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Sample records for chinese organizations

  1. WEB BASED TRANSLATION OF CHINESE ORGANIZATION NAME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Muyun; Liu Daxin; Zhao Tiejun; Qi Haoliang; Lin Kaiming

    2009-01-01

    A web-based translation method for Chinese organization name is proposed. After analyzing the structure of Chinese organization name, the methods of bilingual query formulation and maximum entropy based translation re-ranking are suggested to retrieve the English translation from the web via public search engine. The experiments on Chinese university names demonstrate the validness of this approach.

  2. Organics in Chinese Food Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schorzon, A.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Jiao, L.

    2014-01-01

    The organics market in China has grown fast since the turn of the Millennium both within the internal market and international trade. New regulations and their effective enforcement have instilled more transparency and trust among stakeholders. The mutual recognition of standards in bi- and multi-la

  3. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Du Li; Rachul Christen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching ...

  4. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO. News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND, we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  5. Institutionalization of Technology Transfer Organizations in Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Han; Pinheiro, Rómulo

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of in-depth studies on how technology transfer organizations (TTOs) are organized and developed. This paper examines the evolution/institutionalization of TTOs in Tsinghua University (TU), as a microcosm of the development of TTOs in Chinese universities. It explores two issues in particular: what kinds of TTOs have been developed…

  6. An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…

  7. Characterization of fine organic particulate matter from Chinese cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ling-yan; HU Min; WANG Li; HUANG Xiao-feng; ZHANG Yuan-hang

    2004-01-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected by a three-stage cascade impactor at two kinds of Chinese restaurants to characterize fine organic particulate matter from Chinese cooking sources. Major individual organic compounds have been quantified by GC/MS, including series of alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanals, alkan-2-ones and PAHs.Alkanes and ketones make up a significant fraction of particle-phase organic compounds, ranging from C11 to C26,and C9 to C19, respectively. In addition, other organic compound classes have been identified, such as alkanols,esters, furans, lactones, amides, and nitriles. The mass concentrations of fine particles, alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and PAHs in air emitted from the Uigur style cooking are hundreds times higher than ambient PM2.5 in Beijing.

  8. On the impacts of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the impact of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation from the perspective of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In each of these cultural systems, it appears that there are some particular sayings or remarks that are often taken in modern Chinese society to be contrary to organ donation, especially cadaveric organ donation. However, this article argues that the central concerns of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism are "great love," "ren," and "dao," which can be reasonably interpreted to support organ donation. The author understands that each cultural system, in order to play its cultural function, must have its central concerns as well as relevant ritual practices (li) that incarnate its religious and ethical commitments. That is, each plays a general cultural role, which influences organ donation in particular not merely through abstract or general ethical principles and teachings, but through a combination of ethical teachings and the forming of particular ritual practices. This article contends that the primary reason Chinese individuals fail to donate sufficient cadaveric organs for transplantation is not because particular remarks or sayings from each of these systems appear to conflict with donation. Neither is it that the central concerns of these systems cannot support cadaveric donation. Rather, it is that modern Chinese individuals have failed to develop and secure relevant ritual practices that support the central concerns of organ transplantation. The article concludes that in order to promote more donations, there is a need to form relevant ritual practices supporting organ donation in conformity with the central concerns of these cultural systems. PMID:23449366

  9. ELEMENTAL CONTENTS IN ORGANS AND TISSUES OF CHINESE ADULT MEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-da Zhu; Ya-qiong Liu; Qing Xie; Jing-yu Wang; Quan Wu; Nei-fen Wang; Ti-jiang Fan; Hu-sheng Liu; Qing-fen Liu; Xiao-yan Wang; Li Ou-yang

    2007-01-01

    Objective To provide basis of reference values for relevant parameters of Chinese Reference Man.Methods Eighteen kinds of major organ or tissue samples, including muscle, rib, liver, and so on, were obtained from 4 areas (Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangsu, and Sichuan provinces) with different dietary patterns in China in autopsy of 16 healthy adult men, who had just encountered sudden deaths. At the same time, whole blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers living in each of these areas. The concentrations of 56 elements in these samples were detected by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spec-trometry (ICP-AES), and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS) techniques. Based on obtained concentrations and reference values of these organ or tissue weights for Chinese Reference Man, the relative elemental burdens in these organs or tissues as well whole body were also estimated.Results The concentrations of 56 elements in 18 main organs or tissues were determined all together and their elemental organ or tissue and whole body burdens were estimated. Furthermore, the distributions of important elements for radiation protection in these organs or tissues were emphatically discussed.Conclusion By summing with past related results, the total results obtained from the series of research may provide more reliable and better representative basis of these reference values for Chinese Reference Man than before.

  10. Progress of Research on Organic Fibrosis with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Lan Wang; Xiao-Ning Wang; Ping Liu

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis is the remodeling and repair processes of chronic injuries. There are few effective therapies. Chinese medicine formula, the main pattern of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in clinic, applies a multi-component, multi-target and complicated approach in the treatment of diseases, and certainly shows good comprehensive therapeutic effects on fibrosis. In this review, the clinical study, effects and mechanism of action of Fuzheng Huayu recipe in the treatment of liver, pulmonary, and renal fibrosis was analyzed and evaluated. Meanwhile, based on the understanding of TCM pathogenesis for liver cirrhosis, this review will also briefly introduce the research of different classical Chinese medicine formulae with various functions in the treatment of experimental liver fibrosis induced by different methods, including comparing the efficacy, analyzing the action characteristics and mechanism of effective formulae, exploring pathological and biological basis of TCM diagnostic and therapeutic pattern, which will contribute to the research of TCM in the treatment of organ fibrosis.

  11. Model Organisms and Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is an ancient medical system with a unique cultural background. Nowadays, more and more Western countries due to its therapeutic efficacy are accepting it. However, safety and clear pharmacological action mechanisms of TCM are still uncertain. Due to the potential application of TCM in healthcare, it is necessary to construct a scientific evaluation system with TCM characteristics and benchmark the difference from the standard of Western medicine. Model organisms have played an important role in the understanding of basic biological processes. It is easier to be studied in certain research aspects and to obtain the information of other species. Despite the controversy over suitable syndrome animal model under TCM theoretical guide, it is unquestionable that many model organisms should be used in the studies of TCM modernization, which will bring modern scientific standards into mysterious ancient Chinese medicine. In this review, we aim to summarize the utilization of model organisms in the construction of TCM syndrome model and highlight the relevance of modern medicine with TCM syndrome animal model. It will serve as the foundation for further research of model organisms and for its application in TCM syndrome model.

  12. Nucleolus organizer regions (Nor loci) of Chinese wheats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cedric E.May; 辛志勇

    1996-01-01

    Nucleolus organizer regions (Nor loci) of a range of Chinese wheat landraces and cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) were analysed using genomic DNA extracted from leaves. Only two allelic variants of the Nor-B1 locus were found on chromosome 1B (Nor-B1a and Nor-B1g), while Nor-B1g was probably introduced from North America in the early 1960s. The even more recent introduction of the rye allele Nor-R1 in the early 1980s was also revealed. Eight allelic variants of the Nor-B2 locus on chromosome 6B (Nor-B2a, b, d, f, h, o, p and s) were identified. A Chinese origin for the a, d, f, o, p and s alkies is evident although the d allele was successfully introduced into Australian wheats in the early 1900s. Nor-B2h and Nor-B2b are again very recent introductions into Chinese wheat breeding programs, the former from CIMMYT wheats and the latter in association with the introduction of the 1RS/1BL translocation from Europe. On the basis of the presence of different combinations of Nor-B1 and Nor-B2 alleles

  13. Development of the Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test: Normative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2013-01-01

    The present study consisted of two phases: development and psychometric validation of a Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) using Rasch analysis and the provision of normative data on the basis of a representative sample of the Chinese-speaking population. The HVOT was administered to 1008 healthy adults aged 15-79 years,…

  14. Chinese and Taiwanese International College Students' Participation in Social Organizations: Implications for College Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chun; Wong, Y. Joel

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative focus group study explored the meaning of Chinese and Taiwanese international students' lived experiences in social organizations. Participants were 9 Chinese and Taiwanese international college students in a midwestern U.S. university. The analyses uncovered 7 themes: social support, recreation, emotional support, practical…

  15. Connecting to the World Economy: Issues Confronting Organizations in Chinese Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling

    2000-01-01

    Notes that businesses and organizations in Chinese societies are working to manage structural changes in response to social and cultural transformation. Claims this Chinese experience has relevance to other societies in transition and provides an important reference to those impacted by global changes. (NH)

  16. Exploration of Organizing in Chinese High-Tech Companies Located in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    have enacted an industrial world and a civic world. Furthermore, it is suggested that controversies also occur when Chinese managers enact a fuzzy world. Different worlds collide in these types of test scenarios, creating ambiguity about the worth of the persons involved and the organizing principles......Purpose: Very little research has been done to find out what happens to organizing in Chinese companies that are located in countries characterized by cooperative capitalism. I focus on this phenomenon and explore what happens to organizing in two Chinese high-tech companies located in Denmark...... scenarios? 3) How do they discover their relative worth in different worlds enacted in the test scenarios? Findings: The analysis shows that controversies have emerged in test scenarios where Chinese managers and engineers have enacted a market world and a domestic world, while Danish managers and engineers...

  17. Celebrating the 60th Anniversary of Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editorial Office of Chinese Journal of Chemistry

    2010-01-01

    @@ May 2010 is the 60th Anniversary of Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry(SIOC),Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS),the founder and sponsor of Chinese Journal of Chemistry(CJC).In China,a cycle of sixty years forms a so called"jiazi(甲子)",which is the Chinese way of counting years.It is the time that signifies the end of an old cycle and the beginning of a new one.This special issue of CJC is dedicated to SIOC for celebrating her 60th anniversary.

  18. Relations between Chinese Adolescents' Perception of Parental Control and Organization and Their Perception of Parental Warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sing; Cheung, Ping Chung

    1987-01-01

    Study evaluates 713 Chinese high school students in Hong Kong and distinguishes parental control from organization, following Moos' (1976) conceptualization. Results show both dimensions (control and organization) correlate very differently with parental warmth. Greater parental control is associated with more conflict with parents. (Author/RWB)

  19. Sorption equilibrium of emerging and traditional organic contaminants in leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    Emerging and petroleum contaminants could transfer into food chains by plant uptake, potentially causing food security problems. To build a prediction model, the sorption equilibrium and uptake kinetics of toluene, p-xylene, naphthalene, bisphenol A, and 4-bromo-diphenyl ether in some common leafy vegetables including leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage were examined. The kinetic experiments revealed that high sorption rates were observed for these plants that had high lipid contents. For two emerging contaminants with polar functional groups, their resulting isotherms were strongly linear (R(2) = 0.92 to 1.00), indicating that the sorption was dominated by partitioning. Moreover, regression correlation showed that log Klip, the lipid-water partition coefficient, and log Kow, the octanol-water coefficient, for these organic chemicals were strongly linear-related, following the equation: log Klip = 0.894 × log Kow+0.219 (R(2) = 0.953). The correlation equation allows the prediction of the sorption capacity of plant species for an organic compound when the plant composition and the log Kow of the chemical are determined. This improved model containing different organic chemicals with a wide range of log Kow (2.73-4.80) and including emerging contaminants was established, which shows further utilization for predicting the sorption of organic contaminants by plants. PMID:27085315

  20. The Chinese Organic Export Model, Globalization and a Danish Future Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Egelyng, H.

    2010-01-01

    China has gained a top position in the world of Certified Organic Agriculture (COA). This article briefly portrays the development and institutional nature of the Chinese success as an exporter of organic products in a process of globalization. It then reflects on possible lessons from this case of globalization, to be implied from the point of view of future development and integrity of the Danish organic sector.

  1. Is the Scandinavian Way of Organizing Challenged by the Growing Chinese Economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    2012-01-01

    with the inconsistencies between the institutional orders of organizing. This in turn may affect the institutional orders by maintaining or transforming them. We don’t know what is going to happen as it depends on the awareness, skill and reflexivity of Scandinavian and Chinese institutional actors in the sense......The institutional order of organizing in working life is very different in Scandinavia and China. When Scandinavian and Chinese managers and employees meet in concrete work relations they not only work together on a product they also become engaged in institutional work dealing...

  2. Chemical compositions of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Chinese cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2007-01-01

    Food cooking can be a significant source of atmospheric particulate organic matter. In this study, the chemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) in PM2.5 emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were examined by gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified species are consistent in the emissions from different Chinese cooking styles and the quantified compounds account for 5-10% of total POM in PM2.5. The dominant homologue is fatty acids, constituting 73-85% of the quantified compounds. The pattern of n-alkanes and the presence of beta-sitosterol and levoglucosan indicate that vegetables are consumed during Chinese cooking operations. Furthermore, the emissions of different compounds are impacted significantly by the cooking ingredients. The candidates of organic tracers used to describe and distinguish emissions from Chinese cooking in Guangzhou are tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, oleic acid, levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, nonanal, and lactones. During the sampling period, the relative contribution of Chinese cooking to the mass concentration of atmospheric hexadecanoic acid should be less than 1.3% in Guangzhou.

  3. Brokering Identity and Learning Citizenship: Immigration Settlement Organizations and New Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidan Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines citizenship learning and identity construction of new Chinese immigrants in a Canadian immigration settlement organization (ISO. I address the gap between the concept of “settlement” and “citizenship” generated by government-funded ISOs and new immigrants’ actual practices in these programs. I adopt Dorothy Smith’s approach of examining the social organization of people’s everyday lives (Smith 2005 in order to unpack the ruling relations behind the immigrant settlement services and to take the standpoint of Chinese new immigrants. Under this framework, I analyze a Canadian federal government’s funding criteria for ISOs and a settlement program’s annual report to unpack the ruling relations behind the texts. I further conduct in-depth interviews with two Chinese new immigrants in a Canadian ISO to understand the ruling relations behind citizenship learning and brokering activities in Canadian ISOs from the immigrants’ standpoint.

  4. Genomic organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes in the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, T; Zhu, H; Wang, D; Hao, H; Du, W

    2015-01-01

    In science, the hamsters are widely used as a model for studying the human diseases because they display many features like humans. The utility of the Chinese hamster as a biology model can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization and expression of the Chinese hamster immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. The Chinese hamster IgH locus contains 268 VH segments (132 potentially functional genes, 12 ORFs and 124 pseudogenes), 4 DH segments, 6 JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε and α) and one reverse δ remnant fragment. The Igκ locus contains only a single Cκ gene, 4 Jκ segments and 48 Vκ segments (15 potentially functional genes and 33 pseudogenes), whereas the Igλ locus contains 4 Cλ genes, but only Cλ 3 and Cλ 4 each preceded by a Jλ gene segment. A total of 49 Vλ segments (39 potentially functional genes, 3 ORFs and 7 pseudogenes) were identified. Analysis of junctions of the recombined V(D)J transcripts reveals complex diversity in both expressed H and κ sequences, but the microhomology-directed VJ recombination obviously results in very limited diversity in the Chinese hamster λ gene despite more potential germline-encoded combinatorial diversity. This is the first study to make a comprehensive analysis of the Ig genes in the Chinese hamster, which provides insights into the Ig genes in placental mammals.

  5. Chinese consumers' adoption of a "green" innovation - the case of organic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been published on Chinese consumer-citizens’ adoption of or willingness to adopt sustainable lifestyle elements. A case in point is organic food – a more sustainable alternative to conventional food. Organic food is a Western invention. However, organic food products are now...... available in upscale supermarkets in East and South-east China metropolises such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. This paper reports the results of a study investigating what motivates early adopters of organic food in China. The data were collected in Guangzhou by means of a mallintercept survey....... As in Western Europe, the early adoption of organic food in China is positively related to what Schwartz termed “universalism values.” Also as in the West, the personal attitude towards buying organic food in China is strongly linked to beliefs about its healthiness, taste and environmental friendliness. Social...

  6. Chinese consumers' adoption of a "green" innovation - the case of organic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    Little research has been published on Chinese consumer-citizens’ adoption of or willingness to adopt sustainable lifestyle elements. A case in point is organic food – a more sustainable alternative to conventional food. Organic food is a Western invention. However, organic food products are now...... available in upscale supermarkets in East and South-east China metropolises such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. This paper reports the results of a study investigating what motivates early adopters of organic food in China. The data were collected in Guangzhou by means of a mallintercept survey....... As in Western Europe, the early adoption of organic food in China is positively related to what Schwartz termed “universalism values.” Also as in the West, the personal attitude towards buying organic food in China is strongly linked to beliefs about its healthiness, taste and environmental friendliness. Social...

  7. Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: Past, present and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Xiaotang; ZHANG Fusuo; BAO Xuemei; R(o)mheld V.; Roelcke M.

    2005-01-01

    Recycling and composting of organic materials such as animal waste, crop residues and green manures has a long tradition in China. In the past, the application of organic manures guaranteed a high return of organic materials and plant mineral nutrients and thus maintained soil fertility and crop yield. As a result of rapid economic development coupled with the increasing urbanization and labour costs, the recycling rate of organic materials in Chinese agriculture has dramatically declined during the last two decades, in particular in the more developed eastern and southeastern provinces of China. Improper handling and storage of the organic wastes is causing severe air and water pollution. Because farmers are using increasing amounts of mineral fertilizer, only 47% of the cropland is still receiving organic manure, which accounted for 18% of N,28% of P and 75% of K in the total nutrient input in 2000. Nowadays, the average proportion of nutrients (N+P+K) supplemented by organic manure in Chinese cropland is only 35% of the total amount of nutrients from both inorganic and organic sources.In China, one of the major causes is the increasing de-coupling of animal and plant production.This is occurring at a time when "re-coupling" is partly being considered in Western countries as a means to improve soil fertility and reduce pollution from animal husbandry. Re-coupling of modern animal and plant production is urgently needed in China. A comprehensive plan to develop intensive animal husbandry while taking into account the environmental impact of liquid and gaseous emissions and the nutrient requirements of the crops as well as the organic carbon requirements of the soil are absolutely necessary. As a consequence of a stronger consideration of ecological aspects in agriculture, a range of environmental standards has been issued and various legal initiatives are being taken in China. Their enforcement should be strictly monitored.

  8. Statistical Study of Trace Elemental Concentrations in Major Types of Organisms from Typical Chinese Coastal Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫东; 胡明辉; 石谦; 杨逸萍

    2004-01-01

    Frequency distribution characteristics of trace elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu. Sr and Ba are studied for the marine organisms collected from typical Chinese coastal waters and compared with those of major elements Ca and Mg. Nearly all the distributions for trace elements in macroalgae, benthic molluscs, crustaceans, cephalopods and different tissues of fish ( muscle, liver and bone ) are found to show some degree of positive skewness, indicating a relatively large number of marine organisms with low concentrations for a particular element and only a few organisms with disproportionately high concentrations. Their distribution types are generally logarithmic normal distribution or nearly logarithmic normal distribution. Distribution of Ca is similar to that of trace elements, while Mg shows normal distribution. Average elemental concentrations of major types of organisms are calculated based on their frequency distributions.

  9. COMPETITIVENESS ОF CHINESE ECONOMY AFTER JOINING WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Shlik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of the China’s membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO. The advantages and disadvantages of WTO joining and also prospects and unforeseen difficulties are given in the paper. The People’s Republic of China has already been a full-member of WTO for 6 years. The Chinese Government has mainly fulfilled all the conditions which were imposed for WTO joining. They concerned customs legislation that presupposed a considerable reduction of custom duties, an access to the service market for foreign investors, an increase of responsibility for violation of intellectual property rights. Many of these conditions have been fulfilled in advance.

  10. Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: Past, present and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU; Xiaotang

    2005-01-01

    [1]King,F.H.,Farmers of forty centuries or permanent agriculture in China,Korea and Japan,German translation of first edition (Madison,Wis.,1911),1984.Georg,E.,Siebeneicher,Neu-Ulm und München,208.[2]FAO,FAO Soils Bulletin 40,China:Recycling of organic wastes in agriculture,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,Rome,2nd ed.,1978.[3]Roelcke,M.,Organic materials in rice production in the Yangtze River Delta-Investigation on the composition and effects of Waterlogged Compost (in German with English abstract),University Diploma Dissertation,Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture,Freising-Weihenstephan:Munich Technical University,1988,114.[4]Zhu,Z.L.,Chen,D.L.,Nitrogen fertilizer use in China-Contributions to food production,impacts on the environment and best management strategies,Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems,2002,63:117-127.[5]Ju,X.T.,Liu,X.J.,Zhang,F.S.et al,Nitrogen fertilization,soil nitrate accumulation,and policy recommendations in several agricultural regions of China,Ambio,2004,33(6):300-305.[6]Extension Center of Agricultural Techniques in China,ed.,Organic Manure Resources in China,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1999,1-8.[7]Cao,L.G.,The Fertilization History,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1981.[8]Liu,G.L.,Food production and balanced fertilization in China,in Proceeding of Third International Conference for Balanced Fertilization (ed.Institute of Soil Science and Fertilization,Chinese Academic of Agricultural Science),Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1989,16-21.[9]China Agricultural Yearbook,Editorial Committee of China Agricultural Yearbook,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1950 - 2003[10]Ellis,E.C.,Wang,S.M.,Sustainable traditional agriculture in the Tai Lake Region of China,Agriculture,Ecosystems and Environment,1997,61,177-193.[11]Ge,J.X.,The History of Chinese Population,Shanghai:Fudan University Publishing House,2001,5:831 - 832.[12]Zhang,S.X.,The Resources of Cultivable Land and

  11. Effects of Manipulated Above- and Belowground Organic Matter Input on Soil Respiration in a Chinese Pine Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Fan; Jinsong Wang; Bo Zhao; Lianhai Wu; Chunyu Zhang; Xiuhai Zhao; Gadow, Klaus V.

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT), only litter removal (LR), control (CK), only root trenching (RT) and litter a...

  12. Organic anion transporting polypeptide-1B1 haplotypes in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-yong XU; Hong-hao ZHOU; Zhen-qiu SUN; Yi-jing HE; Wei ZHANG; Sheng Deng; Qing LI; Wei-xia ZHANG; Zhao-qian LIU; Dan WANG; Yuan-fei HUANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To detect 388G>A and 521T>C variant alleles in the organic anion transporting polypeptide- 1B 1 (OATP 1B 1, encoding gene SLCOIB1) gene. Methods:One hundred and eleven healthy volunteers were screened for OATPIB 1 alleles in our study. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to identify the 388G>A polymorphism and a 1-step tetra-primer method was developed for the determination of 521T>C mutation. Results: The frequencies of the 388G>A and 521T>C variant alleles in the Chinese population were 73.4%and 14.0%,respectively. The frequencies of the SLCO1BI*lb and *15 haplotypes were 59.9% and 14.0%, respectively. Conclusion: The SLCO1B1*1b and SLCO1B1*15 variants are relatively common in the Chinese population. Their frequencies are similar to that in the Japanese, but significantly different from that in Caucasians and blacks.

  13. Simulation of Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics in Chinese Rice Paddies from 1980 to 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen; YU Yong-Qiang; SUN Wen-Juan; HUANG Yao

    2007-01-01

    Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) of rice paddies in China were simulated from 1980 to 2000 by linking a coupled bio-physical model to GIS database. The coupled model consists of two sub-models including Crop-C for simulating net primary productivity and hence residue retention and Soil-C for computing the turnover rates of SOC. The GIS database included parameters of climate, soils and agricultural activities with the resolution of 10 km × 10 km. Model simulation indicated that Chinese rice paddies covering 22.6 Mha sequestrated a considerable amount of C, about 0.15 ± 0.07 Pg C from 1980 to 2000. Annual sequestration rate increased sharply from -180 ± 45 kg C ha-1 year-1 in 1980 to 440 ± 170kg C ha-1 year-1 in 1989. Thereafter, a steady sequestration rate of 460 ± 170 kg C ha-1 year-1 occurred till 1994 and declined since then. Approximately 84% of the Chinese rice paddies sequestrated carbon, while 15% lost carbon and 1%kept balance over the 20 years. Great SOC sequestration occurred in eastern, southern and central China, while a slight decline of SOC existed in some regions of northeastern and southwestern China.

  14. Comparative study on active soil organic matter in Chinese fir plantation and native broad-leaved forest in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-kui; WANG Si-long; DENG Shi-jian

    2005-01-01

    Active soil organic matter (ASOM) has a main effect on biochemical cycles of soil nutrient elements such as N, P and S, and the quality and quantity of ASOM reflect soil primary productivity. The changes of ASOM fractions and soil nutrients in the first rotation site and the second rotation site of Chinese fir plantation and the native broad-leaved forest were investigated and analyzed by soil sampling at the Huitong Experimental Station of Forestry Ecology (at latitude 26°48′N and longitude 109°30′E under a subtropical climate conditions), Chinese Academy of Sciences in March, 2004. The results showed that values of ASOM fractions for the Chinese fir plantations were lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. The contents of easily oxidisable carbon (EOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for the first rotation of Chinese fir plantation were 35.9%, 13.7%, 87.8% and 50.9% higher than those for the second rotation of Chinese fir plantation, and were 15.8%, 47.3%, 38.1% and 30.2% separately lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. For the three investigated forest sites, the contents of MBC and WSOC had a larger decrease, followed by WSC, and the change of EOC was least. Moreover, soil physico-chemistry properties such as soil nutrients in Chinese fir plantation were lower than those in broad-leaved forest. It suggested that soil fertility declined after Chinese fir plantation replaced native broad-leaved forest through continuous artificial plantation.

  15. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Contract Research Organizations (CROs) in China: integrating Chinese research and development capabilities for global drug innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun-Zhen; Hu, Hao; Wang, Chunming

    2014-01-01

    The significance of R&D capabilities of China has become increasingly important as an emerging force in the context of globalization of pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). While China has prospered in its R&D capability in the past decade, how to integrate the rising pharmaceutical R&D capability of China into the global development chain for innovative drugs remains challenging. For many multinational corporations and research organizations overseas, their attempt to integrate China's pharmaceutical R&D capabilities into their own is always hindered by policy constraints and reluctance of local universities and pharmaceutical firms. In light of the situation, contract research organizations (CROs) in China have made great innovation in value proposition, value chain and value networking to be at a unique position to facilitate global and local R&D integration. Chinese CROs are now being considered as the essentially important and highly versatile integrator of local R&D capability for global drug discovery and innovation. PMID:25406839

  17. Exploring the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sedimentary organic carbon in three Chinese lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fengchang; Xu, Libin; Liao, Haiqing; Zhao, Xiaoli [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment; Sun, Yongge [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Environmental and Biogeochemistry; Guo, Jianyang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). State Key Lab. of Environmental Geochemistry

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total organic carbon (TOC) in lake sediments. However, with respect to the complex organic matter in recent sediments, it is still unclear which part of TOC plays a key role in controlling PAHs distributions in natural sediments. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between PAHs and TOC components of different origins in lake sediments. Materials and methods: Sediment cores from three Chinese lakes with different trophic conditions - Lakes Bosten, Dianchi, and Poyang - were collected using a piston core sampler. The cores were sectioned into 1- or 2-cm intervals immediately after collection and transported on ice to the laboratory where they were stored at -20 C. The subsamples were freeze-dried and ground with a mortar and pestle for analyses. PAHs were analyzed by GC-MS and TOC was determined with a PE elemental analyzer after the removal of carbonates. Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis technique was used to deconvolute the TOC in the sediments into free and volatile hydrocarbons (S1), kerogen-derived hydrocarbons (S2), and residual carbon (RC); S2 was further separated into thermal less stable macromolecular organic matter (S2a) and high molecular weight kerogens (S2b). Results and discussion: Positive correlations between TOC and PAHs were observed in these lakes. Results show that the more labile, minor components of TOC (S1 and S2a) played a more important role in controlling PAH distributions than the major components of TOC (S2b and RC), probably due to the different accessibilities of the organic components. The algae-derived organic carbon had a greater influence on the distribution of low molecular weight PAHs than that of high molecular weight PAHs in sediments. This suggests that PAHs scavenging in the water column by algae is mainly targeted at low molecular weight PAHs, and that preferential scavenging of low

  18. Laboratory measurements of emission factors of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from burning of Chinese crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Pan, Xiaole; Taketani, Fumikazu; Komazaki, Yuichi; Miyakawa, Takuma; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2015-05-01

    The emission factors (EFs) of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted during the burning of Chinese crop residue were investigated as a function of modified combustion efficiency in laboratory experiments. NMVOCs, including acetonitrile, aldehydes/ketones, furan, and aromatic hydrocarbons, were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Rape plant was burned in dry conditions and wheat straw was burned in both wet and dry conditions to simulate the possible burning of damp crop residue in regions of high temperature and humidity. We compared the present data to field data reported by Kudo et al. (2014). Good agreement between field and laboratory data was obtained for aromatics under relatively more smoldering combustion of dry samples, but laboratory data were slightly overestimated compared to field data for oxygenated VOC (OVOC). When EFs from the burning of wet samples were investigated, the consistency between the field and laboratory data for OVOCs was stronger than for dry samples. This may be caused by residual moisture in crop residue that has been stockpiled in humid regions. Comparison of the wet laboratory data with field data suggests that Kudo et al. (2014) observed the biomass burning plumes under relatively more smoldering conditions in which approximately a few tens of percentages of burned fuel materials were wet.

  19. 31P NMR analysis of membrane phospholipid organization in viable, reversibly electropermeabilized Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were reversibly permeabilized by submitting them to short, high-intensity, square wave pulses (1.8 kV/cm, 100 μs). The cells remained in a permeable state without loss of viability for several hours at 40C. A new anisotropic peak with respect to control cells was observed on 31P NMR spectroscopic analysis of the phospholipid components. This peak is only present when the cells are permeable, and normal anisotropy is recovered after resealing. Taking into account the fusogenicity of electropermeabilized cells, comparative studies were performed on 5% poly(ethylene glycol) treated cells. The 31P NMR spectra of the phospholipids displayed the same anisotropic peak as in the case of the electropermeabilized cells. In the two cases, this anisotropic peak was located downfield from the main peak associated to the phospholipids when organized in bilayers. The localization of this anisotropic peak is very different from the one of a hexagonal phase. The authors proposed a reorganization of the polar head group region leading to a weakening of the hydration layer to account for these observations. This was also thought to explain the electric field induced fusogenicity of these cells

  20. National Scale Analysis of Soil Organic Carbon Storage in China Based on Chinese Soil Taxonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dong-Sheng; SHI Xue-Zheng; WANG Hong-Jie; SUN Wei-Xia; E. D. WARNER; LIU Qing-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and density in various soil types or locations are the foundation for examining the role of soil in the global carbon cycle. An assessment of SOC storage and density patterns in China based on soil types as defined by Chinese Soil Taxonomy (CST) and the recently compiled digital 1:1000 000 Soil Database of China was conducted to generate a rigorous database for the future study of SOC storage. First, SOC densities of 7292soil profiles were calculated and linked by soil type to polygons of a digital soil map using geographic information system resulting in a 1:1000 000 SOC density distribution map of China. Further results showed that soils in China covered 9 281 ×103 km2 with a total SOC storage of 89.14 Gt and a mean SOC density 96.0 t ha-1. Among the 14 CST orders, Cambosols and Argosols constituted high percentage of China's total SOC storage, while Andosols, Vertosols, and Spodsols had a low percentage. As for SOC density, Histosols were the highest, while Primosols were the lowest. Specific patterns of SOC storage of various soil types at the CST suborder, group, and subgroup levels were also described. Results obtained from the study of SOC storage and density of all CST soil types would be not only useful for international comparative research, but also for more accurately estimating and monitoring of changes of SOC storage in China.

  1. Structural organization and scale-free properties in Chinese Phrase Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; WEI Luoxia; NIU Yi; YIN Junxun

    2005-01-01

    Monkey language models are defined for Chinese Phrase Networks, and scale-free features of Chinese Phrase Networks are uncovered. It is pointed out that the ratio of average degree to the total number of nodes ((K)IN) is close to a constant. Simulation for the evolution of phrase networks indicates that one of the important reasons for power law distributions is the word selection frequency, which, when tuned aptly, can make the monkey language present similar statistic traits as that of natural languages. Power law tails emerge at large k, and the exponent is about 6. Comparison between monkey model and natural language shows that humans are able to use Chinese words resources in more effective and compact ways to express their intentions. All the results demonstrate an important fact that the least effort principle is the basis of Chinese Phrase Networks.

  2. Distribution and sources of solvent extractable organic compounds in PM2.5 during 2007 Chinese Spring Festival in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingru; GUO Xueqing; LIU Xinran; LIU Chenshu; ZGHANG Shanshan; WANG Yuesi

    2009-01-01

    The solvent extractable organic compounds (SEOC) including n-alkanes, polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and dicarboxylic acids in PM2.5 during the 2007 Chinese Spring Festival in Beijing were measured via gas chromatography to mass spectrometry to determine the characteristics and sources of these organic pollutants. The concentrations of total n-alkanes, PAHs, and organic acids were higher before Chinese Spring Festival Eve (1025.5, 95.9 and 543.3 ng/m3,respectively) than those after (536.6, 58.9, and 331.8 ng/m3, respectively). n-Aalkanes and PAHs had much higher concentration in nighttime than those in daytime because of high relative humidity and low wind speed during the night. Combustion of coal and exhaust emission were major sources of n-alkanes. It could be judged by the characteristic ratios that the primary source of PAHs in fine particles was the combustion of coal, and the combustion of gasoline was in the next place. The ratios of C18:0/C16 indicated the contribution of vehicular emissions to the fatty acids. Dicarboxylic and aromatic acids were abundant in daytime than in nighttime because these acids were secondary organic acid and the photochemical degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons was the main source.

