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Sample records for chinese organizations

  1. WEB BASED TRANSLATION OF CHINESE ORGANIZATION NAME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Muyun; Liu Daxin; Zhao Tiejun; Qi Haoliang; Lin Kaiming

    2009-01-01

    A web-based translation method for Chinese organization name is proposed. After analyzing the structure of Chinese organization name, the methods of bilingual query formulation and maximum entropy based translation re-ranking are suggested to retrieve the English translation from the web via public search engine. The experiments on Chinese university names demonstrate the validness of this approach.

  2. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Du Li; Rachul Christen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching ...

  3. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO. News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND, we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  4. Development Paths, Problems and Countermeasures of Chinese Civil Society Organizations

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    Chao YE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the process of reform and opening-up accelerates continually in China, the speed of development for Chinese Civil Society Organizations (CSOs is still slow; most organizations still operate under the government shadow and it is very difficult to cut relations with government. The autonomy of Chinese CSOs, to a large extent, is affected by the constraints from government. Overall, Chinese CSOs are still in their infancy, and they need to be further perfected and developed. The aim of this paper is to present a review of the field, with issues and promise identified. Specifically, the paper focuses on the internal management of these organizations and their existing problems in the development process, and some potential solutions for CSOs’ future development.

  5. An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…

  6. On the impacts of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the impact of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation from the perspective of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In each of these cultural systems, it appears that there are some particular sayings or remarks that are often taken in modern Chinese society to be contrary to organ donation, especially cadaveric organ donation. However, this article argues that the central concerns of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism are "great love," "ren," and "dao," which can be reasonably interpreted to support organ donation. The author understands that each cultural system, in order to play its cultural function, must have its central concerns as well as relevant ritual practices (li) that incarnate its religious and ethical commitments. That is, each plays a general cultural role, which influences organ donation in particular not merely through abstract or general ethical principles and teachings, but through a combination of ethical teachings and the forming of particular ritual practices. This article contends that the primary reason Chinese individuals fail to donate sufficient cadaveric organs for transplantation is not because particular remarks or sayings from each of these systems appear to conflict with donation. Neither is it that the central concerns of these systems cannot support cadaveric donation. Rather, it is that modern Chinese individuals have failed to develop and secure relevant ritual practices that support the central concerns of organ transplantation. The article concludes that in order to promote more donations, there is a need to form relevant ritual practices supporting organ donation in conformity with the central concerns of these cultural systems. PMID:23449366

  7. ELEMENTAL CONTENTS IN ORGANS AND TISSUES OF CHINESE ADULT MEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-da Zhu; Ya-qiong Liu; Qing Xie; Jing-yu Wang; Quan Wu; Nei-fen Wang; Ti-jiang Fan; Hu-sheng Liu; Qing-fen Liu; Xiao-yan Wang; Li Ou-yang

    2007-01-01

    Objective To provide basis of reference values for relevant parameters of Chinese Reference Man.Methods Eighteen kinds of major organ or tissue samples, including muscle, rib, liver, and so on, were obtained from 4 areas (Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangsu, and Sichuan provinces) with different dietary patterns in China in autopsy of 16 healthy adult men, who had just encountered sudden deaths. At the same time, whole blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers living in each of these areas. The concentrations of 56 elements in these samples were detected by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spec-trometry (ICP-AES), and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS) techniques. Based on obtained concentrations and reference values of these organ or tissue weights for Chinese Reference Man, the relative elemental burdens in these organs or tissues as well whole body were also estimated.Results The concentrations of 56 elements in 18 main organs or tissues were determined all together and their elemental organ or tissue and whole body burdens were estimated. Furthermore, the distributions of important elements for radiation protection in these organs or tissues were emphatically discussed.Conclusion By summing with past related results, the total results obtained from the series of research may provide more reliable and better representative basis of these reference values for Chinese Reference Man than before.

  8. Model Organisms and Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is an ancient medical system with a unique cultural background. Nowadays, more and more Western countries due to its therapeutic efficacy are accepting it. However, safety and clear pharmacological action mechanisms of TCM are still uncertain. Due to the potential application of TCM in healthcare, it is necessary to construct a scientific evaluation system with TCM characteristics and benchmark the difference from the standard of Western medicine. Model organisms have played an important role in the understanding of basic biological processes. It is easier to be studied in certain research aspects and to obtain the information of other species. Despite the controversy over suitable syndrome animal model under TCM theoretical guide, it is unquestionable that many model organisms should be used in the studies of TCM modernization, which will bring modern scientific standards into mysterious ancient Chinese medicine. In this review, we aim to summarize the utilization of model organisms in the construction of TCM syndrome model and highlight the relevance of modern medicine with TCM syndrome animal model. It will serve as the foundation for further research of model organisms and for its application in TCM syndrome model.

  9. Exploration of Organizing in Chinese High-Tech Companies Located in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    in their practices. The Chinese and the Danes deal with the ambiguity in many different ways. Research limitation: Few cases exist and the data is limited. Practical implications: The analysis creates learning opportunities for Chinese and Danish managers and highly qualified employees. Keywords......Purpose: Very little research has been done to find out what happens to organizing in Chinese companies that are located in countries characterized by cooperative capitalism. I focus on this phenomenon and explore what happens to organizing in two Chinese high-tech companies located in Denmark....... Design/methodology/approach: Case studies, interviewing, and three questions inspired by the work of Boltanski & Thévenot: 1) What type of test scenarios are the Chinese and Danes becoming engaged in? 2) Which worlds are called upon as justification of actions by the Chinese and Danes in the test...

  10. Connecting to the World Economy: Issues Confronting Organizations in Chinese Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling

    2000-01-01

    Notes that businesses and organizations in Chinese societies are working to manage structural changes in response to social and cultural transformation. Claims this Chinese experience has relevance to other societies in transition and provides an important reference to those impacted by global changes. (NH)

  11. Chinese and Taiwanese International College Students' Participation in Social Organizations: Implications for College Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chun; Wong, Y. Joel

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative focus group study explored the meaning of Chinese and Taiwanese international students' lived experiences in social organizations. Participants were 9 Chinese and Taiwanese international college students in a midwestern U.S. university. The analyses uncovered 7 themes: social support, recreation, emotional support, practical…

  12. Sorption equilibrium of emerging and traditional organic contaminants in leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    Emerging and petroleum contaminants could transfer into food chains by plant uptake, potentially causing food security problems. To build a prediction model, the sorption equilibrium and uptake kinetics of toluene, p-xylene, naphthalene, bisphenol A, and 4-bromo-diphenyl ether in some common leafy vegetables including leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage were examined. The kinetic experiments revealed that high sorption rates were observed for these plants that had high lipid contents. For two emerging contaminants with polar functional groups, their resulting isotherms were strongly linear (R(2) = 0.92 to 1.00), indicating that the sorption was dominated by partitioning. Moreover, regression correlation showed that log Klip, the lipid-water partition coefficient, and log Kow, the octanol-water coefficient, for these organic chemicals were strongly linear-related, following the equation: log Klip = 0.894 × log Kow+0.219 (R(2) = 0.953). The correlation equation allows the prediction of the sorption capacity of plant species for an organic compound when the plant composition and the log Kow of the chemical are determined. This improved model containing different organic chemicals with a wide range of log Kow (2.73-4.80) and including emerging contaminants was established, which shows further utilization for predicting the sorption of organic contaminants by plants. PMID:27085315

  13. Brokering Identity and Learning Citizenship: Immigration Settlement Organizations and New Chinese Immigrants in Canada

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    Yidan Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines citizenship learning and identity construction of new Chinese immigrants in a Canadian immigration settlement organization (ISO. I address the gap between the concept of “settlement” and “citizenship” generated by government-funded ISOs and new immigrants’ actual practices in these programs. I adopt Dorothy Smith’s approach of examining the social organization of people’s everyday lives (Smith 2005 in order to unpack the ruling relations behind the immigrant settlement services and to take the standpoint of Chinese new immigrants. Under this framework, I analyze a Canadian federal government’s funding criteria for ISOs and a settlement program’s annual report to unpack the ruling relations behind the texts. I further conduct in-depth interviews with two Chinese new immigrants in a Canadian ISO to understand the ruling relations behind citizenship learning and brokering activities in Canadian ISOs from the immigrants’ standpoint.

  14. The Negative Impact of Death Anxiety on Self-Efficacy and Willingness to Donate Organs among Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    2009-01-01

    Chinese people are consistently reported to be less likely to commit to posthumous organ donation than the Westerners. This study aims at investigating how death anxiety may hinder them from expressing their willingness to donate organs. Among 290 Hong Kong Chinese adults (age greater than or equal 25 years), a higher level of death anxiety was…

  15. Is the Scandinavian Way of Organizing Challenged by the Growing Chinese Economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The institutional order of organizing in working life is very different in Scandinavia and China. When Scandinavian and Chinese managers and employees meet in concrete work relations they not only work together on a product they also become engaged in institutional work dealing with the inconsist...

  16. Current knowledge and attitudes about organ donation and transplantation among Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J X; Zhang, T M; Lim, F L; Wu, H C; Lei, T F; Yeong, P K; Xia, S J

    2006-11-01

    Current attitudes toward organ donation among university students in mainland China and the differences in attitudes between Chinese students in mainland China versus overseas are unknown. To address these issues, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using questionnaires among 922 Chinese undergraduates from mainland China and overseas regions of the world. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Student t tests, chi-square tests, and a logistic regression analysis. We found that blood donors showed significantly better awareness of heart, liver, lung, skin, and tendon donation among commonly transplanted organs/tissues. As to the willingness for cadaveric organ donation, 61.3% of respondents consented, 8.5% objected, and 30.3% answered "not sure." The percentage holding an organ donor card was 15.7% among students from Hong Kong; 3.0%, mainland China; 2.8%, Macau; 2.6%, Taiwan, and 4.0%, other regions of the world. In a logistic regression analysis, female students (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 3.72) and blood donors (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.32) did, but age and study specialty (medical vs nonmedical) did not show significantly more positive attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation. Compared with students from mainland China, overseas Chinese students from various regions did not show significantly different attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation. In summary, blood donors among university students have a greater knowledge of transplantation and a more positive attitude toward organ donation. Since university students are an important source of blood donors in China, they will be a potential pool of organ donors in the future. PMID:17112824

  17. Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: Past, present and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Xiaotang; ZHANG Fusuo; BAO Xuemei; R(o)mheld V.; Roelcke M.

    2005-01-01

    Recycling and composting of organic materials such as animal waste, crop residues and green manures has a long tradition in China. In the past, the application of organic manures guaranteed a high return of organic materials and plant mineral nutrients and thus maintained soil fertility and crop yield. As a result of rapid economic development coupled with the increasing urbanization and labour costs, the recycling rate of organic materials in Chinese agriculture has dramatically declined during the last two decades, in particular in the more developed eastern and southeastern provinces of China. Improper handling and storage of the organic wastes is causing severe air and water pollution. Because farmers are using increasing amounts of mineral fertilizer, only 47% of the cropland is still receiving organic manure, which accounted for 18% of N,28% of P and 75% of K in the total nutrient input in 2000. Nowadays, the average proportion of nutrients (N+P+K) supplemented by organic manure in Chinese cropland is only 35% of the total amount of nutrients from both inorganic and organic sources.In China, one of the major causes is the increasing de-coupling of animal and plant production.This is occurring at a time when "re-coupling" is partly being considered in Western countries as a means to improve soil fertility and reduce pollution from animal husbandry. Re-coupling of modern animal and plant production is urgently needed in China. A comprehensive plan to develop intensive animal husbandry while taking into account the environmental impact of liquid and gaseous emissions and the nutrient requirements of the crops as well as the organic carbon requirements of the soil are absolutely necessary. As a consequence of a stronger consideration of ecological aspects in agriculture, a range of environmental standards has been issued and various legal initiatives are being taken in China. Their enforcement should be strictly monitored.

  18. Unidentified Corpses: Development of Management Model in Charity Organizations of Chinese-Thai People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orasa Pholpanga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Management model on indentified corpses in charity organizations of Chinese-Thai people was consisted of committee members from various agencies to manage in overall and to solve all occurred problems. Approach: This study proposed the study on model of cremation management on unidentified corpses in charity organizations of Chinese-Thai people. The study was a research and development by using processes of qualitative research. Population and samples were operators in charity organizations and general people, who participated in activities of Chinese-Thai people charity organizations, in 3 provinces as Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok and Chon Buri, Thailand. Observation form, survey form, interview form, focus group discussion and workshop were used as research tools while data was analyzed by descriptive research. Results: Management on cremation of unidentified corpses should be assigned in form of a group of committees to take responsibility for each division. Forensic Medicine Division was an important division for establishing justice and accuracy. Outsourcing was used to recruit persons for each division that would be provided all relatives of those unidentified corpses with trustworthiness. Management on unidentified would be successful with big charities by continuous operation of Public Relation Division. Due to long duration of Graveyard Big Cleaning Ceremony, at least 30-100 days, public relation should be continually operated. Finally, General Donation Division was supported budgets form members of charity network and general donators. Appointment of responsible persons, therefore, should be selected from those who had their honesties. Operating Division had responsibilities on facilitating, coordinating, understanding, controlling and managing conveniences for all divisions on the same direction. Volunteer and Workforce Division needed to have personnel with sacrifice and made merits for public even without any

  19. COMPETITIVENESS ОF CHINESE ECONOMY AFTER JOINING WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION

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    V. S. Shlik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of the China’s membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO. The advantages and disadvantages of WTO joining and also prospects and unforeseen difficulties are given in the paper. The People’s Republic of China has already been a full-member of WTO for 6 years. The Chinese Government has mainly fulfilled all the conditions which were imposed for WTO joining. They concerned customs legislation that presupposed a considerable reduction of custom duties, an access to the service market for foreign investors, an increase of responsibility for violation of intellectual property rights. Many of these conditions have been fulfilled in advance.

  20. Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: Past, present and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU; Xiaotang

    2005-01-01

    [1]King,F.H.,Farmers of forty centuries or permanent agriculture in China,Korea and Japan,German translation of first edition (Madison,Wis.,1911),1984.Georg,E.,Siebeneicher,Neu-Ulm und München,208.[2]FAO,FAO Soils Bulletin 40,China:Recycling of organic wastes in agriculture,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,Rome,2nd ed.,1978.[3]Roelcke,M.,Organic materials in rice production in the Yangtze River Delta-Investigation on the composition and effects of Waterlogged Compost (in German with English abstract),University Diploma Dissertation,Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture,Freising-Weihenstephan:Munich Technical University,1988,114.[4]Zhu,Z.L.,Chen,D.L.,Nitrogen fertilizer use in China-Contributions to food production,impacts on the environment and best management strategies,Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems,2002,63:117-127.[5]Ju,X.T.,Liu,X.J.,Zhang,F.S.et al,Nitrogen fertilization,soil nitrate accumulation,and policy recommendations in several agricultural regions of China,Ambio,2004,33(6):300-305.[6]Extension Center of Agricultural Techniques in China,ed.,Organic Manure Resources in China,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1999,1-8.[7]Cao,L.G.,The Fertilization History,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1981.[8]Liu,G.L.,Food production and balanced fertilization in China,in Proceeding of Third International Conference for Balanced Fertilization (ed.Institute of Soil Science and Fertilization,Chinese Academic of Agricultural Science),Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1989,16-21.[9]China Agricultural Yearbook,Editorial Committee of China Agricultural Yearbook,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1950 - 2003[10]Ellis,E.C.,Wang,S.M.,Sustainable traditional agriculture in the Tai Lake Region of China,Agriculture,Ecosystems and Environment,1997,61,177-193.[11]Ge,J.X.,The History of Chinese Population,Shanghai:Fudan University Publishing House,2001,5:831 - 832.[12]Zhang,S.X.,The Resources of Cultivable Land and

  1. Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: Past, present and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU; Xiaotang

    2005-01-01

    [1]King,F.H.,Farmers of forty centuries or permanent agriculture in China,Korea and Japan,German translation of first edition (Madison,Wis.,1911),1984.Georg,E.,Siebeneicher,Neu-Ulm und München,208.[2]FAO,FAO Soils Bulletin 40,China:Recycling of organic wastes in agriculture,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,Rome,2nd ed.,1978.[3]Roelcke,M.,Organic materials in rice production in the Yangtze River Delta-Investigation on the composition and effects of Waterlogged Compost (in German with English abstract),University Diploma Dissertation,Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture,Freising-Weihenstephan:Munich Technical University,1988,114.[4]Zhu,Z.L.,Chen,D.L.,Nitrogen fertilizer use in China-Contributions to food production,impacts on the environment and best management strategies,Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems,2002,63:117-127.[5]Ju,X.T.,Liu,X.J.,Zhang,F.S.et al,Nitrogen fertilization,soil nitrate accumulation,and policy recommendations in several agricultural regions of China,Ambio,2004,33(6):300-305.[6]Extension Center of Agricultural Techniques in China,ed.,Organic Manure Resources in China,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1999,1-8.[7]Cao,L.G.,The Fertilization History,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1981.[8]Liu,G.L.,Food production and balanced fertilization in China,in Proceeding of Third International Conference for Balanced Fertilization (ed.Institute of Soil Science and Fertilization,Chinese Academic of Agricultural Science),Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1989,16-21.[9]China Agricultural Yearbook,Editorial Committee of China Agricultural Yearbook,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1950 - 2003[10]Ellis,E.C.,Wang,S.M.,Sustainable traditional agriculture in the Tai Lake Region of China,Agriculture,Ecosystems and Environment,1997,61,177-193.[11]Ge,J.X.,The History of Chinese Population,Shanghai:Fudan University Publishing House,2001,5:831 - 832.[12]Zhang,S.X.,The Resources of Cultivable Land and

  2. Effects of Manipulated Above- and Belowground Organic Matter Input on Soil Respiration in a Chinese Pine Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Fan; Jinsong Wang; Bo Zhao; Lianhai Wu; Chunyu Zhang; Xiuhai Zhao; Gadow, Klaus V.

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT), only litter removal (LR), control (CK), only root trenching (RT) and litter a...

  3. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Organic anion transporting polypeptide-1B1 haplotypes in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-yong XU; Hong-hao ZHOU; Zhen-qiu SUN; Yi-jing HE; Wei ZHANG; Sheng Deng; Qing LI; Wei-xia ZHANG; Zhao-qian LIU; Dan WANG; Yuan-fei HUANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To detect 388G>A and 521T>C variant alleles in the organic anion transporting polypeptide- 1B 1 (OATP 1B 1, encoding gene SLCOIB1) gene. Methods:One hundred and eleven healthy volunteers were screened for OATPIB 1 alleles in our study. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to identify the 388G>A polymorphism and a 1-step tetra-primer method was developed for the determination of 521T>C mutation. Results: The frequencies of the 388G>A and 521T>C variant alleles in the Chinese population were 73.4%and 14.0%,respectively. The frequencies of the SLCO1BI*lb and *15 haplotypes were 59.9% and 14.0%, respectively. Conclusion: The SLCO1B1*1b and SLCO1B1*15 variants are relatively common in the Chinese population. Their frequencies are similar to that in the Japanese, but significantly different from that in Caucasians and blacks.

  5. The Distributions of S. enteritidis in the Internal Organs of Chinese Guizhou Minipig after Orally Infected

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    Shu-Xuan Deng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese Guizhou mini-pigs were orally infected with a high-virulence strain of S. enteritidis. The kinetics of the S. enteritidis genomic deoxyribonucleic acid loads was analysised by the real-time PCR assay and the histopathological examination in various tissues were investigated. The results showed that at 4 h postinoculation, high S. enteritidis deoxyribonucleic acid loads were observed in various organs of the infected pigs. Thereafter, the bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid loads increased by various amounts until 2nd day postinoculation. The time course of the appearance of bacterial antigens and tissue lesions in various tissues was coincident with the levels of the bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid loads at the infection sites.

  6. Comparative study on active soil organic matter in Chinese fir plantation and native broad-leaved forest in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-kui; WANG Si-long; DENG Shi-jian

    2005-01-01

    Active soil organic matter (ASOM) has a main effect on biochemical cycles of soil nutrient elements such as N, P and S, and the quality and quantity of ASOM reflect soil primary productivity. The changes of ASOM fractions and soil nutrients in the first rotation site and the second rotation site of Chinese fir plantation and the native broad-leaved forest were investigated and analyzed by soil sampling at the Huitong Experimental Station of Forestry Ecology (at latitude 26°48′N and longitude 109°30′E under a subtropical climate conditions), Chinese Academy of Sciences in March, 2004. The results showed that values of ASOM fractions for the Chinese fir plantations were lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. The contents of easily oxidisable carbon (EOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for the first rotation of Chinese fir plantation were 35.9%, 13.7%, 87.8% and 50.9% higher than those for the second rotation of Chinese fir plantation, and were 15.8%, 47.3%, 38.1% and 30.2% separately lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. For the three investigated forest sites, the contents of MBC and WSOC had a larger decrease, followed by WSC, and the change of EOC was least. Moreover, soil physico-chemistry properties such as soil nutrients in Chinese fir plantation were lower than those in broad-leaved forest. It suggested that soil fertility declined after Chinese fir plantation replaced native broad-leaved forest through continuous artificial plantation.

  7. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter of black waters in a highly eutrophic Chinese lake: Freshly produced from algal scums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Niu, Cheng; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang

    2015-12-15

    Field campaigns and an incubation experiment were conducted to evaluate the sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in black water spots in highly polluted regions of the Chinese Lake Taihu. A significant positive correlation (pblack water samples than in the regular samples (pblack water samples was significantly higher than in the regular water samples (pblack water spots. PMID:26125526

  8. Contract Research Organizations (CROs) in China: integrating Chinese research and development capabilities for global drug innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun-Zhen; Hu, Hao; Wang, Chunming

    2014-01-01

    The significance of R&D capabilities of China has become increasingly important as an emerging force in the context of globalization of pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). While China has prospered in its R&D capability in the past decade, how to integrate the rising pharmaceutical R&D capability of China into the global development chain for innovative drugs remains challenging. For many multinational corporations and research organizations overseas, their attempt to integrate China's pharmaceutical R&D capabilities into their own is always hindered by policy constraints and reluctance of local universities and pharmaceutical firms. In light of the situation, contract research organizations (CROs) in China have made great innovation in value proposition, value chain and value networking to be at a unique position to facilitate global and local R&D integration. Chinese CROs are now being considered as the essentially important and highly versatile integrator of local R&D capability for global drug discovery and innovation. PMID:25406839

  9. Exploring the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sedimentary organic carbon in three Chinese lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fengchang; Xu, Libin; Liao, Haiqing; Zhao, Xiaoli [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment; Sun, Yongge [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Environmental and Biogeochemistry; Guo, Jianyang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). State Key Lab. of Environmental Geochemistry

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total organic carbon (TOC) in lake sediments. However, with respect to the complex organic matter in recent sediments, it is still unclear which part of TOC plays a key role in controlling PAHs distributions in natural sediments. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between PAHs and TOC components of different origins in lake sediments. Materials and methods: Sediment cores from three Chinese lakes with different trophic conditions - Lakes Bosten, Dianchi, and Poyang - were collected using a piston core sampler. The cores were sectioned into 1- or 2-cm intervals immediately after collection and transported on ice to the laboratory where they were stored at -20 C. The subsamples were freeze-dried and ground with a mortar and pestle for analyses. PAHs were analyzed by GC-MS and TOC was determined with a PE elemental analyzer after the removal of carbonates. Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis technique was used to deconvolute the TOC in the sediments into free and volatile hydrocarbons (S1), kerogen-derived hydrocarbons (S2), and residual carbon (RC); S2 was further separated into thermal less stable macromolecular organic matter (S2a) and high molecular weight kerogens (S2b). Results and discussion: Positive correlations between TOC and PAHs were observed in these lakes. Results show that the more labile, minor components of TOC (S1 and S2a) played a more important role in controlling PAH distributions than the major components of TOC (S2b and RC), probably due to the different accessibilities of the organic components. The algae-derived organic carbon had a greater influence on the distribution of low molecular weight PAHs than that of high molecular weight PAHs in sediments. This suggests that PAHs scavenging in the water column by algae is mainly targeted at low molecular weight PAHs, and that preferential scavenging of low

  10. National Scale Analysis of Soil Organic Carbon Storage in China Based on Chinese Soil Taxonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dong-Sheng; SHI Xue-Zheng; WANG Hong-Jie; SUN Wei-Xia; E. D. WARNER; LIU Qing-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and density in various soil types or locations are the foundation for examining the role of soil in the global carbon cycle. An assessment of SOC storage and density patterns in China based on soil types as defined by Chinese Soil Taxonomy (CST) and the recently compiled digital 1:1000 000 Soil Database of China was conducted to generate a rigorous database for the future study of SOC storage. First, SOC densities of 7292soil profiles were calculated and linked by soil type to polygons of a digital soil map using geographic information system resulting in a 1:1000 000 SOC density distribution map of China. Further results showed that soils in China covered 9 281 ×103 km2 with a total SOC storage of 89.14 Gt and a mean SOC density 96.0 t ha-1. Among the 14 CST orders, Cambosols and Argosols constituted high percentage of China's total SOC storage, while Andosols, Vertosols, and Spodsols had a low percentage. As for SOC density, Histosols were the highest, while Primosols were the lowest. Specific patterns of SOC storage of various soil types at the CST suborder, group, and subgroup levels were also described. Results obtained from the study of SOC storage and density of all CST soil types would be not only useful for international comparative research, but also for more accurately estimating and monitoring of changes of SOC storage in China.

  11. Laboratory measurements of emission factors of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from burning of Chinese crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Pan, Xiaole; Taketani, Fumikazu; Komazaki, Yuichi; Miyakawa, Takuma; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2015-05-01

    The emission factors (EFs) of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted during the burning of Chinese crop residue were investigated as a function of modified combustion efficiency in laboratory experiments. NMVOCs, including acetonitrile, aldehydes/ketones, furan, and aromatic hydrocarbons, were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Rape plant was burned in dry conditions and wheat straw was burned in both wet and dry conditions to simulate the possible burning of damp crop residue in regions of high temperature and humidity. We compared the present data to field data reported by Kudo et al. (2014). Good agreement between field and laboratory data was obtained for aromatics under relatively more smoldering combustion of dry samples, but laboratory data were slightly overestimated compared to field data for oxygenated VOC (OVOC). When EFs from the burning of wet samples were investigated, the consistency between the field and laboratory data for OVOCs was stronger than for dry samples. This may be caused by residual moisture in crop residue that has been stockpiled in humid regions. Comparison of the wet laboratory data with field data suggests that Kudo et al. (2014) observed the biomass burning plumes under relatively more smoldering conditions in which approximately a few tens of percentages of burned fuel materials were wet.

  12. 31P NMR analysis of membrane phospholipid organization in viable, reversibly electropermeabilized Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were reversibly permeabilized by submitting them to short, high-intensity, square wave pulses (1.8 kV/cm, 100 μs). The cells remained in a permeable state without loss of viability for several hours at 40C. A new anisotropic peak with respect to control cells was observed on 31P NMR spectroscopic analysis of the phospholipid components. This peak is only present when the cells are permeable, and normal anisotropy is recovered after resealing. Taking into account the fusogenicity of electropermeabilized cells, comparative studies were performed on 5% poly(ethylene glycol) treated cells. The 31P NMR spectra of the phospholipids displayed the same anisotropic peak as in the case of the electropermeabilized cells. In the two cases, this anisotropic peak was located downfield from the main peak associated to the phospholipids when organized in bilayers. The localization of this anisotropic peak is very different from the one of a hexagonal phase. The authors proposed a reorganization of the polar head group region leading to a weakening of the hydration layer to account for these observations. This was also thought to explain the electric field induced fusogenicity of these cells

  13. The Distributions of S. enteritidis in the Internal Organs of Chinese Guizhou Minipig after Orally Infected

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Xuan Deng; Ning Qian; Wei-Yi Tian; Guang-Zhi He

    2011-01-01

    Chinese Guizhou mini-pigs were orally infected with a high-virulence strain of S. enteritidis. The kinetics of the S. enteritidis genomic deoxyribonucleic acid loads was analysised by the real-time PCR assay and the histopathological examination in various tissues were investigated. The results showed that at 4 h postinoculation, high S. enteritidis deoxyribonucleic acid loads were observed in various organs of the infected pigs. Thereafter, the bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid loads increased...

  14. Ontology Learning for Chinese Information Organization and Knowledge Discovery in Ethnology and Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Jing

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology learning architecture that reflects the interaction between ontology learning and other applications such as ontology-engineering tools and information systems. Based on this architecture, we have developed a prototype system CHOL: a Chinese ontology learning tool. CHOL learns domain ontology from Chinese domain specific texts. On the one hand, it supports a semi-automatic domain ontology acquisition and dynamic maintenance, and on the other hand, it supports a...

  15. Industrial-Organization-Transformation-Oriented Agricultural Modernization with Chinese Characteristics: From the Perspective of Industrial and Agricultural Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang Tang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural modernization as an outcome of economic development cannot be achieved within the agriculturalsector only. The agricultural transformation process in western countries has revealed that agriculturalmodernization is a process in which agricultural organizations spontaneously achieve the transformation inagricultural industrial organization and agricultural technology with the core ideology of industrialization. Theexisting binary system has made Chinese agriculture fail to achieve the transformation in industrial organizationand technology synchronically with the industrial sector. Therefore, in the current conditions, in order tofacilitate agricultural modernization, we must transform the land system at the level of relations of production,urban and rural household registration system, urban and rural social security system and other key factors,promote the transformation of agricultural industrial organization with the core concept of industrial revolution,thus promoting the spontaneous revolution in agricultural production technology.

  16. Emerging HRD Issues: A Conceptual Framework for Corporate University in the Context of Chinese Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Alagaraja, Meera

    2007-01-01

    The authors suggest a conceptual framework for developing CU's in the Chinese organizational context. We reviewed literature on existing conceptual frameworks and chose the CU wheel as proposed by Prince and Stewart. Four core processes identified in the CU wheel were realigned and readjusted in developing our framework of Corporate University in…

  17. Influence of Sticky Rice and Anionic Polyacrylamide on the Crystallization of Calcium Carbonate in Chinese Organic Sanhetu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Peng, Changsheng; Dai, Min; Gu, Qingbao; Song, Shaoxian

    2015-09-01

    The crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in soil controlled by natural organic material was considered a very important reason to enhance the property of ancient Chinese organic Sanhetu (COS), but how the organic material affected the crystallization of CaCO3 in COS is still unclear. In this paper, a natural organic material (sticky rice, SR) and a synthetic organic material (anionic polyacrylamide, APAM) were selected as additives to investigate their effect on the crystallization of CaCO3. The experimental results showed that the morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals could be affected by the concentration of additives and reaction time, while only the size of CaCO3 crystals could be affected by the concentration of reactant. Although the morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals varied greatly with the variation of additive concentration, reactant concentration and reaction time, the polymorph of CaCO3 crystals were always calcite, according to SEM/EDX, XRD and FTIR analyses. This study may help us to better understand the mechanism of the influence of organic materials on CaCO3 crystallization and properties of COS.

  18. Classification of Mixtures of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on a Self-organizing Map (SOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maolin; Li, Li; Yu, Changyuan; Yan, Aixia; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Miao; Lu, Aiping; Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs) are typically mixtures of compounds and are often categorized into cold and hot according to the theory of Chinese Medicine. This classification is essential for guiding the clinical application of CHMs. In this study, three types of molecular descriptors were used to build models for classification of 59 CHMs with typical cold/hot properties in the training set taken from the original records on properties in China Pharmacopeia as reference. The accuracy and the Matthews correlation coefficient of the models were validated by a test set containing other 56 CHMs. The best model produced the accuracies of 94.92 % and 83.93 % on training set and test set, respectively. The MACCS fingerprint model is robust in predicting hot/cold properties of the CHMs from their major constituting compounds. This work shows how a classification model for data consisting of multi-components can be developed. The derived model can be used for the application of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:27491920

  19. Discussion on Strategies of Internal Leadership in Chinese Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li

    2011-01-01

    As a new type of organization, non-profit organizations have proposed new requirements on leadership practice and development of theory. There are three inadaptations existing in the traditional organization and leadership pattern to the internal leadership of non-profit organization, namely, inadaptation to changes of relationship between leaders and followers, inadaptation to uncertainty of decision-making foundation and inadaptation to innovative development of the organizations. This arti...

