two diseases. Effective drugs for treating dementia are still to be discovered. Current western pharmacological approaches against neurodegeneration in dementia develop symptom-relieving and disease-modifying drugs. Current integrative and holistic approaches of Chinese medicine to discovering drugs for neurodegeneration in dementia include (1 single molecules from the herbs, (2 standardized extracts from a single herb, and (3 herbal formula with definite composition. This article not only reviews the concept of dementia in western medicine and Chinese medicine but also evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches.

  9. Current status of tungsten extraction technique in Chinese patents%钨提取技术的中国专利现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼芳

    2014-01-01

    主要从中国专利的角度分析钨提取技术的研究现状。通过在中国专利文摘数据库中对钨提取领域进行检索,主要检索了2014年3月8日前公开的、向中国国家知识产权局申请的、分类号为C22B34/36(钨的提取)的中国专利申请,简要分析了专利技术的申请类型、申请量年度发展趋势、申请人地区分布和主要专利申请人,并重点介绍了2010~2013年间申请且已获得授权的专利技术,以期对从事钨提取及其相关领域的企业、科研单位和个人提供参考。%The research status of tungsten extraction technique is analyzed from the perspective of Chinese patents. The patents published before 2014/03/08 with IPC C22B34/36 in CNABS are searched and studied to analyze the application type, development trend of annual application, regional distribution of applicants and main patent applicants. The patents applied and patented between the year of 2010 and 2013 are intro-duced to provide reference to the related enterprises and researchers.

  10. THE APPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE%纳米技术在中医中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓辰; 张蓉; 杨云霜

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology provides new ideas and methods for the development of Traditional Chinese medicine. The application of nanotechnology in the traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment devices field was introduced and the nano traditional Chinese medicines were summarized and the enlightenment which come from nanotechnology for the traditional Chinese medicine philosophy was analysed. With the purposes of providing guidance for traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) continuously absorbing modern scientific and technological achievements, for traditional Chinese medicine ( TCM ) continuously developing and growing with the latest research technology and for traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) being geared to international standards.%纳米技术为中医药发展提供了新的思路和方法。文章通过介绍纳米技术在中医诊疗设备中的应用,概括纳米中药,分析纳米技术对中医理念的启示,从而为中医药学不断吸纳现代科技成果,使中医运用最新研究技术不断发展壮大并与国际接轨提供参考。

  11. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Ho Ma; Wai Ling Lin; Sing Leung Lui; Xun-Yuan Cai; Vivian Taam Wong; Eric Ziea; Zhang-Jin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined.To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH.Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine,either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication,with placebo or Western medication.Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched.The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms,urodynamic measures,prostate volume and adverse events.The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified.Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications,31 studies were included.Eleven studies with a Jadad score ≥ 3 were selected for meta-analysis.Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume.The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication.The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included.The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research.Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine.

  12. New Progress in Modern Research on Chinese Herbal Medicines Published in Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in 2010: Annual Highlights and Comments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Chun-nian; LIU Yan-ze; XIAO Pei-gen

    2011-01-01

    As a series of and continuous publication,the papers published on Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in 2010 were selectively and briefly highlighted to reflect the new progress on modern research of Chinese herbal medicines.Within 617 articles,chemical constituents (127),pharmaceutics and technology (149),pharmacological studies and clinical observation,and medicinal materials are still major categories.Some comments have also been personally provided.

  13. The symbolic context of Chinese medicine: a comparative approach to the study of traditional medical and psychiatric forms of care in Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, A M

    1975-04-01

    This article explores a distinctly different aspect of Chinese medicine, and of health care in Chinese culture, from that receiving most attention and serious study at present in this country. It examines the symbolic structure and significance of illness and care in the Chinese context by (a) applying concepts developed in anthropology and the cross-cultural study of medicine and psychiatry; (b) examining recent studies of folk and popular forms of health care in contemporary Chinese communities; and (c) raising questions about the congnitive structure, cultural background, and bio-social significance of traditional Chinese healing beliefs and practices. An attempt is made to place this analysis in a comparative framework, so that Chinese cases can be related to health care systems in other cultural settings. PMID:47708