  3. Stability of soil organic carbon changes in successive rotations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian; WANG Silong; FENG Zongwei; WANG Qingkui

    2009-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) under forests in the global carbon cycle depends on the stability of the soil carbon and its availability to soil microbial biomass. We investigated the effects of successive rotations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations on the stability of SOC and its availability to microbes by adopting the two-step hydrolysis with H2SO4 and density fractionation. The results showed that successive rotations of Chinese fir decreased the quantity of total SOC, recalcitrant fraction, and carbohydrates in Labile Pool I (LPI), and microbial properties evidently, especially at 0-10 cm horizon. However, cellulose included in Labile Pool II (LP II) and the cellulose/total carbohydrates ratio increased in successive rotations of Chinese fir. The non-cellulose of carbohydrates included in LPI maybe highly available to soil microbial biomass. Hence the availability of SOC to microbial biomass declined over the successive rotations. Although there was no significant change in recalcitrance of SOC over the successive rotations of Chinese fir, the percentage of heavy fraction to total SOC increased, suggesting that the degree of physical protection for SOC increased and SOC became more stable over the successive rotations. The degradation of SOC quality in successive rotation soils may be attributed to worse environmental conditions resulted from disturbance that related to "slash and burn" site preparation. Being highly correlated with soil microbial properties, the cellulose/total carbohydrates ratio as an effective indicator of changes in availability of SOC to microbial biomass brought by management practices in forest soils.

  4. Classification of Mixtures of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on a Self-organizing Map (SOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maolin; Li, Li; Yu, Changyuan; Yan, Aixia; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Miao; Lu, Aiping; Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs) are typically mixtures of compounds and are often categorized into cold and hot according to the theory of Chinese Medicine. This classification is essential for guiding the clinical application of CHMs. In this study, three types of molecular descriptors were used to build models for classification of 59 CHMs with typical cold/hot properties in the training set taken from the original records on properties in China Pharmacopeia as reference. The accuracy and the Matthews correlation coefficient of the models were validated by a test set containing other 56 CHMs. The best model produced the accuracies of 94.92 % and 83.93 % on training set and test set, respectively. The MACCS fingerprint model is robust in predicting hot/cold properties of the CHMs from their major constituting compounds. This work shows how a classification model for data consisting of multi-components can be developed. The derived model can be used for the application of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:27491920

  5. Discussion on Strategies of Internal Leadership in Chinese Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li

    2011-01-01

    As a new type of organization, non-profit organizations have proposed new requirements on leadership practice and development of theory. There are three inadaptations existing in the traditional organization and leadership pattern to the internal leadership of non-profit organization, namely, inadaptation to changes of relationship between leaders and followers, inadaptation to uncertainty of decision-making foundation and inadaptation to innovative development of the organizations. This arti...

  6. The Evolution of Organic Carbon in Chinese Mollisol Under Different Farming Systems: Validation and Prediction by Using Century Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important indicator of soil degradation process. In this study, the long-term SOC evolution in Chinese mollisol farmland was simulated and predicted by validating, analyzing, processing and assorting concerning data, based on clarifying parameters of Century model need, combined with best use of recorded data of field management, observed data of long-term experiments, climate, soil, and biology, and achieved results from Hailun Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The results were showed as follows: Before reclamation, SOC content was around 58.00 g kg-1. SOC content dropped quickly in early years, and then decreased slowly after reclamation. SOC content was around 34.00 g kg-1 with a yearly average rate of 8.91% decrease before long-term experiments was established. After a long-term experiment, SOC would change under different farming systems. Shift farming system changed as follows: By 20-year model simulation, SOC content decreased from 34.03 to 30.19 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 5.97‰; by 100-year model simulation, SOC content decreased to 24.31 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 3.36‰. Organic fanning system changed as follows: By 20-year model simulation, SOC content decreased slowly from 34.03 to 33.39 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 0.95‰, 5‰ less than that of shift farming system; by 100-year model simulation, SOC content decreased to 32.21 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 0.55‰. "Petroleum" farming system changed as follows: By 20-year model simulation, SOC content decreased from 34.03 to 32.88 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 1.72‰, much more than that of organic farming system; by 100-year model simulation, SOC content decreased to 30.89 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 0.96‰. Combined "petroleum"-organic farming system changed as follows: By 20-year model simulation, SOC content was increased slightly; by 100-year model simulation, SOC content

  7. Organization of Time in the Chinese Countryside: Labor, Rhythms and Gender in the Later Maoist Period (1958-1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question of how the state policies during the later Maoist period, from the beginning of the Great Leap Forward (1958 to the introduction of the Modernization Reforms (1978, affected the organization of time in the Chinese countryside. After abandoning the initial Soviet model of modernization, based on the exclusive strengthening of heavy industry, the China’s leadership developed a strategy of parallel development of agriculture and industry, wherein the former would additionally support the modernization of the latter. The study is focused on the ways the longer term state plans and shorter term economic, social and ideological policies and campaigns jointly influenced the rhythms of life of Chinese peasants. The domains in which these influences became visible were: (1 the intensification of agricultural practices, (2 the introducing of the small-scale industry, and (3 the politicizing of the spare time. In the analysis the characteristic rhythms of work and rest within the daily, weekly, seasonal, and annual time spans are followed in detail.

  8. Effects of manipulated above- and belowground organic matter input on soil respiration in a Chinese pine plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fan

    Full Text Available Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT, only litter removal (LR, control (CK, only root trenching (RT and litter addition (LA. We found that either aboveground litter removal or root trenching decreased soil respiration. On average, soil respiration rate was significantly decreased in the LRRT treatment, by about 38.93% ± 2.01% compared to the control. Soil respiration rate in the LR treatment was 30.65% ± 1.87% and in the RT treatment 17.65% ± 1.95% lower than in the control. Litter addition significantly increased soil respiration rate by about 25.82% ± 2.44% compared to the control. Soil temperature and soil moisture were the main factors affecting seasonal variation in soil respiration. Up to the 59.7% to 82.9% seasonal variation in soil respiration is explained by integrating soil temperature and soil moisture within each of the various organic matter treatments. The temperature sensitivity parameter, Q10, was higher in the RT (2.72 and LA (3.19 treatments relative to the control (2.51, but lower in the LRRT (1.52 and LR treatments (1.36. Our data suggest that manipulation of soil organic matter input can not only alter soil CO2 efflux, but also have profound effect on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon decomposition in a temperate pine forest.

  9. Effects of manipulated above- and belowground organic matter input on soil respiration in a Chinese pine plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Juan; Wang, Jinsong; Zhao, Bo; Wu, Lianhai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Gadow, Klaus V

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT), only litter removal (LR), control (CK), only root trenching (RT) and litter addition (LA). We found that either aboveground litter removal or root trenching decreased soil respiration. On average, soil respiration rate was significantly decreased in the LRRT treatment, by about 38.93% ± 2.01% compared to the control. Soil respiration rate in the LR treatment was 30.65% ± 1.87% and in the RT treatment 17.65% ± 1.95% lower than in the control. Litter addition significantly increased soil respiration rate by about 25.82% ± 2.44% compared to the control. Soil temperature and soil moisture were the main factors affecting seasonal variation in soil respiration. Up to the 59.7% to 82.9% seasonal variation in soil respiration is explained by integrating soil temperature and soil moisture within each of the various organic matter treatments. The temperature sensitivity parameter, Q10, was higher in the RT (2.72) and LA (3.19) treatments relative to the control (2.51), but lower in the LRRT (1.52) and LR treatments (1.36). Our data suggest that manipulation of soil organic matter input can not only alter soil CO2 efflux, but also have profound effect on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon decomposition in a temperate pine forest. PMID:25970791

  10. Increased Mortality Risk for Cancers of the Kidney 
and Other Urinary Organs among Chinese Herbalists

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Wang, Jung-Der; Lo, Tsai-Chang; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2009-01-01

    Background A national survey in Taiwan has shown that Chinese herbal therapy increases the risk of chronic kidney disease. However, it is unknown whether herbal therapy will increase the risk of urological cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Chinese herbalists are at higher risk for urological cancers. Methods We studied all Chinese herbalists in Taiwan that were registered in the Chinese Herbalist Labor Union between 1985 and 2000. We retrospectively followed their su...

  11. Seasonal and spatial variability of the organic matter-to-organic carbon mass ratios in Chinese urban organic aerosols and a first report of high correlations between aerosol oxalic acid and zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We calculated the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratios (OM/OC mass ratios in PM2.5 collected from 14 Chinese cities during summer and winter of 2003 and analyzed the causes for their seasonal and spatial variability. The OM/OC mass ratios were calculated two ways. Using a mass balance method, the calculated OM/OC mass ratios averaged 1.92 ± 0.39 yr-round, with no significant seasonal or spatial variation. The second calculation was based on chemical species analyses of the organic compounds extracted from the PM2.5 samples using dichloromethane/methanol and water. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in summer was relatively high (1.75 ± 0.13 and spatially-invariant, due to vigorous photochemistry and secondary OA production throughout the country. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in winter (1.59 ± 0.18 was significantly lower than that in summer, with lower values in northern cities (1.51 ± 0.07 than in southern cities (1.65 ± 0.15. This likely reflects the wider usage of coal for heating purposes in northern China in winter, in contrast to the larger contributions from biofuel and biomass burning in southern China in winter. On average, organic matters constituted 36% and 34% of Chinese urban PM2.5 mass in summer and winter, respectively. We reported, for the first time, high correlations between Zn and oxalic acid in Chinese urban aerosols in summer. This is consistent with the formation of stable Zn oxalate complex in the aerosol phase previously proposed by Furukawa and Takahashi (2011. We found that many other dicarboxylic acids were also highly correlated with Zn in the summer Chinese urban aerosol samples, suggesting that they may also form stable organic complexes with Zn. Such formation may have profound implications for the atmospheric abundance and hygroscopic property of aerosol dicarboxylic acids.

  12. tudy on Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome by Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine (TCM-WM) on infectious multiple organs dysfunction syndrome/multiple system and organ failure (MODS/MSOF) for elevating the successful rate of rescuing the patients. Methods: Diagnosis with western medicine and Syndrome Differentiation of TCM in 225 in-patients of acute infectious disease complicated with MODS/MSOF were conducted, and TCM treatment, based on western medical comprehensive treatment, was given to observe the effect and explore the mechanism of the TCM-WM therapy. Results: Up to the end of 1998, 161 cases of the 225 cases were successfully cured and 64 died, the mortality being 28.4%. Among them, 58 out of 140 cases of MSOF died, the mortality was accounted for 41.4%. In 106 cases conformed to the diagnostic criteria of MSOF proposed by Professor Knaus WA, USA, 52 cases were cured successfully and 54 died, the mortality being 50.94%. Conclusion:TCM-WM treatment could elevate the therapeutic effect in treating MODS, the mechanism might be through improving the hemodynamic and hemorrheologic condition of patients to relieve nail-fold microcirculation disorder; influencing the levels of cytokine and inflammatory mediator, so as to alleviate the systemic inflammatory reaction, it might also abate the inhibited condition of gastro-intestinal motility, alleviate the intestinal flora imbalance, prevent intestinal bacteria and endotoxin malposition, and protect cells from peroxidation.

  13. Organizing Learning Materials through Hierarchical Topic Maps: An Illustration through Chinese Herb Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, B.-J.; Shih, J.-L.; Chen, R.-L.

    2007-01-01

    This research aims to use hierarchical topic maps to compile digital learning material and to discuss its design and application possibilities. The system renders tremendous original assets and then embeds a self-organizing map (SOM) in the material database to produce topical learning materials, as in this case, an illustration through Chinese…

  14. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometric characterization of organic aerosol from European and Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Organic aerosol constitutes a substantial fraction (20-90%) of submicrometer aerosol mass, playing an important role in air quality and human health. Over the past few years, ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) has been applied to elucidate the chemical composition of ambient aerosols. However, most of the UHRMS studies used direct infusion without prior separation by liquid chromatography, which may cause the loss of individual compound information and interference problems. In the present study, urban ambient aerosol with particle diameter Beijing, China, respectively. Two pretreatment procedures were applied to extract the organic compounds from the filter samples: One method uses a mixture of acetonitrile and water, the other uses pure water and prepared for the extraction of humic-like substances. The extracts were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an Orbitrap mass spectrometer in both negative and the positive modes. The effects of pretreatment procedures on the characterization of organic aerosol and the city-wise difference in chemical composition of organic aerosol will be discussed in detail.

  15. Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (blood pressure were +3.31/-0.36 g/m(2) (P=0.009/0.79) for left ventricular mass index, +1.15/+1.14 mg/mmol (P=0.02/0.04) for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and +0.54/-0.05 m/s (Pblood pressure and mixed hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.

  16. Variations of organic carbon isotopic composition and its environmental significance during the last glacial on western Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fahu; RAO Zhiguo; ZHANG Jiawu; JIN Ming; MA Jianying

    2006-01-01

    A high-resolution loess section in the western Chinese Loess Plateau, Yuanbao Section,was sampled for organic carbon isotopic analyses.The soil organic carbon isotope (δ13Corg) varied between -22.6‰ and -27.5‰ during the last glacial at the section. During the last interstadial, the δ13Corg values were more negative than those in both early and late periods of the last glacial by 4‰. The isotopic composition indicates a coupled response of the pure C3 plants to the temperature, precipitation and the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Decrease in temperature and the atmospheric CO2 concentration from the last interstadial to Last Glaicial Maximum (LGM) caused the organic carbon isotopes to become positive by 1.5‰-2.0‰. The amplitude of 4‰in the δ13Corg variation during the last glacial should be mainly caused by the precipitation change.Therefore, the δ13Corg variations of the Yuanbao Section during the last glacial period documented the large-amplitude fluctuation of the monsoon precipitation, which is estimated to be 250-310 mm more during the last interstadial than that in the LGM, and 100 mm more than that during early last glacial. The rapid changes of the monsoon precipitation on millennial scale during the last glacial have also been recorded in the isotopic variations in Yuanbao loess section. As the isotopic composition varies complicatedly as shown in the Ioess-paleosol sequence, it cannot be simply attributed to the abundances of C3and C4 plants or be used as an indicator of the summer monsoon variations.

  17. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting

    2015-08-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented "three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)" national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Cancer Society (ACS) made a research on cancer NGOs and civil society in cancer control and found that cancer NGOs in developing countries mobilize civil society to work together and advocate governments in their countries to develop policies to address the growing cancer burden. Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Cancer Council Australia (CCA), and Malaysian cancer NGOs are the representatives of cancer NGOs in promoting cancer control. Selecting Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA) as an example in China, this article is to investigate how NGOs undertake systematic cancer prevention work in China. By conducting real case study, we found that, as a NGO, CACA plays a significant role in intensifying the leading role of government in cancer control, optimizing cancer outcomes, decreasing cancer incidence and mortality rates and improving public health.

  18. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein predicts target organ damage in Chinese patients with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Nie, Hai; He, Hongbo;

    2007-01-01

    with metabolic syndrome. A total of 1082 consecutive patients of Chinese origin were screened for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and target organ damage, including cardiac hypertrophy......, carotid intima-media thickness, and renal impairment, were investigated. The median (25th and 75th percentiles) of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in 619 patients with metabolic syndrome was 2.42 mg/L (0.75 and 3.66 mg/L) compared with 1.13 mg/L (0.51 and 2.46 mg/L) among 463 control subjects (P ...). There was a progressive increase in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level with the number of components of the metabolic syndrome. Stratification of patients with metabolic syndrome into 3 groups according to their high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations (3.0 mg/L) showed that the subjects...

  19. Variations in Optical Scattering and Backscattering by Organic and Inorganic Particulates in Chinese Lakes of Taihu, Chaohu and Dianchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LYU Heng; WANG Qiao; WU Chuanqing; ZHU Li; LI Yunmei; HUANG Jiazhu

    2015-01-01

    This stu dy presents an investigation of the scattering and backscattering properties of the particulates in three Chinese inlandlakes (the Taihu Lake,the Chaohu Lake and the Dianchi Lake) based on in situ measurements taken at 119 sites.We modeled the particulate scattering spectra using a wavelength-dependent power-law function,finding that the power-law exponents in the Taihu Lake and the Chaohu Lake differ from those in the Dianchi Lake but are similar to the values in the U.S.coastal waters.In contrast to the open ocean,the backscattering properties in the three lakes can not be determined only from chlorophyll-a concentration.The backscattering ratio spectra exhibit a wavelength dependence feature in all three lakes,generally decreasing with the increasing wavelength.Analysis results of the correlations between the backscattering ratio and the individual water quality parameters clearly show that there are distinctive relations among the three lakes,attributed primarily to different compositions of optically active materials in the three lakes.Analysis of the mass-specific scattering and backscattering coefficients shows that the coefficients at wavelength 532 nm in the Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake are similar,but they are apparently different from those in the Dianehi Lake.Lastly,Model I multiple linear regressions were adopted to partition the mass-specific cross-sections for scattering and backscattering into organic and inorganic cross-sections to further interpret the scattering and backscattering properties.The relative contribution of organic and inorganic particulates to scattering and backscattering is clearly different among the three lakes.The scattering and backscattering properties of the particulates in the three inland lakes vary significantly based on our collected data.The results indicated that the existing semi-analytical water quality retrieval models of the Taihu Lake can not be applied perfectly to the Chaohu Lake and the Dianchi Lake.

  20. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  1. A new ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction for simultaneous preconcentration flavonoids and anthraquinones from traditional Chinese prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Sha; Hu, Shuang; Chen, Xuan; Bai, Xiao-Hong; Li, Qing-Shan

    2013-12-01

    A novel technique, ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction (ILWOS-3p-ME) was developed and introduced for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of flavonoids and anthraquinones in Chinese herbal formula and its preparations. This technique was performed in one step by using a syringe. High performance liquid chromatography with an UV-detector (HPLC/UV) was subsequently conducted. Two solvents with different densities (organic solvent and ionic liquid with densities less than and higher than water, respectively) were separately placed in a syringe, which was used as an extraction device. A cloudy emulsion was formed by manually shaking the syringe. The mixture was allowed to stand for several minutes; afterward, the emulsion readily separated into three phases: an upper organic solvent extraction phase; a middle aqueous sample phase; and a lower ionic liquid extraction phase. Both the upper and lower layers were transferred to a small Eppendorf (EP) tube. Conducting ILWOS-3P-ME with HPLC/UV, we simultaneously determined the bioactive components of flavonoids and anthraquinones in traditional Chinese medicine. ILWOS-3P-ME is a simple, rapid, practical, and effective method to extract and preconcentrate of different types of trace bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicine simultaneously. PMID:23969331

  2. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Asian and north American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Weinheimer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses we characterized their VOC composition and we compared their background levels with those obtained during the 2004 INTEX-A mission. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS and methyl chloride (CH3Cl, while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HFC-134a.

    Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some Chinese plume samples, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution and correlations within the Chinese pollution plumes and applying principal component analysis (PCA, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than a single gas, as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, ethyl chloride, and Halon-1211. In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

  3. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Asian and North American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barletta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses, we focused on characterizing the VOC composition of these different pollution plumes. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS and methyl chloride (CH3Cl, while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HCFC-134a.

    Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some of the Chinese plumes, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution in the Chinese pollution plumes and the correlations among selected compounds, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than the use of a single gas, to be used as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, and Halon-1211. In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

  4. Diverse origins and pre-depositional histories of organic matter in contemporary Chinese marginal sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun

    2016-10-01

    Marginal seas are estimated to account for up to 90% of organic carbon (OC) burial in marine sediments, and thus play an important role in global carbon cycle. However, comprehensive assessments of carbon budgets for marginal sea systems are challenging due to their inherent complexity, with spatial and temporal variability in carbon inputs and dispersal processes. We examine the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea (BS-YS) in order to further our understanding of sedimentary OC delivery, translocation and accumulation in a shallow marginal sea system. Bulk properties and the content and isotopic compositions (Δ14C, δ13C) of source-specific plant wax n-alkyl lipid biomarkers were determined for a suite of surficial sediment samples. Variable δ13C values (-25.1‰ to -28.5‰) and contemporary radiocarbon ages of short-chain n-fatty acids (FAs; C16, C18) reflect modern autochthonous marine and/or fresh terrestrial plant input. In contrast, extremely depleted Δ14C values (-932‰ to -979‰) of short-chain n-alkanes (C16, C18) suggest a predominant input from sedimentary rocks (petrogenic OC) or petroleum. Abundance-weighted average δ13C and Δ14C values of long-chain leaf wax lipids (C26+28+30n-FAs, C24+26+28n-alkanols, C27+29+31n-alkanes) are -29.1 ± 1.1‰ to -30.2 ± 0.3‰, and -286 ± 150‰ to -442 ± 119‰, respectively, illustrating that terrestrial OC delivery is dominated by pre-aged (∼3000-5000 14C yrs) C3 vegetation sources. A coupled carbon-isotopic mixing model, based on the bulk and compound-specific biomarker δ13C and Δ14C values, is used to partition the BS-YS sedimentary OC into three components that reflect both origins and transport processes. For all sampling sites, 31-64% is modern/contemporary OC, 24-49% is pre-aged terrestrial OC, and 7-26% is fossil OC, the latter likely derived from both physical erosion of ancient sedimentary rocks and fossil fuel sources. Pre-aged soil OC is most prominent in front of the modern and old Huanghe (Yellow

  5. Characterization and expression profiling of MYB transcription factors against stresses and during male organ development in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gopal; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kayum, Md Abdul; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-01

    organ-specific expression data, we identified nine R2R3-MYBs that were constitutively expressed in male reproductive tissue, which may provide an important key for studying male sterility in Chinese cabbage. The extensive annotation and transcriptome profiling reported in this study will be useful for understanding the involvement of MYB genes in stress resistance in addition to their growth regulatory functions, ultimately providing the basis for functional characterization and exploitation of the candidate MYB genes for genetic engineering of Chinese cabbage. PMID:27038155

  6. Towards Innovating Grassroots Academic Organizations in Chinese Universities%我国高校基层学术组织创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金安江; 江珩

    2012-01-01

    基于对大学基层学术组织的基本认知,分析了我国高校基层学术组织发展存在的问题,从目标、原则等方面总结了创新基层学术组织的若干思路,提出了我国高校应从教育教学基层学术组织体系、科技创新基层学术组织体系、产学研合作与文化传承创新基层学术组织体系等三个维度探索建立多元化的基层学术组织结构体系。而这一切的顺利实现,思想观念创新是先导,组织结构创新是重点,体制机制创新是关键,基础条件完善是保障。%Based on the basic cognition on grassroots academic organizations in Chinese universities, the paper elaborated the main problems that the grassroots academic organizations in Chinese universities have met with. And then, from the angles of the target, principle and path, the paper textualized some random thoughts on how to innovate grassroots academic organizations. The paper put forward some suggestions that the structural system of the grassroots academic organizations in Chinese universities should be set up from three dimensional systems-instruction and education, scientific research innovation and academic-research-production cooperation. And the establishment of this system should be guaranteed by the conceptions of "concept innovation as the precondition, structure innovation as the keystone, mechanism innovation as the standing point, and perfect material condition as the guarantee".

  7. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L. cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were found on leaves and siliques. The strongest infection of leaves was in 2000 (50% and the weakest in 2001 (6,7%. In all the years of the research siliques were rather weak infected (50-8,89%. Besides powdery mildew was found on chinese mustard which injury index ranged from 0,3% in 1999 to 32,3% in 2000. Intensity of diseases was affected generally by the weather conditions. From the seeds of white mustard and chinese mustard were isolated respectively 263 and 137 colonies. Alternaria alternata was the most numerous species which makes respectively 60,9% and 42,3% isolates. Among the fungi pathogenic for white and chinese mustard were also isolated: A. brassicae, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solami.

  8. Characterization of high-resolution aerosol mass spectra of primary organic aerosol emissions from Chinese cooking and biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-Y. He

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS has proved to be a powerful tool to measure submicron particulate composition with high time resolution. Factor analysis of mass spectra (MS collected worldwide by AMS demonstrates that submicron organic aerosol (OA is usually composed of several major components, such as oxygenated (OOA, hydrocarbon-like (HOA, biomass burning (BBOA, and other primary OA. In order to help interpretation of component MS from factor analysis of ambient OA datasets, AMS measurement of different primary sources is required for comparison. Such work, however, has been very scarce in the literature, especially for high resolution MS (HR-MS measurement, which performs improved characterization by separating the ions of different elemental compositions at each m/z in comparison with unit mass resolution MS (UMR-MS measurement. In this study, primary emissions from four types of Chinese cooking (CC and six types of biomass burning (BB were simulated systemically and measured using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight AMS (HR-ToF-AMS. The MS of the CC emissions show high similarity with m/z 41 and m/z 55 being the highest signals; the MS of the BB emissions also show high similarity with m/z 29 and m/z 43 being the highest signals. The MS difference between the CC and BB emissions is much bigger than that between different CC (or BB types, especially for the HR-MS. The O/C ratio of OA ranges from 0.08 to 0.13 for the CC emissions while from 0.18 to 0.26 for the BB emissions. The ions of m/z 43, m/z 44, m/z 57, and m/z 60, usually used as tracer ions in AMS measurement, were examined for their HR-MS characteristics in the CC and BB emissions. Moreover, the MS of the CC and BB emissions are also used to compare with component MS from factor analysis of ambient OA datasets observed in China, as well as with other AMS measurements of primary sources in the literature. The MS

  9. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Majchrzak; Tomasz P. Kurowski; Zofia Karpińska

    2013-01-01

    The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L.) cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were fo...

  10. 中国人不愿身后捐献器官的原因分析%Cause Analysis on Chinese People's Unwillingness of Organ Donation after Their Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏宁; 任华玉; 王萍

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese traditional concept of death has long been recognized as an important factor leading to Chinese people's unwillingness of organ donation after their death and the difficulties in promoting body organ donation work in our country. Based on empirical research of some research institutions and the news media, we found that the real reason is not the traditional concept but the distrust for the system of organ donation in China.%中国人传统的死亡观念一直被公认为是导致中国人不愿身后捐献器官、我国遗体器官捐献工作难以推进的最重要因素。但通过一些研究机构和新闻媒体的实证调研却发现,导致中国人不愿死后捐献器官的真正原因不是受传统观念的影响,而是民众对我国器官捐献体系不信任。

  11. The Chinese version of the world health organization quality of life instrument-older adults module (WHOQOL-OLD): psychometric evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rong; Wu, Shaomin; Hao, Yuantao; Gu, Jing; Fang, Jiqian; Cai, Nanqiao; Zhang, Jinxin

    2013-01-01

    Background Under the circumstance of global population aging, the issue on how to facilitate the quality of life (QOL) for older people brings us grand challenge. On the way to solve this problem, it is inextricable to measure QOL for older people accurately at onset. This study is aimed at evaluating the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-OLD). Methods We received 1005 valid WHOQOL-OLD questi...

  12. Differences of English Mental Lexicon Organization: A Comparative Study between Advanced Chinese English Language Learners and English Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sibo

    2012-01-01

    Among various study topics of advanced second language (L2) learners, mental lexicon shares a unique significance. This paper will introduce a comparative experiment between advanced Chinese English as a Second Language (CESL) learners and English as first language (EL1) speakers. The research question of the study is whether advanced CESL…

  13. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  14. 基于多维数据模型的中药信息组织方式研究%Research on Information Organization Mode of Chinese Medicine Based on Multidimensional Data Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 闫朝升; 姜德友; 孟永海

    2015-01-01

    中药信息组织方式研究是满足中药信息型或分析型数据需求的关键途径。本文总结了中药信息组织方式的研究现状,并应用多维数据模型,设计中药信息的基本维度和概念分层。以信息查询为案例,利用星形模式,设计制作中药信息的多维数据模型,构建中药信息多维查询系统。基于多维数据模型的中药信息组织方式将为中药信息的多角度、多层次查询和利用提供方便。%The information organization mode of Chinese medicine is a key factor of meeting informational or analytical demands on Chinese medicine. This paper summarized the research status on information organization mode of Chinese medicine by using the basic principle of multidimensional data model, designing basic dimensions of Chinese medicine and its concept hierarchies. Finally, with an example of information query, this paper designed the multidimensional data model of Chinese medicine based on the star pattern and a multidimensional query system of Chinese medicine information. Based on the multidimensional data model, the information organization mode of Chinese medicine can provide powerful supports for the multi-angle and multi-level query using of Chinese medicine information.

  15. Seston and dissolved organic carbon dynamics during Microcystis bloom with special reference to the effects of three Chinese domestic fishes in experimental enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Jun; Xie, Ping

    1997-09-01

    The Microcystis bloom that once disappeared from Donghu Lake, a shallow, eutrophic Chinese lake, was successfully resumed with the use of the enclosure method. Seston and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics during the Microcystis bloom were investigated with particular emphasis on the effect of three Chinese domestic fishes (silver carp, bighead carp and grass carp). The results showed that the change of chlorophyll a obviously related to the fish species and its stocking density. Due to the release of extracellular ogranic carbon and increased bacterial activity, DOC increased apparently after silver and bighead carps were introduced. POC/DOC dropped considerably in the enclosures containing silver and bighead carps and in the surrounding lake water, which implied that the bacterial activity was more pronounced in such ecosystems. Statistical analysis indicated that the linear relationship between POC and chlorophyll a could reflect the state of algal growth and nutrient metabolism. It was expected that this study would provide some information on biomanipulation in the shallow, eutrophic lakes.

  16. Genome organization and DNA methylation patterns of B chromosomes in the red fox and Chinese raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika; Solek, Przemysław; Wronski, Mariusz; Potocki, Leszek; Jezewska-Witkowska, Grażyna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2014-12-01

    The molecular structure of B chromosomes (Bs) is relatively well studied. Previous research demonstrates that Bs of various species usually contain two types of repetitive DNA sequences, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA, but Bs also contain genes encoding histone proteins and many others. However, many questions remain regarding the origin and function of these chromosomes. Here, we focused on the comparative cytogenetic characteristics of the red fox and Chinese raccoon dog B chromosomes with particular attention to the distribution of repetitive DNA sequences and their methylation status. We confirmed that the small Bs of the red fox show a typical fluorescent telomeric distal signal, whereas medium-sized Bs of the Chinese raccoon dog were characterized by clusters of telomeric sequences along their length. We also found different DNA methylation patterns for the B chromosomes of both species. Therefore, we concluded that DNA methylation may maintain the transcriptional inactivation of DNA sequences localized to B chromosomes and may prevent genetic unbalancing and several negative phenotypic effects.

  17. Building Affective Commitment to Organization among Chinese University Teachers: The Roles of Organizational Justice and Job Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongzhan

    2014-01-01

    In view of the benefit of improving employees' organization commitment, it is important to study the major influencing factors of organization commitment. According to previous literature, organizational justice and job burnout have been considered two major influencing variables of affective commitment; however, little empirical research can…

  18. More bilateral, more anterior: Alterations of brain organization in the large-scale structural network in Chinese dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ting; Gu, Bin; Ding, Guosheng; Gong, Gaolang; Lu, Chunming; Peng, Danling; Malins, Jeff G; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in large-scale brain networks have been recently reported in dyslexia; however, it remains unclear whether these abnormalities are congenital (due to dyslexia per se) or arise later in development. Here, structural magnetic resonance imaging data of 17 Chinese reading disabled (RD) and 17 age-matched typically developing (TD) children were used to construct cortical thickness (sensitive to postnatal development) and surface area (sensitive to prenatal development) networks. In the thickness network, compared to TD, RD showed reduced nodal network properties (e.g., degree and betweenness) in the left hemisphere along with enhanced nodal properties mainly in the right hemisphere. As for the surface area network, compared to TD, RD demonstrated lower nodal properties in the posterior brain regions and higher nodal properties in the anterior brain regions. Furthermore, hubs in both the thickness and surface area networks in RD were more distributed in frontal areas and less distributed in parietal areas, whereas TD showed the opposite pattern. Altogether, these findings indicate that the aberrant structural connectivity in the dyslexic individuals was not only due to a late developmental effect reflected in the altered thickness network, but may also be a congenital effect during prenatal development, reflected in the altered surface network.

  19. Arsenic and Mercury Containing Traditional Chinese Medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar Strongly Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, In Vivo in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hao Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals, including mercury (Hg and arsenic (As, accumulate preferentially in kidneys and always cause acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these samples affect organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in vivo in mice kidney. Mice (n=10 were orally treated with investigational samples. After last administration, all mice were i.v. p-aminohippuric acid (PAH, and the blood and kidneys samples were collected. The concentrations of PAH were quantified by spectrophotometry. mRNA expressions of Oat1 and Oat3 were assayed by real-time PCR. In comparison with corresponding control, major pharmacokinetic parameters of PAH in sera were significantly changed by investigational samples (p<0.05, PAH accumulations in the kidney tissues were significantly higher (p<0.05, PAH uptake by renal slices was greatly reduced, Oat1 and Oat3 mRNA expression were significantly inhibited in investigational sample groups. Arsenic and mercury containing traditional Chinese medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar probably induce kidney damage through inhibiting several members of the organic anion transporters (such as OAT1 and OAT3.

