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Sample records for chinese organizations

  1. WEB BASED TRANSLATION OF CHINESE ORGANIZATION NAME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Muyun; Liu Daxin; Zhao Tiejun; Qi Haoliang; Lin Kaiming

    2009-01-01

    A web-based translation method for Chinese organization name is proposed. After analyzing the structure of Chinese organization name, the methods of bilingual query formulation and maximum entropy based translation re-ranking are suggested to retrieve the English translation from the web via public search engine. The experiments on Chinese university names demonstrate the validness of this approach.

  2. Organics in Chinese Food Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schorzon, A.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Jiao, L.

    2014-01-01

    The organics market in China has grown fast since the turn of the Millennium both within the internal market and international trade. New regulations and their effective enforcement have instilled more transparency and trust among stakeholders. The mutual recognition of standards in bi- and multi-la

  3. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO. News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND, we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  4. Transnational Activities of Chinese Crime Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    numbers of illegal migrants move directly from China into large Chinese communities in Guatemala, Panama, Honduras, and Costa Rica . In those countries...done from Russian boats and because the entrenched Russian “ poaching mafia” is an integral part of harvesting rare fish and sea products by Chinese...Megan Saunders, “Triads Sink Hooks into Reef Fish ,” The Australian [Sydney], 17 February 2003, 5. 35 Faligot, 305-06. 36 Faligot, 306. 37 Faligot, 306

  5. Institutionalization of Technology Transfer Organizations in Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Han; Pinheiro, Rómulo

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of in-depth studies on how technology transfer organizations (TTOs) are organized and developed. This paper examines the evolution/institutionalization of TTOs in Tsinghua University (TU), as a microcosm of the development of TTOs in Chinese universities. It explores two issues in particular: what kinds of TTOs have been developed…

  6. An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…

  7. Characterization of fine organic particulate matter from Chinese cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ling-yan; HU Min; WANG Li; HUANG Xiao-feng; ZHANG Yuan-hang

    2004-01-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected by a three-stage cascade impactor at two kinds of Chinese restaurants to characterize fine organic particulate matter from Chinese cooking sources. Major individual organic compounds have been quantified by GC/MS, including series of alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanals, alkan-2-ones and PAHs.Alkanes and ketones make up a significant fraction of particle-phase organic compounds, ranging from C11 to C26,and C9 to C19, respectively. In addition, other organic compound classes have been identified, such as alkanols,esters, furans, lactones, amides, and nitriles. The mass concentrations of fine particles, alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and PAHs in air emitted from the Uigur style cooking are hundreds times higher than ambient PM2.5 in Beijing.

  8. ELEMENTAL CONTENTS IN ORGANS AND TISSUES OF CHINESE ADULT MEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-da Zhu; Ya-qiong Liu; Qing Xie; Jing-yu Wang; Quan Wu; Nei-fen Wang; Ti-jiang Fan; Hu-sheng Liu; Qing-fen Liu; Xiao-yan Wang; Li Ou-yang

    2007-01-01

    Objective To provide basis of reference values for relevant parameters of Chinese Reference Man.Methods Eighteen kinds of major organ or tissue samples, including muscle, rib, liver, and so on, were obtained from 4 areas (Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangsu, and Sichuan provinces) with different dietary patterns in China in autopsy of 16 healthy adult men, who had just encountered sudden deaths. At the same time, whole blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers living in each of these areas. The concentrations of 56 elements in these samples were detected by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spec-trometry (ICP-AES), and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS) techniques. Based on obtained concentrations and reference values of these organ or tissue weights for Chinese Reference Man, the relative elemental burdens in these organs or tissues as well whole body were also estimated.Results The concentrations of 56 elements in 18 main organs or tissues were determined all together and their elemental organ or tissue and whole body burdens were estimated. Furthermore, the distributions of important elements for radiation protection in these organs or tissues were emphatically discussed.Conclusion By summing with past related results, the total results obtained from the series of research may provide more reliable and better representative basis of these reference values for Chinese Reference Man than before.

  9. Progress of Research on Organic Fibrosis with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Lan Wang; Xiao-Ning Wang; Ping Liu

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis is the remodeling and repair processes of chronic injuries. There are few effective therapies. Chinese medicine formula, the main pattern of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in clinic, applies a multi-component, multi-target and complicated approach in the treatment of diseases, and certainly shows good comprehensive therapeutic effects on fibrosis. In this review, the clinical study, effects and mechanism of action of Fuzheng Huayu recipe in the treatment of liver, pulmonary, and renal fibrosis was analyzed and evaluated. Meanwhile, based on the understanding of TCM pathogenesis for liver cirrhosis, this review will also briefly introduce the research of different classical Chinese medicine formulae with various functions in the treatment of experimental liver fibrosis induced by different methods, including comparing the efficacy, analyzing the action characteristics and mechanism of effective formulae, exploring pathological and biological basis of TCM diagnostic and therapeutic pattern, which will contribute to the research of TCM in the treatment of organ fibrosis.

  10. Nucleolus organizer regions (Nor loci) of Chinese wheats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cedric E.May; 辛志勇

    1996-01-01

    Nucleolus organizer regions (Nor loci) of a range of Chinese wheat landraces and cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) were analysed using genomic DNA extracted from leaves. Only two allelic variants of the Nor-B1 locus were found on chromosome 1B (Nor-B1a and Nor-B1g), while Nor-B1g was probably introduced from North America in the early 1960s. The even more recent introduction of the rye allele Nor-R1 in the early 1980s was also revealed. Eight allelic variants of the Nor-B2 locus on chromosome 6B (Nor-B2a, b, d, f, h, o, p and s) were identified. A Chinese origin for the a, d, f, o, p and s alkies is evident although the d allele was successfully introduced into Australian wheats in the early 1900s. Nor-B2h and Nor-B2b are again very recent introductions into Chinese wheat breeding programs, the former from CIMMYT wheats and the latter in association with the introduction of the 1RS/1BL translocation from Europe. On the basis of the presence of different combinations of Nor-B1 and Nor-B2 alleles

  11. Exploration of Organizing in Chinese High-Tech Companies Located in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Purpose: Very little research has been done to find out what happens to organizing in Chinese companies that are located in countries characterized by cooperative capitalism. I focus on this phenomenon and explore what happens to organizing in two Chinese high-tech companies located in Denmark...... in their practices. The Chinese and the Danes deal with the ambiguity in many different ways. Research limitation: Few cases exist and the data is limited. Practical implications: The analysis creates learning opportunities for Chinese and Danish managers and highly qualified employees. Keywords: Chinese high....... Design/methodology/approach: Case studies, interviewing, and three questions inspired by the work of Boltanski & Thévenot: 1) What type of test scenarios are the Chinese and Danes becoming engaged in? 2) Which worlds are called upon as justification of actions by the Chinese and Danes in the test...

  12. Study on Volatile Organic Components from Chinese Fir Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Luohua; QIN Tefu; OHIRA Tatsuro

    2006-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds(VOCs) are emitted by a wide array of products, which include a variety of chemicals, some of them may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Several analytical instrument including gas chromatograph, high preferment liquid chromatograph, mass spectrometry and solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique were used in this study. The results showed the aldehyde and ketone components of Chinese fir wood were little composed of formaldehyde, syn-acetaldehyde, anti-acetadehyde and acrolein, VOCs obtained by Tenax GR absorber consisted of the major component cedrene (42.92%) and another 28 components, and the major components of the VOCs from the sample by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique were cedrene and cedrol.

  13. Development of the Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test: Normative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2013-01-01

    The present study consisted of two phases: development and psychometric validation of a Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) using Rasch analysis and the provision of normative data on the basis of a representative sample of the Chinese-speaking population. The HVOT was administered to 1008 healthy adults aged 15-79 years,…

  14. Chinese and Taiwanese International College Students' Participation in Social Organizations: Implications for College Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chun; Wong, Y. Joel

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative focus group study explored the meaning of Chinese and Taiwanese international students' lived experiences in social organizations. Participants were 9 Chinese and Taiwanese international college students in a midwestern U.S. university. The analyses uncovered 7 themes: social support, recreation, emotional support, practical…

  15. [Application of zebrafish model organism in the research of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Yi; Liang, Sheng-Wang

    2012-04-01

    Zebrafish has become an important model organism in many fields of biomedical studies and been increasingly used in Chinese materia medica studies in recent years. This article summarized the achievements and prospect for zebrafish as a pharmacological and toxicological tool in the study and development of Chinese materia medica.

  16. Ontology Learning for Chinese Information Organization and Knowledge Discovery in Ethnology and Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Kong

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ontology learning architecture that reflects the interaction between ontology learning and other applications such as ontology-engineering tools and information systems. Based on this architecture, we have developed a prototype system CHOL: a Chinese ontology learning tool. CHOL learns domain ontology from Chinese domain specific texts. On the one hand, it supports a semi-automatic domain ontology acquisition and dynamic maintenance, and on the other hand, it supports an auto-indexing and auto-classification of Chinese scholarly literature. CHOL has been applied in ethnology and anthropology for Chinese information organization and knowledge discovery.

  17. Celebrating the 60th Anniversary of Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editorial Office of Chinese Journal of Chemistry

    2010-01-01

    @@ May 2010 is the 60th Anniversary of Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry(SIOC),Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS),the founder and sponsor of Chinese Journal of Chemistry(CJC).In China,a cycle of sixty years forms a so called"jiazi(甲子)",which is the Chinese way of counting years.It is the time that signifies the end of an old cycle and the beginning of a new one.This special issue of CJC is dedicated to SIOC for celebrating her 60th anniversary.

  18. Relations between Chinese Adolescents' Perception of Parental Control and Organization and Their Perception of Parental Warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sing; Cheung, Ping Chung

    1987-01-01

    Study evaluates 713 Chinese high school students in Hong Kong and distinguishes parental control from organization, following Moos' (1976) conceptualization. Results show both dimensions (control and organization) correlate very differently with parental warmth. Greater parental control is associated with more conflict with parents. (Author/RWB)

  19. Is the Scandinavian Way of Organizing Challenged by the Growing Chinese Economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The institutional order of organizing in working life is very different in Scandinavia and China. When Scandinavian and Chinese managers and employees meet in concrete work relations they not only work together on a product they also become engaged in institutional work dealing with the inconsist......The institutional order of organizing in working life is very different in Scandinavia and China. When Scandinavian and Chinese managers and employees meet in concrete work relations they not only work together on a product they also become engaged in institutional work dealing...

  20. Chemical compositions of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Chinese cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2007-01-01

    Food cooking can be a significant source of atmospheric particulate organic matter. In this study, the chemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) in PM2.5 emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were examined by gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified species are consistent in the emissions from different Chinese cooking styles and the quantified compounds account for 5-10% of total POM in PM2.5. The dominant homologue is fatty acids, constituting 73-85% of the quantified compounds. The pattern of n-alkanes and the presence of beta-sitosterol and levoglucosan indicate that vegetables are consumed during Chinese cooking operations. Furthermore, the emissions of different compounds are impacted significantly by the cooking ingredients. The candidates of organic tracers used to describe and distinguish emissions from Chinese cooking in Guangzhou are tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, oleic acid, levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, nonanal, and lactones. During the sampling period, the relative contribution of Chinese cooking to the mass concentration of atmospheric hexadecanoic acid should be less than 1.3% in Guangzhou.

  1. [Effects of Chinese prickly ash orchard on soil organic carbon mineralization and labile organic carbon in karst rocky desertification region of Guizhou province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Liao, Hong-Kai; Long, Jian; Li, Juan; Liu, Ling-Fei

    2015-03-01

    Taking 5-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO-5), 17-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO- 17), 30-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO-30) and the forest land (FL, about 60 years) in typical demonstration area of desertification control test in southwestern Guizhou as our research objects, the aim of this study using a batch incubation experiment was to research the mineralization characteristics of soil organic carbon and changes of the labile soil organic carbon contents at different depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-50 cm). The results showed that: the cumulative mineralization amounts of soil organic carbon were in the order of 30-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard, the forest land, 5-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard and 17-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard at corresponding depth. Distribution ratios of CO2-C cumulative mineralization amount to SOC contents were higher in Chinese prickly ash orchards than in forest land at each depth. Cultivation of Chinese prickly ash in long-term enhanced the mineralization of soil organic carbon, and decreased the stability of soil organic carbon. Readily oxidized carbon and particulate organic carbon in forest land soils were significantly more than those in Chinese prickly ash orchards at each depth (P carbon and particulate organic carbon first increased and then declined at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth, respectively, but an opposite trend was found at 30-50 cm depth. At 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm, cultivation of Chinese prickly ash could be good for improving the contents of labile soil organic carbon in short term, but it was not conducive in long-term. In this study, we found that cultivation of Chinese prickly ash was beneficial for the accumulation of labile organic carbon at the 30-50 cm depth.

  2. Measurement of emissions of fine particulate organic matter from Chinese cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yan; Hu, Min; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Ben-De; Zhang, Yuan-Hang; Liu, De-Quan

    Cooking emissions may contribute significantly to atmospheric organic particles in urban environment in China, and thus need to be examined first for its chemical compositions and characteristics. The particulate organic emissions of the two cooking styles of Chinese cuisine, that is, Hunan Cooking and Cantonese Cooking, were characterized in Shenzhen. More than half of the PM 2.5 mass is due to organic compounds, and over 90 species of organic compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 26.1% of bulk organic particle mass and 20.7% of PM 2.5. Fatty acids, diacids and steroids were the major organic compounds emitted from both styles of cooking. Of the quantified organic mass, over 90% was fatty acids. The mass of organic species, and the molecular distribution of n-alkanes and PAHs indicated the dissimilarities between the two different cooking styles, but generally the major parts of the organic particulate emissions of the two restaurants were similar, showing less difference than between Chinese and American cooking.

  3. Ecodesign of organic photovoltaic modules from Danish and Chinese perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Laurent, Alexis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle of a solar park made using organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology is assessed here. The modules have been fabricated in a pilot scale plant and they have been installed together with other components to evaluate the balance of system, in a solar park located in Denmark. Three possib...

  4. Genomic organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes in the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, T; Zhu, H; Wang, D; Hao, H; Du, W

    2015-01-01

    In science, the hamsters are widely used as a model for studying the human diseases because they display many features like humans. The utility of the Chinese hamster as a biology model can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization and expression of the Chinese hamster immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. The Chinese hamster IgH locus contains 268 VH segments (132 potentially functional genes, 12 ORFs and 124 pseudogenes), 4 DH segments, 6 JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε and α) and one reverse δ remnant fragment. The Igκ locus contains only a single Cκ gene, 4 Jκ segments and 48 Vκ segments (15 potentially functional genes and 33 pseudogenes), whereas the Igλ locus contains 4 Cλ genes, but only Cλ 3 and Cλ 4 each preceded by a Jλ gene segment. A total of 49 Vλ segments (39 potentially functional genes, 3 ORFs and 7 pseudogenes) were identified. Analysis of junctions of the recombined V(D)J transcripts reveals complex diversity in both expressed H and κ sequences, but the microhomology-directed VJ recombination obviously results in very limited diversity in the Chinese hamster λ gene despite more potential germline-encoded combinatorial diversity. This is the first study to make a comprehensive analysis of the Ig genes in the Chinese hamster, which provides insights into the Ig genes in placental mammals.

  5. Chinese consumers' adoption of a "green" innovation - the case of organic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been published on Chinese consumer-citizens’ adoption of or willingness to adopt sustainable lifestyle elements. A case in point is organic food – a more sustainable alternative to conventional food. Organic food is a Western invention. However, organic food products are now...... available in upscale supermarkets in East and South-east China metropolises such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. This paper reports the results of a study investigating what motivates early adopters of organic food in China. The data were collected in Guangzhou by means of a mallintercept survey....... As in Western Europe, the early adoption of organic food in China is positively related to what Schwartz termed “universalism values.” Also as in the West, the personal attitude towards buying organic food in China is strongly linked to beliefs about its healthiness, taste and environmental friendliness. Social...

  6. Ecodesign of organic photovoltaic modules from Danish and Chinese perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Laurent, Alexis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle of a solar park made using organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology is assessed here. The modules have been fabricated in a pilot scale plant and they have been installed together with other components to evaluate the balance of system, in a solar park located in Denmark. Three possible...... waste management practices have been contemplated for the end of life of the solar park: recycling, incineration or the average local mix. The assessment of the environmental impacts of such a system reveals that silver used in the electrodes is overall the largest source of impacts, such as chemical...... the production of the OPV modules from Denmark to China have additionally been studied to determine the most advantageous configuration. The stakeholders should aim at anchoring the manufacturing of solar parks in countries with stringent emission standards and/or high technology efficiencies, e.g. Denmark...

  7. Tang Jiaxuan Attends Meeting of Leaders of Chinese And Japanese Nongovernmental Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On February 17, leaders of Chinese and Japanese nongovernmental organizations met in the Great Hall of the People for a meeting which was addressed by Tang Jiaxuan, Honorary Advisor to the China-Japan Friendship Association (CJFA). Tang said it was of great significance that, on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic relations, leaders of the people-to-people friendship organizations of the two countries should gather to exchange views and offer suggestions for boosting friendly cooperation and deepening the strategic relationship of mutual benefit.

  8. Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: Past, present and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Xiaotang; ZHANG Fusuo; BAO Xuemei; R(o)mheld V.; Roelcke M.

    2005-01-01

    Recycling and composting of organic materials such as animal waste, crop residues and green manures has a long tradition in China. In the past, the application of organic manures guaranteed a high return of organic materials and plant mineral nutrients and thus maintained soil fertility and crop yield. As a result of rapid economic development coupled with the increasing urbanization and labour costs, the recycling rate of organic materials in Chinese agriculture has dramatically declined during the last two decades, in particular in the more developed eastern and southeastern provinces of China. Improper handling and storage of the organic wastes is causing severe air and water pollution. Because farmers are using increasing amounts of mineral fertilizer, only 47% of the cropland is still receiving organic manure, which accounted for 18% of N,28% of P and 75% of K in the total nutrient input in 2000. Nowadays, the average proportion of nutrients (N+P+K) supplemented by organic manure in Chinese cropland is only 35% of the total amount of nutrients from both inorganic and organic sources.In China, one of the major causes is the increasing de-coupling of animal and plant production.This is occurring at a time when "re-coupling" is partly being considered in Western countries as a means to improve soil fertility and reduce pollution from animal husbandry. Re-coupling of modern animal and plant production is urgently needed in China. A comprehensive plan to develop intensive animal husbandry while taking into account the environmental impact of liquid and gaseous emissions and the nutrient requirements of the crops as well as the organic carbon requirements of the soil are absolutely necessary. As a consequence of a stronger consideration of ecological aspects in agriculture, a range of environmental standards has been issued and various legal initiatives are being taken in China. Their enforcement should be strictly monitored.

  9. Statistical Study of Trace Elemental Concentrations in Major Types of Organisms from Typical Chinese Coastal Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫东; 胡明辉; 石谦; 杨逸萍

    2004-01-01

    Frequency distribution characteristics of trace elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu. Sr and Ba are studied for the marine organisms collected from typical Chinese coastal waters and compared with those of major elements Ca and Mg. Nearly all the distributions for trace elements in macroalgae, benthic molluscs, crustaceans, cephalopods and different tissues of fish ( muscle, liver and bone ) are found to show some degree of positive skewness, indicating a relatively large number of marine organisms with low concentrations for a particular element and only a few organisms with disproportionately high concentrations. Their distribution types are generally logarithmic normal distribution or nearly logarithmic normal distribution. Distribution of Ca is similar to that of trace elements, while Mg shows normal distribution. Average elemental concentrations of major types of organisms are calculated based on their frequency distributions.

  10. Unidentified Corpses: Development of Management Model in Charity Organizations of Chinese-Thai People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orasa Pholpanga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Management model on indentified corpses in charity organizations of Chinese-Thai people was consisted of committee members from various agencies to manage in overall and to solve all occurred problems. Approach: This study proposed the study on model of cremation management on unidentified corpses in charity organizations of Chinese-Thai people. The study was a research and development by using processes of qualitative research. Population and samples were operators in charity organizations and general people, who participated in activities of Chinese-Thai people charity organizations, in 3 provinces as Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok and Chon Buri, Thailand. Observation form, survey form, interview form, focus group discussion and workshop were used as research tools while data was analyzed by descriptive research. Results: Management on cremation of unidentified corpses should be assigned in form of a group of committees to take responsibility for each division. Forensic Medicine Division was an important division for establishing justice and accuracy. Outsourcing was used to recruit persons for each division that would be provided all relatives of those unidentified corpses with trustworthiness. Management on unidentified would be successful with big charities by continuous operation of Public Relation Division. Due to long duration of Graveyard Big Cleaning Ceremony, at least 30-100 days, public relation should be continually operated. Finally, General Donation Division was supported budgets form members of charity network and general donators. Appointment of responsible persons, therefore, should be selected from those who had their honesties. Operating Division had responsibilities on facilitating, coordinating, understanding, controlling and managing conveniences for all divisions on the same direction. Volunteer and Workforce Division needed to have personnel with sacrifice and made merits for public even without any

  11. Contemporary Chinese Defense Industry Reforms and Civil–Military Integration in Three Key Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Ed; Puska, Susan M

    2010-01-01

    This brief highlights key points on three Chinese government and military organizations involved in managing defense science, technology, and industry: 1) the State Council’s State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (SASTIND); 2) the General Armament Department (GAD) of the People’s Liberation Army; and 3) the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology’s Civil–Military Integration Promotion Department (CMIPD). This brief calls attention to im...

  12. COMPETITIVENESS ОF CHINESE ECONOMY AFTER JOINING WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Shlik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of the China’s membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO. The advantages and disadvantages of WTO joining and also prospects and unforeseen difficulties are given in the paper. The People’s Republic of China has already been a full-member of WTO for 6 years. The Chinese Government has mainly fulfilled all the conditions which were imposed for WTO joining. They concerned customs legislation that presupposed a considerable reduction of custom duties, an access to the service market for foreign investors, an increase of responsibility for violation of intellectual property rights. Many of these conditions have been fulfilled in advance.

  13. Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: Past, present and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU; Xiaotang

    2005-01-01

    [1]King,F.H.,Farmers of forty centuries or permanent agriculture in China,Korea and Japan,German translation of first edition (Madison,Wis.,1911),1984.Georg,E.,Siebeneicher,Neu-Ulm und München,208.[2]FAO,FAO Soils Bulletin 40,China:Recycling of organic wastes in agriculture,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,Rome,2nd ed.,1978.[3]Roelcke,M.,Organic materials in rice production in the Yangtze River Delta-Investigation on the composition and effects of Waterlogged Compost (in German with English abstract),University Diploma Dissertation,Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture,Freising-Weihenstephan:Munich Technical University,1988,114.[4]Zhu,Z.L.,Chen,D.L.,Nitrogen fertilizer use in China-Contributions to food production,impacts on the environment and best management strategies,Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems,2002,63:117-127.[5]Ju,X.T.,Liu,X.J.,Zhang,F.S.et al,Nitrogen fertilization,soil nitrate accumulation,and policy recommendations in several agricultural regions of China,Ambio,2004,33(6):300-305.[6]Extension Center of Agricultural Techniques in China,ed.,Organic Manure Resources in China,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1999,1-8.[7]Cao,L.G.,The Fertilization History,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1981.[8]Liu,G.L.,Food production and balanced fertilization in China,in Proceeding of Third International Conference for Balanced Fertilization (ed.Institute of Soil Science and Fertilization,Chinese Academic of Agricultural Science),Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1989,16-21.[9]China Agricultural Yearbook,Editorial Committee of China Agricultural Yearbook,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1950 - 2003[10]Ellis,E.C.,Wang,S.M.,Sustainable traditional agriculture in the Tai Lake Region of China,Agriculture,Ecosystems and Environment,1997,61,177-193.[11]Ge,J.X.,The History of Chinese Population,Shanghai:Fudan University Publishing House,2001,5:831 - 832.[12]Zhang,S.X.,The Resources of Cultivable Land and

  14. Comparison and chemometric analysis of the phenolic compounds and organic acids composition of chinese wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ke; Ma, Lei; Han, Ye-Hui; Nie, Yao; Li, Ji-Ming; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of 106 wines from 5 major grape varieties and 3 typical geographic regions in China were investigated by means of profiling of organic acids and phenolic compounds analysis. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and thus, large number of samples could be determined in a quick and reliable way. The results showed that different origins and varieties were characteristic of various profiles of organic acid and phenolic compounds. In order to investigate possible correlation between organic acids and phenolic compounds content and grape variety and/or geographical origin, analysis of variance and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were conducted. A satisfactory LDA result for red wines according to geographic origin was obtained, in which the correct classification was 100% and the leave-one-out validation accuracy was 90%. The corresponding results of white wines were 91% and 86%, respectively. When LDA was processed, according to grape varieties, the proportionality of successfully classified wines was 96%, while the leave-one-out validation accuracy was 94%. The organic acids and phenolic compounds profiles were useful in the classification of Chinese wines according to grape variety and geographic origin.

  15. Simulation of Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics in Chinese Rice Paddies from 1980 to 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen; YU Yong-Qiang; SUN Wen-Juan; HUANG Yao

    2007-01-01

    Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) of rice paddies in China were simulated from 1980 to 2000 by linking a coupled bio-physical model to GIS database. The coupled model consists of two sub-models including Crop-C for simulating net primary productivity and hence residue retention and Soil-C for computing the turnover rates of SOC. The GIS database included parameters of climate, soils and agricultural activities with the resolution of 10 km × 10 km. Model simulation indicated that Chinese rice paddies covering 22.6 Mha sequestrated a considerable amount of C, about 0.15 ± 0.07 Pg C from 1980 to 2000. Annual sequestration rate increased sharply from -180 ± 45 kg C ha-1 year-1 in 1980 to 440 ± 170kg C ha-1 year-1 in 1989. Thereafter, a steady sequestration rate of 460 ± 170 kg C ha-1 year-1 occurred till 1994 and declined since then. Approximately 84% of the Chinese rice paddies sequestrated carbon, while 15% lost carbon and 1%kept balance over the 20 years. Great SOC sequestration occurred in eastern, southern and central China, while a slight decline of SOC existed in some regions of northeastern and southwestern China.

  16. Organic anion transporting polypeptide-1B1 haplotypes in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-yong XU; Hong-hao ZHOU; Zhen-qiu SUN; Yi-jing HE; Wei ZHANG; Sheng Deng; Qing LI; Wei-xia ZHANG; Zhao-qian LIU; Dan WANG; Yuan-fei HUANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To detect 388G>A and 521T>C variant alleles in the organic anion transporting polypeptide- 1B 1 (OATP 1B 1, encoding gene SLCOIB1) gene. Methods:One hundred and eleven healthy volunteers were screened for OATPIB 1 alleles in our study. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to identify the 388G>A polymorphism and a 1-step tetra-primer method was developed for the determination of 521T>C mutation. Results: The frequencies of the 388G>A and 521T>C variant alleles in the Chinese population were 73.4%and 14.0%,respectively. The frequencies of the SLCO1BI*lb and *15 haplotypes were 59.9% and 14.0%, respectively. Conclusion: The SLCO1B1*1b and SLCO1B1*15 variants are relatively common in the Chinese population. Their frequencies are similar to that in the Japanese, but significantly different from that in Caucasians and blacks.

  17. Comparative study on active soil organic matter in Chinese fir plantation and native broad-leaved forest in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-kui; WANG Si-long; DENG Shi-jian

    2005-01-01

    Active soil organic matter (ASOM) has a main effect on biochemical cycles of soil nutrient elements such as N, P and S, and the quality and quantity of ASOM reflect soil primary productivity. The changes of ASOM fractions and soil nutrients in the first rotation site and the second rotation site of Chinese fir plantation and the native broad-leaved forest were investigated and analyzed by soil sampling at the Huitong Experimental Station of Forestry Ecology (at latitude 26°48′N and longitude 109°30′E under a subtropical climate conditions), Chinese Academy of Sciences in March, 2004. The results showed that values of ASOM fractions for the Chinese fir plantations were lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. The contents of easily oxidisable carbon (EOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for the first rotation of Chinese fir plantation were 35.9%, 13.7%, 87.8% and 50.9% higher than those for the second rotation of Chinese fir plantation, and were 15.8%, 47.3%, 38.1% and 30.2% separately lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. For the three investigated forest sites, the contents of MBC and WSOC had a larger decrease, followed by WSC, and the change of EOC was least. Moreover, soil physico-chemistry properties such as soil nutrients in Chinese fir plantation were lower than those in broad-leaved forest. It suggested that soil fertility declined after Chinese fir plantation replaced native broad-leaved forest through continuous artificial plantation.

  18. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. National Scale Analysis of Soil Organic Carbon Storage in China Based on Chinese Soil Taxonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dong-Sheng; SHI Xue-Zheng; WANG Hong-Jie; SUN Wei-Xia; E. D. WARNER; LIU Qing-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and density in various soil types or locations are the foundation for examining the role of soil in the global carbon cycle. An assessment of SOC storage and density patterns in China based on soil types as defined by Chinese Soil Taxonomy (CST) and the recently compiled digital 1:1000 000 Soil Database of China was conducted to generate a rigorous database for the future study of SOC storage. First, SOC densities of 7292soil profiles were calculated and linked by soil type to polygons of a digital soil map using geographic information system resulting in a 1:1000 000 SOC density distribution map of China. Further results showed that soils in China covered 9 281 ×103 km2 with a total SOC storage of 89.14 Gt and a mean SOC density 96.0 t ha-1. Among the 14 CST orders, Cambosols and Argosols constituted high percentage of China's total SOC storage, while Andosols, Vertosols, and Spodsols had a low percentage. As for SOC density, Histosols were the highest, while Primosols were the lowest. Specific patterns of SOC storage of various soil types at the CST suborder, group, and subgroup levels were also described. Results obtained from the study of SOC storage and density of all CST soil types would be not only useful for international comparative research, but also for more accurately estimating and monitoring of changes of SOC storage in China.

  20. Effect of dissolved organic matter on ammonium sorption kinetics and equilibrium to Chinese clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Erping

    2012-01-01

    In the in-situ remediation of ammonium (NH4+) in groundwater by a sequential reactive barrier filled with zeolite, it is of great importance to understand the mechanisms of NH4+ sorption to zeolite. In this study, the effect of dissolved natural organic matter on NH4+ sorption to natural Chinese clinoptilolite was studied by batch experiments taking humic acid (HA) as a model substance. The surface of clinoptilolite was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). A needle cluster of sorbed HA could be observed on the surface of the clinoptilolite. The negative effect of HA on NH4+ sorption is thought to be their competition for sorption sites, the surface coverage and blockage of the pores of clinoptilolite by HA. The fitting results of kinetic sorption data indicated that the rate-controlling step for NH4+ sorption by clinoptilolite in both NH4+ and NH4+ + HA systems is the heterogeneous chemisorption. The existence of HA (10 mg/L) significantly reduced the initial sorption rate of NH4+, but the effect of a further concentration increase of HA was slight. The effect of HA on maximum sorption capacity was found to be insignificant in the experiments. A high aqueous Ca2+ concentration can decrease the negative effect of HA on NH4+ sorption by precipitation of calcium humate.

  1. Sampling Migrants from their Social Networks: The Demography and Social Organization of Chinese Migrants in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, M Giovanna; Verdery, Ashton; Mouw, Ted; Li, Jing

    2016-07-01

    The streams of Chinese migration to Africa are growing in tandem with rising Chinese investments and trade flows in and to the African continent. In spite of the high profile of this phenomenon in the media, there are few rich and broad descriptions of Chinese communities in Africa. Reasons for this include the rarity of official statistics on foreign-born populations in African censuses, the absence of predefined sampling frames required to draw representative samples with conventional survey methods and difficulties to reach certain segments of this population. Here, we use a novel network-based approach, Network Sampling with Memory, which overcomes the challenges of sampling 'hidden' populations in the absence of a sampling frame, to recruit a sample of recent Chinese immigrants in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and collect information on the demographic characteristics, migration histories and social ties of members of this sample. These data reveal a heterogeneous Chinese community composed of "state-led" migrants who come to Africa to work on projects undertaken by large Chinese state-owned enterprises and "independent" migrants who come on their own accord to engage in various types of business ventures. They offer a rich description of the demographic profile and social organization of this community, highlight key differences between the two categories of migrants and map the structure of the social ties linking them. We highlight needs for future research on inter-group differences in individual motivations for migration, economic activities, migration outcomes, expectations about future residence in Africa, social integration and relations with local communities.

  2. Structural organization and scale-free properties in Chinese Phrase Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; WEI Luoxia; NIU Yi; YIN Junxun

    2005-01-01

    Monkey language models are defined for Chinese Phrase Networks, and scale-free features of Chinese Phrase Networks are uncovered. It is pointed out that the ratio of average degree to the total number of nodes ((K)IN) is close to a constant. Simulation for the evolution of phrase networks indicates that one of the important reasons for power law distributions is the word selection frequency, which, when tuned aptly, can make the monkey language present similar statistic traits as that of natural languages. Power law tails emerge at large k, and the exponent is about 6. Comparison between monkey model and natural language shows that humans are able to use Chinese words resources in more effective and compact ways to express their intentions. All the results demonstrate an important fact that the least effort principle is the basis of Chinese Phrase Networks.

  3. Distribution and sources of solvent extractable organic compounds in PM2.5 during 2007 Chinese Spring Festival in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingru; GUO Xueqing; LIU Xinran; LIU Chenshu; ZGHANG Shanshan; WANG Yuesi

    2009-01-01

    The solvent extractable organic compounds (SEOC) including n-alkanes, polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and dicarboxylic acids in PM2.5 during the 2007 Chinese Spring Festival in Beijing were measured via gas chromatography to mass spectrometry to determine the characteristics and sources of these organic pollutants. The concentrations of total n-alkanes, PAHs, and organic acids were higher before Chinese Spring Festival Eve (1025.5, 95.9 and 543.3 ng/m3,respectively) than those after (536.6, 58.9, and 331.8 ng/m3, respectively). n-Aalkanes and PAHs had much higher concentration in nighttime than those in daytime because of high relative humidity and low wind speed during the night. Combustion of coal and exhaust emission were major sources of n-alkanes. It could be judged by the characteristic ratios that the primary source of PAHs in fine particles was the combustion of coal, and the combustion of gasoline was in the next place. The ratios of C18:0/C16 indicated the contribution of vehicular emissions to the fatty acids. Dicarboxylic and aromatic acids were abundant in daytime than in nighttime because these acids were secondary organic acid and the photochemical degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons was the main source.