  20. The measurement of organic radiation dose of multi-slice CT scanning by using the Chinese anthropomorphic chest phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Using the Chinese anthropomorphic chest phantom to measure the absorbed dose of various tissues and organs under different noise index, and to assess the radiation dose of MSCT chest scanning with the effective dose (ED). Methods: The equivalence of the Chinese anthropomorphic chest phantom (CDP-1 C) and the adult chest on CT sectional anatomy and X-ray attenuation was demonstrated. The absorbed doses of various tissues and organs under different noise index were measured by laying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) inside the phantom, and the corresponding dose-length products (DLP) were recorded. Both of them were later converted into ED and comparison was conducted to analyze the dose levels of chest CT scanning with automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) under different noise index. Student t-test was applied using SPSS 12.0 statistical software. Results: The Phantom was similar to the human body on CT sectional anatomy. The average CT value of phantom are - 788.04 HU in lung, 45.64 HU in heart, 65.84 HU in liver, 254.32 HU in spine and the deviations are 0.10%, 3.04%, 4.49% and 4.36% respectively compared to humans. The difference of average CT value of liver was statistically significant (t=-8.705, P0.05). As the noise index increased from 8.5 to 22.5, the DLP decreased from 393.57 mGy · cm to 78.75 mGy · cm and the organs dose declined. For example, the average absorbed dose decreased from 22.38 mGy to 3.66 mGy in lung. Compared to ED calculating by absorbed dose, the ED calculating by DLP was lower. The ED values of the two methods were 6.69 mSv and 8.77 mSv when the noise index was set at 8.5. Conclusions: Application of the Chinese anthropomorphic chest phantom to carry out CT dose assessment is more accurate. The noise index should be set more than 8.5 during the chest CT scanning based on ATCM technique. (authors)

  1. Organization of Time in the Chinese Countryside: Labor, Rhythms and Gender in the Later Maoist Period (1958-1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question of how the state policies during the later Maoist period, from the beginning of the Great Leap Forward (1958 to the introduction of the Modernization Reforms (1978, affected the organization of time in the Chinese countryside. After abandoning the initial Soviet model of modernization, based on the exclusive strengthening of heavy industry, the China’s leadership developed a strategy of parallel development of agriculture and industry, wherein the former would additionally support the modernization of the latter. The study is focused on the ways the longer term state plans and shorter term economic, social and ideological policies and campaigns jointly influenced the rhythms of life of Chinese peasants. The domains in which these influences became visible were: (1 the intensification of agricultural practices, (2 the introducing of the small-scale industry, and (3 the politicizing of the spare time. In the analysis the characteristic rhythms of work and rest within the daily, weekly, seasonal, and annual time spans are followed in detail.

  2. The Evolution of Organic Carbon in Chinese Mollisol Under Different Farming Systems: Validation and Prediction by Using Century Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important indicator of soil degradation process. In this study, the long-term SOC evolution in Chinese mollisol farmland was simulated and predicted by validating, analyzing, processing and assorting concerning data, based on clarifying parameters of Century model need, combined with best use of recorded data of field management, observed data of long-term experiments, climate, soil, and biology, and achieved results from Hailun Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The results were showed as follows: Before reclamation, SOC content was around 58.00 g kg-1. SOC content dropped quickly in early years, and then decreased slowly after reclamation. SOC content was around 34.00 g kg-1 with a yearly average rate of 8.91% decrease before long-term experiments was established. After a long-term experiment, SOC would change under different farming systems. Shift farming system changed as follows: By 20-year model simulation, SOC content decreased from 34.03 to 30.19 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 5.97‰; by 100-year model simulation, SOC content decreased to 24.31 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 3.36‰. Organic fanning system changed as follows: By 20-year model simulation, SOC content decreased slowly from 34.03 to 33.39 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 0.95‰, 5‰ less than that of shift farming system; by 100-year model simulation, SOC content decreased to 32.21 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 0.55‰. "Petroleum" farming system changed as follows: By 20-year model simulation, SOC content decreased from 34.03 to 32.88 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 1.72‰, much more than that of organic farming system; by 100-year model simulation, SOC content decreased to 30.89 g kg-1, with a yearly average rate of 0.96‰. Combined "petroleum"-organic farming system changed as follows: By 20-year model simulation, SOC content was increased slightly; by 100-year model simulation, SOC content

  3. Effects of manipulated above- and belowground organic matter input on soil respiration in a Chinese pine plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fan

    Full Text Available Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT, only litter removal (LR, control (CK, only root trenching (RT and litter addition (LA. We found that either aboveground litter removal or root trenching decreased soil respiration. On average, soil respiration rate was significantly decreased in the LRRT treatment, by about 38.93% ± 2.01% compared to the control. Soil respiration rate in the LR treatment was 30.65% ± 1.87% and in the RT treatment 17.65% ± 1.95% lower than in the control. Litter addition significantly increased soil respiration rate by about 25.82% ± 2.44% compared to the control. Soil temperature and soil moisture were the main factors affecting seasonal variation in soil respiration. Up to the 59.7% to 82.9% seasonal variation in soil respiration is explained by integrating soil temperature and soil moisture within each of the various organic matter treatments. The temperature sensitivity parameter, Q10, was higher in the RT (2.72 and LA (3.19 treatments relative to the control (2.51, but lower in the LRRT (1.52 and LR treatments (1.36. Our data suggest that manipulation of soil organic matter input can not only alter soil CO2 efflux, but also have profound effect on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon decomposition in a temperate pine forest.

  4. Effects of manipulated above- and belowground organic matter input on soil respiration in a Chinese pine plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Juan; Wang, Jinsong; Zhao, Bo; Wu, Lianhai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Gadow, Klaus V

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT), only litter removal (LR), control (CK), only root trenching (RT) and litter addition (LA). We found that either aboveground litter removal or root trenching decreased soil respiration. On average, soil respiration rate was significantly decreased in the LRRT treatment, by about 38.93% ± 2.01% compared to the control. Soil respiration rate in the LR treatment was 30.65% ± 1.87% and in the RT treatment 17.65% ± 1.95% lower than in the control. Litter addition significantly increased soil respiration rate by about 25.82% ± 2.44% compared to the control. Soil temperature and soil moisture were the main factors affecting seasonal variation in soil respiration. Up to the 59.7% to 82.9% seasonal variation in soil respiration is explained by integrating soil temperature and soil moisture within each of the various organic matter treatments. The temperature sensitivity parameter, Q10, was higher in the RT (2.72) and LA (3.19) treatments relative to the control (2.51), but lower in the LRRT (1.52) and LR treatments (1.36). Our data suggest that manipulation of soil organic matter input can not only alter soil CO2 efflux, but also have profound effect on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon decomposition in a temperate pine forest. PMID:25970791

  5. Increased Mortality Risk for Cancers of the Kidney 
and Other Urinary Organs among Chinese Herbalists

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Wang, Jung-Der; Lo, Tsai-Chang; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2009-01-01

    Background A national survey in Taiwan has shown that Chinese herbal therapy increases the risk of chronic kidney disease. However, it is unknown whether herbal therapy will increase the risk of urological cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Chinese herbalists are at higher risk for urological cancers. Methods We studied all Chinese herbalists in Taiwan that were registered in the Chinese Herbalist Labor Union between 1985 and 2000. We retrospectively followed their su...

  6. Chinese consumers' adoption of a "green" innovation - the case of organic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    Western Europe, the early adoption of organic food in China is positively related to what Schwartz termed “universalism values.” Also as in the West, the personal attitude towards buying organic food in China is strongly linked to beliefs about its healthiness, taste and environmental friendliness. Social...

  7. Chinese consumers' adoption of a "green" innovation - the case of organic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2012-01-01

    Western Europe, the early adoption of organic food in China is positively related to what Schwartz termed “universalism values.” Also as in the West, the personal attitude towards buying organic food in China is strongly linked to beliefs about its healthiness, taste and environmental friendliness. Social...

  8. Seasonal and spatial variability of the organic matter-to-organic carbon mass ratios in Chinese urban organic aerosols and a first report of high correlations between aerosol oxalic acid and zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We calculated the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratios (OM/OC mass ratios in PM2.5 collected from 14 Chinese cities during summer and winter of 2003 and analyzed the causes for their seasonal and spatial variability. The OM/OC mass ratios were calculated two ways. Using a mass balance method, the calculated OM/OC mass ratios averaged 1.92 ± 0.39 yr-round, with no significant seasonal or spatial variation. The second calculation was based on chemical species analyses of the organic compounds extracted from the PM2.5 samples using dichloromethane/methanol and water. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in summer was relatively high (1.75 ± 0.13 and spatially-invariant, due to vigorous photochemistry and secondary OA production throughout the country. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in winter (1.59 ± 0.18 was significantly lower than that in summer, with lower values in northern cities (1.51 ± 0.07 than in southern cities (1.65 ± 0.15. This likely reflects the wider usage of coal for heating purposes in northern China in winter, in contrast to the larger contributions from biofuel and biomass burning in southern China in winter. On average, organic matters constituted 36% and 34% of Chinese urban PM2.5 mass in summer and winter, respectively. We reported, for the first time, high correlations between Zn and oxalic acid in Chinese urban aerosols in summer. This is consistent with the formation of stable Zn oxalate complex in the aerosol phase previously proposed by Furukawa and Takahashi (2011. We found that many other dicarboxylic acids were also highly correlated with Zn in the summer Chinese urban aerosol samples, suggesting that they may also form stable organic complexes with Zn. Such formation may have profound implications for the atmospheric abundance and hygroscopic property of aerosol dicarboxylic acids.

  9. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  10. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometric characterization of organic aerosol from European and Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Organic aerosol constitutes a substantial fraction (20-90%) of submicrometer aerosol mass, playing an important role in air quality and human health. Over the past few years, ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) has been applied to elucidate the chemical composition of ambient aerosols. However, most of the UHRMS studies used direct infusion without prior separation by liquid chromatography, which may cause the loss of individual compound information and interference problems. In the present study, urban ambient aerosol with particle diameter pure water and prepared for the extraction of humic-like substances. The extracts were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an Orbitrap mass spectrometer in both negative and the positive modes. The effects of pretreatment procedures on the characterization of organic aerosol and the city-wise difference in chemical composition of organic aerosol will be discussed in detail.

  11. Organizing Learning Materials through Hierarchical Topic Maps: An Illustration through Chinese Herb Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, B.-J.; Shih, J.-L.; Chen, R.-L.

    2007-01-01

    This research aims to use hierarchical topic maps to compile digital learning material and to discuss its design and application possibilities. The system renders tremendous original assets and then embeds a self-organizing map (SOM) in the material database to produce topical learning materials, as in this case, an illustration through Chinese…

  12. Motor Knowledge Is One Dimension for Concept Organization: Further Evidence from a Chinese Semantic Dementia Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Guo, Qihao; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have indicated that motor knowledge is one potential dimension along which concepts are organized. Here we present further direct evidence for the effects of motor knowledge in accounting for categorical patterns across object domains (living vs. nonliving) and grammatical domains (nouns vs. verbs), as…

  13. Variations of organic carbon isotopic composition and its environmental significance during the last glacial on western Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fahu; RAO Zhiguo; ZHANG Jiawu; JIN Ming; MA Jianying

    2006-01-01

    A high-resolution loess section in the western Chinese Loess Plateau, Yuanbao Section,was sampled for organic carbon isotopic analyses.The soil organic carbon isotope (δ13Corg) varied between -22.6‰ and -27.5‰ during the last glacial at the section. During the last interstadial, the δ13Corg values were more negative than those in both early and late periods of the last glacial by 4‰. The isotopic composition indicates a coupled response of the pure C3 plants to the temperature, precipitation and the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Decrease in temperature and the atmospheric CO2 concentration from the last interstadial to Last Glaicial Maximum (LGM) caused the organic carbon isotopes to become positive by 1.5‰-2.0‰. The amplitude of 4‰in the δ13Corg variation during the last glacial should be mainly caused by the precipitation change.Therefore, the δ13Corg variations of the Yuanbao Section during the last glacial period documented the large-amplitude fluctuation of the monsoon precipitation, which is estimated to be 250-310 mm more during the last interstadial than that in the LGM, and 100 mm more than that during early last glacial. The rapid changes of the monsoon precipitation on millennial scale during the last glacial have also been recorded in the isotopic variations in Yuanbao loess section. As the isotopic composition varies complicatedly as shown in the Ioess-paleosol sequence, it cannot be simply attributed to the abundances of C3and C4 plants or be used as an indicator of the summer monsoon variations.

  14. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein predicts target organ damage in Chinese patients with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Nie, Hai; He, Hongbo;

    2007-01-01

    with metabolic syndrome. A total of 1082 consecutive patients of Chinese origin were screened for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and target organ damage, including cardiac...... hypertrophy, carotid intima-media thickness, and renal impairment, were investigated. The median (25th and 75th percentiles) of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in 619 patients with metabolic syndrome was 2.42 mg/L (0.75 and 3.66 mg/L) compared with 1.13 mg/L (0.51 and 2.46 mg/L) among 463 control subjects...... (P <.01). There was a progressive increase in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level with the number of components of the metabolic syndrome. Stratification of patients with metabolic syndrome into 3 groups according to their high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations (3.0 mg/L) showed...

  15. Relative Chinese emission standards of volatile organic compounds in waste gas exhausted from industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, the environmental protection is one of the basic national policies. For the sake of preventing environmental pollution, keeping the ecosystem equilibrium, and protecting the health of the human beings, a series of environmental protection standards have been established by the lawmaking organization or government environmental protection sections, and the standards have become an importance part of the environmental law system. In China, the air pollution control gets recognition at all the time, and Air Pollution Prevention Law endows the national environmental protection sections with the duty of establishing various national environmental standards and supervising those standards to be put into practice. (author)

  16. Cross-cultural variations in climate for autonomy, stress and organizational productivity relationships:A comparison of Chinese and UK manufacturing organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Hirst, Giles; Budhwar, Pawan; Cooper, Brian K; West, Michael; Long, Chen; Chongyuan, Xu; Shipton, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Cross-cultural researchers have questioned the extent to which European–American management practices can be transported to major markets in Asia, such as the People's Republic of China. Applying employee involvement theory, we examined the relationships between climate for autonomy, work demands climate, employee stress and organizational productivity in a cross-national study of 51 UK and 104 Chinese manufacturing organizations. We predicted and found that climate for autonomy was positivel...

  17. A new ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction for simultaneous preconcentration flavonoids and anthraquinones from traditional Chinese prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Sha; Hu, Shuang; Chen, Xuan; Bai, Xiao-Hong; Li, Qing-Shan

    2013-12-01

    A novel technique, ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction (ILWOS-3p-ME) was developed and introduced for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of flavonoids and anthraquinones in Chinese herbal formula and its preparations. This technique was performed in one step by using a syringe. High performance liquid chromatography with an UV-detector (HPLC/UV) was subsequently conducted. Two solvents with different densities (organic solvent and ionic liquid with densities less than and higher than water, respectively) were separately placed in a syringe, which was used as an extraction device. A cloudy emulsion was formed by manually shaking the syringe. The mixture was allowed to stand for several minutes; afterward, the emulsion readily separated into three phases: an upper organic solvent extraction phase; a middle aqueous sample phase; and a lower ionic liquid extraction phase. Both the upper and lower layers were transferred to a small Eppendorf (EP) tube. Conducting ILWOS-3P-ME with HPLC/UV, we simultaneously determined the bioactive components of flavonoids and anthraquinones in traditional Chinese medicine. ILWOS-3P-ME is a simple, rapid, practical, and effective method to extract and preconcentrate of different types of trace bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicine simultaneously. PMID:23969331

  18. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g. Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution.

  19. Molecular, seasonal, and spatial distributions of organic aerosols from fourteen Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lee, Shuncheng; Ho, Kinfai; Cao, Junji

    2006-08-01

    Organic aerosols were studied at the molecular level in 14 coastal and inland mega-cities in China during winter and summer 2003. They are characterized by the abundant presence of n-alkanes (annual average, 340 ng m(-3)), fatty acids (769 ng m(-3)), sugars (412 ng m(-3)), and phthalates (387 ng m(-3)). In contrast, fatty alcohols, polyols/polyacids, lignin and resin products, sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and hopanes were detected as relatively minor components. n-Alkanes show a weak odd/even carbon predominance (CPI = 1.1) and PAHs show a predominance of benzo(b)fluoranthene, suggesting a serious contribution from fossil fuel (mainly coal) combustion. Their concentrations (except for phthalates and polyols/polyacids) were 2-15 times higher in winter than summer due to a significant usage of coal burning and an enhancement of atmospheric inversion layers. Phthalates were found to be more abundant in summer than winter, probably due to enhanced vaporization from plastics followed by adsorptive deposition on the pre-existing particles. Concentrations of total quantified compounds are extremely high (approximately 10 microg m(-3)) in the midwest (Chongqing and Xi'an) where active industrialization/urbanization is going on. This study shows that concentrations of the compounds detected are 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported from developed countries. PMID:16913115

  20. Characterization and expression profiling of MYB transcription factors against stresses and during male organ development in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gopal; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kayum, Md Abdul; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-01

    organ-specific expression data, we identified nine R2R3-MYBs that were constitutively expressed in male reproductive tissue, which may provide an important key for studying male sterility in Chinese cabbage. The extensive annotation and transcriptome profiling reported in this study will be useful for understanding the involvement of MYB genes in stress resistance in addition to their growth regulatory functions, ultimately providing the basis for functional characterization and exploitation of the candidate MYB genes for genetic engineering of Chinese cabbage. PMID:27038155

  1. Seasonal and spatial variability of the OM/OC mass ratios and high regional correlation between oxalic acid and zinc in Chinese urban organic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xing

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We calculated the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratios (OM/OC mass ratios in PM2.5 collected from 14 Chinese cities during summer and winter of 2003 and analyzed the causes for their seasonal and spatial variability. The OM/OC mass ratios were calculated two ways. Using a mass balance method, the calculated OM/OC mass ratios averaged 1.92 ± 0.39 year-round, with no significant seasonal or spatial variation. The second calculation was based on chemical species analyses of the organic compounds extracted from the PM2.5 samples using dichloromethane/methanol and water. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in summer was relatively high (1.75 ± 0.13 and spatially-invariant due to vigorous photochemistry and secondary organic aerosol (OA production throughout the country. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in winter (1.59 ± 0.18 was significantly lower than that in summer, with lower values in northern cities (1.51 ± 0.07 than in southern cities (1.65 ± 0.15. This likely reflects the wider usage of coal for heating purposes in northern China in winter, in contrast to the larger contributions from biofuel and biomass burning in southern China in winter. On average, organic matter constituted 36% and 34% of Chinese urban PM2.5 mass in summer and winter, respectively. We report, for the first time, a high regional correlation between Zn and oxalic acid in Chinese urban aerosols in summer. This is consistent with the formation of stable Zn oxalate complex in the aerosol phase previously proposed by Furukawa and Takahashi (2011. We found that many other dicarboxylic acids were also highly correlated with Zn in the summer Chinese urban aerosol samples, suggesting that they may also form stable organic complexes with Zn. Such formation may have profound implications for the atmospheric abundance and hygroscopic properties of aerosol dicarboxylic acids.

  2. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L. cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were found on leaves and siliques. The strongest infection of leaves was in 2000 (50% and the weakest in 2001 (6,7%. In all the years of the research siliques were rather weak infected (50-8,89%. Besides powdery mildew was found on chinese mustard which injury index ranged from 0,3% in 1999 to 32,3% in 2000. Intensity of diseases was affected generally by the weather conditions. From the seeds of white mustard and chinese mustard were isolated respectively 263 and 137 colonies. Alternaria alternata was the most numerous species which makes respectively 60,9% and 42,3% isolates. Among the fungi pathogenic for white and chinese mustard were also isolated: A. brassicae, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solami.

  3. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Majchrzak; Tomasz P. Kurowski; Zofia Karpińska

    2013-01-01

    The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L.) cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were fo...

  4. Characterization of high-resolution aerosol mass spectra of primary organic aerosol emissions from Chinese cooking and biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-Y. He

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS has proved to be a powerful tool to measure submicron particulate composition with high time resolution. Factor analysis of mass spectra (MS collected worldwide by AMS demonstrates that submicron organic aerosol (OA is usually composed of several major components, such as oxygenated (OOA, hydrocarbon-like (HOA, biomass burning (BBOA, and other primary OA. In order to help interpretation of component MS from factor analysis of ambient OA datasets, AMS measurement of different primary sources is required for comparison. Such work, however, has been very scarce in the literature, especially for high resolution MS (HR-MS measurement, which performs improved characterization by separating the ions of different elemental compositions at each m/z in comparison with unit mass resolution MS (UMR-MS measurement. In this study, primary emissions from four types of Chinese cooking (CC and six types of biomass burning (BB were simulated systemically and measured using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight AMS (HR-ToF-AMS. The MS of the CC emissions show high similarity with m/z 41 and m/z 55 being the highest signals; the MS of the BB emissions also show high similarity with m/z 29 and m/z 43 being the highest signals. The MS difference between the CC and BB emissions is much bigger than that between different CC (or BB types, especially for the HR-MS. The O/C ratio of OA ranges from 0.08 to 0.13 for the CC emissions while from 0.18 to 0.26 for the BB emissions. The ions of m/z 43, m/z 44, m/z 57, and m/z 60, usually used as tracer ions in AMS measurement, were examined for their HR-MS characteristics in the CC and BB emissions. Moreover, the MS of the CC and BB emissions are also used to compare with component MS from factor analysis of ambient OA datasets observed in China, as well as with other AMS measurements of primary sources in the literature. The MS

  5. 中国人不愿身后捐献器官的原因分析%Cause Analysis on Chinese People's Unwillingness of Organ Donation after Their Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏宁; 任华玉; 王萍

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese traditional concept of death has long been recognized as an important factor leading to Chinese people's unwillingness of organ donation after their death and the difficulties in promoting body organ donation work in our country. Based on empirical research of some research institutions and the news media, we found that the real reason is not the traditional concept but the distrust for the system of organ donation in China.%中国人传统的死亡观念一直被公认为是导致中国人不愿身后捐献器官、我国遗体器官捐献工作难以推进的最重要因素。但通过一些研究机构和新闻媒体的实证调研却发现,导致中国人不愿死后捐献器官的真正原因不是受传统观念的影响,而是民众对我国器官捐献体系不信任。

  6. The Chinese version of the world health organization quality of life instrument-older adults module (WHOQOL-OLD): psychometric evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rong; Wu, Shaomin; Hao, Yuantao; Gu, Jing; Fang, Jiqian; Cai, Nanqiao; Zhang, Jinxin

    2013-01-01

    Background Under the circumstance of global population aging, the issue on how to facilitate the quality of life (QOL) for older people brings us grand challenge. On the way to solve this problem, it is inextricable to measure QOL for older people accurately at onset. This study is aimed at evaluating the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-OLD). Methods We received 1005 valid WHOQOL-OLD questi...

  7. Differences of English Mental Lexicon Organization: A Comparative Study between Advanced Chinese English Language Learners and English Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sibo

    2012-01-01

    Among various study topics of advanced second language (L2) learners, mental lexicon shares a unique significance. This paper will introduce a comparative experiment between advanced Chinese English as a Second Language (CESL) learners and English as first language (EL1) speakers. The research question of the study is whether advanced CESL…

  8. 基于多维数据模型的中药信息组织方式研究%Research on Information Organization Mode of Chinese Medicine Based on Multidimensional Data Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 闫朝升; 姜德友; 孟永海

    2015-01-01

    中药信息组织方式研究是满足中药信息型或分析型数据需求的关键途径。本文总结了中药信息组织方式的研究现状,并应用多维数据模型,设计中药信息的基本维度和概念分层。以信息查询为案例,利用星形模式,设计制作中药信息的多维数据模型,构建中药信息多维查询系统。基于多维数据模型的中药信息组织方式将为中药信息的多角度、多层次查询和利用提供方便。%The information organization mode of Chinese medicine is a key factor of meeting informational or analytical demands on Chinese medicine. This paper summarized the research status on information organization mode of Chinese medicine by using the basic principle of multidimensional data model, designing basic dimensions of Chinese medicine and its concept hierarchies. Finally, with an example of information query, this paper designed the multidimensional data model of Chinese medicine based on the star pattern and a multidimensional query system of Chinese medicine information. Based on the multidimensional data model, the information organization mode of Chinese medicine can provide powerful supports for the multi-angle and multi-level query using of Chinese medicine information.

  9. Scientific and Technical Chinese, Volume II. Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kung-yi; And Others

    A composite English-to-Chinese glossary of all terms introduced in the individual lessons of "Scientific and Technical Chinese" is presented here. The appendices include lists of weights and measures and chemical elements, and a partial list of Chinese government organizations and research institutes related to science and technology. (AMH)

  10. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    OpenAIRE

    Addendum by Penny Edwards; Lorraine Paterson

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45). He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967) and...

  11. Arsenic and Mercury Containing Traditional Chinese Medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) Strongly Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, In Vivo in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Na; Qi, Jin-Feng; Sun, Chen; Wang, Yong-Hui; Lin, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals, including mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As), accumulate preferentially in kidneys and always cause acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these samples affect organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in vivo in mice kidney. Mice (n = 10) were orally treated with investigational samples. After last administration, all mice were i.v. p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), and the blood and kidneys samples were collected. The concentrations of PAH were quantified by spectrophotometry. mRNA expressions of Oat1 and Oat3 were assayed by real-time PCR. In comparison with corresponding control, major pharmacokinetic parameters of PAH in sera were significantly changed by investigational samples (p Oat1 and Oat3 mRNA expression were significantly inhibited in investigational sample groups. Arsenic and mercury containing traditional Chinese medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) probably induce kidney damage through inhibiting several members of the organic anion transporters (such as OAT1 and OAT3). PMID:26788513

  12. The effects of perceived organizational support, perceived supervisor support and intra-organizational network resources on turnover intentions: a study of Chinese employees in multinational organizations.

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Alexander; Thanacoody, Rani

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of perceived organizational support (POS), perceived supervisor support (PSS) and intra-organizational network resources on the turnover intentions of the Chinese employees of multinational enterprises. The study utilized structured equation modeling to analyze survey data from 437 Chinese employees of five multinational enterprises operating in the Chinese service sector.The study found that POS was positively related to affective organi...

  13. 中国企业组织创新氛围的结构和测量%Development of an Instrument Measuring Innovative Climate in Chinese Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨百寅; 连欣; 马月婷

    2013-01-01

      采用实证研究方法对中国企业组织创新氛围的维度及测量进行研究。采用开放式问卷收集了555条描述,归类分析表明,中国情境下企业的组织创新氛围包括8个方面,并在此基础上形成开放式问卷。283份有效问卷的探索性因子分析表明,组织创新氛围是一个8因素的结构,包括:理念倡导、市场引导、评价激励、学习培训、沟通合作、典型示范、资源保障和授权支持。8因素又从属于更高阶的潜变量:价值导向、制度激励和人际互动。来自24家企业493份有效问卷的验证性因子分析验证了组织创新氛围的结构效度,内部一致性分析和回归分析的结果也表明,量表具有较好的信度和效度。%Based on literature review and grounded theory research method, this paper reports a series of studies designed to identify dimensions innovative climate in Chinese organizations. In the first study, the critical behavior incidents of innovative climate were collected using open-ended questionnaire. A total of 555 items was generated by 43 part-time MBA students. Eight categories were emerged with inductive method including value advocation, market orientation, appraisal and motivation, training and learning, communication and cooperation, resources ensur-ing, example demonstration, empowerment and support. In the second study, 283 part-time MBA students consist-ed of the sample and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were employed to identify the construct of the Chinese measurement of innovative climate. In the third study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied to test the validity of the measure using a sample of 493 employees from 24 companies. The scale of innovative climate in Chinese companies had high reliability estimates and acceptable evidences for construct validity. The implications of new scale of innovative climate in Chinese firms were discussed together with other scales

  14. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tingting

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented “three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)” national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Canc...

  15. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  16. Update Promotional Suggestions for Chinese Restaurants in Kuopio : Canton Hin Ravintola

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU, YUNFENG

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chinese restaurant is an organization which serves Chinese food outside China. Running Chinese restaurant is typically a business operated by Chinese people working in overseas. The popularity of Chinese food has increased in recent years due to the spread of Chinese culture and develop-ment of reform and opening policies of China. The competition between Chinese restaurants is becoming fiercer and fiercer. The main purpose of the study was to explore better promotional strate...

  17. 组织中上下级值得信任的行为研究%Research on Trustworthy Behavior in Chinese Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严进; 付琛; 郑玫

    2011-01-01

    组织中的信任关系已经成为研究的热点问题.在文献基础上,本研究采用半结构化访谈的研究方法,对42名管理人员进行访谈.通过编码和统计分析,结果发现,上下级值得信任的行为可以分为能力任务、支持相容、道德诚信、尽责敬业四个方面,但是行为内容和强调重点均有所区别.能力因素是组织中的信任强调的首要方面;对上级的信任更强调支持关怀和诚信道德,对下属的信任更强调尽责投入和坦诚忠实.%In recent years, trust research has attracted enormous interest in the social science. It has been stated that the interpersonal trust between supervisors and subordinates is a personal specific construct affected by the organization context. In this study, an analysis frame is developed to explore the unique trustworthy behaviors of managers in Chinese organizations. 42 top and middle managers participated in the semi-structured interview. The results show that trustworthy behaviors of managers can be interpreted by four dimensions: competency for task, interpersonal skills, integrity and loyalty, and dedication to work. However, the importance and content of these dimensions are different from supervisors' and subordinates' perspective. Competency for task is crucial for both supervisors and subordinates. The difference is that the supervisors consider more about dedication to work when assessing subordinates' behaviors while subordinates emphasize on supervisors' interpersonal skills.

  18. 中国茶产业组织:绩效与政策%Organization of Chinese Tea Industry: Performance and Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏祝成

    2011-01-01

    本文对中国茶产业的组织现状、绩效及政策进行了研究.当前中国茶产业组织结构的主要特征是茶园的小规模"分包"式经营、非垄断性的市场竞争结构、初精制的专业化分工和大宗茶出口的来样加工贸易等.比较世界其他主要茶叶生产国的市场运行组织模式,可以发现,斯里兰卡的纵向交易"分成"契约制、日本的农户合作组织以及红茶出口普遍采用的拍卖交易等制度,对我们有一定的启示意义.本文认为,相关产业政策的重点应是:通过多元化的组织制度安排,有效地解决农户的"入市"瓶颈;通过技术变革,引导初精制加工的整合;探索出口交易制度的创新.%The organization of Chinese tea industry its performance and policy, were discussed in this paper. The present organizational structure of Chinese tea industry showed some features such as small householder of tea garden, no-monopoly competition, market division between primary and refining production, processing for exportation according to giving samples and so on. From perspective of other major tea-production countries, the organizational structure was characterized by vertical proportional share-distribution in Sri Lanka, cooperation institution of farmers in Japan and exportation of black tea by auction market, which had some significant implication for us. It was suggested that, targeting the market entry of small householder of tea garden and integration of primary and refining production, industry polices should focused on innovation of institution and technology. Besides, transformation of mode of exportation transaction should also be explored.

  19. Characteristics of stable nitrogen isotopes in particulate organic matter and periphyton of a subtropical Chinese watercourse, the Dashahe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning J.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N of particulate organic matter (POM and periphyton were measured at sites along the Dashahe River, a short subtropical watercourse in SE China. δ15N values of both POM and periphyton tended to increase from upstream to downstream, ranging from 1.1 to 7.4 for periphyton and 1.6 to 7.2 for POM. The δ15N values in both POM and periphyton were depleted at upstream sites with lower concentrations of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP but enriched at downstream sites with relatively high TN and TP. In addition, δ15N values for POM and periphyton showed a significant negative correlation with distance to the most polluted section of the river, implicating human impact in the pattern of increasing δ15N. This study confirms δ15N in POM and periphyton as an excellent indicator of anthropogenic nitrogen pollution in rivers.