  20. Arsenic and Mercury Containing Traditional Chinese Medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) Strongly Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, In Vivo in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Na; Qi, Jin-Feng; Sun, Chen; Wang, Yong-Hui; Lin, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals, including mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As), accumulate preferentially in kidneys and always cause acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these samples affect organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in vivo in mice kidney. Mice (n = 10) were orally treated with investigational samples. After last administration, all mice were i.v. p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), and the blood and kidneys samples were collected. The concentrations of PAH were quantified by spectrophotometry. mRNA expressions of Oat1 and Oat3 were assayed by real-time PCR. In comparison with corresponding control, major pharmacokinetic parameters of PAH in sera were significantly changed by investigational samples (p Oat1 and Oat3 mRNA expression were significantly inhibited in investigational sample groups. Arsenic and mercury containing traditional Chinese medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) probably induce kidney damage through inhibiting several members of the organic anion transporters (such as OAT1 and OAT3). PMID:26788513

  1. 浅谈我国协警组织及其规范化%A Discussion on the Chinese Auxiliary Police Organization and Its Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景平

    2015-01-01

    Compared with the wide existence of auxiliary police, the theoretical research of auxiliary police, its organizational construction and legal construction are obviously insufifcient. The aim of auxiliary police is to assist police officers in performing public duties rather than become police officers’ personal assistants. The law should establish the auxiliary police’s main body status and should not position them as the helpers of police ofifcers. According to the realistic state and defects, Chinese auxiliary police organization should regulate the recruitment, establish the tight organization and management system and strengthen legislation so as to make the auxiliary police management institutionalized and standardized.%与协警的广泛存在相比,协警的理论研究、组织建设及法律建设则明显不足。协警是对警察职务的协助行使,而非对在编警察的个人辅助。法律应确定协警的主体地位,不应将其定位为警察的帮工。根据我国协警组织的现实状态与不足,应当规范协警招录形式,构建严密的组织管理体系,加强立法,实现协警组织管理的法制化、规范化。

  2. Soil labile organic carbon and carbon-cycle enzyme activities under different thinning intensities in Chinese fir plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Xinli; Chen, Han Y.H.; Chen, Xin; Wang, Jing; Chen, Bin; Wang, Dong; Guan, Qingwei

    2016-01-01

    Thinning is a silvicultural tool that is used to facilitate the growth of timber plantations worldwide. Plantations are important CO2 sinks, but the mechanism by which thinning affects the quantity and stability of soil organic carbon (SOC) is poorly understood. In this study, we exami

  3. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  4. 中国企业组织创新氛围的结构和测量%Development of an Instrument Measuring Innovative Climate in Chinese Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨百寅; 连欣; 马月婷

    2013-01-01

      采用实证研究方法对中国企业组织创新氛围的维度及测量进行研究。采用开放式问卷收集了555条描述,归类分析表明,中国情境下企业的组织创新氛围包括8个方面,并在此基础上形成开放式问卷。283份有效问卷的探索性因子分析表明,组织创新氛围是一个8因素的结构,包括:理念倡导、市场引导、评价激励、学习培训、沟通合作、典型示范、资源保障和授权支持。8因素又从属于更高阶的潜变量:价值导向、制度激励和人际互动。来自24家企业493份有效问卷的验证性因子分析验证了组织创新氛围的结构效度,内部一致性分析和回归分析的结果也表明,量表具有较好的信度和效度。%Based on literature review and grounded theory research method, this paper reports a series of studies designed to identify dimensions innovative climate in Chinese organizations. In the first study, the critical behavior incidents of innovative climate were collected using open-ended questionnaire. A total of 555 items was generated by 43 part-time MBA students. Eight categories were emerged with inductive method including value advocation, market orientation, appraisal and motivation, training and learning, communication and cooperation, resources ensur-ing, example demonstration, empowerment and support. In the second study, 283 part-time MBA students consist-ed of the sample and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were employed to identify the construct of the Chinese measurement of innovative climate. In the third study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied to test the validity of the measure using a sample of 493 employees from 24 companies. The scale of innovative climate in Chinese companies had high reliability estimates and acceptable evidences for construct validity. The implications of new scale of innovative climate in Chinese firms were discussed together with other scales

  5. Scientific and Technical Chinese, Volume II. Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kung-yi; And Others

    A composite English-to-Chinese glossary of all terms introduced in the individual lessons of "Scientific and Technical Chinese" is presented here. The appendices include lists of weights and measures and chemical elements, and a partial list of Chinese government organizations and research institutes related to science and technology. (AMH)

  6. 宁夏中部干旱带不同枣品种有机栽培试验研究%Organic Cultivation Research on Different Varieties of Chinese Jujube in the Central Arid Zone of Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雀民; 陈晓群; 王建学

    2013-01-01

    [目的]形成该地区特色枣树产业有机生产的关键技术,大幅度地提高果品品质和安全,提升市场竞争力,增加经济效益.[方法]利用当地近原始的环境,集成有机枣果品生产关键技术,并进行试验、研究与示范.[结果]在宁夏中部干旱带的核心区近原始的环境条件下,在生产环境评价的基础上,在不同枣有机栽培关键技术上,通过创新、集成肥料安全使用技术、病虫害有机防控技术,可以达到有机果品生产的目的.[结论]不同枣树有机栽培技术研究是在特定的环境、品种条件下,在关键技术上通过创新,使位于宁夏中部干旱带核心区的枣树特色产业,在大发展的起步期就以高的起点参与市场竞争,推广前景远大.%[Objective] The purpose of this project was to form a kind of organic cultivation system about Chinese jujube in the local area,and increase the fruit quality and safety,market competitiveness and economic benefits.[Method] The key production technology of organic Chinese jujube was integrated by using the local nearly original environment,and then carried out test,research and demonstration.[Result] Under the central arid zone of Ningxia' s nearly original environment,based on ecological environment evaluation,the production goal of organic Chinese jujube could be obtained by developing and integrating the fertilizer safe use technology and the organic prevention and control technology of plant diseases and insect pests according to key different organic cultivation technology of Chinese jujube.[Conclusion] Different organic cultivation technology of Chinese jujube makes the special Chinese jujube industry of the central arid zone of Ningxia have high starting point to join into the market competitiveness by developing in the key technology under the specific environment and varieties,so has a good promotion prospects.

  7. Studies on Main Nutritional Components of Chinese Kale Among Different Organs%芥蓝不同器官主要营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙勃; 方莉; 刘娜; 闫会转; 张雅君; 施倩倩; 汪俏梅

    2011-01-01

    The variation of the contents of soluble solids, reducing sugars, soluble proteins,chlorophyll, carotenoids, vitamin C, and total phenols, as well as antioxidant capacities and glucosinolate profiles among different organs were investigated using Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey) of typical varieties as material.The results showed that the contents of nutrients exhibited remarkable differences among different organs.In general, the highest contents of total phenols, vitamin C and soluble solids were found in inflorescences, and the significant differences existed between inflorescences and other organs.The contents of chlorophyll, carotenoids, soluble proteins and antioxidant capacities in leaves were remarkably higher than those in other organs.The roots contained markedly higher concentrations of glucosinolates, especially gluconasturtiin and glucoerucin, than those in other organs.Great differences in the nutrition value of bolting stem, the edible part of Chinese kale were observed among different varieties.JL-02 had the highest amounts of total phenols and antioxidant capacities.The significantly higher level of glucoraphanin and total glucosinolates was found in Dengfengzhongchi.%选择典型的芥蓝品种为材料,分析不同器官可溶性固形物、还原糖、可溶性蛋白、叶绿素、类胡萝卜素,维生素C和总多酚含量,以及抗氧化能力、芥予油苷组分和含量的差异.结果表明:芥蓝不同器官间营养成分的含量差异显著,总体上花序中的总多酚、维生素C和可溶性固形物含量显著高于其它器官;叶片中的叶绿素、类胡萝卜素、可溶性蛋白和抗氧化能力均显著高于其它器官;根系中的芥子油苷,特别是苯乙基芥子油苷和4-甲基硫丁基芥子油苷的含量均显著高于其它器官.芥蓝不同品种间产品器官花薹的营养价值差异显著,如'JL-02'的总多酚含量和抗氧化能力明显高于其它品种,'登峰中迟'的4-甲基硫氧

  8. The Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Dissolved Organic Carbon Exported from Three Chinese Rivers to the China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guohua; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Meng; Shi, Shengwei; Yang, Yanzheng; Chu, Junyao; Zhang, Junjun; Lin, Guanghui; Shen, Yan; Zhu, Qiuan

    2016-01-01

    The lateral transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in linking the carbon cycles of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Neglecting the lateral flow of dissolved organic carbon can lead to an underestimation of the organic carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems. It is thus necessary to integrate DOC concentrations and flux into carbon cycle models, particularly with regard to the development of models that are intended to directly link terrestrial and ocean carbon cycles. However, to achieve this goal, more accurate information is needed to better understand and predict DOC dynamics. In this study, we compiled an inclusive database of available data collected from the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Pearl River in China. The database is collected based on online literature survey and analysed by statistic method. Overall, our results revealed a positive correlation between DOC flux and discharge in all three rivers, whereas the DOC concentration was more strongly correlated with the regional net primary productivity (NPP). We estimated the total DOC flux exported by the three rivers into the China Sea to be approximately 2.73 Tg yr-1. Specifically, the annual flux of DOC from the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Pearl River was estimated to be 1.85 Tg yr-1, 0.06 Tg yr-1 and 0.82 Tg yr-1, respectively, and the average annual DOC concentrations were estimated to be 2.24 ± 0.53 mg L-1, 2.70 ± 0.38 mg L-1 and 1.51 ± 0.09 mg L-1, respectively. Seasonal variations in DOC concentrations are greatly influenced by the interaction between temperature and precipitation. NPP is significantly and positively related to the DOC concentration in the Yangtze River and the Pearl River. In addition, differences in climate and the productivity of the vegetation may influence both the flux and concentrations of DOC transported by the rivers and thus potentially affect estuarine geochemistry. PMID:27755581

  9. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    OpenAIRE

    Addendum by Penny Edwards; Lorraine Paterson

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45). He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967) and...

  10. A study of the Chinese organic-inorganic hybrid sealing material used in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient wooden ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Shiqiang [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zhang, Hui [Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhang, Bingjian, E-mail: zhangbiji@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wei, Guofeng [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Guoqing [Museum of Overseas Communication History Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhou, Yang [China National Silk Museum, Hangzhou 310002 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition of ancient sealing material was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The excellent performance of this sealing material comes from the compact structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This structure is established through coordination and oxidative polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of ancient relies to a knowledge on their materials and crafts. - Abstracts: Chu-nam putty is a special organic-inorganic hybrid material invented by ancient Chinese people. It was prepared by mixing tung-oil, lime and oakum (plant fibers like jute, ramie and so on) with excellent sealing performance. The invention and application of Chu-nam putty in wooden ship lead to improvement in sailing technology and ship safety issue. In this paper, the analytical results of a piece of chu-nam putty which was discovered in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient ship are presented. The results show that the components of chu-nam putty are calcite, carboxylate and unsaturated esters by means of FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DSC. And the FT-IR and cross-section microscopic analysis confirm that the oakum was from jute. Comparing with the modeling putty samples it is found that the outstanding sealing performance of chu-nam putty comes from the coordination reaction of Ca{sup 2+} from the Ca(OH){sub 2} and the oxidation aggregation reaction of C=C double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid.

  11. 组织中上下级值得信任的行为研究%Research on Trustworthy Behavior in Chinese Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严进; 付琛; 郑玫

    2011-01-01

    组织中的信任关系已经成为研究的热点问题.在文献基础上,本研究采用半结构化访谈的研究方法,对42名管理人员进行访谈.通过编码和统计分析,结果发现,上下级值得信任的行为可以分为能力任务、支持相容、道德诚信、尽责敬业四个方面,但是行为内容和强调重点均有所区别.能力因素是组织中的信任强调的首要方面;对上级的信任更强调支持关怀和诚信道德,对下属的信任更强调尽责投入和坦诚忠实.%In recent years, trust research has attracted enormous interest in the social science. It has been stated that the interpersonal trust between supervisors and subordinates is a personal specific construct affected by the organization context. In this study, an analysis frame is developed to explore the unique trustworthy behaviors of managers in Chinese organizations. 42 top and middle managers participated in the semi-structured interview. The results show that trustworthy behaviors of managers can be interpreted by four dimensions: competency for task, interpersonal skills, integrity and loyalty, and dedication to work. However, the importance and content of these dimensions are different from supervisors' and subordinates' perspective. Competency for task is crucial for both supervisors and subordinates. The difference is that the supervisors consider more about dedication to work when assessing subordinates' behaviors while subordinates emphasize on supervisors' interpersonal skills.

  12. Characteristics of stable nitrogen isotopes in particulate organic matter and periphyton of a subtropical Chinese watercourse, the Dashahe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning J.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N of particulate organic matter (POM and periphyton were measured at sites along the Dashahe River, a short subtropical watercourse in SE China. δ15N values of both POM and periphyton tended to increase from upstream to downstream, ranging from 1.1 to 7.4 for periphyton and 1.6 to 7.2 for POM. The δ15N values in both POM and periphyton were depleted at upstream sites with lower concentrations of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP but enriched at downstream sites with relatively high TN and TP. In addition, δ15N values for POM and periphyton showed a significant negative correlation with distance to the most polluted section of the river, implicating human impact in the pattern of increasing δ15N. This study confirms δ15N in POM and periphyton as an excellent indicator of anthropogenic nitrogen pollution in rivers.

  13. 中国茶产业组织:绩效与政策%Organization of Chinese Tea Industry: Performance and Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏祝成

    2011-01-01

    本文对中国茶产业的组织现状、绩效及政策进行了研究.当前中国茶产业组织结构的主要特征是茶园的小规模"分包"式经营、非垄断性的市场竞争结构、初精制的专业化分工和大宗茶出口的来样加工贸易等.比较世界其他主要茶叶生产国的市场运行组织模式,可以发现,斯里兰卡的纵向交易"分成"契约制、日本的农户合作组织以及红茶出口普遍采用的拍卖交易等制度,对我们有一定的启示意义.本文认为,相关产业政策的重点应是:通过多元化的组织制度安排,有效地解决农户的"入市"瓶颈;通过技术变革,引导初精制加工的整合;探索出口交易制度的创新.%The organization of Chinese tea industry its performance and policy, were discussed in this paper. The present organizational structure of Chinese tea industry showed some features such as small householder of tea garden, no-monopoly competition, market division between primary and refining production, processing for exportation according to giving samples and so on. From perspective of other major tea-production countries, the organizational structure was characterized by vertical proportional share-distribution in Sri Lanka, cooperation institution of farmers in Japan and exportation of black tea by auction market, which had some significant implication for us. It was suggested that, targeting the market entry of small householder of tea garden and integration of primary and refining production, industry polices should focused on innovation of institution and technology. Besides, transformation of mode of exportation transaction should also be explored.

  14. Mediating Effects of Intention On The Factors Affecting Organic Food Products Consumption Among Chinese Generation Y In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Poh Leong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the effect of intention as a mediator in the relationship between internal factors and external factors on consumption. The factors were a internal factors: knowledge, awareness, health consciousness, product attributes, environmental concern, and b external factors: subjective norms, perceived behaviour control, and media and advertisement. From the review of literature, there were limited studies done on the mediating effect of intention on the relationship between (internal factor and external factors and organic food product consumption among CGY in Malaysia. A total of 410 respondents completed the online questionnaires that evaluated the factors. Structural Equation Modelling was used as the main practical approach for data analysis. The results showed that intention was a full or a complete mediator between the six exogenous constructs; knowledge, health consciousness, product attributes, environmental concern, perceived behaviour, and media and advertisement, while it only acted as a partial mediator between subjective norm and consumption. However, the intention was not a full or a complete mediator between awareness and consumption. Eventually, the implications for theory improvement and practices were discussed.

  15. INTERNATIONAL RUSSIAN-CHINESE COOPERATION IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE UNITED NATIONS (UN AND THE REGIONAL SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION (SCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui ZOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the world politics and economy occur after the end of the "cold war". After the 2008 international financial crisis, the need for reforming of the world order is becoming increasingly apparent. However, the economically well-developed countries traditionally firmly hold the old world order, insist that all democratic rules has adopted by the western countries, are must comply with all the countries. Russia and China as permanent members of the UN Security Council do a lot within the organization in order to strengthen international peace and international security. UN Member States should, by means of the broad and democratic consultations, taking into consideration the interests and concerns of all sides to look forward for finding a "comprehensive" version of the solution to achieve a consensus as much as possible. China is ready to maintain contacts with all sides to apply common efforts to promote the development of the Security Council reforming process in a direction that would have favored the preservation of the common interests of the United States and the cohesion of its members. China and Russia support rational and necessary reforms of the UN Security Council that are aimed at enhancing its authority and efficiency, as well as a more strict implementation of its obligations under the peace and security on the planet. As important members (SCO, China and Russia are the leading force for promoting a multipolar world and democratization of international relationships, with broad common interests in promoting the reform of the global financial system to increase the representativeness of fast developing countries. China supports Russia in the fight against terrorism and separatism, while Russia supports China in the questions, which are connected with Taiwan, Tibet and Xinjiang. The sides apply the joint efforts for the facilitating the political resolution of the crises.doi 10.17748/2075-9908-2016-8-2/1-13-25. [ru; en

  16. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  17. Update Promotional Suggestions for Chinese Restaurants in Kuopio : Canton Hin Ravintola

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chinese restaurant is an organization which serves Chinese food outside China. Running Chinese restaurant is typically a business operated by Chinese people working in overseas. The popularity of Chinese food has increased in recent years due to the spread of Chinese culture and develop-ment of reform and opening policies of China. The competition between Chinese restaurants is becoming fiercer and fiercer. The main purpose of the study was to explore better promotional strate...

  18. 从中医脏腑理论谈瑜伽对脏腑器官的影响%The Effect of Yoga on Visceral Organs from Chinese Medicine Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙岩

    2012-01-01

    瑜伽对人体内脏器官有保健按摩、促进血液循环、强化器官功能等功效,这与我国传统中医脏腑理论有很多相似之处。从中医脏腑理论角度分析瑜伽运动对人体脏腑器官的影响,目的在于运用中医脏腑理论作为理论指导,综合不同瑜伽体位练习对机体机能的影响,为利用瑜伽进行身体锻炼、改善脏腑器官功能提供科学的参考依据。%Yoga on the development of human visceral organs have health care, promote blood circulation, strengthen organ func- tions, and this has many similarities with our country traditional Chinese medicine visceral theory. This article from the Chinese medicine visceral theory angle analysis of yoga to the internal organs of the body organ effects, aims to use traditional viscera theo- ry as the theoretical guidance, integrated different yoga asana practice influencing on body, for the use of yoga physical exercise, improvement of zangfu organs function to provide a scientific basis.

  19. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  20. Clinical application of liver and kidney organ donation and donor organ after Chinese citizens death%中国公民逝世后肝肾器官捐献及捐献器官临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯刘进; 赵红川; 耿小平; 廖贵益; 刘付宝; 王国斌; 谢坤; 黄帆; 赵义军

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨中国公民逝世后器官捐献肝肾器官移植的临床疗效及初步经验。方法回顾性分析成功实施的8例中国公民逝世后器官捐献供者和21例受者临床资料、受者围手术期情况及预后等。结果8例供者中,属于中国二类1例,中国三类7例。21例受者中,5例接受肝移植、15例接受肾移植和1例接受肝肾联合移植,手术均顺利完成。肝移植受者围手术期间,1例死于术后出血、感染和多器官功能衰竭;术后随访时间4~25个月,生存受者均预后良好。肾移植受者围手术期间,供者血肌酐(Cr)正常的5例,供给10例受者中2例发生移植肾功能延迟恢复(DGF),发生率20.0%;供体 Cr(≥133μmol/L)异常的3例,供给5例受者4例发生 DGF,发生率80.0%;术后随访时间5~42个月,7例发生肺部感染,2例出现肾功能不全,其他受者恢复顺利,预后良好。1例肝肾联合移植受者恢复良好,未出现重大手术及手术相关并发症。结论合理有效地利用中国公民逝世后器官捐献的供器官、加强供者术前评估与功能维护以及减少热缺血和冷缺血时间,既扩大了供器官来源,又能获得满意的移植效果。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of organ donation after Chinese death and the initial experi -ence of liver and kidney transplantation (LT and KT).Methods Clinical data of 8 donors and 21 recipients who underwent LT,KT,LT and KT from organ donation by Chinese citizens after death were analyzed retrospectively . Results In the 8 donors, 1 was donation after cardiac death (DCD, C-Ⅱ), and 7 were donation after brain and cardiac death(DBCD, C-Ⅲ).With these donated organs,5 cases of LT, 15 cases of KT,1 case of LT and KT, and all the recipients underwent successfully .Perioperative period of LT recipients, 1 case died of postoperative bleeding ,infection and multiple organ failure

  1. 慢性病中医社区管理组织模式探究%Study on the pattern of community management organization mode of Chinese medicine in chronic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜英; 赵艺皓; 王帅; 衷敬柏

    2015-01-01

    目的:对社区卫生机构医务人员及社区居民进行“慢性病社区管理”问卷调查,探究慢性病中医社区管理组织模式。方法:对问卷调查统计分析,探讨慢性病社区管理的最佳组织模式。结果:调查显示,社区慢性病管理组织形式以社区居委会和医院组织为佳。结论:开展社区慢性病管理组织形式,形成以社区中医师为主、三级医院中医专家为后盾,社区居民积极参与的中医防治一体化的中医社区干预管理模式。%Objective:To explore the pattern of community management organization mode of Chinese Medicine in chronic diseases by making a"Chronic disease community management"questionnaire survey on the community health organizations and community residents.Method:We analyzed the questionnaire survey,and discussed the best organization mode of the community management of chronic diseases.Results:The survey shows that chronic disease management organizations in the form of community committees and hospitals are better.Conclusion:To carry out community chronic disease management organization form,and form a community of practitioners,the Chinese medicine experts of tertiary hospitals as the backing,community residents to actively participate in the prevention and control of Chinese medicine community intervention management model.

  2. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addendum by Penny Edwards

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45. He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967 and The Political Structure of the Chinese Community in Cambodia (1970. However, subsequent to his research, Chinese communities suffered terribly during the repression of the Lon Nol government between 1970 and 1975 and the atrocities of the Democratic Kampuchea regime. Willmott thus declared Chinese communities—and a willingness to identify as Chinese—destroyed. This understandably pessimistic vision turned out to be unfounded; the next extensive research done on Chinese in Cambodia by Penny Edwards and Chan Sambath in 1995 showed Chinese communities rebuilding. However, the descriptions of these communities showed a complexity of identity formation—from recent immigrants, “the raw Chinese,” to the five “traditional” Chinese dialect groups—that differed markedly from the indexes of identity applied by Willmott in his initial analysis. Academic ideas of how Chineseness should be configured had shifted and complicated; ascribing identity had become increasingly problematic...

  3. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  4. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicts persistent organ failure and in-hospital mortality in an Asian Chinese population of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yushun; Wu, Wei; Dong, Liming; Yang, Chong; Fan, Ping; Wu, Heshui

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has frequently been reported as a significant indicator of systemic inflammation in various medical conditions. The association underlying NLR and outcomes in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) has not been evaluated after the publication of revised Atlanta classification.This was a single-center retrospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2009 to 2015, Asian Chinese patients with a diagnosis of AP presented within 72 hours from symptom onset and underwent neutrophil, lymphocyte assessment at presentation were included in this study. The outcomes were the occurrence of persistent organ failure (POF), intensive care unit (ICU) stay >7 days, and in-hospital mortality. The relationships of baseline neutrophil, lymphocyte count, and NLR with outcomes were assessed with multivariate Cox regression model.A total of 974 consecutive AP patients were clinically eligible. The mean neutrophils, lymphocytes, and NLR for the entire population were 10.23 ± 4.76  × 10/L, 1.05 ± 0.49  × 10/L, and 12.88 ± 11.25. Overall, 223 (22.9%) of the patients developed with POF, 202 (20.7%) spent more than 7 days in ICU, and 58 (6.0%) died during hospitalization. The NLR had a superior predictive performance than neutrophils and lymphocytes. Using an NLR cutoff of 11, the area under the curves (AUC) were 0.76 for POF, 0.74 for longer ICU stay, and 0.79 for death during hospitalization. After multivariate analysis, NLR ≥ 11 was further identified as an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.89; HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.03-2.00; HR 2.75, 95% CI 1.12-6.76; all P value  7 days), and 2.22 (95% CI 0.49-10.05) (mortality), respectively.Our data show for the first time that an increased NLR is an independent risk factor for POF, longer ICU stay, and in-hospital mortality in AP. PMID:27631223

  5. Application of Advance Organizer Theory in Teaching of Chemistry of Traditional Chinese Medicine%先行组织者教学理论在中药化学教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲扬; 王丽娜; 窦德强

    2011-01-01

    The advance organizer theory and relating organization strategy, that is the principle of progressive differentiation, the principle of step-by-step inductions and the principle of integrative reconciliation. They were applied to organize a few teaching units in chemistry of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM ), the aim of which was to introduce this theory in teaching of TCM chemistry.%运用先行组织者教学理论及相应的教学组织策略,即渐进分化策略、逐级归纳策略以及整合协调策略,对中药化学中部分单元的教学进行了设计,从而说明"先行组织者"教学理论在中药化学教学中的实际应用.

  6. 现代有机分析在中药检测食物分析和手性识别的应用%Application of Modern Organic Analysis in Traditional Chinese Medicine Test, Food Analysis and Chiral Molecular Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张来新; 赵卫星

    2011-01-01

    Conception, application and prospect of organic analytical chemistry were briefly introduced. Application of new modern organic analysis technologies in traditional Chinese medicine test, food analysis and chiral molecular recognition was mainly discussed. At last, future development of the organic analysis was prospected.%简要介绍了有机分析化学的概念、应用与发展前景,重点综述了利用现代有机分析的新技术新方法测定中药材中药用成分研究;现代有机分析新方法新技术对食物中有关成分测定;现代有机分析在手性识别方面的应用.并对有机分析的发展进行了展望.

  7. Hopelessness and Suicidal Behavior among Chinese, Thai and Korean College Students and Predictive Effects of the World Health Organization's WHOQOL-BREF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Noy; Li, Kaigang; Xiao, Xia; Nokkaew, Nattiporn; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of suicide behavior and to examine the association between hopeless feelings, suicidal behavior and components of the WHO Quality-of-Life-BREF instrument among college students (n = 1,217) in China, Thailand, and Korea. Results showed 3.7% Thai, 10% Chinese, and 13.2% Korean students…

  8. 亚热带地区阔叶林与杉木林土壤活性有机质比较%Soil active organic matter in broadleaved forest and Chinese fir plantation in subtropical region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清奎; 范冰; 徐广标

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the soil active organic matter in a broadleaved forest and two Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical region of China, aimed to understand the effects of forest conversion and continuous plantation on soil organic C and nutrient status. After the conversion from broadleaved forest to Chinese fir plantation, the contents of soil total organic C, humus C, humic acid, and fulvic acid decreased by 27.8%-52.1%, 32.2%-52.8%, 36.4%-59.0%, and 29.7%-50.0%, respectively. Continuous plantation also resulted in the decrease of soil organic C and humus contents. The contents of soil total organic C, humus C, humic acid, and fulvic acid in second generation of Chinese fir plantation were 9.0%-25.0%, 25.0%-38.0%, 28.6%-39.2% and 23.1%-36.4% lower than those in the first generation of Chinese fir plantation, respectively. More obvious effects were observed on the soil active organic matter. After the conversion from broadleaved forest to Chinese fir plantation, the maximum decrement of soil microbial biomass C and N and dissolved organic C and N was 61.8%, 38.2%, 43.3%, and 69.0%; while comparing with the first generation of Chinese fir plantation, the second generation of Chinese fir plantation had the maximum decrement of soil microbial biomass C and N and dissolved organic C and N being 34.7%, 29.3%, 30.4%, and 18.4%, respectively. Soil nutrient contents also decreased due to forest conversion and continuous plantation. In comparing with broadleaved forests, Chinese fir plantations had a decrease of soil N, P, and K contents being 15.7%-31.2%, 11.5%-49.3%, and 15.1%-33.8%, respectively. There were close relationships between soil nutrients and soil active organic matter fractions except cold water extractable organic N.%通过对亚热带3个地区地带性阔叶林和杉木林土壤活性有机质的比较,分析森林类型变化及杉木连栽对土壤有机碳和养分含量的影响.结果表明:地带性阔叶林

  9. Discussion on Problems and Countermeasures of the Information -Open System to Chinese Non-Profit Organizations%论我国非营利组织信息披露制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋

    2013-01-01

      伴随着国家政策的逐渐宽松和市民社会的初步形成,我国非营利组织迅速生长。在数量增加和规模壮大的同时,非营利组织的信息不对称性却成为其腐败的源头,经媒体曝出的负面事件极大降低了其自身应有的公信力。由此,有必要对建立与完善我国非营利组织信息披露制度的必要性、重要性和现状进行深入分析,提出部分非营利组织内部治理不健全,缺乏强制性的信息披露法规,政府监管有效性不足及捐赠者监督不力等,是造成我国非营利组织信息披露问题的主要原因。在借鉴英美两国非营利组织信息披露的相关规定的基础上,提出了完善我国非营利组织信息披露制度的对策和建议。%Since 1990s , Chinese non-profit organizations have developed with an amazing speed because of the open -up policy and the development of civil society . Although the size and number are growing bigger , Chinese non-profit organizations are corruptive because of the asymmetry of information . Scandals that are exposed are reducing the credibility of the non -profit organizations . This article explores the importance of Information-open system to Chinese non -profit organizations and the status of the information -open system . Based on the study of the U . K and American non-profit organizations'regulation of information-open system , this article talks about the reasons of the status and introduces some solutions to the problems , which , in turn , helps improve the situation now .

  10. The Study of Chinese in a Provincial French Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrait, Noel

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of Chinese instruction in a Bordeaux lycee. Specific questions addressed are: enrollment; reasons for studying Chinese; the study of the written and spoken language; the need for an appropriate textbook; teaching culture; and the need to organize Chinese as a regular course in the curriculum. (AMH)

  11. Considerations on the Construction of the Chinese Communist Youth League Organizations in Enterprises during the Period of Transition%关于转型期企业共青团建设的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晓玲

    2012-01-01

    The organizations of the Chinese Communist Youth League(the C.C.Y.L.) in enterprises should try to guide the youth to develop in a healthy way,which should be based on the youth's features as well as the practical situations of enterprises.The organizations of the C.C.Y.L.should play their roles in the following aspects such as guiding the youth in politics,helping the youth to develop,and evaluating the youth,and so on.The construction of the C.C.Y.L.organizations in enterprises should be conducted in the following aspects such as completing organization structure;interfering in enterprise culture,prompting organizational innovation,regulating organization activities,and conducting education on development for the youth.%企业团组织引导青年发展,应基于青年特点和企业的实际展开。企业团组织要发挥政治上引领青年、帮助青年成才、对青年的考核等方面的作用。企业团建工作要从健全组织机构、介入企业文化、推进组织创新、规范组织生活、开展青年养成教育等方面入手。

  12. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  13. Chinese Youth Dance Delegation in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the China-Malaysia Friendship Association, a 96-member Chi- nese youth dance delegation organized by the CPAFFC and the Chinese Dancers Association, went to Pinang, a famous tourist

  14. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  15. Summary of the 2008 Evidence-based Chinese Medicine(EBCM) Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大嵘; 赖世隆; 杨显荣

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Evidence-based Chinese Medicine (EBCM) Workshop,jointly organized by the International Society for Chinese Medicine/Editorial Board of Chinese Medicine(Macao) and the Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine/ Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of

  16. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  17. Influence of traditional Chinese culture and ideas on organ donation%中国传统文化和观念对器官捐献意愿的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖; 黄海; 邱鸿钟

    2014-01-01

    is increased by more than 10%per year. Due to the lack of voluntary donations, China is facing a more severe donor shortage than other countries. What are the specific reasons for the shortage of donor organs in China? What is the attitude toward organ donation in Chinese citizens? What factors are affecting the implementation of organ donation in Chinese citizens? OBJECTIVE:To investigate the influence of traditional Chinese ideas on the wil ing of Chinese citizens toward organ donation after death. METHODS:By random cluster sampling, 900 persons selected from different social classes as research objects received questionnaire survey. Self-made questionnaire consisted of cognition, attitude and behavior of the public in face of organ donation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:(1) 55.16%of persons thought that the main purpose of organ donation was to help others, 24.22%thought that the main purpose of organ donation was a manifestation of social morality, 11.94%thought that organ donation was the continuation of their lives. (2) There were 70.00%who said donations should be used for the cause of organ transplantation, in order to save more lives, and the average score was 2.53 points;while the number of persons who proposed donor organs would be applied in medical teaching was similar to that in pathological anatomy, and the average score was 1.72 and 1.75, respectively. (3) 65.01%of the public supported cardiopulmonary death standard to judge death, 24.33%supported brain death standard to judge death, and moreover, 10.66%of people did not know what to take. (4) 50.52%of people thought that the main factors affecting the organ donation was traditional Chinese culture and ideas, fol owed by the donation program and family feelings. The study found that traditional Chinese culture and ideas are the main factor affecting organ donation in the public, most people think that cardiopulmonary death standard is better to judge death and that the main purpose of organ donation is to

  18. Analysis of organ donation after cardiac death of Chinese citiz ens in 70 cases%中国公民逝世后器官捐献70例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛瑾; 陈婉崇; 何小平; 邓智轩; 杨洪吉

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索适合四川省人民医院发展的器官捐献模式,建立合理、高效的器官移植捐献流程和团队。方法总结我中心成功实施的70例中国公民心脏死亡器官捐献案例,重点分析供体基本情况、器官捐献系统建设和发展、捐献过程中的协调沟通方面数据。结果我中心的器官捐献工作仍处于初始发展阶段,本地区的器官捐献发展空间巨大;我中心器官捐献系统初步建立,正逐步发展;捐献过程中的有效沟通对于成功劝捐非常重要。结论我中心应总结本单位及借鉴国内其它兄弟单位器官捐献的经验,建立适合我中心的器官捐献程序和高效的协调员队伍,提高捐献工作效率和成功率。%Objective To explore a suitable organ donation model for our center and to establish a highly efficient clinical pathways and a team of transplant coordinator of organ donation .Methods Summarize 70 cases of organ donation after cardiac death of Chinese citizens in Sichuan Provincial People 's Hospital, and analyze the general information of donors , the development process in the system of organ donation, and the communication skills in the processing procedure of organ donation .Results Our center's organ donation system is still in the initial stage of development , and there is a huge potential development space for organ donation in our lo -cal areas; Our center's system of organ donation has been built and is in the process of development ; the effective communication plays a vital role in the success of organ donation .Conclusion Our center should study and utilize the advanced experience from our and other centers to establish a standard organ donation process and a transplant coordinator team with improved work efficiency and in -creased successful rate in organ donation .