  4. Stability of soil organic carbon changes in successive rotations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian; WANG Silong; FENG Zongwei; WANG Qingkui

    2009-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) under forests in the global carbon cycle depends on the stability of the soil carbon and its availability to soil microbial biomass. We investigated the effects of successive rotations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations on the stability of SOC and its availability to microbes by adopting the two-step hydrolysis with H2SO4 and density fractionation. The results showed that successive rotations of Chinese fir decreased the quantity of total SOC, recalcitrant fraction, and carbohydrates in Labile Pool I (LPI), and microbial properties evidently, especially at 0-10 cm horizon. However, cellulose included in Labile Pool II (LP II) and the cellulose/total carbohydrates ratio increased in successive rotations of Chinese fir. The non-cellulose of carbohydrates included in LPI maybe highly available to soil microbial biomass. Hence the availability of SOC to microbial biomass declined over the successive rotations. Although there was no significant change in recalcitrance of SOC over the successive rotations of Chinese fir, the percentage of heavy fraction to total SOC increased, suggesting that the degree of physical protection for SOC increased and SOC became more stable over the successive rotations. The degradation of SOC quality in successive rotation soils may be attributed to worse environmental conditions resulted from disturbance that related to "slash and burn" site preparation. Being highly correlated with soil microbial properties, the cellulose/total carbohydrates ratio as an effective indicator of changes in availability of SOC to microbial biomass brought by management practices in forest soils.

  5. Influence of Sticky Rice and Anionic Polyacrylamide on the Crystallization of Calcium Carbonate in Chinese Organic Sanhetu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Peng, Changsheng; Dai, Min; Gu, Qingbao; Song, Shaoxian

    2015-09-01

    The crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in soil controlled by natural organic material was considered a very important reason to enhance the property of ancient Chinese organic Sanhetu (COS), but how the organic material affected the crystallization of CaCO3 in COS is still unclear. In this paper, a natural organic material (sticky rice, SR) and a synthetic organic material (anionic polyacrylamide, APAM) were selected as additives to investigate their effect on the crystallization of CaCO3. The experimental results showed that the morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals could be affected by the concentration of additives and reaction time, while only the size of CaCO3 crystals could be affected by the concentration of reactant. Although the morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals varied greatly with the variation of additive concentration, reactant concentration and reaction time, the polymorph of CaCO3 crystals were always calcite, according to SEM/EDX, XRD and FTIR analyses. This study may help us to better understand the mechanism of the influence of organic materials on CaCO3 crystallization and properties of COS.

  6. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein predicts target organ damage in Chinese patients with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Nie, Hai; He, Hongbo

    2007-01-01

    with metabolic syndrome. A total of 1082 consecutive patients of Chinese origin were screened for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and target organ damage, including cardiac hypertrophy......Observational studies established high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a risk factor for cardiovascular events in the general population. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between target organ damage and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in a cohort of Chinese patients......, carotid intima-media thickness, and renal impairment, were investigated. The median (25th and 75th percentiles) of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in 619 patients with metabolic syndrome was 2.42 mg/L (0.75 and 3.66 mg/L) compared with 1.13 mg/L (0.51 and 2.46 mg/L) among 463 control subjects (P

  7. The Evolution of Organic Carbon in Chinese Mollisol Under Different Farming Systems: Validation and Prediction by Using Century Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important indicator of soil degradation process. In this study, the long-term SOC evolution in Chinese mollisol farmland was simulated and predicted by validating, analyzing, processing and assorting concerning data, based on clarifying parameters of Century model need, combined with best use of recorded data of field management, observed data of long-term experiments, climate, soil, and biology, and achieved results from Hailun Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The results were showed as follows: Before reclamation, SOC content was around 58.00 g kg-1. SOC content dropped quickly in early years, and then decreased slowly after reclamation. SOC content was around 34.00 g kg-1 with a yearly average rate of 8.91% decrease before long-term experiments was established. After a long-term experiment, SOC would change under different farming systems. Shift farming system changed as follows: By 20-year model simulation, SOC content decreased from 34.03 to 30.19 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 5.97‰; by 100-year model simulation, SOC content decreased to 24.31 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 3.36‰. Organic fanning system changed as follows: By 20-year model simulation, SOC content decreased slowly from 34.03 to 33.39 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 0.95‰, 5‰ less than that of shift farming system; by 100-year model simulation, SOC content decreased to 32.21 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 0.55‰. "Petroleum" farming system changed as follows: By 20-year model simulation, SOC content decreased from 34.03 to 32.88 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 1.72‰, much more than that of organic farming system; by 100-year model simulation, SOC content decreased to 30.89 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 0.96‰. Combined "petroleum"-organic farming system changed as follows: By 20-year model simulation, SOC content was increased slightly; by 100-year model simulation, SOC content

  8. Organization of Time in the Chinese Countryside: Labor, Rhythms and Gender in the Later Maoist Period (1958-1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question of how the state policies during the later Maoist period, from the beginning of the Great Leap Forward (1958 to the introduction of the Modernization Reforms (1978, affected the organization of time in the Chinese countryside. After abandoning the initial Soviet model of modernization, based on the exclusive strengthening of heavy industry, the China’s leadership developed a strategy of parallel development of agriculture and industry, wherein the former would additionally support the modernization of the latter. The study is focused on the ways the longer term state plans and shorter term economic, social and ideological policies and campaigns jointly influenced the rhythms of life of Chinese peasants. The domains in which these influences became visible were: (1 the intensification of agricultural practices, (2 the introducing of the small-scale industry, and (3 the politicizing of the spare time. In the analysis the characteristic rhythms of work and rest within the daily, weekly, seasonal, and annual time spans are followed in detail.

  9. Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.

  10. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit on quality and active components over postharvest storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on market quality and actives preservation of organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit over postharvest storage. Fruit were harvested, cooled, and sorted for uniform maturity and quality. Fruit were ...

  11. Seasonal and spatial variability of the organic matter-to-organic carbon mass ratios in Chinese urban organic aerosols and a first report of high correlations between aerosol oxalic acid and zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We calculated the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratios (OM/OC mass ratios in PM2.5 collected from 14 Chinese cities during summer and winter of 2003 and analyzed the causes for their seasonal and spatial variability. The OM/OC mass ratios were calculated two ways. Using a mass balance method, the calculated OM/OC mass ratios averaged 1.92 ± 0.39 yr-round, with no significant seasonal or spatial variation. The second calculation was based on chemical species analyses of the organic compounds extracted from the PM2.5 samples using dichloromethane/methanol and water. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in summer was relatively high (1.75 ± 0.13 and spatially-invariant, due to vigorous photochemistry and secondary OA production throughout the country. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in winter (1.59 ± 0.18 was significantly lower than that in summer, with lower values in northern cities (1.51 ± 0.07 than in southern cities (1.65 ± 0.15. This likely reflects the wider usage of coal for heating purposes in northern China in winter, in contrast to the larger contributions from biofuel and biomass burning in southern China in winter. On average, organic matters constituted 36% and 34% of Chinese urban PM2.5 mass in summer and winter, respectively. We reported, for the first time, high correlations between Zn and oxalic acid in Chinese urban aerosols in summer. This is consistent with the formation of stable Zn oxalate complex in the aerosol phase previously proposed by Furukawa and Takahashi (2011. We found that many other dicarboxylic acids were also highly correlated with Zn in the summer Chinese urban aerosol samples, suggesting that they may also form stable organic complexes with Zn. Such formation may have profound implications for the atmospheric abundance and hygroscopic property of aerosol dicarboxylic acids.

  12. Chinese consumers' adoption of a "green" innovation - the case of organic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    available in upscale supermarkets in East and South-east China metropolises such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. This paper reports the results of a study investigating what motivates early adopters of organic food in China. The data were collected in Guangzhou by means of a mallintercept survey....... As in Western Europe, the early adoption of organic food in China is positively related to what Schwartz termed “universalism values.” Also as in the West, the personal attitude towards buying organic food in China is strongly linked to beliefs about its healthiness, taste and environmental friendliness. Social...

  13. Challenges of information security incident learning: an industrial case study in a Chinese healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Johnson, Chris

    2017-01-09

    Security incidents can have negative impacts on healthcare organizations, and the security of medical records has become a primary concern of the public. However, previous studies showed that organizations had not effectively learned lessons from security incidents. Incident learning as an essential activity in the "follow-up" phase of security incident response lifecycle has long been addressed but not given enough attention. This paper conducted a case study in a healthcare organization in China to explore their current obstacles in the practice of incident learning. We interviewed both IT professionals and healthcare professionals. The results showed that the organization did not have a structured way to gather and redistribute incident knowledge. Incident response was ineffective in cycling incident knowledge back to inform security management. Incident reporting to multiple stakeholders faced a great challenge. In response to this case study, we suggest the security assurance modeling framework to address those obstacles.

  14. tudy on Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome by Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑文; 任爱民; 张丽霞; 王红; 毕铭华; 李昂; 次秀丽; 王彦; 齐文杰; 王宝恩

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine (TCM-WM) on infectious multiple organs dysfunction syndrome/multiple system and organ failure (MODS/MSOF) for elevating the successful rate of rescuing the patients. Methods: Diagnosis with western medicine and Syndrome Differentiation of TCM in 225 in-patients of acute infectious disease complicated with MODS/MSOF were conducted, and TCM treatment, based on western medical comprehensive treatment, was given to observe the effect and explore the mechanism of the TCM-WM therapy. Results: Up to the end of 1998, 161 cases of the 225 cases were successfully cured and 64 died, the mortality being 28.4%. Among them, 58 out of 140 cases of MSOF died, the mortality was accounted for 41.4%. In 106 cases conformed to the diagnostic criteria of MSOF proposed by Professor Knaus WA, USA, 52 cases were cured successfully and 54 died, the mortality being 50.94%. Conclusion:TCM-WM treatment could elevate the therapeutic effect in treating MODS, the mechanism might be through improving the hemodynamic and hemorrheologic condition of patients to relieve nail-fold microcirculation disorder; influencing the levels of cytokine and inflammatory mediator, so as to alleviate the systemic inflammatory reaction, it might also abate the inhibited condition of gastro-intestinal motility, alleviate the intestinal flora imbalance, prevent intestinal bacteria and endotoxin malposition, and protect cells from peroxidation.

  15. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometric characterization of organic aerosol from European and Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Organic aerosol constitutes a substantial fraction (20-90%) of submicrometer aerosol mass, playing an important role in air quality and human health. Over the past few years, ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) has been applied to elucidate the chemical composition of ambient aerosols. However, most of the UHRMS studies used direct infusion without prior separation by liquid chromatography, which may cause the loss of individual compound information and interference problems. In the present study, urban ambient aerosol with particle diameter Beijing, China, respectively. Two pretreatment procedures were applied to extract the organic compounds from the filter samples: One method uses a mixture of acetonitrile and water, the other uses pure water and prepared for the extraction of humic-like substances. The extracts were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an Orbitrap mass spectrometer in both negative and the positive modes. The effects of pretreatment procedures on the characterization of organic aerosol and the city-wise difference in chemical composition of organic aerosol will be discussed in detail.

  16. Variations of organic carbon isotopic composition and its environmental significance during the last glacial on western Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fahu; RAO Zhiguo; ZHANG Jiawu; JIN Ming; MA Jianying

    2006-01-01

    A high-resolution loess section in the western Chinese Loess Plateau, Yuanbao Section,was sampled for organic carbon isotopic analyses.The soil organic carbon isotope (δ13Corg) varied between -22.6‰ and -27.5‰ during the last glacial at the section. During the last interstadial, the δ13Corg values were more negative than those in both early and late periods of the last glacial by 4‰. The isotopic composition indicates a coupled response of the pure C3 plants to the temperature, precipitation and the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Decrease in temperature and the atmospheric CO2 concentration from the last interstadial to Last Glaicial Maximum (LGM) caused the organic carbon isotopes to become positive by 1.5‰-2.0‰. The amplitude of 4‰in the δ13Corg variation during the last glacial should be mainly caused by the precipitation change.Therefore, the δ13Corg variations of the Yuanbao Section during the last glacial period documented the large-amplitude fluctuation of the monsoon precipitation, which is estimated to be 250-310 mm more during the last interstadial than that in the LGM, and 100 mm more than that during early last glacial. The rapid changes of the monsoon precipitation on millennial scale during the last glacial have also been recorded in the isotopic variations in Yuanbao loess section. As the isotopic composition varies complicatedly as shown in the Ioess-paleosol sequence, it cannot be simply attributed to the abundances of C3and C4 plants or be used as an indicator of the summer monsoon variations.

  17. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting

    2015-08-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented "three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)" national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Cancer Society (ACS) made a research on cancer NGOs and civil society in cancer control and found that cancer NGOs in developing countries mobilize civil society to work together and advocate governments in their countries to develop policies to address the growing cancer burden. Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Cancer Council Australia (CCA), and Malaysian cancer NGOs are the representatives of cancer NGOs in promoting cancer control. Selecting Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA) as an example in China, this article is to investigate how NGOs undertake systematic cancer prevention work in China. By conducting real case study, we found that, as a NGO, CACA plays a significant role in intensifying the leading role of government in cancer control, optimizing cancer outcomes, decreasing cancer incidence and mortality rates and improving public health.

  18. Determination of elemental composition of volatile organic compounds from Chinese rose oil by spectral accuracy and mass accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yaheng; Xu, Hongliang; Gu, Ming

    2011-10-30

    Elemental composition determination of volatile organic compounds through high mass accuracy and isotope pattern matching could not be routinely achieved with a unit-mass resolution mass spectrometer until the recent development of the comprehensive instrument line-shape calibration technology. Through this unique technology, both m/z values and mass spectral peak shapes are calibrated simultaneously. Of fundamental importance is that calibrated mass spectra have symmetric and mathematically known peak shapes, which makes it possible to deconvolute overlapped monoisotopes and their (13)C-isotope peaks and achieve accurate mass measurements. The key experimental requirements for the measurements are to acquire true raw data in a profile or continuum mode with the acquisition threshold set to zero. A total of 13 ions from Chinese rose oil were analyzed with internal calibration. Most of the ions produced high mass accuracy of better than 5 mDa and high spectral accuracy of better than 99%. These results allow five tested ions to be identified with unique elemental compositions and the other eight ions to be determined as a top match from multiple candidates based on spectral accuracy. One of them, a coeluted component (Nerol) with m/z 154, could not be identified by conventional GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) and library search. Such effective determination for elemental compositions of the volatile organic compounds with a unit-mass resolution quadrupole system is obviously attributed to the significant improvement of mass accuracy. More importantly, high spectral accuracy available through the instrument line-shape calibration enables highly accurate isotope pattern recognition for unknown identification.

  19. Variations in Optical Scattering and Backscattering by Organic and Inorganic Particulates in Chinese Lakes of Taihu, Chaohu and Dianchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LYU Heng; WANG Qiao; WU Chuanqing; ZHU Li; LI Yunmei; HUANG Jiazhu

    2015-01-01

    This stu dy presents an investigation of the scattering and backscattering properties of the particulates in three Chinese inlandlakes (the Taihu Lake,the Chaohu Lake and the Dianchi Lake) based on in situ measurements taken at 119 sites.We modeled the particulate scattering spectra using a wavelength-dependent power-law function,finding that the power-law exponents in the Taihu Lake and the Chaohu Lake differ from those in the Dianchi Lake but are similar to the values in the U.S.coastal waters.In contrast to the open ocean,the backscattering properties in the three lakes can not be determined only from chlorophyll-a concentration.The backscattering ratio spectra exhibit a wavelength dependence feature in all three lakes,generally decreasing with the increasing wavelength.Analysis results of the correlations between the backscattering ratio and the individual water quality parameters clearly show that there are distinctive relations among the three lakes,attributed primarily to different compositions of optically active materials in the three lakes.Analysis of the mass-specific scattering and backscattering coefficients shows that the coefficients at wavelength 532 nm in the Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake are similar,but they are apparently different from those in the Dianehi Lake.Lastly,Model I multiple linear regressions were adopted to partition the mass-specific cross-sections for scattering and backscattering into organic and inorganic cross-sections to further interpret the scattering and backscattering properties.The relative contribution of organic and inorganic particulates to scattering and backscattering is clearly different among the three lakes.The scattering and backscattering properties of the particulates in the three inland lakes vary significantly based on our collected data.The results indicated that the existing semi-analytical water quality retrieval models of the Taihu Lake can not be applied perfectly to the Chaohu Lake and the Dianchi Lake.

  20. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g. Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution.

  1. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Asian and north American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Weinheimer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses we characterized their VOC composition and we compared their background levels with those obtained during the 2004 INTEX-A mission. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS and methyl chloride (CH3Cl, while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HFC-134a.

    Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some Chinese plume samples, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution and correlations within the Chinese pollution plumes and applying principal component analysis (PCA, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than a single gas, as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, ethyl chloride, and Halon-1211. In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

  2. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Asian and North American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barletta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air masses, we focused on characterizing the VOC composition of these different pollution plumes. The Chinese and other Asian air masses were significantly enhanced in carbonyl sulfide (OCS and methyl chloride (CH3Cl, while all CFC replacement compounds were elevated in US plumes, particularly HCFC-134a.

    Although elevated mixing ratios of Halon-1211 were measured in some of the Chinese plumes, several measurements at background levels were also observed. After analyzing the VOC distribution in the Chinese pollution plumes and the correlations among selected compounds, we suggest the use of a suite of species, rather than the use of a single gas, to be used as specific tracers of Chinese air masses (namely OCS, CH3Cl, 1,2-dichloroethane, and Halon-1211. In an era of constantly changing halocarbon usage patterns, this suite of gases best reflects new emission characteristics from China.

  3. Diverse origins and pre-depositional histories of organic matter in contemporary Chinese marginal sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun

    2016-10-01

    Marginal seas are estimated to account for up to 90% of organic carbon (OC) burial in marine sediments, and thus play an important role in global carbon cycle. However, comprehensive assessments of carbon budgets for marginal sea systems are challenging due to their inherent complexity, with spatial and temporal variability in carbon inputs and dispersal processes. We examine the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea (BS-YS) in order to further our understanding of sedimentary OC delivery, translocation and accumulation in a shallow marginal sea system. Bulk properties and the content and isotopic compositions (Δ14C, δ13C) of source-specific plant wax n-alkyl lipid biomarkers were determined for a suite of surficial sediment samples. Variable δ13C values (-25.1‰ to -28.5‰) and contemporary radiocarbon ages of short-chain n-fatty acids (FAs; C16, C18) reflect modern autochthonous marine and/or fresh terrestrial plant input. In contrast, extremely depleted Δ14C values (-932‰ to -979‰) of short-chain n-alkanes (C16, C18) suggest a predominant input from sedimentary rocks (petrogenic OC) or petroleum. Abundance-weighted average δ13C and Δ14C values of long-chain leaf wax lipids (C26+28+30n-FAs, C24+26+28n-alkanols, C27+29+31n-alkanes) are -29.1 ± 1.1‰ to -30.2 ± 0.3‰, and -286 ± 150‰ to -442 ± 119‰, respectively, illustrating that terrestrial OC delivery is dominated by pre-aged (∼3000-5000 14C yrs) C3 vegetation sources. A coupled carbon-isotopic mixing model, based on the bulk and compound-specific biomarker δ13C and Δ14C values, is used to partition the BS-YS sedimentary OC into three components that reflect both origins and transport processes. For all sampling sites, 31-64% is modern/contemporary OC, 24-49% is pre-aged terrestrial OC, and 7-26% is fossil OC, the latter likely derived from both physical erosion of ancient sedimentary rocks and fossil fuel sources. Pre-aged soil OC is most prominent in front of the modern and old Huanghe (Yellow

  4. Towards Innovating Grassroots Academic Organizations in Chinese Universities%我国高校基层学术组织创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金安江; 江珩

    2012-01-01

    基于对大学基层学术组织的基本认知,分析了我国高校基层学术组织发展存在的问题,从目标、原则等方面总结了创新基层学术组织的若干思路,提出了我国高校应从教育教学基层学术组织体系、科技创新基层学术组织体系、产学研合作与文化传承创新基层学术组织体系等三个维度探索建立多元化的基层学术组织结构体系。而这一切的顺利实现,思想观念创新是先导,组织结构创新是重点,体制机制创新是关键,基础条件完善是保障。%Based on the basic cognition on grassroots academic organizations in Chinese universities, the paper elaborated the main problems that the grassroots academic organizations in Chinese universities have met with. And then, from the angles of the target, principle and path, the paper textualized some random thoughts on how to innovate grassroots academic organizations. The paper put forward some suggestions that the structural system of the grassroots academic organizations in Chinese universities should be set up from three dimensional systems-instruction and education, scientific research innovation and academic-research-production cooperation. And the establishment of this system should be guaranteed by the conceptions of "concept innovation as the precondition, structure innovation as the keystone, mechanism innovation as the standing point, and perfect material condition as the guarantee".

  5. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L. cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were found on leaves and siliques. The strongest infection of leaves was in 2000 (50% and the weakest in 2001 (6,7%. In all the years of the research siliques were rather weak infected (50-8,89%. Besides powdery mildew was found on chinese mustard which injury index ranged from 0,3% in 1999 to 32,3% in 2000. Intensity of diseases was affected generally by the weather conditions. From the seeds of white mustard and chinese mustard were isolated respectively 263 and 137 colonies. Alternaria alternata was the most numerous species which makes respectively 60,9% and 42,3% isolates. Among the fungi pathogenic for white and chinese mustard were also isolated: A. brassicae, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solami.

  6. Characterization of high-resolution aerosol mass spectra of primary organic aerosol emissions from Chinese cooking and biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-Y. He

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS has proved to be a powerful tool to measure submicron particulate composition with high time resolution. Factor analysis of mass spectra (MS collected worldwide by AMS demonstrates that submicron organic aerosol (OA is usually composed of several major components, such as oxygenated (OOA, hydrocarbon-like (HOA, biomass burning (BBOA, and other primary OA. In order to help interpretation of component MS from factor analysis of ambient OA datasets, AMS measurement of different primary sources is required for comparison. Such work, however, has been very scarce in the literature, especially for high resolution MS (HR-MS measurement, which performs improved characterization by separating the ions of different elemental compositions at each m/z in comparison with unit mass resolution MS (UMR-MS measurement. In this study, primary emissions from four types of Chinese cooking (CC and six types of biomass burning (BB were simulated systemically and measured using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight AMS (HR-ToF-AMS. The MS of the CC emissions show high similarity with m/z 41 and m/z 55 being the highest signals; the MS of the BB emissions also show high similarity with m/z 29 and m/z 43 being the highest signals. The MS difference between the CC and BB emissions is much bigger than that between different CC (or BB types, especially for the HR-MS. The O/C ratio of OA ranges from 0.08 to 0.13 for the CC emissions while from 0.18 to 0.26 for the BB emissions. The ions of m/z 43, m/z 44, m/z 57, and m/z 60, usually used as tracer ions in AMS measurement, were examined for their HR-MS characteristics in the CC and BB emissions. Moreover, the MS of the CC and BB emissions are also used to compare with component MS from factor analysis of ambient OA datasets observed in China, as well as with other AMS measurements of primary sources in the literature. The MS

  7. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  8. Implication of World Health Organization growth standards on estimation of malnutrition in young Chinese children: Two examples from rural western China and the Tibet region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how malnutrition rates change in young Chinese children when 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards are used instead of 1978 WHO/National Center for Health Statistics reference. Cross-sectional survey data were used from rural western China and the Tibet region. The heights and weights of children of Tibet). The prevalence of underweight was lower in rural western China (7.7% vs. 11.7%) than rural Tibet (13.1% vs. 15.3%). For all ages, the prevalence of stunting increased and the greatest relative increase appeared in the first six months (102.9% in rural western China vs. 134.9% in rural Tibet). With respect to underweight, the relative increase occurred only during the first six months (314.3% in rural western China vs. 48.1% in rural Tibet); however, the reduction was observed in other age groups. For young Chinese Han and Tibetan children, the difference in estimation of malnutrition between two references differed in magnitude. The scale of change in the prevalence rates of stunting and underweight is much greater when 2006 reference was introduced.

  9. Genome organization and DNA methylation patterns of B chromosomes in the red fox and Chinese raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika; Solek, Przemysław; Wronski, Mariusz; Potocki, Leszek; Jezewska-Witkowska, Grażyna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2014-12-01

    The molecular structure of B chromosomes (Bs) is relatively well studied. Previous research demonstrates that Bs of various species usually contain two types of repetitive DNA sequences, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA, but Bs also contain genes encoding histone proteins and many others. However, many questions remain regarding the origin and function of these chromosomes. Here, we focused on the comparative cytogenetic characteristics of the red fox and Chinese raccoon dog B chromosomes with particular attention to the distribution of repetitive DNA sequences and their methylation status. We confirmed that the small Bs of the red fox show a typical fluorescent telomeric distal signal, whereas medium-sized Bs of the Chinese raccoon dog were characterized by clusters of telomeric sequences along their length. We also found different DNA methylation patterns for the B chromosomes of both species. Therefore, we concluded that DNA methylation may maintain the transcriptional inactivation of DNA sequences localized to B chromosomes and may prevent genetic unbalancing and several negative phenotypic effects.

  10. Building Affective Commitment to Organization among Chinese University Teachers: The Roles of Organizational Justice and Job Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongzhan

    2014-01-01

    In view of the benefit of improving employees' organization commitment, it is important to study the major influencing factors of organization commitment. According to previous literature, organizational justice and job burnout have been considered two major influencing variables of affective commitment; however, little empirical research can be…

  11. Building Affective Commitment to Organization among Chinese University Teachers: The Roles of Organizational Justice and Job Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongzhan

    2014-01-01

    In view of the benefit of improving employees' organization commitment, it is important to study the major influencing factors of organization commitment. According to previous literature, organizational justice and job burnout have been considered two major influencing variables of affective commitment; however, little empirical research can…

  12. More bilateral, more anterior: Alterations of brain organization in the large-scale structural network in Chinese dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ting; Gu, Bin; Ding, Guosheng; Gong, Gaolang; Lu, Chunming; Peng, Danling; Malins, Jeff G; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in large-scale brain networks have been recently reported in dyslexia; however, it remains unclear whether these abnormalities are congenital (due to dyslexia per se) or arise later in development. Here, structural magnetic resonance imaging data of 17 Chinese reading disabled (RD) and 17 age-matched typically developing (TD) children were used to construct cortical thickness (sensitive to postnatal development) and surface area (sensitive to prenatal development) networks. In the thickness network, compared to TD, RD showed reduced nodal network properties (e.g., degree and betweenness) in the left hemisphere along with enhanced nodal properties mainly in the right hemisphere. As for the surface area network, compared to TD, RD demonstrated lower nodal properties in the posterior brain regions and higher nodal properties in the anterior brain regions. Furthermore, hubs in both the thickness and surface area networks in RD were more distributed in frontal areas and less distributed in parietal areas, whereas TD showed the opposite pattern. Altogether, these findings indicate that the aberrant structural connectivity in the dyslexic individuals was not only due to a late developmental effect reflected in the altered thickness network, but may also be a congenital effect during prenatal development, reflected in the altered surface network.

  13. How Environmental Uncertainty Moderates the Effect of Relative Advantage and Perceived Credibility on the Adoption of Mobile Health Services by Chinese Organizations in the Big Data Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adoption of mobile health services by an organization on the diffusion of mobile technology in the big data era, it has received minimal attention in literature. This study investigates how relative advantage and perceived credibility affect an organization’s adoption of mobile health services, as well as how environmental uncertainty changes the relationship of relative advantage and perceived credibility with adoption. A research model that integrates relative advantage, perceived credibility, environmental uncertainty, and an organization’s intention to use mobile health service is developed. Quantitative data are collected from senior managers and information systems managers in 320 Chinese healthcare organizations. The empirical findings show that while relative advantage and perceived credibility both have positive effects on an organization’s intention to use mobile health services, relative advantage plays a more important role than perceived credibility. Moreover, environmental uncertainty positively moderates the effect of relative advantage on an organization’s adoption of mobile health services. Thus, mobile health services in environments characterized with high levels of uncertainty are more likely to be adopted because of relative advantage than in environments with low levels of uncertainty.

  14. Arsenic and Mercury Containing Traditional Chinese Medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar Strongly Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, In Vivo in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hao Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals, including mercury (Hg and arsenic (As, accumulate preferentially in kidneys and always cause acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these samples affect organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in vivo in mice kidney. Mice (n=10 were orally treated with investigational samples. After last administration, all mice were i.v. p-aminohippuric acid (PAH, and the blood and kidneys samples were collected. The concentrations of PAH were quantified by spectrophotometry. mRNA expressions of Oat1 and Oat3 were assayed by real-time PCR. In comparison with corresponding control, major pharmacokinetic parameters of PAH in sera were significantly changed by investigational samples (p<0.05, PAH accumulations in the kidney tissues were significantly higher (p<0.05, PAH uptake by renal slices was greatly reduced, Oat1 and Oat3 mRNA expression were significantly inhibited in investigational sample groups. Arsenic and mercury containing traditional Chinese medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar probably induce kidney damage through inhibiting several members of the organic anion transporters (such as OAT1 and OAT3.

  15. Soil labile organic carbon and carbon-cycle enzyme activities under different thinning intensities in Chinese fir plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Xinli; Chen, Han Y.H.; Chen, Xin; Wang, Jing; Chen, Bin; Wang, Dong; Guan, Qingwei

    2016-01-01

    Thinning is a silvicultural tool that is used to facilitate the growth of timber plantations worldwide. Plantations are important CO2 sinks, but the mechanism by which thinning affects the quantity and stability of soil organic carbon (SOC) is poorly understood. In this study, we exami

  16. 中国企业组织创新氛围的结构和测量%Development of an Instrument Measuring Innovative Climate in Chinese Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨百寅; 连欣; 马月婷

    2013-01-01

      采用实证研究方法对中国企业组织创新氛围的维度及测量进行研究。采用开放式问卷收集了555条描述,归类分析表明,中国情境下企业的组织创新氛围包括8个方面,并在此基础上形成开放式问卷。283份有效问卷的探索性因子分析表明,组织创新氛围是一个8因素的结构,包括:理念倡导、市场引导、评价激励、学习培训、沟通合作、典型示范、资源保障和授权支持。8因素又从属于更高阶的潜变量:价值导向、制度激励和人际互动。来自24家企业493份有效问卷的验证性因子分析验证了组织创新氛围的结构效度,内部一致性分析和回归分析的结果也表明,量表具有较好的信度和效度。%Based on literature review and grounded theory research method, this paper reports a series of studies designed to identify dimensions innovative climate in Chinese organizations. In the first study, the critical behavior incidents of innovative climate were collected using open-ended questionnaire. A total of 555 items was generated by 43 part-time MBA students. Eight categories were emerged with inductive method including value advocation, market orientation, appraisal and motivation, training and learning, communication and cooperation, resources ensur-ing, example demonstration, empowerment and support. In the second study, 283 part-time MBA students consist-ed of the sample and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were employed to identify the construct of the Chinese measurement of innovative climate. In the third study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied to test the validity of the measure using a sample of 493 employees from 24 companies. The scale of innovative climate in Chinese companies had high reliability estimates and acceptable evidences for construct validity. The implications of new scale of innovative climate in Chinese firms were discussed together with other scales

  17. Studies on Main Nutritional Components of Chinese Kale Among Different Organs%芥蓝不同器官主要营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙勃; 方莉; 刘娜; 闫会转; 张雅君; 施倩倩; 汪俏梅

    2011-01-01

    The variation of the contents of soluble solids, reducing sugars, soluble proteins,chlorophyll, carotenoids, vitamin C, and total phenols, as well as antioxidant capacities and glucosinolate profiles among different organs were investigated using Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey) of typical varieties as material.The results showed that the contents of nutrients exhibited remarkable differences among different organs.In general, the highest contents of total phenols, vitamin C and soluble solids were found in inflorescences, and the significant differences existed between inflorescences and other organs.The contents of chlorophyll, carotenoids, soluble proteins and antioxidant capacities in leaves were remarkably higher than those in other organs.The roots contained markedly higher concentrations of glucosinolates, especially gluconasturtiin and glucoerucin, than those in other organs.Great differences in the nutrition value of bolting stem, the edible part of Chinese kale were observed among different varieties.JL-02 had the highest amounts of total phenols and antioxidant capacities.The significantly higher level of glucoraphanin and total glucosinolates was found in Dengfengzhongchi.%选择典型的芥蓝品种为材料,分析不同器官可溶性固形物、还原糖、可溶性蛋白、叶绿素、类胡萝卜素,维生素C和总多酚含量,以及抗氧化能力、芥予油苷组分和含量的差异.结果表明:芥蓝不同器官间营养成分的含量差异显著,总体上花序中的总多酚、维生素C和可溶性固形物含量显著高于其它器官;叶片中的叶绿素、类胡萝卜素、可溶性蛋白和抗氧化能力均显著高于其它器官;根系中的芥子油苷,特别是苯乙基芥子油苷和4-甲基硫丁基芥子油苷的含量均显著高于其它器官.芥蓝不同品种间产品器官花薹的营养价值差异显著,如'JL-02'的总多酚含量和抗氧化能力明显高于其它品种,'登峰中迟'的4-甲基硫氧

  18. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  19. The Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Dissolved Organic Carbon Exported from Three Chinese Rivers to the China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guohua; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Meng; Shi, Shengwei; Yang, Yanzheng; Chu, Junyao; Zhang, Junjun; Lin, Guanghui; Shen, Yan; Zhu, Qiuan

    2016-01-01

    The lateral transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in linking the carbon cycles of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Neglecting the lateral flow of dissolved organic carbon can lead to an underestimation of the organic carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems. It is thus necessary to integrate DOC concentrations and flux into carbon cycle models, particularly with regard to the development of models that are intended to directly link terrestrial and ocean carbon cycles. However, to achieve this goal, more accurate information is needed to better understand and predict DOC dynamics. In this study, we compiled an inclusive database of available data collected from the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Pearl River in China. The database is collected based on online literature survey and analysed by statistic method. Overall, our results revealed a positive correlation between DOC flux and discharge in all three rivers, whereas the DOC concentration was more strongly correlated with the regional net primary productivity (NPP). We estimated the total DOC flux exported by the three rivers into the China Sea to be approximately 2.73 Tg yr-1. Specifically, the annual flux of DOC from the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Pearl River was estimated to be 1.85 Tg yr-1, 0.06 Tg yr-1 and 0.82 Tg yr-1, respectively, and the average annual DOC concentrations were estimated to be 2.24 ± 0.53 mg L-1, 2.70 ± 0.38 mg L-1 and 1.51 ± 0.09 mg L-1, respectively. Seasonal variations in DOC concentrations are greatly influenced by the interaction between temperature and precipitation. NPP is significantly and positively related to the DOC concentration in the Yangtze River and the Pearl River. In addition, differences in climate and the productivity of the vegetation may influence both the flux and concentrations of DOC transported by the rivers and thus potentially affect estuarine geochemistry. PMID:27755581

  20. 中国移植器官保护专家共识%Chinese expert consensus on organ protection in transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国医师协会器官移植分会; 中华医学会外科学分会器官移植学组; 中国肝移植注册中心科学委员会

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation is the most effective treatment for end stage organ failure,while organ donation after a citizen's death has been the main source of donor organ for transplantation in China.Extensive application of organ preservation and repair techniques have played key roles in improving the quality of donor organs and in prognosis.A guideline on clinical practice is urgently needed for effective and standardized application of these techniques.Experts of the Chinese College of Transplant Doctors,the Division of Organ Transplantation,Surgery Branch,CMA and the China Liver Transplant Registry (CLTR) Scientific Committee met to jointly arrive at this expert consensus which is based on current evidences on basic and clinical practice of organ procurement,quality evaluation,organ preservation and repair relating to liver,kidney,pancreas,intestine,heart and lung transplantations.The recommendations were composed using the Oxford evidence classification and the GRADE system.This consensus aims to optimize strategies in providing a scientific and a standard guideline for clinical transplantation practice.%器官移植是治疗终末期脏器功能衰竭最有效的手段.公民逝世后器官捐献已成为我国移植供器官的主要来源.目前,器官保护技术在临床实践中应用广泛,对提升移植器官质量,改善移植预后发挥了关键作用,但相关技术选择及应用缺乏统一共识.因此,亟待建立相关临床实践指南,促进我国器官移植工作更规范、有效、安全地开展.中国医师协会器官移植医师分会、中华医学会外科学分会器官移植学组及中国肝移植注册中心科学委员会组织专家,基于国内外移植器官保护的基础与临床实践,根据牛津循证医学证据分级和GRADE推荐意见系统,重点针对肝脏、肾脏、胰腺、小肠、心脏、肺脏,从器官获取、质量评估、保存液选择及器官保存修复、转运手段等方面,同时对新兴的

  1. A study of the Chinese organic-inorganic hybrid sealing material used in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient wooden ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Shiqiang [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zhang, Hui [Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhang, Bingjian, E-mail: zhangbiji@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wei, Guofeng [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Guoqing [Museum of Overseas Communication History Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhou, Yang [China National Silk Museum, Hangzhou 310002 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition of ancient sealing material was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The excellent performance of this sealing material comes from the compact structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This structure is established through coordination and oxidative polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of ancient relies to a knowledge on their materials and crafts. - Abstracts: Chu-nam putty is a special organic-inorganic hybrid material invented by ancient Chinese people. It was prepared by mixing tung-oil, lime and oakum (plant fibers like jute, ramie and so on) with excellent sealing performance. The invention and application of Chu-nam putty in wooden ship lead to improvement in sailing technology and ship safety issue. In this paper, the analytical results of a piece of chu-nam putty which was discovered in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient ship are presented. The results show that the components of chu-nam putty are calcite, carboxylate and unsaturated esters by means of FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DSC. And the FT-IR and cross-section microscopic analysis confirm that the oakum was from jute. Comparing with the modeling putty samples it is found that the outstanding sealing performance of chu-nam putty comes from the coordination reaction of Ca{sup 2+} from the Ca(OH){sub 2} and the oxidation aggregation reaction of C=C double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid.