  20. Mediating Effects of Intention On The Factors Affecting Organic Food Products Consumption Among Chinese Generation Y In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Poh Leong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the effect of intention as a mediator in the relationship between internal factors and external factors on consumption. The factors were a internal factors: knowledge, awareness, health consciousness, product attributes, environmental concern, and b external factors: subjective norms, perceived behaviour control, and media and advertisement. From the review of literature, there were limited studies done on the mediating effect of intention on the relationship between (internal factor and external factors and organic food product consumption among CGY in Malaysia. A total of 410 respondents completed the online questionnaires that evaluated the factors. Structural Equation Modelling was used as the main practical approach for data analysis. The results showed that intention was a full or a complete mediator between the six exogenous constructs; knowledge, health consciousness, product attributes, environmental concern, perceived behaviour, and media and advertisement, while it only acted as a partial mediator between subjective norm and consumption. However, the intention was not a full or a complete mediator between awareness and consumption. Eventually, the implications for theory improvement and practices were discussed.

  1. INTERNATIONAL RUSSIAN-CHINESE COOPERATION IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE UNITED NATIONS (UN AND THE REGIONAL SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION (SCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui ZOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the world politics and economy occur after the end of the "cold war". After the 2008 international financial crisis, the need for reforming of the world order is becoming increasingly apparent. However, the economically well-developed countries traditionally firmly hold the old world order, insist that all democratic rules has adopted by the western countries, are must comply with all the countries. Russia and China as permanent members of the UN Security Council do a lot within the organization in order to strengthen international peace and international security. UN Member States should, by means of the broad and democratic consultations, taking into consideration the interests and concerns of all sides to look forward for finding a "comprehensive" version of the solution to achieve a consensus as much as possible. China is ready to maintain contacts with all sides to apply common efforts to promote the development of the Security Council reforming process in a direction that would have favored the preservation of the common interests of the United States and the cohesion of its members. China and Russia support rational and necessary reforms of the UN Security Council that are aimed at enhancing its authority and efficiency, as well as a more strict implementation of its obligations under the peace and security on the planet. As important members (SCO, China and Russia are the leading force for promoting a multipolar world and democratization of international relationships, with broad common interests in promoting the reform of the global financial system to increase the representativeness of fast developing countries. China supports Russia in the fight against terrorism and separatism, while Russia supports China in the questions, which are connected with Taiwan, Tibet and Xinjiang. The sides apply the joint efforts for the facilitating the political resolution of the crises.doi 10.17748/2075-9908-2016-8-2/1-13-25. [ru; en

  2. Chinese astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Standing in the observatory in Beijing, Christopher Cullen discusses the nature and sophistication of Chinese astronomy in the medieval period. The political as well as the intellectual interest in astronomy is outlined.

  3. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  4. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addendum by Penny Edwards

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45. He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967 and The Political Structure of the Chinese Community in Cambodia (1970. However, subsequent to his research, Chinese communities suffered terribly during the repression of the Lon Nol government between 1970 and 1975 and the atrocities of the Democratic Kampuchea regime. Willmott thus declared Chinese communities—and a willingness to identify as Chinese—destroyed. This understandably pessimistic vision turned out to be unfounded; the next extensive research done on Chinese in Cambodia by Penny Edwards and Chan Sambath in 1995 showed Chinese communities rebuilding. However, the descriptions of these communities showed a complexity of identity formation—from recent immigrants, “the raw Chinese,” to the five “traditional” Chinese dialect groups—that differed markedly from the indexes of identity applied by Willmott in his initial analysis. Academic ideas of how Chineseness should be configured had shifted and complicated; ascribing identity had become increasingly problematic...

  5. Influence of the organic loading rate on the performance and the granular sludge characteristics of an EGSB reactor used for treating traditional Chinese medicine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiguang; Su, Chengyuan; Liu, Xingzhe; Zhang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the organic loading rate (OLR) on the performance and the granular sludge characteristics of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor used for treating real traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater were investigated. Over 90% of the COD removal by the EGSB reactor was observed at the OLRs of 4 to 13 kg COD/(m(3) day). However, increasing the OLR to 20 kg COD/(m(3) day) by reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT 6 h) reduced the COD removal efficiency to 78%. The volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was 512.22 mg/L, resulting in an accumulation of VFAs, and propionic acid was the main acidification product, accounting for 66.51% of the total VFAs. When the OLR increased from 10 to 20 kg COD/(m(3) day), the average size of the granule sludge decreased from 469 to 258 μm. There was an obvious reduction in the concentration of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in the granular sludge. The visible humic acid-like peak was identified in the three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra of the soluble microbial products (SMPs). The fatty acid bond, amide II bond, amide III bond, and C-H bond bending were also observed in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the SMPs. Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus, and Bacteria populations exhibited significant shifts, and these changes were accompanied by an increase in VFA production. The results indicated that a short HRT and high OLR in the EGSB reactor caused the accumulation of polysaccharides, protein, and VFAs, thereby inhibiting the activity of methanogenic bacteria and causing granular sludge corruption. PMID:24677060

  6. 慢性病中医社区管理组织模式探究%Study on the pattern of community management organization mode of Chinese medicine in chronic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜英; 赵艺皓; 王帅; 衷敬柏

    2015-01-01

    目的:对社区卫生机构医务人员及社区居民进行“慢性病社区管理”问卷调查,探究慢性病中医社区管理组织模式。方法:对问卷调查统计分析,探讨慢性病社区管理的最佳组织模式。结果:调查显示,社区慢性病管理组织形式以社区居委会和医院组织为佳。结论:开展社区慢性病管理组织形式,形成以社区中医师为主、三级医院中医专家为后盾,社区居民积极参与的中医防治一体化的中医社区干预管理模式。%Objective:To explore the pattern of community management organization mode of Chinese Medicine in chronic diseases by making a"Chronic disease community management"questionnaire survey on the community health organizations and community residents.Method:We analyzed the questionnaire survey,and discussed the best organization mode of the community management of chronic diseases.Results:The survey shows that chronic disease management organizations in the form of community committees and hospitals are better.Conclusion:To carry out community chronic disease management organization form,and form a community of practitioners,the Chinese medicine experts of tertiary hospitals as the backing,community residents to actively participate in the prevention and control of Chinese medicine community intervention management model.

  7. Application of Advance Organizer Theory in Teaching of Chemistry of Traditional Chinese Medicine%先行组织者教学理论在中药化学教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲扬; 王丽娜; 窦德强

    2011-01-01

    The advance organizer theory and relating organization strategy, that is the principle of progressive differentiation, the principle of step-by-step inductions and the principle of integrative reconciliation. They were applied to organize a few teaching units in chemistry of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM ), the aim of which was to introduce this theory in teaching of TCM chemistry.%运用先行组织者教学理论及相应的教学组织策略,即渐进分化策略、逐级归纳策略以及整合协调策略,对中药化学中部分单元的教学进行了设计,从而说明"先行组织者"教学理论在中药化学教学中的实际应用.

  8. The validation of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) in pre-operative patients with brain tumor in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Hong-ying; Zhang Yong-qin; Wang Rui; Lin Wei; Zhang Yong-qiang; Zhang Xiang; Liu Bo-lin; Cheng Jin-xiang; Xie Li; Huo Jun-li

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL) has increasingly emphasized on cancer patients. The psychometric properties of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, version 3.0) in brain tumor patients wasn't proven, and there was no baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients prior to surgery. Methods The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) was administered at three time...

  9. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  10. Hopelessness and Suicidal Behavior among Chinese, Thai and Korean College Students and Predictive Effects of the World Health Organization's WHOQOL-BREF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Noy; Li, Kaigang; Xiao, Xia; Nokkaew, Nattiporn; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of suicide behavior and to examine the association between hopeless feelings, suicidal behavior and components of the WHO Quality-of-Life-BREF instrument among college students (n = 1,217) in China, Thailand, and Korea. Results showed 3.7% Thai, 10% Chinese, and 13.2% Korean students…

  11. The Study of Chinese in a Provincial French Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrait, Noel

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of Chinese instruction in a Bordeaux lycee. Specific questions addressed are: enrollment; reasons for studying Chinese; the study of the written and spoken language; the need for an appropriate textbook; teaching culture; and the need to organize Chinese as a regular course in the curriculum. (AMH)

  12. 亚热带地区阔叶林与杉木林土壤活性有机质比较%Soil active organic matter in broadleaved forest and Chinese fir plantation in subtropical region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清奎; 范冰; 徐广标

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the soil active organic matter in a broadleaved forest and two Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical region of China, aimed to understand the effects of forest conversion and continuous plantation on soil organic C and nutrient status. After the conversion from broadleaved forest to Chinese fir plantation, the contents of soil total organic C, humus C, humic acid, and fulvic acid decreased by 27.8%-52.1%, 32.2%-52.8%, 36.4%-59.0%, and 29.7%-50.0%, respectively. Continuous plantation also resulted in the decrease of soil organic C and humus contents. The contents of soil total organic C, humus C, humic acid, and fulvic acid in second generation of Chinese fir plantation were 9.0%-25.0%, 25.0%-38.0%, 28.6%-39.2% and 23.1%-36.4% lower than those in the first generation of Chinese fir plantation, respectively. More obvious effects were observed on the soil active organic matter. After the conversion from broadleaved forest to Chinese fir plantation, the maximum decrement of soil microbial biomass C and N and dissolved organic C and N was 61.8%, 38.2%, 43.3%, and 69.0%; while comparing with the first generation of Chinese fir plantation, the second generation of Chinese fir plantation had the maximum decrement of soil microbial biomass C and N and dissolved organic C and N being 34.7%, 29.3%, 30.4%, and 18.4%, respectively. Soil nutrient contents also decreased due to forest conversion and continuous plantation. In comparing with broadleaved forests, Chinese fir plantations had a decrease of soil N, P, and K contents being 15.7%-31.2%, 11.5%-49.3%, and 15.1%-33.8%, respectively. There were close relationships between soil nutrients and soil active organic matter fractions except cold water extractable organic N.%通过对亚热带3个地区地带性阔叶林和杉木林土壤活性有机质的比较,分析森林类型变化及杉木连栽对土壤有机碳和养分含量的影响.结果表明:地带性阔叶林

  13. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become in...... considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  14. Chinese Youth Dance Delegation in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the China-Malaysia Friendship Association, a 96-member Chi- nese youth dance delegation organized by the CPAFFC and the Chinese Dancers Association, went to Pinang, a famous tourist

  15. Uptake of inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic associated with induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humans are exposed to arsenic and their organic derivatives, which are widely distributed in the environment, via food, water, and to a lesser extent, via air. Following uptake, inorganic arsenic undergoes biotransformation to mono- and dimethylated metabolites. Recent findings suggest that the methylation reactions represent a toxification rather than a detoxification pathway. In the present study, the genotoxic effects and the cellular uptake of inorganic arsenic [arsenate, Asi(V); arsenite, Asi(III)] and the methylated arsenic species monomethylarsonic acid [[MMA(V)], monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)], dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)], dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)], trimethylarsenic oxide [TMAO(V)] were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-9) cells. The chemicals were applied at different concentrations (0.1 μM to 10 mM) for 30 min and 1 h, respectively. Cytotoxic effects were investigated by the trypan blue extrusion test and genotoxic effects by the assessment of micronucleus (MN) induction, chromosome aberrations (CA), and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Intracellular arsenic concentrations were determined by ICP-MS techniques. Our results show that MMA(III) and DMA(III) induce cytotoxic and genotoxic effects to a greater extent than MMA(V) or DMA(V). Viability was significantly decreased after incubation (1 h) of the cells with ≥ 1 μM Asi(III), ≥ 1 μM Asi(V), ≥ 500 μM MMA(III), ≥ 100 μM MMA(V), and 500 μM DMA(V) and ≥ 0.1 μM DMA(III). TMAO(V) was not cytotoxic at concentrations up to 10 mM. A significant increase of the number of MN, CA and SCE was found for DMA(III) and MMA(III). Asi(III + V) induced CA and SCE but no MN. TMAO(V), MMA(V) and DMA(V) were not genotoxic in the concentration range tested (up to 5 mM). The nuclear division index (NDI) was not affected by any of the tested arsenic compounds after a recovery period of 14 to 35 h. When the uptake of the chemicals was measured by ICP-MS analysis, it was found that only 0

  16. Summary of the 2008 Evidence-based Chinese Medicine(EBCM) Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大嵘; 赖世隆; 杨显荣

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Evidence-based Chinese Medicine (EBCM) Workshop,jointly organized by the International Society for Chinese Medicine/Editorial Board of Chinese Medicine(Macao) and the Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine/ Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of

  17. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  18. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  19. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  20. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  1. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  2. Chinese Journal of Chemistry Instructions for Authors 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 General Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international peer-reviewed journal published in English, with its editorial office hosted by the Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It publishes original research work in all fields of chemistry, i.e. physical, inorganic, organic and analytic chemistry, etc., in the forms of Accounts, Full Papers, Notes and Communications.

  3. Influence of traditional Chinese culture and ideas on organ donation%中国传统文化和观念对器官捐献意愿的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖; 黄海; 邱鸿钟

    2014-01-01

    is increased by more than 10%per year. Due to the lack of voluntary donations, China is facing a more severe donor shortage than other countries. What are the specific reasons for the shortage of donor organs in China? What is the attitude toward organ donation in Chinese citizens? What factors are affecting the implementation of organ donation in Chinese citizens? OBJECTIVE:To investigate the influence of traditional Chinese ideas on the wil ing of Chinese citizens toward organ donation after death. METHODS:By random cluster sampling, 900 persons selected from different social classes as research objects received questionnaire survey. Self-made questionnaire consisted of cognition, attitude and behavior of the public in face of organ donation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:(1) 55.16%of persons thought that the main purpose of organ donation was to help others, 24.22%thought that the main purpose of organ donation was a manifestation of social morality, 11.94%thought that organ donation was the continuation of their lives. (2) There were 70.00%who said donations should be used for the cause of organ transplantation, in order to save more lives, and the average score was 2.53 points;while the number of persons who proposed donor organs would be applied in medical teaching was similar to that in pathological anatomy, and the average score was 1.72 and 1.75, respectively. (3) 65.01%of the public supported cardiopulmonary death standard to judge death, 24.33%supported brain death standard to judge death, and moreover, 10.66%of people did not know what to take. (4) 50.52%of people thought that the main factors affecting the organ donation was traditional Chinese culture and ideas, fol owed by the donation program and family feelings. The study found that traditional Chinese culture and ideas are the main factor affecting organ donation in the public, most people think that cardiopulmonary death standard is better to judge death and that the main purpose of organ donation is to

  4. Analysis of organ donation after cardiac death of Chinese citiz ens in 70 cases%中国公民逝世后器官捐献70例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛瑾; 陈婉崇; 何小平; 邓智轩; 杨洪吉

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索适合四川省人民医院发展的器官捐献模式,建立合理、高效的器官移植捐献流程和团队。方法总结我中心成功实施的70例中国公民心脏死亡器官捐献案例,重点分析供体基本情况、器官捐献系统建设和发展、捐献过程中的协调沟通方面数据。结果我中心的器官捐献工作仍处于初始发展阶段,本地区的器官捐献发展空间巨大;我中心器官捐献系统初步建立,正逐步发展;捐献过程中的有效沟通对于成功劝捐非常重要。结论我中心应总结本单位及借鉴国内其它兄弟单位器官捐献的经验,建立适合我中心的器官捐献程序和高效的协调员队伍,提高捐献工作效率和成功率。%Objective To explore a suitable organ donation model for our center and to establish a highly efficient clinical pathways and a team of transplant coordinator of organ donation .Methods Summarize 70 cases of organ donation after cardiac death of Chinese citizens in Sichuan Provincial People 's Hospital, and analyze the general information of donors , the development process in the system of organ donation, and the communication skills in the processing procedure of organ donation .Results Our center's organ donation system is still in the initial stage of development , and there is a huge potential development space for organ donation in our lo -cal areas; Our center's system of organ donation has been built and is in the process of development ; the effective communication plays a vital role in the success of organ donation .Conclusion Our center should study and utilize the advanced experience from our and other centers to establish a standard organ donation process and a transplant coordinator team with improved work efficiency and in -creased successful rate in organ donation .

  5. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  6. To China's Foreign Trade magazine for her 50th anniversary & the Organizers of the 100th Session of the Chinese Export Commodities Fair:

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Goldberg

    2006-01-01

    @@ On behalf of the United States of America,U.S.Ambassador Clark T.Randt,Jr.and the American Embassy in Beijing and for the U.S.Consulate General in Guangzhou,I am pleased to extend congratulations on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of China's Foreign Trade magazine and the 100th Session of the Chinese Export Commodities Fair.Fifty years have passed since the 1st Session of the Trade Fair and the changes have been significant,but the intent - providing China with an opportunity to exhibit its increasingly sophisticated wares and an appreciative global market - remains the same.Moreover,during this time,China has moved from a command economy guided by administrative decree to one which is largely market-oriented and is now the fourth-largest economy in the world.This is a tremendous achievement.

  7. 芦苇作为环保型有机基质的可能性研究%The possibilities of Chinese reed fibres as an environmentally sound organic substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国景; F.Benoit; 等

    2002-01-01

    20世纪80年代以来,岩棉一直是蔬菜无土栽培的主要栽培基质.但由于用后的岩棉条成为大量的不可降解的废物,于是科学家们开始寻找可多年重复利用的无机基质如海棉,以及环保型有机基质如椰子壳丝等.90年代以后,瑞士等国家将芦苇作为有机无土栽培基质应用于蔬菜无土栽培.本文分析比较了芦苇、松木、椰子壳基质使用前的物理和化学特性,并通过栽培樱桃番茄(品种EVITA)的试验,与椰子壳基质和海棉基质栽培性能进行了比较研究.结果表明,芦苇可作为很有应用价值的环保型有机基质在生产中推广与应用.而且由于芦苇生长适应性好,分布广泛,来源充足,基质生产成本低等特点,而显示出很好的应用前景.%Rockwool has been using as a main substrate in vegetable soilless culture since 1980s. On the other hand, the rockwool slabs caused such an amount of indecomposable waste mats every year that soon this problem was brought to attention world widely. The seeking of substitutive substrates was concentrated on reusable inorganic substrates, e.g. polyurethane (PUR) and organic substrates such as coconut fibres. ``Chinese reed fibres have been used as organic substrate in vegetable soilless culture since 1991 in Switzerland. In the present experiment, the physical and chemical characteristics of Chinese reed were compared with that of pine fibres and coconut fibres before they were used for vegetable cultivation. And its phyto-technical characteristics were compared with that of coconut fibres and recycled PUR mats, with a culture of cherry tomato cv. EVITA. From the data obtained, it is clear that the Chinese reed fibres can be ranged as an acquisition as ecological sound organic substrate. Moreover, it seems more important since the Chinese reed trends to thrive in everywhere in the world and it provides a cheap culture substrate that can contribute to the expansion of the soilless culture. ``

  8. Chinese Managerial Culture Versus Western Style

    OpenAIRE

    Franck Renand

    2007-01-01

    As China is believed to be the market of the twenty-first century, entering China is not an option but a strategic requirement for many organizations. However, numerous Western managers who are well equipped with technical background know almost nothing about the pioneers who are reshaping the world's second largest economy. Consequently, this cross-sectional analysis explores the managerial implication of the Chinese dialectic logic vs. Western formal logic, particularistic Chinese culture v...

  9. Report on "Chinese Famous Brand Mall" in Lille of France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hao

    2005-01-01

    @@ In a cold and rainy day in February 2005, Chinese culture upsurge is landing in every country in Europe. In France, last year's Chinese Art Parade in Champs Elysees Av enue is still favored and impressed by many people. This year, Dragon Dancing at the Chinese Lunar New Year organized by French Chinese Business Association of 5th District is still on stage. At the street corner of London, Peking opera, stilts show, and folk dance attracted more than 500,000 visitors. Chinese culture also landed other countries and regions such as New York, US; Oslo, Norway; Berlin, Germany; Vancouver, Canada… It is happy to see Chinese culture, showing the influences of Chinese economic and social development.

  10. Teaching Material Culture and Chinese Gardens at American Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on the experience of designing and teaching a course on material culture and Chinese gardens. Involving traditional philosophy, ethics, religion, painting, calligraphy, craft, literature, architecture and horticulture, a classical Chinese garden can be considered a microcosm of Chinese culture. This essay discusses the textbooks and general organization of the course, particularly focusing on how students study the key elements (rocks, water, plants and architecture in building a Chinese garden. Some Chinese literature with representations of gardens that can be used for this class is also introduced. In addition, this essay uses two classical Chinese gardens built in the United States (the Astor Court and the Garden of Flowing Fragrance to discuss the appropriation of “Chinese-ness” in different geographical, physical and cultural environments. Finally, some available online resources and technologies that have enhanced student understanding of the subject matter are introduced.

  11. Using Serum Advanced Glycation End Products-Peptides to Improve the Efficacy of World Health Organization Fasting Plasma Glucose Criterion in Screening for Diabetes in High-Risk Chinese Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Sun

    Full Text Available The efficacy of using fasting plasma glucose (FPG alone as a preferred screening test for diabetes has been questioned. This study was aimed to evaluate whether the use of serum advanced glycation end products-peptides (sAGEP would help to improve the efficacy of FPG in diabetes screening among high-risk Chinese subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L. FPG, 2-h plasma glucose (2h-PG, serum glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and sAGEP were measured in 857 Chinese subjects with risk factors for diabetes. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves generated by logistic regression models were assessed and compared to find the best model for diabetes screening in subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L. The optimal critical line was determined by maximizing the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Among the enrolled subjects, 730 of them had FPG <7.0 mmol/L, and only 41.7% new diabetes cases were identified using the 1999 World Health Organization FPG criterion (FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L. The area under ROC curves generated by the model on FPG-sAGEP was the largest compared with that on FPG-HbA1c, sAGEP, HbA1c or FPG in subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L. By maximizing the sum of sensitivity and specificity, the optimal critical line was determined as 0.69×FPG + 0.14×sAGEP = 7.03, giving a critical sensitivity of 91.2% in detecting 2h-PG ≥11.1 mmol/L, which was significantly higher than that of FPG-HbA1c or HbA1c. The model on FPG-sAGEP improves the efficacy of using FPG alone in detecting diabetes among high-risk Chinese subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L, and is worth being promoted for future diabetes screening.

  12. The validation of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30 in pre-operative patients with brain tumor in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong-ying

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL has increasingly emphasized on cancer patients. The psychometric properties of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, version 3.0 in brain tumor patients wasn't proven, and there was no baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients prior to surgery. Methods The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0 was administered at three time points: T1, the first or the second day that patients were hospitalized after the brain tumor suspected or diagnosed by MRI or CT; T2, 1 to 2 days after T1, (T1 and T2 were both before surgery; T3, the day before discharge. Clinical variables included disease histologic types, cognitive function, and Karnofsky Performance Status. Results Cronbach's alpha coefficients for multi-item scales were greater than .70 and multitrait scaling analysis showed that most of the item-scale correlation coefficients met the standards of convergent and discriminant validity, except for the cognitive functioning scale. All scales and items exhibited construct validity. Score changes over peri-operation were observed in physical and role functioning scales. Compared with mixed cancer patients assessed after surgery but before adjuvant treatment, brain tumor patients assessed pre-surgery presented better function and fewer symptoms. Conclusions The standard Chinese version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 was overall a valid instrument to assess HRQOL in brain tumor patients in China. The baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients pre-surgery was better than that in mixed cancer patients post-surgery. Future study should modify cognitive functioning scale and examine test-retest reliability and response validity.

  13. The validation of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) in pre-operative patients with brain tumor in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL) has increasingly emphasized on cancer patients. The psychometric properties of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, version 3.0) in brain tumor patients wasn't proven, and there was no baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients prior to surgery. Methods The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) was administered at three time points: T1, the first or the second day that patients were hospitalized after the brain tumor suspected or diagnosed by MRI or CT; T2, 1 to 2 days after T1, (T1 and T2 were both before surgery); T3, the day before discharge. Clinical variables included disease histologic types, cognitive function, and Karnofsky Performance Status. Results Cronbach's alpha coefficients for multi-item scales were greater than .70 and multitrait scaling analysis showed that most of the item-scale correlation coefficients met the standards of convergent and discriminant validity, except for the cognitive functioning scale. All scales and items exhibited construct validity. Score changes over peri-operation were observed in physical and role functioning scales. Compared with mixed cancer patients assessed after surgery but before adjuvant treatment, brain tumor patients assessed pre-surgery presented better function and fewer symptoms. Conclusions The standard Chinese version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 was overall a valid instrument to assess HRQOL in brain tumor patients in China. The baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients pre-surgery was better than that in mixed cancer patients post-surgery. Future study should modify cognitive functioning scale and examine test-retest reliability and response validity. PMID:21513533

  14. Chinese Agricultural Industrialization Management Organization Pattern Evolution and the Development of Agribusiness firm%我国农业产业化经营组织模式的演变与龙头企业的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2012-01-01

    实行农业产业化经营,逐步建设现代农业,才能使我国农业从传统落后的小农经济q-走出来,进而在国际市场q-有竞争优势。龙头企业在农业产业化经营中起着至关重要的作用,居于核心地位,是联结农户与市场的纽带。我国龙头企业与农户之间的利益联结机制及模式不断变化,从最初的“公司+农户”、“龙头企业+基地”向“公司+中介+农户”及股份合作制转化。随着农业产业化的不断推进,“龙头企业+中介组织+农户”的合作组织形式逐步占据主导地位。%Agriculture, farmers and rural economy have become some of those main problems in China. In order to make Chinese agri culture step out of traditional and behindhand small rural economy, thus become more competitive, it is essential to implement agricul tural veitical coordination and to establish modern agriculture gradually. Agribusiness firm plays a crucial role in the agricultural indus trialization, and it is the joint of the farmer and market in market economy. Our country between agribusiness firm and farmer interest coupling mechanism and mode changing , From the initial "company + farmer" , " agribusiness firm + base" to the "company + in termediary + farmer" and share collaboration is made transform . With the rapid development of Chinese agribusiness firm," agribusi ness firm + intermediary + farmer" cooperation organization gradually dominate.

  15. Study on the Impact of Noise Stringency of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) on Chinese Fleet%ICAO噪声严格度对中国机队的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫国华; 张永磊; 杜海涛; 庞思凯

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of China’s civil aviation, aircraft noise has become a rigorous problem. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is developing a much more stringent noise standard, and now Chapters 4-7 EPN dB program has been implemented. This article studies the impact of the Chapters 4-7 EPN dB program on Chinese fleet. In order to make China’s civil aviation manufacturing industry to meet the highly stringent standard, it is necessary to adjust the structure of Chinese fleet. Namely, the number of aircrafts with different seat classes needs to be adjusted to meet seat demand. Some aircrafts which can not meet the stringent requirement of ICAO standard in noise control must be improved in their structures.%随着我国民航事业的发展,飞机噪声问题日益突出。国际民航组织正在制定更为严格的噪声标准,如今已经实施了第4章-7的方案。为了能够满足更高要求的标准,需要对中国机队的结构进行调整,即通过调整不同的座位等级的飞机数量来满足机队的需求。一些满足不了高的噪声严格度要求的飞机项目,就必须采取措施,例如改进飞机结构以降低噪声。研究第4章-7方案对中国机队的影响是有益的。

  16. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  17. Chinese lexical networks: The structure, function and formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyu; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Xiaoyue; Yang, Zhanxin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper Chinese phrases are modeled using complex networks theory. We analyze statistical properties of the networks and find that phrase networks display some important features: not only small world and the power-law distribution, but also hierarchical structure and disassortative mixing. These statistical traits display the global organization of Chinese phrases. The origin and formation of such traits are analyzed from a macroscopic Chinese culture and philosophy perspective. It is interesting to find that Chinese culture and philosophy may shape the formation and structure of Chinese phrases. To uncover the structural design principles of networks, network motif patterns are studied. It is shown that they serve as basic building blocks to form the whole phrase networks, especially triad 38 (feed forward loop) plays a more important role in forming most of the phrases and other motifs. The distinct structure may not only keep the networks stable and robust, but also be helpful for information processing. The results of the paper can give some insight into Chinese language learning and language acquisition. It strengthens the idea that learning the phrases helps to understand Chinese culture. On the other side, understanding Chinese culture and philosophy does help to learn Chinese phrases. The hub nodes in the networks show the close relationship with Chinese culture and philosophy. Learning or teaching the hub characters, hub-linking phrases and phrases which are meaning related based on motif feature should be very useful and important for Chinese learning and acquisition.

  18. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  19. Chinese varkens in Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W.L.; Huiskes, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    In China zijn in totaal 300 miljoen varkens van meer dan 100 rassen. Ze worden voor verschillende soorten productie gebruikt. Sommige Chinese rassen zijn in Frankrijk, Nederland en U.S.A. geomporteerd. De vraag is of Chinese varkens nuttig kunnen zijnvoor de varkensproductie in Nederland en zo ja welke Chinese varkens

  20. Chinese Studies Librarianship in North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen T. Wei

    2004-01-01

    Although American libraries had begun collecting Chinese language materials in the 19th century, notably the United States Library of Congress in 1869, Yale in 1878, Harvard in 1879, and Berkeley in 1896, East Asian studies librarianship in North America, including China studies librarianship, was not fully developed until the 1960s. There was no formal organization that represented the interest of Chinese studies librarians because there were few of them and most of them were China scholars rather than trained librarians. More than 100 years later, the number of Chinese studies librarians in North America has increased considerably,primarily in response to the demand in the field of China studies and more recently to the needs of immigrant population and the general public who has an interest in China.This paper traces the history and growth of Chinese studies librarianship in North America, documents the development of the professional organization that represents Chinese studies librarians, and examines the training programs that prepare them for their jobs. It also attempts to propose an international exchange forum aiming to bring together Chinese studies librarians in North America and librarians in China in sharing their experience and expertise to achieve the ultimate goal of serving the users.

  1. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  2. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...... note some differences and similarities. The most remarkable differences are: -Chinese has rhotic sounds (pinyin ch, zh, sh, r) but Danish does not -Chinese has affricates (c z ch zh tɕ j) but Danish does not What Danish shares with Chinese is the contrast between aspirated and plain consonants: pa...

  3. Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Asian and north American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers

    OpenAIRE

    B. Barletta; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I J; Atlas, E. L.; A. J. Beyersdorf; A. K. Baker; N. J. Blake; Yang, M..; Midyett, J. R.; Novak, B. J.; McKeachie, R. J.; H. E. Fuelberg; Sachse, G. W.; M. A. Avery; Campos, T.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B) aircraft mission conducted in spring 2006. By analyzing the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured during the second part of the field campaign, together with kinematic back trajectories, we were able to identify five plumes originating from China, four plumes from other Asian regions, and three plumes from the United States. To identify specific tracers for the different air ma...

  4. On Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Scientific Socialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范智鹏

    2013-01-01

    Scientific socialism provides proletarian with ideological weapon, which is used to lead and organize the masses to pursue socialism. The formation of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the product of scientific socialism in China, which is the latest achievement combining scientific socialism and Chinese national conditions.