  19. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  20. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  1. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  2. Operation Mechanism and Effects of Supervisor-Subordinate Guanxi in Chinese Organizations%组织中主管-下属关系的运作机制与效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠军; 龙立荣; 刘丽丹

    2011-01-01

    基于社会交换的理论视角,以下属关系投入-主管资源回报的概念架构来展现组织中主管与下属关系互动的实质,对主管-下属关系的运作效果与机制进行跨层次的实证研究.通过问卷法获得54个工作群体的426名下属与主管的对偶数据,基于HLM分析的结果表明:下属在工作之余对主管的私人关系投入不仅能直接获得主管的工具性资源回报与情感性资源回报,还能通过领导-成员交换(LMX)间接地获得主管的工具性与情感性资源回报,而在工作群体内基于私人关系进行人力资源管理决策的特征对主管与下属之间的关系互动与关系质量也存在一定程度的影响.%Different from western society, Chinese employees attached much importance to developing good personal relationship with their leaders. So, the concept of "guanxi" and "guanxi management" were the most important aspects in Chinese management. In perspective of social exchange theory, this study enriched the concept of supervisor-subordinate guanxi, developed a social exchange model of supervisor-subordinate guanxi, and then investigated the mechanism of supervisor-subordinate guanxi operation and its effects on subordinate in Chinese organizations.By using questionnaire survey, the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for data of 211 employees and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for data of 426 employees were implemented. The results showed that subordinate's guanxi input had only one dimension, and supervisor's resources output had two dimensions, including instrumental resources output and affective resources output. The study also showed that the subordinate guanxi input and supervisor resources output questionnaires had good reliability and high validity.By using questionnaire, Data was from a total of 426 matched supervisor-subordinate dyads in 54 work groups from different organizations. Hierarchical liner modeling (HLM) analysis was implemented, the results

  3. To China's Foreign Trade magazine for her 50th anniversary & the Organizers of the 100th Session of the Chinese Export Commodities Fair:

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Goldberg

    2006-01-01

    @@ On behalf of the United States of America,U.S.Ambassador Clark T.Randt,Jr.and the American Embassy in Beijing and for the U.S.Consulate General in Guangzhou,I am pleased to extend congratulations on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of China's Foreign Trade magazine and the 100th Session of the Chinese Export Commodities Fair.Fifty years have passed since the 1st Session of the Trade Fair and the changes have been significant,but the intent - providing China with an opportunity to exhibit its increasingly sophisticated wares and an appreciative global market - remains the same.Moreover,during this time,China has moved from a command economy guided by administrative decree to one which is largely market-oriented and is now the fourth-largest economy in the world.This is a tremendous achievement.

  4. 芦苇作为环保型有机基质的可能性研究%The possibilities of Chinese reed fibres as an environmentally sound organic substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国景; F.Benoit; 等

    2002-01-01

    20世纪80年代以来,岩棉一直是蔬菜无土栽培的主要栽培基质.但由于用后的岩棉条成为大量的不可降解的废物,于是科学家们开始寻找可多年重复利用的无机基质如海棉,以及环保型有机基质如椰子壳丝等.90年代以后,瑞士等国家将芦苇作为有机无土栽培基质应用于蔬菜无土栽培.本文分析比较了芦苇、松木、椰子壳基质使用前的物理和化学特性,并通过栽培樱桃番茄(品种EVITA)的试验,与椰子壳基质和海棉基质栽培性能进行了比较研究.结果表明,芦苇可作为很有应用价值的环保型有机基质在生产中推广与应用.而且由于芦苇生长适应性好,分布广泛,来源充足,基质生产成本低等特点,而显示出很好的应用前景.%Rockwool has been using as a main substrate in vegetable soilless culture since 1980s. On the other hand, the rockwool slabs caused such an amount of indecomposable waste mats every year that soon this problem was brought to attention world widely. The seeking of substitutive substrates was concentrated on reusable inorganic substrates, e.g. polyurethane (PUR) and organic substrates such as coconut fibres. ``Chinese reed fibres have been used as organic substrate in vegetable soilless culture since 1991 in Switzerland. In the present experiment, the physical and chemical characteristics of Chinese reed were compared with that of pine fibres and coconut fibres before they were used for vegetable cultivation. And its phyto-technical characteristics were compared with that of coconut fibres and recycled PUR mats, with a culture of cherry tomato cv. EVITA. From the data obtained, it is clear that the Chinese reed fibres can be ranged as an acquisition as ecological sound organic substrate. Moreover, it seems more important since the Chinese reed trends to thrive in everywhere in the world and it provides a cheap culture substrate that can contribute to the expansion of the soilless culture. ``

  5. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  6. Chinese Journal of Chemistry Instructions for Authors 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 General Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international peer-reviewed journal published in English, with its editorial office hosted by the Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It publishes original research work in all fields of chemistry, i.e. physical, inorganic, organic and analytic chemistry, etc., in the forms of Accounts, Full Papers, Notes and Communications.

  7. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  8. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  9. A Research on the Perfection of Preferential Tax System for ChineseNon-Profit Organizations%我国非营利组织税收优惠法律制度完善的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波

    2012-01-01

    In order to encourage the development of non-profit organizations, our country enacted a series of tariff preference measures to the donators and also the non-profit organizations themselves. But the current tax preference system that exists some deficiencies can't meet the requirements of Chinese non-profit organizations' development. Our country should perfect our nonprofit tax preferec elegal system by distinguishing the properties of nonprofit or- ganizations, making reasonable tax exemption for the profit income of nonprofit organizations and improving the do- nation incentive mechanisms ere, so as to realize the sustainable development of the non-profit organizations.%我国为鼓励非营利组织的发展,为捐赠人和非营利组织自身都制定了一系列税收优惠措施。但是现阶段的税收优惠制度存在的诸多不足不能满足我国非营利组织的发展要求。我国应从合理区分非营利组织性质,对非营利组织的营利收入予以合理免税、改进捐赠激励机制等方面完善非营利组织的税收优惠法律制度,以便实现非营利组织的可持续发展。

  10. Using Serum Advanced Glycation End Products-Peptides to Improve the Efficacy of World Health Organization Fasting Plasma Glucose Criterion in Screening for Diabetes in High-Risk Chinese Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Sun

    Full Text Available The efficacy of using fasting plasma glucose (FPG alone as a preferred screening test for diabetes has been questioned. This study was aimed to evaluate whether the use of serum advanced glycation end products-peptides (sAGEP would help to improve the efficacy of FPG in diabetes screening among high-risk Chinese subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L. FPG, 2-h plasma glucose (2h-PG, serum glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and sAGEP were measured in 857 Chinese subjects with risk factors for diabetes. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves generated by logistic regression models were assessed and compared to find the best model for diabetes screening in subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L. The optimal critical line was determined by maximizing the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Among the enrolled subjects, 730 of them had FPG <7.0 mmol/L, and only 41.7% new diabetes cases were identified using the 1999 World Health Organization FPG criterion (FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L. The area under ROC curves generated by the model on FPG-sAGEP was the largest compared with that on FPG-HbA1c, sAGEP, HbA1c or FPG in subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L. By maximizing the sum of sensitivity and specificity, the optimal critical line was determined as 0.69×FPG + 0.14×sAGEP = 7.03, giving a critical sensitivity of 91.2% in detecting 2h-PG ≥11.1 mmol/L, which was significantly higher than that of FPG-HbA1c or HbA1c. The model on FPG-sAGEP improves the efficacy of using FPG alone in detecting diabetes among high-risk Chinese subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L, and is worth being promoted for future diabetes screening.

  11. Study on the Impact of Noise Stringency of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) on Chinese Fleet%ICAO噪声严格度对中国机队的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫国华; 张永磊; 杜海涛; 庞思凯

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of China’s civil aviation, aircraft noise has become a rigorous problem. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is developing a much more stringent noise standard, and now Chapters 4-7 EPN dB program has been implemented. This article studies the impact of the Chapters 4-7 EPN dB program on Chinese fleet. In order to make China’s civil aviation manufacturing industry to meet the highly stringent standard, it is necessary to adjust the structure of Chinese fleet. Namely, the number of aircrafts with different seat classes needs to be adjusted to meet seat demand. Some aircrafts which can not meet the stringent requirement of ICAO standard in noise control must be improved in their structures.%随着我国民航事业的发展,飞机噪声问题日益突出。国际民航组织正在制定更为严格的噪声标准,如今已经实施了第4章-7的方案。为了能够满足更高要求的标准,需要对中国机队的结构进行调整,即通过调整不同的座位等级的飞机数量来满足机队的需求。一些满足不了高的噪声严格度要求的飞机项目,就必须采取措施,例如改进飞机结构以降低噪声。研究第4章-7方案对中国机队的影响是有益的。

  12. Chinese Agricultural Industrialization Management Organization Pattern Evolution and the Development of Agribusiness firm%我国农业产业化经营组织模式的演变与龙头企业的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2012-01-01

    实行农业产业化经营,逐步建设现代农业,才能使我国农业从传统落后的小农经济q-走出来,进而在国际市场q-有竞争优势。龙头企业在农业产业化经营中起着至关重要的作用,居于核心地位,是联结农户与市场的纽带。我国龙头企业与农户之间的利益联结机制及模式不断变化,从最初的“公司+农户”、“龙头企业+基地”向“公司+中介+农户”及股份合作制转化。随着农业产业化的不断推进,“龙头企业+中介组织+农户”的合作组织形式逐步占据主导地位。%Agriculture, farmers and rural economy have become some of those main problems in China. In order to make Chinese agri culture step out of traditional and behindhand small rural economy, thus become more competitive, it is essential to implement agricul tural veitical coordination and to establish modern agriculture gradually. Agribusiness firm plays a crucial role in the agricultural indus trialization, and it is the joint of the farmer and market in market economy. Our country between agribusiness firm and farmer interest coupling mechanism and mode changing , From the initial "company + farmer" , " agribusiness firm + base" to the "company + in termediary + farmer" and share collaboration is made transform . With the rapid development of Chinese agribusiness firm," agribusi ness firm + intermediary + farmer" cooperation organization gradually dominate.

  13. 中国非营利组织人力资源管理的对策%Chinese Non-profit Organization of Human Resources Management Countermeasure Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧林

    2011-01-01

    In view of our country non-profit organization of human resources management in the existing such as salary welfare difference,lack of staff personnel,lack a sense of belonging,incentive mechanism is not perfect and the brain drain is serious wait for a problem,attempts to correctly grasp the non-profit organization and the meaning of strengthening the nonprofit organization the importance of human resources management perspective,dialectical study and discussion non profit organization to our human resources management challenges,draw on the advantages and avoid disadvantages,adopt corresponding countermeasures,so that the fruits of economic development to improve people's livelihood more embodied,so as to achieve the non-profit organization of human resources management and development purposes,in order to realize the sustainable development of human resources.%文章从非营利组织的含义以及加强非营利组织人力资源管理的必要性的出发,研究非营利组织对我国人力资源管理的挑战以及对策,实现我国人力资源的可持续发展。

  14. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  15. 完善我国非营利组织信息披露机制%The Framework Consummation of Chinese Non-Profit Organization Information Disclosure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田小露; 丁宇

    2012-01-01

    非营利组织(NPO)是从西方引入的概念,主要是指政府与企业以外的社会组织。随着经济社会的发展,非营利组织在我国发展过程中体现出越来越重要的作用,同时也凸显出越来越多的问题。当前我国非营利组织公信危机频发,究其根源,主要是由于信息透明度不足,各方监管不到位。因此,建立有效可行的信息披露机制,提高非营利组织的信息透明度,是提升我国非营利组织公信力、维持其长远发展的重要途径。%The non-profit organization(NPO) is introduced from the west,concept,mainly refers to social organizations in addition to the government and the enterprises.With the development of economy and society,the development process of non-profit organizations in China plays a more and more important role,but also highlights the growing problem.The current credibility crises occur frequently in our country,investigate its germ,mainly due to lack of information transparency,and the regulation is not in place.Therefore,to establish an effective information disclosure mechanism,improve the information transparency of non-profit organizations,is the promotion of the credibility,and the important way of maintain its long-term development of non-profit organizations in our country.

  16. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Asian and north American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    OpenAIRE

    B. Barletta; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I J; Atlas, E. L.; A. J. Beyersdorf; A. K. Baker; N. J. Blake; Yang, M..; Midyett, J. R.; Novak, B. J.; McKeachie, R. J.; H. E. Fuelberg; Sachse, G. W.; M. A. Avery; Campos, T.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B) aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air ma...

  17. Teaching Material Culture and Chinese Gardens at American Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on the experience of designing and teaching a course on material culture and Chinese gardens. Involving traditional philosophy, ethics, religion, painting, calligraphy, craft, literature, architecture and horticulture, a classical Chinese garden can be considered a microcosm of Chinese culture. This essay discusses the textbooks and general organization of the course, particularly focusing on how students study the key elements (rocks, water, plants and architecture in building a Chinese garden. Some Chinese literature with representations of gardens that can be used for this class is also introduced. In addition, this essay uses two classical Chinese gardens built in the United States (the Astor Court and the Garden of Flowing Fragrance to discuss the appropriation of “Chinese-ness” in different geographical, physical and cultural environments. Finally, some available online resources and technologies that have enhanced student understanding of the subject matter are introduced.

  18. Report on "Chinese Famous Brand Mall" in Lille of France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hao

    2005-01-01

    @@ In a cold and rainy day in February 2005, Chinese culture upsurge is landing in every country in Europe. In France, last year's Chinese Art Parade in Champs Elysees Av enue is still favored and impressed by many people. This year, Dragon Dancing at the Chinese Lunar New Year organized by French Chinese Business Association of 5th District is still on stage. At the street corner of London, Peking opera, stilts show, and folk dance attracted more than 500,000 visitors. Chinese culture also landed other countries and regions such as New York, US; Oslo, Norway; Berlin, Germany; Vancouver, Canada… It is happy to see Chinese culture, showing the influences of Chinese economic and social development.

  19. [Study on dosage form design for improving oral bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Yao, Dong-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Both chemical drugs and traditional Chinese medicines have the problem of low bioavailability. However, as traditional Chinese medicines are a multi-component complex, their dosage forms are required to be designed in line with their characteristics, in order to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines. Traditional Chinese medicines are mostly prepared into pill, powder, paste, elixir and decoction, but with such drawbacks as high administration dose and poor efficacy. With the process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicines, new-type preparations have be developed and made outstanding achievements. However, they fail to make an organic integration between traditional Chinese medicine theories and modern preparation theories. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines are required to be taken into account during the development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the article, multi-component preparation technology was adopted to establish a multi-component drug release system of traditional Chinese medicines on the basis of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines.

  20. 近30年政府组织的中医药对外交流活动特征分析%Discussion on the characteristics and reason of Chinese medicine foreign exchange activities among government organizations in the past nearly 30 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京芳; 朱建平

    2015-01-01

    作为中医药对外交流活动的重要主体,政府组织起到了至关重要的作用。对相关的政府组织及其功能进行界定后,分析了近30年政府组织的中医药对外交流活动特征。在此基础上,引入管理学中SWOT理论模型,探讨政府行为的原因所在。%As a principal part of foreign exchange activities of traditional Chinese medicine, government organizations played a crucial role. At present, there are relatively rare researches on foreign exchange activities of traditional Chinese medicine in government organizations. In this article, we defined related government organizations and their functions, analyzed the features of the foreign exchange activities of traditional Chinese mdicine among government organizations in the past nearly 30 years. And based on this analysis, SWOT theory model in management science was introduced to discuss the reasons of government behaviors and put forward suggestions for the future development.

  1. Dissolved organic matter fluorescence at wavelength 275/342 nm as a key indicator for detection of point-source contamination in a large Chinese drinking water lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei

    2016-02-01

    Surface drinking water sources have been threatened globally and there have been few attempts to detect point-source contamination in these waters using chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence. To determine the optimal wavelength derived from CDOM fluorescence as an indicator of point-source contamination in drinking waters, a combination of field campaigns in Lake Qiandao and a laboratory wastewater addition experiment was used. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis identified six components, including three humic-like, two tryptophan-like, and one tyrosine-like component. All metrics showed strong correlation with wastewater addition (r(2) > 0.90, p water quality in surface drinking water sources.

  2. Five-year changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in coastal wetlands affected by flow-sediment regulation in a Chinese delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Xia, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in wetland soils as indicators of soil quality and climate change have received attention worldwide. Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2012 in the coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta and the SOC and TN were determined to investigate a five-year change in their content and stock in these wetlands as affected by flow-sediment regulation. Our results revealed that the soils in 2007 exhibited greater electrical conductivities, SOC content and density, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) levels in the top 10 cm soils (p < 0.05) compared with the soils in 2012. In general, the SOC and TN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. However, the highest ratios of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen (molar C/N ratios) were observed in the 30–40 cm soil layer. A significant SOC loss occurred (p < 0.05) in top 10 cm soils, but only a small change in SOC in the top 50 cm soils. Comparatively, TN levels did not show significant differences in the study period. PMID:26879008

  3. 高等中医药院校计算机教学组织形式的发展趋势%On the Development Trend of the Organization and Form of Computer Teaching for Higher Traditional Chinese Medical Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赫楠; 燕燕; 王和禹

    2013-01-01

    Study of traditional Chinese medicine college computer teaching organization form is an important part of computer edu-cation research. An organizational structure to teaching activities carried out a teaching organizational form is to complete the teaching task. With the rapid development of electronic technolo-gy and information technology, teaching is developed to a new level, and there have been some diverse forms of computer teach-ing in order to meet the needs of personality development of stu-dents.%中医院校计算机教学组织形式的研究是与医学相关的计算机教育研究的重要组成部分。教学组织形式就是为了有效地完成教学任务而形成的一种有利于教学活动展开的组织结构。随着电子技术和信息技术的飞速发展,教学发展到了一个新的层次,并出现了一些多样化的计算机教学形式以适应学生个性发展的需要。

  4. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. 关于中国民间体育社团文化内涵构建研究%Research into the Cultural Construction among Chinese Non-governmental Sports Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚伟; 王静

    2012-01-01

    With the fast development of non-governmental sports organizations in China and in the context of constructing a powerful country by means of cultural prosperity, the task of cultural connotation construction has never become so important and urgent in China for the non-governmental sports organizations. The cultural connotation construction must be based on the Socialist Core Values, and advocate Chinese traditional culture and promote cultural innovation. In the choice of the construc- tion strategy, we should rely on the national traditional sports items, and foster the "People-Oriented" cultural atmosphere, promote innovation in management system, increase efficiency in cultural influence, and multi-cultural personality thus to con- struct many multi-win-win cultural entities for the masses.%在我国文化强国的社会背景下,民间体育社团的迅猛发展,使其文化内涵构建尤为重要和迫切.构建体育社团文化内涵,应坚持社会主义核心价值观,倡导中国优秀传统文化,引导文化创新.在体育社团文化内涵构建策略中,应以民族传统体育项目为依托,塑造“以人为本”的内部文化组织氛围;促进管理体制创新,提高文化影响效率;探索多元文化个性,形成“多赢”的群众性文化实体.

  6. Chinese lexical networks: The structure, function and formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyu; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Xiaoyue; Yang, Zhanxin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper Chinese phrases are modeled using complex networks theory. We analyze statistical properties of the networks and find that phrase networks display some important features: not only small world and the power-law distribution, but also hierarchical structure and disassortative mixing. These statistical traits display the global organization of Chinese phrases. The origin and formation of such traits are analyzed from a macroscopic Chinese culture and philosophy perspective. It is interesting to find that Chinese culture and philosophy may shape the formation and structure of Chinese phrases. To uncover the structural design principles of networks, network motif patterns are studied. It is shown that they serve as basic building blocks to form the whole phrase networks, especially triad 38 (feed forward loop) plays a more important role in forming most of the phrases and other motifs. The distinct structure may not only keep the networks stable and robust, but also be helpful for information processing. The results of the paper can give some insight into Chinese language learning and language acquisition. It strengthens the idea that learning the phrases helps to understand Chinese culture. On the other side, understanding Chinese culture and philosophy does help to learn Chinese phrases. The hub nodes in the networks show the close relationship with Chinese culture and philosophy. Learning or teaching the hub characters, hub-linking phrases and phrases which are meaning related based on motif feature should be very useful and important for Chinese learning and acquisition.

  7. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  8. A comparison of polymerase chain reaction and international organization for standardization methods for determination of Enterobacter sakazakii contamination of infant formulas from Chinese mainland markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yingwang; Wu, Qingping; Yao, Lin; Dong, Xiaohui; Wu, Kui; Zhang, Jumei

    2009-12-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen associated with meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in infants. One of the main transmission vehicles is the commercially available infant formulas. To provide efficient options and direction for detecting E. sakazakii in infant formulas, evaluation of different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the ompA gene, and the alpha-1,4-glucosidase gene (gluA) of this organism, were compared to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) method for detecting E. sakazakii in the 243 commercial infant formula samples. Twelve samples were found to be positive for E. sakazakii by all the PCR assays used, followed by sequencing of PCR products. Ten samples were found to be positive by the ISO method, and all 10 gave positive signals for all the PCR amplifications. In contrast, four false-positive results were generated by single-PCR of the ITS region and one false-positive result targeting the ompA gene, while two false-negative results occurred with the ISO method. Combined with selective enrichment step(s), duplex-PCR targeting ITS and ompA and targeting ompA and gluA genes or single-PCR of the gluA gene can be used to test for contamination by E. sakazakii in infant formulas before they enter the market. PCR techniques will be helpful for routine monitoring and risk assessment for large-scale screenings. PMID:19743923

  9. Chinese Studies Librarianship in North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen T. Wei

    2004-01-01

    Although American libraries had begun collecting Chinese language materials in the 19th century, notably the United States Library of Congress in 1869, Yale in 1878, Harvard in 1879, and Berkeley in 1896, East Asian studies librarianship in North America, including China studies librarianship, was not fully developed until the 1960s. There was no formal organization that represented the interest of Chinese studies librarians because there were few of them and most of them were China scholars rather than trained librarians. More than 100 years later, the number of Chinese studies librarians in North America has increased considerably,primarily in response to the demand in the field of China studies and more recently to the needs of immigrant population and the general public who has an interest in China.This paper traces the history and growth of Chinese studies librarianship in North America, documents the development of the professional organization that represents Chinese studies librarians, and examines the training programs that prepare them for their jobs. It also attempts to propose an international exchange forum aiming to bring together Chinese studies librarians in North America and librarians in China in sharing their experience and expertise to achieve the ultimate goal of serving the users.

  10. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  11. Epilepsy in Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T M; Yang, S H; Ng, P K

    2001-01-01

    This article reviewed the meaning and development of epilepsy in Chinese culture. The theories of Yin and Yang and the five elements, fundamentals of traditional Chinese medicine, were introduced, which form the context of understanding of the etiology, classification, and treatment of epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:11321477

  12. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  13. On Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Scientific Socialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范智鹏

    2013-01-01

    Scientific socialism provides proletarian with ideological weapon, which is used to lead and organize the masses to pursue socialism. The formation of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the product of scientific socialism in China, which is the latest achievement combining scientific socialism and Chinese national conditions.

  14. 中国企业的学习型组织文化:基于人口统计变量、企业属性、工作满意度和组织绩效的实证分析%The culture of learning organizations in Chinese state-owned and privately-owned enterprises: An empirical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓辉; 杨百寅

    2007-01-01

    By using a Western concept-the instrument called dimensions of learning organization questionnaire (DLOQ), and the data collected from 919 employees in nine companies located in Guangdong Province, China, the present empirical study explores the culture of learning organizations in Chinese business settings. Findings suggest that the DLOQ is applicable to the context of China as well, and those demographic variables, such as age and educational level,together with the types of ownership of Chinese companies, such as state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and privately-owned enterprises (POEs), suggest differences in the culture of learning organizations. Results also indicate that the learning organization culture of a firm has strongly positive impact on employees' job satisfaction and perceived organizational performance. Two implications should be noted. First, as employees in middle age and with college education show the strongest sense of improving the learning culture, it can be inferred that demographic characters and groups may in fluence the organization's learning culture differently. Second, as POEs have a better learning atmosphere than SOEs, it can be inferred that POEs have a stronger competitiveness than SOEsin terms of learning ability and organizational performance. To indigenize the Western construct and instrument of learning organizations, the present study, as an exploratory research, gives substantial knowledge on the subject and seeks to fill the gap in the literature, despite the limitations of cultural nuances and a narrowly-concentrated sample.

  15. Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 and warming on temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition in a Chinese paddy field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaozhi; Wang, Bingyu; Wang, Jinyang; Pan, Genxing; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-10-01

    Climate changes including elevated CO2 and temperature have been known to affect soil carbon (C) storage, while the effects of climate changes on the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) are unclear. A 365-day laboratory incubation was used to investigate the temperature sensitivity for decomposition of labile (Q 10-L) and recalcitrant (Q 10-R) SOMs by comparing the time required to decompose a given amount of C at 25 and 35 °C. Soils were collected from a paddy field that was subjected to four treatments: ambient CO2 and temperature, elevated CO2 (500 μmol/mol), enhanced temperature (+2 °C), and their combination. The results showed that the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition increased with increasing SOM recalcitrance in this paddy soil (Q 10-L = 2.21 ± 0.16 vs. Q 10-R = 2.78 ± 0.42; mean ± SD). Elevated CO2 and enhanced temperature showed contrasting effects on the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition. Elevated CO2 stimulated Q 10-R but had no effect on Q 10-L; in contrast, enhanced temperature increased Q 10-L but had no effect on Q 10-R. Furthermore, the elevated CO2 combined with enhanced temperature treatment significantly increased Q 10-L and Q 10-R by 18.9 and 10.2 %, respectively, compared to the ambient conditions. Results suggested that the responses of SOM to temperature, especially for the recalcitrant SOM pool, were altered by climate changes. The greatly enhanced temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition by elevated CO2 and temperature indicates that more CO2 will be released to the atmosphere and losses of soil C may be even greater than that previously expected in paddy field. PMID:27590882

  16. Brief Introduction of The Refractories Branch of The Chinese Society for Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Refractories Branch,a specialized branch of The Chinese Society for Metals(CSM,a nonprofit academic organization concemed with the advancement of science and technology in metallurgical industry and materials science and engineering in China and is also an organization ofChinese scientists and engineersin these field.),is a nationwide academic organization for researchers or engineers in China'S refractories field.

  17. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  18. [Application of magnetic materials in analysis on Chinese herb medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiu-Rong; Han, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-01

    China is the cradle of Chinese herb medicines,with rich plant resources. However, traditional processing methods have many disadvantages, such as high comsumption of organic solvent, long extraction time and high loss of effective constituents. For the purpose of rational use of Chinese herb medicines and accurate analysis on their constituents,the sample pre-treatment method with magnetic nanoparticles as the carrier brought new opportunities in recent years. after consulting literatures,the essay summarizes traditional extraction methods of Chinese herb medicines, characteristics of magnetic materials and their application in the analysis on Chinese herb medicines. PMID:23477130

  19. Investigating Chinese Migrants’ Information-Seeking Patterns in Canada: Media Selection and Language Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Mao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking a quantitative approach, this research surveyed Chinese migrants in Canada regarding channels they rely on to seek various information. This research also investigates how Chinese migrants’ preferences of channels correlate with their intercultural sensitivity level. Chinese migrants prefer Chinese newspapers and websites for government/policy information and life information rather than English newspapers and websites. However, they use English newspapers and websites more frequently for job and career development information. Overall, English television and radio are more frequently used by Chinese migrants than Chinese television and radio broadcasts. The intercultural sensitivity levels of Chinese migrants have a positive correlation with their frequencies of using English information resources, including government websites, English newspapers, English non-government websites, government officers, personal non-Chinese social networks, and English television and radio. Findings of this research suggest that Chinese ethnic media play an important role in Chinese migrants’ information-seeking behaviours and patterns in Canada. On one hand, government and other organizations can reach the Chinese migrant community through information diffusion in Chinese ethnic media. On the other hand, Chinese migrants should make an active effort to improve their English proficiency and intercultural communication sensitivity to better integrate themselves into the Canadian society. A more balanced approach of seeking information from English and Chinese media sources could be more beneficial for Chinese migrants.

  20. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  1. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  2. 民办高校学习型党组织建设助推“中国梦”实现研究%Research on the Role of Private College Learning Party Organization Construction in Promoting the Realization of"Chinese Dream"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文林; 李庆朋

    2014-01-01

    The private college Party organization is an important component of our Party's grassroots organizations, so it is neces-sary and feasible to strengthen the learning Party organization construction in private colleges. Research shows that the con-struction of learning Party organizations in private colleges is in-terconnected with "Chinese Dream",so the strengthening of learning Party organization construction in private colleges is of great significance to the realization of Chinese Dream.%民办高校党组织是党的基层组织的重要组成部分,加强民办高校学习型党组织建设极具必要性和可行性。研究表明,民办高校学习型党组织建设与“中国梦”存在内在的契合,加强民办高校学习型党组织建设对中国梦的实现具有重大的助推作用。

  3. Community-level Language Planning for Chinese Heritage Language Maintenance in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    An Chung Cheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of Chinese heritage language in the United States from the perspective of language policy and planning. The case study examines the Chinese heritage language maintenance through community-based Chinese schools (CHS), and CHS’s relationships with Chinese American community, as well as governments and non-government organizations in China, Taiwan, and the United States. The paper starts with a theoretical discussion on the definition ...

  4. Computer-simulated development process of Chinese characters font cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mu, Zhichun; Sun, Dehui; Hu, Dunli

    2008-10-01

    The research of Chinese characters cognition is an important research aspect of cognitive science and computer science, especially artificial intelligence. In this paper, according as the traits of Chinese characters the database of Chinese characters font representations and the model of computer simulation of Chinese characters font cognition are constructed from the aspect of cognitive science. The font cognition of Chinese characters is actual a gradual process and there is the accumulation of knowledge. Through using the method of computer simulation, the development model of Chinese characters cognition was constructed. And this is the important research content of Chinese characters cognition. This model is based on self-organizing neural network and adaptive resonance theory (ART) neural network. By Combining the SOFM and ART2 network, two sets of input were trained. Through training and testing methods, the development process of Chinese characters cognition based on Chinese characters cognition was simulated. Then the results from this model and could be compared with the results that were obtained only using SOFM. By analyzing the results, this simulation suggests that the model is able to account for some empirical results. So, the model can simulate the development process of Chinese characters cognition in a way.

  5. Entrepreneurship and Organizations' Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧

    2013-01-01

    In modern society, the competition has become increasingly fierce. Organizations pay close attention to their manage-ment in order to gain the priority. Under this context, entrepreneurship has been attached great importance to. Entrepreneurship has played an indispensable role in organizations. Compare to those short-lived companies, powerful organizations, such as Google, IBM and P&G has gain great progress in the last decades. Therefore, it is essential to study how the powerful organiza-tion could always be innovative. This paper aims to study the role that entrepreneurship plays in the organizations and take Google as an example. It provides some previous lessons that Chinese organizations could draw from.

  6. Chinese Oil Industry Faces New Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese petrochemical companies should gird for new challenges in three years, triggered by cost-competitive products flooding in from overseas, especially the Middle East countries.This advice was highlighted by company executives and association leaders during a discussion on the sidelines of a petrochemical conference organized by the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association in early April.

  7. Lexical-semantic Mapping between Chinese and English Controlled Vocabularies in the Domain of Chinese Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jiun Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study conducts a lexical-semantic mapping between the Chinese controlled vocabulary developed by the National Palace Museum (NPM-CV in Taiwan and an English controlled vocabulary, the Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT developed by the Getty Research Institute in the U.S. that is primarily based on Western art. The research question is: In mapping a Chinese controlled vocabulary in Chinese art to a Western-centered art thesaurus, what types of relationships can be identified and what are the issues in mapping? The study’s main findings reveal that only one-third of the NPM-CV terms can be mapped as “exact equivalence” to AAT terms and three-fifths of the NPMCV terms have hierarchical relationships (narrower to broader with some AAT terms. Clearly, using AAT alone to index Chinese art collections will lead to insufficient indexing specificity. The study then proposes solutions to improve Chinese-English semantic interoperability for multilingual knowledge organization systems in the domain of Chinese art. [Article content in Chinese

  8. 以汉语为母语的英语学习者二语心理词汇的组织%On the Mental Lexicon Organization of SLA Learners of English with Chinese as Their Mother Tongue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妮

    2012-01-01

    This thesis makes a study on the mental lexicon organization of SLA learners of English with Chinese as their mother tongue through word-association test. Results show that language proficiency is related to mental lexicon organization of SLA learners. With the increase of language proficiency, phonetic response and unrelated response decrease, while semantic, namely syntagmatic and associative responses, increase gradually. When the language proficiency of SLA learners reaches intermediate level, their semantic nets have been forming, and begin to develop into that of native speakers, however, there are fundamental differences between these two semantic nets. Therefore, the mental lexicon organization of SLA learners goes through phonetics to semantics, the system that SLA learners build at the beginning is mainly based on phonetics, and then with the increase of language proficiency, semantic relation plays the main role, however, this doesn't mean the disappearance of phonetic relation, since lexical study is a dynamic process, the mental lexicon organization of SLA learners cannot be generally regarded as phonetic, syntagmatic or associative one.%本文通过单词联想测试考察了以汉语为母语的英语学习者二语心理词汇的组织。研究结果表明:语言水平与二语心理词汇的组织相关。语言水平提高时,语音反应和无关反应逐渐减少,语义反应即聚合和组合逐渐增加。当学习者的语言水平到了中级阶段,其语义网络就已经形成,并且向着母语者的方向发展,但这种语义网络和母语者的语义网络却有着本质的区别。因此,二语心理词汇的组织经历从语音到语义的过程,学习者最初建立的系统以语音为主,而随着语言水平的提高,语义联系开始起主导作用,但这并不意味着语音联系的消失,因为词汇学习是一种动态的过程,所以,不能笼统地认为二语心理词汇的组织是语

  9. Preindustrial Patterns in Chinese Organizational Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Chinese organizational culture is usually described as being influenced by Confucian social norms and unique to the country. The paper argues in contrast to this view that there are important cultural similarities between values and norms in organizations in China and other developing countries......, suggesting that the cultural characteristics of Chinese organizations are not simply unique to this country but a set of preindustrial norms that industrializing countries have in common as a legacy of the past....... to be constitutive of a large number of preindustrial communities also govern relationships within and between organizations in present-day China. The paper then turns to organizations in Africa and Latin America and it is shown that the same social morals structure behaviours in these two developing regions...