  2. 组织中上下级值得信任的行为研究%Research on Trustworthy Behavior in Chinese Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严进; 付琛; 郑玫

    2011-01-01

    组织中的信任关系已经成为研究的热点问题.在文献基础上,本研究采用半结构化访谈的研究方法,对42名管理人员进行访谈.通过编码和统计分析,结果发现,上下级值得信任的行为可以分为能力任务、支持相容、道德诚信、尽责敬业四个方面,但是行为内容和强调重点均有所区别.能力因素是组织中的信任强调的首要方面;对上级的信任更强调支持关怀和诚信道德,对下属的信任更强调尽责投入和坦诚忠实.%In recent years, trust research has attracted enormous interest in the social science. It has been stated that the interpersonal trust between supervisors and subordinates is a personal specific construct affected by the organization context. In this study, an analysis frame is developed to explore the unique trustworthy behaviors of managers in Chinese organizations. 42 top and middle managers participated in the semi-structured interview. The results show that trustworthy behaviors of managers can be interpreted by four dimensions: competency for task, interpersonal skills, integrity and loyalty, and dedication to work. However, the importance and content of these dimensions are different from supervisors' and subordinates' perspective. Competency for task is crucial for both supervisors and subordinates. The difference is that the supervisors consider more about dedication to work when assessing subordinates' behaviors while subordinates emphasize on supervisors' interpersonal skills.

  3. 中国茶产业组织:绩效与政策%Organization of Chinese Tea Industry: Performance and Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏祝成

    2011-01-01

    本文对中国茶产业的组织现状、绩效及政策进行了研究.当前中国茶产业组织结构的主要特征是茶园的小规模"分包"式经营、非垄断性的市场竞争结构、初精制的专业化分工和大宗茶出口的来样加工贸易等.比较世界其他主要茶叶生产国的市场运行组织模式,可以发现,斯里兰卡的纵向交易"分成"契约制、日本的农户合作组织以及红茶出口普遍采用的拍卖交易等制度,对我们有一定的启示意义.本文认为,相关产业政策的重点应是:通过多元化的组织制度安排,有效地解决农户的"入市"瓶颈;通过技术变革,引导初精制加工的整合;探索出口交易制度的创新.%The organization of Chinese tea industry its performance and policy, were discussed in this paper. The present organizational structure of Chinese tea industry showed some features such as small householder of tea garden, no-monopoly competition, market division between primary and refining production, processing for exportation according to giving samples and so on. From perspective of other major tea-production countries, the organizational structure was characterized by vertical proportional share-distribution in Sri Lanka, cooperation institution of farmers in Japan and exportation of black tea by auction market, which had some significant implication for us. It was suggested that, targeting the market entry of small householder of tea garden and integration of primary and refining production, industry polices should focused on innovation of institution and technology. Besides, transformation of mode of exportation transaction should also be explored.

  4. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  5. Direct observations of organic aerosols in common wintertime hazes in North China: insights into direct emissions from Chinese residential stoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shurui; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Yinxiao; Chen, Bing; Wang, Xinfeng; Zhang, Xiaoye; Zheng, Mei; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing; Sun, Yele; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa; Li, Weijun

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the physicochemical properties of aerosol particles in unusually severe haze episodes in North China instead of the more frequent and less severe hazes. Consistent with this lack of attention, the morphology and mixing state of organic matter (OM) particles in the frequent light and moderate (L & M) hazes in winter in the North China Plain (NCP) have not been examined, even though OM dominates these fine particles. In the present work, morphology, mixing state, and size of organic aerosols in the L & M hazes were systematically characterized using transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometer, with the comparisons among an urban site (Jinan, S1), a mountain site (Mt. Tai, S2), and a background island site (Changdao, S3) in the same hazes. Based on their morphologies, the OM particles were divided into six different types: spherical (type 1), near-spherical (type 2), irregular (type 3), domelike (type 4), dispersed-OM (type 5), and OM-coating (type 6). In the three sampling sites, types 1-3 of OM particles were most abundant in the L & M hazes and most of them were internally mixed with non-OM particles. The abundant near-spherical OM particles with higher sphericity and lower aspect ratio indicate that these primary OM particles formed in the cooling process after polluted plumes were emitted from coal combustion and biomass burning. Based on the Si-O-C ratio in OM particles, we estimated that 71 % of type 1-3 OM particles were associated with coal combustion. Our result suggests that coal combustion in residential stoves was a widespread source from urban to rural areas in NCP. Average OM thickness which correlates with the age of the air masses in type 6 particles only slightly increased from S1 to S2 to S3, suggesting that the L & M hazes were usually dry (relative humidity pollution controls in rural areas and in urban

  6. Mediating Effects of Intention On The Factors Affecting Organic Food Products Consumption Among Chinese Generation Y In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Poh Leong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the effect of intention as a mediator in the relationship between internal factors and external factors on consumption. The factors were a internal factors: knowledge, awareness, health consciousness, product attributes, environmental concern, and b external factors: subjective norms, perceived behaviour control, and media and advertisement. From the review of literature, there were limited studies done on the mediating effect of intention on the relationship between (internal factor and external factors and organic food product consumption among CGY in Malaysia. A total of 410 respondents completed the online questionnaires that evaluated the factors. Structural Equation Modelling was used as the main practical approach for data analysis. The results showed that intention was a full or a complete mediator between the six exogenous constructs; knowledge, health consciousness, product attributes, environmental concern, perceived behaviour, and media and advertisement, while it only acted as a partial mediator between subjective norm and consumption. However, the intention was not a full or a complete mediator between awareness and consumption. Eventually, the implications for theory improvement and practices were discussed.

  7. INTERNATIONAL RUSSIAN-CHINESE COOPERATION IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE UNITED NATIONS (UN AND THE REGIONAL SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION (SCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui ZOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the world politics and economy occur after the end of the "cold war". After the 2008 international financial crisis, the need for reforming of the world order is becoming increasingly apparent. However, the economically well-developed countries traditionally firmly hold the old world order, insist that all democratic rules has adopted by the western countries, are must comply with all the countries. Russia and China as permanent members of the UN Security Council do a lot within the organization in order to strengthen international peace and international security. UN Member States should, by means of the broad and democratic consultations, taking into consideration the interests and concerns of all sides to look forward for finding a "comprehensive" version of the solution to achieve a consensus as much as possible. China is ready to maintain contacts with all sides to apply common efforts to promote the development of the Security Council reforming process in a direction that would have favored the preservation of the common interests of the United States and the cohesion of its members. China and Russia support rational and necessary reforms of the UN Security Council that are aimed at enhancing its authority and efficiency, as well as a more strict implementation of its obligations under the peace and security on the planet. As important members (SCO, China and Russia are the leading force for promoting a multipolar world and democratization of international relationships, with broad common interests in promoting the reform of the global financial system to increase the representativeness of fast developing countries. China supports Russia in the fight against terrorism and separatism, while Russia supports China in the questions, which are connected with Taiwan, Tibet and Xinjiang. The sides apply the joint efforts for the facilitating the political resolution of the crises.doi 10.17748/2075-9908-2016-8-2/1-13-25. [ru; en

  8. 从中医脏腑理论谈瑜伽对脏腑器官的影响%The Effect of Yoga on Visceral Organs from Chinese Medicine Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙岩

    2012-01-01

    瑜伽对人体内脏器官有保健按摩、促进血液循环、强化器官功能等功效,这与我国传统中医脏腑理论有很多相似之处。从中医脏腑理论角度分析瑜伽运动对人体脏腑器官的影响,目的在于运用中医脏腑理论作为理论指导,综合不同瑜伽体位练习对机体机能的影响,为利用瑜伽进行身体锻炼、改善脏腑器官功能提供科学的参考依据。%Yoga on the development of human visceral organs have health care, promote blood circulation, strengthen organ func- tions, and this has many similarities with our country traditional Chinese medicine visceral theory. This article from the Chinese medicine visceral theory angle analysis of yoga to the internal organs of the body organ effects, aims to use traditional viscera theo- ry as the theoretical guidance, integrated different yoga asana practice influencing on body, for the use of yoga physical exercise, improvement of zangfu organs function to provide a scientific basis.

  9. 慢性病中医社区管理组织模式探究%Study on the pattern of community management organization mode of Chinese medicine in chronic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜英; 赵艺皓; 王帅; 衷敬柏

    2015-01-01

    目的:对社区卫生机构医务人员及社区居民进行“慢性病社区管理”问卷调查,探究慢性病中医社区管理组织模式。方法:对问卷调查统计分析,探讨慢性病社区管理的最佳组织模式。结果:调查显示,社区慢性病管理组织形式以社区居委会和医院组织为佳。结论:开展社区慢性病管理组织形式,形成以社区中医师为主、三级医院中医专家为后盾,社区居民积极参与的中医防治一体化的中医社区干预管理模式。%Objective:To explore the pattern of community management organization mode of Chinese Medicine in chronic diseases by making a"Chronic disease community management"questionnaire survey on the community health organizations and community residents.Method:We analyzed the questionnaire survey,and discussed the best organization mode of the community management of chronic diseases.Results:The survey shows that chronic disease management organizations in the form of community committees and hospitals are better.Conclusion:To carry out community chronic disease management organization form,and form a community of practitioners,the Chinese medicine experts of tertiary hospitals as the backing,community residents to actively participate in the prevention and control of Chinese medicine community intervention management model.

  10. Update Promotional Suggestions for Chinese Restaurants in Kuopio : Canton Hin Ravintola

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chinese restaurant is an organization which serves Chinese food outside China. Running Chinese restaurant is typically a business operated by Chinese people working in overseas. The popularity of Chinese food has increased in recent years due to the spread of Chinese culture and develop-ment of reform and opening policies of China. The competition between Chinese restaurants is becoming fiercer and fiercer. The main purpose of the study was to explore better promotional strate...

  11. Pharmacological Effects of Organic Acids in Chinese Herbs and its Application in Cardiovascular Diseases%中药有机酸类成分的药理作用及在心血管疾病的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤喜兰; 刘建勋; 李磊

    2012-01-01

    To review the research about the pharmacological effects of organic acids in chinese herbs and its application in cardiovascular diseases. To summarize and analyze related literature about the pharmacological effects of organic acids in chinese herbs and its application in cardiovascular diseases in recent years in China and abroad. Organic Acids in Chinese Herbs has a wide range of pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory response, anti-platelet aggregation, antioxidant and inducing tumor cell apoptosis and so on. The effects of anti-inflammatory response, anti-platelet aggregation and antioxidant may have potential clinical application value for cardiovascular system diseases. We should attach importance to organic acids in chinese herbs and its application in cardiovascular diseases. It is important to clarify the material basis for efficacy of Chinese drugs and provide a new method for preventing and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.%对中药有机酸类成分的药理作用及在心血管疾病的应用进行综述.查阅国内外相关文献并对其进行分析.中药有机酸类成分药理作用广泛,如抗炎症反应,抑制血小板聚集、抗血栓,抗氧化,诱导肿瘤细胞凋亡等,其中抗炎症反应,抑制血小板聚集、抗血栓,抗氧化的药理作用可能对心血管系统疾病具有潜在的临床应用价值.重视中药有机酸类成分在心血管系统疾病中的科学研究,对于中药作用药效物质基础的阐明有重要意义,同时也为心血管疾病的防治提供了新的思路.

  12. Application of zebrafish model organism in the research of Chinese materia medica%模式生物斑马鱼在中药研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊; 刘怡; 梁生旺

    2012-01-01

    Zebra fish has become an important model organism in many fields of biomedical studies and been increasingly used in Chinese materia medica studies in recent years. This article summarized the achievements and prospect for zebrafish as a pharmacological and toxicological tool in the study and development of Chinese materia medica.%斑马鱼作为一种新的模式动物,已经在生物医学的诸多研究领域得到了广泛的应用.近年来,基于斑马鱼的中药相关研究越来越多.本文重点综述了斑马鱼应用于中药药理、毒理研究方面的成果和前景.

  13. 低频电刺激对中国树鼩死亡后脏器中激素水平影响%Effect of low frequency electrical stimulation on hormone levels in the organs of Chinese tree shrew cadavers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞发荣; 张璟; 郭丽蓉; 俞文; 连秀珍; 谢明仁; 李登楼; 张诗爽

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索低频电刺激对中国树鼩死亡后脏器中激素水平的影响。方法给予中国树鼩低频电刺激,分别于死亡后0、3、6、12、18、24、36 h和72 h取甲状腺、肝、脾,用放射免疫法测定内皮素( endothelin, ET)、心钠素( atrial natriuretic factor, ANF)、血栓素( thromboxane, TX)水平;剥取死后0 h中国树鼩中脑腹侧背盖区( ventral tegmental area,VTA)检测c-fos表达。结果电刺激后,中国树鼩尸体脏器中内皮素、心钠素、血栓素水平比对照组显著升高,其水平随死亡后时间的延长而降低;VTA c-fos表达明显增强。结论低频电刺激能引起中国树鼩脏器中激素的合成、释放和脑组织c-fos表达。%Objective To study the effect of low frequency electrical stimulation on hormone levels in organs of Chinese tree shrews after death.Methods Giving Chinese tree shrews low frequency electrical stimulation.At 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, 24 h, 36 h and 72 h after death, the thyroid, liver, spleen were taken,and the levels of endothelin (ET), atrial natriuretic factor( ANF) , thromboxane ( TX) were determined by RIA method.At 0 h after death, midbrain ventral tegmental area ( VTA) of Chinese tree shrews was taken to detect the c-fos expression.Results After electrical stimula-tion, ET, ANF, TX levels in the cadaver organs and VTA c-fos expression of Chinese tree shrews were significantly in-creased than in the control group.The contents were decreasing with the time after death.Conclusions Low frequency e-lectrical stimulation can induce the synthesis and release of hormones in organs and c-fos expression in brain tissue of Chi-nese tree shrews.

  14. Application of Advance Organizer Theory in Teaching of Chemistry of Traditional Chinese Medicine%先行组织者教学理论在中药化学教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲扬; 王丽娜; 窦德强

    2011-01-01

    The advance organizer theory and relating organization strategy, that is the principle of progressive differentiation, the principle of step-by-step inductions and the principle of integrative reconciliation. They were applied to organize a few teaching units in chemistry of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM ), the aim of which was to introduce this theory in teaching of TCM chemistry.%运用先行组织者教学理论及相应的教学组织策略,即渐进分化策略、逐级归纳策略以及整合协调策略,对中药化学中部分单元的教学进行了设计,从而说明"先行组织者"教学理论在中药化学教学中的实际应用.

  15. 现代有机分析在中药检测食物分析和手性识别的应用%Application of Modern Organic Analysis in Traditional Chinese Medicine Test, Food Analysis and Chiral Molecular Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张来新; 赵卫星

    2011-01-01

    Conception, application and prospect of organic analytical chemistry were briefly introduced. Application of new modern organic analysis technologies in traditional Chinese medicine test, food analysis and chiral molecular recognition was mainly discussed. At last, future development of the organic analysis was prospected.%简要介绍了有机分析化学的概念、应用与发展前景,重点综述了利用现代有机分析的新技术新方法测定中药材中药用成分研究;现代有机分析新方法新技术对食物中有关成分测定;现代有机分析在手性识别方面的应用.并对有机分析的发展进行了展望.

  16. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addendum by Penny Edwards

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45. He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967 and The Political Structure of the Chinese Community in Cambodia (1970. However, subsequent to his research, Chinese communities suffered terribly during the repression of the Lon Nol government between 1970 and 1975 and the atrocities of the Democratic Kampuchea regime. Willmott thus declared Chinese communities—and a willingness to identify as Chinese—destroyed. This understandably pessimistic vision turned out to be unfounded; the next extensive research done on Chinese in Cambodia by Penny Edwards and Chan Sambath in 1995 showed Chinese communities rebuilding. However, the descriptions of these communities showed a complexity of identity formation—from recent immigrants, “the raw Chinese,” to the five “traditional” Chinese dialect groups—that differed markedly from the indexes of identity applied by Willmott in his initial analysis. Academic ideas of how Chineseness should be configured had shifted and complicated; ascribing identity had become increasingly problematic...

  17. Hopelessness and Suicidal Behavior among Chinese, Thai and Korean College Students and Predictive Effects of the World Health Organization's WHOQOL-BREF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Noy; Li, Kaigang; Xiao, Xia; Nokkaew, Nattiporn; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of suicide behavior and to examine the association between hopeless feelings, suicidal behavior and components of the WHO Quality-of-Life-BREF instrument among college students (n = 1,217) in China, Thailand, and Korea. Results showed 3.7% Thai, 10% Chinese, and 13.2% Korean students…

  18. 当代美国粤籍传统侨团的延续与变迁%The Continuity and Change of Traditional Organizations of Chinese Americans Originated from Guangdong in Contemporary U. S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱慧

    2014-01-01

    二战前,美国九成以上的华侨华人祖籍都是广东,他们建立了发达的社团体系。二战后,这些传统侨团大多依旧存续,现今不少已达一百多年的历史,不过由于新移民和土生华裔加入其中的越来越少,其活动能量和影响力远不及战前。随着时代变迁,它们的主要宗旨已从早期的互扶互助转向帮助华人融入美国社会,其以往所担负的一些功能转由政府部门或专业性社会服务机构负责。不过,它们在支持华社文教、赞助慈善公益、振兴华埠工商业,以及争取华人在美国的平等权益和福利等方面依然发挥着不容忽视的作用。它们积极参与美国政治,是中国海峡两岸需要争取的主要侨团。%Before WWW II,over 90% of Chinese in U. S originated from Guangdong. They built a comprehen-sive system of organizations. After WWW II,most of these traditional organizations still exist,and quite many of them are over one-hundred years old now. However,the activity and influence of these organizations have been weakening in the contemporary era,because less and less of the new coming Guangdong immigrants and native-born Chinese tend to join these organizations. The main aim of these organizations has changed from solidarity and mutu-al-aid to help Chinese integrated into American Society;some of their traditional functions have turned to be re-sponsibilities of government and professional social service institutions. However,they still play an non-ignorable role in supporting and promoting Chinese education and charity among compatriots,as well as industrial&commer-cial development in Chinatown,and also in struggling for equal rights,interest and welfare of Chinese in U. S. They are still one of the main organizations that PRC and Taiwan government want to woo,at the same time they al-so actively take part in American politics.

  19. Considerations on the Construction of the Chinese Communist Youth League Organizations in Enterprises during the Period of Transition%关于转型期企业共青团建设的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晓玲

    2012-01-01

    The organizations of the Chinese Communist Youth League(the C.C.Y.L.) in enterprises should try to guide the youth to develop in a healthy way,which should be based on the youth's features as well as the practical situations of enterprises.The organizations of the C.C.Y.L.should play their roles in the following aspects such as guiding the youth in politics,helping the youth to develop,and evaluating the youth,and so on.The construction of the C.C.Y.L.organizations in enterprises should be conducted in the following aspects such as completing organization structure;interfering in enterprise culture,prompting organizational innovation,regulating organization activities,and conducting education on development for the youth.%企业团组织引导青年发展,应基于青年特点和企业的实际展开。企业团组织要发挥政治上引领青年、帮助青年成才、对青年的考核等方面的作用。企业团建工作要从健全组织机构、介入企业文化、推进组织创新、规范组织生活、开展青年养成教育等方面入手。

  20. The organic combination of Chinese teaching in secondary vocational school and professional disciplines%浅议中职语文教学与专业学科的有机结合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂晶

    2013-01-01

    中职语文教学与普通中等学校在性质上具有很大差别,中职教育所培养出来的学生在大多数情况下都会直接踏入社会从事各种各样的生产劳动,她们有很大一部分人为成为社会劳动的一线生产力。所以中职院校在对学生的教育工作中应该加强对学生专业技能的培养和能力提升,而语文课程作为所有学科的基础也应在提升学生专业素质和操作技能方面做出自己的贡献。本文着重谈谈如何加强中职语文在教学过程中与其他学科的联系与有机结合,以供参考。%Chinese teaching in secondary vocational schools and ordinary schools has a great difference in the nature, production of labor vocational education students will directly enter the society, engaged in various in most cases, they have a big part of human social labor productivity. So secondary vocational school should strengthen the cultivation of professional skills and the ability of the students, and the Chinese curriculum as the foundation for all disciplines also should make its own contribution in promoting students' professional qualities and skills. This paper focuses on how to strengthen the organic combination of other disciplines in the process of Chinese teaching, for reference.

  1. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  2. Chinese Youth Dance Delegation in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the China-Malaysia Friendship Association, a 96-member Chi- nese youth dance delegation organized by the CPAFFC and the Chinese Dancers Association, went to Pinang, a famous tourist

  3. Analysis of organ donation after cardiac death of Chinese citiz ens in 70 cases%中国公民逝世后器官捐献70例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛瑾; 陈婉崇; 何小平; 邓智轩; 杨洪吉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore a suitable organ donation model for our center and to establish a highly efficient clinical pathways and a team of transplant coordinator of organ donation .Methods Summarize 70 cases of organ donation after cardiac death of Chinese citizens in Sichuan Provincial People 's Hospital, and analyze the general information of donors , the development process in the system of organ donation, and the communication skills in the processing procedure of organ donation .Results Our center's organ donation system is still in the initial stage of development , and there is a huge potential development space for organ donation in our lo -cal areas; Our center's system of organ donation has been built and is in the process of development ; the effective communication plays a vital role in the success of organ donation .Conclusion Our center should study and utilize the advanced experience from our and other centers to establish a standard organ donation process and a transplant coordinator team with improved work efficiency and in -creased successful rate in organ donation .%目的:探索适合四川省人民医院发展的器官捐献模式,建立合理、高效的器官移植捐献流程和团队。方法总结我中心成功实施的70例中国公民心脏死亡器官捐献案例,重点分析供体基本情况、器官捐献系统建设和发展、捐献过程中的协调沟通方面数据。结果我中心的器官捐献工作仍处于初始发展阶段,本地区的器官捐献发展空间巨大;我中心器官捐献系统初步建立,正逐步发展;捐献过程中的有效沟通对于成功劝捐非常重要。结论我中心应总结本单位及借鉴国内其它兄弟单位器官捐献的经验,建立适合我中心的器官捐献程序和高效的协调员队伍,提高捐献工作效率和成功率。

  4. Summary of the 2008 Evidence-based Chinese Medicine(EBCM) Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大嵘; 赖世隆; 杨显荣

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Evidence-based Chinese Medicine (EBCM) Workshop,jointly organized by the International Society for Chinese Medicine/Editorial Board of Chinese Medicine(Macao) and the Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine/ Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of

  5. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  6. Chinese Women Lawyers Society Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    ON November 12, 1993, the Chinese Women Lawyers Society was established in Beijing. The more than 10,000 women lawyers in the country were excited to have their own organization. Xu Weihua, secretary-general of the society and a lawyer working in the All-China Women’s Federation, said: "The society’s establishment will promote the participation of

  7. Operation Mechanism and Effects of Supervisor-Subordinate Guanxi in Chinese Organizations%组织中主管-下属关系的运作机制与效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠军; 龙立荣; 刘丽丹

    2011-01-01

    基于社会交换的理论视角,以下属关系投入-主管资源回报的概念架构来展现组织中主管与下属关系互动的实质,对主管-下属关系的运作效果与机制进行跨层次的实证研究.通过问卷法获得54个工作群体的426名下属与主管的对偶数据,基于HLM分析的结果表明:下属在工作之余对主管的私人关系投入不仅能直接获得主管的工具性资源回报与情感性资源回报,还能通过领导-成员交换(LMX)间接地获得主管的工具性与情感性资源回报,而在工作群体内基于私人关系进行人力资源管理决策的特征对主管与下属之间的关系互动与关系质量也存在一定程度的影响.%Different from western society, Chinese employees attached much importance to developing good personal relationship with their leaders. So, the concept of "guanxi" and "guanxi management" were the most important aspects in Chinese management. In perspective of social exchange theory, this study enriched the concept of supervisor-subordinate guanxi, developed a social exchange model of supervisor-subordinate guanxi, and then investigated the mechanism of supervisor-subordinate guanxi operation and its effects on subordinate in Chinese organizations.By using questionnaire survey, the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for data of 211 employees and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for data of 426 employees were implemented. The results showed that subordinate's guanxi input had only one dimension, and supervisor's resources output had two dimensions, including instrumental resources output and affective resources output. The study also showed that the subordinate guanxi input and supervisor resources output questionnaires had good reliability and high validity.By using questionnaire, Data was from a total of 426 matched supervisor-subordinate dyads in 54 work groups from different organizations. Hierarchical liner modeling (HLM) analysis was implemented, the results

  8. Rationale, design and organization of the Second Chinese Cardiac Study (CCS-2): a randomized trial of clopidogrel plus aspirin, and of metoprolol, among patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Second Chinese Cardiac Study (CCS-2) Collaborative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Assessing combined anti-platelet therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction Aspirin has been shown to be effective in the emergency treatment of acute myocardial infarction. It irreversibly inhibits platelet cyclo-oxygenase and thereby prevents the formation of the platelet aggregating agent thromboxane A2. Clopidogrel is an anti-platelet agent that acts by a different mechanism, inhibiting adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation. Simultaneous inhibition of both of these pathways might produce significantly greater anti-platelet effects than inhibition of either alone. The Second Chinese Cardiac Study (CCS-2) will reliably determine whether adding oral clopidogrel to aspirin for up to 4 weeks in hospital after suspected acute myocardial infarction can produce a greater reduction in the risk of major vascular events than can be achieved by giving aspirin alone. In order to be able to detect a further reduction of 10-15%, some 20,000-40,000 patients in over 1000 Chinese hospitals will be randomized. Assessing early beta-blocker therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction Although over 27,000 patients have been studied previously in randomized trials of short-term beta-blocker therapy in acute myocardial infarction, the reduction in early mortality (513 (3.7%) for beta-blocker therapy deaths versus 586 (4.3%) for control deaths) was only just conventionally significant (P = 0.02) and, overall, the absolute benefits were small in the relatively low-risk patients studied. Although there might be worthwhile benefit in higher risk patients, there is currently little routine use of beta-blocker therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Hence, patients in CCS-2 will also be randomly allocated to receive metoprolol (intravenous then oral) or matching placebo for up to 4 weeks in hospital in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Such a design allows all patients to contribute fully to assessment of the separate effects of the anti-platelet regimen and the beta

  9. LEARNING CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Vocabulary: 银行 yin hang bank 邮局 you jǔ (you as in "slow") post office 电报 dian bao telegram 邮票 you piao (you as in "know") stamp 信 xin letter 信封 xin feng envelope 航空 hang kong airmail 包裹 bao guo parcel 元 yuan a unit of currency in China 人民币 ren min bi RMB (the name of Chinese currency)

  10. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  11. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire for nurses%中文版护理人员学习型组织量表的信效度检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕芳芳; 祝筠; 陈海萍; 赵娟; 靳昭芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide a feasible and reliable tool measuring nurses' learning organization culture. Methods With convenience sampling,a total of 513 clinical nurses were investigated with Chinese version Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ ). We evaluated the reliability, validity and dimensions of the scale with internal consistency coefficient, exploratory factor analysis and correlation analysis. Results The Chinese version DLOQ for nurses comprised 16 items of four dimensions, including system connection and strategic leadership, creating learning environment toward a collective vision, team learning and innovation, and inquiry and dialogue. The accumulative variance contribution accounted for 69. 115%. Meanwhile,the Cronbach s a coefficient was 0. 887,with correlative coefficients between the items and the whole scale ranging from 0. 604 to 0. 765. Conclusion The Chinese version DLOQ for nurses has good reliability and validity up to psychological test standard, and can be applied in nursing field.%目的 为护理人员学习型组织文化提供可行的测评工具.方法 以方便抽样方法选取513名临床护理人员,采用中文版学习型组织量表进行问卷调查,通过计算量表的内部一致性系数、探索性因素分析和相关性分析来评价量表的信度、效度和维度构成.结果 护理人员学习型组织量表包括全局意识与战略领导、创造学习环境以形成共同愿景、团队合作与创新、倡导对话交流和调查研究4个维度,共计16个测量指标;累积方差贡献率为69.115%,量表内部一致性系数Cronbach's α为0.887.各因子与总分的相关系数为0.604~0.765.结论 护理人员学习型组织量表在信度和效度上均达到了可接受的标准,且符合心理测量学的要求,在护理领域具有适用性.

  12. To China's Foreign Trade magazine for her 50th anniversary & the Organizers of the 100th Session of the Chinese Export Commodities Fair:

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Goldberg

    2006-01-01

    @@ On behalf of the United States of America,U.S.Ambassador Clark T.Randt,Jr.and the American Embassy in Beijing and for the U.S.Consulate General in Guangzhou,I am pleased to extend congratulations on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of China's Foreign Trade magazine and the 100th Session of the Chinese Export Commodities Fair.Fifty years have passed since the 1st Session of the Trade Fair and the changes have been significant,but the intent - providing China with an opportunity to exhibit its increasingly sophisticated wares and an appreciative global market - remains the same.Moreover,during this time,China has moved from a command economy guided by administrative decree to one which is largely market-oriented and is now the fourth-largest economy in the world.This is a tremendous achievement.

  13. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  14. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  15. Chinese Journal of Chemistry Instructions for Authors 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 General Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international peer-reviewed journal published in English, with its editorial office hosted by the Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It publishes original research work in all fields of chemistry, i.e. physical, inorganic, organic and analytic chemistry, etc., in the forms of Accounts, Full Papers, Notes and Communications.

  16. 当代中国传统射箭社团述论%On the contemporary Chinese Traditional Archery Associations (Mass Organizations)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛旺; 张开娟

    2016-01-01

    文章通过文献资料法、调查法和数据统计法,将近几年来中国射箭协会情况进行适当的归纳与整理,并通过网络上的相关信息对社会与高校射箭社团发展情况进行深入分析。研究发现:第一,需进一步整理与完善传统射箭协会四大网站中社团的简介包括成立时间、会员人数等分门别类整理并及时更新,从而了解传统射箭的发展趋势与状况。第二,需完善传统射箭协会规章制度,管理的集中化,射箭名称统一规范化,促进传统射箭向前健康发展。第三,高校是后备人才的培养基地,各种资源的有效利用对发展传统射箭及宣传的力度具有一定的推动作用,专题讲座促进中国传统射箭文化的学习与传播。%This article through the methods of literature data, investigation and data statistics, does an in-depth analysis of Chinese archery associations in recent years, and the relevant information on the Internet and the development of college archery clubs. The research finds: first, it is needed to further improve traditional archery associations four major web sites profiles, including the establishment of the time, the number of members of the class and the number of finishing and timely updates, so as to understand the development trend of traditional archery; Second, it is needed to improve traditional archery association rules and regulations, the management focus, the name of the uniform standardization of archery, promote the healthy development of traditional archery;third, university is the training base of the reserved talents, the effective use of various resources to develop the traditional archery and publicity efforts have a certain role in promoting the development of Chinese traditional archery culture of learning and communication.

  17. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  18. A Research on the Perfection of Preferential Tax System for ChineseNon-Profit Organizations%我国非营利组织税收优惠法律制度完善的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波

    2012-01-01

    In order to encourage the development of non-profit organizations, our country enacted a series of tariff preference measures to the donators and also the non-profit organizations themselves. But the current tax preference system that exists some deficiencies can't meet the requirements of Chinese non-profit organizations' development. Our country should perfect our nonprofit tax preferec elegal system by distinguishing the properties of nonprofit or- ganizations, making reasonable tax exemption for the profit income of nonprofit organizations and improving the do- nation incentive mechanisms ere, so as to realize the sustainable development of the non-profit organizations.%我国为鼓励非营利组织的发展,为捐赠人和非营利组织自身都制定了一系列税收优惠措施。但是现阶段的税收优惠制度存在的诸多不足不能满足我国非营利组织的发展要求。我国应从合理区分非营利组织性质,对非营利组织的营利收入予以合理免税、改进捐赠激励机制等方面完善非营利组织的税收优惠法律制度,以便实现非营利组织的可持续发展。

  19. Chinese-scorpion (Buthus martensi Karsch) toxin BmK alphaIV, a novel modulator of sodium channels: from genomic organization to functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhi-Fang; Zhu, Mang-Mang; Bai, Zhan-Tao; Liu, Tong; Tan, Miao; Pang, Xue-Yan; Ji, Yong-Hua

    2006-11-01

    In the present study, BmK alphaIV, a novel modulator of sodium channels, was cloned from venomous glands of the Chinese scorpion (Buthus martensi Karsch) and expressed successfully in Escherichia coli. The BmK alphaIV gene is composed of two exons separated by a 503 bp intron. The mature polypeptide contains 66 amino acids. BmK alphaIV has potent toxicity in mice and cockroaches. Surface-plasmon-resonance analysis found that BmK alphaIV could bind to both rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes and cockroach neuronal membranes, and shared similar binding sites on sodium channels with classical AaH II (alpha-mammal neurotoxin from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector), BmK AS (beta-like neurotoxin), BmK IT2 (the depressant insect-selective neurotoxin) and BmK abT (transitional neurotoxin), but not with BmK I (alpha-like neurotoxin). Two-electrode voltage clamp recordings on rNav1.2 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that BmK alphaIV increased the peak amplitude and prolonged the inactivation phase of Na+ currents. The structural and pharmacological properties compared with those of other scorpion alpha-toxins suggests that BmK alphaIV represents a novel subgroup or functional hybrid of alpha-toxins and might be an evolutionary intermediate neurotoxin for alpha-toxins.