  5. Investigating Chinese Migrants’ Information-Seeking Patterns in Canada: Media Selection and Language Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Mao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking a quantitative approach, this research surveyed Chinese migrants in Canada regarding channels they rely on to seek various information. This research also investigates how Chinese migrants’ preferences of channels correlate with their intercultural sensitivity level. Chinese migrants prefer Chinese newspapers and websites for government/policy information and life information rather than English newspapers and websites. However, they use English newspapers and websites more frequently for job and career development information. Overall, English television and radio are more frequently used by Chinese migrants than Chinese television and radio broadcasts. The intercultural sensitivity levels of Chinese migrants have a positive correlation with their frequencies of using English information resources, including government websites, English newspapers, English non-government websites, government officers, personal non-Chinese social networks, and English television and radio. Findings of this research suggest that Chinese ethnic media play an important role in Chinese migrants’ information-seeking behaviours and patterns in Canada. On one hand, government and other organizations can reach the Chinese migrant community through information diffusion in Chinese ethnic media. On the other hand, Chinese migrants should make an active effort to improve their English proficiency and intercultural communication sensitivity to better integrate themselves into the Canadian society. A more balanced approach of seeking information from English and Chinese media sources could be more beneficial for Chinese migrants.

  6. [Application of magnetic materials in analysis on Chinese herb medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiu-Rong; Han, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-01

    China is the cradle of Chinese herb medicines,with rich plant resources. However, traditional processing methods have many disadvantages, such as high comsumption of organic solvent, long extraction time and high loss of effective constituents. For the purpose of rational use of Chinese herb medicines and accurate analysis on their constituents,the sample pre-treatment method with magnetic nanoparticles as the carrier brought new opportunities in recent years. after consulting literatures,the essay summarizes traditional extraction methods of Chinese herb medicines, characteristics of magnetic materials and their application in the analysis on Chinese herb medicines. PMID:23477130

  7. Brief Introduction of The Refractories Branch of The Chinese Society for Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Refractories Branch,a specialized branch of The Chinese Society for Metals(CSM,a nonprofit academic organization concemed with the advancement of science and technology in metallurgical industry and materials science and engineering in China and is also an organization ofChinese scientists and engineersin these field.),is a nationwide academic organization for researchers or engineers in China'S refractories field.

  8. Five-year changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in coastal wetlands affected by flow-sediment regulation in a Chinese delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Xia, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in wetland soils as indicators of soil quality and climate change have received attention worldwide. Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2012 in the coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta and the SOC and TN were determined to investigate a five-year change in their content and stock in these wetlands as affected by flow-sediment regulation. Our results revealed that the soils in 2007 exhibited greater electrical conductivities, SOC content and density, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) levels in the top 10 cm soils (p < 0.05) compared with the soils in 2012. In general, the SOC and TN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. However, the highest ratios of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen (molar C/N ratios) were observed in the 30–40 cm soil layer. A significant SOC loss occurred (p < 0.05) in top 10 cm soils, but only a small change in SOC in the top 50 cm soils. Comparatively, TN levels did not show significant differences in the study period. PMID:26879008

  9. 关于中国民间体育社团文化内涵构建研究%Research into the Cultural Construction among Chinese Non-governmental Sports Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚伟; 王静

    2012-01-01

    With the fast development of non-governmental sports organizations in China and in the context of constructing a powerful country by means of cultural prosperity, the task of cultural connotation construction has never become so important and urgent in China for the non-governmental sports organizations. The cultural connotation construction must be based on the Socialist Core Values, and advocate Chinese traditional culture and promote cultural innovation. In the choice of the construc- tion strategy, we should rely on the national traditional sports items, and foster the "People-Oriented" cultural atmosphere, promote innovation in management system, increase efficiency in cultural influence, and multi-cultural personality thus to con- struct many multi-win-win cultural entities for the masses.%在我国文化强国的社会背景下,民间体育社团的迅猛发展,使其文化内涵构建尤为重要和迫切.构建体育社团文化内涵,应坚持社会主义核心价值观,倡导中国优秀传统文化,引导文化创新.在体育社团文化内涵构建策略中,应以民族传统体育项目为依托,塑造“以人为本”的内部文化组织氛围;促进管理体制创新,提高文化影响效率;探索多元文化个性,形成“多赢”的群众性文化实体.

  10. Community-level Language Planning for Chinese Heritage Language Maintenance in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    An Chung Cheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of Chinese heritage language in the United States from the perspective of language policy and planning. The case study examines the Chinese heritage language maintenance through community-based Chinese schools (CHS), and CHS’s relationships with Chinese American community, as well as governments and non-government organizations in China, Taiwan, and the United States. The paper starts with a theoretical discussion on the definition ...

  11. 中国企业的学习型组织文化:基于人口统计变量、企业属性、工作满意度和组织绩效的实证分析%The culture of learning organizations in Chinese state-owned and privately-owned enterprises: An empirical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓辉; 杨百寅

    2007-01-01

    By using a Western concept-the instrument called dimensions of learning organization questionnaire (DLOQ), and the data collected from 919 employees in nine companies located in Guangdong Province, China, the present empirical study explores the culture of learning organizations in Chinese business settings. Findings suggest that the DLOQ is applicable to the context of China as well, and those demographic variables, such as age and educational level,together with the types of ownership of Chinese companies, such as state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and privately-owned enterprises (POEs), suggest differences in the culture of learning organizations. Results also indicate that the learning organization culture of a firm has strongly positive impact on employees' job satisfaction and perceived organizational performance. Two implications should be noted. First, as employees in middle age and with college education show the strongest sense of improving the learning culture, it can be inferred that demographic characters and groups may in fluence the organization's learning culture differently. Second, as POEs have a better learning atmosphere than SOEs, it can be inferred that POEs have a stronger competitiveness than SOEsin terms of learning ability and organizational performance. To indigenize the Western construct and instrument of learning organizations, the present study, as an exploratory research, gives substantial knowledge on the subject and seeks to fill the gap in the literature, despite the limitations of cultural nuances and a narrowly-concentrated sample.

  12. Five-year changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in coastal wetlands affected by flow-sediment regulation in a Chinese delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Xia, Zhijian

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in wetland soils as indicators of soil quality and climate change have received attention worldwide. Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2012 in the coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta and the SOC and TN were determined to investigate a five-year change in their content and stock in these wetlands as affected by flow-sediment regulation. Our results revealed that the soils in 2007 exhibited greater electrical conductivities, SOC content and density, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) levels in the top 10 cm soils (p carbon and total nitrogen (molar C/N ratios) were observed in the 30-40 cm soil layer. A significant SOC loss occurred (p < 0.05) in top 10 cm soils, but only a small change in SOC in the top 50 cm soils. Comparatively, TN levels did not show significant differences in the study period.

  13. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  14. Lexical-semantic Mapping between Chinese and English Controlled Vocabularies in the Domain of Chinese Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jiun Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study conducts a lexical-semantic mapping between the Chinese controlled vocabulary developed by the National Palace Museum (NPM-CV in Taiwan and an English controlled vocabulary, the Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT developed by the Getty Research Institute in the U.S. that is primarily based on Western art. The research question is: In mapping a Chinese controlled vocabulary in Chinese art to a Western-centered art thesaurus, what types of relationships can be identified and what are the issues in mapping? The study’s main findings reveal that only one-third of the NPM-CV terms can be mapped as “exact equivalence” to AAT terms and three-fifths of the NPMCV terms have hierarchical relationships (narrower to broader with some AAT terms. Clearly, using AAT alone to index Chinese art collections will lead to insufficient indexing specificity. The study then proposes solutions to improve Chinese-English semantic interoperability for multilingual knowledge organization systems in the domain of Chinese art. [Article content in Chinese

  15. Chinese Oil Industry Faces New Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese petrochemical companies should gird for new challenges in three years, triggered by cost-competitive products flooding in from overseas, especially the Middle East countries.This advice was highlighted by company executives and association leaders during a discussion on the sidelines of a petrochemical conference organized by the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association in early April.

  16. Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 and warming on temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition in a Chinese paddy field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaozhi; Wang, Bingyu; Wang, Jinyang; Pan, Genxing; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-10-01

    Climate changes including elevated CO2 and temperature have been known to affect soil carbon (C) storage, while the effects of climate changes on the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) are unclear. A 365-day laboratory incubation was used to investigate the temperature sensitivity for decomposition of labile (Q 10-L) and recalcitrant (Q 10-R) SOMs by comparing the time required to decompose a given amount of C at 25 and 35 °C. Soils were collected from a paddy field that was subjected to four treatments: ambient CO2 and temperature, elevated CO2 (500 μmol/mol), enhanced temperature (+2 °C), and their combination. The results showed that the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition increased with increasing SOM recalcitrance in this paddy soil (Q 10-L = 2.21 ± 0.16 vs. Q 10-R = 2.78 ± 0.42; mean ± SD). Elevated CO2 and enhanced temperature showed contrasting effects on the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition. Elevated CO2 stimulated Q 10-R but had no effect on Q 10-L; in contrast, enhanced temperature increased Q 10-L but had no effect on Q 10-R. Furthermore, the elevated CO2 combined with enhanced temperature treatment significantly increased Q 10-L and Q 10-R by 18.9 and 10.2 %, respectively, compared to the ambient conditions. Results suggested that the responses of SOM to temperature, especially for the recalcitrant SOM pool, were altered by climate changes. The greatly enhanced temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition by elevated CO2 and temperature indicates that more CO2 will be released to the atmosphere and losses of soil C may be even greater than that previously expected in paddy field. PMID:27590882

  17. Chinese spouses' empowerment through community communication:a case study of the Chinese Association of Relief and Ensuing Service

    OpenAIRE

    Momesso, Lara; Sun, Mine-Ping

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the narratives of mainland Chinese spouses regarding their participation in a Taiwanese organization and their experience and adaptation to a new life in Taiwan. Fourteen spouses, members of a Taiwanese organization called Chinese Association for Relief and Ensuing Service (CARES), completed in-depth interviews. Qualitative analysis identified prominent themes in participants' responses in relation to three main subjects: community communication, participation, and empo...

  18. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  19. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  20. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  1. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  2. On Developing Business Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei

    1996-01-01

    Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…

  3. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  4. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket, and the play...

  5. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  6. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  7. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  8. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  9. Chinese ethnomusicology to explore fieldwork methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Lihan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main working approach and scope of the national musicians is the field investigation. The exploration of successful experience of the Chinese national music in the fieldwork is very necessary to effectively organize, carry out and complete the fieldwork of the Chinese music. This paper which is combined with the summary of experience, expert consultation and literature reading tries to verify and promote the effective fieldwork method through field investigation, so as to avoid that the national musicians with curiosity give a hurried and cursory glance at the destination and miss the first-hand resources in the field investigation due to lack of effective working approach, which plays a positive role in the inheritance and development of the Chinese national music.

  10. Learning From China. A Report on Agriculture and the Chinese People's Communes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    A nine-member Study Mission was organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and visited China in 1975 to study Chinese approaches to agricultural and rural development in depth; to analyze the commune experience as an example of integrated rural development; and to try to determine in what ways the Chinese development…

  11. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  12. Chinese Navy’s Structure and Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In time of peace, the navy adopts a leadership system that combines operational command with building and administration, and which mainly consists of the navy headquarters, fleets, test bases, educational institutions and an armaments academy. The navy has three fleets, namely, the Beihai Fleet, Donghai Fleet and Nanhai Fleet, which

  13. Success factors of Chinese restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Aakala, Liwen Heli

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the thesis fall into three aspects: 1) understanding Chinese entrepreneurship through some major aspects; such as, the characteristics of Chinese entrepreneur and successful skills needed; 2) scanning the Chinese culture that is associated with their entrepreneurial success in restaurant business as well as understanding the Finnish culture that affects Chinese restaurants’ presence in Finland; 3) acquainting with the competitive strategies that those Chinese restaurants emp...

  14. The Contrast of Chinese and English in the Translation of Chinese Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Li

    2009-01-01

    Chinese poetry is the soul of Chinese literature and Chinese culture. A good translation of a Chinese verse can promote the prevalence of Chinese culture. In the translation of Chinese poetry, translators should not only keep the characteristics of Chinese poems, but also embody the English characteristics. This article analyzed some versions of translation and proposed factors affecting the translation of Chinese poetry.

  15. Organic food market segmentation in China

    OpenAIRE

    PENG, FANG

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to specify the essential factors in Chinese organic food products market. The main target of this study was to discover the market potential for the organic food products in China through identify the attitudes and perceptions of the Chinese organic food consumers and position the right pricing of organic food products in China, thereby further clarify the market segmentation in China. The theoretical framework consisted of defining the market segmentatio...

  16. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  17. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  18. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  19. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  20. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  1. Traditional Chinese biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed. PMID:19888561

  2. An Analysis of Difficulties Facing Chinese Scientists’ Holding Posts in International Scientific Organizations and Its Suggestions%我国科学家在国际科技组织中任职存在的问题及建议探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军平; 秦久怡

    2016-01-01

    Based on some literatures and cases, the paper analyzes some difficulties facing Chinese scientists’ holding posts in international scientific organizations, where some suggestions are put forward in this regard: increase training efforts to make knowledge structure of Chinese scientists diversified both in width and depth; formulate policies and regulations to attract some headquarters for international scientific organizations to be located in China; and issue policies to set up talent reserve pools for the training of preparatory teams and talents for holding posts in international scientific organizations.%结合有关文献材料和案例,本文分析了我国科学家在国际科技组织中任职存在的问题,尝试提出以下建议:加大培训,使科学家的知识结构更趋多元化;制定政策,支持和吸引国际科技组织总部落户中国;出台政策,建立人才储备库,培养国际科技组织任职预备队伍。

  3. Entrepreneurship and Organizations' Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧

    2013-01-01

    In modern society, the competition has become increasingly fierce. Organizations pay close attention to their manage-ment in order to gain the priority. Under this context, entrepreneurship has been attached great importance to. Entrepreneurship has played an indispensable role in organizations. Compare to those short-lived companies, powerful organizations, such as Google, IBM and P&G has gain great progress in the last decades. Therefore, it is essential to study how the powerful organiza-tion could always be innovative. This paper aims to study the role that entrepreneurship plays in the organizations and take Google as an example. It provides some previous lessons that Chinese organizations could draw from.

  4. Chinese Marine Materia Medica

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica), Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy). A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, colle...

  5. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  6. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  7. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  8. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-01-01

    China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will d...

  9. Country Review: Chinese Taipei

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    2008-01-01

    This report, prepared by the Secretariat of the OECD was the basis for a peer review examination of Chinese Taipei at the OECD’s Global Forum on Competition on 9 February, 2006. Competition law in Chinese Taipei has been an important element of the program of economic reforms that moved the economy from centrally directed emphasis on manufacturing and exports to a market-driven emphasis on services and high technology. The competition law follows mainstream practice about restrictive agreemen...

  10. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  11. An Analysis of Entry Modes In The Chinese Car Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Liu

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decades, economic globalization is irresistible in the present world. In 2001, China accessed into World Trade Organization (WTO), forcing Chinese companies to reposition them to meet the challenges from oversea companies. Especially, Chinese car industry will suffer a lot. To serve customers outside the existing domestic market, a firm needs to choose the best mode of entry into the foreign industry. The choice of the appropriate entry mode for a particular foreign market is of...

  12. Increasing entrepreneurial capabilities of Chinese entrepreneurs in Helsinki region

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yinan

    2013-01-01

    This study is an exploratory research focusing on increasing entrepreneurial capabilities of Chinese entrepreneurs in Helsinki region. It is based on a group of Chinese restaurant owners who participate a training program organized by Haaga-Helia University to improve their abilities of running business successfully. The objective of this study is to increase systematic knowledge on vital aspects to improve this group’s entrepreneurial capabilities by digging out, categorizing, summarizing an...

  13. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  14. Chinese Autos' Debut in Cambodia--Let more Cambodians know high-quality Chinese products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xiong; Phnom Penh

    2005-01-01

    @@ The 3rd Mudan Cup China International Auto Exhibition (Vietnam & Cambodia) was held in January 28, 2005 in Phnom Penh Hotel. This is the first debut of Chinese autos in Cambodia. 11 buses, 12 seats tourism vans, cargo vans and trucks and 9 motorcycles of different brands showed Cambodians the real Chinese famous brands and high-quality automobiles. The 3rd "Mudan Cup"China International Auto Exhibition Tour was organized by the Society of Automotive Engineers of China, Department of Media and Press of CCPIT, Cambodia Tang Ren International Co., Ltd.,Cambodia Kaide Trade Co., Ltd. andChina Grand River Group.

  15. Chinese Autos' Debut in Cambodia--Let more Cambodians know high-quality Chinese products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; Xiong; Phnom; Penh

    2005-01-01

      The 3rd Mudan Cup China International Auto Exhibition (Vietnam & Cambodia) was held in January 28, 2005 in Phnom Penh Hotel. This is the first debut of Chinese autos in Cambodia. 11 buses, 12 seats tourism vans, cargo vans and trucks and 9 motorcycles of different brands showed Cambodians the real Chinese famous brands and high-quality automobiles. The 3rd "Mudan Cup"China International Auto Exhibition Tour was organized by the Society of Automotive Engineers of China, Department of Media and Press of CCPIT, Cambodia Tang Ren International Co., Ltd.,Cambodia Kaide Trade Co., Ltd. andChina Grand River Group.……

  16. Chinese boxes: "Typhoon" and Conrad's history of the Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D.

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the novel "Typhoon," by Joseph Conrad, as a story about Chinamen coolies and seamen onboard a steamer transporting Chinese laborers. It argues that the Chinese boxes of the coolies represent several versions of the history of the Chinese and that the coolies are also representatives of a civilization with ideas and institutions, a law and order of nature. It also describes the images of Chinese life and their association to sociality, cooperation, nourishment, simplicity, ...

  17. Teaching Chinese Negotiating Style through Examination of Key Chinese Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Dan

    This study examined different shades of meaning that a single word may have in Chinese in an effort to better understand the relationship between language and culture. An understanding of the exact meaning of Chinese words and expressions can greatly assist non-Chinese in understanding both the language and the society as a whole. A total of 102…

  18. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  19. A study of the structure of Chinese characters and science learning

    OpenAIRE

    May-hung CHENG; Ai-ling SOON

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out if Chinese characters can facilitate the understanding of science among Grade Four pupils, or on the contrary, lead to alternative concepts. A questionnaire designed to probe children's understanding of selected Chinese words was sent to three local primary schools. Four hundred and ninety five pupils participated in the study. Results showed that radicals of the Chinese characters related to names of organisms did have an influence on pupils' understa...

  20. Overview of Beverages with Anti-Aging Functions in Chinese Market

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fan; Song, Jie; Liang, Ming; Ma, Fangli; Mao, Xinliang; Ma, Chung Wah; Zhang, Wanwan; Huang, Zebo

    2014-01-01

    Anti-aging Chinese medicines have been used in traditional beverages to promote health and prevent diseases. Interestingly, these functional beverages may be used differently between men and women, reflecting the “yin-yang” philosophy of Chinese medicine. Modern studies have revealed that some dietary natural products can slow aging in model organisms, and functional beverages containing such products have recently emerged in Chinese market, challenging the dominance of traditional functional...

  1. Research on Change of Rhizosphere Soil Properties of Chinese fir Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This article emphatically reviews the difference of soil biological activities, biochemical activities and soil chemical properties between the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of first rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb) Hook) plantation. It also reviews their dynamic patterns during Chinese fir plantation development. The results show that the contents of organic and inorganic nutrients in the rhizosphere soil of young, half-mature and near-mature Chinese fir of first-rotation ...

  2. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  3. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  4. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  5. Global Handwashing Day 2012: a qualitative content analysis of Chinese social media reaction to a health promotion event

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Chun-Hai Fung; Jingxian Cai; Yi Hao; Yuchen Ying; Benedict Shing Bun Chan; Zion Tsz Ho Tse; King-Wa Fu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global Handwashing Day (GHD) is a handwashing promotion campaign organized by the Global Public-Private Partnership of Handwashing with Soap. In China, it has been promoted by the Chinese public health authorities, international organizations and multinational corporations through various channels including social media such as Sina Weibo, the leading Chinese microblogging site similar to Twitter. The objective of this study is to qualitatively assess Chinese social media users’ r...

  6. Supporting Chinese Speaking Skills Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Ursula; Shi, Lijing

    2013-01-01

    Chinese is considered a difficult language to learn by most Western learners, yet recently more and more people are learning Chinese, and increasingly teaching is delivered online. Due to the nature of Chinese and the complexity of online learning, research has not yet produced sufficient information on students' and teachers' interaction during…

  7. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  8. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  9. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  10. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  11. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us that......Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...

  12. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  13. Simulation About the Growth of Chinese Firm's Safety Management Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tie-zhong; LI Zhi-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at the deficiency of exterminating measures of Chinese firm safety management,a simulation model of Chinese firm's safety management capability based on the organizational learning theory,in which the simulation method of system dynamics is utilized.The level variable and rate vailable are designed based on the practical situation and change situation of corresponding variables of firm's safety management capability.Simulation firms are built with accident ease groups of the oil industry,chemieal industry,machine industry,coal mining industry,and weapon industry.Through analyzing the simulation result,the growth law of Chinese firm's safety management capability is obtained as follows:the accumulating and the coupling of safety knowledge should be emphasized at the same time;the balance of learning behavior of individual,group and organization should be considered together;different types of Chinese firm should take different safety policies according to their practical situations.

  14. Chinese NGOs in action against HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; XU; Yi; ZENG; Allen; F; ANDERSON

    2005-01-01

    Chinese nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have played a significant role in the battle against AIDS in the People's Republic of China. This article provides a brief overview of the structure of these organizations, as well as an analysis of their principle accomplishments. Of great significance in this analysis is the fact that Chinese NGOs have effectively dealt with many sensitive health education areas that government authorities have felt reluctant to handle directly. As such, they have provided an indispensable component in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control calculus on the mainland.

  15. Preliminary radiation protection tests for the body height and body weight of the Chinese reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation protection standard recommended by ICRP was evaluated in terms of its suitability for Chinese people. The body height and weight of 100,325 healthy Chinese were measured and anatomical data collected from usable corpses of persons who died by accident or sudden death. The data included the size and weight of certain organs. 18 refs

  16. 2006 Annual Conference of Chinese Society of Particuology cum Symposium on Particle Technology across Taiwan Straits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The 2006 Annual Conference of Chinese Society of Particuology cum Symposium on Particle Technology across Taiwan Straits, held in Beijing from August 18 to 21, 2006, was hosted by Chinese Society of Particuology and organized jointly by Institute of Process Engineering, CAS, and State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing,China University of Petroleum.

  17. "Chink!" A Documentary History of Anti-Chinese Prejudice in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Tsu, Ed.

    The contents of this compendium, which presents a bit of the history of the racial prejudice against the Chinese, are organized in four chapters. Chapter 1, "Institutionalization of Prejudice," reviews the body of legislation and State and Federal court decisions pertaining to the Chinese, beginning with the migration to California during the…

  18. Mentoring and Research Supervision in Music Education: Perspectives of Chinese Postgraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) estimated that the number of students studying outside their own country would be over 20 million by 2030. Chinese students have increasingly formed a large percentage of international students at universities across the English-speaking world, and the Chinese demand for…

  19. A Contrastive Study of Chinese and English Thinking Pattern through English Sentence structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冉

    2015-01-01

    When Chinese and foreigners organize sentences,they follow different thought patterns which decide the essential distinction of the way they use English.This essay would elaborate the differences which lie in thought patterns carefully by analyzing sentence patterns of both Chinese and English people.

  20. Communicating organic food quality in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Consumers in emerging countries such as China play a crucial role for up-scaling improvements in the environmental impact of food production. So far little research has explored Chinese consumer reactions to organic food labels and whether Chinese consumer inferences can be favorably influenced by...

  1. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  2. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  3. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  4. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  5. Chinese Lacquer Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengXiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the

  6. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming;

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  7. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  8. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  9. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Corbiere

    2013-01-01

    <正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in

  10. Cataloging Pirated Chinese Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sze-Tseng

    1971-01-01

    Various types of pirated Chinese books are given with specific examples. The basic steps followed for the proper identification of these books is described, and remedies suggested in case the original is discovered after the book has been cataloged according to the information given by the book pirate. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  11. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  12. Reason Analysis and Risk Prevention of Soaring Price of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,the price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials soars continuously,and the resulting price risk increasingly looms large,which has critically affected midstream and downstream industries and peoples’ demand for drug,and imperiled healthy and orderly development of traditional Chinese medicinal industries.Based on the status quo of continuous skyrocketing price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials at present,we winkle out the root cause of soaring price as follows:the supply and demand lose balance;the production costs hike up;there are other factors responsible for soaring price.This paper further analyses the impact of sharp increase in price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials on all links of industry chain as follows:the medicinal herb growers never benefit from soaring price;the counterfeiters and forgers in midstream industry increase;the gross profit rate of Chinese medicine enterprises declines.In accordance with the risk arising from abnormal fluctuation in price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials,corresponding precautionary measures are put forward as follows:promote the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of value chain;curtail the production and management cost of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of organization chain;stabilize price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of information chain;reduce transaction cost of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of logistics chain.

  13. Analisis Homograf Aksara Cina pada Kamus Oxford Concise English- Chinese,Chinese-English

    OpenAIRE

    Nathania, Lenny

    2011-01-01

    Homograph characters exist in every language as well as in Chinese. The Chinese homograph characters are phenomena that often make misunderstood by learners in pronunciation and meaning interpretation. In this thesis with a title “Analisis Homograf Aksara Cina pada Kamus Oxford Concise English – Chinese, Chinese – English” (“Analysis Chinese Homophones characters in Oxford Concise English - Chinese, Chinese - English Dictionary”), focus on Chinese homograph characters from i...

  14. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Society of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology, Immunological Journal, Current Immunology, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology; Chinese Journal of

  15. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Socicty of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology,Immunological Journal,Current Immunology,Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology,Chinese Journal of

  16. Chinese Experiences on Orthokeratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peiying; Guo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of myopia in Chinese children has been rising each year. Research has shown that orthokeratology is a good method for controlling the progression of myopia. In this article, we review the current prevalence of myopia, the development and management of orthokeratology, and the myopia control methods used in China. A physical and health survey release indicated that the ratio of poor vision in every range of ages is still high in China. During the past 17 years, Chinese doctors have developed a standard fitting procedure and medical management of orthokeratology patients. This article also reviews the clinical studies in China for Ortho-K lenses, such as myopia control, effects and safety, corneal change, and lens design and fitting. Finally, we review the development of the International Academy of Orthokeratology Asia in China. PMID:26704137

  17. Photovoltaic for the Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China produces and exports about half of the photovoltaic cells made in the world. About 1000 Chinese enterprises work in the photovoltaic sector and the offer grows too fast to allow some enterprises to cope with lower and lower production costs. Research activities are a key element for the reduction of production costs but small companies can not usually sustain sufficient research. Economists foresee a strong reorganization of the sector: some enterprises will cease their photovoltaic activities, others will face financial difficulties, others will merge to make bigger companies. To make the demand bigger Chinese authorities are taking steps to develop the photovoltaic home market. The installed capacity of photovoltaic plants in China is expected to be somewhere between 11 GWc and 18 GWc in 2015, figures to be compared with only 0.9 GWc in 2010. (A.C.)

  18. Chinese Investment in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    At the 12th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) held on September 8-11 in Xiamen, Fujian Province, government officials and entrepreneurs from all over the world canvassed Chinese entrepreneurs and investors to invest in their countries. Foreign countries and regions rented 16,000 square meters of exhibition space, an increase of more than 50 percent from last year. Among the 74 participating countries and regions, more than 50 held seminars about their invest- ment environments. Besides the Caribbean countries and underdeveloped African nations that are actively attracting investment, developed countries such as the Untied States, Germany, France, Italy and Sweden also showed extraordinary enthusiasm in trying to win over Chinese investors. Beijing Review interviewed Marinella Loddo, Director of the Industrial Cooperation Division of the Italian Institute for Foreign Trade which is also known as the Italian Trade Commission (ICE).

  19. American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists: how are they doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peishan; Hu, Fengling

    2016-09-01

    More than 60 years have passed since 3 pioneer Chinese anesthesiologists were trained by American physicians. After returning to China, they applied their new knowledge and skills to develop a new anesthesia specialty in their own country. Over the past 2 decades, close to 600 Chinese medical graduates have been trained in the United States and have become part of the American anesthesia workforce. Unlike their elder generation, they did not go back to China after their training. People are always wondering how this new generation of American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists is doing in a different culture and different health care and political systems. This review indicates that these newly American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists not only provide high-quality patient care but also conduct outstanding anesthesia teaching and research. In addition, as their pioneer anesthesiologists did in China, they use professional organizations and publications as 2 major means to advance professional development and promote academic exchanges between Chinese and American anesthesiologists, through which American anesthesiology continues to have influence on modern Chinese anesthesiology. PMID:27555192

  20. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dutch-based information provider expands in China to tap new market There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them. "You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,

  1. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2011-01-01

    There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them."You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,Wolters Kluwer China CEO.

  2. Pollution Across Chinese Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Yap Co; Fanying Kong; Shuanglin Lin

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis using 1987-1995 data for Chinese provinces. A comparison of off-sample (1996-2004) predictions to actual emissions indicates that more stringent rules are still needed to fight industrial (waste water and dust) pollution. Auxiliary regressions show that conditional on income, northern provinces have lower industrial waste water pollution; non-coastal and provinces with smaller secondary industry shares have lower industrial (waste wa...

  3. Chinese institutional investors’ sentiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kling, Gerhard; Gao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    We use daily survey data on Chinese institutional investors’ forecasts to measure investors' sentiment. Our empirical model uncovers that share prices and investor sentiment do not have a long-run relation; however, in the short-run, the mood of investors follows a positive feedback process. Hence, institutional investors are optimistic when previous market returns were positive. Contrarily, negative returns trigger a decline in sentiment, which reacts more sensitively to negative than positi...

  4. Actually existing Chinese matriarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The essays in this volume present contemporary anthropological perspectives on Chinese kinship, its historical complexity and its modern metamorphoses. The collection draws particular attention to the reverberations of larger socio-cultural and politico-economic processes in the formation of sociality, intimate relations, family histories, reproductive strategies and gender relations – and vice-versa. Drawing on a wealth of ethnographic material from the late imperial period and from cont...

  5. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF CHINESE EXECUTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfang Fayol-Song

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Chinese nationals have increasingly been employed by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in China taking positions previously occupied by foreign expatriates from investor countries. The development of local managers has therefore become crucial in the field of human resource management because the success of these companies depends greatly upon the ability and competence of their executive management class. The present paper addresses the issue of how to devel...

  6. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  7. Current Chinese bryological literature (4)

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Yu, Jin

    2000-01-01

    According to our collections of literature, about 400 scientific papers dealing with Chinese bryophytes have been published in China and abroad during 1990’s. Among these, more than 50 % were published in different scientific journals in China and often written in Chinese with English abstract, which are not well known and assessable for foreign bryologists. Therefore, in addition to previous Chinese literature I-III (Cao et al. 1990, Li et Zhang 1993, 1994), we present the fourth part of Chi...

  8. On Building Theoretical System of Human Rights with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU HAINIAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ The ongoing discussion organized by the Human Rights magazine on building a theoretical system of human rights with Chinese characteristics is definitely of great significance.Theory guides practice.Correct theories can be turned into an immensely great material force that propels social progress.

  9. Cultural Traditions and Writing Differences Between English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍甜美

    2014-01-01

    Writing in any language involves more than grammar, vocabulary and spelling. There are thought connections and or-ganization patterns that extend beyond sentences and go deeper than the surface meaning of sentences. This paper compares the differences between English writing and Chinese writing, and explores their cultural traditions.