  10. Organic food market segmentation in China

    OpenAIRE

    PENG, FANG

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to specify the essential factors in Chinese organic food products market. The main target of this study was to discover the market potential for the organic food products in China through identify the attitudes and perceptions of the Chinese organic food consumers and position the right pricing of organic food products in China, thereby further clarify the market segmentation in China. The theoretical framework consisted of defining the market segmentatio...

  11. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  12. Psychiatry and Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tsung-Yi

    1983-01-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chines...

  13. Chinese Navy’s Structure and Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In time of peace, the navy adopts a leadership system that combines operational command with building and administration, and which mainly consists of the navy headquarters, fleets, test bases, educational institutions and an armaments academy. The navy has three fleets, namely, the Beihai Fleet, Donghai Fleet and Nanhai Fleet, which

  14. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  15. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  16. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  17. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  18. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  19. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  20. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  1. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  2. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  3. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  4. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  5. Learning From China. A Report on Agriculture and the Chinese People's Communes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    A nine-member Study Mission was organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and visited China in 1975 to study Chinese approaches to agricultural and rural development in depth; to analyze the commune experience as an example of integrated rural development; and to try to determine in what ways the Chinese development…

  6. An Analysis of Difficulties Facing Chinese Scientists’ Holding Posts in International Scientific Organizations and Its Suggestions%我国科学家在国际科技组织中任职存在的问题及建议探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军平; 秦久怡

    2016-01-01

    Based on some literatures and cases, the paper analyzes some difficulties facing Chinese scientists’ holding posts in international scientific organizations, where some suggestions are put forward in this regard: increase training efforts to make knowledge structure of Chinese scientists diversified both in width and depth; formulate policies and regulations to attract some headquarters for international scientific organizations to be located in China; and issue policies to set up talent reserve pools for the training of preparatory teams and talents for holding posts in international scientific organizations.%结合有关文献材料和案例,本文分析了我国科学家在国际科技组织中任职存在的问题,尝试提出以下建议:加大培训,使科学家的知识结构更趋多元化;制定政策,支持和吸引国际科技组织总部落户中国;出台政策,建立人才储备库,培养国际科技组织任职预备队伍。

  7. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  8. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  9. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  10. Mapping the Chinese Science Citation Database

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    Methods developed for mapping the journal structures contained in aggregated journal-journal citations in the Science Citation Index are applied to the Chinese Science Citation Database of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This database covers 991 journals, of which only 37 had originally English titles. Using factor-analytical and graph-analytical techniques we show that this data is dually structured. The main structure is the intellectual organization of the journals in journal groups (as in the international SCI), but the university-based journals provide an institutional layer that orients this structure towards practical ends (e.g., agriculture). The Chinese Science Citation Database exhibits the characteristics of Mode 2 in the production of scientific knowledge more than its western counterparts. The contexts of application lead to correlation (interfactorial complexity) among the components.

  11. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  12. Preparing for Chinese New Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Gordon

    This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English, designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. The booklet follows the activities of a Chinese-American family in its preparations for the Chinese New Year. (CLK)

  13. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  14. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...... are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural...

  15. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  16. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The feature and development direction of ecological garden city; The problem and countermeasures in urban construction audio-visual file management task;Youth network moral education is imperative;A shallow discussion about moral education penetration in Chinese classroom;

  17. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  18. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  19. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  20. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  1. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  2. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  3. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...

  4. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  5. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  6. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  7. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  8. Psychiatry and Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T Y

    1983-12-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chinese have a relatively favorable prognosis of schizophrenia, low rates of depressive illness, a strong tendency towards somatization and the presence of several unique culture-bound syndromes. From studying Chinese in Vancouver, it was found that they have a characteristic way of dealing with mental illness in the family, in that there is first a protracted period of intrafamilial coping with serious psychiatric illness, followed by recourse to friends, elders and neighbors in the community; third, consultation with traditional specialists, religious healers or general physicians; fourth, outpatient or inpatient treatment from specialists, and, finally, a process of rejection and scapegoating of the patient. The efficacy of Western psychiatric treatment of Chinese patients has yet to be objectively assessed. PMID:6364576

  9. Chinese Autos' Debut in Cambodia--Let more Cambodians know high-quality Chinese products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xiong; Phnom Penh

    2005-01-01

    @@ The 3rd Mudan Cup China International Auto Exhibition (Vietnam & Cambodia) was held in January 28, 2005 in Phnom Penh Hotel. This is the first debut of Chinese autos in Cambodia. 11 buses, 12 seats tourism vans, cargo vans and trucks and 9 motorcycles of different brands showed Cambodians the real Chinese famous brands and high-quality automobiles. The 3rd "Mudan Cup"China International Auto Exhibition Tour was organized by the Society of Automotive Engineers of China, Department of Media and Press of CCPIT, Cambodia Tang Ren International Co., Ltd.,Cambodia Kaide Trade Co., Ltd. andChina Grand River Group.

  10. Chinese Autos' Debut in Cambodia--Let more Cambodians know high-quality Chinese products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; Xiong; Phnom; Penh

    2005-01-01

      The 3rd Mudan Cup China International Auto Exhibition (Vietnam & Cambodia) was held in January 28, 2005 in Phnom Penh Hotel. This is the first debut of Chinese autos in Cambodia. 11 buses, 12 seats tourism vans, cargo vans and trucks and 9 motorcycles of different brands showed Cambodians the real Chinese famous brands and high-quality automobiles. The 3rd "Mudan Cup"China International Auto Exhibition Tour was organized by the Society of Automotive Engineers of China, Department of Media and Press of CCPIT, Cambodia Tang Ren International Co., Ltd.,Cambodia Kaide Trade Co., Ltd. andChina Grand River Group.……

  11. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  12. Overview of Beverages with Anti-Aging Functions in Chinese Market

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fan; Song, Jie; Liang, Ming; Ma, Fangli; Mao, Xinliang; Ma, Chung Wah; Zhang, Wanwan; Huang, Zebo

    2014-01-01

    Anti-aging Chinese medicines have been used in traditional beverages to promote health and prevent diseases. Interestingly, these functional beverages may be used differently between men and women, reflecting the “yin-yang” philosophy of Chinese medicine. Modern studies have revealed that some dietary natural products can slow aging in model organisms, and functional beverages containing such products have recently emerged in Chinese market, challenging the dominance of traditional functional...

  13. Research on Change of Rhizosphere Soil Properties of Chinese fir Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This article emphatically reviews the difference of soil biological activities, biochemical activities and soil chemical properties between the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of first rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb) Hook) plantation. It also reviews their dynamic patterns during Chinese fir plantation development. The results show that the contents of organic and inorganic nutrients in the rhizosphere soil of young, half-mature and near-mature Chinese fir of first-rotation ...

  14. Chinese boxes: "Typhoon" and Conrad's history of the Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D.

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the novel "Typhoon," by Joseph Conrad, as a story about Chinamen coolies and seamen onboard a steamer transporting Chinese laborers. It argues that the Chinese boxes of the coolies represent several versions of the history of the Chinese and that the coolies are also representatives of a civilization with ideas and institutions, a law and order of nature. It also describes the images of Chinese life and their association to sociality, cooperation, nourishment, simplicity, ...

  15. 信息技术支持下的探究学习模式在中医诊断学《肝腑辨证》课中的应用%Application of Inquiry-Based Learning in Teaching Liver Internal Organs Differentiation of Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnostics Supported by Information Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦延斌; 夏书剑

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning under the support of information technology has the character of detailed information, practical ability, rich learning resources, developing good communication skills, and changing the ways of thinking and learning, etc. This article discussed how to apply the inquiry-based learning in the teaching of traditional Chinese medicine through the course of "Liver internal organs differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine diagnostics. The conditions of preparation, the rise of a new issue and the specific practice of the teaching process were introduced and analyzed in detail, which showed the characteristics of the inquiry-based learning in teaching traditional Chinese medicine, and provided a reference for further application of the inquiry-based learning.%文章介绍了信息技术支持下探究式学习模式具有信息性、实践动手能力、学习资源丰富、培养学生的沟通能力、改变学习思维等特点,并通过中医诊断学《肝腑辨证》课程具体探讨了如何应用这一学习模式进行中医课程的教学.从条件的准备、探究问题的提出和具体教学过程的实践都进行了详细的介绍和分析,说明了应用探究式学习模式进行中医教学的特点,为进一步推广应用这一学习模式提供有益的见解.

  16. Chinese Space Program for Heliophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji; Gan, Weiqun; Wang, Chi; Liu, Weining; Yan, Yihua; Liu, Yong; Sun, Lilin; Liu, Ying

    As one of the major field of space science, heliophysics research in China has not only long history but also strong research forces. Many space missions have been proposed by the community but with few got support. Since 2006, Chinese Academy of Science has organized a long term strategic study in space science. In 2011, the space science program has been kicked off with several new missions being selected for Phase A study. In this presentation, first a brief review on past programs, such as Double Star, Chang’e, and an introduction on the space science strategic study are given. Under the guidance of this strategic study or roadmap, a few missions have been proposed or re-proposed with new element, such as DSO, KUAFU, MIT, SPORT and ASO-S. Brief introductions of these programs and their current status will be given.

  17. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  18. 基于语义网的中文百科知识组织与集成%FU Yuxin, WANG Xin, FENG Zhiyong, et al Organization and integration of Chinese encyclopedia knowledge based on semantic web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宇新; 王鑫; 冯志勇; 吕雪栋

    2015-01-01

    It identifies important structural features from immense knowledgeable data in three largest Chinese encyclope-dias(Baidu Encyclopedia, Hudong Encyclopedia, Chinese Wikipedia)and generates RDF triples, then integrates the in-formation data and sets into a distributed large-scale RDF data storage system, and constructs the RDF dataset of Chinese Encyclopedia Knowledge Base that fits with the requirements of Linked Data. The main work includes, configuring the web crawler to crawl the html pages from Baidu Encyclopedia and Hudong Encyclopedia, parsing the content of the infor-mation box to generate RDF triples, downloading Chinese triples data from DBpedia, integrating the data sets into the dis-tributed large-scale RDF data storage system Jingwei, designing the display of dynamic inserting and triple pattern query pages, it also verifies the validity of the method through prototype system experiments.%通过从3个最大的中文百科全书(百度百科、互动百科、中文维基百科)所包含的大规模知识数据中识别重要的结构化特征生成RDF三元组,并将这些信息数据整合加入分布式大规模RDF数据存储系统,从而构成符合Linked Data要求的中文百科知识库RDF数据集。主要工作包括,通过配置网络爬虫对百度百科和互动百科的网页进行爬取,解析其中信息框等内容,生成RDF三元组并实现三元组的动态插入;下载需要的DBpedia中文三元组数据,将三元组进行整合并存储到课题组的大规模语义数据存储库Jingwei中;设计显示动态插入和三元组模式查询的页面,通过原型系统实验,验证了该方法的有效性。

  19. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  20. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  1. Organizing Internet Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Many approaches have been taken by different groups to organize electronic resources on Internet. Some of them purport to index the electronic resources automatically. Search engines are typical in this category. Another category is the traditional library cataloging approach. For example, modified MARC formats are used to catalog the Internet resources. Besides these two, there are also some other ways to organize Internet resources, such as classification number schemes, subject heading systems, and other manual subject guides to provide a central access point for value-added topical guides. This paper introduces different approaches to organize Internet resources and focuses mainly on librarians' efforts.[Article content in Chinese

  2. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their

  3. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  4. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  5. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  6. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  7. Chinese Contemporary Art: Ink Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiDaojian

    2003-01-01

    Chinese ink painting is an age-old art tradition that embodies distinctive characteristics of Chinese culture. In these exquisite paintings, artists integrate nature and everyday life to show how the two exist in harmonyalso a frequent theme in Chinese philosophy.

  8. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  9. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  10. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  11. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    2012 with 41 students studying journalism at People's University, Tsinghua University, China Youth University for Political Sciences, Central University for Nationalities, Beijing Foreign Languages University and Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing and at Fudan University in Shanghai....... society. This chapter is concerned with Chinese journalism students' self-perceptions and evaluations of journalistic performances in order to understand the professional values to which they adhere. The study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted in two periods in Spring 2011 and Fall...

  12. The Chinese Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Moderation, or “the doctrine of the mean,” is the preferred Chinese practice. In order to stimulate the economy since its downturn seven years ago, the Chinese government has adopted a pro-active financial policy that will, in the wake of rapid economic growth, effect its economic soft landing. Since the beginning of 2005, the government has followed the fiscal strategy of cutting deficits and curbing government investment with this aim in mind. Staff reporter Luo Yuanjun examines this issue in his report “Economic Soft Landing: A Common Desire.”

  13. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we......-ba /pha pa/ ta-da /tha ta/ ka-ga / kha-ka/ For L2 acquisition it is held that same and new phonemes are (relatively) easy acquired, whereas similar but not identical sounds are difficult to learn. New sounds are initially mapped onto the L1 phoneme inventory (Kuhl 1991). For Danish, this would predict...

  14. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  15. Simulation About the Growth of Chinese Firm's Safety Management Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tie-zhong; LI Zhi-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at the deficiency of exterminating measures of Chinese firm safety management,a simulation model of Chinese firm's safety management capability based on the organizational learning theory,in which the simulation method of system dynamics is utilized.The level variable and rate vailable are designed based on the practical situation and change situation of corresponding variables of firm's safety management capability.Simulation firms are built with accident ease groups of the oil industry,chemieal industry,machine industry,coal mining industry,and weapon industry.Through analyzing the simulation result,the growth law of Chinese firm's safety management capability is obtained as follows:the accumulating and the coupling of safety knowledge should be emphasized at the same time;the balance of learning behavior of individual,group and organization should be considered together;different types of Chinese firm should take different safety policies according to their practical situations.

  16. Chinese NGOs in action against HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua XU; Yi ZENG; Allen F ANDERSON

    2005-01-01

    Chinese nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have played a significant role in the battle against AIDS in the People's Republic of China. This article provides a brief overview of the structure of these organizations, as well as an analysis of their principle accomplishments. Of great significance in this analysis is the fact that Chinese NGOs have effectively dealt with many sensitive health education areas that government authorities have felt reluctant to handle directly. As such, they have provided an indispensable component in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control calculus on the mainland.

  17. Guinness Record of Biggest Amount of Fried Rice Set in Celebration of Chinese Lunar New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin; Zhichang

    2013-01-01

    <正>On February 12, 2013-third day of the first month under the Chinese Lunar calendar-the Costa Rica-China Friendship Association and the Costa Rican Chinese Community Association (CRCCA) organized a fried-rice cooking activity in celebration of the arrival of the Year of the Snake in Chinatown in the capital San Jose. The event drew tens of

  18. 2006 Annual Conference of Chinese Society of Particuology cum Symposium on Particle Technology across Taiwan Straits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The 2006 Annual Conference of Chinese Society of Particuology cum Symposium on Particle Technology across Taiwan Straits, held in Beijing from August 18 to 21, 2006, was hosted by Chinese Society of Particuology and organized jointly by Institute of Process Engineering, CAS, and State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing,China University of Petroleum.

  19. Preliminary radiation protection tests for the body height and body weight of the Chinese reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation protection standard recommended by ICRP was evaluated in terms of its suitability for Chinese people. The body height and weight of 100,325 healthy Chinese were measured and anatomical data collected from usable corpses of persons who died by accident or sudden death. The data included the size and weight of certain organs. 18 refs

  20. Mentoring and Research Supervision in Music Education: Perspectives of Chinese Postgraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) estimated that the number of students studying outside their own country would be over 20 million by 2030. Chinese students have increasingly formed a large percentage of international students at universities across the English-speaking world, and the Chinese demand for…

  1. A Contrastive Study of Chinese and English Thinking Pattern through English Sentence structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冉

    2015-01-01

    When Chinese and foreigners organize sentences,they follow different thought patterns which decide the essential distinction of the way they use English.This essay would elaborate the differences which lie in thought patterns carefully by analyzing sentence patterns of both Chinese and English people.

  2. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming;

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  3. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  4. Milestone for Chinese physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Chinese scientists have discovered a new particle predicted decades ago but never observed before. It could be what was once called the "multi-quark state," tiny elementary particles with a strong interaction or force that serves as the source of nuclear energy (1/2 page).

  5. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Corbiere

    2013-01-01

    <正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in

  6. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  7. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  8. Cataloging Pirated Chinese Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sze-Tseng

    1971-01-01

    Various types of pirated Chinese books are given with specific examples. The basic steps followed for the proper identification of these books is described, and remedies suggested in case the original is discovered after the book has been cataloged according to the information given by the book pirate. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  9. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  10. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  11. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Li Yiyi, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of Shenyang Metal Research Institute, has developed a new system for creating a low temperature and high pressure anti-hydrogen material in the research of engineering material. She has also been successful in her research of various types of steel.

  12. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  13. Chinese Lacquer Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengXiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the

  14. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  15. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  16. Participation and action:from the Chinese social organizations of AIDS prevention anthropology research--A MSM as an example in L city%参与和行动:来自社会组织防治艾滋病的人类学研究--以L市的一个MSM组织为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁

    2014-01-01

    In the “The leadership of government, departments, the whole society to participate in” Chinese characteristic anti-AIDS work mechanism, as edge specific populations and the unique role in folk grassroots social organization has shown positive effects. This article is based on the L city social organization--MSM organization to participate in AIDS prevention and control in practice on the basis of field investigation, description and analysis of MSM internal structure function as well as how to use organizational capital to participate in AIDS prevention and control act.%“政府组织领导、部门各负其责、全社会共同参与”的中国特色防艾工作机制中,作为民间草根性防艾社会组织的边缘/特定人群可及性的独特作用已显现出积极性。文章基于对 L 市的社会组织之 MSM 组织--“牵手工作组”在参与防治艾滋病实践田野调查的基础上,描述和分析MSM 组织内部的结构功能以及如何运用组织资本参与防治艾滋病行动。

  17. Reason Analysis and Risk Prevention of Soaring Price of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,the price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials soars continuously,and the resulting price risk increasingly looms large,which has critically affected midstream and downstream industries and peoples’ demand for drug,and imperiled healthy and orderly development of traditional Chinese medicinal industries.Based on the status quo of continuous skyrocketing price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials at present,we winkle out the root cause of soaring price as follows:the supply and demand lose balance;the production costs hike up;there are other factors responsible for soaring price.This paper further analyses the impact of sharp increase in price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials on all links of industry chain as follows:the medicinal herb growers never benefit from soaring price;the counterfeiters and forgers in midstream industry increase;the gross profit rate of Chinese medicine enterprises declines.In accordance with the risk arising from abnormal fluctuation in price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials,corresponding precautionary measures are put forward as follows:promote the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of value chain;curtail the production and management cost of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of organization chain;stabilize price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of information chain;reduce transaction cost of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of logistics chain.

  18. progress and prospects for studies on chinese amphibians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    this work summarizes the history and progress of the studies on chinese amphibians since they first appeared in the chinese literature.a wide range of research has been carried out,including the history of the definition of amphibians,faunal surveys,systematic research,ecological research,biochemical research (isozyme and other proteins or peptides,chromosomes,dna),anatomical research,embryological research,phylogenetic and zoogeographical research,and many others such as ultrastructure of organs,crossbreeding test,regeneration of organs,abnormality survey,acoustics,fossils,sperm ultrastructure and parasites.in addition,the prospects for studies on chinese amphibians in future are proposed in this paper.

  19. 光周期对白头鹎体重、器官重量和能量代谢的影响%Effects of photoperiod on body mass,organ masses and energy metabolism in Chinese bulbul(Pycnonotus sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪小英; 林琳; 周菲菲; 王小华; 柳劲松

    2011-01-01

    Photoperiod acts as an environmental zeitgeber for seasonal acclimatization of thermoregulation in some birds.The present study was designed to examine the effects of photoperiod alone on the plasticity of body mass, metabolic organs and metabolism in Chinese bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis). Twenty adult Chinese bulbuls were live-trapped by mist net in Wenzhou Zhejiang Province (27°29′N, 120°51′E) from March to April 2008. After one week adaptation to laboratory conditions, they were randomly assigned into either long (LD; 16L∶8D, n= 10) or short photoperiod (SD; 8L∶16D, n=10) for 4 weeks at a constant temperature (28℃). Food was provided in excess of the birds' needs and water was supplied ad lib. The birds were weighed (to 0.01g, Sartorius balance model BT25S) immediately after live-trapped, and weighed again at a week interval over the period of photoperiodic acclimation. Energy intake was measured in metabolic cages. Food residues and feces were collected on the first day of the experiment and also at a weekly basis, and the caloric contents of them were determined using a oxygen bomb calorimeter ( C200, Germany IKA). Metabolic rate (MR) was measured using a closed circuit respirometer. Chamber temperature was controlled within (28 ±0.5 ) ℃ by water bath. Birds were killed and dissected on the day after metabolic measurements, and organ masses were weighed ( to 0.1 mg, Sartorius balance model BS110S) immediately.During acclimation, we found the body mass and energy budget of Chinese bulbuls began to have significant differences in two light conditions after the first week. Body mass of SD birds became significantly higher than LD individuals, and all of gross energy intake, excretion energy and digestible energy intake decreased remarkably in SD birds, but energy budget except digestible energy intake kept stable in LD individuals. After the 4 weeks of acclimation, SD birds showed significantly higher body mass, basal metabolic rate (BMR

  20. Chinese Yuan after Chinese Exchange Rate System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eiji Ogawa; Michiru Sakane

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the actual exchange rate policy conducted by the Chinese government after the Chinese exchange rate system reform on 21 July 2005 is investigated. Also, the long-run effect is investigated, including the Balassa-Samuelson effect on the Chinese yuan. It was found that the Chinese government generated a statistically significant but small change in exchange rate policy during the sample period until 25 January 2006. It was not identifted that the Chinese monetary authority is adopting the currency basket system because the change is too small in the economic sense. It is indicated that the Chinese government should take account of the productivity growth of countries composing the currency basket in order to operate a currency basket regime.

  1. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Socicty of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology,Immunological Journal,Current Immunology,Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology,Chinese Journal of

  2. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Society of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology, Immunological Journal, Current Immunology, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology; Chinese Journal of

  3. Chinese New Year Materials for Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene

    This is a resource book designed to be used by teachers in Chinese bilingual bicultural programs. The materials in the book are based on Chinese New Year customs still observed in Chinese-American communities. The resource book contains five types of materials: (1) a general introduction to the Chinese New Year, including the Chinese Lunar Year…

  4. Communicating organic food quality in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Consumers in emerging countries such as China play a crucial role for up-scaling improvements in the environmental impact of food production. So far little research has explored Chinese consumer reactions to organic food labels and whether Chinese consumer inferences can be favorably influenced...... by communication efforts. An online experiment studied the influence of the presence of organic labels as well as the influence of priming of environmental values on fruit and vegetable quality inferences. We find that Chinese consumers expect organic food to be more expensive and of a higher general quality...... compared to conventional food, but we do not find significantly higher health or taste inferences for organic products. When primed with environmental values, consumers with strong environmental values express higher quality and health inferences for organically labeled food. The results indicate...

  5. American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists: how are they doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peishan; Hu, Fengling

    2016-09-01

    More than 60 years have passed since 3 pioneer Chinese anesthesiologists were trained by American physicians. After returning to China, they applied their new knowledge and skills to develop a new anesthesia specialty in their own country. Over the past 2 decades, close to 600 Chinese medical graduates have been trained in the United States and have become part of the American anesthesia workforce. Unlike their elder generation, they did not go back to China after their training. People are always wondering how this new generation of American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists is doing in a different culture and different health care and political systems. This review indicates that these newly American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists not only provide high-quality patient care but also conduct outstanding anesthesia teaching and research. In addition, as their pioneer anesthesiologists did in China, they use professional organizations and publications as 2 major means to advance professional development and promote academic exchanges between Chinese and American anesthesiologists, through which American anesthesiology continues to have influence on modern Chinese anesthesiology. PMID:27555192

  6. Chinese Investment in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    At the 12th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) held on September 8-11 in Xiamen, Fujian Province, government officials and entrepreneurs from all over the world canvassed Chinese entrepreneurs and investors to invest in their countries. Foreign countries and regions rented 16,000 square meters of exhibition space, an increase of more than 50 percent from last year. Among the 74 participating countries and regions, more than 50 held seminars about their invest- ment environments. Besides the Caribbean countries and underdeveloped African nations that are actively attracting investment, developed countries such as the Untied States, Germany, France, Italy and Sweden also showed extraordinary enthusiasm in trying to win over Chinese investors. Beijing Review interviewed Marinella Loddo, Director of the Industrial Cooperation Division of the Italian Institute for Foreign Trade which is also known as the Italian Trade Commission (ICE).

  7. Chinese Experiences on Orthokeratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peiying; Guo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of myopia in Chinese children has been rising each year. Research has shown that orthokeratology is a good method for controlling the progression of myopia. In this article, we review the current prevalence of myopia, the development and management of orthokeratology, and the myopia control methods used in China. A physical and health survey release indicated that the ratio of poor vision in every range of ages is still high in China. During the past 17 years, Chinese doctors have developed a standard fitting procedure and medical management of orthokeratology patients. This article also reviews the clinical studies in China for Ortho-K lenses, such as myopia control, effects and safety, corneal change, and lens design and fitting. Finally, we review the development of the International Academy of Orthokeratology Asia in China. PMID:26704137

  8. On Building Theoretical System of Human Rights with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU HAINIAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ The ongoing discussion organized by the Human Rights magazine on building a theoretical system of human rights with Chinese characteristics is definitely of great significance.Theory guides practice.Correct theories can be turned into an immensely great material force that propels social progress.

  9. Guanxi and Ethics-A Study of Chinese Management Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Tung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The concept of guanxi being a developing concept and used in the Chinese organizational management has been a topic of concern and interest as well for several authors to experiment on. The study focused on the determination of the impact of the use guanxi concept in the Chinese organizational managements and the effects on the ethical standards and judgement of the organization. Approach: The research has been a secondary source based research and obtained its materials and understanding from the earlier researches conducted on the concerned topic. Results: It has been obtained from the study that the concept of guanxi has an extreme significance in the management of organizations, particularly with respect to the Chinese organizations. Conclusion: Although there are certain negative aspects of following the concept of guanxi, yet from the study it has been concluded that the concept is an essential factor for the Chinese organizations that have records of success stories from using the guanxi concept and maintaining enhanced interpersonal relationships.

  10. High School Chinese: First Year Student Work Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This workbook accompanies the first volume (FL 002 774) of the Chinese text used in the Washington Foreign Language Program. It is organized according to the lessons in the companion textbook and provides vocabulary, substitution, pattern, transformation, expansion, and translation drills, dialogues, and questions and answers for practice. For…

  11. High School Chinese: Second Year Student Work Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This workbook accompanies the second volume (FL 002 776) of the Chinese text used in the Washington Foreign Language Program. It is organized according to the lessons in the companion textbook and provides vocabulary, substitution, pattern, transformation, translation, and expansion drills, and question and answer practice. For related documents…

  12. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    This is the Chinese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  13. Cultural Traditions and Writing Differences Between English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍甜美

    2014-01-01

    Writing in any language involves more than grammar, vocabulary and spelling. There are thought connections and or-ganization patterns that extend beyond sentences and go deeper than the surface meaning of sentences. This paper compares the differences between English writing and Chinese writing, and explores their cultural traditions.

  14. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  15. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Discoverer of the Origin of Life The origin of life on earth has long been a subject explored by scientists around the world. At the 11th International Conference on the Origin of Life held at Orleans University in France on July 9th, 1996, Chinese scientist Zhao Yufen and her partner Cao Peisheng announced the contents of the origin of the seed of life.

  16. The Developing Chinese Garment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1997-01-01

    CHINA is a country with a 5,000-year history and a population of 1.2 billion people. Clothing plays an important role in Chinese people’s cultural and social life. Since the reform and opening up in the 1980s, the garment industry has greatly developed and has increased progressively by an average of 15.7 percent a year. In the past 10 years particularly, township-run garment production enterprises have suddenly come to the fore,

  17. INSET for Chinese Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 陈涛; 刘子春

    2007-01-01

    By setting examples,giving tables or taxonomy and so on,the thesis mainly explains the eight general INSET ( in-service teacher training) principles,including Participation,Sympathetic to the context,Teachers' attitude change,Integration of approaches,Communication and support,Evaluation and follow-up,Adequate timescale,then especially concentrate on the problems and solutions to Chinese teacher in using the INSET principles.

  18. Pollution Across Chinese Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Yap Co; Fanying Kong; Shuanglin Lin

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis using 1987-1995 data for Chinese provinces. A comparison of off-sample (1996-2004) predictions to actual emissions indicates that more stringent rules are still needed to fight industrial (waste water and dust) pollution. Auxiliary regressions show that conditional on income, northern provinces have lower industrial waste water pollution; non-coastal and provinces with smaller secondary industry shares have lower industrial (waste wa...

  19. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dutch-based information provider expands in China to tap new market There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them. "You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,

  20. Chinese institutional investors’ sentiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kling, Gerhard; Gao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    We use daily survey data on Chinese institutional investors’ forecasts to measure investors' sentiment. Our empirical model uncovers that share prices and investor sentiment do not have a long-run relation; however, in the short-run, the mood of investors follows a positive feedback process. Hence, institutional investors are optimistic when previous market returns were positive. Contrarily, negative returns trigger a decline in sentiment, which reacts more sensitively to negative than positi...

  1. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    to interpret their own educational histories and prior experiences, while at the same time making use of imaginaries of 'Western' education to redefine themselves as independent individuals in an increasingly globalised and individualised world. Through a case study of prospective pre-school teachers preparing...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  2. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2011-01-01

    There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them."You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,Wolters Kluwer China CEO.

  3. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  4. Transnational Chinese Sphere in Singapore: Dynamics, Transformations and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon an empirical analysis of Singaporean Chinese’s intriguing and changing linkages with China over the past half century, this paper suggests that multi-layered interactions between the Chinese diaspora and the homeland have led to the formulation of an emerging transnational Chinese social sphere, which has three main characteristics: First, it is a space for communication by ethnic Chinese abroad with their hometown/ homeland through steady and extensive flows of people, ideas, goods and capital that transcend the nation-state borders, although states also play an important role in shaping the nature and characteristics of these flows. Second, this transnational social sphere constitutes a dynamic interface between economy, politics and culture, which has contributed to creating a collective diasporic identity as well as social and business networks. Third, the key institutional mechanism of the transnational social sphere is various types of Chinese organizations – ranging from hometown associations to professional organizations – which serve as integral components of Chinese social and business networks.

  5. A classification of chinese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of Chinese Cultural Values (CCVs). Although there exist great differences between the Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, it is still possible to identify certain core cultural values that are shared by the Chinese people no matter where they live. Based on the original list by the Chinese Cultural Connection (1987), the paper creates a new list that contains 71 core values against 40 in the old. The implications and limitations of the classification are...

  6. Current Chinese bryological literature (4)

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Yu, Jin

    2000-01-01

    According to our collections of literature, about 400 scientific papers dealing with Chinese bryophytes have been published in China and abroad during 1990’s. Among these, more than 50 % were published in different scientific journals in China and often written in Chinese with English abstract, which are not well known and assessable for foreign bryologists. Therefore, in addition to previous Chinese literature I-III (Cao et al. 1990, Li et Zhang 1993, 1994), we present the fourth part of Chi...

  7. Literature study on the relationship between the cold-heat nature of Chinese herbal medicine and the single compound of organic constituents%植物类中药寒热药性与有机成分单一化合物相关性的文献研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 王振国

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Study on the relationship between the cold-heat nature of Chinese herbal medicine and chemical constituents. Methods: Use the information from existing literatures; Collect chemical information of herbal medicine by document retrieval. Then use chemical informatics to collate the data and analyze it Establish Logistic regression equation based on the single compound of chemical constituents. Use the regression equation to distinguish cold-heat nature of herbs. Result: The Logistic regression equation could distinguish cold and heat natures of herbs. Conclusion: There is a correlation between cold-heat nature of Chinese herbal medicine and organic constituents.%目的:探寻化学成分与中药寒热属性的相关性.方法:利用现有文献提供的信息资料,通过文献检索收集植物药化学成分信息,利用化学信息学对资料进行整理,运用多种数据统计分析与挖掘方法分析化学信息数据,建立Logistic回归方程,对中药寒热属性进行判别.结果:以有机成分单一化合物建立的Logistic回归方程,可以对中药的寒热属性进行判别.结论:植物类中药寒热药性与有机成分有相关性.

  8. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    projects to acquiring more systemic properties. Chinese companies have acquired a broader sectoral presence in Indonesia and Chinese invested companies in e.g. extractive or manufacturing activities can increasingly rely on complementary Chinese investments in logistics, travel, finance etc....

  9. I Married a Chinese Woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEPHEN SAYERS

    1997-01-01

    He became known all over China because of his appearance on the national television competition "Foreigners Singing Chinese Songs."Dressed in traditional Chinese costume and accompanied by his Chinese wife,he Chinese Girl."In this article,Stephen Sayers tells about his marriage and his personal feelings during his five years in China,Stephen and his wife Candy just moved to Macao in July.In arecent letter he asked the editor to give the money for this article to the education-aiding"Hope project" and specified it for Guizhou.