  20. 我国农民合作经济组织产权制度研究%Study of Chinese Property Right System of Farmer Cooperating Economic Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉媛; 蒋崧韬

    2014-01-01

    The farmer cooperating economic organization is organized to enhance the capacity of risk resist-ance and increase the income.According to analysis of the defect of the property right system about the farmer cooperating economic organization,propose the advice to improve the property right system,inclu-ding redefining the legal liability of the farmer cooperating economic organization,expanding the rang of the cooperation,and perfecting the consequence as farmer put the contractual right of land into the farmer coop-erating economic organization.%农民合作经济组织是农民增强自身抗风险能力和提高收益的经济联合体,通过分析它在当下发展中遇到的瓶颈,提出了相关产权制度的建议:包括合理规制农民合作经济组织的法律责任、扩大农民合作经济组织的合作范围以及完善土地承包经营权出资的法律后果。

  1. 中国非营利组织人力资源管理的对策%Chinese Non-profit Organization of Human Resources Management Countermeasure Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧林

    2011-01-01

    In view of our country non-profit organization of human resources management in the existing such as salary welfare difference,lack of staff personnel,lack a sense of belonging,incentive mechanism is not perfect and the brain drain is serious wait for a problem,attempts to correctly grasp the non-profit organization and the meaning of strengthening the nonprofit organization the importance of human resources management perspective,dialectical study and discussion non profit organization to our human resources management challenges,draw on the advantages and avoid disadvantages,adopt corresponding countermeasures,so that the fruits of economic development to improve people's livelihood more embodied,so as to achieve the non-profit organization of human resources management and development purposes,in order to realize the sustainable development of human resources.%文章从非营利组织的含义以及加强非营利组织人力资源管理的必要性的出发,研究非营利组织对我国人力资源管理的挑战以及对策,实现我国人力资源的可持续发展。

  2. Chinese Agricultural Industrialization Management Organization Pattern Evolution and the Development of Agribusiness firm%我国农业产业化经营组织模式的演变与龙头企业的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2012-01-01

    实行农业产业化经营,逐步建设现代农业,才能使我国农业从传统落后的小农经济q-走出来,进而在国际市场q-有竞争优势。龙头企业在农业产业化经营中起着至关重要的作用,居于核心地位,是联结农户与市场的纽带。我国龙头企业与农户之间的利益联结机制及模式不断变化,从最初的“公司+农户”、“龙头企业+基地”向“公司+中介+农户”及股份合作制转化。随着农业产业化的不断推进,“龙头企业+中介组织+农户”的合作组织形式逐步占据主导地位。%Agriculture, farmers and rural economy have become some of those main problems in China. In order to make Chinese agri culture step out of traditional and behindhand small rural economy, thus become more competitive, it is essential to implement agricul tural veitical coordination and to establish modern agriculture gradually. Agribusiness firm plays a crucial role in the agricultural indus trialization, and it is the joint of the farmer and market in market economy. Our country between agribusiness firm and farmer interest coupling mechanism and mode changing , From the initial "company + farmer" , " agribusiness firm + base" to the "company + in termediary + farmer" and share collaboration is made transform . With the rapid development of Chinese agribusiness firm," agribusi ness firm + intermediary + farmer" cooperation organization gradually dominate.

  3. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  4. On Development of Grassroots Chinese Communist Party Organization via Mobile Phone%手机党建:网络环境下高校大学生党建模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季卫斌; 程玉文

    2015-01-01

    信息化时代传播介质的发展给高校大学生党建带来机遇和挑战,大学生党建模式应顺应时代潮流,利用新媒体环境的优势条件推动党建模式的创新发展。手机党建作为网络党建的延伸,其便利性、快捷性和有效性为大学生党建提供了一种可行的新的发展模式。手机党建模式具有独特优势和实施的现实可能性,可构建“数据库-网络-客户端”三方信息平台,拓展“党委-党支部-党员”三级宣传手段,搭载“推送-接收-反馈”信息交互渠道,推动高校大学生党员的宣传教育模式的创新发展。%The advance of propagation medium in the Information Age brings opportunities and challenges to de-velopment of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) organization. The paper proposes that new media such as network and mobile phone should be used to promote the development of CCP. As a new media, mobile phone is convenient and widely used by college students which offers great opportunity to expand CCP membership. This paper proposes a mode of developing CCP organization, including "database - Network - Client" tripartite information platform,a three levels propaganda system of "committees - branch grassroots party organization" and information exchange channels of "push reception- feedback"to promote innovation and the development of propaganda and education mode.

  5. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  6. 近30年政府组织的中医药对外交流活动特征分析%Discussion on the characteristics and reason of Chinese medicine foreign exchange activities among government organizations in the past nearly 30 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京芳; 朱建平

    2015-01-01

    作为中医药对外交流活动的重要主体,政府组织起到了至关重要的作用。对相关的政府组织及其功能进行界定后,分析了近30年政府组织的中医药对外交流活动特征。在此基础上,引入管理学中SWOT理论模型,探讨政府行为的原因所在。%As a principal part of foreign exchange activities of traditional Chinese medicine, government organizations played a crucial role. At present, there are relatively rare researches on foreign exchange activities of traditional Chinese medicine in government organizations. In this article, we defined related government organizations and their functions, analyzed the features of the foreign exchange activities of traditional Chinese mdicine among government organizations in the past nearly 30 years. And based on this analysis, SWOT theory model in management science was introduced to discuss the reasons of government behaviors and put forward suggestions for the future development.

  7. Teaching Material Culture and Chinese Gardens at American Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on the experience of designing and teaching a course on material culture and Chinese gardens. Involving traditional philosophy, ethics, religion, painting, calligraphy, craft, literature, architecture and horticulture, a classical Chinese garden can be considered a microcosm of Chinese culture. This essay discusses the textbooks and general organization of the course, particularly focusing on how students study the key elements (rocks, water, plants and architecture in building a Chinese garden. Some Chinese literature with representations of gardens that can be used for this class is also introduced. In addition, this essay uses two classical Chinese gardens built in the United States (the Astor Court and the Garden of Flowing Fragrance to discuss the appropriation of “Chinese-ness” in different geographical, physical and cultural environments. Finally, some available online resources and technologies that have enhanced student understanding of the subject matter are introduced.

  8. Report on "Chinese Famous Brand Mall" in Lille of France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hao

    2005-01-01

    @@ In a cold and rainy day in February 2005, Chinese culture upsurge is landing in every country in Europe. In France, last year's Chinese Art Parade in Champs Elysees Av enue is still favored and impressed by many people. This year, Dragon Dancing at the Chinese Lunar New Year organized by French Chinese Business Association of 5th District is still on stage. At the street corner of London, Peking opera, stilts show, and folk dance attracted more than 500,000 visitors. Chinese culture also landed other countries and regions such as New York, US; Oslo, Norway; Berlin, Germany; Vancouver, Canada… It is happy to see Chinese culture, showing the influences of Chinese economic and social development.

  9. [Study on dosage form design for improving oral bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Yao, Dong-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Both chemical drugs and traditional Chinese medicines have the problem of low bioavailability. However, as traditional Chinese medicines are a multi-component complex, their dosage forms are required to be designed in line with their characteristics, in order to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines. Traditional Chinese medicines are mostly prepared into pill, powder, paste, elixir and decoction, but with such drawbacks as high administration dose and poor efficacy. With the process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicines, new-type preparations have be developed and made outstanding achievements. However, they fail to make an organic integration between traditional Chinese medicine theories and modern preparation theories. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines are required to be taken into account during the development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the article, multi-component preparation technology was adopted to establish a multi-component drug release system of traditional Chinese medicines on the basis of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines.

  10. Dissolved organic matter fluorescence at wavelength 275/342 nm as a key indicator for detection of point-source contamination in a large Chinese drinking water lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei

    2016-02-01

    Surface drinking water sources have been threatened globally and there have been few attempts to detect point-source contamination in these waters using chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence. To determine the optimal wavelength derived from CDOM fluorescence as an indicator of point-source contamination in drinking waters, a combination of field campaigns in Lake Qiandao and a laboratory wastewater addition experiment was used. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis identified six components, including three humic-like, two tryptophan-like, and one tyrosine-like component. All metrics showed strong correlation with wastewater addition (r(2) > 0.90, p water quality in surface drinking water sources.

  11. "Foreign Mothers" of Chinese Orphans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Since Shanghai opened to the outside, a large number of foreign wives have lived there. They have organized a charitable association which has attracted people’s attention. They donate money and material goods to the Shanghai Children’s Welfare House, as well as contributing their maternal love to the Chinese orphans. Every week, no matter whether it is raining or windy, they visit, holding the children in their arms and feeding them. Some of them

  12. Biosolubilisation of Chinese lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Tao, Xiuxiang; Shi, Kaiyi [School of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The biosolubilisation of coal is a promising coal processing technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil at ambient conditions. In this study, the biosolubilisation of Chinese lignite was studied using a fungus isolated from decaying wood. The intensity of biosolubilisation was determined by estimating the liquid formation time and by measuring the weight loss of the lignite granules gravimetrically. The biosolubilisation product (black liquid) was characterized by ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, element analysis, and heating value. Results showed that this fungus isolated from the decaying wood solubilised 31.83% (by weight) of Chinese lignite to black liquid within 11 days at 27.5 C. The biosolubilisation product mainly contained aromatic acids and chain hydrocarbons, and had organic function groups of hydroxyl, cyclane, carbonyl, ether linkage and aromatic rings. The heating value of the biosolubilisation product was 14 MJ/kg. Chemical analysis of the biosolubilisation product indicated that side chains of lignite were important structures in the biosolubilisation mechanism. (author)

  13. The Summary of the Chinese Non'governmental Organization Research in Recent Years%近几年来我国非政府组织的研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庚伦; 郭华

    2011-01-01

    At present, China has initially established the social management pattern of Party leadership, government responsibility, social coordination, public participation, in which non-governmental organizationshave played a very important role. This article sums up the Chinese non-governmental organization research from basic theory of NGOs, study of the relationship between NGOs and government, NGOs' function, topicsof NGOs, NGOs' participation in social management, NGOs in the ethnic minority areas.%当前我国已初步建立了“党委领导、政府负责、社会协同、公众参与”的社会管理格局,非政府组织在其中起了非常重要的作用。本文从当前我国非政府组织的基础理论、非政府组织与政府的关系、非政府组织的功能、非政府组织的专题、非政府组织参与社会管理、民族地区非政府组织等几个方面进行了归纳、整理。

  14. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  15. Chinese lexical networks: The structure, function and formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyu; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Xiaoyue; Yang, Zhanxin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper Chinese phrases are modeled using complex networks theory. We analyze statistical properties of the networks and find that phrase networks display some important features: not only small world and the power-law distribution, but also hierarchical structure and disassortative mixing. These statistical traits display the global organization of Chinese phrases. The origin and formation of such traits are analyzed from a macroscopic Chinese culture and philosophy perspective. It is interesting to find that Chinese culture and philosophy may shape the formation and structure of Chinese phrases. To uncover the structural design principles of networks, network motif patterns are studied. It is shown that they serve as basic building blocks to form the whole phrase networks, especially triad 38 (feed forward loop) plays a more important role in forming most of the phrases and other motifs. The distinct structure may not only keep the networks stable and robust, but also be helpful for information processing. The results of the paper can give some insight into Chinese language learning and language acquisition. It strengthens the idea that learning the phrases helps to understand Chinese culture. On the other side, understanding Chinese culture and philosophy does help to learn Chinese phrases. The hub nodes in the networks show the close relationship with Chinese culture and philosophy. Learning or teaching the hub characters, hub-linking phrases and phrases which are meaning related based on motif feature should be very useful and important for Chinese learning and acquisition.

  16. 中国企业的学习型组织文化:基于人口统计变量、企业属性、工作满意度和组织绩效的实证分析%The culture of learning organizations in Chinese state-owned and privately-owned enterprises: An empirical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓辉; 杨百寅

    2007-01-01

    By using a Western concept-the instrument called dimensions of learning organization questionnaire (DLOQ), and the data collected from 919 employees in nine companies located in Guangdong Province, China, the present empirical study explores the culture of learning organizations in Chinese business settings. Findings suggest that the DLOQ is applicable to the context of China as well, and those demographic variables, such as age and educational level,together with the types of ownership of Chinese companies, such as state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and privately-owned enterprises (POEs), suggest differences in the culture of learning organizations. Results also indicate that the learning organization culture of a firm has strongly positive impact on employees' job satisfaction and perceived organizational performance. Two implications should be noted. First, as employees in middle age and with college education show the strongest sense of improving the learning culture, it can be inferred that demographic characters and groups may in fluence the organization's learning culture differently. Second, as POEs have a better learning atmosphere than SOEs, it can be inferred that POEs have a stronger competitiveness than SOEsin terms of learning ability and organizational performance. To indigenize the Western construct and instrument of learning organizations, the present study, as an exploratory research, gives substantial knowledge on the subject and seeks to fill the gap in the literature, despite the limitations of cultural nuances and a narrowly-concentrated sample.

  17. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  18. Chinese Studies Librarianship in North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen T. Wei

    2004-01-01

    Although American libraries had begun collecting Chinese language materials in the 19th century, notably the United States Library of Congress in 1869, Yale in 1878, Harvard in 1879, and Berkeley in 1896, East Asian studies librarianship in North America, including China studies librarianship, was not fully developed until the 1960s. There was no formal organization that represented the interest of Chinese studies librarians because there were few of them and most of them were China scholars rather than trained librarians. More than 100 years later, the number of Chinese studies librarians in North America has increased considerably,primarily in response to the demand in the field of China studies and more recently to the needs of immigrant population and the general public who has an interest in China.This paper traces the history and growth of Chinese studies librarianship in North America, documents the development of the professional organization that represents Chinese studies librarians, and examines the training programs that prepare them for their jobs. It also attempts to propose an international exchange forum aiming to bring together Chinese studies librarians in North America and librarians in China in sharing their experience and expertise to achieve the ultimate goal of serving the users.

  19. Scanorama in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scanorama, the SAS on-board magazine,is now also available in Chinese. Table-tennis star,J-O Waldner, Scandinavian design and delicious Norwegian seafood are what SAS Chinese customers can read about while sitting on board SAS flights on the Copenhagen - Beijing and Copenhagen-Shanghai routes. The magazine uses the written Chinese language that is read by nearly one billion mainland Chinese.

  20. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  1. Recitation of Chinese and Arabic Poems Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2008-01-01

    <正>On May 7, the Recitation of Chinese and Arabic Poems jointly sponsored by the China-Arab Friendship Association (CAFA) and the Arab Ambassadors Council in China, and organized by the Arabic Literature Association (ALA) of China, the Chinese Society for Arabic Language Teaching (CSALT), and the Arab Student Union in China, was held in the auditorium of the CPAFFC.

  2. On Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Scientific Socialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范智鹏

    2013-01-01

    Scientific socialism provides proletarian with ideological weapon, which is used to lead and organize the masses to pursue socialism. The formation of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the product of scientific socialism in China, which is the latest achievement combining scientific socialism and Chinese national conditions.

  3. Brief Introduction of The Refractories Branch of The Chinese Society for Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Refractories Branch,a specialized branch of The Chinese Society for Metals(CSM,a nonprofit academic organization concemed with the advancement of science and technology in metallurgical industry and materials science and engineering in China and is also an organization ofChinese scientists and engineersin these field.),is a nationwide academic organization for researchers or engineers in China'S refractories field.

  4. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  5. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  6. 菜心产品器官主要营养成分和硝酸盐的分配规律%Distribution Rules of Nutrients in Different Organs of Flowering Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏蔚; 陈玮锋; 宋世威; 陈日远

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, we investigated the contents of vitamin C, soluble sugars, free amino acids and nitrate in different organ homogenates (bolting stem, leaf, petiole and flower bud) and in the entire plant homogenate of flowering Chinese cabbage ( L. ssp. ). The results showed that, flower bud had the highest contents of vitamin C, soluble sugar, free amino acids, and bolting stem took the second place. The nitrate content in petiole was significant higher than that in the other three organs, but nitrate content in the other three organs had no significant difference. There were 79.8% soluble sugar, 70.3% free amino acids and 68.1% vitamin C accumulated in bolting stem and flower bud, which were far higher than those in the other two organs. Nitrate was mostly accumulated in bolting stem, less in petiole and leaves, least in flower bud. While homogenized the entire plant organs together, the contents of vitamin C, soluble sugar, free amino acids and nitrate showed no significant difference with the weighted sums of the four different organs.%以菜心为材料,采用分产品器官(薹茎、叶片、叶柄、花蕾)和整个产品器官匀浆的方法,测定了维生素C、可溶性糖、游离氨基酸和硝酸盐含量,研究其分配和积累规律。试验结果表明,花蕾的维生素C、可溶性糖、游离氨基酸含量均最高,薹茎次之,叶柄与叶片较低;叶柄的硝酸盐含量最高,其他3种器官间差异不显著。从积累量看,薹茎和花蕾积累了79.8%的可溶性糖、70.3%的游离氨基酸和68.1%的维生素C,远高于其他器官积累量。硝酸盐主要积累在薹茎中,其次是叶柄和叶片,花蕾中最少。利用整个产品器官匀浆测定的维生素C、可溶性糖、游离氨基酸和硝酸盐含量计算的积累量,与分器官加权求和的方法获得的数值间差异不显著。

  7. Differing estrogen activities in the organic phase of air particulate matter collected during sunny and foggy weather in a Chinese city detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Xie, Ping; Xu, Ying; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    Total air suspended particles (PM 100) collected from an urban location near a traffic line in Wuhan, China, were examined for estrogen using a recombinant yeast bioassay. Wuhan, located at the central part of China, is the fourth biggest city in China with 7 million populations. Today, Wuhan has developed into the biggest city and the largest traveling center of central China, becoming one of the important bases of industry, education and research. Wuhan is right at the confluent point of Yangzi River, the third longest river in the world, and its largest distributary Hanjiang, with mountains and more than 100 lakes in downtown area. Therefore, by its unique landscape, Wuhan has formed clear four seasons with relatively long winter and summer and short spring and autumn. Foggy weather usually happen in early spring. The yeast line used in this assay stably expresses human estrogen receptor-alpha. Weak but clear estrogenic activities were detected in the organic phase of crude extracts of air particle materials (APM) in both sunny and foggy weather by 0.19-0.79 μg E2/g PM 100 which were statistically significantly elevated relative to the blank control responding from 20% to 50% of the maximum E2 response, and the estrogenic activity was much higher in foggy weather than in sunny weather. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of APM sampled in foggy days were also determined. The results indicated that the responses of the fractions were obviously higher than the crude extracts. Since there is no other large pollution source nearby, the estrogenic material was most likely from vehicle emissions, house heating sources and oil fumes of house cooking. The GC/MS analysis of the PM 100 collected under foggy weather showed that there were many phenol derivatives, oxy-PAHs and resin acids which have been reported as environmental estrogens. These results of the analysis of estrogenic potency in sunny and foggy weather in a

  8. Investigating Chinese Migrants’ Information-Seeking Patterns in Canada: Media Selection and Language Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Mao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking a quantitative approach, this research surveyed Chinese migrants in Canada regarding channels they rely on to seek various information. This research also investigates how Chinese migrants’ preferences of channels correlate with their intercultural sensitivity level. Chinese migrants prefer Chinese newspapers and websites for government/policy information and life information rather than English newspapers and websites. However, they use English newspapers and websites more frequently for job and career development information. Overall, English television and radio are more frequently used by Chinese migrants than Chinese television and radio broadcasts. The intercultural sensitivity levels of Chinese migrants have a positive correlation with their frequencies of using English information resources, including government websites, English newspapers, English non-government websites, government officers, personal non-Chinese social networks, and English television and radio. Findings of this research suggest that Chinese ethnic media play an important role in Chinese migrants’ information-seeking behaviours and patterns in Canada. On one hand, government and other organizations can reach the Chinese migrant community through information diffusion in Chinese ethnic media. On the other hand, Chinese migrants should make an active effort to improve their English proficiency and intercultural communication sensitivity to better integrate themselves into the Canadian society. A more balanced approach of seeking information from English and Chinese media sources could be more beneficial for Chinese migrants.

  9. Entrepreneurship and Organizations' Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧

    2013-01-01

    In modern society, the competition has become increasingly fierce. Organizations pay close attention to their manage-ment in order to gain the priority. Under this context, entrepreneurship has been attached great importance to. Entrepreneurship has played an indispensable role in organizations. Compare to those short-lived companies, powerful organizations, such as Google, IBM and P&G has gain great progress in the last decades. Therefore, it is essential to study how the powerful organiza-tion could always be innovative. This paper aims to study the role that entrepreneurship plays in the organizations and take Google as an example. It provides some previous lessons that Chinese organizations could draw from.

  10. Application of Oxford classification, and overexpression of transforming growth factor-β1 and immunoglobulins in immunoglobulin A nephropathy: correlation with World Health Organization classification of immunoglobulin A nephropathy in a Chinese patient cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hongxue; Zhang, Lei; E, Xiaoqiang; Ye, Fei; Li, Huining; Han, Changsong; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Jin, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is characterized by the qualitative abnormality of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in circulation and deposits of IgA in the renal mesangium. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) plays a key role in fibrogenesis and the progression of renal damage. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic data on IgAN in northeastern China and the presence of TGF-β1, total IgA, and secretory IgA in the glomeruli and sera, as well as changes in galactose-deficient IgA1 in the serum. We investigated the clinicopathologic data of 1050 cases of IgAN diagnosed in a single center over 13 years. We then assessed the concentrations of TGF-β1 and immunoglobulins in the serum of 100 patients with IgAN and 56 healthy control subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and investigated their presence in the glomeruli by immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. From our data, 76.17% of the IgAN cases belonged to classes I and II according to the World Health Organization classification, representing the early stage. Compared with other studies, we found significantly lower frequencies of segmental glomerulosclerosis (27.71%) but higher frequencies of endocapillary proliferation (50.67%), and a similar proportion of mesangial hypercellularity (68.48%) and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (moderate, 17.81%; severe, 1.52%) in the northeastern Chinese cohort. There was an increased presence of TGF-β1 and immunoglobulins in the serum and glomeruli of IgAN, which correlates with the progression of pathologic classification. The pathologic variables of the Oxford classification correlated significantly with the WHO classifications. TGF-β1 and immunoglobulins could be used as biomarkers of IgAN pathogenic mechanisms, acting as important adjuncts to the original Oxford Classification.

  11. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  12. Delegation of Chinese Advisers And Veterans Visits Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations (VUFO),Jing Dunquan, vice president of the CPAFFC, led the delegation of Chinese advisers and veterans who had participated in China’s aid mission to help

  13. 我国慈善事业发展态势及其法律体系建构研究%The Research on the Chinese Charity Growth and Legal System of Organizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卫萍

    2011-01-01

    近些年来,我国慈善事业发展态势良好,但也存在一些不和谐因素。分析其中原因。除了传统低层面的慈善意识影响以外,慈善法律制度体系的缺失恐是主要原因。具体表现在我国慈善事业中专门的慈善组织法律规范、慈善行为法律激励机制、慈善活动法律监管制度和可操作的法律规定的缺乏。为促进慈善事业的发展,可采用集中立法模式,建立以《慈善法》为基础的慈善事业法律体系。具体就是要进一步制定和完善关于慈善组织设立、慈善行为实施、慈善信用法律保障、慈善活动国家激励、慈善行为责任担当等内容的法律体系。%In recent years,Chinese charity growth is good, but exists some factors that are not hamonious. Analysing the reasons, besides the traditional low level of influence of eharity, lacking of legal system perhaps is the mainly. It shows concretely on lacking of special laws about charity organizing, the mechanism for eharitable deeds law, legal regulation to supervise the eharitable activities,and the law that can be worked. In order to promote the development of charity. We should use the center legislative model, establish the legal system basded on the Charitable Law. Concretely, specific legal systems should be further develop and improve, such as the system of establishing charitable organizations, the system of charitable deeds, the system of charitable credit legal protection and charitable activities encouraged by government, the system of responsibility of charitable deeds and so on..

  14. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  15. Geochemistry of vanadium (V) in Chinese coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Guijian; Qu, Qinyuan; Qi, Cuicui; Sun, Ruoyu; Liu, Houqi

    2016-10-11

    Vanadium in coals may have potential environmental and economic impacts. However, comprehensive knowledge of the geochemistry of V in coals is lacking. In this study, abundances, distribution and modes of occurrence of V are reviewed by compiling >2900 reported Chinese coal samples. With coal reserves in individual provinces as the weighting factors, V in Chinese coals is estimated to have an average abundance of 35.81 μg/g. Large variation of V concentration is observed in Chinese coals of different regions, coal-forming periods, and maturation ranks. According to the concentration coefficient of V in coals from individual provinces, three regions are divided across Chinese coal deposits. Vanadium in Chinese coals is probably influenced by sediment source and sedimentary environment, supplemented by late-stage hydrothermal fluids. Specifically, hydrothermal fluids have relatively more significant effect on the enrichment of V in local coal seams. Vanadium in coals is commonly associated with aluminosilicate minerals and organic matter, and the modes of V occurrence in coal depend on coal-forming environment and coal rank. The Chinese V emission inventory during coal combustion is estimated to be 4906 mt in 2014, accounting for 50.55 % of global emission. Vanadium emissions by electric power plants are the largest contributor.

  16. Chinese Oil Industry Faces New Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese petrochemical companies should gird for new challenges in three years, triggered by cost-competitive products flooding in from overseas, especially the Middle East countries.This advice was highlighted by company executives and association leaders during a discussion on the sidelines of a petrochemical conference organized by the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association in early April.

  17. [Integrative pharmacology: new paradigm of modernization of Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Yu; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Chinese medicinal formulae( CMF) were often used in the clinics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which were critical for modernization of Chinese medicine to shed light on the interaction between CMF and biological organisms. In current studies, correlation between system and part, macroscopic actions and microcosmic mechanism, ADME process and pharmacologic actions were often neglected. Thus, we put forward integrative pharmacology, which could integrate the correlation between CMF and biological organisms from multi-levels and multi-dimensional views. Integrative pharmacology would reveal the molecular mechanism of CMF for ailments treatment and screen out effective material systematically, which would be the new paradigm of TCM research.

  18. Preindustrial Patterns in Chinese Organizational Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    to be constitutive of a large number of preindustrial communities also govern relationships within and between organizations in present-day China. The paper then turns to organizations in Africa and Latin America and it is shown that the same social morals structure behaviours in these two developing regions......Chinese organizational culture is usually described as being influenced by Confucian social norms and unique to the country. The paper argues in contrast to this view that there are important cultural similarities between values and norms in organizations in China and other developing countries......, suggesting that the cultural characteristics of Chinese organizations are not simply unique to this country but a set of preindustrial norms that industrializing countries have in common as a legacy of the past....

  19. Lexical-semantic Mapping between Chinese and English Controlled Vocabularies in the Domain of Chinese Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jiun Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study conducts a lexical-semantic mapping between the Chinese controlled vocabulary developed by the National Palace Museum (NPM-CV in Taiwan and an English controlled vocabulary, the Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT developed by the Getty Research Institute in the U.S. that is primarily based on Western art. The research question is: In mapping a Chinese controlled vocabulary in Chinese art to a Western-centered art thesaurus, what types of relationships can be identified and what are the issues in mapping? The study’s main findings reveal that only one-third of the NPM-CV terms can be mapped as “exact equivalence” to AAT terms and three-fifths of the NPMCV terms have hierarchical relationships (narrower to broader with some AAT terms. Clearly, using AAT alone to index Chinese art collections will lead to insufficient indexing specificity. The study then proposes solutions to improve Chinese-English semantic interoperability for multilingual knowledge organization systems in the domain of Chinese art. [Article content in Chinese

  20. Chinese Navy’s Structure and Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In time of peace, the navy adopts a leadership system that combines operational command with building and administration, and which mainly consists of the navy headquarters, fleets, test bases, educational institutions and an armaments academy. The navy has three fleets, namely, the Beihai Fleet, Donghai Fleet and Nanhai Fleet, which

  1. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  2. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  3. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  4. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  5. Not Your Father's Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government's first annual report on the evolution of the Chinese language contains some surprisesThe Chinese people are proud of their language, which they consider the most essential part of their civilization of 5,000 years. The charm of the language includes its ideographic writing system, in which the structure of the characters is directly related

  6. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...

  7. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  8. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  9. Doorway to Chinese Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xi’an,the ancient Chinese capital and modern day metropolis,offers an exciting array of historic attractions and tourist charms The long and extensive history of Xi’an,an ancient Chinese capital,has endowed it with an abundant variety of cultural sites and artifacts,including the

  10. Chinese Conversation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  11. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  12. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  13. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  14. Chinese ethnomusicology to explore fieldwork methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Lihan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main working approach and scope of the national musicians is the field investigation. The exploration of successful experience of the Chinese national music in the fieldwork is very necessary to effectively organize, carry out and complete the fieldwork of the Chinese music. This paper which is combined with the summary of experience, expert consultation and literature reading tries to verify and promote the effective fieldwork method through field investigation, so as to avoid that the national musicians with curiosity give a hurried and cursory glance at the destination and miss the first-hand resources in the field investigation due to lack of effective working approach, which plays a positive role in the inheritance and development of the Chinese national music.

  15. Mapping the Chinese Science Citation Database

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    Methods developed for mapping the journal structures contained in aggregated journal-journal citations in the Science Citation Index are applied to the Chinese Science Citation Database of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This database covers 991 journals, of which only 37 had originally English titles. Using factor-analytical and graph-analytical techniques we show that this data is dually structured. The main structure is the intellectual organization of the journals in journal groups (as in the international SCI), but the university-based journals provide an institutional layer that orients this structure towards practical ends (e.g., agriculture). The Chinese Science Citation Database exhibits the characteristics of Mode 2 in the production of scientific knowledge more than its western counterparts. The contexts of application lead to correlation (interfactorial complexity) among the components.

  16. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  17. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  18. The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In the movement of Chinese indigenous management research, a sort of ‘Chinese exceptionalism’ (as critiqued by Peng, 2005: 133) seems to have been emerging, namely, some Chinese scholars see Chinese culture, philosophy, and way of thinking are unique and cannot be accounted for by some...

  19. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  20. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both tr

  1. [Probe into monitoring mechanism of Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Da-Ning; Guo, Lan-Ping; Lu, Jian-Wei; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-10-01

    Focusing on the problems of Chinese materia medica resources,and combining with the national Chinese materia medica resources survey, the paper probes into monitoring mechanism of Chinese materia medica resources. The establishment of the monitoring mechanism needs one organization and management agencies to supervise and guide monitoring work, one network system to gather data information, a group of people to perform monitoring work, a system of technical methods to assure monitoring work scientific and practical, a series of achievements and products to figure out the methods for solving problems, a group of monitoring index system to accumulate basic data, and a plenty of funds to keep normal operation of monitoring work.

  2. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  3. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  4. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  5. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  6. Ancient Chinese Dress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Chinese archaeologists discov- ered in Zhoukoudian on theoutskirts of Beijing the firstneedle made by Chinese about 18,000years ago.It was about 82 mm longand 3.3 mm in diameter,polishedcarefully and had a hole,showing thatthe Chinese of that time had masteredthe skill of polishing and drilling andcould make clothes ont of animalskins.It Is recorded in The Book of Rites(one of the Confucian classics,includ- ing essays on rites and etiquette of theQin and Han dynasties),compiled byDai Sheng of the Western Han Dy- nasty(206 B.C.-A.D.24),that therehad been no flax or silk in the pastand people wore animal skins or feathers as clothes.That proves that appa-rel appeared earlier than textiles in theChinese culture.

  7. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The feature and development direction of ecological garden city; The problem and countermeasures in urban construction audio-visual file management task;Youth network moral education is imperative;A shallow discussion about moral education penetration in Chinese classroom;

  8. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  9. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Compiled by the Central Document Compiling Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CPC), the third volume of the Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping was published by the People’s Publishing House and was issued nationwide on November 2, 1993.

  10. Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CHINESE people have accu-mulated a great deal ofexperience in architecture,constantly improving building ma-terials and thus creating uniquebuilding styles.The history of ancient Chinesearchitechtural development can be

  11. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  12. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  13. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  14. Chinese Autos' Debut in Cambodia--Let more Cambodians know high-quality Chinese products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; Xiong; Phnom; Penh

    2005-01-01

      The 3rd Mudan Cup China International Auto Exhibition (Vietnam & Cambodia) was held in January 28, 2005 in Phnom Penh Hotel. This is the first debut of Chinese autos in Cambodia. 11 buses, 12 seats tourism vans, cargo vans and trucks and 9 motorcycles of different brands showed Cambodians the real Chinese famous brands and high-quality automobiles. The 3rd "Mudan Cup"China International Auto Exhibition Tour was organized by the Society of Automotive Engineers of China, Department of Media and Press of CCPIT, Cambodia Tang Ren International Co., Ltd.,Cambodia Kaide Trade Co., Ltd. andChina Grand River Group.……

  15. Chinese Autos' Debut in Cambodia--Let more Cambodians know high-quality Chinese products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xiong; Phnom Penh

    2005-01-01

    @@ The 3rd Mudan Cup China International Auto Exhibition (Vietnam & Cambodia) was held in January 28, 2005 in Phnom Penh Hotel. This is the first debut of Chinese autos in Cambodia. 11 buses, 12 seats tourism vans, cargo vans and trucks and 9 motorcycles of different brands showed Cambodians the real Chinese famous brands and high-quality automobiles. The 3rd "Mudan Cup"China International Auto Exhibition Tour was organized by the Society of Automotive Engineers of China, Department of Media and Press of CCPIT, Cambodia Tang Ren International Co., Ltd.,Cambodia Kaide Trade Co., Ltd. andChina Grand River Group.

  16. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  17. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  18. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  19. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  20. Chinese Forest Biodiversity Monitoring and Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Xiangcheng; DU Yanjun; SHEN Guochun; HAO Zhanqing; YE Wanhui; CAO Min; MA Keping

    2010-01-01

    @@ A Review 1.Preliminary investigations in China's forest ecosystems and the establishment of institutions In the 1950s,Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS)and several relevant institutes organized a series of largescale comprehensive surveys on the flora and biological resources and the geographical distribution and species composition of main forest ecosystems in China.Several monographs and many photos of biological resources were published thereafter.