  10. High School Chinese: First Year Student Work Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This workbook accompanies the first volume (FL 002 774) of the Chinese text used in the Washington Foreign Language Program. It is organized according to the lessons in the companion textbook and provides vocabulary, substitution, pattern, transformation, expansion, and translation drills, dialogues, and questions and answers for practice. For…

  11. High School Chinese: Second Year Student Work Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This workbook accompanies the second volume (FL 002 776) of the Chinese text used in the Washington Foreign Language Program. It is organized according to the lessons in the companion textbook and provides vocabulary, substitution, pattern, transformation, translation, and expansion drills, and question and answer practice. For related documents…

  12. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    This is the Chinese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  13. Leveraging Chinese Culture for Effective Organizational Leadership: The China Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia

    2008-01-01

    This article examined organizational leadership in the context of China. Taking a cultural perspective, this literature review traced the cultural roots of Chinese leadership and analyzed the cultural impact on leadership practice in organizations. It further provided general guidelines for leadership development in China, followed by…

  14. Guanxi and Ethics-A Study of Chinese Management Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Tung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The concept of guanxi being a developing concept and used in the Chinese organizational management has been a topic of concern and interest as well for several authors to experiment on. The study focused on the determination of the impact of the use guanxi concept in the Chinese organizational managements and the effects on the ethical standards and judgement of the organization. Approach: The research has been a secondary source based research and obtained its materials and understanding from the earlier researches conducted on the concerned topic. Results: It has been obtained from the study that the concept of guanxi has an extreme significance in the management of organizations, particularly with respect to the Chinese organizations. Conclusion: Although there are certain negative aspects of following the concept of guanxi, yet from the study it has been concluded that the concept is an essential factor for the Chinese organizations that have records of success stories from using the guanxi concept and maintaining enhanced interpersonal relationships.

  15. Transnational Chinese Sphere in Singapore: Dynamics, Transformations and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon an empirical analysis of Singaporean Chinese’s intriguing and changing linkages with China over the past half century, this paper suggests that multi-layered interactions between the Chinese diaspora and the homeland have led to the formulation of an emerging transnational Chinese social sphere, which has three main characteristics: First, it is a space for communication by ethnic Chinese abroad with their hometown/ homeland through steady and extensive flows of people, ideas, goods and capital that transcend the nation-state borders, although states also play an important role in shaping the nature and characteristics of these flows. Second, this transnational social sphere constitutes a dynamic interface between economy, politics and culture, which has contributed to creating a collective diasporic identity as well as social and business networks. Third, the key institutional mechanism of the transnational social sphere is various types of Chinese organizations – ranging from hometown associations to professional organizations – which serve as integral components of Chinese social and business networks.

  16. Brief Discussions of a Draw of American Universal Education on Chinese Postgraduate Teaching Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhengminqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Initiated by International Friendships Inc.(IFI in Cincinnati, that is a Christian community organization, the authors participated in a universal education activity, called “History Museum”, organized by the local people in Kentucky State of U.S.A. In the activity, the authors grasped some characteristics of American universal education and reflected some problems of the professional foundation teaching of Chinese postgraduates, especially of Chinese engineering postgraduates. Based on the above thinking, some suggestions of the teaching methods for the professional foundation courses of Chinese postgraduates are proposed. Furthermore, the authors hope the proposed methods would be good for improving the postgraduate education in China.

  17. Nutrient elements in large Chinese estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing

    1996-07-01

    Based on comprehensive observations since 1983, this study summarizes major features of nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon) in large Chinese river/estuary systems. Elevated nutrient element levels were observed in Chinese rivers, when compared to large and less disturbed aquatic systems (e.g. the Amazon, Zaire and Orinoco). Data from this study are similar to those obtained from the polluted and/or eutrophic rivers in Europe and North America (e.g. the Rhóne and Loire). Nutrient elements may have either conservative or active distributions, or both, in the mixing zone, depending on the element and the estuary. For example, non-conservative behaviors were observed in the upper estuary, where nutrient elements may be remobilized due to the strong desorption and variations of the fresh water end-member, but conservative distributions were found afterwards in the lower estuary. Outside the riverine effluent plumes, nutrient elements may be depleted in surface waters relative to elevated bioproduction, whereas the regeneration with respect to decomposition of organic material and/or nitrification/denitrification offshore, may sustain high levels of nutrient elements in near-bottom waters. Laboratory experiment data generally compares well with field observations. The high fluxes and area] yields of nutrient elements from large Chinese rivers, indicate the extensive use of chemical fertilizers and domestic waste drainage over watersheds in China.

  18. Preindustrial Patterns in Chinese Organizational Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Chinese organizational culture is usually described as being influenced by Confucian social norms and unique to the country. The paper argues in contrast to this view that there are important cultural similarities between values and norms in organizations in China and other developing countries. It...... is suggested that China, like other developing countries, is in a process of industrialization but retains preindustrial social norms which shape social relations and organizational structures. The paper shows first that the morals of social distance and reciprocity which anthropologists have found...... to be constitutive of a large number of preindustrial communities also govern relationships within and between organizations in present-day China. The paper then turns to organizations in Africa and Latin America and it is shown that the same social morals structure behaviours in these two developing...

  19. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  20. 光周期对白头鹎体重、器官重量和能量代谢的影响%Effects of photoperiod on body mass,organ masses and energy metabolism in Chinese bulbul(Pycnonotus sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪小英; 林琳; 周菲菲; 王小华; 柳劲松

    2011-01-01

    Photoperiod acts as an environmental zeitgeber for seasonal acclimatization of thermoregulation in some birds.The present study was designed to examine the effects of photoperiod alone on the plasticity of body mass, metabolic organs and metabolism in Chinese bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis). Twenty adult Chinese bulbuls were live-trapped by mist net in Wenzhou Zhejiang Province (27°29′N, 120°51′E) from March to April 2008. After one week adaptation to laboratory conditions, they were randomly assigned into either long (LD; 16L∶8D, n= 10) or short photoperiod (SD; 8L∶16D, n=10) for 4 weeks at a constant temperature (28℃). Food was provided in excess of the birds' needs and water was supplied ad lib. The birds were weighed (to 0.01g, Sartorius balance model BT25S) immediately after live-trapped, and weighed again at a week interval over the period of photoperiodic acclimation. Energy intake was measured in metabolic cages. Food residues and feces were collected on the first day of the experiment and also at a weekly basis, and the caloric contents of them were determined using a oxygen bomb calorimeter ( C200, Germany IKA). Metabolic rate (MR) was measured using a closed circuit respirometer. Chamber temperature was controlled within (28 ±0.5 ) ℃ by water bath. Birds were killed and dissected on the day after metabolic measurements, and organ masses were weighed ( to 0.1 mg, Sartorius balance model BS110S) immediately.During acclimation, we found the body mass and energy budget of Chinese bulbuls began to have significant differences in two light conditions after the first week. Body mass of SD birds became significantly higher than LD individuals, and all of gross energy intake, excretion energy and digestible energy intake decreased remarkably in SD birds, but energy budget except digestible energy intake kept stable in LD individuals. After the 4 weeks of acclimation, SD birds showed significantly higher body mass, basal metabolic rate (BMR

  1. Organizing Internet Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Many approaches have been taken by different groups to organize electronic resources on Internet. Some of them purport to index the electronic resources automatically. Search engines are typical in this category. Another category is the traditional library cataloging approach. For example, modified MARC formats are used to catalog the Internet resources. Besides these two, there are also some other ways to organize Internet resources, such as classification number schemes, subject heading systems, and other manual subject guides to provide a central access point for value-added topical guides. This paper introduces different approaches to organize Internet resources and focuses mainly on librarians' efforts.[Article content in Chinese

  2. Chinese Stratgagem And Chinese Business Negotiating Behaviour: An Introduction to Ji

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper aims to arrive at an understanding of Chinese business negotiating behaviour from a Chinese stratagem perspective. The Chinese concept li (stratagem) which has its roots in ancient Chinese military thought is introduced to fill the gap in scholarship. The author has proposed a "S-B Model" which interpretes the strategic patterns of Chinese business negotiating behaviour from The Thirty-Six Stratagems, an ancient Chinese stratagem treatise. The paper argues that Chinese stratagems ha...

  3. Achievement of Chinese Dream and Chinese Spirit of the Age Going out

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian; Kunming YAO

    2014-01-01

    Chinese dream is a spiritual power to achieve the Great Renaissance of the Chinese nation. In the process of Great Renaissance, we create the great spirit of Chinese nation. With the development of economy prosperity, China has become the second largest economic power in the world. The Chinese nation is undergoing the course of Great Renaissance of Chinese dream. The process of the evolution of Chinese dream is the cultivating process of Chinese spirit of the age. That is the evolution of Chi...

  4. Cardiovascular mortality of Chinese in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jing; Madhavan, Shantha; Alderman, Michael H

    1999-01-01

    To determine cardiovascular disease mortality among Chinese migrants in New York City and compare it to both that of residents in China and whites in New York City, mortality records for 1988 through 1992 for New York City and the 1990 US census data for New York City were linked. Age-specific death rates for urban China, reported by the World Health Organization, were used for comparison. The results show that male and female Chinese residents in New York City had lower mortality rates for a...

  5. Neuroanatomical markers of speaking Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. PMID:19530216

  6. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from

  7. The chinese health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese h...

  8. Why Do I Study Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Translator’s Note: The cross language year program-the Chinese Language Year in France and the French Language Year in China-initiated by Chinese and French leaders were held in 2011 and 2012 to promote cultural exchanges and further deepen the China-France comprehensive strategic partnership. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the CPAFFC and the

  9. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  10. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    to interpret their own educational histories and prior experiences, while at the same time making use of imaginaries of 'Western' education to redefine themselves as independent individuals in an increasingly globalised and individualised world. Through a case study of prospective pre-school teachers preparing...... to study abroad, the article shows how personal, professional and even national goals are closely interwoven. Students expect education abroad to be a personally transformative experience, but rather than defining their goals of individual freedom and creativity in opposition to the authoritarian political...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  11. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    As important providers of information, analysis of current events and debates, journalists are subject to high expectations regarding their professional values. Journalism is considered to be more than merely a career; it is construed as a profession that builds on personal commitment to serve...... society. This chapter is concerned with Chinese journalism students' self-perceptions and evaluations of journalistic performances in order to understand the professional values to which they adhere. The study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted in two periods in Spring 2011 and Fall...

  12. CHINESE COMMUNITY IN ECUADOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARIA JOSE CIFUENTES CERVANTES

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Republic Of Ecuador is located in the west coast of South America.It has a total area of 256.370 km2 and a population of approximately 14 million.Spanish is considered as the official language.The country is subdivided into 24 provinces with the capital city being Quito and the other major city being Guayaquil.Since the year 2000 US Dollar had been the official currency.Approximately 50,000 people from China live now in Ecuador.Although the Chinese community in Ecuador is not as large as those in Brazil and Peru, it has a strong economic and social weight in the country.

  13. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  14. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  15. Dancing in the Diaspora: Cultural Long-Distance Nationalism and the Staging of Chineseness by San Francisco’s Chinese Folk Dance Association

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Sau-ling C.

    2010-01-01

    This essay analyzes the history of a San Francisco Bay Area cultural institution over a period of more than four decades, and, applying to it the concept of "cultural long-distance nationalism," it attempts to tease apart the complexity of cultural practice in diaspora. The organization in question is the Chinese Folk Dance Association (CFDA), founded in 1959, a pro-People’s Republic of China (PRC) troupe of amateur dancers and musicians playing Chinese instruments. As someone who wa...

  16. Literature study on the relationship between the cold-heat nature of Chinese herbal medicine and the single compound of organic constituents%植物类中药寒热药性与有机成分单一化合物相关性的文献研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 王振国

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Study on the relationship between the cold-heat nature of Chinese herbal medicine and chemical constituents. Methods: Use the information from existing literatures; Collect chemical information of herbal medicine by document retrieval. Then use chemical informatics to collate the data and analyze it Establish Logistic regression equation based on the single compound of chemical constituents. Use the regression equation to distinguish cold-heat nature of herbs. Result: The Logistic regression equation could distinguish cold and heat natures of herbs. Conclusion: There is a correlation between cold-heat nature of Chinese herbal medicine and organic constituents.%目的:探寻化学成分与中药寒热属性的相关性.方法:利用现有文献提供的信息资料,通过文献检索收集植物药化学成分信息,利用化学信息学对资料进行整理,运用多种数据统计分析与挖掘方法分析化学信息数据,建立Logistic回归方程,对中药寒热属性进行判别.结果:以有机成分单一化合物建立的Logistic回归方程,可以对中药的寒热属性进行判别.结论:植物类中药寒热药性与有机成分有相关性.

  17. Chinese Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-yue; Chen; Jun; Cheng; Fang-ling; Duan; Jian-gao; Fan; Xiao-ling; Fan; Li-min; Guo; Ming-zhou; Guo; Tao; Han; Jing-yuan; Liu; Xiong; Ma; Wei; Shen; Shi-guang; Feng; Xian-bo; Wang; Yun; Wu; Wen; Xie; Yao; Xie; Hui-chun; Xing; Ping-geYuan; Yong-ping; Yang; Fu-kui; Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy(HE)is a complex,neuropsychiatric abnormality that occurs as a consequence of metabolic disorders in patients with hepatic insufficiency.The pathogenesis is complex with a strong prognosticator of death.To standardize the clinical management of HE,relevant new data were reviewed and assessed by Chinese Committee of Experts on Hepatic Encephalopathy in China and was discussed and debated extensively.Then the consensus on the management of HE was developed.The final recommendations are based on the data available at the time of production of the document and may be updated with pertinent scientific developments at a later time.All the discussion was organized by the editorial board of Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Infectious Diseases(Electronic Edition),Chinese Journal of Liver Diseases(Electronic Edition)and Infection International(Electronic Edition).The evidence gradings in the consensus are listed in Table1.

  18. Biodegradability of leachates from Chinese and German municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SELIC E.; WANG Chi; BOES N., HERBELL J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative composition of Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW) differs significantly from German waste. The focus of this paper is on whether these differences also lead to dissimilar qualities of leachates during storage or landfilling. Leachates ingredients determine the appropriate treatment technique. MSW compositions of the two cities Guilin (China) and Essen (Germany), each with approx. 600000 inhabitants, are used to simulate Chinese and German MSW types. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is used, combining aerobic and anaerobic reaction principles, to test the biodegradability of leachates. Leachates are tested for temperature, pH-value, redox potentials, and oxygen concentration. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) values are determined. Within 8 h, the biodegradation rates for both kinds of leachates are more than 90%. Due to the high organic content of Chinese waste, the degradation rate for Guilin MSW leachate is even higher, up to 97%. The effluent from SBR technique is suitable for direct discharge into bodies of water.

  19. The "Coop-Comp" Chinese Negotiation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    T. Fang

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the cultural roots of Chinese business negotiation strategy. The article argues that, Chinese culture, with its cooperative and competitive components, has bestowed upon Chinese negotiators a distinctive "coop-comp" negotiation strategy. The Chinese are culturally capable of negotiating both sincerely and deceptively at the international business negotiation table.

  20. Chinese migrants and forced labour in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Gao

    2004-01-01

    Based on a literature survey and on an analysis of current Chinese law on trafficking. Examines the development of Chinese businesses in Europe and shows how harsh immigration policies have led to an increase in human trafficking. Investigates forced labour among Chinese migrants and examines Chinese legislation to combat trafficking.

  1. Multicultural Awareness for the Classroom: The Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Felix Mario; And Others

    This guide provides the teacher of multiethnic students with information and teaching resources on Chinese. An historical overview of China and the Chinese experience in America is presented in English and Chinese. Several lesson plans and classroom activities reviewing Chinese geography, holidays, legends, and stories are presented. (APM)

  2. The Chinese Spallation Neutron Source Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal of the Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) project was granted in the beginning of 2002 after three review meetings, organized by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and other scientific organizations. Physicists from the Institute of Physics (IP) and the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), both belonging to CAS, consequently started a conceptual design and feasibility study. The CSNS plan calls for a 70-MeV H- linac and a 1.6 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron producing a proton current of 62.5 μA (100kW) at a 25 Hz repetition rate. It should be able to be upgraded to a higher beam power in its second phase. The CSNS target station design team, has initiated to conceptual design of the targetmoderator system based on the suggestions and comments from an international advisory team, in the first moderator-target planning meeting of CSNS project (21-26, April 2002 in Beijing). In consideration of the characteristics of the spallation neutron source, the budgets and possible requests for future users in China, five multi-purpose neutron scattering spectrometers were proposed as the first step

  3. Communicating organic food quality in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Consumers in emerging countries such as China play a crucial role for up-scaling improvements in the environmental impact of food production. So far little research has explored Chinese consumer reactions to organic food labels and whether Chinese consumer inferences can be favorably influenced by...... communication efforts. An online experiment studied the influence of the presence of organic labels as well as the influence of priming of environmental values on fruit and vegetable quality inferences. We find that Chinese consumers expect organic food to be more expensive and of a higher general quality...... compared to conventional food, but we do not find significantly higher health or taste inferences for organic products. When primed with environmental values, consumers with strong environmental values express higher quality and health inferences for organically labeled food. The results indicate that...

  4. An Iterative Algorithm to Build Chinese Language Models

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, X; Luo, Xiaoqiang; Roukos, Salim

    1996-01-01

    We present an iterative procedure to build a Chinese language model (LM). We segment Chinese text into words based on a word-based Chinese language model. However, the construction of a Chinese LM itself requires word boundaries. To get out of the chicken-and-egg problem, we propose an iterative procedure that alternates two operations: segmenting text into words and building an LM. Starting with an initial segmented corpus and an LM based upon it, we use a Viterbi-liek algorithm to segment another set of data. Then, we build an LM based on the second set and use the resulting LM to segment again the first corpus. The alternating procedure provides a self-organized way for the segmenter to detect automatically unseen words and correct segmentation errors. Our preliminary experiment shows that the alternating procedure not only improves the accuracy of our segmentation, but discovers unseen words surprisingly well. The resulting word-based LM has a perplexity of 188 for a general Chinese corpus.

  5. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  6. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  7. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  8. Being Chinese or Being Different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    which way they use ‘Chinese-ness’, the participants are able to reflect on their experiences and manifest a willingness to adapt to another culture, in which their identity as CFL teachers are constructed. By the end of study, the combination of teaching culture of Chinese and Danish, in which......This study reports on a qualitative research that explores how three beginning native CFL teachers in a Danish university use ‘Chinese-ness’ and how these serve in explaining their own narratives, either through identifying with, or distancing themselves from. Early results show that no matter...

  9. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  10. Atopic disease in the Hong Kong Chinese.

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Y. M.; Mayberry, J F; Rhodes, J.; Newcombe, R G

    1982-01-01

    One hundred and sixty Chinese men and 96 women resident in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire about atopic disease and their responses were compared with replies from 500 Britons. Asthma and hayfever were less common in the Chinese and this could not be attributed to medical awareness as the results were similar in Chinese surgical patients and Chinese medical students. The role of heredity and environment may be assessed by studying Chinese people who have moved to Britain.

  11. The Analysis of the Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓慧

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of pragmatic studies, politeness has aroused great interest among Chinese scholars. Different cultures have different traditions and values, which bring out different understanding and application of politeness strategies. Great Chinese culture brings out the complicated Chinese politeness scale. A successful communication depends on politeness principle. Learning the Chinese politeness scale will make we know more about the Chinese culture. By researching this, we will perform better in communication.

  12. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Fung Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publicatio...

  13. TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930433 A study on relationship between hy-pothyroidism and deficiency of kidney YANG.ZHA Lianglun(查良伦),et al.lnstit Integr TCM& West Med,Shanghai Med Univ,Shanghai,200040.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 1993;13(4):202—204.Thirty—two cases of hypothyroidism causedby various factors were treated for one year withChinese medicinal herbs preparation“Shen Lutablet”(SLT)to warm and reinforce the KidneyYang.34 normal persons were studied as a con-trol group.After treatment with SLT,the clini-cal symptoms of hypothyroidism were markedlyimproved.Average serum concentration of totalT3,T4 increased significantly from 67.06±4.81

  14. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Study on the Application of Mass Media and English Han cui xia (ShanDong BinZhou medical college ShanDong YanTai 264003)Read and Write Periodica,vol.9, No.5,16,2012(ISSN1672-1578,in,Chinese ) Abstract: Rapid technological development of mass media and Internt chances of improvement. This paper analyzes the present situation of adult teaching and learning of English and the application of mass media and Internet in it in the hope of changing the present situation and improving the effect in order for adult learners to benefit more from it.. Key words: mass media; Internet; adult education; teaching and learning of English

  15. Predictors of beginning reading in Chinese and English: A 2-year longitudinal study of Chinese kindergartners

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, CSH; McBrideChang, C

    2005-01-01

    Ninety Chinese children were tested once at age 4 and again 22 months later on phonological-processing and other reading skills. Chinese phonological-processing skills alone modestly predicted Chinese character recognition, and English letter-name knowledge uniquely predicted reading of both Chinese and English 2 years later. Furthermore, concurrently measured phonological-processing skills in Chinese, but not English, accounted for unique variance in both English and Chinese word recognition...

  16. Chinese English” and Its Implication on C-E Translation of Chinese Specific Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Chen

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify Chinese English and explore its origin, focusing on the important role of Chinese English resulted in the translation of expressions of Chinese specific expressions. In view of the important role of Chinese English in cross-cultural communication, the paper proposes that the translators should take a justified attitude to “Chinese English” rather than avoid it as unnecessary or bad English and .the expressions with Chinese peculiarity should be particularly heed...

  17. Chinese Family: Some New Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    It is a familiar sight in many Chinese cities to witness a large team escorting a baby pram in public: mother, grandmothers, ayi (nan-ny), another ayi maybe, grandfathers quiet possible, and finally tither if you are lucky.

  18. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  19. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives.

  20. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  1. Development and application of the Chinese adult female computational phantom Rad-HUMAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad-HUMAN is a whole-body numerical phantom of a Chinese adult woman which contains 46 organs and tissues and was created by MCAM6 software using the color photographs of the Chinese Visible Human dataset. This dataset was obtained from a 22-year old Chinese female cadaver judged to represent normal human anatomy as much as possible. The density and elemental composition recommended in the ICRP Publication 89 and in the ICRU report 44 were assigned to the organ and tissue in Rad-HUMAN for radiation protection purpose. The last step was to implement the anatomical data into a Monte Carlo code. Rad-HUMAN contains more than 28.8 billion tiny volume units, which produces an accurately whole-body numerical phantom of a Chinese adult female

  2. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  3. The Chinese Housing Provident Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Buttimer Jr; Anthony Yanxiang Gu; Tyler T. Yang

    2004-01-01

    The Chinese government has embarked upon an effort to reduce the number of tenants living in publicly owned housing. This is a significant challenge for any government, but may be especially so for a country where private homeownership is a new option. Out of concern that many of its citizens could not afford to purchase their housing units, the Chinese government created the Housing Provident Fund. This program, which is similar to housing fund programs in other countries such as Thailand an...

  4. Bulimia nervosa in the Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, U

    1993-12-01

    Typical DSM-III-R bulimia nervosa with self-induced vomiting was found in 2 women of Hong Kong Chinese origin and a Chinese man from Malaysia. All 3 cases had a family history of obesity. In 2 of the cases a period of weight gain and in the third case frank obesity preceded the onset of the eating disorder. Cultural transition seemed to play an important part in the onset and maintenance of the eating disorder. PMID:8293034

  5. The art of Chinese management?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlevogt, Kai-Alexander.

    1998-01-01

    An empirical study was undertaken (a) to examine the characteristics, influencing factors, and effectiveness of a distinctive Chinese management model adopted by the newly founded private enterprises in mainland China, as well as (b) to test the "fit" notion in contingency theory. The study was based on a random sample of 124 standardized personal interviews with CEOs of Chinese industrial and service companies in Beijing and Shanghai. The standardized questionnaire mainly con...

  6. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  7. Training in Chinese Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Zhejun

    2007-01-01

    The dissertation aims to review the currently predominant literature on the factors influencing the training in small business in the industrialized Western economies and to carry out empirical investigation on the determinants of training in Chinese small business and then analyze whether the Western-based literature is consistent with the practices of training in Chinese small firms. In addition, relevant problems with training in small business are presented and recommendations on how to r...

  8. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  9. Who Will Save Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Like a drama unfolding in a riveting suspense novel, the quadrennial global football gala is becoming more and more compelling as the climax approaches. Billions of people are glued to the tube watching the World Cup in Germany, and Chinese football fans are following the countdown with the rest of the world. According to a poll by China Central Television, the national broadcaster, World Cup games have attracted combined viewers of at least 10 billion. For Chinese football enthusiasts, however, the joy ...

  10. Comparison between English and Chinese Repeated References to the Same Thing and Parallel Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽红

    2013-01-01

      Chinese and English are two very different languages;the former belongs to the Sino-Tibetan Language Family and the latter the Indo-European Language Family. In terms of textual organization, they show substantial differences. Chinese is mainly a pragmatic, paratactic and topic-prominent language, while English a grammatical, hypotactic and subject-prominent language. This thesis gives a contrastive study of two problems in English and Chinese. They are repeated references to the same thing and parallel structure. In this way, the translation work will be more succinct and smooth.

  11. [Cataplasma of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Gao, Wen-yuan; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yun-bin; Xue, Jing; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2003-01-01

    The TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) transdermal plaster (also known as "cataplasma") are flexible adhesive patches used for treatment of pain, resulted from arthritis, sprain and bruise, tendovaginitis, lumbar spine protrude, neuralgia, hyperosteogeny ache, abdominal discomfort and metastatic cancer, etc. Since the 1980's, investigators in China have used this modern patch delivery system for herbal drugs and obtained satisfactory results especially from the treatment of various types of pain associated with bone diseases, abdominal discomfort, and tumors, etc. The production of TCM cataplasma was successfully scaled up in early 90's and the commercial product line for an antirheumatic agent was first established in Shanghai by Leiyunshang Group. Thus far, a number of products in the form of TCM cataplasma became commercially available in the market, and clinical investigations with these products indicated that topically applicable herbal preparations, especially in the form of cataplasma, are preferred formulations with respect to the treatment comfort of the patient. Compared to the traditional preparations which utilize rubber and rosin as adhesives, cataplasma is advantageous in that the lipophilic and hydrophilic ingredients of the herbal extracts are solubilized and then "gellified" with the organic polymers, and that the drug matrix containing up to 40%-70% of water serves as a "drug reservoir" that will sustain the quick and continuous release of herbal ingredients over several days across the skin. While there are conventional remedies for palliation of pain and discomfort associated with bone diseases or cancers, administration of oral medicinal herbs combined with topical agents such as TCM cataplasma may significantly alleviate the symptoms and improve their quality of life. This article provides a review on three aspects, which include the process development, characteristics and developmental status of TCM cataplasma, and future development of

  12. Economic Impacts of China's Accession to the World Trade Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ianchovichina, Elena; Martin, William

    2003-01-01

    Ianchovichina and Martin present estimates of the impact of accession by China and Chinese Taipei to the World Trade Organization. China is estimated to be the biggest beneficiary, followed by Chinese Taipei and their major trading partners. Accession will boost the labor-intensive manufacturing sectors in China, especially the textiles and apparel sector that will benefit directly from th...

  13. The Effectiveness of UK DMO Websites Perceived by Chinese International Students

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs) are in charge of destination marketing and management and has adopted website as an important market communication channel. It can be considered as a medium that enable DMOs to promote their destination effectively and attract customers� attention. With the increasing investment in DMOs website, the effectiveness of DMO websites has drawn considerably attentions. With more than 50000 Chinese students coming to the UK to study every year, Chinese in...

  14. International Field Excursion and Workshop on Tectonic Evolution and Crustal Structure of the Paleozoic Chinese Tianshan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yan; Charvet, Jacques; Faure, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in Beijing, together with the Xinjiang 305 Project, in cooperation with International Lithosphere Program (ILP) CC-1/4 Projects TOPOCENTRAL- ASIA, ERAS, Chinese National 973 project and Paleo-environment research of NW China, will organize a 7-day (Sept. 10 to 16) international geological transect across the Eastern Tianshan in China, followed by a 2-day workshop* in Urumqi (Sept. 17 and 18). Integrating previous and ...

  15. An exploratory study of global leaders' and Chinese managers' leadership constructs in multinational corporations in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lake

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the leadership constructs of global leaders and Chinese managers in multi-national corporations (MNCs) in order to understand whether their constructs are misaligned, and if so, in what ways. To address these questions, data was gathered via repertory grid test interviews with 31 global leaders and 59 Chinese managers in six MNCs’ China organizations. Analysis subsequently revealed that global leaders rely upon twelve key constructs to define global leaders...

  16. Effect of food restriction on the energy metabolism of the Chinese bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    LIANG, Qing-Jian; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Jia-Qi; Chen, Qian; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Liu, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Food resources play an important role in the regulation of animals’ physiology and behavior. We investigated the effect of short-term food restriction on metabolic thermogenesis of Chinese bulbuls (Pycnonotus sinensis) by measuring changes in body mass, body fat, basic metabolic rate (BMR), and organ mass of wild-caught Chinese bulbuls from Wenzhou, China. Short-term food restriction induced a significant decrease in body mass and body fat but body mass returned to normal levels soon after fo...

  17. The Culture Shock and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Chinese Expatriates in International Business Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Shi; Lei Wang

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the influential causes of culture shocks experienced by Chinese business expatriates, and meanwhile to reveal their difficulties in the cross-cultural adaptation in international business contexts. The research was conducted on the base of a semi-structured interview and an on-line survey among 80 Chinese business expatriates who came from a wide range of corporations and organizations. Through a quantitative-and-qualitative analysis, eight major influential ca...

  18. Enabling Intrapreneurship : A Case of A Chinese Family Business and SMEs in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Woan Tyng

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct an exploratory study into the intrapreneurial behavior in southeast Chinese family business firms. This is very much in response to the fact that current available literatures in corporate entrepreneurship are mainly focused on western well-established organizations. Whereas, the study of corporate entrepreneurship in Chinese family business context are still lacking.This study target discloses whether the enablers of corporate entrepreneurship, which...

  19. On the Basis and Predicament of Applying Organizational Support Theory to Chinese Public Human Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    Huali Wu

    2009-01-01

    Organizational Support Theory emphasizes on the concerns and attentions of organizations to employees. It can arouse employees’ a sense of obligation to help organizations to reach objectives, enhancing employees’ emotional commitments to organizations, and make employees dedicate to organizations willingly. At present, this theory has already been studied and applied to Chinese enterprises’ human resource development and management field. But seldom does it be referenced by the public manage...

  20. Community-level Language Planning for Chinese Heritage Language Maintenance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Chung Cheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of Chinese heritage language in the United States from the perspective of language policy and planning. The case study examines the Chinese heritage language maintenance through community-based Chinese schools (CHS, and CHS’s relationships with Chinese American community, as well as governments and non-government organizations in China, Taiwan, and the United States. The paper starts with a theoretical discussion on the definition of language policy and planning, and then describes the history and heritage language education of Chinese Americans in the United States. The paper also presents micro-level planning activities initiated by CHSs in the Chinese American community and non-government organizations. Special focus is placed on the interaction between non-government organizations in the US and governmental bodies in Taiwan and mainland China and in the United States. This paper suggests that micro planning of heritage language maintenance is beneficial when initiated in the community, but it can only be developed and sustained within the wider scope of macro-level planning from governments

  1. Monte Carlo simulation for internal radiation dosimetry based on the high resolution Visible Chinese Human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal radiation dose calculations based on Chinese models is important in nuclear medicine. Most of the existing models are based on the physical and anatomical data of Caucasian, whose anatomical structure and physiological parameters are quite different from the Chinese, may lead significant effect on internal radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the model based on the Chinese ethnic characteristics, and applied to radiation dosimetry calculation. In this study, a voxel model was established based on the high resolution Visible Chinese Human (VCH). The transport procedure of photon and electron was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Absorbed fraction (AF) and specific absorbed fraction (SAF) were calculated and S-factors and mean absorbed doses for organs with 99mTc located in liver were also obtained. In comparison with those of VIP-Man and MIRD models, discrepancies were found to be correlated with the racial and anatomical differences in organ mass and inter-organ distance. The internal dosimetry data based on other models that were used to apply to Chinese adult population are replaced with Chinese specific data. The obtained results provide a reference for nuclear medicine, such as dose verification after surgery and potential radiation evaluation for radionuclides in preclinical research, etc. (authors)

  2. Research on Chinese Agricultural Industrialization Based on SCP Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking the SCP mode of industrial organization theory as the starting point,the paper analyzes Chinese agricultural market structure,market conduct and conduct performance and draws lessons from foreign experiences in developing agriculture.In the process of agricultural industrialization,Chinese agricultural development exists the problems of low intensive degree,low degree of differential products,surplus labor forces,low agricultural profit rate and low industrial contribution rate and farmers’ difficultly in adapting to market competition.The paper puts forward suggestions for addressing the problems,which include underpinning the cooperation of operation main bodies and developing rural cooperative organizations;promoting land transfer and clarifying land property;accelerating rural surplus labors transfer and abating trade barriers;increasing technology input and improving the contribution rate of technologies;improving circulation channels and intensifying agricultural competitiveness.