  14. Utilization of and Attitudes towards Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies in a Chinese Cancer Hospital: A Survey of Patients and Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. McQuade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In China, the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is very popular, but little is known about how it is integrated with conventional cancer care. We conducted parallel surveys of patients and physicians on TCM utilization. Methods. Two hundred forty-five patients and 72 allopathic physicians at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center completed questions on their use of and attitude towards TCM. Results. Patient mean age was 51, with 60% female. Eighty-three percent of patients had used TCM. Use was greatest for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM; 55.8%. Only 1.3% of patients used acupuncture and 6.8% Qi Gong or Tai Qi. Sixty-three percent of patients notified their oncologist about TCM use. The most common reason for use was to improve immune function. CHM was often used with a goal of treating cancer (66.4%, a use that 57% of physicians agreed with. Physicians were most concerned with interference with treatment, lack of evidence, and safety. Ninety percent of physicians have prescribed herbs and 87.5% have used TCM themselves. Conclusion. The use of TCM by Chinese cancer patients is exceptionally high, and physicians are generally well informed and supportive of patients’ use. Botanical agents are much more commonly used than acupuncture or movement-based therapies.

  15. Exploration on Evaluation System for Traditional Medicine Patent%传统药物专利价值评估体系探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丛; 庆俊梅; 刘延淮; 李彦博

    2014-01-01

    So far, an evaluation system for the patent value of traditional medicine is in absence. For this reason, an evaluation system had been established in this paper, by taking advantage of unique attributes of traditional medicine. This system consisted of 10 key indexes equipped with the algorithm for the calculation of original value and comparative value. The comparative value of patent was easier to show the value difference among patents. In consideration of strong correlation between the legal value, technical value, and economic value of the patent and be-tween evaluation indexes thereof, three kinds of value were combined together without discrimination for integral e-valuation. Besides, with inclusion of specific indexes in this field, the non-specific indexes related or indexes un-available were excluded. Because there is no personal rating involved, this evaluation system is appropriate for the automatic evaluation of patents of traditional medicine and other fields .%目前尚缺乏针对传统药物的专利评估方法和体系,鉴于此,本文针对传统药物专利的特点构建了价值评估体系,该体系由10个关键指标构成,并配备原始价值和相对价值的计算方法,专利的相对价值更易于表明专利之间的价值差异。专利的法律价值、技术价值、经济价值之间存在强关联性,本文将这三类价值指标进行有机整合,从整体上进行综合性价值评估。该体系纳入该领域专利所特有的指标的同时,剔除针对性不强及难以取得的指标,且本方法不涉及人工打分,未来可应用于传统药物乃至更多类型的专利价值自动化评估。

  16. [Theory of toxic classification of traditional Chinese medicine and recommendations for revision of China pharmacopeia (volume 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junning; Ye, Zuguang

    2012-08-01

    Toxic classification of traditional Chinese medicine, as a contribution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to the recognition of medicinal toxicity and rational use of medicinal materials by Chinese people, is now a great issue related to safe medication, sustainable development and internationalization of Chinese medicine. In this article, the origination and development of toxic classification theory was summarized and analyzed. Because toxic classification is an urgent issue related to TCM industrialization, modernization and internationalization, this article made a systematic analysis on the nature and connotation of toxic classification as well as risk control for TCM industry due to the medicinal toxicity. Based on the toxic studies, this article made some recommendations on toxic classification of Chinese medicinal materials for the revision of China Pharmacopeia (volume 1). From the aspect of scientific research, a new technical guideline for research on toxic classification of Chinese medicine should be formulated based on new biological toxicity test technology such as Microtox and ADME/Tox, because the present classification of acute toxicity of mice/rats can not met the modern development of Chinese medicine any more. The evaluation system and technical SOP of TCM toxic classification should also be established, and they should well balance TCM features, superiority and international requirements. From the aspect of medicine management, list of toxic medicines and their risk classification should be further improved by competent government according to scientific research. In China Pharmacopeia (volume I), such descriptions of strong toxicity, toxicity or mild toxicity should be abandoned when describing medicine nature and flavor. This revision might help promote TCM sustainable development and internationalization, and enhance the competitive capacity of Chinese medicine in both domestic and international market. However, description of strong