  1. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  2. Research on Change of Rhizosphere Soil Properties of Chinese fir Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This article emphatically reviews the difference of soil biological activities, biochemical activities and soil chemical properties between the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of first rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb) Hook) plantation. It also reviews their dynamic patterns during Chinese fir plantation development. The results show that the contents of organic and inorganic nutrients in the rhizosphere soil of young, half-mature and near-mature Chinese fir of first-rotation ...

  3. 基于语义网的中文百科知识组织与集成%FU Yuxin, WANG Xin, FENG Zhiyong, et al Organization and integration of Chinese encyclopedia knowledge based on semantic web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宇新; 王鑫; 冯志勇; 吕雪栋

    2015-01-01

    It identifies important structural features from immense knowledgeable data in three largest Chinese encyclope-dias(Baidu Encyclopedia, Hudong Encyclopedia, Chinese Wikipedia)and generates RDF triples, then integrates the in-formation data and sets into a distributed large-scale RDF data storage system, and constructs the RDF dataset of Chinese Encyclopedia Knowledge Base that fits with the requirements of Linked Data. The main work includes, configuring the web crawler to crawl the html pages from Baidu Encyclopedia and Hudong Encyclopedia, parsing the content of the infor-mation box to generate RDF triples, downloading Chinese triples data from DBpedia, integrating the data sets into the dis-tributed large-scale RDF data storage system Jingwei, designing the display of dynamic inserting and triple pattern query pages, it also verifies the validity of the method through prototype system experiments.%通过从3个最大的中文百科全书(百度百科、互动百科、中文维基百科)所包含的大规模知识数据中识别重要的结构化特征生成RDF三元组,并将这些信息数据整合加入分布式大规模RDF数据存储系统,从而构成符合Linked Data要求的中文百科知识库RDF数据集。主要工作包括,通过配置网络爬虫对百度百科和互动百科的网页进行爬取,解析其中信息框等内容,生成RDF三元组并实现三元组的动态插入;下载需要的DBpedia中文三元组数据,将三元组进行整合并存储到课题组的大规模语义数据存储库Jingwei中;设计显示动态插入和三元组模式查询的页面,通过原型系统实验,验证了该方法的有效性。

  4. Chinese Space Program for Heliophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji; Gan, Weiqun; Wang, Chi; Liu, Weining; Yan, Yihua; Liu, Yong; Sun, Lilin; Liu, Ying

    As one of the major field of space science, heliophysics research in China has not only long history but also strong research forces. Many space missions have been proposed by the community but with few got support. Since 2006, Chinese Academy of Science has organized a long term strategic study in space science. In 2011, the space science program has been kicked off with several new missions being selected for Phase A study. In this presentation, first a brief review on past programs, such as Double Star, Chang’e, and an introduction on the space science strategic study are given. Under the guidance of this strategic study or roadmap, a few missions have been proposed or re-proposed with new element, such as DSO, KUAFU, MIT, SPORT and ASO-S. Brief introductions of these programs and their current status will be given.

  5. Inequities in Chinese Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Mullins-Owens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese health system was once held up as a model for providing universal health care in the developing world in the 1970s, only to have what is now considered one of the least equitable systems in the world according to the World Health Organization. This article begins with a brief look at what equity in health services entails, and considers the inequities in access to health services in China among different segments of the population. This article will consider challenges the current inequities may present to China in the near future if reforms are not implemented. Finally, it will take a look at reforms made by China’s neighbors, Singapore and Thailand, which made their health care more equitable, affordable, and sustainable.

  6. 超微粉中草药添加剂对热应激江汉土鸡免疫器官组织形态学的影响%Effect of Ultrafine Powder Additive of Chinese Herbal on Immune Organs and Tectology of Heat Stress Jianghan Native Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙齐英

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To research the effect of ultrafine powder additive of Chinese Herbal on immune organs and tectology of heat stress Jianghan native chicken. [Method] Using completely randomized experimental design, 100 Jianghan native chickens were allotted to 5 groups at random. Group 1 was the control group which were fed with basal diet, group 2, 3, 4, 5 were respectively fed with 0.5% , 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% of the ultrafine powder Chinese herbal on the basis of basal diet. Effects of ultrafine powder additive of Chinese herbal on immune organs and tectology of heat stress Jianghan native chicken were studied. [Result] The body weight of group 2, 4 were significantly higher than that of the control group(P 0.05) , the thymus index of group 4 was significantly higher than that of the other group(P < 0.05). The T-lymphocytes and B- lymphocytes relative numbers of the experimental group, in the immune organs was significantly higher than that of the control group(P<0.05). In the immune organs of the experimental group, lymphocytes were close, and there were almost no damage cells and nuclear condensation phenomenon. [Conclusion] The use of ultrafine powder Chinese herbal additives significantly stimulate growth of the immune organ and improve immune function.%[目的]探讨超微粉中草药添加剂对热应激江汉土鸡雏鸡免疫器官组织的影响.[方法]采用完全随机试验设计,挑选100只江汉土鸡雏鸡,随机分为5组:1组为对照组,饲喂基础日粮;2、3、4、5组在基础日粮中分别添加0.5%、1.0%、1.5%、2.0%的中草药超微粉添加剂,研究超微粉中草药添加剂对热应激免疫器官组织的影响.[结果]2、4组雏鸡体重显著高于对照组(P<0.05);4、5组的法氏囊指数显著高于对照组(P<0.05),2、3、4、5组的脾脏指数分别比对照组提高24.1%、29.6%、26.3%和16.2%,但差异不显著(P>0.05),第4组的胸腺指数显著高于其他组(P<0.05);试验组免疫器

  7. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  8. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  9. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their

  10. Chinese NGOs in action against HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; XU; Yi; ZENG; Allen; F; ANDERSON

    2005-01-01

    Chinese nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have played a significant role in the battle against AIDS in the People's Republic of China. This article provides a brief overview of the structure of these organizations, as well as an analysis of their principle accomplishments. Of great significance in this analysis is the fact that Chinese NGOs have effectively dealt with many sensitive health education areas that government authorities have felt reluctant to handle directly. As such, they have provided an indispensable component in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control calculus on the mainland.

  11. Mentoring and Research Supervision in Music Education: Perspectives of Chinese Postgraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) estimated that the number of students studying outside their own country would be over 20 million by 2030. Chinese students have increasingly formed a large percentage of international students at universities across the English-speaking world, and the Chinese demand for…

  12. A Contrastive Study of Chinese and English Thinking Pattern through English Sentence structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冉

    2015-01-01

    When Chinese and foreigners organize sentences,they follow different thought patterns which decide the essential distinction of the way they use English.This essay would elaborate the differences which lie in thought patterns carefully by analyzing sentence patterns of both Chinese and English people.

  13. Simulation About the Growth of Chinese Firm's Safety Management Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tie-zhong; LI Zhi-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at the deficiency of exterminating measures of Chinese firm safety management,a simulation model of Chinese firm's safety management capability based on the organizational learning theory,in which the simulation method of system dynamics is utilized.The level variable and rate vailable are designed based on the practical situation and change situation of corresponding variables of firm's safety management capability.Simulation firms are built with accident ease groups of the oil industry,chemieal industry,machine industry,coal mining industry,and weapon industry.Through analyzing the simulation result,the growth law of Chinese firm's safety management capability is obtained as follows:the accumulating and the coupling of safety knowledge should be emphasized at the same time;the balance of learning behavior of individual,group and organization should be considered together;different types of Chinese firm should take different safety policies according to their practical situations.

  14. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate

    for asymmetric games when some valuations are zero. In that case we prove that the auctioneer can stabilize the game by placing his own ticket in each basket. On the other hand, when all the valuations are strictly positive, a pure Nash equilibrium is guaranteed to exist, and the equilibrium strategies......Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...... are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural...

  15. Ancient Chinese Landscape Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    IN the past decade,the worldhas suddenly discovered thewonders of Chinese landscapegardening and garden architecture,and places like New York,Singaporeand London have all built Chinese-style gardens.The architectural stylespecial to Chinese gardens has,infact,developed·a“school”of itsown.In China,the landscaped gardenhas long been a part of culture,andliterature,painting,philosophy,cal-ligraphy and folk customs have alldealt with it at one time or another.Two categories of garden architec-ture exist:the imperial garden andthe private garden.The former is,ofcourse,grand and palatial and occu-pies large tracts of land,while the

  16. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  17. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  18. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  19. How Iconic Are Chinese Characters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The study explores the notion that some Chinese characters contain pictorial indications of meanings that can be used to help retrieve the referent. Thirty adults with no prior knowledge of Chinese guessed the meanings of twenty Chinese characters by choosing between one of two photographs. Half of the characters were considered to be iconic and…

  20. Directory of Chinese American Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese American Librarians Association, River Forest, IL.

    This directory was compiled by the Chinese American Librarians Association based on replies to questionnaires sent to more than 500 Chinese American librarians in the United States and research based on secondary sources. Information provided on each person includes: name, name in Chinese, position/title, institution, institution's address, field…

  1. Chinese Contemporary Art: Ink Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiDaojian

    2003-01-01

    Chinese ink painting is an age-old art tradition that embodies distinctive characteristics of Chinese culture. In these exquisite paintings, artists integrate nature and everyday life to show how the two exist in harmonyalso a frequent theme in Chinese philosophy.

  2. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  3. Participation and action:from the Chinese social organizations of AIDS prevention anthropology research--A MSM as an example in L city%参与和行动:来自社会组织防治艾滋病的人类学研究--以L市的一个MSM组织为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁

    2014-01-01

    In the “The leadership of government, departments, the whole society to participate in” Chinese characteristic anti-AIDS work mechanism, as edge specific populations and the unique role in folk grassroots social organization has shown positive effects. This article is based on the L city social organization--MSM organization to participate in AIDS prevention and control in practice on the basis of field investigation, description and analysis of MSM internal structure function as well as how to use organizational capital to participate in AIDS prevention and control act.%“政府组织领导、部门各负其责、全社会共同参与”的中国特色防艾工作机制中,作为民间草根性防艾社会组织的边缘/特定人群可及性的独特作用已显现出积极性。文章基于对 L 市的社会组织之 MSM 组织--“牵手工作组”在参与防治艾滋病实践田野调查的基础上,描述和分析MSM 组织内部的结构功能以及如何运用组织资本参与防治艾滋病行动。

  4. Understanding the Varieties of Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I critique the convergence thesis proposed by S. Pope and J. W. Meyer who envisage the rise of a universalistic corporate organization that tends to supersede national business contexts or at least renders the national institutional environment as less consequential. My counterargu......In this paper, I critique the convergence thesis proposed by S. Pope and J. W. Meyer who envisage the rise of a universalistic corporate organization that tends to supersede national business contexts or at least renders the national institutional environment as less consequential. My...... this counterargument, I use management practices in China as an illustrative case. Instead of one ‘Chinese model of management’, there are actually varieties of Chinese management. To understand these diversities, I propose an analytical framework that is based on four traditional Chinese philosophies, i.......e., Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism, and Mohism. I posit, the actually management practices in China can be understood as diverse configurations of the four basic mode of management, i.e., autocracy, bureaucracy, chrismacracy, and democracy (ABCD for short)....

  5. Communicating organic food quality in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Consumers in emerging countries such as China play a crucial role for up-scaling improvements in the environmental impact of food production. So far little research has explored Chinese consumer reactions to organic food labels and whether Chinese consumer inferences can be favorably influenced...... by communication efforts. An online experiment studied the influence of the presence of organic labels as well as the influence of priming of environmental values on fruit and vegetable quality inferences. We find that Chinese consumers expect organic food to be more expensive and of a higher general quality...... compared to conventional food, but we do not find significantly higher health or taste inferences for organic products. When primed with environmental values, consumers with strong environmental values express higher quality and health inferences for organically labeled food. The results indicate...

  6. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  7. Chinese Commercial Negotiating Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    the importance of whatever activities they are a part of-a form of Sinocentrism --and relations among all others belong to the periphery of the Chinese...Siemens, 22 73-74 "Silent Treatment," 68-69 Trade agreements, 4. See a/so Singapore, 32 Agreements; Compensatory Sinocentrism , 86 trade I----- Index / 105

  8. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  9. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  10. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  11. Milestone for Chinese physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Chinese scientists have discovered a new particle predicted decades ago but never observed before. It could be what was once called the "multi-quark state," tiny elementary particles with a strong interaction or force that serves as the source of nuclear energy (1/2 page).

  12. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  13. Chinese court case fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    established as early as the 6th Century AD, whereas the first substantial evidence of the tradition is from 13th Century and the first Chinese crime fiction novels were written during the 17th Century. This article is, then, a corrective for the international history of crime fiction based on numerous...

  14. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Corbiere

    2013-01-01

    <正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in

  15. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Li Yiyi, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of Shenyang Metal Research Institute, has developed a new system for creating a low temperature and high pressure anti-hydrogen material in the research of engineering material. She has also been successful in her research of various types of steel.

  16. Chinese Students' Constructive Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Last June the author, a teacher of political theory at Tsinghua University, was asked by a Canadian television crew to get hold of some students for a special on modern China. During the discussion, the author observed that his Chinese students express a thoughtful and informed nationalism, and a distrust of Western-style democracy. Some of the…

  17. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese Ethnic Park, divided into two parts, occupies 45 hectares. The northern section, which opened first, occupies 20 hectares, featuring 16 ethnic villages where people can enjoy indigenous music and dance. About 200 performers working in the village represent a number of minority nationalities. Their performances are based on local custom, and mostly comprise greeting and bidding

  18. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  19. Chinese Lacquer Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengXiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the

  20. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  1. Chinese Decorative Coatings Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Growth prospects The Chinese market for decorative coatings, excluding non-architectural products such as industrial varnishes,marine paint and other industrially applied coatings, has been growing byaround 10% annually and was estimated to be worth Eurol.3 billion a year, with an annual per capita consumption of just less than 1 liter ofpaint.

  2. SWOT analysis - Chinese Petroleum

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  3. Chinese translation of English textbooks on internal medicine from the 1850s to the 1940s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chuang-Ye; Wang, Fu-Mei

    2014-06-01

    During the 100 years from 1850 to 1949, six English textbooks on internal medicine were translated into Chinese and published. Publication of these books was a response to the increased demand for Chinese textbooks after the opening of several Western-style hospitals and medical schools in China where the instruction was in Chinese. Throughout this period, textbooks translated from English were regarded as symbols of mainstream and authority within medical communities in China. There was a shift of translators from British and American medical missionaries to Chinese medical elites. Publishers also changed from missionary hospitals or missionary organizations to the Chinese Medical Association, which was led by ethnic Chinese. After the 1950s, translation activity continued in Taiwan, but it was halted in China until after the Cultural Revolution. This paper provides bibliographic information about these books. The transition of medical authority in China during this 100-year period is also reviewed through the successive publication of translated textbooks on internal medicine.

  4. [Discuss on effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shihuan; Yang, Hongjun; Huang, Luqi

    2010-01-01

    Nature of Chinese materia medica is the nucleus in the theory of Chinese material medica, according to the recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which is the character of the drug related on curative effect. Nature and efficacy of a drug is through the medical material, then, physical environment, including the temperature, humidity, atmospheric water, wind, topography, soil, micro-organism, and so on, influence the growth and development of the medical meterial. In this paper, we researched the explanation on nature of Chinese materia medica in the medical books of past dynasties, combined with the modem research, analyzed the relationship between generative reception and physical environmental factors, and discussed the effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica. We indicated that the formation of Chinese materia medical nature is that the drug receptive the change of physical environmental factors, and resulted by the synthetic action of the factors, such as climate, soil, biology, topography, etc.

  5. progress and prospects for studies on chinese amphibians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    this work summarizes the history and progress of the studies on chinese amphibians since they first appeared in the chinese literature.a wide range of research has been carried out,including the history of the definition of amphibians,faunal surveys,systematic research,ecological research,biochemical research (isozyme and other proteins or peptides,chromosomes,dna),anatomical research,embryological research,phylogenetic and zoogeographical research,and many others such as ultrastructure of organs,crossbreeding test,regeneration of organs,abnormality survey,acoustics,fossils,sperm ultrastructure and parasites.in addition,the prospects for studies on chinese amphibians in future are proposed in this paper.

  6. Reason Analysis and Risk Prevention of Soaring Price of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,the price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials soars continuously,and the resulting price risk increasingly looms large,which has critically affected midstream and downstream industries and peoples’ demand for drug,and imperiled healthy and orderly development of traditional Chinese medicinal industries.Based on the status quo of continuous skyrocketing price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials at present,we winkle out the root cause of soaring price as follows:the supply and demand lose balance;the production costs hike up;there are other factors responsible for soaring price.This paper further analyses the impact of sharp increase in price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials on all links of industry chain as follows:the medicinal herb growers never benefit from soaring price;the counterfeiters and forgers in midstream industry increase;the gross profit rate of Chinese medicine enterprises declines.In accordance with the risk arising from abnormal fluctuation in price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials,corresponding precautionary measures are put forward as follows:promote the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of value chain;curtail the production and management cost of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of organization chain;stabilize price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of information chain;reduce transaction cost of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of logistics chain.

  7. American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists: how are they doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peishan; Hu, Fengling

    2016-09-01

    More than 60 years have passed since 3 pioneer Chinese anesthesiologists were trained by American physicians. After returning to China, they applied their new knowledge and skills to develop a new anesthesia specialty in their own country. Over the past 2 decades, close to 600 Chinese medical graduates have been trained in the United States and have become part of the American anesthesia workforce. Unlike their elder generation, they did not go back to China after their training. People are always wondering how this new generation of American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists is doing in a different culture and different health care and political systems. This review indicates that these newly American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists not only provide high-quality patient care but also conduct outstanding anesthesia teaching and research. In addition, as their pioneer anesthesiologists did in China, they use professional organizations and publications as 2 major means to advance professional development and promote academic exchanges between Chinese and American anesthesiologists, through which American anesthesiology continues to have influence on modern Chinese anesthesiology.

  8. Chinese Yuan after Chinese Exchange Rate System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eiji Ogawa; Michiru Sakane

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the actual exchange rate policy conducted by the Chinese government after the Chinese exchange rate system reform on 21 July 2005 is investigated. Also, the long-run effect is investigated, including the Balassa-Samuelson effect on the Chinese yuan. It was found that the Chinese government generated a statistically significant but small change in exchange rate policy during the sample period until 25 January 2006. It was not identifted that the Chinese monetary authority is adopting the currency basket system because the change is too small in the economic sense. It is indicated that the Chinese government should take account of the productivity growth of countries composing the currency basket in order to operate a currency basket regime.

  9. High School Chinese: Second Year Student Work Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This workbook accompanies the second volume (FL 002 776) of the Chinese text used in the Washington Foreign Language Program. It is organized according to the lessons in the companion textbook and provides vocabulary, substitution, pattern, transformation, translation, and expansion drills, and question and answer practice. For related documents…

  10. High School Chinese: First Year Student Work Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This workbook accompanies the first volume (FL 002 774) of the Chinese text used in the Washington Foreign Language Program. It is organized according to the lessons in the companion textbook and provides vocabulary, substitution, pattern, transformation, expansion, and translation drills, dialogues, and questions and answers for practice. For…

  11. Cultural Traditions and Writing Differences Between English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍甜美

    2014-01-01

    Writing in any language involves more than grammar, vocabulary and spelling. There are thought connections and or-ganization patterns that extend beyond sentences and go deeper than the surface meaning of sentences. This paper compares the differences between English writing and Chinese writing, and explores their cultural traditions.

  12. Departure Ceremony for Chinese International Friendship Volunteers Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An; Xin

    2013-01-01

    <正>The CPAFFC launched the"Program of Chinese International Friendship Volunteers"in 2012.On July 18 this year,it joined with the Program’s organizer,Zhongxie Human Resource Consulting Center(Zhongxie HR),to

  13. On Building Theoretical System of Human Rights with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU HAINIAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ The ongoing discussion organized by the Human Rights magazine on building a theoretical system of human rights with Chinese characteristics is definitely of great significance.Theory guides practice.Correct theories can be turned into an immensely great material force that propels social progress.

  14. Constitution of the Chinese Association for International Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正(Approved by the Third Plenary Sessionof the Tenth Executive Council on May 11, 2012)Chapter I General Rules Article 1 The Chinese Association for International Understanding is a national non-governmental organization(NGO) in the People’s Republic of China.

  15. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    This is the Chinese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  16. Brief Discussions of a Draw of American Universal Education on Chinese Postgraduate Teaching Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhengminqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Initiated by International Friendships Inc.(IFI in Cincinnati, that is a Christian community organization, the authors participated in a universal education activity, called “History Museum”, organized by the local people in Kentucky State of U.S.A. In the activity, the authors grasped some characteristics of American universal education and reflected some problems of the professional foundation teaching of Chinese postgraduates, especially of Chinese engineering postgraduates. Based on the above thinking, some suggestions of the teaching methods for the professional foundation courses of Chinese postgraduates are proposed. Furthermore, the authors hope the proposed methods would be good for improving the postgraduate education in China.

  17. Transnational Chinese Sphere in Singapore: Dynamics, Transformations and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon an empirical analysis of Singaporean Chinese’s intriguing and changing linkages with China over the past half century, this paper suggests that multi-layered interactions between the Chinese diaspora and the homeland have led to the formulation of an emerging transnational Chinese social sphere, which has three main characteristics: First, it is a space for communication by ethnic Chinese abroad with their hometown/ homeland through steady and extensive flows of people, ideas, goods and capital that transcend the nation-state borders, although states also play an important role in shaping the nature and characteristics of these flows. Second, this transnational social sphere constitutes a dynamic interface between economy, politics and culture, which has contributed to creating a collective diasporic identity as well as social and business networks. Third, the key institutional mechanism of the transnational social sphere is various types of Chinese organizations – ranging from hometown associations to professional organizations – which serve as integral components of Chinese social and business networks.

  18. I-Ching, Chinese Thinking Mode And Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧媛

    2013-01-01

      I-Ching regards human-being as an integral part of nature and stresses the relative complimentary of the two opposing principles of nature, Yin and Yang. Therefore, under the influence of I-Ching, the Chinese thinking mode is different from the west-erners’. The Chinese thinking pattern is holistic, dynamic and abstract, but lacking logic and inference. The Chinese tend to express their ideas succinctly in a few simple remarks. Consequently Chinese is a concise and comprehensive language full of hint and ambiguity.

  19. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...... that contemporary China studies have increasingly developed into a collective effort and that no scholar conducts his/her research in a vacuum devoid of dept to other contributions in the field. The paper will focus on the period since the Cultural Revolution. Consequently, we will not attempt a discussion...

  20. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Discoverer of the Origin of Life The origin of life on earth has long been a subject explored by scientists around the world. At the 11th International Conference on the Origin of Life held at Orleans University in France on July 9th, 1996, Chinese scientist Zhao Yufen and her partner Cao Peisheng announced the contents of the origin of the seed of life.

  1. INSET for Chinese Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 陈涛; 刘子春

    2007-01-01

    By setting examples,giving tables or taxonomy and so on,the thesis mainly explains the eight general INSET ( in-service teacher training) principles,including Participation,Sympathetic to the context,Teachers' attitude change,Integration of approaches,Communication and support,Evaluation and follow-up,Adequate timescale,then especially concentrate on the problems and solutions to Chinese teacher in using the INSET principles.

  2. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  3. My Chinese Teacher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金平; 郭克晴

    2002-01-01

    I have already been a student for about six and half years.So many teachers have taught me.I like them all,but the best one I like is my Chinese teacher,Mr Liu.He is more than thirty years old.He is a little short man,but he is really a good teacher and we all love him.

  4. The Developing Chinese Garment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1997-01-01

    CHINA is a country with a 5,000-year history and a population of 1.2 billion people. Clothing plays an important role in Chinese people’s cultural and social life. Since the reform and opening up in the 1980s, the garment industry has greatly developed and has increased progressively by an average of 15.7 percent a year. In the past 10 years particularly, township-run garment production enterprises have suddenly come to the fore,

  5. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dutch-based information provider expands in China to tap new market There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them. "You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,

  6. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2011-01-01

    There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them."You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,Wolters Kluwer China CEO.

  7. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  8. REQUESTS IN CHINESE AND ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sociolinguistic competence is essential for foreign languagelearners to acquire effective communication becausecommunication is subject to social appropriateness.Differentlanguages,however,have different sociallinguistic rules(Wolfson,1989),the knowledge as to what is appropriate tosay to whom,and under what conditions.This paper attemptsto study requests in Chinese and English contrastively,in orderto account for the Chinese transfer influence and the pragmaticfailure in the use of English by Chinese students of English,andto draw pedagogical implications.

  9. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of mode...

  10. Organic World Language Teaching Method used for Beginning Learners of Chinese Language in USA--Take Scenic Middle School and Crater Renaissance High School for Instance%有机的世界语言教学法在美国初级汉语教学中的运用--以美国俄勒冈州Scenic Middle School和Crater Renaissance High School为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飘飘

    2015-01-01

    This thesis derives from the author's teaching practicum in America, and upon the basis of the current situations that arise in Chinese teaching there. Key to it was the collection and analysis the use of organic world language teaching meth-od in American Chinese class, and how it stimulates students in the class and how it improves teaching efficiency. It is hoped that this article can provide teaching practice and materials for the Chinese language teachers, which can help Chinese tea-ching development, and bring more discussion and practice of OWL teaching mode.%本文从笔者在美国的教学实践出发,在了解美国汉语教学现状的基础上,进一步重点分析了美国汉语课堂所运用的有机的世界语言教学法,以及使用此教学法如何更好地激发学生的学习兴趣,提高教学效率。希望通过本文,能为对外汉语教师提供教学实践的一些素材,为对外汉语在国内外的教学工作中提供有益的帮助,引发汉语教师对有机的世界语言教学法的教学模式进行深入的探讨与实践。

  11. 基于数字化人体的高精度器官模型3D打印初探%Application of 3D printing techniques in human organ models from Chinese Visible Human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖嵛; 谭立文; 向明滟; 王田; 王红; 张楠; 张绍祥

    2015-01-01

    目的 将数字化人体三维建模技术和计算机3D打印技术相结合,打印数字化人体器官模型.方法 以第三军医大学中国男性数字化人体数据集(Chinese Visible Human male dataset,CVH1)为基础,进行图像分割,对部分器官进行三维重建.利用青岛尤尼科技有限公司自主研发的UN-3D-S2型3D打印机打印3D模型,并完成抛光和着色.结果 应用3D打印技术打印出人体标本肝脏、耳蜗和脊柱等模型.模型与标本实体大小比例为1:1,解剖结构标志非常清楚,适用于外科手术方案制定.结论 本研究通过医学高校与国内企业合作,将具有我国自主知识产权的3D打印技术与中国数字化人体技术结合起来,打印出解剖学特征非常明显的人体器官模型,在个性化手术方案设计等方面具有广阔的应用前景.

  12. I Married a Chinese Woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEPHEN SAYERS

    1997-01-01

    He became known all over China because of his appearance on the national television competition "Foreigners Singing Chinese Songs."Dressed in traditional Chinese costume and accompanied by his Chinese wife,he Chinese Girl."In this article,Stephen Sayers tells about his marriage and his personal feelings during his five years in China,Stephen and his wife Candy just moved to Macao in July.In arecent letter he asked the editor to give the money for this article to the education-aiding"Hope project" and specified it for Guizhou.

  13. Statistical distribution of Chinese names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jin-Zhong; Chen Qing-Hua; Wang You-Gui

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the statistical characteristics of Chinese surnames,first names and full names based on a credible sample.The distribution of Chinese surnames,unlike that in any other countries,shows an exponential pattern in the top part and a power-law pattern in the tail part.The distributions of Chinese first names and full names have the characteristics of a power law with different exponents.Finally,the interrelation of the first name and the surname is demonstrated by using a computer simulation and an exhibition of the name network.Chinese people take the surname into account when they choose a first name for somebody.

  14. 武警部队参与抢险救灾组织指挥的程序和重点问题%Key points and procedures of organization and command of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force participating in rescue and disaster relief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何敬和; 郭季平; 王寻

    2016-01-01

    为实现抢险救灾行动的组织指挥能力的全面提升,需要具备高效快速的指挥机构和完善的信息化指挥网络,并加快构建灾情资源信息保障和支持系统,实行现场指挥和联合决策,做到快速反应、动态调控。笔者主要探讨了抢险救灾组织指挥程序的关键环节及组织指挥应该把握的重点问题,为全面提高武警部队遂行抢险救灾行动的组织指挥能力,建立健全信息化指挥网络和快速高效的指挥机构提供参考。%In order to achieve the goal of improving organization and command of disaster rescue and disaster relief, it’s essential to build up a highly efficient rapid commanding agency and perfect information network, and speed up the construction of disaster information resources and support system. The author mainly presented the key link and important points of organization and command, so as to comprehensively improve the competency of organization and command in rescue and disaster relief of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, establish and strengthen information command network and rapid and efficient commanding agency.

  15. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  16. Chinese Jiaotong Universities Presidents Delegation Visits Russia and Finland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Yang

    2014-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Russian St.Petersburg State Transport University and the Regional State Administrative Agency for Eastern Finland,the Chinese Jiao tong Universities Presidents Delegation,led by CPAFFC Secretary General Li Xikui,visited Russia and Finland,to attend the First Forum of Chinese and Russian Transport Universities’Presidents and hold exchanges with local governments and universities of Finland from May 19 to 26.The forum was jointly initiated and organized by the CPAFFC and

  17. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OS. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OS intellectual...

  18. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  19. The Chinese-Canadian news presses' coverage of Canada's recognition of the People's Republic of China and its effects on the Vancouver Chinese community, 1968-1972

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This research project examines the diverse and competing responses of Vancouver's Chinese community to Canada's diplomatic recognition of the People's Republic of China in 1970. It investigates the reasons and underlying forces that shaped the position of the proponents and opponents of recognition. Additionally, this project considers how the recognition debate or controversy relates to the historical development of overseas Chinese organizations and nationalism. Vancouver-based Chinatown Ne...

  20. 包容性发展:新兴社会组织建设路径探析--基于中国哲学的整体观视角%Inclusive Development:An Analysis on Construction Path of Emerging Social Organizations from Perspective of Holistic View of Chinese Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳

    2016-01-01

    Based on binary opposition, the civil society theory, the cooperation theory, and the governance theory advocating a holistic government can hardly describe and explain the complex situations of the social organizations of China. Originated from Chinese philosophy, the holistic theory possesses not only the holistic vision that transcends binary opposition, but the trait of inclusiveness that other theories don’t possess,namely, the unlimited ontological inclusiveness, the inclusiveness in implementation, and holistic harmony. This paper analyzes the current situation of China’s emerging social organization construction from the perspective of holistic view of Chinese philosophy with its focus on the issues including the excessive intervention from administrative power, the credibility crisis and the plight of transformation and development the organizations are confronted with. It also proposes that the key to resolving the issues lies in the inclusive and holistic view for handling the relationship between government and society. It contends that formulating a system that balances inclusiveness and governance, a mechanism that lays equal stress on support and supervision, a structure that promotes the harmonious interaction between social organizations and external environment can facilitate the construction of emerging social organizations.%建立在二元对立基础之上的“市民社会论”“合作主义论”以及“整体政府”治理理论都难以完备地描述和解释中国社会组织的复杂境况。源自中国哲学的整体观既有超越二元对立的整体性视野,又有本体的无限包容性、施化运行的包容性和整体的和谐性等其他理论所不具备的包容性特质。以中国哲学整体观的理论视角分析我国新兴社会组织的发展现状,针对其面临的行政力量的过度干预、公信力危机、转型发展的困境等问题,提出破解问题的关键在于以整体、包容的视

  1. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  2. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from

  3. Chinese private yards catch up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese shipbuilding industry was dominated by state-owned companies for a long time. In 2005, when a global shipbuilding summit was held in China for the first time, no Chinese private shipyards appeared except two national shipbuilders, namely COSCO and CSIC. However, in the same year, Rongsheng,Mingde and Hantong began their first step.

  4. The chinese health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese...

  5. Danish Chinese Center for Nanometals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    The Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The Chinese partners in the Center are Institute of Metal Research in Shenyang, Tsinghua University and Chongqing University. The Danish part...

  6. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  7. Why Do I Study Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Translator’s Note: The cross language year program-the Chinese Language Year in France and the French Language Year in China-initiated by Chinese and French leaders were held in 2011 and 2012 to promote cultural exchanges and further deepen the China-France comprehensive strategic partnership. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the CPAFFC and the

  8. Greenland and Chinese outbound investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Su, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    Chinese companies and their global partners. However, Chinese outbound investment faces many hurdles both at home and outside. This article analyzes some of the main aspects in relation to regulatory hurdles, political obstacles as well as environmental, labor and financial challenges primarily focusing...

  9. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  10. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  11. Chinese American Manpower and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Betty Lee

    A study of the economic characteristics and occupational status of the Chinese in the United States, based primarily on a special tabulation of the 1970 census, has resulted in a demographic profile of this bicultural and physically distinct ethnic group. Potential improvement and expansion of the occupational sphere of the Chinese is discussed in…

  12. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  13. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  14. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    As important providers of information, analysis of current events and debates, journalists are subject to high expectations regarding their professional values. Journalism is considered to be more than merely a career; it is construed as a profession that builds on personal commitment to serve...... society. This chapter is concerned with Chinese journalism students' self-perceptions and evaluations of journalistic performances in order to understand the professional values to which they adhere. The study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted in two periods in Spring 2011 and Fall...

  15. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    to study abroad, the article shows how personal, professional and even national goals are closely interwoven. Students expect education abroad to be a personally transformative experience, but rather than defining their goals of individual freedom and creativity in opposition to the authoritarian political......The article focuses on Chinese students' hopes and expectations before leaving to study abroad. The national political environment for their decision to go abroad is shaped by an official narrative of China's transition to a more creative and innovative economy. Students draw on this narrative...

  16. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chinese children are taller and heavier than ever before. According to a national survey from 1995, the average height of children aged 7-14 was 142.3 centimeters, 2 centimeters taller than the average height of children in the same age group ten years before. The average weight was 31.9 kilograms, which is 2.8 kilograms heavier than children of the same age group in 1985. Such improvements must be credited to the development of China’s health care network for children. By the end of last

  17. Chinese Vegetarian Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ONCE in a restaurant specializing in vegetarian food in Hubei Province, I saw some dishes on the menu which did not sound like vegetarian food, such as chicken, duck, fish and pork. Only after I ordered and tasted did I understand that these were all made of bean products. Simply speaking, the Chinese vegetarian diet is comprised of grains, vegetables, bean products and fruits. It also includes bamboo shoots, mushrooms, edible fungus, aquatic plants and dried fruit. This kind of diet boasts a long history. As early as the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) and the early Han

  18. CHINESE COMMUNITY IN ECUADOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARIA JOSE CIFUENTES CERVANTES

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Republic Of Ecuador is located in the west coast of South America.It has a total area of 256.370 km2 and a population of approximately 14 million.Spanish is considered as the official language.The country is subdivided into 24 provinces with the capital city being Quito and the other major city being Guayaquil.Since the year 2000 US Dollar had been the official currency.Approximately 50,000 people from China live now in Ecuador.Although the Chinese community in Ecuador is not as large as those in Brazil and Peru, it has a strong economic and social weight in the country.