  10. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  11. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  12. Organic World Language Teaching Method used for Beginning Learners of Chinese Language in USA--Take Scenic Middle School and Crater Renaissance High School for Instance%有机的世界语言教学法在美国初级汉语教学中的运用--以美国俄勒冈州Scenic Middle School和Crater Renaissance High School为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飘飘

    2015-01-01

    This thesis derives from the author's teaching practicum in America, and upon the basis of the current situations that arise in Chinese teaching there. Key to it was the collection and analysis the use of organic world language teaching meth-od in American Chinese class, and how it stimulates students in the class and how it improves teaching efficiency. It is hoped that this article can provide teaching practice and materials for the Chinese language teachers, which can help Chinese tea-ching development, and bring more discussion and practice of OWL teaching mode.%本文从笔者在美国的教学实践出发,在了解美国汉语教学现状的基础上,进一步重点分析了美国汉语课堂所运用的有机的世界语言教学法,以及使用此教学法如何更好地激发学生的学习兴趣,提高教学效率。希望通过本文,能为对外汉语教师提供教学实践的一些素材,为对外汉语在国内外的教学工作中提供有益的帮助,引发汉语教师对有机的世界语言教学法的教学模式进行深入的探讨与实践。

  13. Cardiovascular mortality of Chinese in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jing; Madhavan, Shantha; Alderman, Michael H

    1999-01-01

    To determine cardiovascular disease mortality among Chinese migrants in New York City and compare it to both that of residents in China and whites in New York City, mortality records for 1988 through 1992 for New York City and the 1990 US census data for New York City were linked. Age-specific death rates for urban China, reported by the World Health Organization, were used for comparison. The results show that male and female Chinese residents in New York City had lower mortality rates for a...

  14. Chinese Jiaotong Universities Presidents Delegation Visits Russia and Finland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Yang

    2014-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Russian St.Petersburg State Transport University and the Regional State Administrative Agency for Eastern Finland,the Chinese Jiao tong Universities Presidents Delegation,led by CPAFFC Secretary General Li Xikui,visited Russia and Finland,to attend the First Forum of Chinese and Russian Transport Universities’Presidents and hold exchanges with local governments and universities of Finland from May 19 to 26.The forum was jointly initiated and organized by the CPAFFC and

  15. Why Do I Study Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Translator’s Note: The cross language year program-the Chinese Language Year in France and the French Language Year in China-initiated by Chinese and French leaders were held in 2011 and 2012 to promote cultural exchanges and further deepen the China-France comprehensive strategic partnership. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the CPAFFC and the

  16. Danish Chinese Center for Nanometals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    The Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The Chinese partners in the Center are Institute of Metal Research in Shenyang, Tsinghua University and Chongqing University. The Danish part...

  17. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  18. Chinese Converstations: An Intellectual Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, John J.

    1980-01-01

    A profile of how Chinese urban intellectuals view life in their country is presented. Information was obtained through many conversations with Chinese educators and students during the author's visit to China. Discussed are family, education, the cultural revolution, the Gang of Four, the quest for modernization, and the policy toward…

  19. Chinese Festivals: Keeping Traditions Alive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    WE all love holidays and the happy gatherings of family and friends that they bring, and the Chinese are no exception. The Chinese celebrate festivals based on the lunar calendar dating back thousands ofyears. The popular favorite is Lunar New Year, or Spring Festival, which falls on the first day of the first

  20. Chinese private yards catch up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese shipbuilding industry was dominated by state-owned companies for a long time. In 2005, when a global shipbuilding summit was held in China for the first time, no Chinese private shipyards appeared except two national shipbuilders, namely COSCO and CSIC. However, in the same year, Rongsheng,Mingde and Hantong began their first step.

  1. Criminaliteit en traditionele Chinese medicijnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is deeply rooted in the Chinese culture. Although thousands of animal and plant species are used for medicines legally, some medications contain more sinister elements; illegal animal or plant ingredients of protected species. What is the origin of this demand for

  2. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from

  3. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  4. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LI Ru-long: Huang Diancheng's Great Contributions to Chinese Phonology Abstract: Huang Diancheng inherited the essence of traditional Chinese phonology and the research results of the Zhang and Huang School. On the basis of the analysis on the facts of modern dialects, he put forward the principle that Qiangsheng bi ruoyun,

  5. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  6. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Over 1.5 million women workers from 13,000 enterprises have joined the social coordinated system for child-bearing insurance funds in Zhejiang Province. The funds are paid by regular and contract workers and casual laborers from state-owned and collective enterprises and Chinese employees from joint ventures. The social labor insurance committees under the local governments at the city or county levels are in charge of the practical work for taking over the funds. The amounts of money each pays varies according to the different living standard and salary level in each area.

  7. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chinese children are taller and heavier than ever before. According to a national survey from 1995, the average height of children aged 7-14 was 142.3 centimeters, 2 centimeters taller than the average height of children in the same age group ten years before. The average weight was 31.9 kilograms, which is 2.8 kilograms heavier than children of the same age group in 1985. Such improvements must be credited to the development of China’s health care network for children. By the end of last

  8. Chinese Vegetarian Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ONCE in a restaurant specializing in vegetarian food in Hubei Province, I saw some dishes on the menu which did not sound like vegetarian food, such as chicken, duck, fish and pork. Only after I ordered and tasted did I understand that these were all made of bean products. Simply speaking, the Chinese vegetarian diet is comprised of grains, vegetables, bean products and fruits. It also includes bamboo shoots, mushrooms, edible fungus, aquatic plants and dried fruit. This kind of diet boasts a long history. As early as the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) and the early Han

  9. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  10. CHINESE COMMUNITY IN ECUADOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARIA JOSE CIFUENTES CERVANTES

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Republic Of Ecuador is located in the west coast of South America.It has a total area of 256.370 km2 and a population of approximately 14 million.Spanish is considered as the official language.The country is subdivided into 24 provinces with the capital city being Quito and the other major city being Guayaquil.Since the year 2000 US Dollar had been the official currency.Approximately 50,000 people from China live now in Ecuador.Although the Chinese community in Ecuador is not as large as those in Brazil and Peru, it has a strong economic and social weight in the country.

  11. Trust Produce and Trust Building:on the Trust of Chinese Non-profit Organization%信任产物和信任建构:中国非营利组织信任研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠

    2011-01-01

    非营利组织属于信任的产物。非营利组织产生后,需要通过外部信任体系和内部信任体系的建设提高自身的信任度。但是非营利组织的信任问题具有现实性。基于此,必须进一步加强内部信任体系和外部信任体系的建设,建立提升信任水平的社会结构。%Non-profit organizations are a product of trust.After establishing non-profit organization,it needed the construction of external and internal trust system to promote their confidence.But the trust problem of non-profit organization was reality.Based on this,it must strengthen further the construction of the internal and external trust system to build a social structure which can promote the level of confidence.

  12. Chinese Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-yue; Chen; Jun; Cheng; Fang-ling; Duan; Jian-gao; Fan; Xiao-ling; Fan; Li-min; Guo; Ming-zhou; Guo; Tao; Han; Jing-yuan; Liu; Xiong; Ma; Wei; Shen; Shi-guang; Feng; Xian-bo; Wang; Yun; Wu; Wen; Xie; Yao; Xie; Hui-chun; Xing; Ping-geYuan; Yong-ping; Yang; Fu-kui; Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy(HE)is a complex,neuropsychiatric abnormality that occurs as a consequence of metabolic disorders in patients with hepatic insufficiency.The pathogenesis is complex with a strong prognosticator of death.To standardize the clinical management of HE,relevant new data were reviewed and assessed by Chinese Committee of Experts on Hepatic Encephalopathy in China and was discussed and debated extensively.Then the consensus on the management of HE was developed.The final recommendations are based on the data available at the time of production of the document and may be updated with pertinent scientific developments at a later time.All the discussion was organized by the editorial board of Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Infectious Diseases(Electronic Edition),Chinese Journal of Liver Diseases(Electronic Edition)and Infection International(Electronic Edition).The evidence gradings in the consensus are listed in Table1.

  13. Biodegradability of leachates from Chinese and German municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SELIC E.; WANG Chi; BOES N., HERBELL J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative composition of Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW) differs significantly from German waste. The focus of this paper is on whether these differences also lead to dissimilar qualities of leachates during storage or landfilling. Leachates ingredients determine the appropriate treatment technique. MSW compositions of the two cities Guilin (China) and Essen (Germany), each with approx. 600000 inhabitants, are used to simulate Chinese and German MSW types. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is used, combining aerobic and anaerobic reaction principles, to test the biodegradability of leachates. Leachates are tested for temperature, pH-value, redox potentials, and oxygen concentration. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) values are determined. Within 8 h, the biodegradation rates for both kinds of leachates are more than 90%. Due to the high organic content of Chinese waste, the degradation rate for Guilin MSW leachate is even higher, up to 97%. The effluent from SBR technique is suitable for direct discharge into bodies of water.

  14. 包容性发展:新兴社会组织建设路径探析--基于中国哲学的整体观视角%Inclusive Development:An Analysis on Construction Path of Emerging Social Organizations from Perspective of Holistic View of Chinese Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳

    2016-01-01

    Based on binary opposition, the civil society theory, the cooperation theory, and the governance theory advocating a holistic government can hardly describe and explain the complex situations of the social organizations of China. Originated from Chinese philosophy, the holistic theory possesses not only the holistic vision that transcends binary opposition, but the trait of inclusiveness that other theories don’t possess,namely, the unlimited ontological inclusiveness, the inclusiveness in implementation, and holistic harmony. This paper analyzes the current situation of China’s emerging social organization construction from the perspective of holistic view of Chinese philosophy with its focus on the issues including the excessive intervention from administrative power, the credibility crisis and the plight of transformation and development the organizations are confronted with. It also proposes that the key to resolving the issues lies in the inclusive and holistic view for handling the relationship between government and society. It contends that formulating a system that balances inclusiveness and governance, a mechanism that lays equal stress on support and supervision, a structure that promotes the harmonious interaction between social organizations and external environment can facilitate the construction of emerging social organizations.%建立在二元对立基础之上的“市民社会论”“合作主义论”以及“整体政府”治理理论都难以完备地描述和解释中国社会组织的复杂境况。源自中国哲学的整体观既有超越二元对立的整体性视野,又有本体的无限包容性、施化运行的包容性和整体的和谐性等其他理论所不具备的包容性特质。以中国哲学整体观的理论视角分析我国新兴社会组织的发展现状,针对其面临的行政力量的过度干预、公信力危机、转型发展的困境等问题,提出破解问题的关键在于以整体、包容的视

  15. The Chinese Spallation Neutron Source Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal of the Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) project was granted in the beginning of 2002 after three review meetings, organized by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and other scientific organizations. Physicists from the Institute of Physics (IP) and the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), both belonging to CAS, consequently started a conceptual design and feasibility study. The CSNS plan calls for a 70-MeV H- linac and a 1.6 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron producing a proton current of 62.5 μA (100kW) at a 25 Hz repetition rate. It should be able to be upgraded to a higher beam power in its second phase. The CSNS target station design team, has initiated to conceptual design of the targetmoderator system based on the suggestions and comments from an international advisory team, in the first moderator-target planning meeting of CSNS project (21-26, April 2002 in Beijing). In consideration of the characteristics of the spallation neutron source, the budgets and possible requests for future users in China, five multi-purpose neutron scattering spectrometers were proposed as the first step

  16. Investigation on the Organization of Open Access Resources in Chinese Public Libraries%我国公共图书馆揭示开放获取资源现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋静

    2014-01-01

    文章调查分析了我国62家公共图书馆对于开放获取资源的揭示情况,分析其成果及存在的问题,并提出了未来的发展策略。%The article investigates the organization of open access resources of 62 public libraries in China, then analyzes its achievements and problems, and puts forward some strategies for improving collection development using open access resources.

  17. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OS. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OS intellectual...

  18. An Iterative Algorithm to Build Chinese Language Models

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, X; Luo, Xiaoqiang; Roukos, Salim

    1996-01-01

    We present an iterative procedure to build a Chinese language model (LM). We segment Chinese text into words based on a word-based Chinese language model. However, the construction of a Chinese LM itself requires word boundaries. To get out of the chicken-and-egg problem, we propose an iterative procedure that alternates two operations: segmenting text into words and building an LM. Starting with an initial segmented corpus and an LM based upon it, we use a Viterbi-liek algorithm to segment another set of data. Then, we build an LM based on the second set and use the resulting LM to segment again the first corpus. The alternating procedure provides a self-organized way for the segmenter to detect automatically unseen words and correct segmentation errors. Our preliminary experiment shows that the alternating procedure not only improves the accuracy of our segmentation, but discovers unseen words surprisingly well. The resulting word-based LM has a perplexity of 188 for a general Chinese corpus.

  19. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  20. The "Coop-Comp" Chinese Negotiation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    T. Fang

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the cultural roots of Chinese business negotiation strategy. The article argues that, Chinese culture, with its cooperative and competitive components, has bestowed upon Chinese negotiators a distinctive "coop-comp" negotiation strategy. The Chinese are culturally capable of negotiating both sincerely and deceptively at the international business negotiation table.

  1. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment beh

  2. Genetic Algorithm for Chinese Postman Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hua; Kang Li-shan

    2003-01-01

    Chinese Postman Problem is an unsettled graphic problem. It was approached seldom by evolutionary computation. Now we use genetic algorithm to solve Chinese Postman Problem in undirected graph and get good results. It could be extended to solve Chinese postman problem in directed graph. We make these efforts for exploring in optimizing the mixed Chinese postman problem.

  3. Multicultural Awareness for the Classroom: The Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Felix Mario; And Others

    This guide provides the teacher of multiethnic students with information and teaching resources on Chinese. An historical overview of China and the Chinese experience in America is presented in English and Chinese. Several lesson plans and classroom activities reviewing Chinese geography, holidays, legends, and stories are presented. (APM)

  4. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  5. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  6. 英汉商业文章(2008-2009年)中“经济是人”有机体隐喻的研究%Study of "Economy Is a Person" Organism Metaphor in English and Chinese Business Articles (dated 2008-2009)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳

    2012-01-01

      The rapid development of economy has aroused great interests of many distinguished scholars to apply contemporary cognitive theory to a specific genre named economic discourse. And diverse metaphorical expressions in business discourse are mainly from the five conceptual metaphors, i.e. business is a journey, business is a war, business is a game, business is a machine and business is an organism. Therefore, the thesis is aimed to focus on the organism metaphor to make an in-dept comparative study both in English and Chinese of its sub-categories: Economy Is a Person. By the comparative study, the paper is intended to figure out the similarities and differences of "Economy Is a Person" metaphors between these two languages and to reveal the underlying reasons-cognitive universality and cognitive diversity.%  经济的发展引起了许多著名的学者对当代认知理论的广泛关注,他们把研究延伸到了经济方面。经济语篇中不同的隐喻表达主要由以下五个概念隐喻引申而来:经济是旅程、经济是战争、经济是游戏、经济是机器以及经济是有机体。本文主要对英汉有机体隐喻的一个分支展开深入的调查和对比研究:经济是人。通过对比研究,旨在指出英汉“经济是人”有机体隐喻的异同,揭示导致这一异同的原因:认知的普遍性和差异性

  7. On the Ownership Structure and Business Organization of Chinese Culture IndustryA Case Study on Mountain Mian in Shanxi%论中国文化产业的产权配置与企业组织——以山西绵山为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世海

    2011-01-01

    在未来的中国,文化产业将会成为一个重要的产业门类,在国民经济中所占的比重将会越来越大。发展文化产业需要大量的社会资源。由于这些资源在产权方面多具有公共属性,因此,必须首先对它们的产权进行合理配置。在清晰的产权之下,企业需要建立完善而高效的组织,推出高质量的产品和服务,并进行营销。在产权配置与企业组织方面,山西的绵山是一个成功的案例,它对中国的文化产业具有深远的启示意义。%In future China, Culture Industry will become an important industrial sector, and the portion of cultural industry will become greater in national economy. To develop culture industry need much social resources, as most of these resources have public ownership, so the property rights must have rational disposition. After clearly establishing the ownership, the business must establish perfect and efficient organization, produce high quality products and service, and then market them. On the ownership structure and business organization, Mountain Mian in Shanxi is a successful case, which has profound implication to Chinese culture industry.

  8. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  9. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  10. The Analysis of the Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓慧

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of pragmatic studies, politeness has aroused great interest among Chinese scholars. Different cultures have different traditions and values, which bring out different understanding and application of politeness strategies. Great Chinese culture brings out the complicated Chinese politeness scale. A successful communication depends on politeness principle. Learning the Chinese politeness scale will make we know more about the Chinese culture. By researching this, we will perform better in communication.

  11. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Fung Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publicatio...

  12. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    2013-01-01

    enterprises supplemented with key informant interviews, available official statistics and secondary data. Considering the evolution of Chinese investments in Indonesia over time, investments have evolved from being individual and isolated projects to acquiring more systemic properties. Chinese companies have...... acquired a broader sectoral presence in Indonesia and Chinese invested companies in, e.g., extractive or manufacturing activities can increasingly rely on complementary Chinese investments in logistics, travel, finance, etc. Where the local development effects are concerned, a picture emerges where Chinese...

  13. Price Premiums for Organic Food from Australia and China

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    Australian consumers (N=221) were surveyed to establish their valuations of food, based on provenance, organic status and eco-labelling. For Chinese produce "Organic" attracted a 6.4% premium, and "Certified Organic" a 11.6% premium. This compares to Australian produce which attracted a 7.9% premium for "Organic", and a 16.5% premium for "Certified Organic". For Chinese produce "Natural" added a 1.7% premium and "Eco" a 2.9% premium, compared to Australian produce which added a 2.6% premium f...

  14. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Study on the Application of Mass Media and English Han cui xia (ShanDong BinZhou medical college ShanDong YanTai 264003)Read and Write Periodica,vol.9, No.5,16,2012(ISSN1672-1578,in,Chinese ) Abstract: Rapid technological development of mass media and Internt chances of improvement. This paper analyzes the present situation of adult teaching and learning of English and the application of mass media and Internet in it in the hope of changing the present situation and improving the effect in order for adult learners to benefit more from it.. Key words: mass media; Internet; adult education; teaching and learning of English

  15. TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930433 A study on relationship between hy-pothyroidism and deficiency of kidney YANG.ZHA Lianglun(查良伦),et al.lnstit Integr TCM& West Med,Shanghai Med Univ,Shanghai,200040.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 1993;13(4):202—204.Thirty—two cases of hypothyroidism causedby various factors were treated for one year withChinese medicinal herbs preparation“Shen Lutablet”(SLT)to warm and reinforce the KidneyYang.34 normal persons were studied as a con-trol group.After treatment with SLT,the clini-cal symptoms of hypothyroidism were markedlyimproved.Average serum concentration of totalT3,T4 increased significantly from 67.06±4.81

  16. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Immunohistochemistry of Harder's Glands of Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ping; GAO Guisheng; SHI Qiumei; LI Min

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of action of Chinese herbal medicine, the immunocells of Harder's glands were observed.The healthy Hy-Line Brown chickens of 12-day-old were divided into three groups randomly. The chickens in group 1 and 2 drank the water with 0.5% and 1% Chinese herbal medicine immunopromoter every day. The chickens in group 3 as control drank pure water. The Harder's glands of the chickens from 0.5% group, 1% group and control group at 24, 36 and 48 d after drinking medicine respectively were made into histological section. And then the histological sections were observed histologically. The results showed that Chinese herbal medicine could increase the quantity of the immunocells in glandular organs conspicuously. Immunopotentiator of Chinese herbal medicine could promote the amount and growth of secreted immunoglobuline and elevate the immune level of the organism, and the effect of 1% group was higher than that of 0.5% group.

  17. Comparison between English and Chinese Repeated References to the Same Thing and Parallel Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽红

    2013-01-01

      Chinese and English are two very different languages;the former belongs to the Sino-Tibetan Language Family and the latter the Indo-European Language Family. In terms of textual organization, they show substantial differences. Chinese is mainly a pragmatic, paratactic and topic-prominent language, while English a grammatical, hypotactic and subject-prominent language. This thesis gives a contrastive study of two problems in English and Chinese. They are repeated references to the same thing and parallel structure. In this way, the translation work will be more succinct and smooth.

  18. Chinese Expert Consensus for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cholestatic Liver Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Cholestatic liver disease (CLD) is a common problem in clinical practice with the main manifestation being cholestasis.Recently,there has been a steady increase in knowledge associated with the diagnosis and treatment of CLD.Therefore,the experts in China were organized by the editorial board of Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Infectious Diseases (Electronic Edition),Chinese Journal of Liver Diseases (Electronic Edition) and Infection International (Electronic Edition) to collect and analyze relevant research,ultimately resulting in the development of this work (Chinese Expert consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of CLDs,also abbreviated as consensus).

  19. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives.

  20. Chinese Family: Some New Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    It is a familiar sight in many Chinese cities to witness a large team escorting a baby pram in public: mother, grandmothers, ayi (nan-ny), another ayi maybe, grandfathers quiet possible, and finally tither if you are lucky.

  1. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  2. "Fractal Expression" in Chinese Calligraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuelin

    2008-01-01

    We show that from historical record and mathematic analysis, "fractal expressions" may have been a conscious pursuit at least one thousand years ago as an element of beauty in ancient Chinese calligraphy.

  3. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  4. An exploratory study of global leaders' and Chinese managers' leadership constructs in multinational corporations in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lake

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the leadership constructs of global leaders and Chinese managers in multi-national corporations (MNCs) in order to understand whether their constructs are misaligned, and if so, in what ways. To address these questions, data was gathered via repertory grid test interviews with 31 global leaders and 59 Chinese managers in six MNCs’ China organizations. Analysis subsequently revealed that global leaders rely upon twelve key constructs to define global leaders...

  5. Effect of food restriction on the energy metabolism of the Chinese bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    LIANG, Qing-Jian; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Jia-Qi; Chen, Qian; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Liu, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Food resources play an important role in the regulation of animals’ physiology and behavior. We investigated the effect of short-term food restriction on metabolic thermogenesis of Chinese bulbuls (Pycnonotus sinensis) by measuring changes in body mass, body fat, basic metabolic rate (BMR), and organ mass of wild-caught Chinese bulbuls from Wenzhou, China. Short-term food restriction induced a significant decrease in body mass and body fat but body mass returned to normal levels soon after fo...

  6. Enabling Intrapreneurship : A Case of A Chinese Family Business and SMEs in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Woan Tyng

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct an exploratory study into the intrapreneurial behavior in southeast Chinese family business firms. This is very much in response to the fact that current available literatures in corporate entrepreneurship are mainly focused on western well-established organizations. Whereas, the study of corporate entrepreneurship in Chinese family business context are still lacking.This study target discloses whether the enablers of corporate entrepreneurship, which...

  7. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  8. The chinese health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese h...... healthcare system. The current situation will be further challenged in the future by an aging population, an increasing need for privatization and growing expectations about quality of healthcare....

  9. English and Chinese language ambiguity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海

    2009-01-01

    This article from the Voice of Ambiguity,Lexical Ambiguity and Ambiguity in the three aspects of the grammatical structure of English and Chinese languages are compared ambiguity And analysis.Ambiguity in English and Chinese language through the comparison,resulted in two languages to explore the reasons for ambiguity;analysis of the characteristics of English language ambiguities;Research Should not be some ambiguity on how to avoid the emergence of the phenomenon.

  10. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  11. The art of Chinese management?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlevogt, Kai-Alexander.

    1998-01-01

    An empirical study was undertaken (a) to examine the characteristics, influencing factors, and effectiveness of a distinctive Chinese management model adopted by the newly founded private enterprises in mainland China, as well as (b) to test the "fit" notion in contingency theory. The study was based on a random sample of 124 standardized personal interviews with CEOs of Chinese industrial and service companies in Beijing and Shanghai. The standardized questionnaire mainly con...

  12. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  13. Chinese Loan Words in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜战莹

    2015-01-01

    English language is the most common working language.In the history of its development,English has widened its vocabulary by borrowing.Borrowing plays an important role in the formation of modern English.Chinese loan words are a part in the family of all the loan words.Therefore,the number of loan words which originate from Chinese is not that great,but they hold an important role in contemporary English.

  14. Who Will Save Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Like a drama unfolding in a riveting suspense novel, the quadrennial global football gala is becoming more and more compelling as the climax approaches. Billions of people are glued to the tube watching the World Cup in Germany, and Chinese football fans are following the countdown with the rest of the world. According to a poll by China Central Television, the national broadcaster, World Cup games have attracted combined viewers of at least 10 billion. For Chinese football enthusiasts, however, the joy ...

  15. Community-level Language Planning for Chinese Heritage Language Maintenance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Chung Cheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of Chinese heritage language in the United States from the perspective of language policy and planning. The case study examines the Chinese heritage language maintenance through community-based Chinese schools (CHS, and CHS’s relationships with Chinese American community, as well as governments and non-government organizations in China, Taiwan, and the United States. The paper starts with a theoretical discussion on the definition of language policy and planning, and then describes the history and heritage language education of Chinese Americans in the United States. The paper also presents micro-level planning activities initiated by CHSs in the Chinese American community and non-government organizations. Special focus is placed on the interaction between non-government organizations in the US and governmental bodies in Taiwan and mainland China and in the United States. This paper suggests that micro planning of heritage language maintenance is beneficial when initiated in the community, but it can only be developed and sustained within the wider scope of macro-level planning from governments

  16. Monte Carlo simulation for internal radiation dosimetry based on the high resolution Visible Chinese Human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal radiation dose calculations based on Chinese models is important in nuclear medicine. Most of the existing models are based on the physical and anatomical data of Caucasian, whose anatomical structure and physiological parameters are quite different from the Chinese, may lead significant effect on internal radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the model based on the Chinese ethnic characteristics, and applied to radiation dosimetry calculation. In this study, a voxel model was established based on the high resolution Visible Chinese Human (VCH). The transport procedure of photon and electron was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Absorbed fraction (AF) and specific absorbed fraction (SAF) were calculated and S-factors and mean absorbed doses for organs with 99mTc located in liver were also obtained. In comparison with those of VIP-Man and MIRD models, discrepancies were found to be correlated with the racial and anatomical differences in organ mass and inter-organ distance. The internal dosimetry data based on other models that were used to apply to Chinese adult population are replaced with Chinese specific data. The obtained results provide a reference for nuclear medicine, such as dose verification after surgery and potential radiation evaluation for radionuclides in preclinical research, etc. (authors)

  17. Chinese kindergartners learn to read characters analytically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; McBride, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Do Chinese children implicitly extract information from Chinese print before they are formally taught to read? We examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to regularities in Chinese characters and the relationship between such sensitivity and later literacy ability. Eighty-five kindergartners from Beijing were given a character-learning task and assessed on word reading and word writing twice within a 1-year interval. Sensitivity to the structural and phonetic regularities in Chinese appeared in 4-year-olds, and sensitivity to the positions of radicals in Chinese characters emerged in 5-year-olds. Such sensitivities explained unique variance in Chinese word reading and writing 1 year later, with age and nonverbal IQ statistically controlled. Young children detected regularities in written Chinese before they received formal instruction in it, which underscores both the importance of early statistical learning for literacy development and the analytic properties of Chinese print.

  18. Research on Chinese Agricultural Industrialization Based on SCP Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking the SCP mode of industrial organization theory as the starting point,the paper analyzes Chinese agricultural market structure,market conduct and conduct performance and draws lessons from foreign experiences in developing agriculture.In the process of agricultural industrialization,Chinese agricultural development exists the problems of low intensive degree,low degree of differential products,surplus labor forces,low agricultural profit rate and low industrial contribution rate and farmers’ difficultly in adapting to market competition.The paper puts forward suggestions for addressing the problems,which include underpinning the cooperation of operation main bodies and developing rural cooperative organizations;promoting land transfer and clarifying land property;accelerating rural surplus labors transfer and abating trade barriers;increasing technology input and improving the contribution rate of technologies;improving circulation channels and intensifying agricultural competitiveness.

  19. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of World Health Organization Quality of Life-Disability Scales for physical disability%世界卫生组织残疾人生存质量量表一般残疾版本中文版的信效度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琪; 郑巧兰; 梁左宜; 陈新林; 方积乾; 陶健婷; 阮剑华; 艾秋香; 郝元涛

    2012-01-01

    目的:检验世界卫生组织残疾人生存质量量表一般残疾版本(WHOQOL-DIS Scales for PD)中文版的可接受性、信度和效度,以便用于中国残疾人的生存质量的研究.方法:采用多阶段分层随机抽样的方法,从广州市抽取一般残疾人(除智力残疾的其他残疾人)807名.间隔1周后,对自愿进行重复调查的109人进行重测.对量表进行可接受性、信度和效度检验,并以生活满意度量表(SWLS)为校标.结果:量表回收率为99.2%,除了性生活满意度条目缺失率为35.7%,其余条目的缺失率均小于5.0%.量表5个领域的Cronbach α系数为0.77 ~0.84;间隔1周后重测ICC为0.82 ~0.91.量表条目与所属领域得分的秩相关系数为0.30 ~0.84,高于与其他领域的相关性;验证性因子分析显示量表的拟合较好(x2=2405.57,df=569,RMSEA=0.06,GFI=0.85,CFI=0.87);量表5个领域得分与SWLS得分呈正相关(r=0.15~0.45,均P<0.05).结论:世界卫生组织残疾人生存质量量表一般残疾版本中文版具有较好的可接受性、信度和效度,可用于中国残疾人生存质量的研究.%Objective: To examine the acceptability, reliability and validity of the Chinese version of World Health Organization Quality of Life-Disability Scales for physical disability (WHOQOL-DIS Scales for PD) for the study of quality of life of Chinese with disability. Methods: A sample of 807 persons with physical disability (per-sons with disability except for those with intellectual disability) in Guangzhou was recruited through multi-stage sampling method, 109 of them were volunteered to be retested one week later. The scales were accessed with accessibility and reliability as well as validity. Also the Satisfaction with Life Scale was used as the criteria to exam the criteria validity. Results: The response rate of WHOQOL-DIS Scales for PD was 99. 2% , missing item rate was less than 5. 0% except for the item about sexual life with missing rate

  20. 美国集团采购组织分析及对我国药品采购的启示%Analysis on the group purchasing organizations in the United States and its implications for Chinese drug procurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵蓉; 谢金平; 蒋蓉

    2014-01-01

    本文采用文献研究法,详细地分析了美国集团采购组织的基本特质及其对医疗卫生体制的影响。主要内容包括集团采购组织在美国的发展历程、组织类型、基本职能、采购药品的流程及其主要费用来源,集团采购组织的特点及对医院、供应商、监管机构产生的影响。研究认为,集团采购组织为美国医疗保健提供方节约了大量成本,在医疗供应链中发挥着重要作用。建议创新与完善我国药品采购制度应更大范围、更深程度地引入市场机制,妥善协调政府与市场在药品采购中的作用;并科学设置评标方法,兼顾药品质量与价格要素,注重采购的经济实用性。%In this paper, basic characteristics of group purchasing organizations ( GPOs) and its implications for US health care system are analyzed using a literature research method. The main contents include the development process, type, basic functions, drug procurement processes, fee sources, characteristics and influence for the hospi-tals, supplies, regulators of GPOs. We suggest that GPOs have helped US health care providers save a lot of money and played an important role in the healthcare supply chain. We also suggest that market mechanisms should be intro-duced widely concerning the model innovation and improvement of domestic drug procurement. At the same time, government and the market should be coordinated properly. Moreover, scientific evaluation methods should be set in consideration of drug quality, prices and its economic practicality.

  1. THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION FOR LARGE CHINESE FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Nolan; Jin Zhang

    2002-01-01

    As China joins the World Trade Organization, the author questions whether China’s large firms will be able to compete on the global level playing field. Over the past two decades, Chinese large enterprises have undertaken extensive evolutionary change but, at the same time, the world’s leading firms have undergone a revolutionary transformation. Based on analysis of firms with the aerospace, oil and petrochemical industry, the authors conclude that China’s leading firms face critical challeng...

  2. Telocytes in ileum of the Chinese giant salamander: ultrastructural evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Hui ZHANG; Zhong, Shengwei; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Yu, Pengcheng; Zhou, Zuohong; Guo, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Telocytes (TCs) and their telopodes (Tps) have been found in various organs of many mammals, including in lower animals. However, knowledge of TCs in lower animals is still very limited. This study identified TCs and their Tps in the ileum of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus (Amphibia: Caudata), by transmission electron microscopy. The TCs/Tps were found near epithelial cells, glandular cells and unmyelinated nerve fibres. Moreover, exosomes were also found to be pres...

  3. Chinese Township-Village Enterprises as Vaguely Defined Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, C.; Weitzman, ML

    1994-01-01

    This paper concerns the paradoxes and dilemmas raised by Chinese township-village enterprises. The main purpose of the paper is to argue that a TVE is best described as a vaguely defined cooperative, meaning an essentially communal organization quite far removed from having a well defined ownership structure. The extraordinary success of the TVEs presents a severe challenge for traditional property rights theory, which we investigate in the paper. J. Comp. Econom., April 1994, 18(2), pp. 121-...

  4. Effect of extracts of Chinese pine on its own seed germination and seedling growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiqiu ZHU; Changming MA; Ying WANG; Lili ZHANG; Hui WANG; Yuxin YUAN; Kejiu DU

    2009-01-01

    The allelopathic potential of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) against its own seed germination and seedling growth was tested with aqueous extracts (0.01, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.10 g·mL-1) obtained from different organs (roots and litter needles) at different individual ages (12, 52, and 110 years old). The results showed that root and litter extracts had different effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and the effects varied with the concentrations, the organs, and the tree age of extracts. The strongest stimulatory effect on seed germination of Chinese pine was exposed to 0.02g·mL-1 root extract from the 110 years old Chinese pine trees and exposed to 0.02 g·mL-1 litter extract from the 12 years old Chinese pine trees. Meanwhile, the strongest stimulatory effect on growth of Chinese pine seedlings was exposed not only to 0.01 g·mL-1 root extracts from the 110 years old Chinese pine but also to 0.01 g·mL-1 litter extract from the 12 years old Chinese pine. The promoting effect of the extracts of root on seed germination and seedling growth increased in the order of 12, 52, and 110 years old. The promoting effect of the extracts of litter on seed germination and seedling growth increased in the order of 110, 52, and 12 years old. Our results suggested that litter leachates or root exudates of Chinese pine may influence the natural regeneration within Chinese pine stands via the release of allelochemicals into the environment.