  3. On the Ownership Structure and Business Organization of Chinese Culture IndustryA Case Study on Mountain Mian in Shanxi%论中国文化产业的产权配置与企业组织——以山西绵山为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世海

    2011-01-01

    在未来的中国,文化产业将会成为一个重要的产业门类,在国民经济中所占的比重将会越来越大。发展文化产业需要大量的社会资源。由于这些资源在产权方面多具有公共属性,因此,必须首先对它们的产权进行合理配置。在清晰的产权之下,企业需要建立完善而高效的组织,推出高质量的产品和服务,并进行营销。在产权配置与企业组织方面,山西的绵山是一个成功的案例,它对中国的文化产业具有深远的启示意义。%In future China, Culture Industry will become an important industrial sector, and the portion of cultural industry will become greater in national economy. To develop culture industry need much social resources, as most of these resources have public ownership, so the property rights must have rational disposition. After clearly establishing the ownership, the business must establish perfect and efficient organization, produce high quality products and service, and then market them. On the ownership structure and business organization, Mountain Mian in Shanxi is a successful case, which has profound implication to Chinese culture industry.

  4. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive Warm-up in Jiang Hua (Department of Foreign Language, Modern College of Northwest University, Xi'an 710130, China)Read and Write Perodica,vol.9,No.10,10,2012 (ISSN1672 -1578,in, Chinese) Abstract: Classroom teaching activities should be an interactive process, which includes not only interaction between teachers and students but also includes the interaction between students and learning materials and the interaction between students and design activities in class. These interaction processes will directly affect the students learning interest and the effect. So classroom interactions are very important. But how to present these interactions well and make them educational in the classroom is a question which needs considered carefully by teachers. Because of the warm-up is the key part for teachers to introduce the whole unit and stimulate the interests of students, this article mainly discusses the warming-up part of college English teaching, to improve the classroom interactions, and stimulate the students' study enthusiasm and the initiative. Key words: Interaction; Educational; Warm-up

  5. Understanding Human Resource Management in a Chinese company

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yanjiao

    2009-01-01

    Human resources have become a key competitive factor in Chinese organizations. With the development of China's socialist economy, modern enterprise management concepts are gradually accepted and applied to practices of business management. China's human resource management has undergone a process of transforming personnel management into strategic human resource management. The target of this study was to explore current status of HRM within company in China, and furthermore it was resea...

  6. THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION FOR LARGE CHINESE FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Nolan; Jin Zhang

    2002-01-01

    As China joins the World Trade Organization, the author questions whether China’s large firms will be able to compete on the global level playing field. Over the past two decades, Chinese large enterprises have undertaken extensive evolutionary change but, at the same time, the world’s leading firms have undergone a revolutionary transformation. Based on analysis of firms with the aerospace, oil and petrochemical industry, the authors conclude that China’s leading firms face critical challeng...

  7. Geography of Multinational Corporations and Functional Specialization in Chinese Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Canfei He; Xiaojun Xiao

    2011-01-01

    There has been a transformation of urban structure from mainly sectoral to functional specialization. This transformation is inextricably interrelated with changes in firms' organization. Some cities host upstream functions of the value chain while others attract production and assembly. This paper investigates the tendency toward functional specialization in Chinese cities by exploring divisions in multinational corporations' (MNC) business operations in China. Based on data from Fortune Glo...

  8. Chinese Township-Village Enterprises as Vaguely Defined Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, C.; Weitzman, ML

    1994-01-01

    This paper concerns the paradoxes and dilemmas raised by Chinese township-village enterprises. The main purpose of the paper is to argue that a TVE is best described as a vaguely defined cooperative, meaning an essentially communal organization quite far removed from having a well defined ownership structure. The extraordinary success of the TVEs presents a severe challenge for traditional property rights theory, which we investigate in the paper. J. Comp. Econom., April 1994, 18(2), pp. 121-...

  9. Telocytes in ileum of the Chinese giant salamander: ultrastructural evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Hui ZHANG; Zhong, Shengwei; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Yu, Pengcheng; Zhou, Zuohong; Guo, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Telocytes (TCs) and their telopodes (Tps) have been found in various organs of many mammals, including in lower animals. However, knowledge of TCs in lower animals is still very limited. This study identified TCs and their Tps in the ileum of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus (Amphibia: Caudata), by transmission electron microscopy. The TCs/Tps were found near epithelial cells, glandular cells and unmyelinated nerve fibres. Moreover, exosomes were also found to be pres...

  10. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  11. A Primer on Chinese Music Instruments Released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuSan

    2005-01-01

    Chinese traditional musical instruments, with a history of 8,000 years, are known for their diverse forms and types. The qualities, functions and materials of these instrunents reflect the unique aesthetic value of Chinese traditional music.

  12. Chinese Private Direct Investment and Overseas Chinese Network in Africa%Chinese Private Direct Investment and Overseas Chinese Network in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Song

    2011-01-01

    Based on extensive interviews in China and in Africa over 2 years, the present paper investigates Chinese private direct investment in Africa. Drawing on the Swedish Uppsala model, we explore two mian issues. First, do Chinese private enterprises follow t

  13. Consideration on Wavelet through Chinese Archaian Dialectics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhi Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Materialistic philosophy opens out universal law of things evolution. Chinese Yinyang theory is materialistic. Wavelet contain dialectic rule inevitably. As material mathematic technique, wavelet can be given a new look by Chinese archaian dialectics.

  14. "Uighur's Contributions to the Ancient Chinese Culture"

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIN, Geng

    2010-01-01

    In this my paper I speak briefly on the contributions made by the Uighurs and their ancestors to the Chinese civilization. Of course, the Chinese people also made great contributions to the civilization of Uighur people

  15. Translating Chinese Zero Anaphoric Subjects into English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher-leng

    1993-01-01

    Deals with a major difference between European languages and Chinese, namely the sparse use of anaphoric reference in Chinese. Suggests that the translator's way of rendering references will affect the interpretational potential of the text in the target language. (NKA)

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    @@ Further progress has been made in the traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer over the past few years, especially in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment principle, improvement of therapeutic results and prolonging the survival.

  17. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, no systematic study of Chinese FDI has been undertaken to date. This paper contributes to filling this research gap and analyses the current composition as well as the historical evolution of Chinese FDI in Indonesia, relying on a survey conducted in 2008 among Chinese invested...... enterprises supplemented with key informant interviews, available official statistics and secondary data. Considering the evolution of Chinese investments in Indonesia over time, investments have evolved from being individual and isolated projects to acquiring more systemic properties. Chinese companies have...... acquired a broader sectoral presence in Indonesia and Chinese invested companies in, e.g., extractive or manufacturing activities can increasingly rely on complementary Chinese investments in logistics, travel, finance, etc. Where the local development effects are concerned, a picture emerges where Chinese...

  18. Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

  19. The liberalisation of Chinese financial markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semerák, Vilém

    London : Imperial College Press, 2015 - (Brown, K.), s. 309-326 ISBN 978-1-78326-454-4 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : Chinese financial market s * Chinese financial system Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  20. New era for organ donation and transplant in China

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    China is establishing a new national system for organ donation and transplantation, based on Chinese cultural and societal norms, that aims to be ethical and sustainable. Haibo Wang talks to Fiona Fleck

  1. Talk on Chinese brand name translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文文

    2009-01-01

    A brand is shown by a name , a word , a sign , a symbol , a design or a combination of them. Brand-naming itself represents a strategically important issue and may determine the success or failure of a product.Along with the globalization of world economy, especially with China's entry into the World Trade Organization, more and more Chinese have realized the importance of good brand names and international brand names in promoting sales and cultivating markets. The essay attempts to make some study on the topic. In the first part, the essay talks about cultural difference. In the second part, it suggests some appropriate principles to guide the translation. In the third part, the essay provides some flexibly used methods to deal with the problems in translation.

  2. An Analysis of Chinese Search Engine Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Tao; Wallach, Dan S

    2011-01-01

    The imposition of government mandates upon Internet search engine operation is a growing area of interest for both computer science and public policy. Users of these search engines often observe evidence of censorship, but the government policies that impose this censorship are not generally public. To better understand these policies, we conducted a set of experiments on major search engines employed by Internet users in China, issuing queries against a variety of different words: some neutral, some with names of important people, some political, and some pornographic. We conducted these queries, in Chinese, against Baidu, Google (including google.cn, before it was terminated), Yahoo!, and Bing. We found remarkably aggressive filtering of pornographic terms, in some cases causing non-pornographic terms which use common characters to also be filtered. We also found that names of prominent activists and organizers as well as top political and military leaders, were also filtered in whole or in part. In some ca...

  3. Chinese Curriculum Design and Motivation of Chinese Background Students in Australian Tertiary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Li

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the need for a change in the current Chinese curriculum for Chinese-background students at the University of Newcastle (UoN). It examines the motivation behind the learning behaviour of Chinese-background students enrolling in the discipline of Chinese at the UoN as well as Chinese curriculum design at other Australian universities. The data from two sources were collected and analysed, Chinese-background students in the Chinese discipline at the UoN and lecturers in the C...

  4. Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingjin

    2015-01-01

    In his article "Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature" Yingjin Zhang revisits the challenge of mapping Chinese literature as world literature in three steps: 1) he delineates of positions of view as proposed by Western scholars who engaged in rethinking world literature(s) in the age of globalization, 2) evaluates consequences of such a new mapping for Chinese literature and tests a different set of "technologies of recognition" (Shih) in the context of Chinese versus Sinophone studi...

  5. Introduction to CRM Systems in Chinese SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoting

    2015-01-01

    CRM (Customer Relationship Management) is an efficient management tool for an enterprise to improve the service level and customer relationships. However, CRM is not widely applied by Chinese SMEs. The implementation of CRM still faces some problems in Chinese CRM market. In this thesis is CRM systems applied in Chinese SMEs were discussed Chinese,including the current situation of CRM and what the SMEs need from a CRM system. In addition, it was discussed how to implement a CRM system in...

  6. Student Approaches to Learning Chinese Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, I-Ping P.

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the strategies that native English speakers use as they learn to speak and write Chinese vocabulary words in the first year of an elementary Chinese class. The main research question was: what strategies do native English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese use to learn Chinese vocabulary words in their speaking and writing? The study was conducted at a medium-sized comprehensive university in the Southeastern U.S. The study drew from concepts and theories in s...

  7. Chinese Consumers' Preferences for Livestock Products

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xuehua; Marchant, Mary A.; Qin, Xiang Dong; Zhuang, Jun

    2005-01-01

    This research surveyed over 784 Chinese consumers in Shanghai and Nanjing in 2001 and 2002, evaluating their preferences for livestock product attributes using ordered-probit models and factor analyses. Empirical results confirm the heterogeneity of Chinese livestock retail markets and suggest that livestock distributors should focus on Chinese female consumers and young consumers considering cooking convenience as a key attribute. Chinese consumers with higher incomes placed less importance ...

  8. The Lancaster Corpus of Mandarin Chinese.

    OpenAIRE

    McEnery, A. M.; Xiao, R. Z.

    2003-01-01

    The Lancaster Corpus of Mandarin Chinese (LCMC) addresses an increasing need within the research community for a publicly available balanced corpus of Mandarin Chinese. LCMC has been constructed as part of a research project undertaken by the Linguistics Department, Lancaster University. The corpus is designed as a Chinese match of the Freiburg-LOB Corpus of British English (FLOB), and, as such, will provide a valuable resource for contrastive studies between English and Chinese as well as a ...

  9. Traditional Chinese culture in modern Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the sources and features of traditional Chinese culture. It also discusses the aesthetic thoughts of Chinese traditional culture. Chinese traditional culture has been illustrated broad and far-reaching impact on design since ancient time. In the context of globalization and the rapid development of science and technology, the difference between traditional design and modern product design should be explored. Chinese traditional culture cannot be totally absorbed. It is im...

  10. Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yun; Walter J B van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    We present Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N=28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1429 English words. The results revealed that 71% of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigat...

  11. Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chengjun; Ma, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    In their article "Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture" Chengjun Wang and Junhong Ma discuss three main channels of the "traveling" of Chinese culture to the outside world. Focusing on the situation of bilingualism (i.e., Chinese and English) and the need of spreading Chinese literature and culture especially in the English-speaking world, Wang and Ma argue for "localization and globalization." Further, Wang and Ma argue that in order to narrow the gap of the cultural di...

  12. Individualized and Depoliticized: A Study of Chinese Blogosphere in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Soon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on new media such as blogs examines users’ motivations and gratifications, and how individuals and organizations use them for political participation. In Singapore, political blogs have attracted much public scrutiny due to the bloggers’ online and offline challenges of official discourse. While previous research has established the political significance of these blogs, extant scholarship is limited to blogs written in the English language. Little is known about blogs maintained by the Chinese community, the largest ethnic group in multi-racial Singapore. This study is a first to examine this community and the space they inhabit online. Through web crawling, we identified 201 Chinese-language blogs and through content analysis, we analyzed if Chinese bloggers contributed to public debates and used their blogs for civic engagement. Their content, motivations for blogging in the language, hyperlinking practices and use of badges indicated that Chinese bloggers in Singapore do not use blogs for political participation and mobilization, but are individualized and a-politicized. We discuss possible reasons and implications in this paper.

  13. Traditional Chinese materia medica: a retrospect and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lu Bay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available For thousands of years, traditional medicine and remedies have been practed and used in the fight against disease in China. They have proved to be valuable and the distillate of vast historical experience based on field-tested human experiments, long-term observations and clinical trials. The Chinese people belive that traditional medicine is consistent with theirown culture. Endowed with a unique theoretical system and provided outstanding clinical results, traditional Chinese medicine continues to play an important role in helping the Chinese nation flourish. The recent study of traditional medicinal plants in Chine has given us confidence that what was recorded in ancient medical literature through empirical observations is indeed still coindicent with the concepts of modern chemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The task of revealing what is valid and efficacious should be retained, and what is mythic and invalid should be discarded in traditional Chinese medicine may require scientific research lasting for several generations. Therfore, multidisciplinary cooperation and international collaboration in this field would be essential. Systematic coordination of work in traditional medicine by word organizations, national governments, private foundations and individual scientists is a requisite as well.

  14. Informization Implementation for Chinese Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; QIAN Yu; CHEN Jianfeng; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    Retailing is an important component of every country's economic system. The current status and developments in the informization of Chinese retail industry were investigated by using questionnaires and interviews to survey 139 retailers throughout China. The investigation shows that Chinese retailers are in the initial informization stage, and can be classified into different types with corresponding informization characteristics. In addition, the survey identified the key problems faced by retailers in the initial stage. Developments in the information technology field were analyzed to identify the key technologies that Chinese retailers should focus on during the informization process. The investigation also shows that the retailers have not arrived at a consensus about information technology adoption, and thus hesitate to use new information technologies, such as the radio frequency identification.

  15. Price Premiums for Organic Food from Australia and China

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    Australian consumers (N=221) were surveyed to establish their valuations of food, based on provenance, organic status and eco-labelling. For Chinese produce "Organic" attracted a 6.4% premium, and "Certified Organic" a 11.6% premium. This compares to Australian produce which attracted a 7.9% premium for "Organic", and a 16.5% premium for "Certified Organic". For Chinese produce "Natural" added a 1.7% premium and "Eco" a 2.9% premium, compared to Australian produce which added a 2.6% premium f...

  16. Critical Success Factors for Electronic Commerce in Chinese Electronic Information Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Critical success factors (CSF) for electronic commerce (EC) are important for enterprises.This research discusses both assessment indicators and impact factors for EC success to help Chinese enterprises to achieve successful EC implementations. On the basis of literature review and experts survey, the research suggests some assessment indicators and impact factors for EC success. A hypothesis is proposed that leadership, strategy, management, organization, technology, customers,and suppliers factors would affect EC success. Furthermore, the research conducts an empirical study on the Chinese Electronic Information Industry to verify the hypothesis. Using factor analysis and regression analysis, the research finds out several critical factors--leadership, strategy, and organization--and critical sub-factors, such as leadership belief and organization management. These findings indicate the usefulness of this research model, especially for Chinese enterprises.

  17. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  18. Mamma Mia!Hits Chinese Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese version of Broadway’s musical sensation set to run for six months The Chinese version of Mamma Mia!,one of the most popular musicals in the world,has come to China,to demonstrate the charm of the musical to Chinese citizens in three major cities in 2011.

  19. NEW INSIGHT OF CHINESE LIVESTOCK CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xiang Dong; Peng, Xuehua; Marchant, Mary A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper overviews the development of Chinese livestock market. Based on a consumer preferences survey, a series of ordered probit models is developed to estimate Chinese consumers' preferences on the attributes of frozen and chilled livestock products. Keywords: Chinese livestock market, consumers' preferences, ordered probit model, attributes

  20. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  1. Factors Influencing the Learning of Chinese Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ko-Yin; Wu, Hsiao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    This survey study, which involved 108 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the United States, intended to address the research questions, "What types of Chinese-character learning strategies do US learners use?" and "Do US learners' Chinese-character learning strategy use differ based on the…

  2. Of Course You Can Learn Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Henrietta

    1980-01-01

    To master the subtleties of Chinese takes years, but most Americans can learn some basic spoken and written Chinese in a matter of weeks or months. A new phonic system, Pin Yin Romanizing System, tones, structure, and characters, and a comparison of Japanese and Chinese are discussed. (MLW)

  3. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  4. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  5. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  6. Adaptation Processes in Chinese: Word Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasierbsky, Fritz

    The typical pattern of Chinese word formation is to have native material adapt to changed circumstances. The Chinese language neither borrows nor lends words, but it does occasionally borrow concepts. The larger cultural pattern in which this occurs is that the Chinese culture borrows, if necessary, but ensures that the act of borrowing does not…

  7. Writing Concepts in Chinese Writing Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on how Chinese writing instruction can cause negative interference for Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language students writing in English. The study shows that in Chinese writing, the main idea can be more general, as a theme, or specific, as a thesis statement. It can also come at the beginning or end of a paper, and the writer…

  8. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  9. How Do Chinese Enterprises Look at REACH?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The new European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization of Chemicals) regulation has come into force. As soon as the REACH white paper was issued, Chinese enterprises started to research the possible impacts of REACH and prepare to cope with them. How then do these Chinese enterprises look at REACH? Following are views of some Chinese enterprises exporting chemical products to the European Union.

  10. Chinese Information Processing and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Li; Tie-Jun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents some main progresses and achievements in Chinese information processing. It focuses on six aspects, I.e., Chinese syntactic analysis, Chinese semantic analysis, machine translation, information retrieval, information extraction, and speech recognition and synthesis. The important techniques and possible key problems of the respective branch in the near future are discussed as well.

  11. Problems of Textbook in Teaching Chinese Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ta-hsia

    It is proposed that teachers of Chinese expose their students to traditional critical views of Chinese poetics and criticism through careful selection of poems. This approach to language study is based on the assumption that the student may gain insight and appreciation of Chinese poetry as well as a feeling for the culture. Arguments favoring…

  12. Teaching Oral Chinese in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    1976-01-01

    Because Chinese language textbooks were judged inadequate in teaching vocabulary dealing with everyday life in the U.S. and in China, new methods and materials were introduced into an oral Chinese course. Prepared discussion topics, Chinese films, soap operas, and shortwave radio broadcasts were used. (CHK)

  13. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  14. Modern Chinese Punctuation and CSL Reading Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickel, Stan

    1988-01-01

    Provides a brief history of Chinese punctuation and detailed analysis of modern Chinese punctuation. Three tables show: 1) uniquely Chinese punctuation markers; 2) markers graphemically identical and functionally similar to Western markers; and 3) markers graphemically identical but functionally different from Western markers. Each punctuation…

  15. A Cultural Perspective on Chinese Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaofang

    2011-01-01

    Politeness is a universal phenomenon, but its actual manifestations and the standards for judgment are culturally different. This paper analyzes the characteristics of Chinese politeness from a cultural perspective. It aims to improve our understanding of Chinese politeness and our knowledge of Chinese traditional culture and undertake interpersonal communication successfully.

  16. Accessing Chinese Resources on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yu-lan Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Internet resources on subjects related to the Chinese, both in English and Chinese: discussion groups; news; literature and linguistics; social studies; East Asian Studies programs, departments, and libraries; Chinese computer issues; cultural activities; weather; business; art; and entertainment. Hardware and software requirements…

  17. How Should We Revive Traditional Chinese Culture?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    There has been a growing interest during the past year in the popularity of traditional Chinese culture, both domestically and globally. Currently, over 40 Confucius Institutes have been set up worldwide, focusing on promoting Chinese culture. Named after China's most eminent philosopher and the father of Confucianism, the Chinese

  18. Young Chinese ESL Children's Home Literacy Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong

    1999-01-01

    Describes home literacy experiences of six Chinese English-as-a-second-language kindergartners. Includes the parents' provision of literate home environments as well as children's functional use of Chinese and English and engagement in Chinese and English literacy activities. Indicates the diverse and cultural nature of the home literacy…

  19. Analysis of chinese language learning motivation and cultural preservation of Chinese Indonesian high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiato Lim

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Chinese Indonesian high school students their language and cultural preservation, also their motivation to keep learning Chinese. By related survey, this paper tries to find out more about how far the young generation of Chinese Indonesian retains their language and culture as well as their motivation to learn Chinese. The contents particularly concerns to the subjects of Chinese learning experience, motivation, mother language backgrounds, religious backgrounds, Chine...

  20. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.;

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue...

  1. Brilliance Auto: Chinese, Global, Successful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      As the only automobile sponsor of BOAO FORUM FOR ASIA in April 2004, Brilliance Auto had a great opportunity to show her 'New Zhonghua" sedan which is an upper-medium car with completely independent intellectual property rights and repre sents the independent development philosophy of Brilliance Auto and is especially made for business personnel. The development pattern of Zhonghua sedan set a brand new model in Chinese auto industry to utilize the global resources and talents and international division of labor in the international arena, and she has become a typical sample of independent brand sedans in the contemporary Chinese auto industry.……

  2. Ikea success in chinese furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Yihong, Li

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will focus on the market exploiting and development of IKEA in China, analysis the characteristics of Chinese market and the supply-demand of the IKEA products in China. It also analyze the main Chinese consumers’ behaviour and evaluating the furniture retail market in China. IKEA is a successful case to open the china market recent years. The main goal is to acquire this information in order to provide the overseas retailers with a good starting point for creating an effective bu...

  3. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  4. The globalisation of Chinese brands

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.

    2006-01-01

    China has taken over Japan over the last decade to become the largest manufacturer and exporter of more than one hundred consumer products. However, China, as “the world factory”, has yet to create a single brand that is recognised worldwide. The recent acquisition of IBM’s PC business by China’s Lenovo may signal the beginning of the globalisation of Chinese brands. This paper considers the current brand revolution in China, focusing on the unique challenge faced by major Chinese enterprises...

  5. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  6. Danish Chinese Center for Nanometals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    The Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The Chinese partners in the Center are Institute of Metal Research in Shenyang, Tsinghua University and Chongqing University. The Danish part of the...... Center is located at Risø DTU. The Center investigates metals, including light metals and steels, with internal length scales ranging from a few nanometers to a few micrometers. The structural morphologies studied are highly diverse, including structures composed of grain boundaries, twins and...

  7. How life is associated with colors in Chinese culture: utilizing colors based on Chinese five-essence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien-Rein

    2002-06-01

    Chinese believe that Feng-shui, Ch'i, Tao, Yin and Yang are major components rooted in Chinese culture. Many people know life has to balance and harmonize with nature and the universe through the Five-essence. Ancient wisdom is successfully interwoven with mankind and the natural world. Elements such as orientation, season, color, sound, facial organs, viscera, stars, and numbers can be associated with life through the Five-essence Theory. Since color is one of the major components of the Five-essence Theory, everything in our life can be associated with colors through a conjoined covering process. Color selection process is part of the interaction between human beings and the universe. Depending on the achievement one is pursuing, the Five- essence Theory model can be treated as an interface between destiny and human beings. This study reports how life is associated with Chinese Five-essence based paradigms. Models were used to explain how Chinese utilize Five-essence Theory to select colors in their daily lives.

  8. Tacrolimus in preventing transplant rejection in Chinese patients – optimizing use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chuan-Jiang Li,1,* Liang Li2,* 1Department of Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, 2Department of Medical Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *The authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tacrolimus is a product of fermentation of Streptomyces, and belongs to the family of calcineurin inhibitors. It is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing solid-organ transplant rejection. Compared to cyclosporine, tacrolimus has greater immunosuppressive potency and a lower incidence of side effects. It has been accepted as first-line treatment after liver and kidney transplantation. Tacrolimus has specific features in Chinese transplant patients; its in vivo pharmacokinetics, treatment regimen, dose and administration, and adverse-effect profile are influenced by multiple factors, such as genetics and the spectrum of primary diseases in the Chinese population. We reviewed the clinical experience of tacrolimus use in Chinese liver- and kidney-transplant patients, including the pharmacology of tacrolimus, the immunosuppressive effects of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine, effects of different factors on tacrolimus metabolism on Chinese patients, personalized medicine, clinical safety profile, and patient satisfaction and adherence. This article provides guidance for the rational and efficient use of tacrolimus in Chinese organ-transplant patients. Keywords: tacrolimus, liver transplantation, kidney transplant, Chinese, personalized medicine

  9. Comparison for Chinese subordinates as a motivation approach: Scale Development and Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Ge

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chinese people are motivated by social comparison and temporal comparison. Based on this finding, we conceptualized lateral comparison and vertical comparison as two distinct constructs that represent individual self-enhancement toward the nature of social comparison with others and temporal comparison with self over time. We hypothesized that as stable individual psychological difference, lateral comparison and vertical comparison would have differential effects on people’s working behavior in the Chinese organizational context. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a conceptualization approach to Chinese management research, we conducted three studies to develop and validate a two-factor comparison scale which includes three-item lateral comparison and a three-item vertical comparison. Findings: Results from qualitative data in Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminate validity of the scale, while Study 2 demonstrates the scale’s predictive validity. Furthermore, in Study two, a field survey in multiple Chinese organizations showed that lateral comparison and vertical comparison had differential effects on employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Research implications: The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed in the working context in Chinese organizations and beyond. Originality/value: This finding integrates insights from previous research in social comparison and temporal comparison into a motivation approach that supervisors use toward subordinates in the Chinese organizational context.

  10. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  11. 强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染的Meta分析%Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓珍; 李永刚; 林川; 黄海溶

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. Methods Literatures from Chinese and English databases published between 1966 and March of 2014 were screened for relevant randomized controlled trials(RCTs).The software package of Review Manager 5.2(Cochrane Collaboration) was used for data analysis.Results 13 RCTs involving 930 patients were included in the study. Doxycycline plus oral TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate (P<0.01)and Cure rate (P<0.01)for the studies;Doxycycline plus external TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate(P<0.01)and Cure rate(P<0.01)for the studies. In addition,Doxycycline plus TCM was inferior to Doxycycline alone in terms of adverse effects rate (RR=0.68,95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03).Conclusion Doxycycline combined with TCM was effective in treating mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. But the results were limited quality and sample,More RCTs with high quality and large sample size should be conducted.%目的:评价强力霉素联合中药治疗女性支原体感染的疗效及安全性。方法通过检索1966年—2014年3月期间中英文数据库,运用Endnote软件筛选相关随机对照试验(randomized controlled trial,RCT)研究。采用RevMan5.2软件进行Meta分析。结果共纳入13项RCT,1107例患者,其中7项强力霉素联合口服中药,6项强力霉素联合外用中药。根据给药方式进行亚组分析,强力霉素联合口服中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01);强力霉素联合外用中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01)。强力霉素联合中药组不良反应发生率是单用强力霉素组的0.68倍(95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03)。结论强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体

  12. Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ:a meta-analysis%强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓珍; 李永刚; 林川; 黄海溶

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价强力霉素联合中药治疗女性支原体感染的疗效及安全性。方法通过检索1966年—2014年3月期间中英文数据库,运用Endnote软件筛选相关随机对照试验(randomized controlled trial,RCT)研究。采用RevMan5.2软件进行Meta分析。结果共纳入13项RCT,1107例患者,其中7项强力霉素联合口服中药,6项强力霉素联合外用中药。根据给药方式进行亚组分析,强力霉素联合口服中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01);强力霉素联合外用中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01)。强力霉素联合中药组不良反应发生率是单用强力霉素组的0.68倍(95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03)。结论强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染有一定疗效,但受纳入研究质量和样本量的限制,以上结论需更多高质量研究予以验证。%Objectives This study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. Methods Literatures from Chinese and English databases published between 1966 and March of 2014 were screened for relevant randomized controlled trials(RCTs).The software package of Review Manager 5.2(Cochrane Collaboration) was used for data analysis.Results 13 RCTs involving 930 patients were included in the study. Doxycycline plus oral TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate (P<0.01)and Cure rate (P<0.01)for the studies;Doxycycline plus external TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate(P<0.01)and Cure rate(P<0.01)for the studies. In addition,Doxycycline plus TCM was inferior to Doxycycline alone in terms of adverse effects rate (RR=0.68,95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03).Conclusion Doxycycline combined with TCM was effective in treating mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ

  13. Approaches in Treating AIDS with Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕维柏

    2002-01-01

    @@ Editorial: AIDS is the archenemy of mankind, it also threatened Chinese people seriously. Although anti-retroviral drugs are effective, yet too expensive, the majority of 600 000 Chinese patients can't afford to purchase and use them. Decades ago, some scientists were trying to use Chinese Medicine in treating AIDS, experienc e gained but problems also exposed concerning strategy of research, methodol ogy, racial difference, Chinese drugs screening, integrative Chinese and western medicine, HIV and immunity, etc., sustained and integrative effort would bring safe, effective, and affordable drugs for the fatal pandemic all over the world

  14. The Evolvement and Development of Chinese Dragon

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Dragon is an art product exclusively owned by China. It is called an art product for it is a supernatural artistic creation which does not exist in the natural world. The image of Chinese Dragon is a combination of the ideal, the aspiration, the wisdom and the strength of Chinese people, and the development of history, it has formed several representative features and became the symbol of Chinese nation. In the folk artworks, the image of Chinese Dragon is expressed richly and in grea...

  15. Validation of the simplified Chinese version of EORTC QLQ-C30 from the measurements of five types of inpatients with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, C.; Q Meng; Yang, Z.; Tu, X.; Feng, C.; Tang, X.; Zhang, C

    2008-01-01

    Background: European Organization for Research and Treatment quality of life (QOL) questionnaire (QLQ-C30) has been used frequently and many language versions have been developed, including the simplified Chinese version. It is important to study psychometric properties of the simplified Chinese version from the clinical standpoint.

  16. Evaluation of struvite obtained from semiconductor wastewater as a fertilizer in cultivating Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Hong-Duck, E-mail: nanumenv@hanmail.net [Ministry of Environment, Geum River Basin Environmental Office, 409 Daehak-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chae-Sung, E-mail: shyknight@nate.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min-Koo, E-mail: minkookang@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Ill, E-mail: gatorlee@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovered struvite from semiconductor wastewater was evaluated as fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The struvite showed more outstanding fertilizing effects than commercial fertilizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu, Cd, As, Pb and Ni were observed at very low level in the vegetable tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. - Abstract: The present work evaluated the fertilizing value of struvite deposit recovered from semiconductor wastewater in cultivating Chinese cabbage. The fertilizing effect of struvite deposit was compared with that of commercial fertilizers: complex, organic and compost. Laboratory pot test results clearly showed that the growth of Chinese cabbage was better promoted when the struvite deposit was used than with organic and compost fertilizers even though complex fertilizer was the most effective in growing Chinese cabbage. It was revealed that potassium (K) was a key element in the determination of growth rate of Chinese cabbage. Also, the abundant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), K, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were observed in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Specifically, P was the most-founded component in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Meanwhile, the utilization of struvite as a fertilizer led to the lowest accumulation of copper (Cu) and no detection of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in the Chinese cabbage. It was found that the optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the struvite deposits recovered from semiconductor wastewater were effective as a multi-nutrient fertilizer for Chinese cabbage cultivation.