  19. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Over 1.5 million women workers from 13,000 enterprises have joined the social coordinated system for child-bearing insurance funds in Zhejiang Province. The funds are paid by regular and contract workers and casual laborers from state-owned and collective enterprises and Chinese employees from joint ventures. The social labor insurance committees under the local governments at the city or county levels are in charge of the practical work for taking over the funds. The amounts of money each pays varies according to the different living standard and salary level in each area.

  20. Biodegradability of leachates from Chinese and German municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SELIC E.; WANG Chi; BOES N., HERBELL J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative composition of Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW) differs significantly from German waste. The focus of this paper is on whether these differences also lead to dissimilar qualities of leachates during storage or landfilling. Leachates ingredients determine the appropriate treatment technique. MSW compositions of the two cities Guilin (China) and Essen (Germany), each with approx. 600000 inhabitants, are used to simulate Chinese and German MSW types. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is used, combining aerobic and anaerobic reaction principles, to test the biodegradability of leachates. Leachates are tested for temperature, pH-value, redox potentials, and oxygen concentration. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) values are determined. Within 8 h, the biodegradation rates for both kinds of leachates are more than 90%. Due to the high organic content of Chinese waste, the degradation rate for Guilin MSW leachate is even higher, up to 97%. The effluent from SBR technique is suitable for direct discharge into bodies of water.

  1. Chinese Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-yue; Chen; Jun; Cheng; Fang-ling; Duan; Jian-gao; Fan; Xiao-ling; Fan; Li-min; Guo; Ming-zhou; Guo; Tao; Han; Jing-yuan; Liu; Xiong; Ma; Wei; Shen; Shi-guang; Feng; Xian-bo; Wang; Yun; Wu; Wen; Xie; Yao; Xie; Hui-chun; Xing; Ping-geYuan; Yong-ping; Yang; Fu-kui; Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy(HE)is a complex,neuropsychiatric abnormality that occurs as a consequence of metabolic disorders in patients with hepatic insufficiency.The pathogenesis is complex with a strong prognosticator of death.To standardize the clinical management of HE,relevant new data were reviewed and assessed by Chinese Committee of Experts on Hepatic Encephalopathy in China and was discussed and debated extensively.Then the consensus on the management of HE was developed.The final recommendations are based on the data available at the time of production of the document and may be updated with pertinent scientific developments at a later time.All the discussion was organized by the editorial board of Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Infectious Diseases(Electronic Edition),Chinese Journal of Liver Diseases(Electronic Edition)and Infection International(Electronic Edition).The evidence gradings in the consensus are listed in Table1.

  2. Investigation on the Organization of Open Access Resources in Chinese Public Libraries%我国公共图书馆揭示开放获取资源现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋静

    2014-01-01

    文章调查分析了我国62家公共图书馆对于开放获取资源的揭示情况,分析其成果及存在的问题,并提出了未来的发展策略。%The article investigates the organization of open access resources of 62 public libraries in China, then analyzes its achievements and problems, and puts forward some strategies for improving collection development using open access resources.

  3. 我国医疗卫生组织应用卓越绩效模式的实践与探讨%Study on the application of performance excellence model in Chinese med-ical and health organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑杰; 赵雪竹; 张金玉; 杨红; 王潇; 王志伟

    2014-01-01

    卓越绩效模式是一种组织综合绩效管理的有效方法和工具,在世界数十个国家和地区的数千家组织中得以应用并取得了良好效果,已成为追求卓越绩效表现的国际标准并被广泛认可。在医改中引入卓越绩效模式有助于改善医疗卫生体系绩效。本文介绍了卓越绩效模式的概念、独特性以及医疗卫生组织应用卓越绩效模式的意义,对卓越绩效模式在国内外医疗卫生组织中的应用情况进行比较分析。目前卓越绩效模式在国内医疗卫生组织的应用较少,卓越绩效模式还未能充分发挥其潜力。国内卓越绩效评审应进一步明确对医疗卫生组织的导向,加强制度保障和组织管理,促进卓越绩效模式在医疗卫生组织中的应用。%The performance excellence model is an effective method and tool for comprehensive performance manage-ment, which has been extremely successful in promoting performance excellence of thousands of organizations across many countries and regions around the world, it has truly become accepted as a global benchmark and worldwide stan-dard for performance excellence. Implementing the performance excellence model as part of healthcare reform can as-sist in transforming healthcare systems to achieve positive outcomes. This paper introduces the concept, uniqueness, application value and practical significance, application of performance excellence model in health care organizations at home and abroad. At present, the application of performance excellence model in the domestic health care organizations is insufficient, that is performance excellence model failed to reach its full potential. The appraisal about performance excellence model should definite the orientation of health care organizations, which is helpful to promote the advanced idea and the management method of performance excellence model.

  4. Chinese Negative Transfer in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红琴

    2009-01-01

    The nat ive language can help learn a foreign language, but foreign language learners const ant ly suffer negat ivet ransfer from t heir mot her language. We,as Chinese English learners in t he environment ,in t he English-Chinese t ranslat ion inChinese is oft en negat ive impact .The present paper probes int o t he essence of language t ransfer ,making a det ailed comparisonbet ween Chinese and English vocabulary in t erms of concept ual meaning,connot at ive meaning and idioms in order t o find out t hebasic principle of t ranslat ion which may help avoid negat ive t ransfer from Chinese.

  5. Thoughts on the World Conference on Women. A Chinese woman writes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, R

    1995-01-01

    Increasing social consciousness about human rights issues in China has, in turn, stimulated Chinese women's awareness of their individual rights. The Chinese government, however, has maintained tight control over the dissemination of feminist ideas and restricted media coverage of the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995. To discredit feminism, Chinese officials link it with sexual liberation, single motherhood, and lesbianism. Nonetheless, there is a new awareness that government statistics on the high rates of female employment conceal the reality that Chinese women are concentrated in low-paying, low-status occupations. In contrast to official propaganda, a United Nations Development Report ranked China 23rd in the world for women's participation in politics and the economy. In the course of preparing for the World Conference, a few nonofficial, grass-roots Chinese women's organizations were able to present their ideas.

  6. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  7. Perinatal outcomes in native Chinese and Chinese-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinghui; Zhang, Jun; Li, Zhu

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to compare perinatal outcomes in native Chinese, foreign-born and US-born Chinese-American women by analysing a cohort of 950,624 singleton pregnancies in south-east China and 293,849 singleton births from the US live and stillbirth certificates from 1995 to 2004. Only births at 28 weeks or later were included. Compared with US-born Chinese-American women, native Chinese and foreign-born Chinese-American women had substantially lower risks of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant (adjusted relative risk [aRR] ranging from 0.46 to 0.66) or preterm birth (aRR ranging from 0.53 to 0.82). While having a White or Black father had a reduced risk of SGA (aRR=0.45 and 0.62, respectively), it has an increased risk for preterm birth (aRR=1.13 and 1.57, respectively). Infants with Chinese father and foreign-born mother were heavier than those with Chinese father and US-born mothers. All findings were statistically significant. Our findings demonstrated the protective role of foreign-born status on low birthweight and preterm delivery. The paternal contribution to fetal size is substantial.

  8. An Iterative Algorithm to Build Chinese Language Models

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, X; Luo, Xiaoqiang; Roukos, Salim

    1996-01-01

    We present an iterative procedure to build a Chinese language model (LM). We segment Chinese text into words based on a word-based Chinese language model. However, the construction of a Chinese LM itself requires word boundaries. To get out of the chicken-and-egg problem, we propose an iterative procedure that alternates two operations: segmenting text into words and building an LM. Starting with an initial segmented corpus and an LM based upon it, we use a Viterbi-liek algorithm to segment another set of data. Then, we build an LM based on the second set and use the resulting LM to segment again the first corpus. The alternating procedure provides a self-organized way for the segmenter to detect automatically unseen words and correct segmentation errors. Our preliminary experiment shows that the alternating procedure not only improves the accuracy of our segmentation, but discovers unseen words surprisingly well. The resulting word-based LM has a perplexity of 188 for a general Chinese corpus.

  9. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  10. On the Ownership Structure and Business Organization of Chinese Culture IndustryA Case Study on Mountain Mian in Shanxi%论中国文化产业的产权配置与企业组织——以山西绵山为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世海

    2011-01-01

    在未来的中国,文化产业将会成为一个重要的产业门类,在国民经济中所占的比重将会越来越大。发展文化产业需要大量的社会资源。由于这些资源在产权方面多具有公共属性,因此,必须首先对它们的产权进行合理配置。在清晰的产权之下,企业需要建立完善而高效的组织,推出高质量的产品和服务,并进行营销。在产权配置与企业组织方面,山西的绵山是一个成功的案例,它对中国的文化产业具有深远的启示意义。%In future China, Culture Industry will become an important industrial sector, and the portion of cultural industry will become greater in national economy. To develop culture industry need much social resources, as most of these resources have public ownership, so the property rights must have rational disposition. After clearly establishing the ownership, the business must establish perfect and efficient organization, produce high quality products and service, and then market them. On the ownership structure and business organization, Mountain Mian in Shanxi is a successful case, which has profound implication to Chinese culture industry.

  11. 英汉商业文章(2008-2009年)中“经济是人”有机体隐喻的研究%Study of "Economy Is a Person" Organism Metaphor in English and Chinese Business Articles (dated 2008-2009)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳

    2012-01-01

      The rapid development of economy has aroused great interests of many distinguished scholars to apply contemporary cognitive theory to a specific genre named economic discourse. And diverse metaphorical expressions in business discourse are mainly from the five conceptual metaphors, i.e. business is a journey, business is a war, business is a game, business is a machine and business is an organism. Therefore, the thesis is aimed to focus on the organism metaphor to make an in-dept comparative study both in English and Chinese of its sub-categories: Economy Is a Person. By the comparative study, the paper is intended to figure out the similarities and differences of "Economy Is a Person" metaphors between these two languages and to reveal the underlying reasons-cognitive universality and cognitive diversity.%  经济的发展引起了许多著名的学者对当代认知理论的广泛关注,他们把研究延伸到了经济方面。经济语篇中不同的隐喻表达主要由以下五个概念隐喻引申而来:经济是旅程、经济是战争、经济是游戏、经济是机器以及经济是有机体。本文主要对英汉有机体隐喻的一个分支展开深入的调查和对比研究:经济是人。通过对比研究,旨在指出英汉“经济是人”有机体隐喻的异同,揭示导致这一异同的原因:认知的普遍性和差异性

  12. The Effect of Multi-media Advance Organizers on Chinese College Students’ESP Reading Comprehension%多媒体阅读前导对中国学生ESP阅读理解水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申昭华

    2014-01-01

    Based on the perspective of the schema theory and modern education technology, this paper uses the method of ran⁃dom experiment to measure how the two advance organizers of the multi-media“speaking, listening and viewing”and“Text type”influence students’ESP reading comprehension. The result illustrates: 1) the advance organizers of“speaking, listening and viewing”and“Text type”can not only make up the adverse effect on the reading comprehension due to the default of profession⁃al background knowledge but also help students establish the conceptual framework of ESP reading comprehension and improve students’reading comprehension on professional literatures;2) the advance organizer of“speaking, listening and viewing”is supe⁃rior to“Text type”at effects of ESP reading comprehension.%文章基于图式理论和现代教育技术相结合的视角,采取随机试验设计方法,考察多媒体“视听说型”和“文本型”课件两种阅读前导对学生ESP专业文献阅读理解水平的影响。实验结果显示:1)“视听说型”和“文本型”阅读前导不仅能弥补专业背景知识缺省对阅读理解造成的不利影响,而且能帮助学生建立ESP阅读理解的概念框架,提高学生的专业文献阅读理解水平;2)在提高ESP阅读理解效果方面“视听说型”阅读前导显著地优于“文本型”阅读前导。

  13. Genetic Algorithm for Chinese Postman Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hua; Kang Li-shan

    2003-01-01

    Chinese Postman Problem is an unsettled graphic problem. It was approached seldom by evolutionary computation. Now we use genetic algorithm to solve Chinese Postman Problem in undirected graph and get good results. It could be extended to solve Chinese postman problem in directed graph. We make these efforts for exploring in optimizing the mixed Chinese postman problem.

  14. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment beh

  15. Multicultural Awareness for the Classroom: The Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Felix Mario; And Others

    This guide provides the teacher of multiethnic students with information and teaching resources on Chinese. An historical overview of China and the Chinese experience in America is presented in English and Chinese. Several lesson plans and classroom activities reviewing Chinese geography, holidays, legends, and stories are presented. (APM)

  16. What Should American-Born Chinese Children Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shirley

    This paper discusses the teaching of Chinese to both students with Chinese background and students with non-Chinese background. It is suggested that students with a Chinese background be separated from those without a Chinese background in order not to discourage the latter group from studying Chinese. Chinese background students should be taught…

  17. The Profound and Extensive Chinese Tea Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航

    2014-01-01

    Anyone who knows a little bit about Chinese culture usualy knows about Chinese tea culture.Chinese tea culture has a history of more than 4,000 years and stil emerges fresh and vigorous from the test of history. Chinese tea culture has played an important and indispensable role in Chinese culture. The extensiveness and profoundness of Chinese tea culture is unpaneled. Its importance to Chinese people is noticeable. Tea has surprising functions: it can not only refresh the body but also the mind. Tea is prevalent in and out of China and is loved by people throughout the world.

  18. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  19. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  20. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Immunohistochemistry of Harder's Glands of Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ping; GAO Guisheng; SHI Qiumei; LI Min

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of action of Chinese herbal medicine, the immunocells of Harder's glands were observed.The healthy Hy-Line Brown chickens of 12-day-old were divided into three groups randomly. The chickens in group 1 and 2 drank the water with 0.5% and 1% Chinese herbal medicine immunopromoter every day. The chickens in group 3 as control drank pure water. The Harder's glands of the chickens from 0.5% group, 1% group and control group at 24, 36 and 48 d after drinking medicine respectively were made into histological section. And then the histological sections were observed histologically. The results showed that Chinese herbal medicine could increase the quantity of the immunocells in glandular organs conspicuously. Immunopotentiator of Chinese herbal medicine could promote the amount and growth of secreted immunoglobuline and elevate the immune level of the organism, and the effect of 1% group was higher than that of 0.5% group.

  1. The Analysis of the Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓慧

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of pragmatic studies, politeness has aroused great interest among Chinese scholars. Different cultures have different traditions and values, which bring out different understanding and application of politeness strategies. Great Chinese culture brings out the complicated Chinese politeness scale. A successful communication depends on politeness principle. Learning the Chinese politeness scale will make we know more about the Chinese culture. By researching this, we will perform better in communication.

  2. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  3. Clinical Features of Chinese of Chinese Patients with Fuchs' Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peizeng Yang,; Haoli Jin,; Bing Li,; Xuan Chen,; Kijlstra, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the clinical features of Chinese patients with Fuchs' syndrome. Design: Retrospective noncomparative case series. Participants: One hundred eighteen eyes of 104 consecutive patients with Fuchs' syndrome initially examined between January 1999 and March 2005. Methods: The his

  4. Overview of beverages with anti-aging functions in Chinese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Song, Jie; Liang, Ming; Ma, Fangli; Mao, Xinliang; Ma, Chung Wah; Zhang, Wanwan; Huang, Zebo

    2014-04-01

    Anti-aging Chinese medicines have been used in traditional beverages to promote health and prevent diseases. Interestingly, these functional beverages may be used differently between men and women, reflecting the "yin-yang" philosophy of Chinese medicine. Modern studies have revealed that some dietary natural products can slow aging in model organisms, and functional beverages containing such products have recently emerged in Chinese market, challenging the dominance of traditional functional beverages. Here we summarize both traditional anti-aging herbs and modern natural dietary compounds currently used in functional beverages in China, and also briefly outline the underlying mechanisms of the beverages in slowing aging process.

  5. [Current situation of toxicity classification of Chinese materia medica and its research thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenyan; Hou, Xiujuan; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Yuelan; Zhang, Shuofeng; Chang, Hongsheng; Sun, Jianning

    2012-08-01

    Toxicity of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is an important part of Chinese herbal nature theory. In clinical application, the dosage, time limitation and compatibility of CMM is mainly determined by toxicity. At present, there is no uniform toxicity classification standard for the evaluation of Chinese herbal toxicity. Therefore, it is significant to research toxicity classification of CMM. The current situation of toxicity classification of CMM is reviewed in this paper, and proposed research thoughts are as follows: the measurement of toxicity parameters, the confirmation of poisoning target organs, the investigation on toxic mechanism by serum pharmacology and toxicokinetics, the comprehensive evaluation on toxicity based on quantitative theory.

  6. Chinese Expert Consensus for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cholestatic Liver Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Cholestatic liver disease (CLD) is a common problem in clinical practice with the main manifestation being cholestasis.Recently,there has been a steady increase in knowledge associated with the diagnosis and treatment of CLD.Therefore,the experts in China were organized by the editorial board of Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Infectious Diseases (Electronic Edition),Chinese Journal of Liver Diseases (Electronic Edition) and Infection International (Electronic Edition) to collect and analyze relevant research,ultimately resulting in the development of this work (Chinese Expert consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of CLDs,also abbreviated as consensus).

  7. Concentrations and Fluxes of Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Soil Percolating Water of Chinese Fir Plantation%杉木林土壤渗滤水溶解有机碳含量与迁移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞元春; 何晟; Wang G.Geoff; 李淑芬

    2006-01-01

    森林是陆地生态系统中最重要的碳库,森林土壤中的碳占全球土壤有机碳的73%,在全球碳循环中起着重要作用(David et a1.,1988)。溶解有机碳(dissolved organic carbon,简称DOC)虽然仅占有机碳的很小部分,但对调节阳离子淋洗、金属溶解、矿物风化、土壤微生物活动以及其他土壤化学、物理和生物学过程具有重要意义。DOC是土壤活性物质,容易被土壤微生物分解,在提供森林土壤养分方面发挥着重要作用(Dosskey et al.,1997);DOC在水中可溶,对森林土壤生态系统中元素的迁移及铝毒性有深刻影响。

  8. TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930433 A study on relationship between hy-pothyroidism and deficiency of kidney YANG.ZHA Lianglun(查良伦),et al.lnstit Integr TCM& West Med,Shanghai Med Univ,Shanghai,200040.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 1993;13(4):202—204.Thirty—two cases of hypothyroidism causedby various factors were treated for one year withChinese medicinal herbs preparation“Shen Lutablet”(SLT)to warm and reinforce the KidneyYang.34 normal persons were studied as a con-trol group.After treatment with SLT,the clini-cal symptoms of hypothyroidism were markedlyimproved.Average serum concentration of totalT3,T4 increased significantly from 67.06±4.81

  9. Structure of Chinese algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Jaszunska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the algebra K[M] of the Chinese monoid M over a field K is studied. The minimal prime ideals are described. They are determined by certain homogeneous congruences on M and they are in a one to one correspondence with diagrams of certain special type. There are finitely many such ideals. It is also shown that the prime radical B(K[M]) of K[M] coincides with the Jacobson radical and the monoid M embeds into the algebra K[M]/B(K[M]). A new representation of M as a submonoid of the direct product of finitely many copies of the bicyclic monoid and finitely many copies of the infinite cyclic monoid is derived. Consequently, M satisfies a nontrivial identity.

  10. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Dr. Zhao Honored Dr. Zhao Xuefang is in charge of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of the Changzhi City People’s Hospital in Shanxi Province. On April 23, 1994, she received from the hands of Qian Zhengying, Vice-Chairman of Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, the first Norman Bethune Medal, granted by the Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of Labor and Personnel. Since Dr. Zhao began working in the medical field in 1963, she has continued to improve her techniques. After more than 30 years in medicine, she has treated thousands of patients without incident. Though Dr. Zhao has been diagnosed with cancer and has had two operations, she has continued to heal the wounded and rescue the dying. Her only wish is to relieve the pain of more patients as long as she can. —China Women’s News

  11. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Beijing Celebrates 10th Anniversary of the CWJA On March 20, more than 200 female journalists gathered in Beijing together to celebrate the 10th Anniversary of the Capital Women Journalists’ Association. The celebration, ended with the establishment of a women’s media supervision network. Since its founding in March 1986, the CWJA has accomplished a great deal in uniting as many female journalists as possible. The association has made great strides in developing socialist journalism, promoting exchanges between Chinese and foreign female journalists, reporting on the achievements of women from all walks of life, and safeguarding the legal rights of women. The CWJA membership has grown from the original 5,000 women from 60 media units, to the current total of more than 7,000 from nearly 100 media units.

  12. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Study on the Application of Mass Media and English Han cui xia (ShanDong BinZhou medical college ShanDong YanTai 264003)Read and Write Periodica,vol.9, No.5,16,2012(ISSN1672-1578,in,Chinese ) Abstract: Rapid technological development of mass media and Internt chances of improvement. This paper analyzes the present situation of adult teaching and learning of English and the application of mass media and Internet in it in the hope of changing the present situation and improving the effect in order for adult learners to benefit more from it.. Key words: mass media; Internet; adult education; teaching and learning of English

  13. Enabling Intrapreneurship : A Case of A Chinese Family Business and SMEs in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Woan Tyng

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct an exploratory study into the intrapreneurial behavior in southeast Chinese family business firms. This is very much in response to the fact that current available literatures in corporate entrepreneurship are mainly focused on western well-established organizations. Whereas, the study of corporate entrepreneurship in Chinese family business context are still lacking.This study target discloses whether the enablers of corporate entrepreneurship, which...

  14. Review of History and Recent Development of Organic Farming Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The history of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed in this paper. The development of the organic farming worldwide had gone through three stages, emergence, expansion, and growth. The contributors and their thoughts during the different development stages of the organic farming were briefly introduced. And the development status of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed from the aspects of land area under organic management, land area under organic management in percentage of total agricultural area, and world markets for organic products. Besides, the main existing problems for the further development of the world's organic farming, as well as the development status, problems and strategies of the Chinese organic farming were discussed.

  15. Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  16. [Cataplasma of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Gao, Wen-yuan; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yun-bin; Xue, Jing; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2003-01-01

    The TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) transdermal plaster (also known as "cataplasma") are flexible adhesive patches used for treatment of pain, resulted from arthritis, sprain and bruise, tendovaginitis, lumbar spine protrude, neuralgia, hyperosteogeny ache, abdominal discomfort and metastatic cancer, etc. Since the 1980's, investigators in China have used this modern patch delivery system for herbal drugs and obtained satisfactory results especially from the treatment of various types of pain associated with bone diseases, abdominal discomfort, and tumors, etc. The production of TCM cataplasma was successfully scaled up in early 90's and the commercial product line for an antirheumatic agent was first established in Shanghai by Leiyunshang Group. Thus far, a number of products in the form of TCM cataplasma became commercially available in the market, and clinical investigations with these products indicated that topically applicable herbal preparations, especially in the form of cataplasma, are preferred formulations with respect to the treatment comfort of the patient. Compared to the traditional preparations which utilize rubber and rosin as adhesives, cataplasma is advantageous in that the lipophilic and hydrophilic ingredients of the herbal extracts are solubilized and then "gellified" with the organic polymers, and that the drug matrix containing up to 40%-70% of water serves as a "drug reservoir" that will sustain the quick and continuous release of herbal ingredients over several days across the skin. While there are conventional remedies for palliation of pain and discomfort associated with bone diseases or cancers, administration of oral medicinal herbs combined with topical agents such as TCM cataplasma may significantly alleviate the symptoms and improve their quality of life. This article provides a review on three aspects, which include the process development, characteristics and developmental status of TCM cataplasma, and future development of

  17. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives.

  18. Chinese culture approached through touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Champion, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Can recent technology help bridge cultures through playful interaction appropriate to traditional tacit means of acquiring knowledge? In order to help answer this question, we designed four Adobe Flash-based based game prototypes and evaluated them via a touch-screen PC. The goal was to offer non......Chinese participants a playful way of experiencing aspects of traditional Chinese culture. The four single-player games were based on the four arts of China (music, calligraphy, painting and the game of Go!). In the evaluation we asked non-Chinese and the Chinese participants to evaluate the games in terms of learning......, fun, and cultural authenticity. While this form of tangible computing proved engaging, it raises technical issues of how to convey appropriately the interactive elements without the help of the evaluator, and how to evaluate user satisfaction. We also briefly discuss more embodied and spatial...

  19. Soundscape of classical Chinese garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With deep humanized connotation,the classical Chinese garden uses human intuitive sensation and personal poetic observation to express natural sound phenomena.It differs from the rational modern soundscape in western countries.

  20. Tone features in whispered Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xueli; XU Boling

    2005-01-01

    Study on the whispered tone is important to speech recognition and conversion in whispered Chinese. In this paper, the characteristics of whispered speech are introduced and the tone features in whispered Chinese are discussed. There is no fundamental frequency in the whispered speech, so other features, such as the amplitude envelope, duration, glottal area, lip area, forrnant, and vocal tract length, are extracted and their contributions to the automatic tone recognition are compared. From the experiments with six simple Chinese whispered vowels in four tones, it is proved that loudness-weighted 32 Mel-frequency bands log-amplitude envelopes and duration can be used as the main tone features in the whispered Chinese tone recognition. The average tone recognition rate approaches that of the human perception level.

  1. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  2. A Model of Chinese Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    At a national conference at the end of May,the Chinese Government said partnership assistance in the past year had boosted development in northwestern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region remarkably and called for greater support.Since March2010,

  3. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  4. Chinese Women’s College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Chinese Women’s College is located in Yuhuidong Road, in northeast Beijing. The name of the college was written by Jiang Zemin, President of the People’s Republic of China in August 1995 to honor the school.

  5. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of World Health Organization Quality of Life-Disability Scales for physical disability%世界卫生组织残疾人生存质量量表一般残疾版本中文版的信效度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琪; 郑巧兰; 梁左宜; 陈新林; 方积乾; 陶健婷; 阮剑华; 艾秋香; 郝元涛

    2012-01-01

    目的:检验世界卫生组织残疾人生存质量量表一般残疾版本(WHOQOL-DIS Scales for PD)中文版的可接受性、信度和效度,以便用于中国残疾人的生存质量的研究.方法:采用多阶段分层随机抽样的方法,从广州市抽取一般残疾人(除智力残疾的其他残疾人)807名.间隔1周后,对自愿进行重复调查的109人进行重测.对量表进行可接受性、信度和效度检验,并以生活满意度量表(SWLS)为校标.结果:量表回收率为99.2%,除了性生活满意度条目缺失率为35.7%,其余条目的缺失率均小于5.0%.量表5个领域的Cronbach α系数为0.77 ~0.84;间隔1周后重测ICC为0.82 ~0.91.量表条目与所属领域得分的秩相关系数为0.30 ~0.84,高于与其他领域的相关性;验证性因子分析显示量表的拟合较好(x2=2405.57,df=569,RMSEA=0.06,GFI=0.85,CFI=0.87);量表5个领域得分与SWLS得分呈正相关(r=0.15~0.45,均P<0.05).结论:世界卫生组织残疾人生存质量量表一般残疾版本中文版具有较好的可接受性、信度和效度,可用于中国残疾人生存质量的研究.%Objective: To examine the acceptability, reliability and validity of the Chinese version of World Health Organization Quality of Life-Disability Scales for physical disability (WHOQOL-DIS Scales for PD) for the study of quality of life of Chinese with disability. Methods: A sample of 807 persons with physical disability (per-sons with disability except for those with intellectual disability) in Guangzhou was recruited through multi-stage sampling method, 109 of them were volunteered to be retested one week later. The scales were accessed with accessibility and reliability as well as validity. Also the Satisfaction with Life Scale was used as the criteria to exam the criteria validity. Results: The response rate of WHOQOL-DIS Scales for PD was 99. 2% , missing item rate was less than 5. 0% except for the item about sexual life with missing rate

  6. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  7. Research on Chinese Agricultural Industrialization Based on SCP Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking the SCP mode of industrial organization theory as the starting point,the paper analyzes Chinese agricultural market structure,market conduct and conduct performance and draws lessons from foreign experiences in developing agriculture.In the process of agricultural industrialization,Chinese agricultural development exists the problems of low intensive degree,low degree of differential products,surplus labor forces,low agricultural profit rate and low industrial contribution rate and farmers’ difficultly in adapting to market competition.The paper puts forward suggestions for addressing the problems,which include underpinning the cooperation of operation main bodies and developing rural cooperative organizations;promoting land transfer and clarifying land property;accelerating rural surplus labors transfer and abating trade barriers;increasing technology input and improving the contribution rate of technologies;improving circulation channels and intensifying agricultural competitiveness.

  8. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  9. Chinese Loan Words in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜战莹

    2015-01-01

    English language is the most common working language.In the history of its development,English has widened its vocabulary by borrowing.Borrowing plays an important role in the formation of modern English.Chinese loan words are a part in the family of all the loan words.Therefore,the number of loan words which originate from Chinese is not that great,but they hold an important role in contemporary English.

  10. English and Chinese language ambiguity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海

    2009-01-01

    This article from the Voice of Ambiguity,Lexical Ambiguity and Ambiguity in the three aspects of the grammatical structure of English and Chinese languages are compared ambiguity And analysis.Ambiguity in English and Chinese language through the comparison,resulted in two languages to explore the reasons for ambiguity;analysis of the characteristics of English language ambiguities;Research Should not be some ambiguity on how to avoid the emergence of the phenomenon.

  11. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    LI J

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  12. 美国集团采购组织分析及对我国药品采购的启示%Analysis on the group purchasing organizations in the United States and its implications for Chinese drug procurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵蓉; 谢金平; 蒋蓉

    2014-01-01

    本文采用文献研究法,详细地分析了美国集团采购组织的基本特质及其对医疗卫生体制的影响。主要内容包括集团采购组织在美国的发展历程、组织类型、基本职能、采购药品的流程及其主要费用来源,集团采购组织的特点及对医院、供应商、监管机构产生的影响。研究认为,集团采购组织为美国医疗保健提供方节约了大量成本,在医疗供应链中发挥着重要作用。建议创新与完善我国药品采购制度应更大范围、更深程度地引入市场机制,妥善协调政府与市场在药品采购中的作用;并科学设置评标方法,兼顾药品质量与价格要素,注重采购的经济实用性。%In this paper, basic characteristics of group purchasing organizations ( GPOs) and its implications for US health care system are analyzed using a literature research method. The main contents include the development process, type, basic functions, drug procurement processes, fee sources, characteristics and influence for the hospi-tals, supplies, regulators of GPOs. We suggest that GPOs have helped US health care providers save a lot of money and played an important role in the healthcare supply chain. We also suggest that market mechanisms should be intro-duced widely concerning the model innovation and improvement of domestic drug procurement. At the same time, government and the market should be coordinated properly. Moreover, scientific evaluation methods should be set in consideration of drug quality, prices and its economic practicality.

  13. Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ:a meta-analysis%强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓珍; 李永刚; 林川; 黄海溶

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价强力霉素联合中药治疗女性支原体感染的疗效及安全性。方法通过检索1966年—2014年3月期间中英文数据库,运用Endnote软件筛选相关随机对照试验(randomized controlled trial,RCT)研究。采用RevMan5.2软件进行Meta分析。结果共纳入13项RCT,1107例患者,其中7项强力霉素联合口服中药,6项强力霉素联合外用中药。根据给药方式进行亚组分析,强力霉素联合口服中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01);强力霉素联合外用中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01)。强力霉素联合中药组不良反应发生率是单用强力霉素组的0.68倍(95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03)。结论强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染有一定疗效,但受纳入研究质量和样本量的限制,以上结论需更多高质量研究予以验证。%Objectives This study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. Methods Literatures from Chinese and English databases published between 1966 and March of 2014 were screened for relevant randomized controlled trials(RCTs).The software package of Review Manager 5.2(Cochrane Collaboration) was used for data analysis.Results 13 RCTs involving 930 patients were included in the study. Doxycycline plus oral TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate (P<0.01)and Cure rate (P<0.01)for the studies;Doxycycline plus external TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate(P<0.01)and Cure rate(P<0.01)for the studies. In addition,Doxycycline plus TCM was inferior to Doxycycline alone in terms of adverse effects rate (RR=0.68,95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03).Conclusion Doxycycline combined with TCM was effective in treating mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ

  14. Effect of extracts of Chinese pine on its own seed germination and seedling growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiqiu ZHU; Changming MA; Ying WANG; Lili ZHANG; Hui WANG; Yuxin YUAN; Kejiu DU

    2009-01-01

    The allelopathic potential of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) against its own seed germination and seedling growth was tested with aqueous extracts (0.01, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.10 g·mL-1) obtained from different organs (roots and litter needles) at different individual ages (12, 52, and 110 years old). The results showed that root and litter extracts had different effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and the effects varied with the concentrations, the organs, and the tree age of extracts. The strongest stimulatory effect on seed germination of Chinese pine was exposed to 0.02g·mL-1 root extract from the 110 years old Chinese pine trees and exposed to 0.02 g·mL-1 litter extract from the 12 years old Chinese pine trees. Meanwhile, the strongest stimulatory effect on growth of Chinese pine seedlings was exposed not only to 0.01 g·mL-1 root extracts from the 110 years old Chinese pine but also to 0.01 g·mL-1 litter extract from the 12 years old Chinese pine. The promoting effect of the extracts of root on seed germination and seedling growth increased in the order of 12, 52, and 110 years old. The promoting effect of the extracts of litter on seed germination and seedling growth increased in the order of 110, 52, and 12 years old. Our results suggested that litter leachates or root exudates of Chinese pine may influence the natural regeneration within Chinese pine stands via the release of allelochemicals into the environment.

  15. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive Warm-up in Jiang Hua (Department of Foreign Language, Modern College of Northwest University, Xi'an 710130, China)Read and Write Perodica,vol.9,No.10,10,2012 (ISSN1672 -1578,in, Chinese) Abstract: Classroom teaching activities should be an interactive process, which includes not only interaction between teachers and students but also includes the interaction between students and learning materials and the interaction between students and design activities in class. These interaction processes will directly affect the students learning interest and the effect. So classroom interactions are very important. But how to present these interactions well and make them educational in the classroom is a question which needs considered carefully by teachers. Because of the warm-up is the key part for teachers to introduce the whole unit and stimulate the interests of students, this article mainly discusses the warming-up part of college English teaching, to improve the classroom interactions, and stimulate the students' study enthusiasm and the initiative. Key words: Interaction; Educational; Warm-up

  16. Critical Success Factors for Electronic Commerce in Chinese Electronic Information Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Critical success factors (CSF) for electronic commerce (EC) are important for enterprises.This research discusses both assessment indicators and impact factors for EC success to help Chinese enterprises to achieve successful EC implementations. On the basis of literature review and experts survey, the research suggests some assessment indicators and impact factors for EC success. A hypothesis is proposed that leadership, strategy, management, organization, technology, customers,and suppliers factors would affect EC success. Furthermore, the research conducts an empirical study on the Chinese Electronic Information Industry to verify the hypothesis. Using factor analysis and regression analysis, the research finds out several critical factors--leadership, strategy, and organization--and critical sub-factors, such as leadership belief and organization management. These findings indicate the usefulness of this research model, especially for Chinese enterprises.

  17. An Analysis of Chinese Search Engine Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Tao; Wallach, Dan S

    2011-01-01

    The imposition of government mandates upon Internet search engine operation is a growing area of interest for both computer science and public policy. Users of these search engines often observe evidence of censorship, but the government policies that impose this censorship are not generally public. To better understand these policies, we conducted a set of experiments on major search engines employed by Internet users in China, issuing queries against a variety of different words: some neutral, some with names of important people, some political, and some pornographic. We conducted these queries, in Chinese, against Baidu, Google (including google.cn, before it was terminated), Yahoo!, and Bing. We found remarkably aggressive filtering of pornographic terms, in some cases causing non-pornographic terms which use common characters to also be filtered. We also found that names of prominent activists and organizers as well as top political and military leaders, were also filtered in whole or in part. In some ca...

  18. Private international Law in Chinese Courts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jin; DU Huanfang

    2006-01-01

    After the entry of China into World Trade Organization,there are problems such as jurisdiction,application of law,and judicial assistance,which need to be resolved step by step in judicial practice on foreign-related civil and commercial matters.As for private and international law problems in the Chinese courts,this paper analyses some general issues,including renovi,inter-temporal conflicts,and proof of foreign laws;reviews jurisdiction problems,for example,common jurisdiction versus special jurisdiction,selective jurisdiction versus presumptive jurisdiction and exclusive jurisdiction;discusses the choice of law problems such as the principle of party autonomy,the principle of the most significant judgment and international commercial arbitral award.

  19. Talk on Chinese brand name translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文文

    2009-01-01

    A brand is shown by a name , a word , a sign , a symbol , a design or a combination of them. Brand-naming itself represents a strategically important issue and may determine the success or failure of a product.Along with the globalization of world economy, especially with China's entry into the World Trade Organization, more and more Chinese have realized the importance of good brand names and international brand names in promoting sales and cultivating markets. The essay attempts to make some study on the topic. In the first part, the essay talks about cultural difference. In the second part, it suggests some appropriate principles to guide the translation. In the third part, the essay provides some flexibly used methods to deal with the problems in translation.

  20. State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry (SKLAOC) was founded in 1987 with the approval of the State Planning Commission. Professor Liu Zhongli is the director of the Laboratory and Professor Zhang Lihe, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is the chairman of its academic committee. There are 30 faculty members, among them 21 are professors, working in the Laboratory.

  1. Use frequency of traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yu-Chun

    2007-02-01

    system and sense organs, circulatory and endocrine system; nutritional and metabolic diseases; and immunological disorders. Conclusion TCM was popular among the Chinese population in Taiwan during the period studied. More than 60% of all subjects had used TCM during the 6-year interval. TCM was widely used by the Chinese population to treat problems and diseases of major human organ systems recognised by western medicine. This study provides information about the use frequencies of TCM and the disease categories treated by TCM, which should be useful for health policy makers and for those considering the integration of TCM and Western medicine.

  2. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  3. Individualized and Depoliticized: A Study of Chinese Blogosphere in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Soon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on new media such as blogs examines users’ motivations and gratifications, and how individuals and organizations use them for political participation. In Singapore, political blogs have attracted much public scrutiny due to the bloggers’ online and offline challenges of official discourse. While previous research has established the political significance of these blogs, extant scholarship is limited to blogs written in the English language. Little is known about blogs maintained by the Chinese community, the largest ethnic group in multi-racial Singapore. This study is a first to examine this community and the space they inhabit online. Through web crawling, we identified 201 Chinese-language blogs and through content analysis, we analyzed if Chinese bloggers contributed to public debates and used their blogs for civic engagement. Their content, motivations for blogging in the language, hyperlinking practices and use of badges indicated that Chinese bloggers in Singapore do not use blogs for political participation and mobilization, but are individualized and a-politicized. We discuss possible reasons and implications in this paper.

  4. Chinese Marine Materia Medica Resources: Status and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Mei Fu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties, compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development.

  5. Traditional Chinese materia medica: a retrospect and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lu Bay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available For thousands of years, traditional medicine and remedies have been practed and used in the fight against disease in China. They have proved to be valuable and the distillate of vast historical experience based on field-tested human experiments, long-term observations and clinical trials. The Chinese people belive that traditional medicine is consistent with theirown culture. Endowed with a unique theoretical system and provided outstanding clinical results, traditional Chinese medicine continues to play an important role in helping the Chinese nation flourish. The recent study of traditional medicinal plants in Chine has given us confidence that what was recorded in ancient medical literature through empirical observations is indeed still coindicent with the concepts of modern chemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The task of revealing what is valid and efficacious should be retained, and what is mythic and invalid should be discarded in traditional Chinese medicine may require scientific research lasting for several generations. Therfore, multidisciplinary cooperation and international collaboration in this field would be essential. Systematic coordination of work in traditional medicine by word organizations, national governments, private foundations and individual scientists is a requisite as well.

  6. Chinese Marine Materia Medica Resources: Status and Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Hong; Dai, Gui-Lin; Chen, Qian-Wen; Kong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-03-03

    Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM) is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties), compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development.

  7. Germany Readies For Chinese IPOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TARA; TAO

    2007-01-01

    Even the freezing cold of a Beijing winter could not stop Duke Alexander’s China visit last December. As the IPo divisional director of Deutsche Boerse AG, Alexander visited China five times in six months, with the aim of helping the first Chinese enter-prises in history to launch their IPOs on Deutsche Boerse AG. He revealed that “in the first quarter of 2007, the first Chinese enterprise will trade on the Deutsche Boerse AG.”Deutsche Boerse AG’s IPO seminar, held in Beijing, attracted many Chinese entrepreneurs looking into listing their companies in Germany. The vice president of a Beijing investment company said that his company was considering an IPO through either the London AIM or Deutsche Boerse AG. “Deutsche Boerse AG’ sfee for launching an IPO is 20 percent lower than that of AIM, but also involves addressing the requirement that the company must be estab-lished in Germany,” he said. The businessman said he was still undecided on the final destination of his company’s IPO launch. Why have there been no Chinese IPOs on the Deutsche Boerse AG in the past?Why would a Chinese enterprise want to list on the Deutsche Boerse AG? What strategies has Deutsche Boerse AG implemented to compete with other prestigious global stock exchanges? We explored these questions in an exclusive interview with Alexander.

  8. The Chinese-American Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, S.H.

    1990-05-01

    The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Oscar Montelius and Chinese Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, the world-famous Swedish archaeologist, had a key role in the development of modern scientific Chinese archaeology and the discovery of China’s prehistory. We know that one of his major works, Die Methode, the first volume of his Älteren kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, translated into Chinese in the 1930s, had considerable influence on generations of Chinese archaeologists and art historians. What has previously remained unknown, is that Montelius personally promoted the research undertaken in China by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960, whose discoveries of Neolithic cultures in the 1920s constituted the breakthrough and starting point for the development of prehistoric archaeology in China. In this paper, we reproduce, translate and discuss a long forgotten memorandum written by Montelius in 1920 in support of Andersson’s research. In this Montelius indicated his belief in the potential of prehistoric Chinese archaeology as well as his predictions regarding the discoveries about to be made. It is therefore an important document for the study of the history of Chinese archaeology as a whole.

  10. The Meaning of "Being Chinese" and "Being American." Variation among Chinese American Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how meanings of being Chinese and being American varied among young adults, examining orientations to Chinese and American cultures and noting cultural domains upon which being Chinese and being American were based. Surveys of Chinese American college students who were American-born or immigrants indicated that the meanings attached…

  11. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  12. Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

  13. Traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    @@ Further progress has been made in the traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer over the past few years, especially in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment principle, improvement of therapeutic results and prolonging the survival.

  14. A Primer on Chinese Music Instruments Released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuSan

    2005-01-01

    Chinese traditional musical instruments, with a history of 8,000 years, are known for their diverse forms and types. The qualities, functions and materials of these instrunents reflect the unique aesthetic value of Chinese traditional music.

  15. Chinese Silk in Tibetan Buddhism Monastery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chinese traditional silk has held a special place in Chinese tex-tile history as its great contribution to the development of economy and culture of all ethnic groups as well as international exchanges.From time immemorial,

  16. A Comparison between Chinese and Western Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ting-ting

    2015-01-01

    Different countries have different cultures. Understanding the differences between Chinese and western culture will help us to communicate with each other better. From three aspects, this paper mainly compares the differences between Chinese and western culture.

  17. How life is associated with colors in Chinese culture: utilizing colors based on Chinese five-essence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien-Rein

    2002-06-01

    Chinese believe that Feng-shui, Ch'i, Tao, Yin and Yang are major components rooted in Chinese culture. Many people know life has to balance and harmonize with nature and the universe through the Five-essence. Ancient wisdom is successfully interwoven with mankind and the natural world. Elements such as orientation, season, color, sound, facial organs, viscera, stars, and numbers can be associated with life through the Five-essence Theory. Since color is one of the major components of the Five-essence Theory, everything in our life can be associated with colors through a conjoined covering process. Color selection process is part of the interaction between human beings and the universe. Depending on the achievement one is pursuing, the Five- essence Theory model can be treated as an interface between destiny and human beings. This study reports how life is associated with Chinese Five-essence based paradigms. Models were used to explain how Chinese utilize Five-essence Theory to select colors in their daily lives.

  18. An Ethnographic Study of Chinese Heritage Language Education and Technological Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjuan Wang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has increasingly uncovered the cognitive, cultural, and economic advantages of bilingualism and the positive impact of heritage language on children's second language acquisition (M:cLaughlin, 1995. As one type of heritage language education organizations, Chinese language schools have been in existence for decades in the U.S., but their practices have remained informal and not readily accessible to people from other cultures. In order to bridge this gap, this ethnographic study illustrates family and community involvement in promoting language proficiency in heritage language populations and explores language education methods practiced in Chinese community language schools in an urban Southern California area. The study examines the intricate issues affecting heritage language learning and explores the potential uses of technology in assisting young learners in acquiring their heritage language (Chinese. In addition, the study generates guidelines for adapting existing technology-assisted language programs (e.g., the Chinese Cultural Crystals for instructional uses.

  19. [Significance of re-evaluation and development of Chinese herbal drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Zengchun; Zhang, Boli

    2012-01-01

    The research of new herbal drugs involves in new herbal drugs development and renew the old drugs. It is necessary to research new herbal drugs based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The current development of famous TCM focuses on the manufacture process, quality control standards, material basis and clinical research. But system management of security evaluation is deficient, the relevant system for the safety assessment TCM has not been established. The causes of security problems, security risks, target organ of toxicity, weak link of safety evaluation, and ideas of safety evaluation are discussed in this paper. The toxicology research of chinese herbal drugs is necessary based on standard of good laboratory practices (GLP), the characteristic of Chinese herbal drugs is necessary to be fully integrated into safety evaluation. The safety of new drug research is necessary to be integrated throughout the entire process. Famous Chinese medicine safety research must be paid more attention in the future.

  20. Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine: a review focused on their application in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Wen-ying; Li, Jia-li; Wang, Xue-ding; Huang, Min

    2015-05-01

    The field of pharmacogenomics was initiated in the 1950s and began to thrive after the completion of the human genome project 10 years ago. Thus far, more than 100 drug labels and clinical guidelines referring to pharmacogenomic biomarkers have been published, and several key pharmacogenomic markers for either drug safety or efficacy have been identified and subsequently adopted in clinical practice as pre-treatment genetic tests. However, a tremendous variation of genetic backgrounds exists between different ethnic groups. The application of pharmacogenomics in the Chinese population is still a long way off, since the published guidelines issued by the organizations such as US Food and Drug Administration require further confirmation in the Chinese population. This review highlights important pharmacogenomic discoveries in the Chinese population and compares the Chinese population with other nations regarding the pharmacogenomics of five most commonly used drugs, ie, tacrolimus, cyclosporine A, warfarin, cyclophosphamide and azathioprine.

  1. Informization Implementation for Chinese Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; QIAN Yu; CHEN Jianfeng; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    Retailing is an important component of every country's economic system. The current status and developments in the informization of Chinese retail industry were investigated by using questionnaires and interviews to survey 139 retailers throughout China. The investigation shows that Chinese retailers are in the initial informization stage, and can be classified into different types with corresponding informization characteristics. In addition, the survey identified the key problems faced by retailers in the initial stage. Developments in the information technology field were analyzed to identify the key technologies that Chinese retailers should focus on during the informization process. The investigation also shows that the retailers have not arrived at a consensus about information technology adoption, and thus hesitate to use new information technologies, such as the radio frequency identification.

  2. Moon Cakes, A Chinese Favorite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINA is a nation with many ethnic groups. Thus, there are many legends to explain the nation’s many festivals. The largest and most striking of these festivals are the Spring Festival and Midautumn Festival. Anywhere Chinese people go, they will remember and celebrate these two festivals. The Mid-autumn Festival falls on the fifteenth day of the 8th lunar month. In this festival, Chinese people eat moon cakes, a baked food, with a flour crust around a dense filling. Coming in a great variety of flavors and styles, the moon cake carries a great deal of symbolic significance. The moon cake is round like the moon. "Round" is pronounced "yuan" in Chinese. This character is full of good meanings. When used in reference to a

  3. Chinese Feelings Cherished By Canadians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On March 30, "The Chinese Feelings Across the Pacific-The Century Exhibition of the Old Photos Treasured by the Canadians" was open in the Lu Xun Museum in Beijing. The exhibition lasted for one week. At the exhibition some old photos taken in the early 20th century were on display, showing James G. Endicott, envoy of world peace, together with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai; the family of O. L. Kilborn, one of the founders of West China Union University, together with Chinese women with bound feet: O. L. Kilborn treating the wounded soldiers during the Revolution of 1911; Leslie Earl Willmott in Chinese tunic suit and his wife reluctant to bid farewell to China, as well as photos of Ashley Woodward Lindesay, founder of China’s modern

  4. English Loan Words in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡悦

    2016-01-01

    During the process of language contact, a lot of language changes may appear, among which lexical borrowing, the ori-gin lexical item from one language being used by another language, is one of the most common phenomena. As a result of glo-balization, the frequent contact with western culture and the English language has brought a huge amount of lexical borrowings to the Chinese language. This paper mainly looks at the language contact of the English loan words in Chinese in the following three methods, namely transliteration, semantic loan and a mixture of the two respectively. The discussion over the examination will contribute to the understanding of English as a lingua franca and its language contact with Chinese.

  5. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  6. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  7. Chinese Journal of Lasers (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-22

    Qi Changhong , and Dai Fengmei, Chinese Journal of Physics, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1980, p54. [23) Nd-doped glass heat deformation group, Chinese Journal of...No. 1, 1983, p49. [46] Qi Changhong and Gan Fuxi, Chinese Journal of Optical Emission and Display, No. 3, 1983, pl. [47] Zheng He and Gan Fuxi, Laser

  8. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  9. Constraint-based Word Segmentation for Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Bo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Written Chinese text has no separators between words in the same way as European languages use space characters, and this creates the Chinese Word Segmentation Problem, CWSP: given a text in Chinese, divide it in a correct way into segments corresponding to words. Good solutions are in demand...

  10. Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs One of the most famous journals about Chinese herbal medicines in China.The journal started publication monthly since January 1970,is an academic and technical journal sponsored by Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research.The journal which has a long history over 40 years offers the columns of

  11. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  12. Investigation of Chinese Compliment Response Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽敏

    2015-01-01

    Chinese compliment response strategies are different from western’s.According to the investigation of Chinese politeness,the compliment strategies,and the analysis of the examples,writer summarizes Chinese strategies of Compliment response.The results could be benefit for the cross-cultural communication.

  13. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  14. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  15. A Cultural Perspective on Chinese Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaofang

    2011-01-01

    Politeness is a universal phenomenon, but its actual manifestations and the standards for judgment are culturally different. This paper analyzes the characteristics of Chinese politeness from a cultural perspective. It aims to improve our understanding of Chinese politeness and our knowledge of Chinese traditional culture and undertake interpersonal communication successfully.

  16. How Do Chinese Enterprises Look at REACH?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The new European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization of Chemicals) regulation has come into force. As soon as the REACH white paper was issued, Chinese enterprises started to research the possible impacts of REACH and prepare to cope with them. How then do these Chinese enterprises look at REACH? Following are views of some Chinese enterprises exporting chemical products to the European Union.

  17. Chinese Information Processing and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Li; Tie-Jun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents some main progresses and achievements in Chinese information processing. It focuses on six aspects, I.e., Chinese syntactic analysis, Chinese semantic analysis, machine translation, information retrieval, information extraction, and speech recognition and synthesis. The important techniques and possible key problems of the respective branch in the near future are discussed as well.

  18. Mamma Mia!Hits Chinese Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese version of Broadway’s musical sensation set to run for six months The Chinese version of Mamma Mia!,one of the most popular musicals in the world,has come to China,to demonstrate the charm of the musical to Chinese citizens in three major cities in 2011.

  19. Chinese Family Culture in the Ascendant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN the mid 1980s, Chinese family culture started in Shanghai. Now, more than ten years later, it has spread to cities and the countryside all over China The rise of Chinese family culture cannot be separated from the improved economic development. Reform and opening to the outside world greatly increased the living standard of Chinese families. Many people are in pursuit of

  20. Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yong Xin

    2013-04-25

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  1. Bioactive Natural Products From Chinese Tropical Marine Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Yue-Wei

    2004-01-01

    @@ The oceans contain a vast biological diversity of species that have so far been utilized by mankind mainly as a source of protein. In the last few decades, however, natural products chemists have started to discover the wealth of bioactive secondary metabolites that are produced by marine invertebrates such as sponges, soft corals, molluscs and others.

  2. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue...

  3. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  4. Brilliance Auto: Chinese, Global, Successful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      As the only automobile sponsor of BOAO FORUM FOR ASIA in April 2004, Brilliance Auto had a great opportunity to show her 'New Zhonghua" sedan which is an upper-medium car with completely independent intellectual property rights and repre sents the independent development philosophy of Brilliance Auto and is especially made for business personnel. The development pattern of Zhonghua sedan set a brand new model in Chinese auto industry to utilize the global resources and talents and international division of labor in the international arena, and she has become a typical sample of independent brand sedans in the contemporary Chinese auto industry.……

  5. Chinese Hailed "National Fitness Program"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN March, 1994, Liu Ji, Vice Minister of the State Physical Culture and Sports Commission (SPCSC) announced the "National Fitness Program" on behalf of Chinese government at the World Sports-for-All Congress in Uruguay. Almost all the participants thought it important to carry out the program in a country with a population of 1.2 billion. It not only helps improve Chinese people’s health but also the world’s average standard of health. The "National Fitness Program" is an overall, century-spanning, systematic project, which is snowballing. In 1994, the SPCSC issued the One-Two-One Project of the

  6. Ikea success in chinese furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Yihong, Li

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will focus on the market exploiting and development of IKEA in China, analysis the characteristics of Chinese market and the supply-demand of the IKEA products in China. It also analyze the main Chinese consumers’ behaviour and evaluating the furniture retail market in China. IKEA is a successful case to open the china market recent years. The main goal is to acquire this information in order to provide the overseas retailers with a good starting point for creating an effective bu...

  7. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  8. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual skills…

  9. Chinese Strategic Art: A Cultural Framework for Assessing Chinese Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    between a Chinese Taijiquan master and a Western mixed- martial arts opponent.111 111...Taijiquan—which translates as supreme ultimate fist—is a style of martial arts that emphasizes softness to overcome hardness, and focuses on internal...energy instead of external, physical force. There is no equivalent to Taiji in Western pugilistic systems. Mixed- martial arts , is a pugilistic sport

  10. Chinese Network Language and Its Influences on Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧尔; 王芳芳

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet communication in China, more and more people use computers and Chinese Internet Language becomes very popular. This paper has a brief introduction of CIL from the perspective of vocabulary and tense, and discusses CIL’s influences on language teaching and multi-literacy.

  11. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Xinjiang has made remarkable achieve-ments in the implementation of mother-and-child health care. Another five-year international cooperative project in mother-and-child hygiene has been formally undertaken in Xinjiang. From 1990 to 1995, Xinjiang success-fully fulfilled an international cooperative project "Strengthen grassroots Service on Mother-and-Child Care and Family Planning in China," subsidized by UNICEF,the United Nations Population Foundation and the World Health Organization. Seven prefectures and 16 counties and

  12. Concept of Mind and Brain in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sakatani

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, the functions of the brain are dispersed to five zang organs, and are maintained by comprehensive functional interactions among the five zang organs. Therefore, brain diseases are regarded as systematic diseases in TCM, and their treatments are aimed to normalize not only the activity of the organs, but also the balance of functional interaction. In addition, interestingly, the functional interaction between the five zang organs in TCM resembles a biological model based on chaos theory. These features of TCM derive from its theoretical basis in Yin-Yang and the five elements. In conclusion, TCM had co-opted the basic idea of a complex system for the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases thousands years ago. Research into TCM should not only evaluate the effects of herbal medicine or acupuncture, but should take into consideration the view of human beings in TCM.

  13. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  14. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    cancer screening. Community organizations may play a role in assisting Chinese American women, which could enhance cervical cancer screening rates.Keywords: Papanicolaou test, cervical cancer screening, Chinese women

  15. 不同寒热药性海洋中药在海洋生物系统发育树的分布规律及其关联关系分析%The Distribution and Association Relationships of Marine Chinese Medicine with Different Nature in the Phylogenetic Tree of Marine Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xianjun; 付先军; 王振国; 王长云; 李学博; 王慧美; 赵娇

    2015-01-01

    目的:海洋中药是我国中药资源宝库的重要组成部分,海洋生物资源的开发为海洋中药的发展奠定了基础,如何快速客观评价海洋中药新资源的药性已成为制约海洋中药发展和临床应用的主要瓶颈问题之一.方法:本文以613味海洋中药涉及的1 091种海洋中药物种为研究对象,采用关联规则挖掘(Association Rules Mining)和系统发育树(Phylogenetic Tree)构建方法,分析不同寒热药性海洋中药在海洋生物系统发育树上的分布规律及其关联关系.结果:不同药性的海洋中药在发育树上的分布具有很高的聚集性,来源于相同科物种的海洋中药,其药性基本也一样,很多与同一药性关联程度高的规则分布在系统发育树的同一分支中,或者在发育树上的距离非常近,如与寒性关联程度比较高的绿藻门(Chlorophyta)、红藻纲(Florideophyceae)、褐藻纲(Phaeohpyceae)等海洋植物,与热性关联程度较高的十足目(Decapoda)、软甲纲(Malacostraca)、节肢动物门(Arthropoda)等海洋动物,和平性海洋中药相关程度较高的有鳞目(Squamata)海洋鱼类.结论:以上结果提示药性和海洋生物的门纲科属等亲缘关系信息具有一定的关联关系,来源于亲缘关系相同或相近海洋生物物种的海洋中药可能会具有相同或相近的中药药性,这为海洋中药新资源的药性预测和评价提供了新的评价指标和参考依据.%Marine Chinese Medicine (MCM) is one of the important part of the traditional Chinese medicine.The exploration of marine organism resources provide a good base for the development of MCM.However,the evaluation for the nature of the new source of MCM becomes one of the key problem of the clinic application of MCM.In this study,613 MCM and their related 1 091 species of marine organisms were screened.Association Rules Mining method and Phylogenetic Tree constructing method were used to find out the association relationship

  16. Approaches in Treating AIDS with Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕维柏

    2002-01-01

    @@ Editorial: AIDS is the archenemy of mankind, it also threatened Chinese people seriously. Although anti-retroviral drugs are effective, yet too expensive, the majority of 600 000 Chinese patients can't afford to purchase and use them. Decades ago, some scientists were trying to use Chinese Medicine in treating AIDS, experienc e gained but problems also exposed concerning strategy of research, methodol ogy, racial difference, Chinese drugs screening, integrative Chinese and western medicine, HIV and immunity, etc., sustained and integrative effort would bring safe, effective, and affordable drugs for the fatal pandemic all over the world

  17. Discursive Construction of Chinese Language Teacher Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers within the field of TCFL 1 (teaching Chinese as a foreign language) have begun to examine the notion of Chinese language teacher identity (Bianco, 2009; Cruickshank, 2011; Gao, 2012; Zhang & Jensen, 2013; Zhang, 2013); however, whilst insightful, this research has...... not addressed the ways in which Chinese language teachers identify themselves while interacting with students and how they construct their identities as TCFL teachers in other cultures. In this study, I address this research gap by exploring the discursive construction of three native Chinese language teachers...... (NCLTs) 2 teaching Chinese to Danish students....

  18. Refection and Exploration on Organization and Human Resource Management for Chinese Management Practices: Review of the 1st Chinese HRM Forum%面向中国管理实践的组织与人力资源管理:反思与探索——首届“中国人力资源管理论坛(2012)”观点评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 陈坤

    2012-01-01

    The advancing of globalization and knowledge economy brings more and more turbulence and complexity into the environment which rigorously challenges the organizational modalities and human resource management patterns, and meanwhile recently the mainstreams of the western management theories are found more and more unfitness in Chinese context. It has become an imperative for the Chinese management researchers to reflect on the theoretical status quo and progress actively on Chinese style management in order to response the calls from both practices and academics fields. One of efforts was The First Chinese Human Resource Management Forum (2012) which took place on May 26 - 27 2012 in Business School of Nankai University. This 1st forum was an academic conference on organizational innovation and change in human resource management. The attendants discussed in depth on the a series of subjects: the challenges for Chinese human resource management, the direction of the development of the Human Resource Management discipline, the methodology for human resource management research, strategic HRM, organizational behavior and leadership, and organizational learning and change. This paper briefly reviews and comments on the main academic arguments, perspectives and relevant issues presented on the conference.%全球化和知识经济时代动荡复杂的环境,对中国企业的组织形态和人力资源管理模式形成了严峻挑战.同时,近年来主流西方管理理论在中国遭遇的“水土不服”,也需要中国管理学界在深刻反思的基础上积极探索中国式管理之路.基于对组织和人力资源管理领域回应现实课题和理论创新的双重要求,2012年5月26~27日在南开大学商学院召开的首届“中国人力资源管理论坛(2012):组织创新与人力资源管理变革”学术研讨会上,与会学者就中国人力资源管理的挑战和学科建设方向、人力资源管理研究的方法论、战略人力

  19. A Survey of Treatment of Diabetic Complications with Chinese Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fan

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to the TCM theory, diabetes is characterized in the initial stage by deficiency and consumption of qi and yin fluid and excessive dryness-heat; in the middle stage by deficiency of both qi and yin, and obstruction of channels and collaterals; while in the late stage, by various complications due to consumption and loss of qi and yin, imbalance of yin and yang and stagnation of both phlegm and blood stasis, which may result in failure of the kidney and serious injury of the channels and collaterals and zang-fu organs. In recent years, there are lots of reports concerning Chinese-drug treatment of diabetes with satisfactory therapeutic results. The following is a survey of treatment of diabetic complications with Chinese drugs.

  20. ICT Transformation in Chinese Tobacco Industry: Case Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on four in-depth case studies on the information and communication technology (ICT) evolution of Chinese tobacco companies. The ICT transformation processes of these companies are introduced briefly. A strategic grid model was used, which shows that depending on a company's strategic grid cell, different behavior patterns can be observed, in terms of Nolan's stage model. The analysis shows that companies allocated in the "turnaround" and "strategic" cell do not behave accordingly to Nolan's stage model. A few years after China first application for a World Trade Organization (WTO) membership renewal in 1986, observed companies skipped some of Nolan's stages to achieve an accelerated ICT transformation. Therefore, a fast transformation of ICT plays a major role for Chinese tobacco companies to face the challenges entailed by an open door policy and the WTO entry. This conclusion is limited to companies that are allocated either in the "transformation" cell or the "strategic" cell.

  1. Validation of the Psychological Work Maturity Scale in Chinese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Psychological work maturity is an important concept in situational leadership theory. The present research revised the Psychological Work Maturity Scale for use in Chinese organizations. Three samples of full-time employees (Ns = 205, 266, and 283) from different companies and industries participated in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a single-factor structure fit the data. The scale had acceptable reliabilities, convergent and criterion-related validities, and was shown to be an appropriate measure of psychological work maturity in Chinese employees. Maturity differences in several demographic variables were not found, but employees with longer tenure in Sample 2 scored higher on maturity, which shows that psychological work maturity may be dependent on personal development in the interaction with the varying situational factors, especially in the work domain. Implications for research and practice on psychological work maturity in China are discussed.

  2. Fusang: The Enlightenment Story of the Chinese Discovery of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    In 1761 the French scholar and Sinologue Joseph de Guignes announced that "Chinese vessels made the voyage to America many centuries before Christopher Columbus." From the Chinese books in the Bibliotheque du Roi and new missionary reports from Beijing, he concluded that the mythical land of Fusang described by a medieval Buddhist monk could be nowhere other than the west coast of North America, only recently charted by European navigators. Philippe Buache, premier géographe du roi, agreed. At the height of the French Enlightenment, the indigenous geographical tradition of China could be used to further the progress of universal science, providing evidence about issues from the mapping of the Pacific Rim to the organization of the continents. Furthermore, the story of Fusang explained the origins of American peoples, showing that the inhabitants of the New World had arrived there from the Old and contributing to a diffusionist account of the development of civilization in space and time.

  3. A Research on Chinese Thinking Influencing English Writing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪娟

    2008-01-01

    L2 writing process is a bilingual event.L2 writers have both LI and L2 at their disposal when they composing in L2. The tendency of LI occurrence varies with individuals composing activities.L2 Writers are more likely to depend on LI, when they were managing their writing process, generating and organizing ideas; but more likely to depend on L2 when undertaking task--examining and text--generating activities. This paper focuses on the influence of LI on L2, and the purpose is to demonstrate that Chinese thinking decreases with the improvement of English proficiency, but the amount of Chinese thinking decreases by a different margin.

  4. [Placebo control and clinical trial of Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing

    2010-10-01

    World Health Organization aims to develop safe, effective and practical traditional medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and other complementary and alternative medicine are being recognized in the whole world nowadays. However, the definite effect of Chinese medicine is still in need of scientific research proof. Placebo control is of equal importance to active control and blank control in clinical trial of TCM. This article briefly reviewed the importance of placebo control and commented on its present situation in clinical trial of TCM. This article also brought up the preliminary proposals of placebo application in TCM clinical trial. We should emphasize scientific placebo preparation and good design of placebo-controlled trial, which are directed by International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. A good clinical trial project will avoid unnecessary wastes and provide safe and effective treatment for people.

  5. British Missionary Timothy Richard and Chinese Modern Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    British missionary Timothy Richard came to China, actuated by preaching the Gospel andexpanding the sphere of Christian influence. Considering some complex reasons for history, civilization,ideology and custom etc, he paid attention to secular education as well as doing missionary work to attainhis Christian goal. He laid much stress on the function of education, so he proposed Chinese governmentshould set up Educational Department. In the late Qing Dynasty, he participated in the organization andmanagement of Shanxi Imperial University. Under the circumstances of modern times of China, when it wasin the grip of national crisis, and the contradictory between China and foreign countries was acute andcomplicated, all the work he had done exerted objective influences in many aspects. While it reflected thestrong semi-colonial character in modernization of Chinese education, it had some positive effect as well.

  6. FOOD SOURCES AND CARBON BUDGET OF CHINESE PRAWN PENAEUS CHINENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董双林; 张硕; 王芳

    2002-01-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn (Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semiintensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20-28)×10-3.

  7. Treatment of Chinese Traditional Medicine Wastewater by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You-zhi; WANG Feng-jun; BAO Li

    2005-01-01

    The influence factors treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction by photosynthetic bacteria are tested and discussed. The results indicate that the method of photosynthetic bacteria can eliminate COD and BCD from wastewater in high efficiency. And it also has high load shock resistance. On the conditions of slight aerobic and semi-darkness, treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction, the method has better efficiency to eliminate COD and BOD from the wastewater than those by anaerobic illumination and aerobic darkness treatments. After pretreatment of hydrolytic acidization, the removal rate of COD in the wastewater reached more than 85 %, and that rate of BOD reached more than 90% in the treating system of photosynthetic bacteria. It may be more feasible and advantageous than traditional anaerobic biological process to treat organic wastewater using PSB system.

  8. Foreign Policies and Foreign Exchanges for Chinese Publishing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's present foreign publishing policies Chinese Government respects and protects intellectual property rights. Chinese Government always attaches importance to the exchange and cooperation between Chinese publishing industry and that of other countries, encourages and supports Chinese publishing industry to actively introduce foreign excellent works to Chinese readers, and meanwhile, also actively advocates introduction of Chinese excellent works to foreign readers. Our persistent guideline is to support and promote exchanges between Chinese and foreign publishing industries in all fields.

  9. Chinese Leadership Styles in Public Sector in Tianjin

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Considerable studies on Chinese leadership styles apply Western models to test Chinese managers, and then define Chinese leadership style with Western ideas. This study assumes that Chinese managers have their own leadership styles distinctive from Westerners and tried to investigate the cultural and historical origin of Chinese leadership style, especially to explore how Confucianism have affected and shaped Chinese leadership style in modern Chinese society. This study adopted a qualitative...

  10. Chinese President Meets Stephen Hawking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Shuqin

    2002-01-01

    @@ Chinese President Jiang Zemin met on August 19 with Stephen Hawking and other world-renown scientists, including Shing-tung Yau, Edward Witten, D.Gross, A. Strominger, et al., who were attending an international conference on string theory and Prof.Hawking had just given a public speech titled "Brane New World" in Beijing.

  11. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  12. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  13. Chinese Sculpture as Public Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YinShuangxi

    2003-01-01

    Chinese arts have undergone tremendous changes thanks to the fast-growing modernization and urbanization process in China. One of the monumental changes is the emergence of “public art”, most notably, urban sculpture. This art is increasingly related to modern urban planning, architecture, and community building.

  14. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN ancient Chinese characters,母(pronounced mu)depicts a womanbending on her knees and crossingher hands in front with two points onher chest symbolizing her breasts.The original meaning of 母 is anadult woman who has given birth tochildren,i.e.a mother It was later

  15. Confessional Peculiarity of Chinese Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nurzat M.; Bulekbayev, Sagadi B.; Kurmanaliyeva, Ainura D.; Abzhalov, Sultanmurat U.; Meirbayev, Bekzhan B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers features of Islam among Muslim peoples in China. Along with the traditional religions of China--Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism--Islam influenced noticeable impact on the formation of Chinese civilization. The followers of Islam have a significant impact on ethno-religious, political, economic and cultural relations of the…

  16. 2006 Chinese RE Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since 2005,China government established series of regulations to rectify Chinese rare earth industry.Especially,the notice of "ceasing the issue of new mining license and controlling the gross rare earth mining volume" implemented in April of 2006 largely reduced the mining in Southern China.

  17. Bilingual Education in Chinese Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明勇

    2005-01-01

    This paper will consider both the general theory of bilingual education and the bilingual practice in Chinese universities. The necessity and possibility of carrying out bilingual education will be particularly dealt with. The current situation will be analyzed, namely, the achievements, the difficulties, and the solution and the future trend.

  18. Clinical Service of Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) faces three major challenges:(1)How to enhance its contribution on overall medical service quality? (2) How to best address the unmet medical needs in the contemporary society? (3)How to guarantee that the traditional perspective for disease diagnosis and treatment not be neglected in clinical practice?

  19. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann;

    2014-01-01

    . The geography of Chinese science is thus not only monocentric as regards overall scientific output, but also exhibits unusually hierarchical collaboration patterns. Unlike in Europe and North America, national and regional capitals are becoming ever more important as scientific coordination centers....

  20. Chinese Dress in the Louvre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    To the admiring gaze ofa 1,800-strong audience inthe biggest hall of theLouvre, the "Dawn of theChinese Nation—Ancientand Modern FashionShow" was held in October1998, at the ’99 ParisSpring/Summer GrandFashion Show. This is yetanother step on the fashion

  1. Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution…

  2. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  3. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen; C. van Marrewijk

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 ¿ 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such as Galtonian

  4. Dynamics of Chinese Comparative Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  5. A Model of Chinese Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    At a national conference at the end of May,the Chinese Government said partnership assistance in the past year had boosted development in northwestern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region remarkably and called for greater support.Since March 2010,19provinces and municipalities have been each assigned a less developed region in Xinjiang to assist.

  6. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN oracle-bone inscription, 面 (mian) depictsthe outline of a face with a large eye at its center.To this end its original meaning was the humanface. However, in ancient Chinese 面 referred tothe front of the head and another characterdenoted the cheek, specifically the area between

  7. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g

  8. The Magic of Chinese Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Betty Siu Junn

    Although this booklet is intended for use in the classroom, the author cautions the reader that it is an adventure into Chinese music rather than a teaching or history experience. By learning how to play the music, students "travel" through China, giving them a better understanding of this country. The author describes the invention of ancient…

  9. Spoken Grammar for Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓敏

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the concept of spoken grammar has been mentioned among Chinese teachers. However, teach-ers in China still have a vague idea of spoken grammar. Therefore this dissertation examines what spoken grammar is and argues that native speakers’ model of spoken grammar needs to be highlighted in the classroom teaching.

  10. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann

    2014-01-01

    Chinese scientific output has increased dramatically in recent years, but its internal spatial structure has received scant attention. Estimated gravity models of intercity scientific coauthorships show that there are two types of spatial political bias in China, apart from the expected mass...

  11. ENERGY CALCULUS IN CHINESE LANGUAGESEGMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on cognitive science, the EnergyCalculus in Chinese language segmentation was presented to eliminate segmentation ambiguity. The notion of "EnergyCost" was advanced to denote the extent of the under-standability of a certain segmentation. EnergyCost function was defined with Z-notation. This approcah is effective to all natural language segmentation.

  12. Autobiography of a Chinese City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of gazetteer [a peculiar Chinese genre of officially supervised local history writing] work in the Northeastern city of Harbin. It is a study of the interaction of politics, bureaucracy, and historical work at the local level in contemporary China, and it points...

  13. Personality types of Chinese dental school applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia; Luo, Zhengxue; Liu, Xufeng

    2007-12-01

    This his article reports the findings of a study conducted to investigate the personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Form G) was used to assess the personality styles of 332 dental school applicants from the mainland of China. The results of the MBTI for Chinese dental school applicants were compared with a previous study of applicants from the U.K. A higher percentage of this group of Chinese applicants scored higher for Introversion (I) than Extroversion (E); both Chinese and English applicants preferred Judging (J) to Perceiving (P). The dominant personality types in Chinese applicants were ISTJ, ESTJ, and ISFP. The findings suggest that the personality types of Chinese dental students may be somewhat different from the personality profiles exhibited by dental students from other nations. The findings may be of value to individuals who desire to investigate personality type differences among dental students with different cultural backgrounds.

  14. Translation Strategy of Chinese Culture-loaded Lexes and the Dissemina-tion of Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-li

    2016-01-01

    Lexes are the most important and basic element of a language. Chinese culture-loaded lexes are those words or expres-sions that are greatly rich in Chinese culture. They can reflect the characteristics of Chinese culture and Chinese nation. There-fore, it is of great significance to pay attention to the translation of Chinese culture-loaded lexes as they play a decisive role in disseminating Chinese culture. It can help promote Chinese culture worldwide, improve China’s cultural exchanges and commu-nication with other nations and strengthen China’s status in the world. This paper focuses on the Chinese culture-loaded words and proposes some possible means of translation with the purpose of spreading Chinese culture.

  15. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Support Sends Girls Back to School The International Symposium on Girls’ Education—Walking Toward the Fourth World Conference on Women, was convened on August 24 in Xining City, Qinghai Province. The meeting announced the recent words of encouragement by State leaders Jiang Zemin, Li Peng and others to the All China Women’s Federation and the China Children’s Fund who organized the "Chunlei Plan" which aims to support girls entering school. Jiang Zemin, Party Secretary of the CPC Central Committee and President

  16. Persistent organic pollutants control strategy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ya-juan; LU Yong-long; ZHANG Hong; WANG Tie-yu; XING Ying

    2005-01-01

    The development of Persistent Organic Pollutants(POPs) control policy in China in the context of international concerns on POPs was reviewed. The aspects of the Chinese POPs control strategies were analyzed, and compared with those of developed counterparts (e.g. US, EU, Japan). Currently, while the legal framework on POPs management, which complies with international guidelines has been established, it should be improved in the areas of special POPs management, risk assessment, the precautionary principle, lifecycle management and technical support capacity. The analysis of Chinese POPs policy and suggestions for strengthening the sciencebased decision making capacity are not only useful for Chinese decision-makers, but also a case study for developing world and make a great contribution for the global elimination of POPs to make a toxic-free future.

  17. Understanding the Indigenous Chinese Concept of Suzhi (素质) from an HRM Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Greg; Lamond, David; Worm, Verner

    2014-01-01

    , is undertaken as the basis for proffering an organizational level conceptualization of suzhi in the Chinese context. Findings - Instead of understanding it as a free-floating signifier, we argue that suzhi can be considered as a criterion-based framework for HRM research and practice. We classify suzhi research...... and multidimensional frameworks, suzhi criteria may form different gestalts in different organizations and industries. Research limitations/implications - From a sociocultural and historical perspective, HRM research that incorporates a combination of indigenous and indigenized suzhi characteristics may receive better...... acceptance by Chinese individuals, organizations and society. Accordingly, the reconstruction of suzhi into manageable and measurable dimensions can be undertaken for more effective HRM practice in the Chinese context. Originality/value - We advance the extant HRM literature by linking the indigenous suzhi...

  18. The Origin of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Thinking on Chinese Medicine Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenkui; Wang Feng; Wang Ling

    2006-01-01

    Although the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed a profound theory system and a fame of outstanding advantage in curative effect, it seems that the TCM is not quite adaptable to the deveiopment and requirement of the modern society. A principle of "Adopting the advanced part of Western medicine to serve the TCM" should be adhered to for the traditional Chinese medicine. First, TCM should strive for a consensus of TCM theory which focuses on the guiding principles of "diagnosis and treatment based on an overall analysis of the illness and the patient's condition" and "the opposite principle of five internal organs". Among these principles, "keeping relative balance of three internal systems"is a valuable guidance of the diagnosis and treatment theory. Secondly, macroscopic should be integrated with microscopic, totality with parts, phenomenology with materialism. A dialectical law should be applied to guide analysis. In treatment,adjustment and balance are basic principles. It is necessary not only prepare the medicine in advance accoding to the predicted disease of the year, but also adopt methods to restrict disease in advance. Basides, TCM dose type should be ameliorated in order to meet the needs of society.

  19. [Where will Chinese medicine disease names go?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhan-Qing

    2013-06-01

    The statistical survey of "Clinical Articles", one column of Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (24 volumes in total) showed that, of the 151 academic exploration on diseases, Western disease (WM) names were used in 145 articles, constituting 96.03% of the entire column. Obviously, Chinese medicine (CM) disease names were not basically used by CM physicians. Taking Chinese Internal Medicine (2nd edition), a national textbook for students in CM universities, as an example, we could find that the use of disease names was in a chaos logically, disease, syndrome, and symptom were not used clearly. In the general knowledge part, when mentioning a disease, the book sometimes used "disease", sometimes "disease-syndrome". In the classified parts, some diseases were simply named as "A or B syndrome", and when talking about a specific disease, it referred to the symptom-based disease as a kind of "disease-syndrome". Throughout the whole book, the disease names named after symptoms or heavily colored by symptoms amounted to 31, accounting for 59.6% of the listed 52 common diseases. In clinical practices, using CM disease names ran the risk of making wrong diagnosis or failing to diagnose patients in time, and therefore, leading to improper treatment or loss of treatment time. For critical diseases, these names can't reveal the serious situations and help to get rid of possible dangers. For chronic diseases, using these names can't lead to early recognition and prevention of diseases. Considering that CM disease names can't go with clinical practices, and lag behind the development of integrative medicine, the author suggested that we should borrow as many WM disease names as possible in CM, because when compared with CM, WM has a much clearer and more objective knowledge of the location, cause, mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. The classification and naming of diseases in WM is the result of negotiation of WHO and its member countries

  20. Transnational Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    should be treated and governed by organizations. Using network and career sequences methods, we provide a case of transnational organizing through professionals who attempt issue control and network management on transnational environmental sustainability certification. The article questions how...

  1. Organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  2. 模拟氮沉降对杉木人工林土壤可溶性有机碳和微生物量碳的影响%Effects of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Dissolved Organic Carbon and Microbial Biomass Carbon in a Chinese Fir Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁颖红; 樊后保; 刘文飞; 张子文; 孟庆银; 胡锋; 李辉信

    2012-01-01

    在杉木人工林中开展模拟氮沉降试验,设计N0(对照)、N1(60kg N/hm2.a)、N2(120kg N/hm2.a)和N3(240kg N/hm2.a)4种氮沉降水平。通过连续7年的处理后,研究外加氮源对土壤可溶性有机碳及微生物量碳的影响及与土壤酶活性的关系。相同N沉降处理下,土壤有机碳、可溶性有机碳和微生物量碳均随土层加深而降低。氮沉降对土壤有机碳具有促进作用,中-低氮沉降(N1、N2)增加幅度大,高氮沉降(N3)增加幅度小。低氮(N1)处理促进土壤微生物生物量C增加,而中、高氮(N2、N3)则抑制;各氮沉降处理土壤可溶性有机碳含量从高到低的顺序为:N3、N2〉N1〉N0。40-60cm土壤微生物量碳与蔗糖酶、纤维素酶呈极显著正相关关系,与淀粉酶、多酚氧化酶、过氧化物酶呈极显著负相关关系;除40-60cm土层的β-葡糖苷酶外,各层土壤可溶性有机碳与土壤蔗糖酶、纤维素酶和β-葡糖苷酶活性呈极显著正相关关系,与淀粉酶、多酚氧化酶和过氧化物酶呈极显著负相关关系。因此,氮沉降增加将会对土壤碳累积与分解过程产生较大的影响。%This study evaluated the effects of nitrogen deposition on soil dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and microbial biomass carbon(MBC) in a Chinese fir plantation subject to simulated nitrogen deposition for seven years at Shaxian state forest farm of Fujian province.Nitrogen loadings were designed at 4 levels as N0(control),N1,N2 and N3 at the doses of 0,60,120,240 kg N/(hm2·a),respectively.Each treatment comprised three replicate plots of 20 m×20 m which were sprayed with CO(NH2)2 solutions on the forest floor at the beginning of each month,lasting from January 2004 to the sampling time,March 2010.Soil dissolved organic carbon and soil microbial biomass carbon all decreased significantly with the increasing of soil depth at the same level of nitrogen deposition

  3. Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A; Singh, M Fiatarone; Trey, T; Lavee, J

    2014-10-01

    Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China is internationally condemned, yet this practice continues unabated in 2014. This is despite repeated announcements from Chinese authorities that constructive measures have been undertaken to conform to accepted ethical standards. While there is unanimous agreement on the unethical nature of using organs from executed prisoners, due to its limitations on voluntary and informed consent, there is insufficient coverage of forced organ procurement from prisoners of conscience without consent. Strategies to influence positive change in China over the last few decades have failed to bring this practice to an end. While organ donation and transplantation services in China have undergone considerable structural changes in the last few years, fundamental attempts to shift practice to ethically sourced organs have floundered. In this article, we discuss the organ trade in China, reflect upon organ procurement from executed prisoners (including both capital prisoners and prisoners of conscience) and provide an overview of contradictory Chinese efforts to halt forced organ procurement from executed prisoners. Finally, we highlight current actions being taken to address this issue and offer comprehensive recommendations to bring this ethically indefensible practice to an immediate end.

  4. Chinese Tea Tradition:From Tea Service to Tea Drinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangFeng

    2003-01-01

    Tea was first discovered and drunk in China several thousand years ago and over the sweep of Chinese history drinking tea has developed to be part of Chinese culture and a reversible habit of Chinese people.With the spread of Chinese civilization,Chinese tea has been introduced to many countries across

  5. Chinese traditional elements in the application of graphic design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹倩倩

    2013-01-01

    Chinese traditional graphic art resources is extremely abundant, this article will from the Chinese tradi-tional culture elements are composed of the Chinese calligraphy, traditional auspicious patterns, national color three aspects, expounds the application of Chinese traditional elements in modern plane design, this paper expounds the application of Chinese traditional elements in modern plane design, research how to dig, change and reform.

  6. The Chinese skeleton: insights into microstructure that help to explain the epidemiology of fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Elaine; Walker, Marcella D

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are a major public health problem worldwide, but incidence varies greatly across racial groups and geographic regions. Recent work suggests that the incidence of osteoporotic fracture is rising among Asian populations. Studies comparing areal bone mineral density and fracture across races generally indicate lower bone mineral density in Asian individuals including the Chinese, but this does not reflect their relatively low risk of non-vertebral fractures. In contrast, the Chinese have relatively high vertebral fracture rates similar to that of Caucasians. The paradoxically low risk for some types of fractures among the Chinese despite their low areal bone mineral density has been elucidated in part by recent advances in skeletal imaging. New techniques for assessing bone quality non-invasively demonstrate that the Chinese compensate for smaller bone size by differences in hip geometry and microstructural skeletal organization. Studies evaluating factors influencing racial differences in bone remodeling, as well as bone acquisition and loss, may further elucidate racial variation in bone microstructure. Advances in understanding the microstructure of the Chinese skeleton have not only helped to explain the epidemiology of fracture in the Chinese, but may also provide insight into the epidemiology of fracture in other races as well.

  7. The Chinese skeleton:insights into microstructure that help to explain the epidemiology of fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaine Cong; Marcella D.Walker

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are a major public health problem worldwide, but incidence varies greatly across racial groups and geographic regions. Recent work suggests that the incidence of osteoporotic fracture is rising among Asian populations. Studies comparing areal bone mineral density and fracture across races generally indicate lower bone mineral density in Asian individuals including the Chinese, but this does not reflect their relatively low risk of non-vertebral fractures. In contrast, the Chinese have relatively high vertebral fracture rates similar to that of Caucasians. The paradoxically low risk for some types of fractures among the Chinese despite their low areal bone mineral density has been elucidated in part by recent advances in skeletal imaging. New techniques for assessing bone quality non-invasively demonstrate that the Chinese compensate for smaller bone size by differences in hip geometry and microstructural skeletal organization. Studies evaluating factors influencing racial differences in bone remodeling, as well as bone acquisition and loss, may further elucidate racial variation in bone microstructure. Advances in understanding the microstructure of the Chinese skeleton have not only helped to explain the epidemiology of fracture in the Chinese, but may also provide insight into the epidemiology of fracture in other races as well.

  8. The mechanisms in treatment of acute pancreatitis by traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiping Zhang; Ying Wang; Yan Shi

    2006-01-01

    As common acute abdomen, most of acute pancreatitis(AP) are self-restricted. Only a few patients may develop into worse state with local complications or organ failures, and finally neastic acute pancreatitis (NAP). With the change of people's dietaries, cholelithiasis morbidity and popularization of wine in recent years, the number of AP patients has increased.Although people conducted enormous studies on pathogenesis of AP and brought forward many be valuable theories, yet the exact mechanism is still unclear by far. There are many therapies of AP which should be unexceptionally classified as operative therapy and non-operative therapy. With the increasing understanding of the disease in recent years, we found many defects of operation and good therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine in AP. Traditional Chinese medicine as an auxiliary therapy has been generally paid close attention in clinical practices. Traditional Chinese medicine is a treasure-house of China. This article summarizes the main mechanisms of AP treatment by traditional Chinese medicine and the progress of laboratory studies. It aims to help people recognize the multiple-target treatment effects and conspicuous efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine and promote the popularization of traditional Chinese medicine in AP treatment.

  9. A Dialectal Chinese Speech Recognition Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Thomas Fang Zheng; William Byrne; Dan Jurafsky

    2006-01-01

    A framework for dialectal Chinese speech recognition is proposed and studied, in which a relatively small dialectal Chinese (or in other words Chinese influenced by the native dialect) speech corpus and dialect-related knowledge are adopted to transform a standard Chinese (or Putonghua, abbreviated as PTH) speech recognizer into a dialectal Chinese speech recognizer. Two kinds of knowledge sources are explored: one is expert knowledge and the other is a small dialectal Chinese corpus. These knowledge sources provide information at four levels: phonetic level, lexicon level, language level,and acoustic decoder level. This paper takes Wu dialectal Chinese (WDC) as an example target language. The goal is to establish a WDC speech recognizer from an existing PTH speech recognizer based on the Initial-Final structure of the Chinese language and a study of how dialectal Chinese speakers speak Putonghua. The authors propose to use contextindependent PTH-IF mappings (where IF means either a Chinese Initial or a Chinese Final), context-independent WDC-IF mappings, and syllable-dependent WDC-IF mappings (obtained from either experts or data), and combine them with the supervised maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) acoustic model adaptation method. To reduce the size of the multipronunciation lexicon introduced by the IF mappings, which might also enlarge the lexicon confusion and hence lead to the performance degradation, a Multi-Pronunciation Expansion (MPE) method based on the accumulated uni-gram probability (AUP) is proposed. In addition, some commonly used WDC words are selected and added to the lexicon. Compared with the original PTH speech recognizer, the resulting WDC speech recognizer achieves 10-18% absolute Character Error Rate (CER) reduction when recognizing WDC, with only a 0.62% CER increase when recognizing PTH. The proposed framework and methods are expected to work not only for Wu dialectal Chinese but also for other dialectal Chinese languages and

  10. Analysis of the Problems of the Chinese College Students' EFL Classroom Writings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Aiju

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the problems of EFL classroom writings in the Chinese college teaching context from the perspective of textual organization and pragmatic strategy. Influence of their native cultural thought pattern causes the problem of discourse pattern and cohesion; lack of sufficient pragmatic strategy renders students' unawareness in…

  11. Influence of Demographic Factors and Ownership Type upon Organizational Learning Culture in Chinese Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Baiyin; McLean, Gary N.

    2007-01-01

    This empirical study, using Western concepts incorporated into the Dimension of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) instrument and data collected from 919 employees in nine companies located in Guangdong Province, China, explored organizational learning culture in Chinese business settings. Findings suggest that the DLOQ is applicable to…

  12. Brief Introduction of the Chinese Association for International Understanding(CAFIU)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Established in 1981, the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) is composed by social activists, scholars and representatives from all walks of life. CAFIU is registered as a non-profit organization with the Ministry of Civil Affairs, and acquired special

  13. Teaching in an Orientation and Mobility Program for Chinese Special Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin-Shirley, N.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience as a teacher in an orientation and mobility program for Chinese special educators. It addresses course organization, vocational opportunities for blind adults, an "orienteering" meet held during the last session, the Handicapped Awareness Day activity, and program evaluation. (DB)

  14. Statutes of the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>(Adopted at the Tenth National Council Meeting in May 2012) Chapter One General Principles Article 1 This Association is a national people’s organization of the People’s Republic of China, called the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries, abbreviated as CPAFFC.

  15. Brief Introduction of Chinese National Technical Committee for Standardization on Radio Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chinese Nationa Technical Committee for Standardization on Radio Interference(SAC/TC79),ESTABLISHED IN 1986,is the national technical organization relating to different departments for standardization,with responsibility for technical research of electromagnetic compatibility as well as the management of each subcommittee.

  16. Chinese-Latin American Ties: A Convergence of Security Threats to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    organizations, and corruption within the TBA. Evidence does not implicate the Chinese government in supporting narco -terrorism in the region. However......supporting narco -terrorism in the region. However, expanding China-Latin America ties further complicate the current security environment. iv

  17. The Social Welfare Practice and Research Center at the Chinese University of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2009-01-01

    The organization and research programs of the Social Welfare Practice and Research Centre (SWPRC) at the Chinese University of Hong Kong are outlined. There are five regular research programs (Family and Group Practice Research Centre, Human Behavior and the Social Environment Research Program, Mutual Aid and Social Capital Research Program,…

  18. Job Insecurity and Remuneration in Chinese Family-Owned Business Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of job insecurity (past job downsizing and anticipated job downsizing) and current remuneration--via wellbeing (burnout and work engagement)--on organizational outcomes (organization commitment and low turnover intention) of Chinese family-owned business. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  19. Attitudes toward organ donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; TIAN Hui; YIN Hang; LIU Hang; ZHANG Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    Background Organ transplantation represents an important advance in modern medical science,and it has benefited many patients with organ failure; however,the severe deficiency of organ sources has been a bottleneck that has limited the benefits -this technology can bring.The aim of this study was to show the results of a survey on Chinese people's awareness and attitudes toward organ donation.Methods We designed a questionnaire regarding organ donation consisting of 20 short questions,which were distributed to 10 groups.Most of the questions were multiple-choice; the core question related to people's attitudes to organ donation and the development of organ donation.The survey was held in the outpatient hall of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital,a commercial district,and four professional colleges.Participants were randomly selected,and answered questions about gender,age,educational background,profession,and study major.Results In all,2930 valid responses were received.Male:female ratio was nearly 1:1.2 (mean age 38 years).Over 90.0% of participants knew about organ transplantation and which organs could be transplanted; more than 95.0% knew about organ donation,but the time they had been aware of it varied.Nearly 90.0% of the participants approved of deceased organ donation; 73.0% indicated they would like to donate their organs post mortem.Participants who knew more about organ failure and organ transplantation were more likely to support organ donation.College students were very positive about organ donation,though as they gain professional knowledge their attitudes may change.Altogether,65.3% of participants approved of living organ donation,which was obviously lower than the figure for deceased organ donation (P <0.05).In all,85.7% of participants approved of compensation to the deceased donor's family.To promote organ donation in China,62.9% of participants indicated that the public's knowledge about organ donation should be increased via the media

  20. Third Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations Held in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Third Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations was held in Jakarta, capital of Indonesia, from June 2 to 4. About 100 representatives from Chinese and ASEAN people-to-people friendship

  1. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Book Description The design of organizations has been an ongoing concern of management theory and practice over the past several decades. Over this time, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design (OD). Recently organizational life has....... The individual chapters are organized into five sections: (1) Putting Contingency Theory in its Place, (2) Focus on Individuals who make up the Organization, (3) Innovation Processes and Organization Design, (4) Adaptation and Technology, and (5) Design for Performance. Each chapter examines aspects of the books...

  2. Chinese herbs as immunomodulators and potential disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ling-Jun; Lai, Jenn-Haung

    2004-04-01

    Autoimmune diseases are a group of illnesses with multiple organ involvement. The prototype of this group of disorders is rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that aside from systemic organ involvement mainly presents with progressive destruction of many joints. Both activation and defective apoptosis of immune effector cells like T and B lymphocytes and macrophages play critical roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. Current therapy for autoimmune diseases recommends a combination of several disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) that preserve different immunomodulatory mechanisms. Because of limited success in prevention of RA joint destruction for currently available DMARDs, the development of more effective and less toxic DMARDs has been one of the major goals for pharmaceutical companies. The introduction of leflunomide and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapies to the market recently serves as examples. In this context, the experience from ancient Chinese medicine gives an alternative consideration looking for potential DMARDs. Two commonly prescribed Chinese antirheumatic herbs are Tripterygium wilfordii hook f (TWHf) and tetrandrine (Tet) that preserve both anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Importantly, the TWHf- or Tet-mediated immunomodulatory mechanisms are evidently different from the known DMARDs. The synergistic effects have also been demonstrated between these two Chinese antirheumatic herbs and DMARDs like FK506, cyclosporin and possibly chloroquine. Another potential Chinese herb for this consideration is Ginkgo biloba. This review summarizes evidence-based in vivo and in vitro studies on Chinese herbs as immunomodulators and potential DMARDs.

  3. [The apprentice education system of Chinese medicinal industry in modern Kunming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhuqing

    2015-07-01

    In the late Qing Dynasty, following the appearance of the Chinese medicinal materials industry trade association of Kunming, the "master agreement" as a professional regulation, also implemented, marking the beginning of the contractualization and institutionalization of apprentice education in Yunnan. The contents and implementation of the "master agreement" was organized by the Chinese medicinal materials industry trade association of Kunming and its craft union. The apprentice education in Kunming traditional Chinese medicinal industry has the following characteristics: expanding the source of talent; adepting at agricultural production of the accorded apprentice; conforming to the conditions of human manipulation of Chinese traditional medicine; being in line with the characteristics and rules of Chinese medicine skills taught by oral narration and tacit understanding; unity of the medical and pharmaceutical professionals; and non-governmental organization. Apprentice training had trained a number of medical talents, and promoted the transformation of manual workshop to industrialization in Kunming. Apprentice education had catalyzed the establishment of specialized shops selling patent medicines exclusively to separated from those running both crude drugs and patent medicines, to form a set of effective teaching system, thus exerting profound influence on later generations.

  4. Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fanghua; Li, Anyuan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Gao, Jianjun; Li, Jijun; Kokudo, Norihiro; Li, Xiao-Kang; Tang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that in cancer treatment Chinese herbal medicines in combination with chemo- or radio-therapy can be used to enhance the efficacy of and diminish the side effects and complications caused by chemo- and radio-therapy. Therefore, an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines is needed by physicians and other health care providers. This review provides evidence for use of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy. First, Chinese herbal medicines (e.g. Astragalus, Turmeric, Ginseng, TJ-41, PHY906, Huachansu injection, and Kanglaite injection) that are commonly used by cancer patients for treating the cancer and/or reducing the toxicity induced by chemo- or radio-therapy are discussed. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that these Chinese herbal medicines possess great advantages in terms of suppressing tumor progression, increasing the sensitivity of chemo- and radio-therapeutics, improving an organism's immune system function, and lessening the damage caused by chemo- and radio-therapeutics. Second, clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment are reviewed. By reducing side effects and complications during chemo- and radio-therapy, these Chinese herbal medicines have a significant effect on reducing cancer-related fatigue and pain, improving respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal side effects including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, protecting liver function, and even ameliorating the symptoms of cachexia. This review should contribute to an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment for cancer and provide useful information for the development of more effective anti-cancer drugs.

  5. Thinking Chinese Translation A Course in Translation Method; Chinese to English

    CERN Document Server

    Valerie, Pellatt

    2010-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation

  6. New Hope for Chinese Stocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Many people in recent years have held that investing in the Chinese stock markets posed risks. But remarkable changes have taken place in China's stock markets during the past year, according to Mark De Weaver, a research analyst in Shenzhen who now manages a fund investing in Asian equities called Quantrarian Asia Hedge. According to De Weaver, the changes include split-share and brokerage reforms, a new securities law and more opportunities for qualified foreign investors. His main ideas follow:

  7. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Junping; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Weicun; CISC’15

    2016-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers from the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference (CISC’15), held in Yangzhou, China. The topics covered include multi-agent systems, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, complex systems, computation intelligence and soft computing, intelligent control, advanced control technology, robotics and applications, intelligent information processing, iterative learning control, and machine learning. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent systems.

  8. Comment on Chinese food culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣

    2014-01-01

    <正>Enjoying all kinds of food can be the most important issue in China,Chinese people love to have nice food and to study them,after a few thousand years,food have become the most important part of China and has gradually formed a unique culture.There is a saying,food is the paramount necessity of people(民以食为天),however,in China,people are not eating only when they

  9. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  10. The Chinese Health Care System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Yu, Yi

    In the present paper we describe the structure of the Chinese health care system and sketch its future development. We analyse issues of provider incentives and the actual burden sharing between government, enterprises and people. We further aim to identify a number of current problems and link...... these to a discussion of future challenges in the form of an aging population, increased privatization and increased inequity...

  11. A Window of Chinese Folklore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    PRESENI-DAY Chinese folk-lore is a window throughwhich one can see Chineseculture;one can see contemporarylife,but mostly one views traditional folk culture.China’s 5,000 years ofhistory,civilization,vast lands and national background have brought afascinating variety of local customsto China’s 56 nationalities.The fol-lowing is a brief introduction to their religious beliefs,sacrificial ritesand festive gatherings.

  12. On the Chinese People's Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Appreciation of art is not a birthright. In the prehistoric primitive society, the ancestors of the Chinese people rooted in the harsh natural environment of the Yellow River Basin and began forging their own solid characteristics as the loess and rock. Our ancestors survived in the harsh natural conditions. Pressure of keeping alive deprived of their original romantic, despite that Neolithic primitive rock art, pottery painting

  13. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  14. How Chinese learn mathematics perspectives from insiders

    CERN Document Server

    Ngai-Ying, Wong; Lianghuo, Fan; Shiqi, Li

    2004-01-01

    The book has been written by an international group of very active researchers and scholars who have a passion for the study of Chinese mathematics education. It aims to provide readers with a comprehensive and updated picture of the teaching and learning of mathematics involving Chinese students from various perspectives, including the ways in which Chinese students learn mathematics in classrooms, schools and homes, the influence of the cultural and social environment on Chinese students' mathematics learning, and the strengths and weaknesses of the ways in which Chinese learn mathematics. Furthermore, based on the relevant research findings, the book explores the implications for mathematics education and offers sound suggestions for reform and improvement. This book is a must for anyone who is interested in the teaching and learning of mathematics concerning Chinese learners.

  15. Annual Meeting Reveals Competitiveness of Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓午

    2008-01-01

    This is the fifth year since the first "Chinese Enterprises Competitiveness Annual Meeting" convened in 2003. During those five years,we have witnessed a period of remarkable performance by Chinese enterprises. These last five years have seen a reaping of the fruits brought about by China’s three-decade-long reform and opening, as evidenced by the increasing growth and maturity of Chinese enterprises and the rising competitiveness of publicly listed Chinese enterprises. Along with the development of globalization initiatives, Chinese enterprises are moving firmly and solidly towards internationalization and have begun to have a profound impact on the world economy. The roadmap of Chinese enterprises has now become a focus of global attention.

  16. Chinese Massage Therapy for Ankle Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming-xia; LI Nian-qun; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the therapeutic methods and effects in the treatment of acute and chronic injuries of the ankle joint by Chinese massage therapy in combination with external application of Chinese herbal drugs and functional exercises. Methods: Totally, 36 cases of the patients with acute soft tissue injury, chronic soft tissue injury and post-fracture sequelae of the ankle joint were treated by Chinese massage therapy, external application or external wash of Chinese herbal drugs, and exercises of dorsal flexion and extension of the ankle joint, to observe the restoration of the ankle functions.Results: In 36 cases of the patients, the results showed remarkable effect in 18 cases, effect in 16 cases, failure in 2 cases and the effective rate in 94.4%. Conclusion: The combined use of Chinese massage therapy, external application of Chinese herbal drugs and functional exercises can produce precise effect in the treatment of soft tissue injury of the ankle joint.

  17. Health-seeking behaviours and use of traditional Chinese medicine among the British Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Rochelle, T.L.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Psychology (Health) presents three pieces of work: 1) Systematic Review of Acupuncture as an Intervention for the Alleviation of Chronic Back Pain. 2) Health-Seeking Behaviours and Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine among the British Chinese 3) Design of an evaluation to measure outcomes of a Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinic for a Chinese Health Centre in London's Chinatown. The underlying theme linking these three pieces of work is Traditiona...

  18. A history of Chinese mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Martzloff, Jean-Claude

    1997-01-01

    For the English language edition, this completely unique book of J.C. Martzloff has been fully revised and updated. It includes many new recent insights and illustrations, a new appendix on Chinese primary sources and a guide to the to the bibliography. From the reviews: "This book ranks with the most erudite Asian publications, and is the most informative and most broadly informed on its topic in any language." N. Sivin, China Quarterly "... crammed with insights, cautionary tales and a great deal of information about current research ... will surely become a standard reference for students, teachers, and researchers alike", J. N. Crossley, Annals of Science "... a truly scholarly and balanced exposition ... a book that the reviewer believes belongs in the library of every university or college, as well as in that of every individual seriously interested in the history of Chinese mathematics", B. L. McAllister, ZBfM "Martzloff History demonstrates clearly that while the Chinese were adept in applying their m...

  19. Chinese geodetic coordinate system 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YuanXi

    2009-01-01

    The basic strategies In establishing the Chinese geodetic coordinate system 2000 have been summarized,including the definition of the coordinate system,the structure of the terrestrial reference frame,the functional and stochastic models involved in the realization of the reference frame as well as the Improvements of the adjustment procedures.First,the fundamental frame of the coordinate system is composed of the permanent GPS tracking network in China which is integrated into the international GPS service stations by combined adjustment,in order to guarantee the consistence between the international terrestrial reference system and the Chinese geodetic coordinate system.Second,the extended frame of the coordinate system is composed of the unified 2000' national GPS network which is Integrated by 6 nationwide GPS networks with more than 2500 stations under the controlling of the fundamental frame.Third,the densified frame is composed of national astronomical geodetic network with nearly 50 thousand stations which was updated by the combined adjustment with the 2000' national GPS network,thus the datum of the national astronomical geodetic network has been unified and the precision greatly improved.By the optimal data fusion method the influences of the datum errors,systematic errors and the outliers in the separated geodetic networks are weakened in the unified Chinese geodetic coordinate frame.The significance in application of the new geodetic coordinate system and the existing problems In the reference frame are described and analyzed.

  20. Impact of Continuous Chinese Fir Monoculture on Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-Sheng; LIU Chun-Jiang; W. KUTSCH; CHEN Guang-Shui; YU Xin-Tuo

    2004-01-01

    Soil properties were investigated in sites where three succeeding generations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lambert) Hooker) in Nanping, Fujian, China, were cultivated in order to show the impact of a repeated monoculture on site productivity. Compared with the first generation (FG) stand the soil structure deteriorated in the second generation (SG) and the third generation (TG) stands. For instance,the destruction rate of the peds increased by 55%-115% in the SG and the TG stands compared to the FG stand. Soil nutrient storage and nutrient availability also decreased in the SG and the TG stands. For surface soils of 0-20 cm, the organic matter content, total N and P, and available N and P decreased by 3%-20% relative to those in the FG stand. For many soil parameters, the differences between the FG stand and the SG and the TG stands were statistically significant (LSD test, P < 0.05). Furthermore, with each succeeding generation of Chinese fir, the total number of soil microbes declined, the soil enzyme activity weakened, and the soil biological activity decreased. In order to maintain sustainable site productivity, new silvicultural practices need to be developed for management of Chinese fir plantations.