  17. Patent Information Analysis on Anti-influenza Traditional Medicine%抗流行性感冒的传统药物专利信息分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马运运; 邱俊霞; 苏向银; 孙志一; 刘海波; 彭勇; 黄璐琦

    2014-01-01

    Patent documentation is a kind of high-value scientific literature, which has caught the attention of more and more scholars. In this paper, the World Traditional Medicine Patent Database (WTMPD) was used to retrieve patents of the traditional medicines used in the treatment and prevention of influenza worldwide in the past 30 years. A total of 2 423 patents were further screened by a series of processes. Finally, multi-angle analysis was carried on the dataset to form a patent analysis report on traditional anti-flu drugs. From the analysis, we found that China had a rapid increase in the number of patent applications, which was in the leading role in the world, though the number of PCT applicant from China is relatively low. A large amount of applicants from the USA, Japan, and Korea have entered into China. Pharmaceutical company is the core group of patent applicant, who had applied a lot of quality patent about their products to protect their commercial interests. Honeysuckle, licorice, isatis root, forsythia and skullcap are five kinds of herbs, which have been most frequently used in anti-influenza patents.%专利文献是一种研究价值很高的科技文献,如今受到越来越多研究者的关注。本文利用《世界传统药物专利数据库》(WTMPD),对世界范围内过去近30年中,传统药物治疗和预防流行性感冒的专利进行了检索,并进一步筛选得到包含2423件专利的数据集,在此基础上进行了多角度的统计分析,形成了传统药物抗流感专利分析报告。由分析结果可见,在该领域内,国内专利申请量增长迅速,在数量上处于世界领先地位,但是国内申请其他国家专利的数量还比较少。相比之下美国、日本、韩国在中国申请的专利数量比较多。药品生产企业围绕自身产品研发、成果申请了大量优质专利,已成为专利申请的核心力量。金银花、甘草、板蓝根、连翘、黄芩是抗

  18. Pilot Test of a Culturally Sensitive Hypertension Management Intervention Protocol for Older Chinese Immigrants: Chinese Medicine as Longevity Modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Wen; Gomez, Cynthia A; Tam, Jocelyn Wing-Yin

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension control in older Chinese immigrants remains a significant health issue because of their unique cultural health practices to manage their hypertension. At present, there are limited culturally sensitive health education materials regarding hypertension management tailored for the older Chinese population available for and feasible to use. Because the San Francisco Bay Area has a large population of older Chinese immigrants, development of a culturally appropriate intervention is important to help this population achieve better blood pressure control. The focus of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of a culturally sensitive hypertension management intervention protocol, Chinese Medicine as Longevity Modality. This intervention protocol is implemented as a patient education health program delivered via video format in combination with an individual consultation provided by a nurse in the initial intervention, followed by four phone calls between the initial intervention and the second follow-up visit. The results of the study showed that the proposed intervention protocol was acceptable for the target population. PMID:26571335

  19. Methemoglobinemia development after ingestion of a chinese herbal medicine: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Eun Hyun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old girl visited the emergency room with perioral cyanosis and dyspnea, which had developed 20 hrs prior to the hospital visit. She had taken a Chinese herbal medication for 3 days prior to the onset of the symptoms. A co-oximeter examination revealed a methemoglobin level of 23.7%. An intravenous infusion of methylene blue was administered. Chemical analysis of the herbal medication revealed an ammonia (NH3 level of 239.41 mg/L. More studies are needed on the correlation between methemoglobinemia and the components of Chinese herbal medicines.

  20. Development and Current Status of National Cancer Center for Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; LIN Hong-sheng; HOU Wei; ZHANG Pei-tong; HUA Bao-jin

    2011-01-01

    @@ Chinese medicine (CM) is an important feature of cancer treatment in China.Especially in the last 10years, the effect of CM in cancer treatment has been of high concern and has been accepted by experts and patients locally and overseas.The oncology department (OD) of Guang'anmen Hospital (GAMH) of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences (CATCM),which will mark its 50th anniversary in 2013, is one of China's most-respected centers devoted exclusively to cancer patient care, research, education, and prevention through CM.It is located at the campus of GAMH,central Beijing.