  5. Review of History and Recent Development of Organic Farming Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The history of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed in this paper. The development of the organic farming worldwide had gone through three stages, emergence, expansion, and growth. The contributors and their thoughts during the different development stages of the organic farming were briefly introduced. And the development status of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed from the aspects of land area under organic management, land area under organic management in percentage of total agricultural area, and world markets for organic products. Besides, the main existing problems for the further development of the world's organic farming, as well as the development status, problems and strategies of the Chinese organic farming were discussed.

  6. 强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染的Meta分析%Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓珍; 李永刚; 林川; 黄海溶

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. Methods Literatures from Chinese and English databases published between 1966 and March of 2014 were screened for relevant randomized controlled trials(RCTs).The software package of Review Manager 5.2(Cochrane Collaboration) was used for data analysis.Results 13 RCTs involving 930 patients were included in the study. Doxycycline plus oral TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate (P<0.01)and Cure rate (P<0.01)for the studies;Doxycycline plus external TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate(P<0.01)and Cure rate(P<0.01)for the studies. In addition,Doxycycline plus TCM was inferior to Doxycycline alone in terms of adverse effects rate (RR=0.68,95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03).Conclusion Doxycycline combined with TCM was effective in treating mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. But the results were limited quality and sample,More RCTs with high quality and large sample size should be conducted.%目的:评价强力霉素联合中药治疗女性支原体感染的疗效及安全性。方法通过检索1966年—2014年3月期间中英文数据库,运用Endnote软件筛选相关随机对照试验(randomized controlled trial,RCT)研究。采用RevMan5.2软件进行Meta分析。结果共纳入13项RCT,1107例患者,其中7项强力霉素联合口服中药,6项强力霉素联合外用中药。根据给药方式进行亚组分析,强力霉素联合口服中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01);强力霉素联合外用中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01)。强力霉素联合中药组不良反应发生率是单用强力霉素组的0.68倍(95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03)。结论强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体

  7. Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ:a meta-analysis%强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓珍; 李永刚; 林川; 黄海溶

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价强力霉素联合中药治疗女性支原体感染的疗效及安全性。方法通过检索1966年—2014年3月期间中英文数据库,运用Endnote软件筛选相关随机对照试验(randomized controlled trial,RCT)研究。采用RevMan5.2软件进行Meta分析。结果共纳入13项RCT,1107例患者,其中7项强力霉素联合口服中药,6项强力霉素联合外用中药。根据给药方式进行亚组分析,强力霉素联合口服中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01);强力霉素联合外用中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01)。强力霉素联合中药组不良反应发生率是单用强力霉素组的0.68倍(95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03)。结论强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染有一定疗效,但受纳入研究质量和样本量的限制,以上结论需更多高质量研究予以验证。%Objectives This study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. Methods Literatures from Chinese and English databases published between 1966 and March of 2014 were screened for relevant randomized controlled trials(RCTs).The software package of Review Manager 5.2(Cochrane Collaboration) was used for data analysis.Results 13 RCTs involving 930 patients were included in the study. Doxycycline plus oral TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate (P<0.01)and Cure rate (P<0.01)for the studies;Doxycycline plus external TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate(P<0.01)and Cure rate(P<0.01)for the studies. In addition,Doxycycline plus TCM was inferior to Doxycycline alone in terms of adverse effects rate (RR=0.68,95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03).Conclusion Doxycycline combined with TCM was effective in treating mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ

  8. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive Warm-up in Jiang Hua (Department of Foreign Language, Modern College of Northwest University, Xi'an 710130, China)Read and Write Perodica,vol.9,No.10,10,2012 (ISSN1672 -1578,in, Chinese) Abstract: Classroom teaching activities should be an interactive process, which includes not only interaction between teachers and students but also includes the interaction between students and learning materials and the interaction between students and design activities in class. These interaction processes will directly affect the students learning interest and the effect. So classroom interactions are very important. But how to present these interactions well and make them educational in the classroom is a question which needs considered carefully by teachers. Because of the warm-up is the key part for teachers to introduce the whole unit and stimulate the interests of students, this article mainly discusses the warming-up part of college English teaching, to improve the classroom interactions, and stimulate the students' study enthusiasm and the initiative. Key words: Interaction; Educational; Warm-up

  9. The measurement of organic radiation dose of multi-slice CT scanning by using the Chinese anthropomorphic chest phantom%中国人仿真胸部体模检测多层螺旋CT扫描组织器官剂量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭刚; 曾勇明; 罗天友; 赵峰; 张志伟; 郁仁强; 彭盛坤

    2011-01-01

    目的 利用中国人仿真胸部模型来测量不同噪声指数下胸部各组织器官的吸收剂量,计算有效剂量(ED)并对MSCT胸部扫描进行剂量评估.方法 对CDP-1C型中国人仿真胸部体模在CT体层解剖和X线衰减两方面进行等效性论证;通过在体模内布放热释光剂量计(TLD)来测量不同噪声水平下各组织器官的吸收剂量,并记录相应的剂量长度乘积(DLP);将两者分别换算为ED后选择单因素t检验方法进行对比研究,分析自动管电流调制(ATCM)技术时不同噪声指数胸部CT扫描的剂量水平.结果 中国人仿真胸部体模与成人CT胸部图像的结构相似.体模主要器官平均CT值为肺-788.04 HU、心脏45.64 HU、肝脏65.84 HU、脊柱254.32 HU,与成人偏差程度分别为肺0.10%、心脏3.04%、肝脏4.49%、脊柱4.36%.肝脏的平均CT值差异有统计学意义(t=-8.705,P<0.05);肺、心脏和脊柱平均CT值与人体差异无统计学意义(t值分别为-0.752、-1.219、-1.138,P>0.05).当噪声指数从8.5逐渐增至22.5时,DLP从393.57 mGy·cm递减至78.75 mGy·cm,各器官吸收剂量呈下降趋势(以肺为例,平均吸收剂量从22.38 mGy递减至3.66 mGy).应用DLP所计算的ED较器官吸收剂量计算的ED偏低(以噪声指数为8.5为例,两种方法的ED分别为6.69和8.77 mSv).结论 应用中国人仿真体模来进行CT剂量评估更为准确;基于ATCM技术的胸部CT扫描噪声指数设定至少应大于8.5.%Objective Using the Chinese anthropomorphic chest phantom to measure the absorbed dose of various tissues and organs under different noise index, and to assess the radiation dose of MSCT chest scanning with the effective dose(ED). Methods The equivalence of the Chinese anthropomorphic chest phantom(CDP-1C) and the adult chest on CT sectional anatomy and X-ray attenuation was demonstrated. The absorbed doses of various tissues and organs under different noise index were measured by laying thermoluminescent

  10. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  11. Private international Law in Chinese Courts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jin; DU Huanfang

    2006-01-01

    After the entry of China into World Trade Organization,there are problems such as jurisdiction,application of law,and judicial assistance,which need to be resolved step by step in judicial practice on foreign-related civil and commercial matters.As for private and international law problems in the Chinese courts,this paper analyses some general issues,including renovi,inter-temporal conflicts,and proof of foreign laws;reviews jurisdiction problems,for example,common jurisdiction versus special jurisdiction,selective jurisdiction versus presumptive jurisdiction and exclusive jurisdiction;discusses the choice of law problems such as the principle of party autonomy,the principle of the most significant judgment and international commercial arbitral award.

  12. An Analysis of Chinese Search Engine Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Tao; Wallach, Dan S

    2011-01-01

    The imposition of government mandates upon Internet search engine operation is a growing area of interest for both computer science and public policy. Users of these search engines often observe evidence of censorship, but the government policies that impose this censorship are not generally public. To better understand these policies, we conducted a set of experiments on major search engines employed by Internet users in China, issuing queries against a variety of different words: some neutral, some with names of important people, some political, and some pornographic. We conducted these queries, in Chinese, against Baidu, Google (including google.cn, before it was terminated), Yahoo!, and Bing. We found remarkably aggressive filtering of pornographic terms, in some cases causing non-pornographic terms which use common characters to also be filtered. We also found that names of prominent activists and organizers as well as top political and military leaders, were also filtered in whole or in part. In some ca...

  13. Talk on Chinese brand name translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文文

    2009-01-01

    A brand is shown by a name , a word , a sign , a symbol , a design or a combination of them. Brand-naming itself represents a strategically important issue and may determine the success or failure of a product.Along with the globalization of world economy, especially with China's entry into the World Trade Organization, more and more Chinese have realized the importance of good brand names and international brand names in promoting sales and cultivating markets. The essay attempts to make some study on the topic. In the first part, the essay talks about cultural difference. In the second part, it suggests some appropriate principles to guide the translation. In the third part, the essay provides some flexibly used methods to deal with the problems in translation.

  14. Critical Success Factors for Electronic Commerce in Chinese Electronic Information Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Critical success factors (CSF) for electronic commerce (EC) are important for enterprises.This research discusses both assessment indicators and impact factors for EC success to help Chinese enterprises to achieve successful EC implementations. On the basis of literature review and experts survey, the research suggests some assessment indicators and impact factors for EC success. A hypothesis is proposed that leadership, strategy, management, organization, technology, customers,and suppliers factors would affect EC success. Furthermore, the research conducts an empirical study on the Chinese Electronic Information Industry to verify the hypothesis. Using factor analysis and regression analysis, the research finds out several critical factors--leadership, strategy, and organization--and critical sub-factors, such as leadership belief and organization management. These findings indicate the usefulness of this research model, especially for Chinese enterprises.

  15. The Chinese-American Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, S.H.

    1990-05-01

    The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Oscar Montelius and Chinese Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, the world-famous Swedish archaeologist, had a key role in the development of modern scientific Chinese archaeology and the discovery of China’s prehistory. We know that one of his major works, Die Methode, the first volume of his Älteren kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, translated into Chinese in the 1930s, had considerable influence on generations of Chinese archaeologists and art historians. What has previously remained unknown, is that Montelius personally promoted the research undertaken in China by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960, whose discoveries of Neolithic cultures in the 1920s constituted the breakthrough and starting point for the development of prehistoric archaeology in China. In this paper, we reproduce, translate and discuss a long forgotten memorandum written by Montelius in 1920 in support of Andersson’s research. In this Montelius indicated his belief in the potential of prehistoric Chinese archaeology as well as his predictions regarding the discoveries about to be made. It is therefore an important document for the study of the history of Chinese archaeology as a whole.

  17. Traditional Chinese materia medica: a retrospect and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lu Bay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available For thousands of years, traditional medicine and remedies have been practed and used in the fight against disease in China. They have proved to be valuable and the distillate of vast historical experience based on field-tested human experiments, long-term observations and clinical trials. The Chinese people belive that traditional medicine is consistent with theirown culture. Endowed with a unique theoretical system and provided outstanding clinical results, traditional Chinese medicine continues to play an important role in helping the Chinese nation flourish. The recent study of traditional medicinal plants in Chine has given us confidence that what was recorded in ancient medical literature through empirical observations is indeed still coindicent with the concepts of modern chemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The task of revealing what is valid and efficacious should be retained, and what is mythic and invalid should be discarded in traditional Chinese medicine may require scientific research lasting for several generations. Therfore, multidisciplinary cooperation and international collaboration in this field would be essential. Systematic coordination of work in traditional medicine by word organizations, national governments, private foundations and individual scientists is a requisite as well.

  18. Individualized and Depoliticized: A Study of Chinese Blogosphere in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Soon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on new media such as blogs examines users’ motivations and gratifications, and how individuals and organizations use them for political participation. In Singapore, political blogs have attracted much public scrutiny due to the bloggers’ online and offline challenges of official discourse. While previous research has established the political significance of these blogs, extant scholarship is limited to blogs written in the English language. Little is known about blogs maintained by the Chinese community, the largest ethnic group in multi-racial Singapore. This study is a first to examine this community and the space they inhabit online. Through web crawling, we identified 201 Chinese-language blogs and through content analysis, we analyzed if Chinese bloggers contributed to public debates and used their blogs for civic engagement. Their content, motivations for blogging in the language, hyperlinking practices and use of badges indicated that Chinese bloggers in Singapore do not use blogs for political participation and mobilization, but are individualized and a-politicized. We discuss possible reasons and implications in this paper.

  19. Traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    @@ Further progress has been made in the traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer over the past few years, especially in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment principle, improvement of therapeutic results and prolonging the survival.

  20. Chinese Private Direct Investment and Overseas Chinese Network in Africa%Chinese Private Direct Investment and Overseas Chinese Network in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Song

    2011-01-01

    Based on extensive interviews in China and in Africa over 2 years, the present paper investigates Chinese private direct investment in Africa. Drawing on the Swedish Uppsala model, we explore two mian issues. First, do Chinese private enterprises follow t

  1. "Uighur's Contributions to the Ancient Chinese Culture"

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIN, Geng

    2010-01-01

    In this my paper I speak briefly on the contributions made by the Uighurs and their ancestors to the Chinese civilization. Of course, the Chinese people also made great contributions to the civilization of Uighur people

  2. Translating Chinese Zero Anaphoric Subjects into English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher-leng

    1993-01-01

    Deals with a major difference between European languages and Chinese, namely the sparse use of anaphoric reference in Chinese. Suggests that the translator's way of rendering references will affect the interpretational potential of the text in the target language. (NKA)

  3. A Primer on Chinese Music Instruments Released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuSan

    2005-01-01

    Chinese traditional musical instruments, with a history of 8,000 years, are known for their diverse forms and types. The qualities, functions and materials of these instrunents reflect the unique aesthetic value of Chinese traditional music.

  4. Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

  5. 我国社会组织管理法治化的制度建构--基于社会组织功能定位的分析%The System Construction of Management Legalization of Chinese Social Organizations---An Analysis Based on the Functional Location of Social Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艺璇

    2014-01-01

    As the principal subject and support of social governance ,social organizations play a critical role in promoting the modernization of the national governance system and capacity .However ,in the existing management system of social organizations ,there are still many problems rooted in the misunderstanding of the social organizations ,w hich leads to the absence of related provisions of the rights and responsibili‐ties and the difficulty of judicial intervention .In order to establish the modern system of social organiza‐tions with“separation between government and community ,clearly defined rights and responsibilities and self‐governing by laws”and promote the legalization of the management of social organizations ,it is es‐sential to start from the construction of the management system of social organizations toward the target of guaranteeing the citizens’ right of association ,to specify the legal status of social organizations ,to im‐prove the responsibility system and to realize the transformation of social organizations from the national pattern to the social one .%社会组织是社会治理的重要主体和依托,在推进国家治理体系和治理能力的现代化中起着重要作用。现行社会组织管理体制中存在的诸多问题,根源在于对社会组织认识的偏差,致使相关权责规定的缺失和司法介入的困难。要形成“政社分开、权责明确、依法自治”的现代社会组织体制,推进社会组织管理的法治化,需要从构建以保障公民结社权为目标的社会组织管理体制入手,明确社会组织的法律地位,完善责任制度,实现社会组织从国家模式向社会模式的转向。

  6. Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingjin

    2015-01-01

    In his article "Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature" Yingjin Zhang revisits the challenge of mapping Chinese literature as world literature in three steps: 1) he delineates of positions of view as proposed by Western scholars who engaged in rethinking world literature(s) in the age of globalization, 2) evaluates consequences of such a new mapping for Chinese literature and tests a different set of "technologies of recognition" (Shih) in the context of Chinese versus Sinophone studi...

  7. Introduction to CRM Systems in Chinese SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoting

    2015-01-01

    CRM (Customer Relationship Management) is an efficient management tool for an enterprise to improve the service level and customer relationships. However, CRM is not widely applied by Chinese SMEs. The implementation of CRM still faces some problems in Chinese CRM market. In this thesis is CRM systems applied in Chinese SMEs were discussed Chinese,including the current situation of CRM and what the SMEs need from a CRM system. In addition, it was discussed how to implement a CRM system in...

  8. The Lancaster Corpus of Mandarin Chinese.

    OpenAIRE

    McEnery, A. M.; Xiao, R. Z.

    2003-01-01

    The Lancaster Corpus of Mandarin Chinese (LCMC) addresses an increasing need within the research community for a publicly available balanced corpus of Mandarin Chinese. LCMC has been constructed as part of a research project undertaken by the Linguistics Department, Lancaster University. The corpus is designed as a Chinese match of the Freiburg-LOB Corpus of British English (FLOB), and, as such, will provide a valuable resource for contrastive studies between English and Chinese as well as a ...

  9. Chinese Consumers' Preferences for Livestock Products

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xuehua; Marchant, Mary A.; Qin, Xiang Dong; Zhuang, Jun

    2005-01-01

    This research surveyed over 784 Chinese consumers in Shanghai and Nanjing in 2001 and 2002, evaluating their preferences for livestock product attributes using ordered-probit models and factor analyses. Empirical results confirm the heterogeneity of Chinese livestock retail markets and suggest that livestock distributors should focus on Chinese female consumers and young consumers considering cooking convenience as a key attribute. Chinese consumers with higher incomes placed less importance ...

  10. Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yun; Walter J B van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    We present Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N=28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1429 English words. The results revealed that 71% of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigat...

  11. Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chengjun; Ma, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    In their article "Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture" Chengjun Wang and Junhong Ma discuss three main channels of the "traveling" of Chinese culture to the outside world. Focusing on the situation of bilingualism (i.e., Chinese and English) and the need of spreading Chinese literature and culture especially in the English-speaking world, Wang and Ma argue for "localization and globalization." Further, Wang and Ma argue that in order to narrow the gap of the cultural di...

  12. Informization Implementation for Chinese Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; QIAN Yu; CHEN Jianfeng; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    Retailing is an important component of every country's economic system. The current status and developments in the informization of Chinese retail industry were investigated by using questionnaires and interviews to survey 139 retailers throughout China. The investigation shows that Chinese retailers are in the initial informization stage, and can be classified into different types with corresponding informization characteristics. In addition, the survey identified the key problems faced by retailers in the initial stage. Developments in the information technology field were analyzed to identify the key technologies that Chinese retailers should focus on during the informization process. The investigation also shows that the retailers have not arrived at a consensus about information technology adoption, and thus hesitate to use new information technologies, such as the radio frequency identification.

  13. Moon Cakes, A Chinese Favorite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINA is a nation with many ethnic groups. Thus, there are many legends to explain the nation’s many festivals. The largest and most striking of these festivals are the Spring Festival and Midautumn Festival. Anywhere Chinese people go, they will remember and celebrate these two festivals. The Mid-autumn Festival falls on the fifteenth day of the 8th lunar month. In this festival, Chinese people eat moon cakes, a baked food, with a flour crust around a dense filling. Coming in a great variety of flavors and styles, the moon cake carries a great deal of symbolic significance. The moon cake is round like the moon. "Round" is pronounced "yuan" in Chinese. This character is full of good meanings. When used in reference to a

  14. Chinese Feelings Cherished By Canadians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On March 30, "The Chinese Feelings Across the Pacific-The Century Exhibition of the Old Photos Treasured by the Canadians" was open in the Lu Xun Museum in Beijing. The exhibition lasted for one week. At the exhibition some old photos taken in the early 20th century were on display, showing James G. Endicott, envoy of world peace, together with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai; the family of O. L. Kilborn, one of the founders of West China Union University, together with Chinese women with bound feet: O. L. Kilborn treating the wounded soldiers during the Revolution of 1911; Leslie Earl Willmott in Chinese tunic suit and his wife reluctant to bid farewell to China, as well as photos of Ashley Woodward Lindesay, founder of China’s modern

  15. English Loan Words in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡悦

    2016-01-01

    During the process of language contact, a lot of language changes may appear, among which lexical borrowing, the ori-gin lexical item from one language being used by another language, is one of the most common phenomena. As a result of glo-balization, the frequent contact with western culture and the English language has brought a huge amount of lexical borrowings to the Chinese language. This paper mainly looks at the language contact of the English loan words in Chinese in the following three methods, namely transliteration, semantic loan and a mixture of the two respectively. The discussion over the examination will contribute to the understanding of English as a lingua franca and its language contact with Chinese.

  16. Tacrolimus in preventing transplant rejection in Chinese patients – optimizing use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chuan-Jiang Li,1,* Liang Li2,* 1Department of Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, 2Department of Medical Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *The authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tacrolimus is a product of fermentation of Streptomyces, and belongs to the family of calcineurin inhibitors. It is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing solid-organ transplant rejection. Compared to cyclosporine, tacrolimus has greater immunosuppressive potency and a lower incidence of side effects. It has been accepted as first-line treatment after liver and kidney transplantation. Tacrolimus has specific features in Chinese transplant patients; its in vivo pharmacokinetics, treatment regimen, dose and administration, and adverse-effect profile are influenced by multiple factors, such as genetics and the spectrum of primary diseases in the Chinese population. We reviewed the clinical experience of tacrolimus use in Chinese liver- and kidney-transplant patients, including the pharmacology of tacrolimus, the immunosuppressive effects of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine, effects of different factors on tacrolimus metabolism on Chinese patients, personalized medicine, clinical safety profile, and patient satisfaction and adherence. This article provides guidance for the rational and efficient use of tacrolimus in Chinese organ-transplant patients. Keywords: tacrolimus, liver transplantation, kidney transplant, Chinese, personalized medicine

  17. Comparison for Chinese subordinates as a motivation approach: Scale Development and Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Ge

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chinese people are motivated by social comparison and temporal comparison. Based on this finding, we conceptualized lateral comparison and vertical comparison as two distinct constructs that represent individual self-enhancement toward the nature of social comparison with others and temporal comparison with self over time. We hypothesized that as stable individual psychological difference, lateral comparison and vertical comparison would have differential effects on people’s working behavior in the Chinese organizational context. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a conceptualization approach to Chinese management research, we conducted three studies to develop and validate a two-factor comparison scale which includes three-item lateral comparison and a three-item vertical comparison. Findings: Results from qualitative data in Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminate validity of the scale, while Study 2 demonstrates the scale’s predictive validity. Furthermore, in Study two, a field survey in multiple Chinese organizations showed that lateral comparison and vertical comparison had differential effects on employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Research implications: The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed in the working context in Chinese organizations and beyond. Originality/value: This finding integrates insights from previous research in social comparison and temporal comparison into a motivation approach that supervisors use toward subordinates in the Chinese organizational context.

  18. How life is associated with colors in Chinese culture: utilizing colors based on Chinese five-essence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien-Rein

    2002-06-01

    Chinese believe that Feng-shui, Ch'i, Tao, Yin and Yang are major components rooted in Chinese culture. Many people know life has to balance and harmonize with nature and the universe through the Five-essence. Ancient wisdom is successfully interwoven with mankind and the natural world. Elements such as orientation, season, color, sound, facial organs, viscera, stars, and numbers can be associated with life through the Five-essence Theory. Since color is one of the major components of the Five-essence Theory, everything in our life can be associated with colors through a conjoined covering process. Color selection process is part of the interaction between human beings and the universe. Depending on the achievement one is pursuing, the Five- essence Theory model can be treated as an interface between destiny and human beings. This study reports how life is associated with Chinese Five-essence based paradigms. Models were used to explain how Chinese utilize Five-essence Theory to select colors in their daily lives.

  19. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  20. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  1. Chinese Information Processing and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Li; Tie-Jun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents some main progresses and achievements in Chinese information processing. It focuses on six aspects, I.e., Chinese syntactic analysis, Chinese semantic analysis, machine translation, information retrieval, information extraction, and speech recognition and synthesis. The important techniques and possible key problems of the respective branch in the near future are discussed as well.

  2. Problems of Textbook in Teaching Chinese Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ta-hsia

    It is proposed that teachers of Chinese expose their students to traditional critical views of Chinese poetics and criticism through careful selection of poems. This approach to language study is based on the assumption that the student may gain insight and appreciation of Chinese poetry as well as a feeling for the culture. Arguments favoring…

  3. How Do Chinese Enterprises Look at REACH?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The new European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization of Chemicals) regulation has come into force. As soon as the REACH white paper was issued, Chinese enterprises started to research the possible impacts of REACH and prepare to cope with them. How then do these Chinese enterprises look at REACH? Following are views of some Chinese enterprises exporting chemical products to the European Union.

  4. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  5. Writing Concepts in Chinese Writing Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on how Chinese writing instruction can cause negative interference for Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language students writing in English. The study shows that in Chinese writing, the main idea can be more general, as a theme, or specific, as a thesis statement. It can also come at the beginning or end of a paper, and the writer…

  6. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  7. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  8. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  9. Mamma Mia!Hits Chinese Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese version of Broadway’s musical sensation set to run for six months The Chinese version of Mamma Mia!,one of the most popular musicals in the world,has come to China,to demonstrate the charm of the musical to Chinese citizens in three major cities in 2011.

  10. How Should We Revive Traditional Chinese Culture?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    There has been a growing interest during the past year in the popularity of traditional Chinese culture, both domestically and globally. Currently, over 40 Confucius Institutes have been set up worldwide, focusing on promoting Chinese culture. Named after China's most eminent philosopher and the father of Confucianism, the Chinese

  11. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  12. Modern Chinese Punctuation and CSL Reading Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickel, Stan

    1988-01-01

    Provides a brief history of Chinese punctuation and detailed analysis of modern Chinese punctuation. Three tables show: 1) uniquely Chinese punctuation markers; 2) markers graphemically identical and functionally similar to Western markers; and 3) markers graphemically identical but functionally different from Western markers. Each punctuation…

  13. Teaching Oral Chinese in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    1976-01-01

    Because Chinese language textbooks were judged inadequate in teaching vocabulary dealing with everyday life in the U.S. and in China, new methods and materials were introduced into an oral Chinese course. Prepared discussion topics, Chinese films, soap operas, and shortwave radio broadcasts were used. (CHK)

  14. A Cultural Perspective on Chinese Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaofang

    2011-01-01

    Politeness is a universal phenomenon, but its actual manifestations and the standards for judgment are culturally different. This paper analyzes the characteristics of Chinese politeness from a cultural perspective. It aims to improve our understanding of Chinese politeness and our knowledge of Chinese traditional culture and undertake interpersonal communication successfully.

  15. Chinglish in Chinese-English Interpreting in Light of Chinese Thought Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔蓓; 翟娜; 李瑞超

    2014-01-01

    As most interpreters in China are native speakers of Chinese, it is inevitable that the deep-rooted Chinese thinking patters lead to Chinglish in Chinese-English interpreting, which is shown in both lexical and syntactical levels. Based on the theories and problems appeared in Chinese-English interpreting, this article attempts to explore the major phenomena of Chinglish and their relations with Chinese thought patterns and proposes coping strategies.

  16. Ikea success in chinese furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Yihong, Li

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will focus on the market exploiting and development of IKEA in China, analysis the characteristics of Chinese market and the supply-demand of the IKEA products in China. It also analyze the main Chinese consumers’ behaviour and evaluating the furniture retail market in China. IKEA is a successful case to open the china market recent years. The main goal is to acquire this information in order to provide the overseas retailers with a good starting point for creating an effective bu...

  17. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.;

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue....... Finally, we conclude with our suggestions for future indigenous research....

  18. The globalisation of Chinese brands

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.

    2006-01-01

    China has taken over Japan over the last decade to become the largest manufacturer and exporter of more than one hundred consumer products. However, China, as “the world factory”, has yet to create a single brand that is recognised worldwide. The recent acquisition of IBM’s PC business by China’s Lenovo may signal the beginning of the globalisation of Chinese brands. This paper considers the current brand revolution in China, focusing on the unique challenge faced by major Chinese enterprises...

  19. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  20. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  1. Brilliance Auto: Chinese, Global, Successful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      As the only automobile sponsor of BOAO FORUM FOR ASIA in April 2004, Brilliance Auto had a great opportunity to show her 'New Zhonghua" sedan which is an upper-medium car with completely independent intellectual property rights and repre sents the independent development philosophy of Brilliance Auto and is especially made for business personnel. The development pattern of Zhonghua sedan set a brand new model in Chinese auto industry to utilize the global resources and talents and international division of labor in the international arena, and she has become a typical sample of independent brand sedans in the contemporary Chinese auto industry.……

  2. Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine: a review focused on their application in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Wen-ying; Li, Jia-li; Wang, Xue-ding; Huang, Min

    2015-05-01

    The field of pharmacogenomics was initiated in the 1950s and began to thrive after the completion of the human genome project 10 years ago. Thus far, more than 100 drug labels and clinical guidelines referring to pharmacogenomic biomarkers have been published, and several key pharmacogenomic markers for either drug safety or efficacy have been identified and subsequently adopted in clinical practice as pre-treatment genetic tests. However, a tremendous variation of genetic backgrounds exists between different ethnic groups. The application of pharmacogenomics in the Chinese population is still a long way off, since the published guidelines issued by the organizations such as US Food and Drug Administration require further confirmation in the Chinese population. This review highlights important pharmacogenomic discoveries in the Chinese population and compares the Chinese population with other nations regarding the pharmacogenomics of five most commonly used drugs, ie, tacrolimus, cyclosporine A, warfarin, cyclophosphamide and azathioprine.

  3. State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry (SKLAOC) was founded in 1987 with the approval of the State Planning Commission. Professor Liu Zhongli is the director of the Laboratory and Professor Zhang Lihe, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is the chairman of its academic committee. There are 30 faculty members, among them 21 are professors, working in the Laboratory.

  4. Validation of the simplified Chinese version of EORTC QLQ-C30 from the measurements of five types of inpatients with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, C.; Q Meng; Yang, Z.; Tu, X.; Feng, C.; Tang, X.; Zhang, C

    2008-01-01

    Background: European Organization for Research and Treatment quality of life (QOL) questionnaire (QLQ-C30) has been used frequently and many language versions have been developed, including the simplified Chinese version. It is important to study psychometric properties of the simplified Chinese version from the clinical standpoint.

  5. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual skills…

  6. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Xinjiang has made remarkable achieve-ments in the implementation of mother-and-child health care. Another five-year international cooperative project in mother-and-child hygiene has been formally undertaken in Xinjiang. From 1990 to 1995, Xinjiang success-fully fulfilled an international cooperative project "Strengthen grassroots Service on Mother-and-Child Care and Family Planning in China," subsidized by UNICEF,the United Nations Population Foundation and the World Health Organization. Seven prefectures and 16 counties and

  7. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  8. Evaluation of struvite obtained from semiconductor wastewater as a fertilizer in cultivating Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Hong-Duck, E-mail: nanumenv@hanmail.net [Ministry of Environment, Geum River Basin Environmental Office, 409 Daehak-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chae-Sung, E-mail: shyknight@nate.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min-Koo, E-mail: minkookang@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Ill, E-mail: gatorlee@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovered struvite from semiconductor wastewater was evaluated as fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The struvite showed more outstanding fertilizing effects than commercial fertilizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu, Cd, As, Pb and Ni were observed at very low level in the vegetable tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. - Abstract: The present work evaluated the fertilizing value of struvite deposit recovered from semiconductor wastewater in cultivating Chinese cabbage. The fertilizing effect of struvite deposit was compared with that of commercial fertilizers: complex, organic and compost. Laboratory pot test results clearly showed that the growth of Chinese cabbage was better promoted when the struvite deposit was used than with organic and compost fertilizers even though complex fertilizer was the most effective in growing Chinese cabbage. It was revealed that potassium (K) was a key element in the determination of growth rate of Chinese cabbage. Also, the abundant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), K, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were observed in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Specifically, P was the most-founded component in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Meanwhile, the utilization of struvite as a fertilizer led to the lowest accumulation of copper (Cu) and no detection of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in the Chinese cabbage. It was found that the optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the struvite deposits recovered from semiconductor wastewater were effective as a multi-nutrient fertilizer for Chinese cabbage cultivation.

  9. Ecodesign of organic photovoltaic modules from Danish and Chinese perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Laurent, Alexis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    the production of the OPV modules from Denmark to China have additionally been studied to determine the most advantageous configuration. The stakeholders should aim at anchoring the manufacturing of solar parks in countries with stringent emission standards and/or high technology efficiencies, e.g. Denmark...

  10. Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yong Xin

    2013-04-25

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  11. Bioactive Natural Products From Chinese Tropical Marine Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Yue-Wei

    2004-01-01

    @@ The oceans contain a vast biological diversity of species that have so far been utilized by mankind mainly as a source of protein. In the last few decades, however, natural products chemists have started to discover the wealth of bioactive secondary metabolites that are produced by marine invertebrates such as sponges, soft corals, molluscs and others.

  12. Discursive Construction of Chinese Language Teacher Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers within the field of TCFL 1 (teaching Chinese as a foreign language) have begun to examine the notion of Chinese language teacher identity (Bianco, 2009; Cruickshank, 2011; Gao, 2012; Zhang & Jensen, 2013; Zhang, 2013); however, whilst insightful, this research has...... not addressed the ways in which Chinese language teachers identify themselves while interacting with students and how they construct their identities as TCFL teachers in other cultures. In this study, I address this research gap by exploring the discursive construction of three native Chinese language teachers...... (NCLTs) 2 teaching Chinese to Danish students....

  13. Approaches in Treating AIDS with Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕维柏

    2002-01-01

    @@ Editorial: AIDS is the archenemy of mankind, it also threatened Chinese people seriously. Although anti-retroviral drugs are effective, yet too expensive, the majority of 600 000 Chinese patients can't afford to purchase and use them. Decades ago, some scientists were trying to use Chinese Medicine in treating AIDS, experienc e gained but problems also exposed concerning strategy of research, methodol ogy, racial difference, Chinese drugs screening, integrative Chinese and western medicine, HIV and immunity, etc., sustained and integrative effort would bring safe, effective, and affordable drugs for the fatal pandemic all over the world

  14. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    cancer screening. Community organizations may play a role in assisting Chinese American women, which could enhance cervical cancer screening rates.Keywords: Papanicolaou test, cervical cancer screening, Chinese women

  15. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  16. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen; C. van Marrewijk

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 ¿ 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such as Galtonian

  17. Dynamics of Chinese Comparative Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  18. Autobiography of a Chinese City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of gazetteer [a peculiar Chinese genre of officially supervised local history writing] work in the Northeastern city of Harbin. It is a study of the interaction of politics, bureaucracy, and historical work at the local level in contemporary China, and it points...