  17. Evaluation of struvite obtained from semiconductor wastewater as a fertilizer in cultivating Chinese cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Recovered struvite from semiconductor wastewater was evaluated as fertilizer. ► The struvite showed more outstanding fertilizing effects than commercial fertilizers. ► Cu, Cd, As, Pb and Ni were observed at very low level in the vegetable tissue. ► The optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. - Abstract: The present work evaluated the fertilizing value of struvite deposit recovered from semiconductor wastewater in cultivating Chinese cabbage. The fertilizing effect of struvite deposit was compared with that of commercial fertilizers: complex, organic and compost. Laboratory pot test results clearly showed that the growth of Chinese cabbage was better promoted when the struvite deposit was used than with organic and compost fertilizers even though complex fertilizer was the most effective in growing Chinese cabbage. It was revealed that potassium (K) was a key element in the determination of growth rate of Chinese cabbage. Also, the abundant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), K, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were observed in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Specifically, P was the most-founded component in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Meanwhile, the utilization of struvite as a fertilizer led to the lowest accumulation of copper (Cu) and no detection of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in the Chinese cabbage. It was found that the optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the struvite deposits recovered from semiconductor wastewater were effective as a multi-nutrient fertilizer for Chinese cabbage cultivation.

  18. Chinese Middle-Aged Confusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXINXIN

    2003-01-01

    THE middle-aged generation,those of the age 40 to 55, is special in China. Born in the 1950s and early 1960s, they grew up in the most difficult and chaotic periods of recent Chinese history, having experienced and suffered the Great Leap Forward at the end of the fifties and the “cultural revolution” ( 1966-1976).

  19. ENERGY CALCULUS IN CHINESE LANGUAGESEGMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on cognitive science, the EnergyCalculus in Chinese language segmentation was presented to eliminate segmentation ambiguity. The notion of "EnergyCost" was advanced to denote the extent of the under-standability of a certain segmentation. EnergyCost function was defined with Z-notation. This approcah is effective to all natural language segmentation.

  20. Writing Quality Predicts Chinese Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Connie Qun; Perfetti, Charles A.; Meng, Wanjin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the importance of manual character writing to reading in a new writing system, 48 adult Chinese-as-a-foreign-language students were taught characters in either a character writing-to-read or an alphabet typing-to-read condition, and engaged in corresponding handwriting or typing training for five consecutive days. Prior knowledge of…

  1. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann;

    2014-01-01

    . The geography of Chinese science is thus not only monocentric as regards overall scientific output, but also exhibits unusually hierarchical collaboration patterns. Unlike in Europe and North America, national and regional capitals are becoming ever more important as scientific coordination centers....

  2. Spoken Grammar for Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓敏

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the concept of spoken grammar has been mentioned among Chinese teachers. However, teach-ers in China still have a vague idea of spoken grammar. Therefore this dissertation examines what spoken grammar is and argues that native speakers’ model of spoken grammar needs to be highlighted in the classroom teaching.

  3. Chinese President Meets Stephen Hawking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Shuqin

    2002-01-01

    @@ Chinese President Jiang Zemin met on August 19 with Stephen Hawking and other world-renown scientists, including Shing-tung Yau, Edward Witten, D.Gross, A. Strominger, et al., who were attending an international conference on string theory and Prof.Hawking had just given a public speech titled "Brane New World" in Beijing.

  4. Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in…

  5. 2006 Chinese RE Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since 2005,China government established series of regulations to rectify Chinese rare earth industry.Especially,the notice of "ceasing the issue of new mining license and controlling the gross rare earth mining volume" implemented in April of 2006 largely reduced the mining in Southern China.

  6. Foreign Diplomats Cooking Chinese Dishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2nd Chinese Cuisine Contest for Foreign Diplomats(Shanghai),a large-scale activity as part of the 1st Shanghai Shopping Festival,was held at 15:30 on September 22 in Shanghai with the theme of "The Passionate Shanghai".

  7. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g

  8. Chinese Sculpture as Public Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YinShuangxi

    2003-01-01

    Chinese arts have undergone tremendous changes thanks to the fast-growing modernization and urbanization process in China. One of the monumental changes is the emergence of “public art”, most notably, urban sculpture. This art is increasingly related to modern urban planning, architecture, and community building.

  9. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China. PMID:25134668

  10. The Chinese Health Care System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Yu, Yi

    In the present paper we describe the structure of the Chinese health care system and sketch its future development. We analyse issues of provider incentives and the actual burden sharing between government, enterprises and people. We further aim to identify a number of current problems and link...

  11. Clinical Service of Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) faces three major challenges:(1)How to enhance its contribution on overall medical service quality? (2) How to best address the unmet medical needs in the contemporary society? (3)How to guarantee that the traditional perspective for disease diagnosis and treatment not be neglected in clinical practice?

  12. The measurement of organic radiation dose of multi-slice CT scanning by using the Chinese anthropomorphic chest phantom%中国人仿真胸部体模检测多层螺旋CT扫描组织器官剂量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭刚; 曾勇明; 罗天友; 赵峰; 张志伟; 郁仁强; 彭盛坤

    2011-01-01

    目的 利用中国人仿真胸部模型来测量不同噪声指数下胸部各组织器官的吸收剂量,计算有效剂量(ED)并对MSCT胸部扫描进行剂量评估.方法 对CDP-1C型中国人仿真胸部体模在CT体层解剖和X线衰减两方面进行等效性论证;通过在体模内布放热释光剂量计(TLD)来测量不同噪声水平下各组织器官的吸收剂量,并记录相应的剂量长度乘积(DLP);将两者分别换算为ED后选择单因素t检验方法进行对比研究,分析自动管电流调制(ATCM)技术时不同噪声指数胸部CT扫描的剂量水平.结果 中国人仿真胸部体模与成人CT胸部图像的结构相似.体模主要器官平均CT值为肺-788.04 HU、心脏45.64 HU、肝脏65.84 HU、脊柱254.32 HU,与成人偏差程度分别为肺0.10%、心脏3.04%、肝脏4.49%、脊柱4.36%.肝脏的平均CT值差异有统计学意义(t=-8.705,P<0.05);肺、心脏和脊柱平均CT值与人体差异无统计学意义(t值分别为-0.752、-1.219、-1.138,P>0.05).当噪声指数从8.5逐渐增至22.5时,DLP从393.57 mGy·cm递减至78.75 mGy·cm,各器官吸收剂量呈下降趋势(以肺为例,平均吸收剂量从22.38 mGy递减至3.66 mGy).应用DLP所计算的ED较器官吸收剂量计算的ED偏低(以噪声指数为8.5为例,两种方法的ED分别为6.69和8.77 mSv).结论 应用中国人仿真体模来进行CT剂量评估更为准确;基于ATCM技术的胸部CT扫描噪声指数设定至少应大于8.5.%Objective Using the Chinese anthropomorphic chest phantom to measure the absorbed dose of various tissues and organs under different noise index, and to assess the radiation dose of MSCT chest scanning with the effective dose(ED). Methods The equivalence of the Chinese anthropomorphic chest phantom(CDP-1C) and the adult chest on CT sectional anatomy and X-ray attenuation was demonstrated. The absorbed doses of various tissues and organs under different noise index were measured by laying thermoluminescent

  13. Chinese Leadership Styles in Public Sector in Tianjin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Considerable studies on Chinese leadership styles apply Western models to test Chinese managers, and then define Chinese leadership style with Western ideas. This study assumes that Chinese managers have their own leadership styles distinctive from Westerners and tried to investigate the cultural and historical origin of Chinese leadership style, especially to explore how Confucianism have affected and shaped Chinese leadership style in modern Chinese society. This study adopted a qualitative...

  14. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    cancer screening. Community organizations may play a role in assisting Chinese American women, which could enhance cervical cancer screening rates.Keywords: Papanicolaou test, cervical cancer screening, Chinese women

  15. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OS. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OS intellectual...

  16. A Meta-Analysis on Effects of Human, Social, and Psychological Capital on Career Success in Chinese Business Organizations%人力资本、社会资本和心理资本影响中国员工职业成功的元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文霞; 谢宝国; 辛迅; 白光林; 苗仁涛

    2015-01-01

    Career success is defined as the positive psychological or work-related achievements one obtains through work experiences. For individuals, career success reflects the self-actualization of individuals. In an organization, employees’ personal career success means the organization’s making the best of its human resources and eventually contributing to its success. As career success is of concern not only to individuals but also to organizations, many researchers continue to identify the individual and organizational factors that facilitate employees’ career success. At the individual level, demographic, social capital, human capital, motivational and work-family variables are possibly associated with career success. At the organizational level, organizational variables such as firm size, industry sector, organizational support and geographic location may also be related to career success. Though Chinese organizational researchers have identified many determinants of career success and some have qualitatively reviewed partially the related literature, no large-scale systematic attempt has been made to systematically summarize the existent literature. In order to quantitatively review the career success literature, we use meta-analysis which is of appropriate for several reasons. Firstly, meta-analysis is a quantitative review technique that can reduce the measurement error from sampling and unreliability in individual studies. Secondly, a critical review and synthesis of the related body of research can play an important role in theory development and building. Thirdly, as former scholars have already identified some factors that determined objective and subjective career success, it would, therefore, be theoretically valuable to review and compare the strength of predictors in determining the objective and subjective career success in order to guide future research and management practices. In this study, we use meta-analysis to examine the relative importance

  17. Food sources and carbon dudget of chinese prawn Penaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Fang

    2002-03-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn ( Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semi-intensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20 28)×10-3.

  18. Validation of the Psychological Work Maturity Scale in Chinese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Psychological work maturity is an important concept in situational leadership theory. The present research revised the Psychological Work Maturity Scale for use in Chinese organizations. Three samples of full-time employees (Ns = 205, 266, and 283) from different companies and industries participated in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a single-factor structure fit the data. The scale had acceptable reliabilities, convergent and criterion-related validities, and was shown to be an appropriate measure of psychological work maturity in Chinese employees. Maturity differences in several demographic variables were not found, but employees with longer tenure in Sample 2 scored higher on maturity, which shows that psychological work maturity may be dependent on personal development in the interaction with the varying situational factors, especially in the work domain. Implications for research and practice on psychological work maturity in China are discussed. PMID:21323139

  19. Students' motivation to study Chinese recreational gymnastics classes wushu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimuk O.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify students' motivation to improving gymnastics lessons Chinese Wushu. Material : this survey was attended by 30 students from different countries enrolled in a language course at the Shanghai University of Sport. The methodology SAN (health, activity and mood. Results : the positive changes identified psycho-emotional state students. There is an increase students' motivation to sports activity. Students observed increase differentiated assessment of health (from 3.7 to 6.7 points, activity (from 3.9 points to 6.5 points and mood (from 4.0 points to 6.9 points. 97 % of students were in favor of the use of functional music lessons on differentiated specialized Wushu. Conclusions : presented the program and practical advice on the organization and conduct physical education classes with students using the means of improving gymnastics Chinese Wushu.

  20. FOOD SOURCES AND CARBON BUDGET OF CHINESE PRAWN PENAEUS CHINENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董双林; 张硕; 王芳

    2002-01-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn (Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semiintensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20-28)×10-3.

  1. ICT Transformation in Chinese Tobacco Industry: Case Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on four in-depth case studies on the information and communication technology (ICT) evolution of Chinese tobacco companies. The ICT transformation processes of these companies are introduced briefly. A strategic grid model was used, which shows that depending on a company's strategic grid cell, different behavior patterns can be observed, in terms of Nolan's stage model. The analysis shows that companies allocated in the "turnaround" and "strategic" cell do not behave accordingly to Nolan's stage model. A few years after China first application for a World Trade Organization (WTO) membership renewal in 1986, observed companies skipped some of Nolan's stages to achieve an accelerated ICT transformation. Therefore, a fast transformation of ICT plays a major role for Chinese tobacco companies to face the challenges entailed by an open door policy and the WTO entry. This conclusion is limited to companies that are allocated either in the "transformation" cell or the "strategic" cell.

  2. Fusang: The Enlightenment Story of the Chinese Discovery of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    In 1761 the French scholar and Sinologue Joseph de Guignes announced that "Chinese vessels made the voyage to America many centuries before Christopher Columbus." From the Chinese books in the Bibliotheque du Roi and new missionary reports from Beijing, he concluded that the mythical land of Fusang described by a medieval Buddhist monk could be nowhere other than the west coast of North America, only recently charted by European navigators. Philippe Buache, premier géographe du roi, agreed. At the height of the French Enlightenment, the indigenous geographical tradition of China could be used to further the progress of universal science, providing evidence about issues from the mapping of the Pacific Rim to the organization of the continents. Furthermore, the story of Fusang explained the origins of American peoples, showing that the inhabitants of the New World had arrived there from the Old and contributing to a diffusionist account of the development of civilization in space and time. PMID:27197409

  3. Study on the setting of Reference Chinese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedures for internal and external dose estimation, the calculation of authorized limits and derived reference levels, and the development of phantoms in the field of radiation protection are based on values for the ICRP Reference Man. Many differences exist between Asians, Europeans and North Americans with respect to race, customs and the pattern of food consumption. The neglect of these differences in the parameters used may lead to errors in dose assessment and health effect prognosis. research described in this paper was conducted to obtain reference values for the Chinese population or other Asian countries which might have major demographic contribution of Chinese. Based on the agreements reached in the Project Formulation Meeting ''Compilation of Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics for a Reference Asian Man'', the measurement of physique, organ mass and the food consumption were given the first priority for the first phase of the project. (author)

  4. [Where will Chinese medicine disease names go?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhan-Qing

    2013-06-01

    The statistical survey of "Clinical Articles", one column of Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (24 volumes in total) showed that, of the 151 academic exploration on diseases, Western disease (WM) names were used in 145 articles, constituting 96.03% of the entire column. Obviously, Chinese medicine (CM) disease names were not basically used by CM physicians. Taking Chinese Internal Medicine (2nd edition), a national textbook for students in CM universities, as an example, we could find that the use of disease names was in a chaos logically, disease, syndrome, and symptom were not used clearly. In the general knowledge part, when mentioning a disease, the book sometimes used "disease", sometimes "disease-syndrome". In the classified parts, some diseases were simply named as "A or B syndrome", and when talking about a specific disease, it referred to the symptom-based disease as a kind of "disease-syndrome". Throughout the whole book, the disease names named after symptoms or heavily colored by symptoms amounted to 31, accounting for 59.6% of the listed 52 common diseases. In clinical practices, using CM disease names ran the risk of making wrong diagnosis or failing to diagnose patients in time, and therefore, leading to improper treatment or loss of treatment time. For critical diseases, these names can't reveal the serious situations and help to get rid of possible dangers. For chronic diseases, using these names can't lead to early recognition and prevention of diseases. Considering that CM disease names can't go with clinical practices, and lag behind the development of integrative medicine, the author suggested that we should borrow as many WM disease names as possible in CM, because when compared with CM, WM has a much clearer and more objective knowledge of the location, cause, mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. The classification and naming of diseases in WM is the result of negotiation of WHO and its member countries

  5. The Origin of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Thinking on Chinese Medicine Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenkui; Wang Feng; Wang Ling

    2006-01-01

    Although the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed a profound theory system and a fame of outstanding advantage in curative effect, it seems that the TCM is not quite adaptable to the deveiopment and requirement of the modern society. A principle of "Adopting the advanced part of Western medicine to serve the TCM" should be adhered to for the traditional Chinese medicine. First, TCM should strive for a consensus of TCM theory which focuses on the guiding principles of "diagnosis and treatment based on an overall analysis of the illness and the patient's condition" and "the opposite principle of five internal organs". Among these principles, "keeping relative balance of three internal systems"is a valuable guidance of the diagnosis and treatment theory. Secondly, macroscopic should be integrated with microscopic, totality with parts, phenomenology with materialism. A dialectical law should be applied to guide analysis. In treatment,adjustment and balance are basic principles. It is necessary not only prepare the medicine in advance accoding to the predicted disease of the year, but also adopt methods to restrict disease in advance. Basides, TCM dose type should be ameliorated in order to meet the needs of society.

  6. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  7. Review of History and Recent Development of Organic Farming Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The history of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed in this paper. The development of the organic farming worldwide had gone through three stages, emergence, expansion, and growth. The contributors and their thoughts during the different development stages of the organic farming were briefly introduced. And the development status of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed from the aspects of land area under organic management, land area under organic management in percentage of total agricultural area, and world markets for organic products. Besides, the main existing problems for the further development of the world's organic farming, as well as the development status, problems and strategies of the Chinese organic farming were discussed.

  8. A Dialectal Chinese Speech Recognition Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Thomas Fang Zheng; William Byrne; Dan Jurafsky

    2006-01-01

    A framework for dialectal Chinese speech recognition is proposed and studied, in which a relatively small dialectal Chinese (or in other words Chinese influenced by the native dialect) speech corpus and dialect-related knowledge are adopted to transform a standard Chinese (or Putonghua, abbreviated as PTH) speech recognizer into a dialectal Chinese speech recognizer. Two kinds of knowledge sources are explored: one is expert knowledge and the other is a small dialectal Chinese corpus. These knowledge sources provide information at four levels: phonetic level, lexicon level, language level,and acoustic decoder level. This paper takes Wu dialectal Chinese (WDC) as an example target language. The goal is to establish a WDC speech recognizer from an existing PTH speech recognizer based on the Initial-Final structure of the Chinese language and a study of how dialectal Chinese speakers speak Putonghua. The authors propose to use contextindependent PTH-IF mappings (where IF means either a Chinese Initial or a Chinese Final), context-independent WDC-IF mappings, and syllable-dependent WDC-IF mappings (obtained from either experts or data), and combine them with the supervised maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) acoustic model adaptation method. To reduce the size of the multipronunciation lexicon introduced by the IF mappings, which might also enlarge the lexicon confusion and hence lead to the performance degradation, a Multi-Pronunciation Expansion (MPE) method based on the accumulated uni-gram probability (AUP) is proposed. In addition, some commonly used WDC words are selected and added to the lexicon. Compared with the original PTH speech recognizer, the resulting WDC speech recognizer achieves 10-18% absolute Character Error Rate (CER) reduction when recognizing WDC, with only a 0.62% CER increase when recognizing PTH. The proposed framework and methods are expected to work not only for Wu dialectal Chinese but also for other dialectal Chinese languages and

  9. Chinese traditional elements in the application of graphic design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹倩倩

    2013-01-01

    Chinese traditional graphic art resources is extremely abundant, this article will from the Chinese tradi-tional culture elements are composed of the Chinese calligraphy, traditional auspicious patterns, national color three aspects, expounds the application of Chinese traditional elements in modern plane design, this paper expounds the application of Chinese traditional elements in modern plane design, research how to dig, change and reform.

  10. Fluorine in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Tang, X.Y.; Li, S.H.; Wang, B.B.; Wang, M.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-05-01

    Three hundred and five coal samples were taken from the main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of China. The method of pyrohydrolysis was applied to measure the fluorine content in the samples, which exhibit logarithmic normal frequency distributions. The range of fluorine content in dry coal varies from 26 to 1230 mg/kg with a geometric mean of 136 mg/kg. The fluorine content decreases gradually from sub-bituminous through bituminous coal to anthracite. However, such varying tendency of fluorine content is not due to the presence of organic fluorine in coal. The geological age also apparently has no effect on the fluorine content. Even though the fluorine content of most coals in China is not high, much more attention should be given to the fluoride pollution caused by improper (unvented) coal-burning and the widespread household use of high-fluoride coal-clay.

  11. 我国社会组织管理法治化的制度建构--基于社会组织功能定位的分析%The System Construction of Management Legalization of Chinese Social Organizations---An Analysis Based on the Functional Location of Social Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艺璇

    2014-01-01

    As the principal subject and support of social governance ,social organizations play a critical role in promoting the modernization of the national governance system and capacity .However ,in the existing management system of social organizations ,there are still many problems rooted in the misunderstanding of the social organizations ,w hich leads to the absence of related provisions of the rights and responsibili‐ties and the difficulty of judicial intervention .In order to establish the modern system of social organiza‐tions with“separation between government and community ,clearly defined rights and responsibilities and self‐governing by laws”and promote the legalization of the management of social organizations ,it is es‐sential to start from the construction of the management system of social organizations toward the target of guaranteeing the citizens’ right of association ,to specify the legal status of social organizations ,to im‐prove the responsibility system and to realize the transformation of social organizations from the national pattern to the social one .%社会组织是社会治理的重要主体和依托,在推进国家治理体系和治理能力的现代化中起着重要作用。现行社会组织管理体制中存在的诸多问题,根源在于对社会组织认识的偏差,致使相关权责规定的缺失和司法介入的困难。要形成“政社分开、权责明确、依法自治”的现代社会组织体制,推进社会组织管理的法治化,需要从构建以保障公民结社权为目标的社会组织管理体制入手,明确社会组织的法律地位,完善责任制度,实现社会组织从国家模式向社会模式的转向。

  12. The Mode of Dual Agricultural Insurance Institution: Way out of the Plight of Chinese Agricultural Insurance Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Guoqu Deng

    2009-01-01

    Chinese agricultural insurance institution has not broken through the framework of initial choice, always evolving within the framework of unitary institution, which is the root of the plight of Chinese agricultural insurance. The way out of the plight is to establish and perfect a dual agricultural insurance institution in China, that is, existing agricultural insurance institution and organization structure should be employed in general agricultural disaster insurance, while agricultural ca...

  13. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2010-01-22

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology and evolutionary biology based on new fossils from China. These fossils and their studies help to clarify some historical debates about a particular fossil group, or to raise new questions about history of life, or to pose a new challenge in our pursuit of science. These works on new Chinese fossils have covered the whole range of the diversity through the entire Phanerozoic fossil record. PMID:19812080

  14. Analysis of chinese language learning motivation and cultural preservation of Chinese Indonesian high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiato Lim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Chinese Indonesian high school students their language and cultural preservation, also their motivation to keep learning Chinese. By related survey, this paper tries to find out more about how far the young generation of Chinese Indonesian retains their language and culture as well as their motivation to learn Chinese. The contents particularly concerns to the subjects of Chinese learning experience, motivation, mother language backgrounds, religious backgrounds, Chinese festivals and customs and other topics. Survey results indicate that the post-90s young generations of Chinese Indonesian, in terms of the language recognition, they have generally assimilated in Indonesia. In addition, in cultural preservation aspect, the students still retain several Chinese major folk customs.

  15. Thinking Chinese Translation A Course in Translation Method; Chinese to English

    CERN Document Server

    Valerie, Pellatt

    2010-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation

  16. The Chinese skeleton:insights into microstructure that help to explain the epidemiology of fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaine Cong; Marcella D.Walker

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are a major public health problem worldwide, but incidence varies greatly across racial groups and geographic regions. Recent work suggests that the incidence of osteoporotic fracture is rising among Asian populations. Studies comparing areal bone mineral density and fracture across races generally indicate lower bone mineral density in Asian individuals including the Chinese, but this does not reflect their relatively low risk of non-vertebral fractures. In contrast, the Chinese have relatively high vertebral fracture rates similar to that of Caucasians. The paradoxically low risk for some types of fractures among the Chinese despite their low areal bone mineral density has been elucidated in part by recent advances in skeletal imaging. New techniques for assessing bone quality non-invasively demonstrate that the Chinese compensate for smaller bone size by differences in hip geometry and microstructural skeletal organization. Studies evaluating factors influencing racial differences in bone remodeling, as well as bone acquisition and loss, may further elucidate racial variation in bone microstructure. Advances in understanding the microstructure of the Chinese skeleton have not only helped to explain the epidemiology of fracture in the Chinese, but may also provide insight into the epidemiology of fracture in other races as well.

  17. Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yong Xin

    2013-04-25

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  18. Ecodesign of organic photovoltaic modules from Danish and Chinese perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Laurent, Alexis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    waste management practices have been contemplated for the end of life of the solar park: recycling, incineration or the average local mix. The assessment of the environmental impacts of such a system reveals that silver used in the electrodes is overall the largest source of impacts, such as chemical...... production of the OPV modules from Denmark to China have additionally been studied to determine the most advantageous configuration. The stakeholders should aim at anchoring the manufacturing of solar parks in countries with stringent emission standards and/or high technology efficiencies, e.g. Denmark, and...

  19. Bioactive Natural Products From Chinese Tropical Marine Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Yue-Wei

    2004-01-01

    @@ The oceans contain a vast biological diversity of species that have so far been utilized by mankind mainly as a source of protein. In the last few decades, however, natural products chemists have started to discover the wealth of bioactive secondary metabolites that are produced by marine invertebrates such as sponges, soft corals, molluscs and others.

  20. Research into Chinese media organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of media marketisation in China upon organisational structure and journalistic practices of Chinese news organisations. It aims to assess to what extent market factors have weakened the centralised control over local journalistic practices in the last two and a half decades. This paper focuses on Xinhua Shanghai Bureau, a local division within a central news organisation, Xinhua News Agency, which is headquartered in Beijing and operates nationwide. This artic...

  1. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology an...

  2. Distance Dependent Chinese Restaurant Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Blei, David M.; Frazier, Peter I.

    2009-01-01

    We develop the distance dependent Chinese restaurant process (CRP), a flexible class of distributions over partitions that allows for non-exchangeability. This class can be used to model many kinds of dependencies between data in infinite clustering models, including dependencies across time or space. We examine the properties of the distance dependent CRP, discuss its connections to Bayesian nonparametric mixture models, and derive a Gibbs sampler for both observed and mixture settings. We s...

  3. Interculutral Polish-Chinese QQing

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Gajek,

    2012-01-01

    Working in tandem with the use of information and communication technologies is well-known and frequently used as a method of supporting learning of foreign languages in authentic communication. It is based on a constructivist approach to teaching. In the reported case study Polish and Chinese students discussed in English preprepared topics. The work shows the potential of e-learning at the micro level, as the language and intercultural task is implemented into an academic course without mod...

  4. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  5. Comment on Chinese food culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣

    2014-01-01

    <正>Enjoying all kinds of food can be the most important issue in China,Chinese people love to have nice food and to study them,after a few thousand years,food have become the most important part of China and has gradually formed a unique culture.There is a saying,food is the paramount necessity of people(民以食为天),however,in China,people are not eating only when they

  6. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  7. "Chinese Style" Auto marketing Thrives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Over the past 10 years, China's auto industry has seen rapid growth.The miracle of such fast development, from a humble beginning to a strong player in the world's auto industry,can be attributed to a variety of factors.The most important factor, however, is that the auto industry has incorporated Chinese characteristics during its growth,whether facing challenges or developing new innovations.

  8. Chinese Culture and Business Etiquette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丰

    2011-01-01

    Today the etiquette is playing an important role in the process of globalization. It becomes the reflection and manifestation of one country's politics, economy, culture in people's social contact. Every nation has its own etiquette standard, which created with the spirit of the nation. In this essay will focus on the cultural difference in Chinese business etiquette and search for its root.

  9. On the Chinese People's Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Appreciation of art is not a birthright. In the prehistoric primitive society, the ancestors of the Chinese people rooted in the harsh natural environment of the Yellow River Basin and began forging their own solid characteristics as the loess and rock. Our ancestors survived in the harsh natural conditions. Pressure of keeping alive deprived of their original romantic, despite that Neolithic primitive rock art, pottery painting

  10. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Junping; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Weicun; CISC’15

    2016-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers from the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference (CISC’15), held in Yangzhou, China. The topics covered include multi-agent systems, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, complex systems, computation intelligence and soft computing, intelligent control, advanced control technology, robotics and applications, intelligent information processing, iterative learning control, and machine learning. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent systems.

  11. New Hope for Chinese Stocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Many people in recent years have held that investing in the Chinese stock markets posed risks. But remarkable changes have taken place in China's stock markets during the past year, according to Mark De Weaver, a research analyst in Shenzhen who now manages a fund investing in Asian equities called Quantrarian Asia Hedge. According to De Weaver, the changes include split-share and brokerage reforms, a new securities law and more opportunities for qualified foreign investors. His main ideas follow:

  12. [On Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ren-bing; Wang, Yong-yan; Lv, Song-tao

    2015-09-01

    According to the correlative analyses on Chinese medicine essence, dosage forms and quality control level, it expounds the precise concept of Chinese medicine, and its quality advantages and characteristics in this paper, furthermore discusses how to achieve the ideal drugs and Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation. Base on the Chinese medicine essence, using the concept of nature medicine and its drug system to construct Chinese medicine effective material basis and its drugs, with the correlative analyses of whole view and reductionism, the problems of uncertainty quality of original natural medicinal resources and preparations may well be solved, and further with the macroscopic to microcosmic construction of drug system, the precision in expectations of Chinese medicine quality and higher production lever may well be achieved. PMID:26978969

  13. [Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lian-Jun; Xia, Xin-Yi; Shang, Xue-Jun; Huang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Lai

    2006-08-01

    For the first time, the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology published an analysis report of Chinese papers indexed in MEDLINE, which indicates that the Chinese government is paying more and more attention to the role of MEDLINE in the evaluation of scientific research. A total of 4 959 journals are listed in the Lists of Journals Indexed in MEDLINE (2006) published by National Library of Medicine, USA (NLM), of which 95 are published in China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan) and 2 another Chinese periodicals are published abroad. To familiarize MEDLINE to more medical researchers and to help them contribute to the journals indexed in MEDLINE, this article lists the top 10 Chinese medical institution whose published papers were indexed in MEDLINE in 2004 along with the Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006. And the status of MEDLINE in China is briefly analyzed as well. PMID:16970171

  14. Annual Meeting Reveals Competitiveness of Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓午

    2008-01-01

    This is the fifth year since the first "Chinese Enterprises Competitiveness Annual Meeting" convened in 2003. During those five years,we have witnessed a period of remarkable performance by Chinese enterprises. These last five years have seen a reaping of the fruits brought about by China’s three-decade-long reform and opening, as evidenced by the increasing growth and maturity of Chinese enterprises and the rising competitiveness of publicly listed Chinese enterprises. Along with the development of globalization initiatives, Chinese enterprises are moving firmly and solidly towards internationalization and have begun to have a profound impact on the world economy. The roadmap of Chinese enterprises has now become a focus of global attention.

  15. How Chinese learn mathematics perspectives from insiders

    CERN Document Server

    Ngai-Ying, Wong; Lianghuo, Fan; Shiqi, Li

    2004-01-01

    The book has been written by an international group of very active researchers and scholars who have a passion for the study of Chinese mathematics education. It aims to provide readers with a comprehensive and updated picture of the teaching and learning of mathematics involving Chinese students from various perspectives, including the ways in which Chinese students learn mathematics in classrooms, schools and homes, the influence of the cultural and social environment on Chinese students' mathematics learning, and the strengths and weaknesses of the ways in which Chinese learn mathematics. Furthermore, based on the relevant research findings, the book explores the implications for mathematics education and offers sound suggestions for reform and improvement. This book is a must for anyone who is interested in the teaching and learning of mathematics concerning Chinese learners.

  16. Chinese Massage Therapy for Ankle Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming-xia; LI Nian-qun; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the therapeutic methods and effects in the treatment of acute and chronic injuries of the ankle joint by Chinese massage therapy in combination with external application of Chinese herbal drugs and functional exercises. Methods: Totally, 36 cases of the patients with acute soft tissue injury, chronic soft tissue injury and post-fracture sequelae of the ankle joint were treated by Chinese massage therapy, external application or external wash of Chinese herbal drugs, and exercises of dorsal flexion and extension of the ankle joint, to observe the restoration of the ankle functions.Results: In 36 cases of the patients, the results showed remarkable effect in 18 cases, effect in 16 cases, failure in 2 cases and the effective rate in 94.4%. Conclusion: The combined use of Chinese massage therapy, external application of Chinese herbal drugs and functional exercises can produce precise effect in the treatment of soft tissue injury of the ankle joint.