  19. Spoken Grammar for Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓敏

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the concept of spoken grammar has been mentioned among Chinese teachers. However, teach-ers in China still have a vague idea of spoken grammar. Therefore this dissertation examines what spoken grammar is and argues that native speakers’ model of spoken grammar needs to be highlighted in the classroom teaching.

  20. Chinese President Meets Stephen Hawking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Shuqin

    2002-01-01

    @@ Chinese President Jiang Zemin met on August 19 with Stephen Hawking and other world-renown scientists, including Shing-tung Yau, Edward Witten, D.Gross, A. Strominger, et al., who were attending an international conference on string theory and Prof.Hawking had just given a public speech titled "Brane New World" in Beijing.

  1. Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in…

  2. The Magic of Chinese Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Betty Siu Junn

    Although this booklet is intended for use in the classroom, the author cautions the reader that it is an adventure into Chinese music rather than a teaching or history experience. By learning how to play the music, students "travel" through China, giving them a better understanding of this country. The author describes the invention of ancient…

  3. The Revolution in Chinese Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifman, Eli

    1978-01-01

    Evaluates the extent to which the "revolution in education" in China has succeeded in integrating communist theory with practice. Concludes that the pre-1975 emphasis on political indoctrination has been tempered by efforts to raise the cultural and technical levels of the Chinese people. (Author/DB)

  4. Chinese Middle-Aged Confusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXINXIN

    2003-01-01

    THE middle-aged generation,those of the age 40 to 55, is special in China. Born in the 1950s and early 1960s, they grew up in the most difficult and chaotic periods of recent Chinese history, having experienced and suffered the Great Leap Forward at the end of the fifties and the “cultural revolution” ( 1966-1976).

  5. 2006 Chinese RE Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since 2005,China government established series of regulations to rectify Chinese rare earth industry.Especially,the notice of "ceasing the issue of new mining license and controlling the gross rare earth mining volume" implemented in April of 2006 largely reduced the mining in Southern China.

  6. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  7. ENERGY CALCULUS IN CHINESE LANGUAGESEGMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on cognitive science, the EnergyCalculus in Chinese language segmentation was presented to eliminate segmentation ambiguity. The notion of "EnergyCost" was advanced to denote the extent of the under-standability of a certain segmentation. EnergyCost function was defined with Z-notation. This approcah is effective to all natural language segmentation.

  8. Foreign Diplomats Cooking Chinese Dishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2nd Chinese Cuisine Contest for Foreign Diplomats(Shanghai),a large-scale activity as part of the 1st Shanghai Shopping Festival,was held at 15:30 on September 22 in Shanghai with the theme of "The Passionate Shanghai".

  9. Chinese Cities in Foreigners' Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU LINTAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ To introduce Chinese cities to the world, a book series Cities of China written by foreign authors will be published during the next three years by the Beijing-based Foreign Languages Press (FLP), a company af-filiated to China International Publishing Group (CIPG).

  10. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g

  11. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN oracle-bone inscription, 面 (mian) depictsthe outline of a face with a large eye at its center.To this end its original meaning was the humanface. However, in ancient Chinese 面 referred tothe front of the head and another characterdenoted the cheek, specifically the area between

  12. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN ancient Chinese characters,母(pronounced mu)depicts a womanbending on her knees and crossingher hands in front with two points onher chest symbolizing her breasts.The original meaning of 母 is anadult woman who has given birth tochildren,i.e.a mother It was later

  13. Clinical Service of Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) faces three major challenges:(1)How to enhance its contribution on overall medical service quality? (2) How to best address the unmet medical needs in the contemporary society? (3)How to guarantee that the traditional perspective for disease diagnosis and treatment not be neglected in clinical practice?

  14. Chinese Sculpture as Public Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YinShuangxi

    2003-01-01

    Chinese arts have undergone tremendous changes thanks to the fast-growing modernization and urbanization process in China. One of the monumental changes is the emergence of “public art”, most notably, urban sculpture. This art is increasingly related to modern urban planning, architecture, and community building.

  15. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  16. Foreign Policies and Foreign Exchanges for Chinese Publishing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's present foreign publishing policies Chinese Government respects and protects intellectual property rights. Chinese Government always attaches importance to the exchange and cooperation between Chinese publishing industry and that of other countries, encourages and supports Chinese publishing industry to actively introduce foreign excellent works to Chinese readers, and meanwhile, also actively advocates introduction of Chinese excellent works to foreign readers. Our persistent guideline is to support and promote exchanges between Chinese and foreign publishing industries in all fields.

  17. Chinese Leadership Styles in Public Sector in Tianjin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Considerable studies on Chinese leadership styles apply Western models to test Chinese managers, and then define Chinese leadership style with Western ideas. This study assumes that Chinese managers have their own leadership styles distinctive from Westerners and tried to investigate the cultural and historical origin of Chinese leadership style, especially to explore how Confucianism have affected and shaped Chinese leadership style in modern Chinese society. This study adopted a qualitative...

  18. Translation Strategy of Chinese Culture-loaded Lexes and the Dissemina-tion of Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-li

    2016-01-01

    Lexes are the most important and basic element of a language. Chinese culture-loaded lexes are those words or expres-sions that are greatly rich in Chinese culture. They can reflect the characteristics of Chinese culture and Chinese nation. There-fore, it is of great significance to pay attention to the translation of Chinese culture-loaded lexes as they play a decisive role in disseminating Chinese culture. It can help promote Chinese culture worldwide, improve China’s cultural exchanges and commu-nication with other nations and strengthen China’s status in the world. This paper focuses on the Chinese culture-loaded words and proposes some possible means of translation with the purpose of spreading Chinese culture.

  19. Refection and Exploration on Organization and Human Resource Management for Chinese Management Practices: Review of the 1st Chinese HRM Forum%面向中国管理实践的组织与人力资源管理:反思与探索——首届“中国人力资源管理论坛(2012)”观点评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 陈坤

    2012-01-01

    The advancing of globalization and knowledge economy brings more and more turbulence and complexity into the environment which rigorously challenges the organizational modalities and human resource management patterns, and meanwhile recently the mainstreams of the western management theories are found more and more unfitness in Chinese context. It has become an imperative for the Chinese management researchers to reflect on the theoretical status quo and progress actively on Chinese style management in order to response the calls from both practices and academics fields. One of efforts was The First Chinese Human Resource Management Forum (2012) which took place on May 26 - 27 2012 in Business School of Nankai University. This 1st forum was an academic conference on organizational innovation and change in human resource management. The attendants discussed in depth on the a series of subjects: the challenges for Chinese human resource management, the direction of the development of the Human Resource Management discipline, the methodology for human resource management research, strategic HRM, organizational behavior and leadership, and organizational learning and change. This paper briefly reviews and comments on the main academic arguments, perspectives and relevant issues presented on the conference.%全球化和知识经济时代动荡复杂的环境,对中国企业的组织形态和人力资源管理模式形成了严峻挑战.同时,近年来主流西方管理理论在中国遭遇的“水土不服”,也需要中国管理学界在深刻反思的基础上积极探索中国式管理之路.基于对组织和人力资源管理领域回应现实课题和理论创新的双重要求,2012年5月26~27日在南开大学商学院召开的首届“中国人力资源管理论坛(2012):组织创新与人力资源管理变革”学术研讨会上,与会学者就中国人力资源管理的挑战和学科建设方向、人力资源管理研究的方法论、战略人力

  20. Study on the setting of Reference Chinese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedures for internal and external dose estimation, the calculation of authorized limits and derived reference levels, and the development of phantoms in the field of radiation protection are based on values for the ICRP Reference Man. Many differences exist between Asians, Europeans and North Americans with respect to race, customs and the pattern of food consumption. The neglect of these differences in the parameters used may lead to errors in dose assessment and health effect prognosis. research described in this paper was conducted to obtain reference values for the Chinese population or other Asian countries which might have major demographic contribution of Chinese. Based on the agreements reached in the Project Formulation Meeting ''Compilation of Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics for a Reference Asian Man'', the measurement of physique, organ mass and the food consumption were given the first priority for the first phase of the project. (author)

  1. Fusang: The Enlightenment Story of the Chinese Discovery of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    In 1761 the French scholar and Sinologue Joseph de Guignes announced that "Chinese vessels made the voyage to America many centuries before Christopher Columbus." From the Chinese books in the Bibliotheque du Roi and new missionary reports from Beijing, he concluded that the mythical land of Fusang described by a medieval Buddhist monk could be nowhere other than the west coast of North America, only recently charted by European navigators. Philippe Buache, premier géographe du roi, agreed. At the height of the French Enlightenment, the indigenous geographical tradition of China could be used to further the progress of universal science, providing evidence about issues from the mapping of the Pacific Rim to the organization of the continents. Furthermore, the story of Fusang explained the origins of American peoples, showing that the inhabitants of the New World had arrived there from the Old and contributing to a diffusionist account of the development of civilization in space and time. PMID:27197409

  2. A Research on Chinese Thinking Influencing English Writing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪娟

    2008-01-01

    L2 writing process is a bilingual event.L2 writers have both LI and L2 at their disposal when they composing in L2. The tendency of LI occurrence varies with individuals composing activities.L2 Writers are more likely to depend on LI, when they were managing their writing process, generating and organizing ideas; but more likely to depend on L2 when undertaking task--examining and text--generating activities. This paper focuses on the influence of LI on L2, and the purpose is to demonstrate that Chinese thinking decreases with the improvement of English proficiency, but the amount of Chinese thinking decreases by a different margin.

  3. FOOD SOURCES AND CARBON BUDGET OF CHINESE PRAWN PENAEUS CHINENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董双林; 张硕; 王芳

    2002-01-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn (Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semiintensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20-28)×10-3.

  4. ICT Transformation in Chinese Tobacco Industry: Case Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on four in-depth case studies on the information and communication technology (ICT) evolution of Chinese tobacco companies. The ICT transformation processes of these companies are introduced briefly. A strategic grid model was used, which shows that depending on a company's strategic grid cell, different behavior patterns can be observed, in terms of Nolan's stage model. The analysis shows that companies allocated in the "turnaround" and "strategic" cell do not behave accordingly to Nolan's stage model. A few years after China first application for a World Trade Organization (WTO) membership renewal in 1986, observed companies skipped some of Nolan's stages to achieve an accelerated ICT transformation. Therefore, a fast transformation of ICT plays a major role for Chinese tobacco companies to face the challenges entailed by an open door policy and the WTO entry. This conclusion is limited to companies that are allocated either in the "transformation" cell or the "strategic" cell.

  5. Treatment of Chinese Traditional Medicine Wastewater by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You-zhi; WANG Feng-jun; BAO Li

    2005-01-01

    The influence factors treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction by photosynthetic bacteria are tested and discussed. The results indicate that the method of photosynthetic bacteria can eliminate COD and BCD from wastewater in high efficiency. And it also has high load shock resistance. On the conditions of slight aerobic and semi-darkness, treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction, the method has better efficiency to eliminate COD and BOD from the wastewater than those by anaerobic illumination and aerobic darkness treatments. After pretreatment of hydrolytic acidization, the removal rate of COD in the wastewater reached more than 85 %, and that rate of BOD reached more than 90% in the treating system of photosynthetic bacteria. It may be more feasible and advantageous than traditional anaerobic biological process to treat organic wastewater using PSB system.

  6. Food sources and carbon dudget of chinese prawn Penaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Fang

    2002-03-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn ( Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semi-intensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20 28)×10-3.

  7. Students' motivation to study Chinese recreational gymnastics classes wushu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimuk O.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify students' motivation to improving gymnastics lessons Chinese Wushu. Material : this survey was attended by 30 students from different countries enrolled in a language course at the Shanghai University of Sport. The methodology SAN (health, activity and mood. Results : the positive changes identified psycho-emotional state students. There is an increase students' motivation to sports activity. Students observed increase differentiated assessment of health (from 3.7 to 6.7 points, activity (from 3.9 points to 6.5 points and mood (from 4.0 points to 6.9 points. 97 % of students were in favor of the use of functional music lessons on differentiated specialized Wushu. Conclusions : presented the program and practical advice on the organization and conduct physical education classes with students using the means of improving gymnastics Chinese Wushu.

  8. Validation of the Psychological Work Maturity Scale in Chinese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Psychological work maturity is an important concept in situational leadership theory. The present research revised the Psychological Work Maturity Scale for use in Chinese organizations. Three samples of full-time employees (Ns = 205, 266, and 283) from different companies and industries participated in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a single-factor structure fit the data. The scale had acceptable reliabilities, convergent and criterion-related validities, and was shown to be an appropriate measure of psychological work maturity in Chinese employees. Maturity differences in several demographic variables were not found, but employees with longer tenure in Sample 2 scored higher on maturity, which shows that psychological work maturity may be dependent on personal development in the interaction with the varying situational factors, especially in the work domain. Implications for research and practice on psychological work maturity in China are discussed.

  9. Validation of the Psychological Work Maturity Scale in Chinese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Psychological work maturity is an important concept in situational leadership theory. The present research revised the Psychological Work Maturity Scale for use in Chinese organizations. Three samples of full-time employees (Ns = 205, 266, and 283) from different companies and industries participated in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a single-factor structure fit the data. The scale had acceptable reliabilities, convergent and criterion-related validities, and was shown to be an appropriate measure of psychological work maturity in Chinese employees. Maturity differences in several demographic variables were not found, but employees with longer tenure in Sample 2 scored higher on maturity, which shows that psychological work maturity may be dependent on personal development in the interaction with the varying situational factors, especially in the work domain. Implications for research and practice on psychological work maturity in China are discussed. PMID:21323139

  10. A Survey of Treatment of Diabetic Complications with Chinese Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fan

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to the TCM theory, diabetes is characterized in the initial stage by deficiency and consumption of qi and yin fluid and excessive dryness-heat; in the middle stage by deficiency of both qi and yin, and obstruction of channels and collaterals; while in the late stage, by various complications due to consumption and loss of qi and yin, imbalance of yin and yang and stagnation of both phlegm and blood stasis, which may result in failure of the kidney and serious injury of the channels and collaterals and zang-fu organs. In recent years, there are lots of reports concerning Chinese-drug treatment of diabetes with satisfactory therapeutic results. The following is a survey of treatment of diabetic complications with Chinese drugs.

  11. British Missionary Timothy Richard and Chinese Modern Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    British missionary Timothy Richard came to China, actuated by preaching the Gospel andexpanding the sphere of Christian influence. Considering some complex reasons for history, civilization,ideology and custom etc, he paid attention to secular education as well as doing missionary work to attainhis Christian goal. He laid much stress on the function of education, so he proposed Chinese governmentshould set up Educational Department. In the late Qing Dynasty, he participated in the organization andmanagement of Shanxi Imperial University. Under the circumstances of modern times of China, when it wasin the grip of national crisis, and the contradictory between China and foreign countries was acute andcomplicated, all the work he had done exerted objective influences in many aspects. While it reflected thestrong semi-colonial character in modernization of Chinese education, it had some positive effect as well.

  12. Our Organic Future - Cottage, Corporate, Commodified or Containerized?

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2007-01-01

    Abstract China achieved a remarkable 1000% increase in organically managed land in 2006. Chinese organic certification is described as the most stringent in the world, and China has both political references and an economic agenda congruent with an organic future. Australian consumers (N = 221) valued produce of Australia at 26.0% more than produce of China. This gap diminished to 10.7% comparing Australia to China/Certified Organic. The valuation gap increased to 28.9% comparing Australia...

  13. [Where will Chinese medicine disease names go?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhan-Qing

    2013-06-01

    The statistical survey of "Clinical Articles", one column of Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (24 volumes in total) showed that, of the 151 academic exploration on diseases, Western disease (WM) names were used in 145 articles, constituting 96.03% of the entire column. Obviously, Chinese medicine (CM) disease names were not basically used by CM physicians. Taking Chinese Internal Medicine (2nd edition), a national textbook for students in CM universities, as an example, we could find that the use of disease names was in a chaos logically, disease, syndrome, and symptom were not used clearly. In the general knowledge part, when mentioning a disease, the book sometimes used "disease", sometimes "disease-syndrome". In the classified parts, some diseases were simply named as "A or B syndrome", and when talking about a specific disease, it referred to the symptom-based disease as a kind of "disease-syndrome". Throughout the whole book, the disease names named after symptoms or heavily colored by symptoms amounted to 31, accounting for 59.6% of the listed 52 common diseases. In clinical practices, using CM disease names ran the risk of making wrong diagnosis or failing to diagnose patients in time, and therefore, leading to improper treatment or loss of treatment time. For critical diseases, these names can't reveal the serious situations and help to get rid of possible dangers. For chronic diseases, using these names can't lead to early recognition and prevention of diseases. Considering that CM disease names can't go with clinical practices, and lag behind the development of integrative medicine, the author suggested that we should borrow as many WM disease names as possible in CM, because when compared with CM, WM has a much clearer and more objective knowledge of the location, cause, mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. The classification and naming of diseases in WM is the result of negotiation of WHO and its member countries

  14. [Where will Chinese medicine disease names go?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhan-Qing

    2013-06-01

    The statistical survey of "Clinical Articles", one column of Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (24 volumes in total) showed that, of the 151 academic exploration on diseases, Western disease (WM) names were used in 145 articles, constituting 96.03% of the entire column. Obviously, Chinese medicine (CM) disease names were not basically used by CM physicians. Taking Chinese Internal Medicine (2nd edition), a national textbook for students in CM universities, as an example, we could find that the use of disease names was in a chaos logically, disease, syndrome, and symptom were not used clearly. In the general knowledge part, when mentioning a disease, the book sometimes used "disease", sometimes "disease-syndrome". In the classified parts, some diseases were simply named as "A or B syndrome", and when talking about a specific disease, it referred to the symptom-based disease as a kind of "disease-syndrome". Throughout the whole book, the disease names named after symptoms or heavily colored by symptoms amounted to 31, accounting for 59.6% of the listed 52 common diseases. In clinical practices, using CM disease names ran the risk of making wrong diagnosis or failing to diagnose patients in time, and therefore, leading to improper treatment or loss of treatment time. For critical diseases, these names can't reveal the serious situations and help to get rid of possible dangers. For chronic diseases, using these names can't lead to early recognition and prevention of diseases. Considering that CM disease names can't go with clinical practices, and lag behind the development of integrative medicine, the author suggested that we should borrow as many WM disease names as possible in CM, because when compared with CM, WM has a much clearer and more objective knowledge of the location, cause, mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. The classification and naming of diseases in WM is the result of negotiation of WHO and its member countries

  15. The Origin of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Thinking on Chinese Medicine Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenkui; Wang Feng; Wang Ling

    2006-01-01

    Although the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed a profound theory system and a fame of outstanding advantage in curative effect, it seems that the TCM is not quite adaptable to the deveiopment and requirement of the modern society. A principle of "Adopting the advanced part of Western medicine to serve the TCM" should be adhered to for the traditional Chinese medicine. First, TCM should strive for a consensus of TCM theory which focuses on the guiding principles of "diagnosis and treatment based on an overall analysis of the illness and the patient's condition" and "the opposite principle of five internal organs". Among these principles, "keeping relative balance of three internal systems"is a valuable guidance of the diagnosis and treatment theory. Secondly, macroscopic should be integrated with microscopic, totality with parts, phenomenology with materialism. A dialectical law should be applied to guide analysis. In treatment,adjustment and balance are basic principles. It is necessary not only prepare the medicine in advance accoding to the predicted disease of the year, but also adopt methods to restrict disease in advance. Basides, TCM dose type should be ameliorated in order to meet the needs of society.

  16. Matching Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Organs With Transplant Candidates When a deceased organ donor is identified, a transplant coordinator from an organ ... transplant candidate, you are registered on the national organ transplant waiting list. A living donor may also be identified and evaluated for living ...

  17. Fluorine in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Tang, X.Y.; Li, S.H.; Wang, B.B.; Wang, M.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-05-01

    Three hundred and five coal samples were taken from the main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of China. The method of pyrohydrolysis was applied to measure the fluorine content in the samples, which exhibit logarithmic normal frequency distributions. The range of fluorine content in dry coal varies from 26 to 1230 mg/kg with a geometric mean of 136 mg/kg. The fluorine content decreases gradually from sub-bituminous through bituminous coal to anthracite. However, such varying tendency of fluorine content is not due to the presence of organic fluorine in coal. The geological age also apparently has no effect on the fluorine content. Even though the fluorine content of most coals in China is not high, much more attention should be given to the fluoride pollution caused by improper (unvented) coal-burning and the widespread household use of high-fluoride coal-clay.

  18. The Mode of Dual Agricultural Insurance Institution: Way out of the Plight of Chinese Agricultural Insurance Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Guoqu Deng

    2009-01-01

    Chinese agricultural insurance institution has not broken through the framework of initial choice, always evolving within the framework of unitary institution, which is the root of the plight of Chinese agricultural insurance. The way out of the plight is to establish and perfect a dual agricultural insurance institution in China, that is, existing agricultural insurance institution and organization structure should be employed in general agricultural disaster insurance, while agricultural ca...

  19. A Dialectal Chinese Speech Recognition Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Thomas Fang Zheng; William Byrne; Dan Jurafsky

    2006-01-01

    A framework for dialectal Chinese speech recognition is proposed and studied, in which a relatively small dialectal Chinese (or in other words Chinese influenced by the native dialect) speech corpus and dialect-related knowledge are adopted to transform a standard Chinese (or Putonghua, abbreviated as PTH) speech recognizer into a dialectal Chinese speech recognizer. Two kinds of knowledge sources are explored: one is expert knowledge and the other is a small dialectal Chinese corpus. These knowledge sources provide information at four levels: phonetic level, lexicon level, language level,and acoustic decoder level. This paper takes Wu dialectal Chinese (WDC) as an example target language. The goal is to establish a WDC speech recognizer from an existing PTH speech recognizer based on the Initial-Final structure of the Chinese language and a study of how dialectal Chinese speakers speak Putonghua. The authors propose to use contextindependent PTH-IF mappings (where IF means either a Chinese Initial or a Chinese Final), context-independent WDC-IF mappings, and syllable-dependent WDC-IF mappings (obtained from either experts or data), and combine them with the supervised maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) acoustic model adaptation method. To reduce the size of the multipronunciation lexicon introduced by the IF mappings, which might also enlarge the lexicon confusion and hence lead to the performance degradation, a Multi-Pronunciation Expansion (MPE) method based on the accumulated uni-gram probability (AUP) is proposed. In addition, some commonly used WDC words are selected and added to the lexicon. Compared with the original PTH speech recognizer, the resulting WDC speech recognizer achieves 10-18% absolute Character Error Rate (CER) reduction when recognizing WDC, with only a 0.62% CER increase when recognizing PTH. The proposed framework and methods are expected to work not only for Wu dialectal Chinese but also for other dialectal Chinese languages and

  20. Chinese Tea Tradition:From Tea Service to Tea Drinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangFeng

    2003-01-01

    Tea was first discovered and drunk in China several thousand years ago and over the sweep of Chinese history drinking tea has developed to be part of Chinese culture and a reversible habit of Chinese people.With the spread of Chinese civilization,Chinese tea has been introduced to many countries across

  1. Chinese traditional elements in the application of graphic design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹倩倩

    2013-01-01

    Chinese traditional graphic art resources is extremely abundant, this article will from the Chinese tradi-tional culture elements are composed of the Chinese calligraphy, traditional auspicious patterns, national color three aspects, expounds the application of Chinese traditional elements in modern plane design, this paper expounds the application of Chinese traditional elements in modern plane design, research how to dig, change and reform.

  2. The Chinese skeleton: insights into microstructure that help to explain the epidemiology of fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Elaine; Walker, Marcella D

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are a major public health problem worldwide, but incidence varies greatly across racial groups and geographic regions. Recent work suggests that the incidence of osteoporotic fracture is rising among Asian populations. Studies comparing areal bone mineral density and fracture across races generally indicate lower bone mineral density in Asian individuals including the Chinese, but this does not reflect their relatively low risk of non-vertebral fractures. In contrast, the Chinese have relatively high vertebral fracture rates similar to that of Caucasians. The paradoxically low risk for some types of fractures among the Chinese despite their low areal bone mineral density has been elucidated in part by recent advances in skeletal imaging. New techniques for assessing bone quality non-invasively demonstrate that the Chinese compensate for smaller bone size by differences in hip geometry and microstructural skeletal organization. Studies evaluating factors influencing racial differences in bone remodeling, as well as bone acquisition and loss, may further elucidate racial variation in bone microstructure. Advances in understanding the microstructure of the Chinese skeleton have not only helped to explain the epidemiology of fracture in the Chinese, but may also provide insight into the epidemiology of fracture in other races as well.

  3. The Chinese skeleton:insights into microstructure that help to explain the epidemiology of fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaine Cong; Marcella D.Walker

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are a major public health problem worldwide, but incidence varies greatly across racial groups and geographic regions. Recent work suggests that the incidence of osteoporotic fracture is rising among Asian populations. Studies comparing areal bone mineral density and fracture across races generally indicate lower bone mineral density in Asian individuals including the Chinese, but this does not reflect their relatively low risk of non-vertebral fractures. In contrast, the Chinese have relatively high vertebral fracture rates similar to that of Caucasians. The paradoxically low risk for some types of fractures among the Chinese despite their low areal bone mineral density has been elucidated in part by recent advances in skeletal imaging. New techniques for assessing bone quality non-invasively demonstrate that the Chinese compensate for smaller bone size by differences in hip geometry and microstructural skeletal organization. Studies evaluating factors influencing racial differences in bone remodeling, as well as bone acquisition and loss, may further elucidate racial variation in bone microstructure. Advances in understanding the microstructure of the Chinese skeleton have not only helped to explain the epidemiology of fracture in the Chinese, but may also provide insight into the epidemiology of fracture in other races as well.

  4. Chinese translation of English textbooks on internal medicine from the 1850s to the 1940s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chuang-Ye; Wang, Fu-Mei

    2014-06-01

    During the 100 years from 1850 to 1949, six English textbooks on internal medicine were translated into Chinese and published. Publication of these books was a response to the increased demand for Chinese textbooks after the opening of several Western-style hospitals and medical schools in China where the instruction was in Chinese. Throughout this period, textbooks translated from English were regarded as symbols of mainstream and authority within medical communities in China. There was a shift of translators from British and American medical missionaries to Chinese medical elites. Publishers also changed from missionary hospitals or missionary organizations to the Chinese Medical Association, which was led by ethnic Chinese. After the 1950s, translation activity continued in Taiwan, but it was halted in China until after the Cultural Revolution. This paper provides bibliographic information about these books. The transition of medical authority in China during this 100-year period is also reviewed through the successive publication of translated textbooks on internal medicine. PMID:24820159

  5. The mechanisms in treatment of acute pancreatitis by traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiping Zhang; Ying Wang; Yan Shi

    2006-01-01

    As common acute abdomen, most of acute pancreatitis(AP) are self-restricted. Only a few patients may develop into worse state with local complications or organ failures, and finally neastic acute pancreatitis (NAP). With the change of people's dietaries, cholelithiasis morbidity and popularization of wine in recent years, the number of AP patients has increased.Although people conducted enormous studies on pathogenesis of AP and brought forward many be valuable theories, yet the exact mechanism is still unclear by far. There are many therapies of AP which should be unexceptionally classified as operative therapy and non-operative therapy. With the increasing understanding of the disease in recent years, we found many defects of operation and good therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine in AP. Traditional Chinese medicine as an auxiliary therapy has been generally paid close attention in clinical practices. Traditional Chinese medicine is a treasure-house of China. This article summarizes the main mechanisms of AP treatment by traditional Chinese medicine and the progress of laboratory studies. It aims to help people recognize the multiple-target treatment effects and conspicuous efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine and promote the popularization of traditional Chinese medicine in AP treatment.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants control strategy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ya-juan; LU Yong-long; ZHANG Hong; WANG Tie-yu; XING Ying

    2005-01-01

    The development of Persistent Organic Pollutants(POPs) control policy in China in the context of international concerns on POPs was reviewed. The aspects of the Chinese POPs control strategies were analyzed, and compared with those of developed counterparts (e.g. US, EU, Japan). Currently, while the legal framework on POPs management, which complies with international guidelines has been established, it should be improved in the areas of special POPs management, risk assessment, the precautionary principle, lifecycle management and technical support capacity. The analysis of Chinese POPs policy and suggestions for strengthening the sciencebased decision making capacity are not only useful for Chinese decision-makers, but also a case study for developing world and make a great contribution for the global elimination of POPs to make a toxic-free future.

  7. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2010-01-22

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology and evolutionary biology based on new fossils from China. These fossils and their studies help to clarify some historical debates about a particular fossil group, or to raise new questions about history of life, or to pose a new challenge in our pursuit of science. These works on new Chinese fossils have covered the whole range of the diversity through the entire Phanerozoic fossil record. PMID:19812080

  8. Brief Introduction of Chinese National Technical Committee for Standardization on Radio Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chinese Nationa Technical Committee for Standardization on Radio Interference(SAC/TC79),ESTABLISHED IN 1986,is the national technical organization relating to different departments for standardization,with responsibility for technical research of electromagnetic compatibility as well as the management of each subcommittee.

  9. Clinical Progress in the Treatment of Severe Acute Pancreatitis with Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), one of the crucial acute abdominal diseases, has high mortality for its quick initiation, severe condition, long duration, and frequent complication with multiple organ failure. In this paper, the clinical progress in the treatment of SAP with integrative Chinese and Western medicine is inspected and summarized.

  10. A Chinese Visible Human-based computational female pelvic phantom for radiation dosimetry simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate voxel phantom is needed for dosimetric simulation in radiation therapy for malignant tumors in female pelvic region. However, most of the existing voxel phantoms are constructed on the basis of Caucasian or non-Chinese population. Materials and Methods: A computational framework for constructing female pelvic voxel phantom for radiation dosimetry was performed based on Chinese Visible Human datasets. First, several organs within pelvic region were segmented from Chinese Visible Human datasets. Then, polygonization and voxelization were performed based on the segmented organs and a 3D computational phantom is built in the form of a set of voxel arrays. Results: The generated phantom can be converted and loaded into treatment planning system for radiation dosimetry calculation. From the observed dosimetric results of those organs and structures, we can evaluate their absorbed dose and implement some simulation studies. Conclusion: A voxel female pelvic phantom was developed from Chinese Visible Human datasets. It can be utilized for dosimetry evaluation and planning simulation, which would be very helpful to improve the clinical performance and reduce the radiation toxicity on organ at risk.

  11. Job Insecurity and Remuneration in Chinese Family-Owned Business Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of job insecurity (past job downsizing and anticipated job downsizing) and current remuneration--via wellbeing (burnout and work engagement)--on organizational outcomes (organization commitment and low turnover intention) of Chinese family-owned business. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  12. Influence of Demographic Factors and Ownership Type upon Organizational Learning Culture in Chinese Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Baiyin; McLean, Gary N.

    2007-01-01

    This empirical study, using Western concepts incorporated into the Dimension of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) instrument and data collected from 919 employees in nine companies located in Guangdong Province, China, explored organizational learning culture in Chinese business settings. Findings suggest that the DLOQ is applicable to…

  13. Analysis of the Problems of the Chinese College Students' EFL Classroom Writings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Aiju

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the problems of EFL classroom writings in the Chinese college teaching context from the perspective of textual organization and pragmatic strategy. Influence of their native cultural thought pattern causes the problem of discourse pattern and cohesion; lack of sufficient pragmatic strategy renders students' unawareness in…

  14. Brief Introduction of the Chinese Association for International Understanding(CAFIU)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Established in 1981, the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) is composed by social activists, scholars and representatives from all walks of life. CAFIU is registered as a non-profit organization with the Ministry of Civil Affairs, and acquired special

  15. Severe acute respiratory syndrome--a new coronavirus from the Chinese dragon's lair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T B; Kledal, T N; Andersen, O;

    2003-01-01

    Health Organization (WHO). As SARS has the potential of becoming the first pandemic of the new millennium, a global warning by the WHO was issued on 12 March 2003. The disease, which is believed to have its origin in the Chinese Guangdong province, spread from Hong Kong via international airports to its...

  16. Thinking Chinese Translation A Course in Translation Method; Chinese to English

    CERN Document Server

    Valerie, Pellatt

    2010-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation

  17. Chinese Youth Delegation Visits France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of Secours Populaire Francais (SPF), a Chinese youth delegation composed of members of the Beijing Fengtai Children and Youth Palace and students of No. 1 Middle School of Anyang City of Henan Province, sent by the CPAFFC,paid a visit to France from July 19 to 30, 2012. The aim was to deepen and expand cooperation between the CPAFFC and the SPF and strengthen friendly exchanges between the youth of the two countries and contribute to the

  18. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Junping; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Weicun; CISC’15

    2016-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers from the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference (CISC’15), held in Yangzhou, China. The topics covered include multi-agent systems, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, complex systems, computation intelligence and soft computing, intelligent control, advanced control technology, robotics and applications, intelligent information processing, iterative learning control, and machine learning. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent systems.

  19. New Hope for Chinese Stocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Many people in recent years have held that investing in the Chinese stock markets posed risks. But remarkable changes have taken place in China's stock markets during the past year, according to Mark De Weaver, a research analyst in Shenzhen who now manages a fund investing in Asian equities called Quantrarian Asia Hedge. According to De Weaver, the changes include split-share and brokerage reforms, a new securities law and more opportunities for qualified foreign investors. His main ideas follow:

  20. Interculutral Polish-Chinese QQing

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Gajek,

    2012-01-01

    Working in tandem with the use of information and communication technologies is well-known and frequently used as a method of supporting learning of foreign languages in authentic communication. It is based on a constructivist approach to teaching. In the reported case study Polish and Chinese students discussed in English preprepared topics. The work shows the potential of e-learning at the micro level, as the language and intercultural task is implemented into an academic course without mod...