  17. A history of Chinese mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Martzloff, Jean-Claude

    1997-01-01

    For the English language edition, this completely unique book of J.C. Martzloff has been fully revised and updated. It includes many new recent insights and illustrations, a new appendix on Chinese primary sources and a guide to the to the bibliography. From the reviews: "This book ranks with the most erudite Asian publications, and is the most informative and most broadly informed on its topic in any language." N. Sivin, China Quarterly "... crammed with insights, cautionary tales and a great deal of information about current research ... will surely become a standard reference for students, teachers, and researchers alike", J. N. Crossley, Annals of Science "... a truly scholarly and balanced exposition ... a book that the reviewer believes belongs in the library of every university or college, as well as in that of every individual seriously interested in the history of Chinese mathematics", B. L. McAllister, ZBfM "Martzloff History demonstrates clearly that while the Chinese were adept in applying their m...

  18. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment. PMID:24761733

  19. Reading Ng Kim Chew: Malaysian-Chineseness and memory in contemporary Malaysian Chinese literature in taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Paoliello, Antonio; Prado Fonts, Carles

    2008-01-01

    The idea of Chineseness as a geographic, cultural-specific and ethnically-charged concept, and the pivotal role assumed by memory linger throughout the writings of most authors hailing from Chinese community in Southeast Asia. Among these communities, being the Malaysian Chinese the more prolific in terms of number of writers and pieces of literature produced, this paper deals specifically with it. Its focus is put on the literature produced by Malaysian Chinese authors residing in Taiwan, wh...

  20. Traditional Chinese Medicine in Cancer Care: A Review of Controlled Clinical Studies Published in Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xun; Yang, Guoyan; Li, Xinxue; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jingli; Chang, Jiu; Sun, Xiaoxuan; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Guo, Yu; Xu, Yue; Liu, Jianping; Bensoussan, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely applied for cancer care in China. There have been a large number of controlled clinical studies published in Chinese literature, yet no systematic searching and analysis has been done. This study summarizes the current evidence of controlled clinical studies of TCM for cancer. Methods We searched all the controlled clinical studies of TCM therapies for all kinds of cancers published in Chinese in four main Chinese electronic databa...

  1. A Tentative Analysis of Gary Snyder's Attitudes towards Chinese Culture in his Translation of Chinese Poems

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Wu; Qi Pan

    2011-01-01

    Gray Snyder was a famous poem translator and writer in America in the 20th century; however, his translation and composition were deeply influenced by the ancient Chinese culture, especially by Han Shan, the famous hermit and poet of the Tang Dynasty. This article attempts to make a tentative analysis of Snyder’s translation of Chinese poems as well as his attitudes towards Chinese culture and Chinese poems.

  2. Topic prominence in Chinese EFL learners’ interlanguage

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shaopeng; Yang, Lianrui

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the general characteristics of topic-prominent typological interlanguage development of Chinese learners of English in terms of acquiring subject-prominent English structures from a discourse perspec- tive. Topic structures mainly appear in Chinese discourse in the form of topic chains (Wang, 2002; 2004). The research target are the topic chain, which is the main topic-prominent structure in Chinese discourse, and zero anaphora, which is the most common t...

  3. Relational Incentives in Chinese Family Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Pi Jiancai

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the choice of managerial compensation contracts in Chinese family firms. Relation or guanxi in Chinese language is an important factor that should be considered because it can bring the shirking cost to the relation-based manager and the caring cost to the owner under Chinese-style differential mode of association (“chaxu geju”). Our theoretical analysis shows that under some conditions it is optimal for the owner to choose the efficiency wage contract, and t...

  4. Determinants of Global Competitiveness of Chinese Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Elmas Demircioglu Karabiyik

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese economy has reached approximately average annual growth of 9% after economic reform era that began in 1978. This economic development miracle resulted from by exploiting the economic potential of internal factors in a complimentary external environment.  Main aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of the global competitiveness of Chinese economy by considering economic development process of the Chinese economy and World Economic Forum the Global Competitiveness Inde...

  5. Contrast between China English and Chinese English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨公建

    2014-01-01

    With the globalization of English,the discussion about China English and Chinese English attracts many scholars’ interest and attention.The concept of China English and Chinese English usual y makes people confused, so the article wil make some tentative contrasts in terms of definition、attributes and causes of the two terms and make people have a clear comprehension of China English and Chinese English.

  6. Cultural Awareness in Chinese-English Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Jinhong Yu

    2013-01-01

    There are very important cultural factors in translation practice, especially in Chinese-English translation. The learners’ cultural awareness is of utmost importance in Chinese-English translation. Translation refers to the interaction between two languages, and also the communication between two cultures. However, owing to the differences between Chinese and western cultures, it is not easy for translators to convey the exact meaning of the languages without good understanding of the ...

  7. The First Chinese Emperor in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Vietnam,a close neighbor of China,was influenced by the Chinese Culture for generations.In history,Vietnam had been under the administration and protection of ancient Chinese imperial court for a long period of time.The first Chinese emperor in Vietnam,who can be traced far back to Qin and Han dynasty,is referred to as the oldest emperor worldwide, His name was Zhao Tuo,

  8. Strategic Trend of Chinese Urban Forestry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhiyong

    2004-01-01

    China is facing new challenges of urban expansion of scale and deterioration of the ecological environment. Urban forestry has a new role and position in Chinese forestry development. ""Chinese Sustainable Development Forestry Strategic Research"" established the strategic objectives and policy measures on urban forestry, improved urban ecological environment and pushed Chinese urban ecological process through building up green forest island in urban central district, green forest zone in suburbs, forest system in remoter outskirts of cities.

  9. Study on Flower and Chinese Emotion (SFCE)

    OpenAIRE

    Duan Youguo

    2013-01-01

    In human history, flowers enjoy a special significance. They are useful for people’s life, work, mind, development, even emotion. Thus, people not only often take advantage of some certain flowers to make some needs met, but also use them to describe some certain stage of mood, such as happiness, sorrow, sadness, etc. In Chinese culture, it is the same case. Therefore, how do flowers influence Chinese emotion and how Chinese emotional culture gets reflected through flowers are exemplified by ...

  10. OVERVIEW OF CHINESE CHAIN CATERING MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yiting

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a market overview for chain catering business situation in China. Chinese chain catering market is developing rapidly in recent years, it is a business where everybody can become a customer, but the business is highly competitive. The subject of this thesis is to give an overview of the market situation and strategies for market expansion of Chinese chain catering industry. It contains knowledge of chain management and introduction of Chinese chain catering ma...

  11. Industrial Organisation of the Chinese Food Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.; Locke, Christopher G.

    1996-01-01

    The controversy on the convergence of socialism and capitalism has recently been focused on China. In this paper, an industrial organisation framework is used to portray the key features of "Socialism with Chinese Characteristics." The structure of supply and demand and the process of price formation is analysed to explicate the ramifications of the Chinese reform process, and the changing patterns of both government intervention and market forces in the Chinese food economy. An examination o...

  12. Study on Chinese and American Compliments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东英; 刘宝昌

    2006-01-01

    Chinese and Americans have different cultural background. They value different principles in expressing compliments and respond to them. Chinese tend to be self-denial to show modesty. Americans have a tendency of self-praising to demonstrate their confidence. Based on Leech's politeness principle, the paper analyzes typical instances. In conclusion, as language learner, we should aware it and prepare to be bicultural instead of bilingual. As a Chinese, we should keep our own culture identity instead of Americanized.

  13. Generic design of Chinese remaindering schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Jean-Guillaume; Gautier, Thierry; Roch, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    We propose a generic design for Chinese remainder algorithms. A Chinese remainder computation consists in reconstructing an integer value from its residues modulo non coprime integers. We also propose an efficient linear data structure, a radix ladder, for the intermediate storage and computations. Our design is structured into three main modules: a black box residue computation in charge of computing each residue; a Chinese remaindering controller in charge of launching the computation and o...

  14. How vertically specialized is Chinese trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Judith; Fung, K. C.; Wang, Zhi

    2008-01-01

    Two recent phenomena have transformed the nature of world trade: the explosive growth of Chinese trade, and the growth of vertically specialized trade due to international production fragmentation. While vertical specialization may explain much of the growth and unique features of Chinese trade, few papers have quantitatively assessed these two phenomena together. In part, this is because it is difficult to measure just how vertically specialized Chinese trade is. The unique features of China...

  15. Exploring Mobile Technologies for Learning Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Wang; Christine H. Leland

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal how learners of Chinese as a foreign language use mobile technology to study Chinese outside the classroom. Researchers used sociocultural perspectives to frame the study and grounded theory to analyze data. Eleven English-speaking students who had learned Chinese for different years at a midwestern university participated in the study. They answered 23 major questions by submitting journal entries and participating in an interview. Co...

  16. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruite...

  17. Chinese-English Translation of Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍凤; 李爱琴

    2013-01-01

    This paper is on the Chinese-English advertisement translation. It gives people an orderly discussion with examples in three parts: the problems in current advertisement translation, the causes of these problems, essential steps of making the Chinese-English translation of advertisement onto an appropriate way. This paper also suggests the principles of Chinese-English advertise⁃ment translation: natural, precise and understandable.

  18. The Translation of Chinese Dish Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚佳文

    2015-01-01

    The traditional food of a nation reflects its historical and cultural characteristics This thesis begins with an introduction to the translation situation of Chinese dish names and its existing problem nowadays, and proceeds to the translation principles and tactics for English translation of the names of Chinese dishes, based on Eugene A. Nida’ s Functional Equivalence, with an aim to improve translation efficiency and promote cross-cultural communication, and promoting Chinese food culture throughout the globe.

  19. Finnish Kullervo and chinese martial arts stories

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chapman

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: There are many important Finnish plays but, due to language barrier, Finnish drama is seldom exported, particularly to Hong Kong and China.. Objective: To find out differences in mentality between the Finnish and Chinese peoples by comparing the partially localized Chinese translation of Aleksis Kivi’s tragedy, Kullervo, with genuine Chinese martial arts literature. Methodology: 1. Chapman Chen has translated the Finnish classic, Kullervo, directly from Finnish...

  20. Dealing with Chinese counterfeiters and cloners

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuan, Wu

    2008-01-01

    In this project I analyze how Chinese counterfeiting and cloning affects even high tech products like Apple Inc’s iPhone. In doing so I provide a thick description of the concepts and context of IP infringement and cloning in Chinese industry, as well as Apple the firm, iPhone the product, Apple’s supplier Foxconn, and Meizu a Chinese cloner. I outline a theoretical framework consisting of the classic organizational economics theories Transaction cost economics, Agency theory, ...

  1. Approaches to Translation of Chinese Publicity Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Yin

    2009-01-01

    Chinese publicity materials are the windows for foreigners to know about China. There has been some problems in the translation for publicity materials both made by the enterprises and government departments. Especially for the growing international communication, the dispute between Chinese and its foreign counterpart is increasingly coming into being because of poor translation. Thus, how to translate Chinese publicity materials and whether you can translate them well have great impact on i...

  2. Radical-Enhanced Chinese Character Embedding

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yaming; Lin, Lei; Tang, Duyu; Yang, Nan; Ji, Zhenzhou; Wang, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to leverage radical for learning Chinese character embedding. Radical is a semantic and phonetic component of Chinese character. It plays an important role as characters with the same radical usually have similar semantic meaning and grammatical usage. However, existing Chinese processing algorithms typically regard word or character as the basic unit but ignore the crucial radical information. In this paper, we fill this gap by leveraging radical for learning continuous r...

  3. Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fanghua; Li, Anyuan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Gao, Jianjun; Li, Jijun; Kokudo, Norihiro; Li, Xiao-Kang; Tang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that in cancer treatment Chinese herbal medicines in combination with chemo- or radio-therapy can be used to enhance the efficacy of and diminish the side effects and complications caused by chemo- and radio-therapy. Therefore, an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines is needed by physicians and other health care providers. This review provides evidence for use of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy. First, Chinese herbal medicines (e.g. Astragalus, Turmeric, Ginseng, TJ-41, PHY906, Huachansu injection, and Kanglaite injection) that are commonly used by cancer patients for treating the cancer and/or reducing the toxicity induced by chemo- or radio-therapy are discussed. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that these Chinese herbal medicines possess great advantages in terms of suppressing tumor progression, increasing the sensitivity of chemo- and radio-therapeutics, improving an organism's immune system function, and lessening the damage caused by chemo- and radio-therapeutics. Second, clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment are reviewed. By reducing side effects and complications during chemo- and radio-therapy, these Chinese herbal medicines have a significant effect on reducing cancer-related fatigue and pain, improving respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal side effects including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, protecting liver function, and even ameliorating the symptoms of cachexia. This review should contribute to an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment for cancer and provide useful information for the development of more effective anti-cancer drugs. PMID:21248427

  4. Increasing imputation and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins using joint Chinese-Nordic reference population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Ding, X;

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of including Nordic Holsteins in the reference population on the imputation accuracy and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins. The data used in this study include 85 Chinese Holstein bulls genotyped with both 54K chip and 777K (HD) chip, 2862 Chinese cows g...

  5. Chinese Function Manager of 2006 Partenariat Comments on the Selection Principle for Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Fang Lei, EU-China Partenariat 2006Function Manager for Chinese Host Companies, worked together with Mr. Richard Morgan, EU Project Expert,Mr. Han Meiqing, Chinese Project Expert in the primary selection of Chinese enterprises.In reply to the strong request of the relevant governmental institutions, CCPIT and enterprises, he gave the following introductions about the details of selection.

  6. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  7. The Socialist Reform With Chinese Characteristics Under the Guidance of Chinese Spirit

    OpenAIRE

    Jianxin Lü

    2015-01-01

    The focal points of guiding the socialist reform with Chinese characteristics lie in the correct understanding of Chinese Spirit’s connotation. Its core concepts reside in the cohesive force of carrying out socialist reform with Chinese characteristics on the basis of lessons and experience since the reform and opening-up in 1978.

  8. Discursive Construction of Chinese Language Teacher Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers within the field of TCFL 1 (teaching Chinese as a foreign language) have begun to examine the notion of Chinese language teacher identity (Bianco, 2009; Cruickshank, 2011; Gao, 2012; Zhang & Jensen, 2013; Zhang, 2013); however, whilst insightful, this research has not...... addressed the ways in which Chinese language teachers identify themselves while interacting with students and how they construct their identities as TCFL teachers in other cultures. In this study, I address this research gap by exploring the discursive construction of three native Chinese language teachers...

  9. On Chinese Translation Methods of English Pun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jin

    2015-01-01

    English pun is the humorous of a word to suggest different meanings or applications or of words having the same or nearly the same sound but different meanings. Due to the great discrepancy between English and Chinese in terms of pronuncia⁃tion, form, sentence structure and ways of expression, the translation of pun into Chinese has been generally thought as untranslat⁃able. Hence, the translator faces great challenges in its Chinese translation. However, puns are not necessarily untranslatable. Six methods are usually employed in English puns’translation into Chinese.

  10. Moment in Peking and Chinese Traditional Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶金

    2014-01-01

    Lin Yutang’s Moment in Peking was a huge success, because he showed the long history of Chinese traditional culture in the book. The era background, character set and the plot of Moment in Peking reflects the significance of Chinese culture in many aspects. The great English masterpiece is a Chinese culture carrier which painted a grand social and historical picture, created a series of vivid images, especially images of traditional Chinese women character. The philosophy of novel is going through the history of space and time tunnel and becoming the main clue of many events in the book.

  11. The Mixing of English in Chinese Newspapers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文娟; 熊剑琴; 毕志伟

    2010-01-01

    This paper conducted a research on examining the code-mixing phenomenon in Chinese local newspapers. This paper will find out the top ten frequently used code-mixing between Chinese and English in local newspapers. After analysing the data, this paper will study the purpose of using code-mixing in Chinese local newspapers .The findings indicate that the codemixing is a trend in Chinese internet discourse, but there is not a sign of cultural invasion by those words, because those words are purely having the linguistic function other than other features.

  12. Sex and the Contemporary Chinese woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXINXIN

    2005-01-01

    THE importance of a mutually fulfilling sex life has gained greater acknowledgement in China in recent years but it is nonetheless a taboo topic. There have been few social surveys on this delicate subject, particularly as regards the degree of sexual satisfaction enjoyed by Chinese women,The 35-question survey on female attitudes to sex, formulated by the Chinese Sexology Society and the Chinese Medical Association, was, therefore, a major breakthrough. Sponsored by Sina.com and carried out in major Chinese cities from August to September 2004, the survey attracted 400,000 hits and drew 31,482 responses.

  13. A Chinese Visible Human-based computational female pelvic phantom for radiation dosimetry simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate voxel phantom is needed for dosimetric simulation in radiation therapy for malignant tumors in female pelvic region. However, most of the existing voxel phantoms are constructed on the basis of Caucasian or non-Chinese population. Materials and Methods: A computational framework for constructing female pelvic voxel phantom for radiation dosimetry was performed based on Chinese Visible Human datasets. First, several organs within pelvic region were segmented from Chinese Visible Human datasets. Then, polygonization and voxelization were performed based on the segmented organs and a 3D computational phantom is built in the form of a set of voxel arrays. Results: The generated phantom can be converted and loaded into treatment planning system for radiation dosimetry calculation. From the observed dosimetric results of those organs and structures, we can evaluate their absorbed dose and implement some simulation studies. Conclusion: A voxel female pelvic phantom was developed from Chinese Visible Human datasets. It can be utilized for dosimetry evaluation and planning simulation, which would be very helpful to improve the clinical performance and reduce the radiation toxicity on organ at risk.

  14. Job Insecurity and Remuneration in Chinese Family-Owned Business Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of job insecurity (past job downsizing and anticipated job downsizing) and current remuneration--via wellbeing (burnout and work engagement)--on organizational outcomes (organization commitment and low turnover intention) of Chinese family-owned business. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  15. Influence of Demographic Factors and Ownership Type upon Organizational Learning Culture in Chinese Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Baiyin; McLean, Gary N.

    2007-01-01

    This empirical study, using Western concepts incorporated into the Dimension of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) instrument and data collected from 919 employees in nine companies located in Guangdong Province, China, explored organizational learning culture in Chinese business settings. Findings suggest that the DLOQ is applicable to…

  16. Tacrolimus in preventing transplant rejection in Chinese patients – optimizing use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-Jiang; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a product of fermentation of Streptomyces, and belongs to the family of calcineurin inhibitors. It is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing solid-organ transplant rejection. Compared to cyclosporine, tacrolimus has greater immunosuppressive potency and a lower incidence of side effects. It has been accepted as first-line treatment after liver and kidney transplantation. Tacrolimus has specific features in Chinese transplant patients; its in vivo pharmacokinetics, treatment regimen, dose and administration, and adverse-effect profile are influenced by multiple factors, such as genetics and the spectrum of primary diseases in the Chinese population. We reviewed the clinical experience of tacrolimus use in Chinese liver- and kidney-transplant patients, including the pharmacology of tacrolimus, the immunosuppressive effects of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine, effects of different factors on tacrolimus metabolism on Chinese patients, personalized medicine, clinical safety profile, and patient satisfaction and adherence. This article provides guidance for the rational and efficient use of tacrolimus in Chinese organ-transplant patients. PMID:25609922

  17. [The apprentice education system of Chinese medicinal industry in modern Kunming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhuqing

    2015-07-01

    In the late Qing Dynasty, following the appearance of the Chinese medicinal materials industry trade association of Kunming, the "master agreement" as a professional regulation, also implemented, marking the beginning of the contractualization and institutionalization of apprentice education in Yunnan. The contents and implementation of the "master agreement" was organized by the Chinese medicinal materials industry trade association of Kunming and its craft union. The apprentice education in Kunming traditional Chinese medicinal industry has the following characteristics: expanding the source of talent; adepting at agricultural production of the accorded apprentice; conforming to the conditions of human manipulation of Chinese traditional medicine; being in line with the characteristics and rules of Chinese medicine skills taught by oral narration and tacit understanding; unity of the medical and pharmaceutical professionals; and non-governmental organization. Apprentice training had trained a number of medical talents, and promoted the transformation of manual workshop to industrialization in Kunming. Apprentice education had catalyzed the establishment of specialized shops selling patent medicines exclusively to separated from those running both crude drugs and patent medicines, to form a set of effective teaching system, thus exerting profound influence on later generations. PMID:26815024

  18. 中国近代中医药讼案鉴定考述%A Study on Traditional Chinese Medical Appraisals in Chinese Modern Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孙彪; 林楠

    2012-01-01

    At the modern times,the patient-doctor relationship of Chinese society undergoes profound changes,the patient and the doctor often go to court because of the medical disputes, so the lawsuits of Traditional Chinese Medicine are common. In the treatment of these lawsuits, the forensic identification which is taken the western medicine as leading factor existed many defects in special fields, so the rights of the doctor of Traditional Chinese Medicine can not obtain the legal safeguard. In such circumstances, the doctor of Traditional Chinese Medicine supplied suggestion to the judicial organization through trade organizations and academic research groups. They built an appraisal institute for chinese traditional medical lawsuit in order to improve the professional level of Traditional Chinese Medical appraisals.%近代中国社会医患关系历经巨变,因医疗纠纷而引起的中医药诉讼案件层出不穷.在案件处理中,以西医为主导的医疗鉴定存在诸多漏洞和缺失,导致中医师的权益得不到法律保障.在此情势下,中医师群体通过同业组织、学术团体等途径,向司法行政机构积极建言,并成立中医药讼案鉴定机构,不断提升中医鉴定水平.

  19. Organic Food "Made in China"

    OpenAIRE

    Sternfeld, Eva

    2009-01-01

    China joined the international organic movement comparatively late. Challenged by the scarcity of arable land and a large population to feed, the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) for many years has been reluctant to support organic farming that might result in a drop of agricultural output. On the contrary, China’s “Green Revolution” catapulted the country to a leading producer and user of agrochemicals in the world. This development came at a high cost for the country’s environmental qu...

  20. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation andInformation Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Networkof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanicsand Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science andtechnology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy ofSciences.The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  1. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  2. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation andInformation Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Networkof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanicsand Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science andtechnology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  3. Compare Analysis between Chinese and Indonesian Phonetics and teaching suggestions

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Anggreani

    2014-01-01

    With further development of friendly relations between China and Indonesia, coupled with a growing number of Indonesian Chinese, learning Chinese language is getting more important. Article compared Chinese and Indonesian voice and showed the voice of the Chinese language. Moreover, article provided ideas for Chinese phonetics teaching and for Indonesian students in learning Chinese pronunciation. In addition, article puts forward suggestions in order to improve foreign language teaching.

  4. Chinese-American foods : Geography, culture and tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Alan A.

    2016-01-01

    Food is a major way that Chinese, and other ethnic groups, engage with their cultural heritage. Behavioral perspectives from tourism studies give insight into the range of food neophyllics (love of new foods) and food neophobics (fear of new foods), as well as the role of authenticity in food experiences. Three general types of Chinese food are identified in the US: Chinese American (restaurant) Food, Real Chinese (restaurant) Food, and American Born Chinese (home) Food. Traditional Chinese A...

  5. Barriers and countermeasures in developing traditional Chinese medicine in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunfang; Yang, Zhiping; Cheng, Jing; Fan, Daiming

    2016-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the unique cultural treasures of Chinese; it represents a significant feature and prominent advantage of the healthcare cause in China. Data in this paper were fromWorld Health Organization, Chinese Bureau of Statistics, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and PubMed. In recent years, TCM has established a solid foundation in Europe, which made great strides in legislation, education, research, and international exchange, and has enjoyed a vast development space in the continent. Now, TCM is embracing unprecedented development opportunities in Europe. At the same time, the stiff international competition poses a grave threat to China's TCM industry. With multiple cultural, legal, and institutional challenges, as well as talent shortages in the way, TCM is now facing many difficulties in Europe. To fully prepare and enact active and vigorous steps to seize opportunities, we should have a clear picture about the serious challenges hampering TCM development in Europe. The TCM development at overseas markets has shifted from a spontaneous trade activity into a national strategy spearheaded by the government and participated in by multiple stakeholders. We should make a systematic, comprehensive, and sustainable push in fields such as TCM therapy, healthcare, education, research, culture, and industry development. The ultimate goal is to bring TCMs to the global market and allow them to play a role in safeguarding public health along with modern medicines. PMID:27465827

  6. ‘Canonization in early twentieth-century Chinese art history’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hui

    2014-06-01

    within the new ideas of fine arts and Chinese art; 2 canonization in the historical temporal structures established by modern Chinese art history writing; 3 canon construction and deconstruction of artists and artworks under the influence of contemporary art production. Canonization in Chinese art during the early decades of the twentieth century applied new paradigms to organize old and new information of Chinese art into usable knowledge. This process of writing new histories for Chinese art contributed to the formation of a modern Chinese art history field.

  7. The Development of Chinese Education in Malaysia, 1952-1975: Political Collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association and the Chinese Educationists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yao Sua; Teoh, Hooi See

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Chinese education in Malaysia from 1952 to 1975, focusing on the political collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and the Chinese educationists to advance the cause of Chinese education instead of the usual macro policy analysis. This collaboration was compounded by the different stand…

  8. Look before You Leap: Underestimating Chinese Student History, Chinese University Setting and Chinese University Steering in Sino-British HE Joint Ventures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ewan G.

    2010-01-01

    This article makes the case--in three parts--that many Anglo-Chinese university collaborations (joint ventures) to date have seriously underestimated Chinese (student) history, the Chinese university setting and Chinese national governmental steering as part of the process of "glocalisation". Recent turbulence in this particular HE collaborative…

  9. 雅加达非华裔大学生中文学习动机调查 JAKARTA NON-CHINESE ANCESTRY INDONESIAN STUDENTSMOTIVATION OF CHINESE STUDYING

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Ruomei; Huang Yan; Ye Mei

    2011-01-01

    More and more non-Chinese ancestry Indonesian begin to learn Chinese,some of them even choose Chinese as their major in University.The survey of four major Chinese departments in Jakarta shows that intrinsic motivation is the most important motivation of Chinese studying. Interests and passion to Chinese language and culture encouraged the non-Chinese ancestry Indonesian students to study Chinese. To assist them overcome their difficulties in studying is very important for Chinese education i...

  10. The Chinese of Pasuruan : their language and identity

    OpenAIRE

    Oetomo, D.

    1987-01-01

    Chinese language--Indonesia --Pasuruan, Chinese--Indonesia--Pasuruan, Sociolinguistics--Indonesia--Pasuruan, Ethnology--Indonesia--Pasuruan, Pasuruan (Indonesia)--Languages Originally presented as the author's thesis

  11. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985, with the name of Chinese Science and Technology Document Catalogues: Optics and Applied Optics. It changed into a bimonthly publication with the name of Chinese Optics and Applied

  12. A Study on Standards System of Chinese Environmental Labeling Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Implementing Outlines for the Chinese Environmental Labeling Program By awarding certificates and labels to related manufacturers in accordance with certain environmental labeling standards, environmental labeling,also called "Green Label"or "Eco-label", certifies via governmental departments or public and private organizations that the whole process of producing,using, recalling and disposing of manufacturers'products is in compliance with certain environmental requirements. Many countries are establishing and promoting environmental labeling plans. Environmental labeling, as an important promotion means for prevention and control of pollution in a market-oriented manner, is being extended and developed constantly across the world.

  13. Chop Suey as Imagined Authentic Chinese Food: The Culinary Identity of Chinese Restaurants in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Haiming Liu

    2009-01-01

    At least until the 1960s, chop suey was synonymous with Chinese food in the United States, where most Chinese restaurants were called chop suey houses. By uncovering the history of chop suey, this article analyzes the development of Chinese cuisine in the U.S. as an example of transnational cultural exchange. The authenticity and culinary identity of Chinese food in America often rested on its real or imagined Chinese roots while its popularity depended on how well Chinese restaurant...

  14. Chop Suey as Imagined Authentic Chinese Food: The Culinary Identity of Chinese Restaurants in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haiming

    2009-01-01

    At least until the 1960s, chop suey was synonymous with Chinese food in the United States, where most Chinese restaurants were called chop suey houses. By uncovering the history of chop suey, this article analyzes the development of Chinese cuisine in the U.S. as an example of transnational cultural exchange. The authenticity and culinary identity of Chinese food in America often rested on its real or imagined Chinese roots while its popularity depended on how well Chinese restaurant propriet...

  15. Managing Indefinite Boundaries: The Strategy and Structure of a Chinese Business Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall W. Meyer; Xiaohui Lu

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the status of boundaries in organizational theory. Tacitly if not explicitly, most researchers view organizations as bounded, tightly coupled and more or less rational systems. Yet organizations may also be open, loosely coupled, hierarchically nested systems whose boundaries are indefinite. In the case of China, incomplete separation of firms from the state, incomplete integration of firms and partial listing of assets have left most Chinese firms with indefinite boundari...

  16. Supramolecular organization of the mammalian translation system.

    OpenAIRE

    Negrutskii, B S; Stapulionis, R; Deutscher, M P

    1994-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that the protein synthetic machinery is organized within cells, this point has been difficult to prove because any organization that might exist is lost upon preparation of the cell-free systems usually used to study translation in vitro. To examine this process under conditions more representative of the intact cell, we have developed an active protein-synthesizing system using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells permeabilized with the plant glycoside saponin. This p...

  17. Templates of "Chineseness" and Trajectories of Cambodian Chinese Entrepreneurship in Phnom Penh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Verver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, William Willmott described Cambodia as a plural society in which different ethnic groups occupy different places in the economic structure. The Chinese made up the economic class, active in trade and commerce, and formed a definable ethnic community, both socioculturally and politically. Since Willmott’s seminal studies, Cambodia’s ethnic Chinese have endured the destruction and repression of both private enterprise and Chinese sociocultural life (1970–1990, followed by a revitalization of Chinese business. Through ethnographic case studies, this paper explores the relationship between “Chineseness” and business life in trajectories of Cambodian Chinese entrepreneurship in Phnom Penh. How do entrepreneurs deploy notions of Chinese business? The author argues that Chinese family businesses, trust-based networks, patronage arrangements, and cultural representations have indeed been greatly revitalized over the last few decades, but that they also remain challenged in certain contexts. Moreover, such revitalization has taken a fundamentally different form from Willmott’s description. Practices of Chinese business can no longer be ascribed to an ethnic Chinese “community” in Phnom Penh. Rather, as the latter has become increasingly multiform, Chinese business has developed into a template at the deployment (or neglect of a broader category of Cambodian Chinese entrepreneurs.

  18. Our Organic Future - Cottage, Corporate, Commodified or Containerized?

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2007-01-01

    Abstract China achieved a remarkable 1000% increase in organically managed land in 2006. Chinese organic certification is described as the most stringent in the world, and China has both political references and an economic agenda congruent with an organic future. Australian consumers (N = 221) valued produce of Australia at 26.0% more than produce of China. This gap diminished to 10.7% comparing Australia to China/Certified Organic. The valuation gap increased to 28.9% comparing Australia...

  19. Acute and chronic effects of tributyltin on the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周群芳; 江桂斌; 刘稷燕

    2003-01-01

    The acute (12 h) and chronic (7 or 14 d) effects of tributyltin chloride (TBT) on a new type of test fish, the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus), have been studied. High accumulation of the pollutant in the fish muscle and obvious changes in hepatosomatic index and gonad somatic index were observed after exposure. The ultrastructural findings show a series of pathological changes existing in the exposed gill cells and hepatocytes, which demonstrates the toxicity effects of tributyltin compounds on aquatic organisms. The results clearly show that the Chinese rare minnow is a new sensitive test fish material, whose exposure system is suitable for the extensive organometallic toxicity studies.

  20. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal