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Sample records for chinese non-smoking females

  1. 非吸烟女性肺癌发病危险因素的Meta分析%Meta-analysis of risk factors on lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬; 陈坤; 张海蕾; 朱益民

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the risk factors of lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women.Methods The results of 7 case-control studies from 1990 to 1999 were analyzed by Meta-analysis method in this study. The cumulative cases and controls were 1 115 and 1 520, respectively. Der Simonian and Nan Laid model were applied to process data. Results The pools OR values of family history of lung cancer, personal history of non-neoplastic lung disease, cooking oil fume pollution, coal pollution and exposure to environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) were 2.87,2.79,2.52,1.42 and 1.64 respectively. Conclusion Family history of lung cancer and personal history of non-neoplastic lung disease might serve as the most important risk factors of female lung cancer in China. There appeared also significantly positive relationship between female lung cancer and the degree of cooking oil fume pollution or pollution of coal burning. The effect on lung cancer of exposure to ETS was uncertain in this study which calls for further investigation. Bias and confounding factors were also discussed in this study.%目的 综合评价我国非吸烟女性肺癌发病的危险因素。方法 应用Meta分析方法对国内7篇有关非吸烟女性肺癌危险因素的病例对照研究进行定量综合分析,共累积病例1 115例,对照1 520例。统计处理采用Meta分析的随机效应模型。结果 肺部疾病史、家族肺癌史、油烟污染、煤烟污染、被动吸烟等5个研究因素的合并比值比(OR值)分别是2.87、2.79、2.52、1.42和1.64,进一步分层研究提示随着油烟污染程度的加重,其OR值也有明显的上升。结论 家族肺癌史、肺部疾病史、油烟污染、煤烟污染等因素可能与非吸烟女性肺癌的发生有关,被动吸烟的作用尚不能肯定。

  2. Rare interstitial lung disease: Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a young non smoking Indian female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lalita; Vadala, Rohit; Mesquita, Anthony Menezes; Vaideeswar, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Adult Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare interstitial lung disease which occurs almost exclusively in smokers. A marked male predominance was initially reported, but recent studies show both men and women are equally affected due to the increasing smoking habits in women. The natural history is variable with 25% of patients having asymptomatic disease while 10-20% progress rapidly to respiratory insufficiency and death. The diagnosis is not easily recognized by clinicians or pathologists. Awareness of the clinical presentation and classical HRCT findings helps in early diagnosis and management of this disease. We report a rare case of severe PLCH in a young non smoking female with a short history who progressed rapidly to respiratory failure and died. PMID:25857566

  3. The Impact of Menthol Cigarettes on Smoking Initiation among Non-Smoking Young Females in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoneatsu Osaki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Japan presents an excellent case-study of a nation with low female smoking rates and a negligible menthol market which changed after the cigarette market was opened to foreign competition. Internal tobacco industry documents demonstrate the intent of tobacco manufacturers to increase initiation among young females through development and marketing of menthol brands. Japanese menthol market share rose rapidly from less than 1% in 1980 to 20% in 2008. Menthol brand use was dominated by younger and female smokers, in contrast with non-menthol brands which were used primarily by male smokers. Nationally representative surveys confirm industry surveys of brand use and provide further evidence of the end results of the tobacco industry’s actions—increased female smoking in Japan. These findings suggest that female populations may be encouraged to initiate into smoking, particularly in developing nations or where female smoking rates remain low, if the tobacco industry can successfully tailor brands to them. The Japanese experience provides a warning to public health officials who wish to prevent smoking initiation among young females.

  4. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  5. Meta-analysis on related risk factors regarding lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women%中国非吸烟女性肺癌危险因素的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余艺文; 王传鹏; 韩耀风; 牛建军; 张一中; 方亚

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨中国非吸烟女性肺癌发病的主要危险因素,为制定肺癌防控措施提供科学依据.方法 收集国内外1995年1月至2014年11月公开发表的关于中国非吸烟女性肺癌发病危险因素的病例对照研究文献,采用Meta分析方法计算中国非吸烟女性肺癌发病危险因素的合并OR直及其95%CI,辅以敏感性分析和发表偏倚检测.结果 共纳入文献24篇,累计病例1 1 946例,对照12 596例.非吸烟女性肺癌发病危险因素的合并OR值及其95%CI分别为:总肺部疾病史1.89(1.57 ~ 2.27)、肺结核病史1.86(1.53 ~ 2.27)、慢性支气管炎病史1.51(1.04~2.19)、肿瘤家族史2.02(1.67~2.44)、肺癌家族史2.45(1.80~ 3.34)、成年期被动吸入香烟烟雾[工作场所1.47(1.28~1.69)、家庭环境1.22(1.09~ 1.36)]、终生被动吸入香烟烟雾1.52(1.29~ 1.79)、烹饪烟雾量2.21(1.27~2.96)、厨房位置1.76(1.48 ~2.09)、每周油炸频次2.24(1.61 ~ 3.12).结论 中国非吸烟女性肺癌发病的主要危险因素为肺部疾病史、肿瘤家族史、被动吸烟(香烟烟雾、烹饪烟雾),其中肺癌家族史和烹饪烟雾量的合并OR值具有更为强烈的关联效应,提示遗传因素和环境因素在肺癌发病中的重要作用.%Objective To explore the risk factors of lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women and to provide evidence for lung cancer prevention and control.Methods Information was collected on case-control studies published in the journals,both nationally and internationally from January,1995 to November,2014 that reported correlations between lung cancer and risk factors.Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of risk factors on lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women were calculated,using the Meta-analysis method,with sensitivity and publication bias tested.Results Information on 24 case-control studies was selected including 11 946 cumulative cases and 12 596 controls.Pooled ORs (95

  6. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined bas...

  7. Interaction between Polymorphisms in Pre-MiRNA Genes and Cooking Oil Fume Exposure on the Risk of Lung Cancer in Chinese Non-Smoking Female Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Yin

    Full Text Available Both genetic polymorphisms and environmental risk factors play important roles in the development of human chronic diseases including lung cancer. This is the first case-control study of interaction between polymorphisms in pre-miRNA genes and cooking oil fume exposure on the risk of lung cancer.A hospital-based case-control study of 258 cases and 310 controls was conducted. Six polymorphisms in miRNAs were determined by Taqman allelic discrimination method. The gene-environment interactions were assessed on both additive and multiplicative scale. The statistical analyses were performed mostly with SPSS.The combination of the risk genotypes of five miRNA SNPs (miR-146a rs2910164, miR-196a2 rs11614913, miR-608 rs4919510, miR-27a rs895819 and miR-423 rs6505162 with risk factor (cooking oil fume exposure contributed to a significantly higher risk of lung cancer, and the corresponding ORs (95% confidence intervals were 1.91(1.04-3.52, 1.94 (1.16-3.25, 2.06 (1.22-3.49, 1.76 (1.03-2.98 and 2.13 (1.29-3.51. The individuals with both risk genotypes of miRNA SNPs and exposure to risk factor (cooking oil fumes were in a higher risk of lung cancer than persons with only one of the two risk factors (ORs were 1.91, 1.05 and 1.41 for miR-146a rs2910164, ORs were 1.94, 1.23 and 1.34 for miR-196a2 rs11614913, ORs were 2.06, 1.41 and 1.68 for miR-608 rs4919510, ORs were 1.76, 0.82 and 1.07 for miR-27a rs895819, and ORs were 2.13, 1.15 and 1.02 for miR-423 rs6505162, respectively. All the measures of biological interaction indicate that there were not indeed biological interactions between the six SNPs of miRNAs and exposure to cooking oil fumes on an additive scale. Logistic models suggested that the gene-environment interactions were not statistically significant on a multiplicative scale.The interactions between miRNA SNPs and cooking oil fume exposure suggested by ORs of different combination were not statistically significant.

  8. Sociodemographic characteristics and diabetes predict invalid self-reported non-smoking in a population-based study of U.S. adults

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    Shelton Brent J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all studies reporting smoking status collect self-reported data. The objective of this study was to assess sociodemographic characteristics and selected, common smoking-related diseases as predictors of invalid reporting of non-smoking. Valid self-reported smoking may be related to the degree to which smoking is a behavior that is not tolerated by the smoker's social group. Methods True smoking was defined as having serum cotinine of 15+ng/ml. 1483 "true" smokers 45+ years of age with self-reported smoking and serum cotinine data from the Mobile Examination Center were identified in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Invalid non-smoking was defined as "true" smokers self-reporting non-smoking. To assess predictors of invalid self-reported non-smoking, odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for age, race/ethnicity-gender categories, education, income, diabetes, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Multiple logistic regression modeling took into account the complex survey design and sample weights. Results Among smokers with diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 15%, ranging from 0% for Mexican-American (MA males to 22%–25% for Non-Hispanic White (NHW males and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB females. Among smokers without diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 5%, ranging from 3% for MA females to 10% for NHB females. After simultaneously taking into account diabetes, education, race/ethnicity and gender, smokers with diabetes (ORAdj = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.35–7.34, who did not graduate from high school (ORAdj = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.30–3.22 and who were NHB females (ORAdj = 5.12; 95% CI: 1.41–18.58 were more likely to self-report as non-smokers than smokers without diabetes, who were high school graduates, and MA females, respectively. Having a history of myocardial infarction or hypertension did not predict invalid reporting of non-smoking. Conclusion Validity of self

  9. Reproductive efficiency of captive Chinese- and Indian-origin rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, H Michael; Falkenstein, Kathrine P; Deroche, Chelsea B; Franke, Donald E

    2012-02-01

    Reproductive and survival records (n=2,913) from 313 Chinese-origin and 365 Indian-derived rhesus macaques at the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC) spanning three generations were studied. Least-squares analysis of variance procedures were used to compare reproductive and infant survival traits while proportional hazards regression procedures were used to study female age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from last birth to death. Chinese females were older at first parturition than Indian females because they were older when placed with males, but the two subspecies had similar first postpartum birth interval (1st PPBI) and lifetime postpartum birth interval (LPPBI). Females that gave birth to stillborn infants had shorter first postpartum birth intervals (1st PPBI) than females giving birth to live infants. Postpartum birth intervals decreased in females from age 3 to 12 but then increased again with advancing age. Chinese infants had a greater survival rate than Indian infants at 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year of age. Five hundred and forty-three females (80.01%) had uncensored, or true records for age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from the birth until death whereas 135 females (19.91%) had censored records for these traits. Low- and high-uncensored observations for age at death were 3 and 26 years for Chinese, and 3 and 23 years for Indian females. Uncensored number of infants born per female ranged from 1 to 15 for Chinese females and 1 to 18 for Indian females. Each of these traits was significantly influenced by the origin×generation interaction in the proportional hazards regression analyses, indicating that probabilities associated with age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from last birth to death for Chinese and Indian females did not rank the same across generations.

  10. Research on Chinese Female Entrepreneurs’ Leadership--From the Perspective of Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qi; Ding, Zizheng

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to understand the connection between femaleentrepreneurs’ leadership and empowerment in the context China, based on theories of leadership and entrepreneurship. The thesis is based on the feminist research by presenting 6 qualitative case studies of Chinese female entrepreneurs. The conclusion is that:1. There exists a necessary link between female entrepreneurs’ leadership andempowering way of management.2. Chinese female entrepreneurs tend to apply empowerment to...

  11. A Preliminary Study of the Effectiveness of Chinese Therapeutic Food on Regulating Female Reproductive Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Lulu Fu; Hong Xu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of Chinese therapeutic food on female reproductive hormones in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Chinese kiwi fruit extract (Hong En No. 1) was provided for Australian peri-menopausal women for one month. Chinese medical assessment and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE) tests were conducted. Twenty-six urinary samples (pre and post-trial) which met the requirement of testing were analysed, the ra...

  12. SMOKING / NON-SMOKING IN THE CERN RESTAURANTS AND CAFETERIAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee, tel. 77551

    2001-01-01

    As you may remember, all CERN buildings and cars are considered to be non-smoking areas with a few exceptions (Safety Instruction no. 46). The ban on smoking applies in particular to all public areas, such as restaurants and cafétérias. Smoking is therefore prohibited in all parts of the free-flow and the dining rooms. As for the cafétérias, they are divided into well-defined non-smoking and smoking areas, the latter being clearly indicated as such, i.e : Cafétéria of Restaurant no. 1 : at the back of the cafétéria (on the outside terrace side) opposite the Users' Office and the offices of the Staff Association; Cafétéria of Restaurant no. 2 : the full length of the cafétéria on the wineyard side, except for the room next to the entrance to the building, furnished with red arm-chairs; Cafétéria of Restaurant no. 3 : between the bar and the row of artificial ...

  13. Effect of Second-Hand Smoke Exposure on Lung Function among Non-Smoking Korean Women.

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    Youngmee Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous literature has implicated that there might be an individual susceptibility difference in terms of race/ethnicity and gender in response to second hand smoke (SHS exposure. This study was done to examine the effect of SHS exposure on lung function in non-smoking Korean women.This cross-sectional study was conducted using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2008-2011. A total of 2,513 female participants, age 40 yr and older, with no respiratory symptoms or prior lung diseases, were included in this study. Participants' smoking status was examined using both self-reported history and measurement of urinary cotinine level. Lung function was assessed using spirometry data, including FVC and FEV1. T-test and Chi-square tests were performed to compare diverse variables between groups. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA adjusted for age, height, alcohol consumption, and level of exercise was used to see any statistical differences in lung function parameters between non-SHS exposed and SHS-exposed groups.Among 2,513 non-smoking females, 767 (30.5% were SHS-exposed. The urinary cotinine levels clearly distinguished SHS exposure, and the mean urinary cotinine levels were 7.1±0.4 and 11±0.7 in non-SHS exposed group vs. SHS-exposed group, respectively (P < 0.001. Urinary cotinine levels were correlated with duration of SHS exposure. However, both groups had normal lung function and there was no significant difference between the two groups in lung function.Urinary cotinine is a valuable marker of SHS exposure. Korean women may have higher tolerance for SHS exposure-induced lung function decline.

  14. Mirror rubbing: a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex eroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate. PMID:23593957

  15. Bone mineral density in young female Chinese dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, S; Hsu, H; Fong, Y; Chiu, C.; Kao, A.; Lee, C.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan)

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate of the effect of dancing on bone mineral density (BMD) we compared 29 Chinese girls who had been receiving regular ballet training for at least 6 years with a control group of 20 nonathletic sex- and age-matched Chinese girls. BMD was measured at the second to fourth lumbar spine and at the right femoral neck using a commercial dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer (DEXA). There were no significant differences in either measured BMD or spinal BMD after adjusting for body weight (body m...

  16. Chinese Female Jet-Fighter Pilots Change New Uniforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the 60th anniversary of founding of People’s Republic of China that marks calendar day of Oct.1st this year, Chinese armed forces stage on a new change of uniforms to welcome the birthday of the New China that was announced

  17. Breaking the Barriers in Chinese Female Career Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2013-01-01

    Career development is an important part of modern human resource management. Women are an important and integral part in human resources. Paying at ention to women's career development can’t be ignored both for women own career development and the economic development of society. But compared to men, the Chinese women encounter more barriers in the process of career development, the purpose of this paper is to analyze these barriers and put forward corresponding countermeasures to break the barriers.

  18. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan Chen; Yu-Bei Huang; Xue-Ou Liu; Ying Gao; Hong-Ji Dai; Feng-Ju Song; Wei-Qin Li; Jing Wang; Ye Yan; Pei-Shan Wang; Yao-Gang Wang; Ke-Xin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especially for Chinese females. Thus, we systematically searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort stud...

  19. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese older adults: do living arrangements matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-02-23

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998-2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults' health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  20. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Older Adults: Do Living Arrangements Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaan Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998–2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker, the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others, and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults’ health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  1. A detailed breast model and its application for Chinese female breast dose estimation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA protocol for breast dosimetry is based on the calculations of Dance which used very simple models of the breast based on the western female data. In order to estimate the dose more precisely in the mammographic examination for the Chinese female, a 3D detailed breast model was constructed. This model contains the detailed structures in the breast, including skin, subcutaneous fat, Cooper's ligaments, and fibro-glandular region containing intra-glandular fat, gland, ductal system, and terminal ductal lobular units. And the size of this breast model was adjusted to represent the characteristic of Chinese female. The glandular tissue conversion coefficients were calculated using this detailed breast model with Monte Carlo code, Geant4. The comparison between the data obtained in this study and the data from Dance was carried out. The discrepancy may come from both the structure and size of the breast models

  2. A Chinese Visible Human-based computational female pelvic phantom for radiation dosimetry simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate voxel phantom is needed for dosimetric simulation in radiation therapy for malignant tumors in female pelvic region. However, most of the existing voxel phantoms are constructed on the basis of Caucasian or non-Chinese population. Materials and Methods: A computational framework for constructing female pelvic voxel phantom for radiation dosimetry was performed based on Chinese Visible Human datasets. First, several organs within pelvic region were segmented from Chinese Visible Human datasets. Then, polygonization and voxelization were performed based on the segmented organs and a 3D computational phantom is built in the form of a set of voxel arrays. Results: The generated phantom can be converted and loaded into treatment planning system for radiation dosimetry calculation. From the observed dosimetric results of those organs and structures, we can evaluate their absorbed dose and implement some simulation studies. Conclusion: A voxel female pelvic phantom was developed from Chinese Visible Human datasets. It can be utilized for dosimetry evaluation and planning simulation, which would be very helpful to improve the clinical performance and reduce the radiation toxicity on organ at risk.

  3. Decreased NPC1L1 expression in the liver from Chinese female gallstone patients

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    Zhang Sheng-Dao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol gallstone disease is a very common disease in both industrialized and developing countries. Many studies have found that cholesterol gallstones are more common in women than men. The molecular mechanisms underlying the relationship between female gallstone disease and hepatic sterol transporters are still undergoing definition and have not been evaluated in humans. Aims The aim of this study is to probe for underlying hepatic molecular defects associated with development of gallstones in female. Methods/Results Fifty-seven nonobese, normolipidemic Chinese female gallstone patients (GS were investigated with 12 age- and body mass index-matched female gallstone-free controls (GSF. The bile from the female GS had higher cholesterol saturation than that from the female GSF. The hepatic NPC1L1 mRNA levels were lower in female GS, correlated with SREBP2 mRNA. NPC1L1 downregulation was confirmed at protein levels. Consistently, immunohistochemistry showed decreased NPC1L1 expression in female GS. Conclusions The decreased hepatic NPC1L1 levels in female GS might indicate a downregulated reabsorption of biliary cholesterol in the liver, which, in turn, leads to the cholesterol supersaturation of bile. Our data are consistent with the possibility that hepatic NPC1L1 may be mediated by SREBP2.

  4. Female Cross-Dressing in Chinese Literature Classics and their English Versions

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    Wing Bo Tso Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-dressing, as a cultural practice, suggests gender ambiguity and allows freedom of self expression. Yet, it may also serve to reaffirm ideological stereotypes and the binary distinctions between male and female, masculine and feminine, homosexual and heterosexual. To explore the nature and function of cross-dressing in Chinese and Western cultures, this paper analyzes the portrayals of cross-dressing heroines in two Chinese stories: The Ballad of Mulan (500-600 A.D., and The Butterfly Lovers (850-880 A.D.. Distorted representations in the English translated texts are also explored..

  5. Eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors for eating disorders among Chinese female dance students

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    Zhuoli Tao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Along with the economic development, eating disorders begin to appear in China. In this context, we study potential risks for eating disorders. Methods: 1,199 Chinese students, aged 12-25 years, were randomly selected in spring 2006 from a survey with a series of scales (EAT-26, EDI that were used as a screening examination for eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors. Among them were 31 female Chinese dance students. The dancer students were compared with the female high risk group of eating disorders (EAT ≥ 20 and the female low risk group (EAT 0-9 according to their scores on EAT-26 and EDI. Results: There were just 3 dancers (10% with scores on the EAT-26 who were over the cut-off point of 20 for high risk of an eating disorder. The dance group also showed significantly higher scores than the low risk group (EAT 0-9 not only on the subscales Dieting, and EAT-26 total scores on the EAT-26, but also on the subscales Perfectionism and Maturity Fears on the EDI. Conclusions: Among the group of female Chinese dance students, most participants did not show a high risk for eating disorders and their high scores on some subscales on the EAT-26 and EDI could be caused by their occupation.

  6. Anthropometric Characteristics of Chinese Professional Female Marathoners and Predicted Variables for Their Personal Bests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Gang; Wang, Yang; Bao, Da-Peng; Hu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate anthropometric characteristics of Chinese professional female marathoners and suitable predicted variables correlated with their personal bests (PB), 96 Chinese female long-distance runners were divided into international (Olympic Games. Selected anthropometric variables, including height, body mass, percentages of body fat, girths, breadths, lengths and skin-folds were measured. Only iliac crest skin-fold of international athletes was significantly lower than it is in national group. Girth of forearm and lower limbs, length of lower limbs, and all skin-folds of national athletes were significantly lower than those from average level group. Percentages of body fat, girth of forearm and calf, length of lower limbs, and skin-folds at sites of subscapular, abdominal and iliac crest of athletes from average level group were significantly higher than those in international athletes. Positive correlation was found between forearm girth and PB, and between the subscapular, abdominal, iliac crest and triceps surae skin-folds and PB for total athletes. Negative correlation between biiliac breadth and PB in international athletes, and positive correlations between abdominal and triceps surae skin-folds and PB in national athletes were found. For average runners, high positive correlation was found between upper arm girth and PB, and between subscapular, abdominal, iliac crest and triceps surae skin-folds and PB. The findings suggested that compared to stride length, stride frequency and efficiency were more important factors influencing running performance, which were in accordance with running technique in Chinese female marathoners. PMID:26987158

  7. Rapid deterioration of externally induced neuroplasticity in non-smoking subjects by nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica eGrundey; Nivethida eThirugnanasambandam; Kim eKaminsky; Anne eDrees; Angela eSkwirba; Nicolas eLang; Walter ePaulus; Nitsche, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    In various studies nicotine has been shown to alter cognitive functions in non-smoking subjects, which might be due to nicotine-generated modulation of cortical functions, excitability and activity, as mainly described in animal experiments. In non-smoking humans application of nicotine for hours via nicotine patch abolishes inhibitory plasticity both after cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) or paired associative stimulation (PAS-10). Excitatory anodal tDCS after-effects ...

  8. Rapid Effect of Nicotine Intake on Neuroplasticity in Non-Smoking Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Grundey, Jessica; Thirugnanasambandam, Nivethida; Kaminsky, Kim; Drees, Anne; Skwirba, Angela C; Lang, Nicolas; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    In various studies nicotine has shown to alter cognitive functions in non-smoking subjects. The physiological basis for these effects might be nicotine-generated modulation of cortical structure, excitability, and activity, as mainly described in animal experiments. In accordance, a recently conducted study demonstrated that application of nicotine for hours via nicotine patch in non-smoking humans alters the effects of neuroplasticity-inducing non-invasive brain stimulation techniques on cor...

  9. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-03-01

    Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility. PMID:26986137

  10. NaFeEDTA Fortified Soy Sauce Showed Higher Iron Absorption Rate in Chinese Females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN-SHENG HUO; XIAO-GUANG YANG; JIAN-HUA PIAO; JUN-QUAN GAO; HONG MIAO; Bo YU; CHENG-QIAN LU; JUN-SHI CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective NaFeEDTA was considered as a promising iron fortificant for controlling iron deficiency anemia. Soy sauce is a suitable food carrier for iron fortification and is a popular condiment in China. Iron absorption rates of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4were observed and compared in adult female subjects. Methods The stable isotope tracer method was used in Chinese females consuming a typical Chinese diet. Ten healthy young Chinese women were selected as subjects in the 15-day study. A plant-based diet was used based on the dietary pattern of adult women in the 1992 National Nutrition Survey. Six milligram of54Fe in 54FeSO4 soy sauce and 3 mg 58Fe in Na58FeEDTA soy sauce were given to the same subjects in two days. Food samples and fecal samples were collected and analyzed. Results Iron absorption rates of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 were 10.51%±2.83and 4.73%±2.15 respectively. The 58Fe (NaFeEDTA) absorption was significantly higher than that of 54Fe (FeSO4) (P<0.01).The iron absorption rate from NaFeEDTA was 1.2 times higher than that from FeSO4 in Chinese adult women consuming a typical Chinese diet. Conclusion The higher absorption rate of NaFeEDTA suggested that NaFeEDTA would be a better iron fortificant used in soy sauce for the controlling of iron deficiency anemia in China.

  11. Correlates of psychological distress, burnout, and resilience among Chinese female nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZOU, Guiyuan; SHEN, Xiuying; TIAN, Xiaohong; LIU, Chunqin; LI, Guopeng; KONG, Linghua; LI, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The present survey investigated the association between resilience, burnout and psychological distress among Chinese female nurses. A total of 366 female nurses were enrolled in our study. A series of self-reported questionnaires that dispose of the following constructs: psychological distress, burnout, and resilience were estimated. The hierarchical linear regression models were used to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Results of the survey showed 85.5% nurses experienced psychological distress. Resilience was negatively related to psychological distress and burnout whereas burnout was positively associated with psychological distress. Mediation analysis revealed that resilience could partially mediate the relationship between the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. This study highlights the mediator of resilience between burnout and psychological distress of female nurses. As such, interventions that attend to resilience training may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavors. PMID:27021058

  12. Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in Chinese female patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-ling ZHOU; Qiu-xiong LIN; Chuan-yue WANG; Wen-biao LI; Shu-guang LIN; Huan-de LI; Xin LI; Huai-yan PENG; Xi-yong YU; Ming YANG; Feng-li SU; Feng WANG; Rong-hua ZHU; Chun-yu DENG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the multiple dose clinical pharmacokinetics of risperidone and its main active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, in Chinese female patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The subjects were 23 Chinese female inpatients aged 18-65 years who met the CCMD-Ⅲ (third revision of the Chinese Criteria of Mental Disorders) criteria for schizophrenia. Subjects were tested after 17 d of treatment with 2 mg risperidone twice daily. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone were assayed by using validated high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) methods. Results: Risperidone was rapidly absorbed (Tmax was 1.6 h) and its Tin in plasma was short (3.2 h).9-hydroxy-risperidone was quickly metabolized from the parent drug with a mean Tmax of 2.5 h. It had a long half-life of 24.7 h. The Cssav of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were 36.9±33.1 and 110.6±30.5 μg·h·L-1, respectively, and the AUCss0-12 were 443.2±397.4 and 1327.2±402.3 μg·h·L-1, respectively. CL/F and V/F of risperidone were 8.7±6.2 L/h and 34.1±24.3 L, respectively. Interindividual variations for pharmacokinetic parameters were quite large for risperidone. All 23 subjects experienced high prolactin levels when treated with risperidone. However there was no correlation between prolactin level and the concentration of risperidone, 9-hydroxy-risperidone, or the active moiety. Conclusion: Risperidone showed large interindividual variations in pharmacokinetics. Administration of risperidone resulted in high serum prolactin levels. The results indicate that systemic exposure to risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone in female Chinese schizophrenic patients is higher relative to published data for white Caucasian patients. Larger studies regarding the PK/PD relationship may be required to develop a reasonable clinical dosage regimen for Chinese female patients.

  13. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284-0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202-0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  14. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    cai; de-pei

    2001-01-01

    In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.……

  15. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡德培; 季志英; 陈伯英; 张炜

    2001-01-01

    @@In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.

  16. The effect of obesity on spirometry tests among healthy non-smoking adults

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ghobain Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The effects of obesity on pulmonary functions have not been addressed previously among Saudi population. We aim to study the effects of obesity on spirometry tests among healthy non-smoking adults. Methods A cross sectional study conducted among volunteers healthy non-smoking adults Subjects. We divided the subjects into two groups according to their BMI. The first group consisted of non-obese subjects with BMI of 18 to 24.9 kg/m2 and the second group consisted of obese ...

  17. Comparative study on body shape satisfaction and body weight control between Korean and Chinese female high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Ro, Yoona; Hyun, Whajin

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare body shape satisfaction, body image perception, weight control status, and dietary habits of Korean and Chinese female high school students in order to provide information for proper body image perception of adolescents. 221 students in Yongin, a city in Korea, and 227 students in Weihai, a city in China, were surveyed using questionnaires. Body shape satisfaction was significantly higher in Chinese students (P < 0.001) compared to Korean students. 76.2% of...

  18. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Huang, Yu-Bei; Liu, Xue-Ou; Gao, Ying; Dai, Hong-Ji; Song, Feng-Ju; Li, Wei-Qin; Wang, Jing; Yan, Ye; Wang, Pei-Shan; Wang, Yao-Gang; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especially for Chinese females. Thus, we systematically searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort studies and 48 case-control studies) covering 17 provinces of China were finally included in this systematic review. Among Chinese females, there was significant association between passive smoking and this risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-1.85; I2 = 75.8%, P smoke in the workplace was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.50) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07-2.59), respectively. The OR of light and heavy passive smoking was 1.11 and 1.41, respectively, for women exposed to their husband's smoke (smoke in the workplace (passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and the risk seems to increase as the level of passive exposure to smoke increases among Chinese females. Women with passive exposure to smoke in the workplace have a higher risk of breast cancer than those exposed to their husband's smoking.

  19. Plasma antioxidant status in healthy smoking and non-smoking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraca, A; Skibska, B

    2005-01-01

    Human serum contains many different antioxidants which may be important in the maintenance of an antioxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between lipid peroxidation and total plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy smoking and non-smoking young and elderly subjects. Plasma concetrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were detected by HPLC. Additionally, in the in vitro experiments, the effects of exogenous compounds (ascorbic acid, uric acid, Trolox) on total ferric reducing activity of plasma were tested. We demonstrated that total antioxidant capacity of plasma obtained from healthy non-smoking young subjects was significantly higher than plasma antioxidant capacity of smoking elderly subjects. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) (p < 0.001) in young non-smoking volunteers was lower than that in young smokers. The concentration of TBARS in elderly non-smoking volunteers was lower than in elderly smokers. Plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were significantly lower in elderly smokers than in elderly non-smokers of same age. No difference in plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were found in 22-year-old smoking and non-smoking subjects. In vitro addition of ascorbic acid, uric acid, or Trolox to plasma samples significantly increased their total antioxidant capacity. Decrease of FRAP values and increase of TBARS concentra-' tions is a significant physiologic condition of aging process. Supplementation of antioxidants could be useful for the enhancement of plasma antioxidant status (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref: 35).

  20. A Case-control Study on Non-smoking Primary Lung Cancers in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei LIU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The incidence of lung cancer in non-smokers is increasing in recent years. The aim of this investigation is to explore main risk factors of non-smoking primary lung cancers in Sichuan province in order to provide more accurate data for clinical. Methods One hundred and fourty-five non-smoking pairs of cases and 145 of controls were matched by age and sex. The patients were newly-diagnosed definitely as primary lung cancer at West China Hospital of Sichuan University from March to December 2009. Results Seventeen exposure factors were explored as epidemic agents for non-smoking lung cancer in Sichuan by using univariate analysis; mutivariate conditional Logistic regression analysis showed that passive smoking, moved into newly renovated homes over the past 10 years, family cancer history from second/third-degree relatives, lack of emotion regulation, heavy work pressure and poor quality of sleep were main risk agents for the non-smoking lung cancer incidence with OR 2.267 (95%CI: 1.231-4.177, 5.080 (95%CI: 1.632-15.817, 7.937 (95%CI: 1.815-34.705, 2.491 (95%CI: 1.230-4.738, 5.769 (95%CI: 2.030-16.396, 2.538 (95%CI: 1.277-4.861, respectively. While higher body mass index, eating fruit and vegetable and regular participating in physical exercise might be protective factors with OR 0.419 (95%CI: 0.226-0.779, 0.344 (95%CI: 0.155-0.762, 0.507 (95%CI: 0.274-0.937, respectively. Conclusion The occurrence of non-smoking primary lung cancer associated with a variety of exposure factors including passive smoking, history of exposure to harmful environmental, family cancer history, mental and psychological factors in Sichuan Province.

  1. IFNG polymorphisms are associated with tuberculosis in Han Chinese pediatric female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Jiao, Wei-Wei; Feng, Wei-Xing; Wu, Xi-Rong; Xiao, Jing; Miao, Qing; Sun, Lin; Wang, Bin-Bin; Wang, Jing; Liu, Fang; Shen, Dan; Shen, A-Dong

    2013-09-01

    Host genetic factors play a major role in determining differential susceptibility to human tuberculosis (TB), a re-emerging infectious disease throughout the world. Genetic variations in the IFNG gene coding for interferon gamma (IFN-γ), have been identified in TB patients. To investigate the association of the IFNG polymorphisms with TB susceptibility in Chinese pediatric population. A case-control study of 189 TB patients and 164 controls was performed using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes in peripheral blood. Three SNPs of IFNG, including -1616C/T (rs2069705), +874A/T (rs2430561), and +3234C/T (rs2069718), were selected for genotyping and analysis. The +874A and +3234C alleles were more frequent among TB patients (P = 0.108 and P = 0.088), especially in females (both P = 0.029), although this difference was not significant since Bonferroni corrected significance threshold was 0.025 (two of three SNPs were found to be in linkage disequilibrium). More pronounced differences for the +874 and +3234 polymorphisms were found under the genotype comparison between TB cases and controls in the total population [P = 0.026 (borderline non-significance) and P = 0.020, respectively], and in the female subgroup (P = 0.020 and P = 0.020). The dominant model of inheritance was shown to be significant for +874A and +3234C alleles (both P = 0.019) in the female subgroup. The +874A and +3234C alleles were more frequently found in extrapulmonary TB patients than in controls (P = 0.039). Haplotype analysis carried out on these three SNPs showed the TTT haplotype to be more frequent in controls than in TB cases, and this difference showed a strong significance (P = 0.005). The +874A and +3234C alleles may be related to TB susceptibility in the female subgroup in the Chinese pediatric population of North China. The higher rate of +874A (known to correlate with lower IFN-γ expression) in the extrapulmonary

  2. Transferrin Sialylation in Smoking and Non-Smoking Pregnant Women with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniak, Marta; Kepinska, Marta; Bizoń, Anna; Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk, Ewa; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a glycosylated protein responsible for transporting iron. Various sialylation levels of Tf are observed during physiological and pathological processes. We studied if the changes in iron stores as well as tobacco smoke may have an impact on foetal development and in consequence lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester of pregnancy, lower levels of 4-sialoTf isoform and higher levels of 5-sialoTf were observed in the serum of non-smoking women with IUGR in comparison to the control group. On the day of labour, level of 2-sialoTf was significantly lower and level of 3-sialo was Tf higher in the serum of non-smoking women. Level of 4-sialo was found lower in the serum of smoking women with IUGR than in the control group. The observed changes may suggest a connection between iron stores, transport of iron to the foetus and foetal development.

  3. Work-family conflict and burnout among Chinese female nurses: the mediating effect of psychological capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout among nurses not only threatens their own health, but also that of their patients. Exploring risk factors of nurse’ burnout is important to improve nurses’ health and to increase the quality of health care services. This study aims to explore the relationship between work-family conflict and burnout among Chinese female nurses and the mediating role of psychological capital in this relationship. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed during the period of September and October 2010. A questionnaire that consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS, the work-family conflict scale and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24 scale, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to nurses in Liaoning province, China. A total of 1,332 individuals (effective response rate: 78.35% became our subjects. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of psychological capital. Results Both work interfering family conflict and family interfering work conflict were positively related with emotional exhaustion and cynicism. However, work interfering family conflict was positively related with professional efficacy whereas family interfering work conflict was negatively related with it. Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship of work interfering family conflict with emotional exhaustion and cynicism; and partially mediated the relationship of family interfering work conflict with emotional exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy. Conclusion Work-family conflict had effects on burnout and psychological capital was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Psychological capital was a positive resource for fighting against nurses’ burnout.

  4. Chinese female breast cancer patients show a better overall survival than their male counterparts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Liang-ping; ZHOU Fei-fei; GUO Gui-fang; WANG Fang; WANG Xi; YUAN Zhong-yu; ZHANG Bei

    2010-01-01

    Backgroud It is not clear if there is a difference in prognosis between male breast cancer (MBC) and female breast cancer (FBC) patients. The aim of this study was to compare the prognosis of MBC and FBC patients in China and the prognosis of MBC and their corresponding postmenopausal FBC patients.Methods Thirty-five MBC patients who were treated at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between 1969 and 2004 were enrolled in the study. Seventy FBC patients who were matched with the MBC patients for TNM stage, year of diagnosis, and age at diagnosis were simultaneously enrolled in the study. A second group comprising 18 MBC patients and their corresponding 36 matched postmenopausal FBC patients were also enrolled. The whole group and the postmenopausal groups were compared for five- and ten-year survivals. Results All the factors that could potentially affect prognosis were comparable among the groups except more FBC than MBC patients underwent endocrine therapy and a modified radical mastectomy. The 5- and 10-year survivals in the whole group were 81.6% and 60.3% for men and 90.7% and 73.5% for women (P=0.02). The 5- and 10-year survival in the postmenopausal group was 82.5% and 100% for men and 66.0% and 85.9% for women (P=0.159).Conclusions Chinese FBC patients had a better prognosis than Chinese MBC patients. However, MBC patients and their corresponding postmenopausal FBC patients had a similar prognosis.

  5. Olfactory and erectile dysfunction association in smoking and non-smoking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Süay; Dülger, Seyhan; Çoban, Soner; Özmen, Ömer Afşın; Güzelsoy, Muhammed; Dikiş, Özlem Şengören; Akdeniz, Önder

    2016-06-01

    The studies evaluating the effect of smoking on olfaction reveals opposite results. In vitro and animal studies and epidemiological evidence from volunteers and patients, demonstrated the association between olfaction and erectile functions. In smoking man the reduction of olfactory acuity could adversely affect sexuality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED) and olfactory dysfunction (OD) by comparing a group of healthy adult men with a group of smoking adult men. This prospective study involved 62 volunteers, who were recruited and divided into two groups; one consisted of 35 smoking adult men, and the other included 27 healthy non-smoking men. All participants in both groups were examined in detail for any condition with the potential to cause OD. They all had a normal genitourinary system suffered from no circulatory diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease nor hyperlipidemia; they had no history of medication affecting genitourinary system. Butanol threshold test and sniffin' stick® (Burghart, Wedel; Germany) screening test was used to asses olfactory functions in both groups. Participants' sexual desire was assessed using an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) scale. The means of sniffin' sticks scores, butanol threshold scores and IIEF-5 scores were statistically higher in non-smoking group. Butanol threshold scores and sniffin' sticks scores are correlated statistically with IIEF-5 in non-smoking and smoking groups. This study found an association between olfaction and erectile function in smoking and non-smoking men. As far as we know this study is the third published study to show the relationship olfactory and erectile function. In the future studies electrophysiological olfactory methods could be used to confirm in large cohorts the results obtained by the psychophysical approach. PMID:27037193

  6. Susceptibility to Smoking among Non-smoking East-Asian Youth: A Multilevel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    G. Emmanuel Guindon; Kathy Georgiades; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective - Among non-smoking youth in east-Asia, to estimate the extent to which susceptibility to smoking is associated with between-context differences (schools and classes) and to identify factors at school, class and individual levels that influence individual susceptibility to smoking. Methods - Cross-sectional data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in Cambodia (2002), Laos (2003) and Vietnam (2003) are used to conduct multilevel analyses that account for the nesting of stu...

  7. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females:a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Chen; Pei-Shan Wang; Yao-Gang Wang; Ke-Xin Chen; Yu-Bei Huang; Xue-Ou Liu; Ying Gao; Hong-Ji Dai; Feng-Ju Song; Wei-Qin Li; Jing Wang; Ye Yan

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especial y for Chinese females. Thus, we systematical y searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort studies and 48 case-control studies) covering 17 provinces of China were finally included in this systematic review. Among Chinese females, there was significant association between passive smoking and this risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-1.85; I2 = 75.8%, P < 0.001; n = 26] but no significant association between active smoking and the risk of breast cancer (OR:1.04;95%CI:0.89-1.20;I2=13.9%, P=0.248;n=31). The OR of exposure to husband’s smoking and to smoke in the workplace was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.50) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07-2.59), respectively. The OR of light and heavy passive smoking was 1.11 and 1.41, respectively, for women exposed to their husband’s smoke (<20 and≥20 cigarettes per day), and 1.07 and 1.87, respectively, for those exposed to smoke in the workplace (<300 and≥300 min of exposure per day). These results imply that passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and the risk seems to increase as the level of passive exposure to smoke increases among Chinese females. Women with passive exposure to smoke in the workplace have a higher risk of breast cancer than those exposed to their husband’s smoking.

  8. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Huang, Yu-Bei; Liu, Xue-Ou; Gao, Ying; Dai, Hong-Ji; Song, Feng-Ju; Li, Wei-Qin; Wang, Jing; Yan, Ye; Wang, Pei-Shan; Wang, Yao-Gang; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especially for Chinese females. Thus, we systematically searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort studies and 48 case-control studies) covering 17 provinces of China were finally included in this systematic review. Among Chinese females, there was significant association between passive smoking and this risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-1.85; I2 = 75.8%, P < 0.001; n = 26] but no significant association between active smoking and the risk of breast cancer (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.89-1.20; I2 = 13.9%, P = 0.248; n = 31). The OR of exposure to husband's smoking and to smoke in the workplace was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.50) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07-2.59), respectively. The OR of light and heavy passive smoking was 1.11 and 1.41, respectively, for women exposed to their husband's smoke (< 20 and ≥ 20 cigarettes per day), and 1.07 and 1.87, respectively, for those exposed to smoke in the workplace (< 300 and ≥ 300 min of exposure per day). These results imply that passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and the risk seems to increase as the level of passive exposure to smoke increases among Chinese females. Women with passive exposure to smoke in the workplace have a higher risk of breast cancer than those exposed to their husband's smoking. PMID:24823992

  9. Passive Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk among Non-Smoking Women: A Case-Control Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    Full Text Available The role of passive smoking on breast cancer risk was unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk among Chinese women.A hospital-based case-control study, including 877 breast cancer cases and 890 controls, frequency-matched by age and residence, was conducted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on passive smoking history through face-to-face interview by trained interviewers. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk. A positive association between any passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk was observed. Compared with women who were never exposed to passive smoking, women who were ever exposed had a higher breast cancer risk, with the adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.35 (1.11-1.65. Similar result was found on home passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk, but not on workplace passive smoking exposure. Women who were ever exposed to tobacco smoke at home had a higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed women, with the adjusted OR (95% CI of 1.30 (1.05-1.61. Home passive smoking exposure showed significant dose-response relationships with breast cancer risk in smoker-years, cigarettes/day and total pack-years (Ptrend=0.003, 0.006 and 0.009, respectively. An increased total smoker-years of any passive exposure significantly elevated the risk of breast cancer (Ptrend<0.001. Positive associations and dose-response relationships were found among postmenopausal women and all subtypes of estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR status of breast cancer.Passive smoking was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. A stronger positive association with breast cancer risk was seen mainly among postmenopausal women.

  10. Study on features of female fetal reproductive system development in Chinese northeast fine-wool sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunbo; ZHANG Guixue; HU Pengfei; HUANG He; ZHENG Peng; LI Wanhua

    2007-01-01

    Some charaterasics of female fetal reproductive system were studied in different gestation phases of Chinese northeast fine-wool sheep. The results showed that reproductive system consisted of ovary, oviduct, uterus and genitalia. The fetal ovaries were granular in early phase and became elliptic in later phase. The functional formula of ovarian weight, length and volume was obtained.Primary oocyte was encapsulated by monolayer cells in 7-week fetal ovary cortex. Primordial follicles were formed in 8-week fetal ovary, the follicular cells were sporadically arranged and not always regular. Complete organization of primordial follicles appeared until 10-week gestation, most of them scattered in nests in the following weeks of gestation. Two types of follicular complexes were found in fetal. There were continuous and quick mitosis of oogonia in fetal ovaries, large complexes were formed by oogoniaes encapsulated by multilayer of follicular cells, then they differentiated into small complexes, one or more primary oocytes were formed by mitosis of oogonia, primordial follicles which were caused by follicular cell approaching into them developed.

  11. Stereoselectivity in metabolic 3-reduction of tibolone in healthy Chinese female volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming ZUO; Ming-jie GAO; Zhen LIU; Lei CAI; Geng-li DUAN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the stereoselectivity in human metabolic 3-reduction oftibolone. Methods: Twenty healthy Chinese female volunteers were given a singleoral dose of tibolone (2.5 mg), and serial blood samples were collected aftertreatment. The plasma concentrations of the two pharmacologically active 3-hydroxyl metabolites of tibolone, 3α-hydroxyl-7-methyl- norethynodrel (3α-HMN)and 3β-hydroxyl-7-methyl- norethynodrel (3β-HMN) in plasma were determinedby using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method.Results: The apparent elimination half-life (T1/2) of 3α-HMN was 1.43±0.52 h, andthat of 3β-HMN was 1.53±0.60 h. Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) werefound to be 8.75±4.36 μg/L for 3α-HMN and 3.59±1.81 μg/L for 3β-HMN. Areash-1. L-1 for 3α-HMN and 9.89±4.93 μg.h-1. L-1 for 3β-HMN. Conclusion: Stereoselective differences exist in the pharmacokinetics of tibolone metabolism in humans.

  12. Changes in respiratory function after one and three hours of exposure to formaldehyde in non-smoking subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, F; Mlynek, J S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the changes in respiratory function within one hour and three hours of exposure to formaldehyde and investigate the relation between exposure to formaldehyde and acute changes in respiratory function. METHOD: Respiratory function of 50 non-smoking medical students exposed to formaldehyde in a gross anatomy laboratory were compared with respiratory function of 36 non-exposed, non-smoking physiotherapy students. Formaldehyde concentrations were measured in the breathing ...

  13. Salivary alcohol dehydrogenase in non-smoking and smoking alcohol-dependent persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Jelski, Wojciech; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-09-01

    Increasing attention to the importance of saliva testing is not surprising because smoking and alcohol drinking act synergistically on oral tissues, and their metabolite levels, e.g., acetaldehyde, are much higher in saliva than in blood. The activity of salivary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) comes from oral microbiota, mucosa, and salivary glands. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of ADH in the oral health pathology of smoking (AS) and non-smoking (ANS) alcohol-dependent males. The results indicated that the AS group had a more significant and longer duration (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence) decrease in ADH activity and output than the ANS group (until the 15th day of alcohol abstinence) compared to controls (social drinkers; C). The decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcoholics was observed longer in the ANS group (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence), whereas in the AS group SF normalized at the 15th day, probably due to the irritating effect of tobacco smoke on the oral mucosa. Because saliva was centrifuged to remove cells and debris (including microbial cells), the detected salivary ADH activity was derived from salivary glands and/or oral mucosa. A more profound and longer decrease in ADH activity/output in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics was likely due to the damaged salivary glands and/or oral mucosa, caused by the synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and smoking. The lower values of salivary ADH in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics might also be partly due to the reversed/inhibited ADH reaction by high levels of accumulated acetaldehyde.

  14. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona C Fang

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in public multi-unit housing (MUH is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear.We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD 0.02 ng/ml and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng. Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine.Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively. Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml, with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%. TSE in the home, car, and other peoples' homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15-0.25, while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161, a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6% compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4% (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3 (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%.Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population.

  15. Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Mianbu Mix-fang Is Effective in Treating Immunological Infertility: a Female Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王望九; 汤明礼; 李笑梅; 陈永华; 产美英; 胡德宝; 戴宁; 黄震; 孔梅

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the therapeutic effectivess of Traditional Chinese Medicinecompound mixture Mianbu Fang (Immunological infertility therapy) on immunologi-cal infertility caused by antisperm antibody (AsAb) in female mice.Materials & Methods Forty-two female Kunming mice were evenly divided into 7groups by weight. Group A was control group; Group B was model of infertility.Group C, D and E were fed with normal, half and double dosage of Mianbu Ⅰ respec-tively. Group F and G were fed with Mianbu Ⅱ and prednisone Acetates respectively.Animal model of immunological infertility were set up by injecting mice sperm to theother 36 Kunming female mice except Group A. The AsAb levels in serum, cervicalmucus were measured, the histological and immunohistochemistry changes in ovary andendometrium were observed, and the pregnancy indexes were compared in differentgroups.Results Compared with the infertility model group, the AsAb level in serum andcervical mucus in treatment group was lower. Less immune compounds in ovary andendometrium and atretic follicle of ovary was found in treatment group than in modeland control group. The immune compounds in ovary and endometrium were less in thetreatment group than that in the model and control group.Conclusion By regulating immunological system, Traditional Chinese Medicinecompound mixfang Mianbu Fang lowers AsAb in the circulation system and specialorgans, eliminates immunological compound, repairs tissue impairment and increases pregnancy of female mice.

  16. Analysis of female nasal characteristics in Chinese beautiful Han's females%中国美貌汉族女性鼻部特征的测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖青; 米丛波; 李运科; 宋美云; 杨川

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on nose characteristics of beautiful Chinese Han nationality female was established for diagnosis and treatment of aesthetic plastic surgery. OBJECTIVE: To explore nose aesthetic features of Chinese Han nationality beauty female through the measurement of 30 beautiful Chinese Han nationality females. METHODS: 30 cases of anteroposteriorfemale and lateral star photos were selected from fashion magazines, movies, TV series and 16 external nose indexes from 30 Chinese beautiful females were measured by using photoshop CS 3.0 software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The external nose height, length, width, depth, and the proportion related to aesthetics and anatomical data from stars were obtained, it included: nose wide/nose long=1: 1.15, the nose deep/nose wide=1: 2, the nose wide/ the angular distance=1: 0.94, nose wide/quarrel spacing=1: 1.43, and the ratio was relate with each other. The results shows that the ratio between labial groove spacing with nose width of Chinese beauty female is close to golden ratio 1:0.618, and the external nose relative face is not outstanding.%背景:目前,鼻外型的美学指标尚不统一建立中国美貌汉族女性鼻部特征的数据库,可以为美容整形治疗计划的制定提供理论依据.目的:对公众广泛接受的30例中国美貌汉族女性的鼻部特征进行了测量,观察中国美貌汉族女性鼻部的美学特征.方法:选取30例时尚杂志、电影、电视剧中美女明星的正、侧位脸型的照片,利用photoshop CS 3.0软件对30例中国美貌汉族女性的16个外鼻指标进行测量分析.结果与结论:实验获得明星外鼻的长度、宽度、高度、深度和相关比例等多组美学、解剖学数据,包括:鼻宽-鼻长比为1∶1.15,鼻深-鼻宽比为1∶2,鼻宽-内眦间距比为1∶0.94,鼻宽-口角间距比为1∶1.43,且各比例相互间有一定相关性.结果证实,中国美貌女性鼻唇沟间距与鼻宽之比接近黄金比1∶0.618,外鼻相对面部不够突出.

  17. A Survey on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviors in Chinese Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To get information in the sexual and contraceptive behaviors in Chinese female college students, a randomized cluster sampling was conducted in colleges and universities in Wuhan Area,China, in terms of types of colleges, subjects (literature, sciences, medicines, art etc), and grades etc.A total number of 2450 questionnaires were distributed, with 2365 questionnaires returned being valid. The return rate of valid questionnaires was 96.6%. The questionnaire investigation was conducted on a multiple-choice and anonymous basis. Data were input into computer and SPSS12.0software package was employed for statistical analysis. Among the female students, 1196 had the experiences of hugging and kissing (50.57%) and 423 (17.89%) had sexual experiences (sexual intercourse). The first sexual intercourse took place at the age of 19.23±1.74 y. There were significant differences in the sexual experiences among the majors of different subjects, with the rate of sexual experiences in art majors (43.17%) and high-grade students (34.31%) being the highest. The causes of the first sexual intercourse included sexual impulse, curiosity, intention to strengthen the relationship or to show loyalty to boyfriend and sometimes violence. While the motives of the sexual intercourse within the past one year before the investigation were to satisfy the sexual needs and to strengthen the relation with their boyfriends. With both first intercourse and sexual experiences within last one year,the partners of the sexual intercourse were mainly their boyfriends (95.7% and 97.3% respectively),but the partners also included acquaintances, "one night stand" partners and customers of sex trade.Some of them had multiple sexual partners, with the highest number of the sexual partners being 11.In the first sexual intercourse of the subjects, 44.0% of them did not take any contraceptive measures;only 16.4 % of them used condoms. In the sexual intercourse within the last one year, only 44.6%took

  18. Women on Women Femininity and Independence in the Work of Chinese Contemporary Female Artists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jade; Franklin

    2007-01-01

    ■The history of China, as seen through the eyes of a Chinese woman, would no doubt present a very different story to that which we are accustomed to. The centuries of oppression endured by Chinese women were ratified by the teachings of Confucius which assert that

  19. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and its Non-Smoking Risk Factors in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Gagandeep Kaur; Vellakkal, Remya; Gupta, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    The rising prevalence of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is generally attributed to smoking, since the role of other risk factors among non-smokers are not well established especially in low and middle income countries like India. This is also reflected by the limited literature available on non-smoking related COPD risk factors like indoor and outdoor air pollution. The present review is an attempt to assess the influence of non-smoking risk factors on COPD and its measures in Indian subcontinent. The most noteworthy factors among non-smokers appear to be the use of biomass fuel for cooking and heating purposes. We observed that the studies undertaken to evaluate the role of such risk factors are inconclusive due to weak methodologies and small sample sizes, may be due to limited financial resources. The present review suggests the need of a nationally representative study to estimate the effect of each of the potential modifiable risk factor (other than smoking) for framing impactful public health policies to prevent and manage COPD at community and population level in India.

  20. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked and non-smoked black teas and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincemaille, Justine; Schummer, Claude; Heinen, Eric; Moris, Gilbert

    2014-02-15

    This study describes the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked tea and tea infusions, via the monitoring of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene (PAH4) that have been chosen as indicators for the occurrence of PAHs in food by the European Food Safety Agency. The concentrations ranged from 1.2 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene to 125.0 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene in smoked tea leaves, and from 0.6 μg/L for benzo(a)anthracene to 1.2 μg/L for benzo(b)fluoranthene in smoked tea infusions. Benzo(a)pyrene was never detected in infusions. The concentrations in non-smoked tea leaves ranged from 0.6 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene to 10.8 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene. It was shown that the concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene were higher in smoked tea than in non-smoked tea while no difference was observed for benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. The concentrations of PAHs in tea infusions are low compared to other foodstuffs, but the migration rates from leaves into water are high (82-123%).

  1. User Experience of Office Chairs and Anthropometrics of Female Chinese and Hong Kong Chinese Office and Factory Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitenbach, E.F.R.; Jochems, A.J.; Molenbroek, J.F.M.; Ball, R.; Eijk, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    In Hong Kong it was noticed that female office and factory workers use chairs that are oversized and can't support their sitting posture in a comfortable way. In order to set up general recommendations to design a more appropriate office chair, a research of the user experience of office chairs was

  2. Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Hospitality Workers Before and After a State Smoking Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A.; Schillo, Barbara A.; Moilanen, Molly M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3000 cancer deaths per year. While several countries and states in the U.S. have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of non-smoking employees (N=24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking prior to the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  3. Rapid deterioration of externally induced neuroplasticity in non-smoking subjects by nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eGrundey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In various studies nicotine has been shown to alter cognitive functions in non-smoking subjects, which might be due to nicotine-generated modulation of cortical functions, excitability and activity, as mainly described in animal experiments. In non-smoking humans application of nicotine for hours via nicotine patch abolishes inhibitory plasticity both after cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS or paired associative stimulation (PAS-10. Excitatory anodal tDCS after-effects were reduced whereas excitatory PAS-25 was prolonged. These results are compatible with the view that prolonged nicotine administration facilitates focal synapse-specific excitatory plasticity as induced with excitatory PAS as focusing effect. However, since nicotine receptors undergo rapid adaption processes within minutes, the results cannot distinguish between an impact of the substance alone or a compensatory receptor adaption. Thus in the present study we replicated the experiments however using nicotine spray, which enhances blood concentration of nicotine within minutes. 48 non-smokers received nicotine spray respectively placebo spray combined with either facilitatory or inhibitory tDCS or PAS. Corticospinal excitability was monitored via motor-evoked potentials elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Nicotine spray abolished all types of plasticity except synapse-unspecific non-focal tDCS-derived excitability reduction, which was delayed and also weakened. Thus, the effects of short-term nicotine application differ from those of prolonged nicotine application, which might be due to missing adaptive nicotinic receptor alterations. These results enhance our knowledge about the dynamic impact of nicotine on plasticity, which might be relevant to its heterogeneous effect on cognition.

  4. I Am the Invincible Sword Goddess: Mediatization of Chinese Gender Ideology through Female Kung-Fu Practitioners in Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Hiramoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The media are avid portrayers of gender binarism and the belief in male-female distinctions, which are mainly attributed to perceived differences of a physical nature. In this paper, we investigate representations of female kung-fu practitioners (nuxia in films to discuss how processes of mediation and mediatization depict their femininity, so as to mitigate their appropriation of Chinese martial arts masculinity. Often, nuxias are portrayed as empowered women who are equipped to take control of their own lives and to courageously take on challenges from a variety of opponents. However, multimodal deconstruction of the various characteristics of nuxias must be placed in an Asian-specific context in order to understand the femininity specific to these characters and to move beyond Western gender ideologies displayed by the media. Perpetuating Confucian patriarchal ideals, nuxia roles constantly and consistently associate conformation to Confucian values with virtuousness and non-conformation with wickedness. We therefore can use the ideals of Confucianism as a more accurate foundation in deconstructing the identities of nuxias, which allows us to better understand the mediation and mediatization processes of ideologies associated with Chinese femininity and masculinity in martial arts films.

  5. Do Not Cry for Me, Confucius: The Reconstruction of Chinese Female Identity During the Cultural Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Chinese women were portrayed as delicate and submissive. The most famous proverbs prevailed in imperial China were “A woman without knowledge is a woman of virtue” and “It is the law of nature that woman should be held under the dominance of man.” Indeed, the rule of surviving in a society for any ancient Chinese women was “three obedience and four virtues”: a woman had to be obedient to her father before marriage, to her husband after marriage and to her son after her husband's d...

  6. Cutural Predictors of Self-Esteem: A Study of Chinese American Female and Male Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen

    2001-01-01

    Domains of cultural orientation such as language, social affiliation, and cultural pride, were examined in Chinese American college students (N=353) to see how they related to self-esteem. Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem differences. Cultural predictors of self-esteem varied by gender; self-esteem was mainly related to…

  7. 'One cigarette for you and one for me': Children of smoking and non-smoking parents during pretend play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Verhagen, M.; Wit, C. de; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether perceived parental smoking is related to pretend smoking in young children and whether children influence each other in pretend smoking. Methods Children who reported to have at least one smoking parent were coupled with children who had non-smoking parents. Both ch

  8. Non-smoking and non-drinking patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a distinct population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farshadpour, F.; Hordijk, G.J.; Koole, R.; Slootweg, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To recognize specific clinicopathological characteristics of non-smoking and non-drinking (NSND) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. This can increase our knowledge regarding a potentially different carcinogenesis in these patients. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: Retrospective

  9. Association analysis between HOXD9 genes and the development of developmental dysplasia of the hip in Chinese female Han population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH is a congenital or acquired deformation or misalignment of the hip joint which affects mainly females. We hypothesized that HOXD9 gene could be regulated in acetabular size or shape and related in DDH developing. Methods Two hundred and nine Chinese Han female DDH patients and 173 ethnic, age matched healthy female controls were genotyped for HOXD9 two tag SNPs using sequenom method. Results One of the two tag SNPs, rs711822, was not shown significantly differences in genotypic or allelic distribution between case and control group. Comparing the genotypic distribution of rs711819, there was significant differences between DDH patients group and control group (χ2 = 7.54, df =2, P =0.023, and the association to DDH developing reached significance (P =0.045, OR =1.79, 95 % CI: 1.01-3.17 by dominant mode. Conclusion In conclusion, the association between one tag SNP of HOXD9 gene and the development of DDH reach significant in our study population, this result indicate the positive correlation between HOXD9 gene and DDH developing. Further study in larger sample size and different population as well as functional studies will help to understand the pathogenesis of DDH.

  10. Female Specific Association between NNMT Gene and Schizophrenia in a Han Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guo-Xia; Zhang, Yong; Lv, Zhuang-wei; Sun, Mao; Wu, Dan; Chen, Xin-Yu; Wu, Yuan-ming

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that alterations in one carbon metabolism might play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SZ). Nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is one of the key enzymes of one-carbon metabolism. To examine whether NNMT gene was associated with SZ in Han Chinese population, we selected seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NNMT gene, and investigated its association with SZ from a cohort of 42 SZ patients and 86 healthy controls by Mass-ARRA...

  11. Dose conversion coefficients for Chinese reference adult male and female voxel phantoms from idealized neutron exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Huan; Qiu, Rui; Yang, Yue; Pan, Yu-Xi; Liu, Li-Ye

    2015-01-01

    A new set of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the Chinese reference adult voxel phantoms CRAM and CRAF are presented for six idealized external neutron exposures from 10-8 MeV to 20 MeV. The voxel phantoms CRAM and CRAF were adjusted from the previous phantoms CNMAN and CNWM respectively, and the masses of individual organs have been adjusted to the Chinese reference data. The calculation of organ-absorbed doses and effective doses were performed with the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX. The resulting dose conversion coefficients were compared with those published in ICRP Publication 116, which represents the reference Caucasian. The organ-absorbed dose conversion coefficients of most organs are in good agreement with the results in ICRP Publication 116, however, obvious discrepancies are observed for some organs and certain geometries. For neutrons with energies above 2 MeV, the effective dose conversion coefficients of Chinese reference adult are almost identical to those of ICRP Publicatio...

  12. Analysis on the Educational Background of Chinese Female Academicians%中国女院士的教育背景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 李斌

    2014-01-01

    Science education is the necessary soil for the generation of Chinese female scientific groups.Female academicians mark the peak of the women image in sciences.Taking Chinese female academicians as an example,this paper tries to focus on clarifying the educational growth trajectory of female academicians of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Chinese Academy of Engineering and Aca-demia Sinica in (Taiwan),in order to provide the reference for the contemporary women's education in science,the women's education of science and technology in the modern and contemporary age,and show the whole overall style of female academicians.%科学教育是中国女性科学群体产生的必要土壤,女院士是女性科学形象的高峰标志。文章以中国女院士群体为样本,试图厘清中国科学院、工程院与台湾中央研究院女院士的教育成长轨迹,以期为现当代女子科技教育提供借鉴参考,展示我国女院士的整体风采。

  13. Meta Analysis of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Lung Cancer Risk of Non-smoking Women of China%中国非吸烟女性环境烟草烟雾暴露与肺癌风险的 Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑞敏; 孙德俊; 许莉; 高丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective to explore the relationship between environment tobacco smoke exposure among non-smoking women in China and lung cancer risk. Methods we collected case-control studys on ETS exposure among Chinese non-smoking women and lung cancer risk. The quality of included case-control studies were evaluated and Meta analysis was conducted. Results 12 articles were included, total cases3963 and controls 4878.Combined results showed that ETS exposure among Chinese non-smoking women were found to be significantly associated with lung cancer ris, which combined OR(95%CI)were1.33(1.20-1.47). Conclusion ETS was a significant risk of lung cancer among Chinese non-smoking women.%目的:分析中国非吸烟女性环境烟草烟雾暴露(environmental tobacco smoke,ETS)与肺癌发生危险之间的关系。方法纳入有关中国非吸烟女性 ETS 暴露与肺癌发生关联的病例-对照研究,对纳入研究的质量进行评价,并进行 Meta 分析。结果最终纳入12篇文献,累计肺癌病例3963例,对照4878例,合并分析结果显示 ETS 暴露与非吸烟女性肺癌发生的关联有统计学意义,合并 OR(95%CI)值为1.33(1.20-1.47)。结论 ETS 是中国非吸烟女性肺癌发生的重要危险因素。

  14. Differences in Lifestyle of a Smoking and Non-smoking Population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yosuke; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Umeda, Takashi; Sugawara, Kazuo; Liu, Qiang; Sakamoto, Juichi

    2000-01-01

    If smokers have different lifestyle including dietary habit in comparison to non-smokers, this difference have an influence on the evaluation of the risks of smoking for tobacco-related diseases or the design of anti-smoking campaigns. In Japan, 1,745 men over the age of 40 were surveyed regarding health consciousness in 1996 and 2,136 men between the ages of 50 and 65 were surveyed regarding dietary habits in 1993-1994. Comparative analysis was done among the smoking and non-smoking groups. The rate of participation in cancer mass-screening for smokers was significantly lower than for non-smokers. Smokers had consumed significantly lower amounts of vegetables, fruits and beans, which are well known beneficial factors for health than non-smokers, and had consumed more salt, salty food and alcohol, which are well known risk factors for health. It is suggested that smokers have disadvantageous characteristics for promoting and maintaining a healthy lifestyle more than in non-smokers. Accordingly, to evaluate the risk of smoking for tobacco-related diseases in epidemiological researches, we should properly treat these data as confounding factors. Furthermore, anti-smoking campaigns should be performed considering these differences. PMID:12718672

  15. [Activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase in blood of smoking and non-smoking smelters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Bizoń, Anna; Stasiak, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    The liver is the critical organ in the case of a long-term occupational or environmental exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke. In diagnostics of liver damage useful are the methods which determine the activity of enzymes such as gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT). GGT is present in the liver and bile duct. In the serum is mainly from hepatic. Clinical studies have shown that GGT is highly sensitive indicator of liver damage. Increased activity is observed in acute and chronic liver disease, biliary tract, pancreas. Strong stimulus of growth in serum is alcohol consumption, exposure to heavy metals (including lead, cadmium), dioxins and pesticides. The aim of this research was to assess the influence of occupational exposure of copper-foundry workers to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead) on activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase in blood. The investigations were performed in blood and urine of 166 subjects: 101 male copper smelters and 65 non-exposed male subjects. The study protocol was approved by Local Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (KB No: 469/2008). The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentration. Biological material collected from the control group and the smelter workers was divided into groups of non-smokers, those who smoked less than 20 cigarettes a day and those who smoked 20 or more than 20 cigarettes a day. The concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined in whole blood, whilst the level of arsenic was determined in urine. The activities of GGT were determined in blood. We have observed a significant increase in the concentrations of lead, cadmium and arsenic in blood and urine of persons from control group who smoked 20 or over 20 cigarettes a day in comparison to the non-smoking persons from control group, which suggest, that tobacco smoking increase the heavy metals concentrations in the organisms. The results showed a 9-fold

  16. [Activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizoń, Anna; Stasiak, Karolina; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2010-01-01

    increase in the concentration of lead and 10-fold elevation of arsenic level in all groups of smelters in comparison to the control group. The highest cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations were observed in blood and urine of smoking smelters. We have observed a significant increase in the concentrations of lead and cadmium in blood of smoking persons from control group in comparison to the non-smoking persons from this group, which suggest, that tobacco smoking increase the heavy metals concentrations in the organisms. Occupational exposure to heavy metals resulted in an increase of AAP activity in blood and urine of all groups of smelters in comparison to corresponding control groups. The highest value of AAP was observed in serum and urine of smoking smelters. Tobacco smoke also increases the AAP activity the blood and urine of smoking smelters and control group compared to the non-smoking smelters and nonsmoking control group, appropriate. The study was shown that occupational exposure to heavy metals and tobacco. PMID:21360924

  17. Effect of Duration of Exposure to Cement Dust on Respiratory Function of Non-Smoking Cement Mill Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Al Masri, Abeer A.; Al Rouq, Fawzia; Azeem, Muhammad Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of long term exposure to cement dust on lung function in non-smoking cement mill workers. This is a cross-sectional study of respiratory functions. Spirometry was performed in 100 apparently healthy volunteers; 50 non-smoking cement mill workers and 50 non-smoking un-exposed subjects. Based on the duration of exposure, cement mill workers were divided into three groups, less than 5, 5–10 and greater than 10 years. All subjects were individually matched for age, height, weight, and socioeconomic status. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic spirometer. Significant reduction was observed in the mean values of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) and Maximal Voluntary Ventilation in cement mill workers who had been working in the cement industry for more than 10 years compared to their matched un-exposed group. Lung functions in cement mill workers were significantly impaired and results show a long term duration response effect of years of exposure to cement dust on lung functions. PMID:23325026

  18. Effect of Duration of Exposure to Cement Dust on Respiratory Function of Non-Smoking Cement Mill Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Al Rouq

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of long term exposure to cement dust on lung function in non-smoking cement mill workers. This is a cross-sectional study of respiratory functions. Spirometry was performed in 100 apparently healthy volunteers; 50 non-smoking cement mill workers and 50 non-smoking un-exposed subjects. Based on the duration of exposure, cement mill workers were divided into three groups, less than 5, 5–10 and greater than 10 years. All subjects were individually matched for age, height, weight, and socioeconomic status. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic spirometer. Significant reduction was observed in the mean values of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1, Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF and Maximal Voluntary Ventilation in cement mill workers who had been working in the cement industry for more than 10 years compared to their matched un-exposed group. Lung functions in cement mill workers were significantly impaired and results show a long term duration response effect of years of exposure to cement dust on lung functions.

  19. Evaluation the susceptibility of five polymorphisms in microRNA-binding sites to female breast cancer risk in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bang-Shun; Pan, Yu-Qin; Lin, Kang; Ying, Hou-Qun; Wang, Feng; Deng, Qi-Wen; Sun, Hui-Ling; Gao, Tian-Yi; Wang, Shu-Kui

    2015-11-15

    Polymorphisms in microRNA (miRNA) binding site have been widely discussed to be associated with cancer risk; however, the associations were unclear in Chinese population. To investigate the associations of five polymorphisms (rs11097457, rs1434536, rs1970801, rs1044129, rs11169571) in miRNA binding sites with breast cancer risk, a total of 435 female patients with breast cancer and 439 age- and gender-matched tumor-free individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. Sequenom MassARRAY was applied to detect the polymorphisms, and the immunohistochemistry assay was used to measure the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and CerbB-2. The data showed that these polymorphisms were not associated with breast cancer risk or clinical characters of breast cancer in all participants and sub-group with the exception that, in the sub-group of women with their first menstruation after 14 years old, those who carried rs1970801 T allele (genotype TT/GT) were associated with decreased breast cancer risk. In short, this case-control study provided the evidence that women with their first menstruation after 14 years old and carried rs1970801 T allele (genotype TT/GT) were associated with decreased breast cancer risk.

  20. Acute nicotine improves social decision-making in non-smoking but not in smoking schizophrenia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charel eQuisenaerts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia patients are characterized by severe social impairments. Recently, social cognition has been put forward as an important mediator in schizophrenia between the often-reported neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome and is thus an important target for treatments. Nicotine has been reported to improve neurocognitive processes in schizophrenia patients but no studies have investigated possible nicotine-induced facilitation of social cognition. The current placebo-controlled crossover study aimed at bridging this gap by investigating whether the administration of active (1 mg or 2 mg or placebo oromucosal nicotine spray resulted in improved social decision-making in non-smoking (N=15 and smoking (N=16 schizophrenia patients. All patients played the role of responder in a variant of the ultimatum game that allowed detailed measurements of fairness and intentionality considerations. The results showed impaired social decision-making in the non-smoking patients under placebo, but not in the smoking patients. Interestingly, this impairment normalized after administration of 1 mg of nicotine, but not after 2 mg of nicotine. Nicotine had no effect on performance in the smoking patients. The present study indicates that nicotine improves social decision-making in non-smoking patients. The present results suggest that acute nicotine effects may result in a facilitation of proactive control through improved attentional processes. However, the efficacy seems limited and although nicotine may thus be an interesting target for (socialcognitive enhancement in the subset of patients that do not smoke, more research is needed on the long-lasting effects of nicotine-based treatments.

  1. Effects of 8-Week Hatha Yoga Training on Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy, Female Chinese Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neng; Xia, Xianghou; Han, Shufen; Wang, Guiping; Zhang, Ru

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of an 8 wk Hatha yoga training on blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, endothelial microparticles (EMPs), and inflammatory status in healthy, lean, and female Chinese subjects. A total of 30 healthy, female Chinese subjects were recruited and randomized into control or yoga practice group. The yoga practice included 8 wks of yoga practice (2 times/wk) for a total of 16 times. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after yoga training. Plasma was isolated for the measurement of lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, EMPs, and inflammatory cytokines. Whole blood was cultured ex vivo and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3Cys-SK4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for the measurement of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression. Yoga practice significantly reduced plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and CD31+/CD42b− EMPs. Cultured whole blood from the yoga group has reduced proinflammatory cytokines secretion both at unstimulated condition and when stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4; this might be associated with reduced TLR2 protein expression in PBMCs after yoga training. Hatha yoga practice in healthy Chinese female subjects could improve hallmarks related to MetS; thus it can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the primary MetS prevention for the healthy population. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOR-14005747.

  2. Effects of 8-Week Hatha Yoga Training on Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy, Female Chinese Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the effects of an 8 wk Hatha yoga training on blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, endothelial microparticles (EMPs, and inflammatory status in healthy, lean, and female Chinese subjects. A total of 30 healthy, female Chinese subjects were recruited and randomized into control or yoga practice group. The yoga practice included 8 wks of yoga practice (2 times/wk for a total of 16 times. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after yoga training. Plasma was isolated for the measurement of lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, EMPs, and inflammatory cytokines. Whole blood was cultured ex vivo and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and Pam3Cys-SK4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated for the measurement of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression. Yoga practice significantly reduced plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and CD31+/CD42b− EMPs. Cultured whole blood from the yoga group has reduced proinflammatory cytokines secretion both at unstimulated condition and when stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4; this might be associated with reduced TLR2 protein expression in PBMCs after yoga training. Hatha yoga practice in healthy Chinese female subjects could improve hallmarks related to MetS; thus it can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the primary MetS prevention for the healthy population. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOR-14005747.

  3. Air quality, mortality, and economic benefits of a smoke - free workplace law for non-smoking Ontario bar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repace, J; Zhang, B; Bondy, S J; Benowitz, N; Ferrence, R

    2013-04-01

    We estimated the impact of a smoke-free workplace bylaw on non-smoking bar workers' health in Ontario, Canada. We measured bar workers' urine cotinine before (n = 99) and after (n = 91) a 2004 smoke-free workplace bylaw. Using pharmacokinetic and epidemiological models, we estimated workers' fine-particle (PM2.5 ) air pollution exposure and mortality risks from workplace secondhand smoke (SHS). workers' pre-law geometric mean cotinine was 10.3 ng/ml; post-law dose declined 70% to 3.10 ng/ml and reported work hours of exposure by 90%. Pre-law, 97% of workers' doses exceeded the 90th percentile for Canadians of working age. Pre-law-estimated 8-h average workplace PM2.5 exposure from SHS was 419 μg/m(3) or 'Very Poor' air quality, while outdoor PM2.5 levels averaged 7 μg/m(3) , 'Very Good' air quality by Canadian Air Quality Standards. We estimated that the bar workers' annual mortality rate from workplace SHS exposure was 102 deaths per 100000 persons. This was 2.4 times the occupational disease fatality rate for all Ontario workers. We estimated that half to two-thirds of the 10620 Ontario bar workers were non-smokers. Accordingly, Ontario's smoke-free law saved an estimated 5-7 non-smoking bar workers' lives annually, valued at CA $50 million to $68 million (US $49 million to $66 million).

  4. Gonad maturity in female Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis from the southern Baltic Sea – the first description of ovigerous females and the embryo developmental stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Wójcik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes for the first time the gonad maturity stage of Eriocheir sinensis females (carapace width 55.20–78.10 mm collected in the autumns and winters of 2005–2012 in the Gulf of Gdańsk and Vistula Lagoon (southern Baltic Sea. Seventeen females had gonads in the penultimate stage, which indicates that spawning would shortly take place. Four other females had gonads in the last stage, which means they were already carrying eggs. These accounted, on average, for 17.9 ± 2.9% of female weight and were in the 3rd and 4th embryo developmental stage. The results show that the low salinity of southern Baltic Sea (≤ 7 PSU permits mating and fertilization as well as embryo development in E. sinensis. It is still not clear, whether such a salinity level will enable hatching and the complete larval cycle.

  5. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, M.J.; Russell, M.A.; Feyerabend, C.; Eiser, J.R.; Morgan, M.; Gammage, P.; Gray, E.M.

    1985-10-05

    Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health.

  6. Reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunseri, A J; Alberti, J M; Kent, N D; Schoenberger, J A; Sunseri, J K; Amuwo, S; Vickers, P

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes. The school-home humanistic education program was implemented in a large, urban public school system. It stressed responsible decision-making, increased self-esteem and the inter-relationships among the acquisition of knowledge of the consequences of smoking, personal feelings, family relationships and behavior. The results showed that family involvement was necessary to affect smoking attitudes and behaviors. Of all the variables studied, reading had a most pervasive relationship. Peer influence and self-esteem also were related to smoking knowledge, smoking attitude, future smoking intentions and the "purchase" of cigarettes. Two of several conclusions drawn from the results are: 1. Family involvement is necessary to affect attitudes and behaviors. 2. Health education research that does not investigate the relationship between program outcomes and reading achievement may be misleading. PMID:6552341

  7. Oxidative DNA damage estimated by urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and indoor air pollution among non-smoking office employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Ma, Yee-Chung; Lin, Jia-Min; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated whether urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of oxidative stress, was associated with indoor air quality for non-smokers in high-rise building offices. With informed consents, urine samples from 344 non-smoking employees in 86 offices were collected to determine 8-OHdG concentrations. The concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) in each office and outside of the building were simultaneously measured for eight office hours. The average workday difference between indoor and outdoor CO(2) concentrations (dCO(2)) was used as a surrogate measure of the ventilation efficiency for each office unit. The CO(2) levels in the offices ranged 467-2810ppm with a mean of 1170ppm, or 2.7 times higher than that in the outside air. The average urinary 8-OHdG levels among employees increased from 3.10 micro g/g creatinine, for those at the lowest tertile levels of both dCO(2) and TVOCs, to 6.27 micro g/g creatinine, for those at the highest tertile levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of having the urinary 8-OHdG level of greater than the median, 4.53 micro g/g creatinine, for participants was increased significantly at the highest tertile dCO(2) level of >680ppm (odds ratio (OR)=3.37, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.20-9.46). The effect was significant at the middle tertile TVOCs level of 114-360ppb (OR=2.62, 95% CI=1.43-4.79), but not at the highest tertile. Inadequate ventilation in office increases the risk of building-related oxidative stress in non-smoking employees. PMID:17034784

  8. Fine particulate matter measurements in Swiss restaurants, cafés and bars: what is the effect of spatial separation between smoking and non-smoking areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, A.; Kooijman, C.; Breuer, M.; Bohler, P.; Zund, T.; Wenk, S.; Roosli, M.

    2010-01-01

    We performed 124 measurements of particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in 95 hospitality venues such as restaurants, bars, cafés, and a disco, which had differing smoking regulations. We evaluated the impact of spatial separation between smoking and non-smoking areas on mean PM(2.5) concentration, taking rel

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of human papillomavirus-16/18AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy Chinese females aged 15 to 45 years: a phase I trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Cai Zhu; Chang-Gui Li; Hong-Xing Pan; Yi-Ju Zhang; Dan Bi; Hai-Wen Tang; Sanjoy Datta

    2011-01-01

    Globally,about 70% of cervical cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 or HPV-18 infection. A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies in China showed that HPV was present in 98% of cervical cancer samples. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine Cervarix(R)* has shown a high level of protection against HPV-16/18 infections and associated cervical lesions. This phase I trial (NCT00549900)assessed the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the vaccine in Chinese. Thirty healthy Chinese females, aged 15 to 45 years with a median age of 29.5 years, received three doses of Cervarix(R) in Months 0, 1, and 6. Safety was assessed via recording solicited local and systemic symptoms within 7days and unsolicited symptoms within 30 days after each vaccination. Serious adverse events, new onset of chronic diseases, and other medically significant conditions were recorded throughout this trial. As an exploratory objective, HPV-16/18 antibody titers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum samples collected in Months 0 and 7. Pain at the injection site was the most frequently reported local symptom. Two subjects reported medically significant adverse events. Both cases were assessed as unrelated to vaccination by the investigator. In Month 7, 100% seroconversion was observed for both anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 with high geometric mean antibody titers. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine,evaluated for the first time in Chinese females, was generally well tolerated and immunogenic, as previously shown in global studies.

  10. Non-smoking youths' "perceived" addiction to tobacco is associated with their susceptibility to future smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Richardson, Chris G; Ratner, Pamela A; Johnson, Joy L

    2009-12-01

    Smoking initiation places adolescents at risk for adult onset diseases, including heart disease, respiratory illness, and cancer. Adolescents that smoke have levels of 'perceived' tobacco addiction that are associated with several measures of nicotine dependence. Nonsmoking adolescents also report feeling addicted to tobacco even with minimal or no prior tobacco use, suggesting some vulnerability to tobacco use. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived tobacco addiction and smoking susceptibility among adolescents with very minimal tobacco use. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 5155 nonsmokers who completed the British Columbia Youth Survey of Smoking and Health II, a school-based survey conducted during 2004. Measures included demographics, tobacco use (ever puffed a cigarette), substance use (marijuana and alcohol), exposure to family members' smoking in the home, peers' tobacco use, depressive symptoms, perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco, and smoking susceptibility. The adolescents who were most susceptible to smoking were female, younger and in a lower school grade; had ever puffed a cigarette, had used alcohol or marijuana; had family members or peers who smoked; had higher depression scores, and higher perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, perceived mental addiction but not perceived physical addiction to tobacco was significantly associated with smoking susceptibility. Understanding factors associated with smoking initiation, and ways to identify "at- risk" adolescents can enhance early intervention and prevention programs. Perceived mental addiction to tobacco appears to be an important indicator of smoking susceptibility. PMID:19643546

  11. 21世纪以来中国电影女导演创作研究%Female Directors' Chinese Movie Production since the New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳晓英

    2012-01-01

    新世纪以来,两岸三地中国电影女导演的创作呈现出非常活跃的态势,老中青几代电影人纷纷推出自己的新作,成为新世纪中国影坛不可忽视的一股创作力量。在新世纪中国电影女导演的影片中,两性形象的塑造有着诸多相似之处,女性力量的张扬、女性气质的挥洒与男性形象的令人失望交相辉映,充分展现出新世纪中国女性自我实现的信心和行动力,她们在不无落寞的独舞中努力绽放仅仅属于女性的精彩。%since the new century, female directors ' Chinese movie production in the Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong is very active. The old, middle - aged and young directors promote their recent works in abundance, which has become a dominant force in the movie circle in the new century. In their movies, the male and female images share many similarities, with females' power, unrestrained femininity and disappointing masculinity adding radiance to each other, displaying Chinese women' s confidence in self -fulfillment and momentum, women have held up their sky by bursting their beauty into full bloom in their private world.

  12. The Effect of Swimming Activity on Lung Function Parameters Among Smoking and Non-Smoking Youth – Research Extended

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalak Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of regular swimming activity on the respiratory system of smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The study included 196 students, aged 19 to 24 years, attending weekly swimming classes. All students underwent pulmonary function testing before and after participating in a swimming program for 10 months. Measurements included forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, and peak expiratory flow (PEF. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure at the mouth (PImax, PEmax and the percentage carboxyhemoglobin level in blood (%CoHb were also measured. Results. After 10 months of regular swimming activity the values of FVC, PEF, MIP and MEP increased in the non-smoking as well as in the smoking group, while the FEV1 increased only among smokers. The percentage of CoHB level in the blood decreased in both groups. Conclusions. The study confirmed the positive effect of swimming on respiratory system function and the importance of promoting physical activity such as swimming among cigarette smokers as well as non-smokers.

  13. Relationship between flow volume curve and CT findings in non-smoking patients with long histories of bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to verify whether bronchial asthma (BA) alone causes pulmonary emphysema (PE), and to examine the computed tomography (CT) findings in non-smokers with BA demonstrating the flow volume curve (FV curve) characteristic of PE. Non-smoking patients with a history of BA for more than 20 years were divided into 2 groups: the dogleg pattern group (n=5), with an FV curve characteristic of PE, and the concave pattern group (n=16) with an FV curve characteristic of BA. CT scans was performed using CT values (level, 900 H.U.; width, 400 H.U.) that facilitate detection of a low attenuation area (LAA), and using conventional CT values (level, 700 H.U.; width, 1,300 H.U.). LAA (including air trapping), thickness of the bronchial wall, and partial atelectasis were compared between the 2 groups. PE was not detected, although air trapping was found in all subjects. The thickness of the airway was greater in the dogleg pattern than in the concave pattern. The incidences of air trapping and partial atelectasis were higher in the former than in the latter. BA alone may not cause PE. Some BA patients without PE show the FV curve characteristic of PE, reflecting an increase in the thickness of the airway wall and a decrease in the pulmonary ventilation probably due to the air trapping and the partial atelectasis. (author)

  14. On Female Poets and Their Works in Chinese Russian Immigrants%论中国俄罗斯侨民女诗人及作品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲雪萍

    2012-01-01

    中国俄罗斯侨民文学,是俄罗斯文学当中极具特色的一支,近年来受到了越来越多人的关注。文章研究俄侨女诗人的创作"共性"特征,并在此框架下就其作品的题材和女性形象等加以分析。首先,根据《松花江畔紫丁香》一书中收寻的作品剖析女诗人创作的普遍题材;其次,在此基础上,解析大量作品中彰显的艺术特色;最后,又着重解读女诗人笔下的女诗人形象,进而挖掘俄侨作品中的共性和个性,努力找寻女诗人作品中独到之处,进而阐述俄侨女诗人作品的研究价值。%Chinese Russian immigrant literature is an extremely unique branch of Russian literature and much attention is given to it in recent years. This paper mainly focuses on the common features of Russian immigrant female poets and analyzes the themes and female images. The first point is to explore the common theme of female poets in their works taking Lilac along Songhua River as example. Then, it goes to analyze the artistic features of the works. And lastly the paper interprets the female poet images and finds their common features and uniqueness and points out their research value.

  15. Molecular characterization of the Chinese alligator follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit (FSHβ) and its expression during the female reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhu, Xue; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing

    2015-05-01

    The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is an endangered species endemic to China, it has a highly specialized reproductive pattern with low fecundity. Up to date, little is known about the regulation of its female reproductive cycle. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a glycoprotein hormone, plays a key role in stimulating and regulating ovarian follicular development and egg production. In this study, the complete FSHβ cDNA from the ovary of the Chinese alligator was obtained for the first time, it consists of 843-bp nucleotides, including 120-bp nucleotides of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 396-bp of the open reading frame, and 3'-UTR of 327-bp nucleotides. It encodes a 131-amino acid precursor molecule of FSHβ with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids followed by a mature protein of 113 amino acids. Its deduced amino acid sequence shares high identities with the American alligator (100%) and birds (89-92%). Phylogenetic tree analysis of the FSHβ amino acid sequence indicated that alligators cluster into the bird branch. Tissue distribution analyses indicated that FSHβ mRNA is expressed in ovary, intestine and liver with the highest level in the ovary, while not in stomach, pancreas, heart, thymus and thyroid. Expression of FSHβ in ovary increases in May (breeding prophase) and peaks in July (breeding period), it is maintained at high levels through September, then decreases significantly in November (post-reproductive period) and remains relatively low from January to March (hibernating period). These temporal changes of FSHβ expression implicated that it might play an important role in promoting ovarian development during the female reproductive cycle. PMID:25626184

  16. Comparable rate of EGFR kinase domain mutation in lung adenocarcinomas from Chinese male and female never-smokers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-hua SUN; Rong FANG; Bin GAO; Xiang-kun HAN; Jun-hua ZHANG; William PAO; Hai-quan CHEN; Hong-bin JI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Lung cancer patients with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations frequently show good responses to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including Iressa and Tarceva, in clinical studies[1-3]. Previous studies have demonstrated that EGFR kinase domain mutations are commonly observed in lung adenocarcinomas, never-smokers,East Asian, and females[4-8].

  17. Costal cartilage measurement during rhinoplasty in Chinese female%鼻成形术中国人女性软骨体积测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艇; 杨明洁; 杜轶男; 谷红波; 张宇; 刘靓; 秦宏智

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究多个省级地区女性国人手术中取材的第六肋软骨形态结构及解剖学参数,为进行耳鼻部整形再造时需要肋软骨移植的临床应用提供设计依据.[方法]根据从2010年11月-2011年7月的60位女性国人肋软骨移植鼻整形手术中取出的第六软骨在测量板上的照片所作的回顾性测量并进行多重逐步回归分析.[结果]数据统计结果提示,可取出的肋软骨的平均中轴曲线长度为(7.373±1.200) cm,厚度(0.911±0.093) em.软骨的厚度与年龄呈正相关,具有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]提供了相对较广地域范围国人女性的肋软骨数据,对需要鼻再造、复杂鼻整形及耳再造等需要肋软骨移植的手术设计提供了数据参考.%To summarize anatomy data for clinic application of 6th rib cartilage harvest from infra - mammary fold incision during rib cartilage transplant rhinoplasty of Chinese females. [ Methods ] Data are retrospectively collected and analyzed of photographs of 6th rib cartilages over measure grid plate from 60 patients of Chinese women those accept surgeries from November of 2010 to July of 2011. The mean and standard deviation of the measurement data were calculated and correlation analysis of multiple stepwise regressions was made. [ Results ] The mean and standard deviation of central line length and thickness of 6th rib cartilage were as follow: (7. 373 ?1. 200) cm and (0.911 ?. 093 ) cm. Age had a positive correlation with thickness of 6th rib cartilages with statistically significance of P < 0.05. [Conclusion] The result helps prognosis of quantities of donor rib cartilage in ear/nose plastic and reconstructive surgeries of Chinese females.

  18. The effect of a smoking ban on exposure and cardio-respiratory health of non-smoking hospitality workers in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, Sarah Priya

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Background The first scientific studies on negative health effects of passive smoking published in the 1980s instigated an intense battle between the tobacco industry, who fear the loss of social acceptance of smoking and resultant financial damages, and diverse interest groups defending the health of the non-smoking population. In 2003 the World Health Organisation issued a Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, which was signed by 168 member states and has been...

  19. Prevalence of needle sharing, commercial sex behaviors and associated factors in Chinese male and female injecting drug user populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jing; Wang, Renfan; Chen, Hongyao; Lau, Joseph T F; Zhang, Linglin; Hu, Xianyou; Lei, Zhangquan; Li, Zhenglin; Cai, Hua; Wang, Tao; Tsui, Hiyi

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate prevalence and associated factors of commercial sex behaviors and condom use at commercial sex, as well as prevalence of needle sharing among injecting drug users (IDUs) in China. In this study, 162 IDUs were recruited by peer workers in Dazhou, Sichuan and were anonymously interviewed by using a structured questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed and interaction between gender and the studied independent variables were tested for significance. The results of this study showed that the male and female respondents, respectively 11.7 and 16.9% were HIV positive; 34.0 and 40.7% engaged in commercial sex and 23.3 and 11.9% shared needles with others in the last six months. Percent using a condom in the last episode of commercial sex was 30.3% for males and 76.2% for females. The multivariate analyses showed that higher drug dosage (OR=0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.9) and reduced sexual drive (OR=0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.9) were associated with lower likelihood for commercial sex among male IDUs while higher drug dosage (OR=9.1, 95% CI: 1.0-86.0), perceived difficulty in finding a job (OR=5.1, 95% CI: 1.3-20.1) and lack of family support (OR=4.0, 95% CI: 1.1-15.4) were associated with commercial sex among female IDUs. Similarly, unknown HIV status (OR=8.2, 95% CI: 1.7-9.2) and having a regular sex partner (OR=3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-10.9) was associated with needle sharing. It is concluded that male and female IDUs were sexually active and often engaged in commercial sex. Drug dosage and reduced sexual drive were relevant but did not stop commercial sex behaviors. More supportive social environment is required to prevent female IDUs to enter sex work. PMID:19085218

  20. Prevalence and Clinicopathological Characteristics of HER2 and BRAF Mutation in Chinese Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Shan

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of BRAF V600E mutation and HER2 exon 20 insertions in Chinese lung adenocarcinoma (ADC patients.Given the fact that the driver mutations are mutually exclusive in lung ADCs, 204 EGFR/KRAS wild-type cases were enrolled in this study. Direct Sanger sequencing was performed to examine BRAF V600E and HER2 exon 20 mutations. The association of BRAF and HER2 mutations with clinicopathological characteristics was statistically analyzed.Among the 204 lung ADCs tested, 11 cases (5.4% carried HER2 exon 20 insertions and 4 cases (2.0% had BRAF V600E mutation. HER2 mutation status was identified to be associated with a non-smoking history (p<0.05. HER2 mutation occurs in 9.4% of never smokers (10/106, 8.7% of female (8/92 and 2.7% of male (3/112 in this selected cohort. All four BRAF mutated patients were women and three of them were never-smokers. No HER2 mutant patients harbor BRAF mutation.HER2 and BRAF mutations identify a distinct subset of lung ADCs. Given the high prevalence of lung cancer and the availability of targeted therapy, Chinese lung ADC patients without EGFR and KRAS mutations are recommended for HER2 and BRAF mutations detection, especially for those never smokers.

  1. 我国高等学校中的女性领导特征调查研究%A Survey of the Female Leaders of Chinese Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王饮寒; 喻恺

    2015-01-01

    本文采用履历研究法,对我国1166所普通本科高等学校的7796位校级领导的简历进行整理分析研究。研究发现:我国高校领导中女性数量较少,且存在女性领导担任正职少、副职多的纵向隔离现象,以及女性担任党委领导多、行政领导少的横向隔离现象。此外,女性自身教育与学术背景偏低、国际化经历不足等问题,制约了女性领导的发展。我国的高校领导研究还未将性别因素作为一个主要的分析范畴和内容来对待,这一领域还需要更多的学术与政策关注。%Using Curriculum Vitae research method, this paper studies the characteristics of female leaders of Chinese universities. By studying 7796 top-level university leaders at 1166 Chinese universities, this paper finds that, there are not only insufficient women leaders in higher education institutions, but also segregation at both vertical and horizontal levels. The relatively insufficient educational and academic background and international experience are factors that restrict women from gaining leadership in higher education. The paper argues that gender differences deserve more academic and policy attention in the realm of university leadership.

  2. A Survey of the Female Leaders of Chinese Universities%我国高等学校中的女性领导特征调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王饮寒; 喻恺

    2015-01-01

    Using Curriculum Vitae research method, this paper studies the characteristics of female leaders of Chinese universities. By studying 7796 top-level university leaders at 1166 Chinese universities, this paper finds that, there are not only insufficient women leaders in higher education institutions, but also segregation at both vertical and horizontal levels. The relatively insufficient educational and academic background and international experience are factors that restrict women from gaining leadership in higher education. The paper argues that gender differences deserve more academic and policy attention in the realm of university leadership.%本文采用履历研究法,对我国1166所普通本科高等学校的7796位校级领导的简历进行整理分析研究。研究发现:我国高校领导中女性数量较少,且存在女性领导担任正职少、副职多的纵向隔离现象,以及女性担任党委领导多、行政领导少的横向隔离现象。此外,女性自身教育与学术背景偏低、国际化经历不足等问题,制约了女性领导的发展。我国的高校领导研究还未将性别因素作为一个主要的分析范畴和内容来对待,这一领域还需要更多的学术与政策关注。

  3. Smoking cessation intervention practices in Chinese physicians: do gender and smoking status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tai Hing; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Chan, Ya-Fen; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare settings provide a major arena for administering smoking cessation interventions. However, few studies have reported differences in the frequency of practice in healthcare professionals by gender and smoking status. This might also be influenced by a difference in smoking prevalence by gender, especially in China and other developing countries. This study examined factors associated with the frequency of cessation intervention practices by smoking status among Chinese physicians in men and women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006 in physicians with direct patient contact from nine hospitals in Guangzhou with a response rate of 60.8%. Significantly more female physicians who were non-smokers (79.7%) reported "initiation and/or advice" smoking cessation interventions than male physicians who were smokers (71.2%) and non-smokers (71.6%). Factors significantly associated with "initiation and/or advice" were prior smoking cessation training (OR = 4.2, 95% CI 1.8-9.6) and lack of knowledge to help patients to quit (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9) among male physicians who smoked; and organisational support (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.2) and successful past experience (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) among male physicians who did not smoke. Among female physicians who did not smoke, significant factors were agreeing that quitting smoking is the most cost-effective way to prevent chronic disease and cancer (OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.1), helping patients stop smoking is part of expected role and responsibility (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7), lack of knowledge to help patients to quit (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) and organisational support (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) for non-smoking female physicians. This study is the first to show that male physicians were less likely to provide smoking cessation counselling regardless of their smoking status while non-smoking female physicians were more active in advising patients on quitting. The findings highlight the need for developing

  4. 大学生汉字自由联想的性别差异的实验研究%Experimental Study on Differences in the Free Association of Chinese Characters between Male and Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建英; 姚本先

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解大学生汉字自由联想的性别差异.方法:运用实验法对110名大学生的汉字自由联想进行分析.结果:(1)男女大学生对音联和字联的回忆率存在差异;(2)男女大学生对感觉情绪词的回忆率存在差异;(3)男女大学生对反映心理的关键字的回忆率存在差异;(4)男女大学生自由联想汉字的偏旁部首存在差异.结论:汉字自由联想法可以用来分析大学生的思维、个性和心理健康状况.%Aim: to probe the differences in the free association of Chinese characters between male and female college students. Method: analyzing the free association of Chinese characters among 110 college students by an experimental study. Results: (l)There is difference in recall rale of thyme association and word association between male and female college students; (2)There is difference in recall rate of identifying emotional words between male and female college students; (3)There is difference in recall rate of key words reflecting psychological world between male and female college students; (4)There is difference in free association of radicals of Chinese characters between male and female college students. Conclusion: the free association of Chinese characters can be applied to analyze the college students' thoughts, personalities and psychological health status.

  5. Effects of 3 Feeding Modes on the Volatile and Nonvolatile Compounds in the Edible Tissues of Female Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Kejin; Wu, Na; Wang, Xichang; Wu, Xugan; Wang, Shuai; Long, Xiaowen; Wei, Xuan

    2016-04-01

    To reveal the impact of different feeding modes on the flavor quality of female Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) this study was conducted to compare the sensory evaluation scores, flavor compounds in meat and hepatopancreas of female E. sinensis fed with 3 feeding modes, that is, natural diets (NDs), traditional diets (TDs), and formulated diets (FDs). The result showed that crabs fed with ND had significantly lower sensory scores than the other 2 feeding modes in both edible tissues. The odor and taste profiles were evaluated by Electronic nose (E-nose) and tongue (E-tongue) techniques, respectively; results of perchloric acid showed each edible tissue had significant differences among the 3 modes. Contents of volatile compounds were measured by Headspace-solid phase micro extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. A total of 35 and 44 volatile compounds were identified in meat and hepatopancreas, respectively. ND mode of meat had the highest relative odor activity value (ROAV) summation among the 3 diet modes. TD mode of hepatopancreas had significantly higher ROAV summations. Based on the analysis of free amino acids and 5'-nucleotides, nonvolatile compounds were evaluated by equivalent umami concentration (EUC) and taste active values (TAVs) methods. For both meat and hepatopancreas, TD had the highest contents of umami amino acid, as for the 5'-nucleotide, FD had the highest 5'-inosin monophosphate concentrations. Overall, the EUC and TAVs of TD were higher than that of FD, whereas ND mode had the lowest values in the 2 edible tissues. In conclusion, TD mode had the best performance in terms of sensory evaluation, ROAVs of aroma-active compounds, and nonvolatile active compounds. PMID:26919186

  6. Susceptibilidad al consumo de tabaco en estudiantes no fumadores de 10 ciudades mexicanas Susceptibility to use tobacco among non-smoking students in 10 Mexican cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Arillo-Santillán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar la susceptibilidad cognitiva a fumar y los factores asociados en estudiantes de 12 a 15 años. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó la medición basal de una encuesta autoaplicable en 12 293 estudiantes no fumadores de escuelas secundarias, en el ciclo 2005-2006. Susceptible es aquel que contestó que aceptará un cigarrillo de su mejor amigo y cree que el año próximo fumará. Se obtuvieron modelos de regresión logística de multinivel. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de susceptibilidad fue de 30%. Los factores asociados fueron autoestima baja (RM = 1.2, IC95% 1.0-1.5, búsqueda de nuevas sensaciones (RM = 1.6, IC95% 1.3-2.0 y actitud favorable a fumar (RM = 2.6, IC95% 2.2-3.2, así como permisividad social reflejada en reglas del hogar (RM = 2.2, IC95% 1.7-2.8. Sólo en mujeres existió interacción entre permisividad de fumar en el hogar y consumo de tabaco en padres (RM = 2.1, IC95% 1.1-3.8. CONCLUSIONES: La prevención debe promover la sensibilización de profesores y padres de familia como modelos antitabaco e incentivar hogares libres de tabaco.OBJECTIVE: To identify the cognitive susceptibility to smoking and associated factors in students between 12 and 15 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The baseline measurement of a self-administered survey conducted between 2005 and 2006 of 12 293 non-smoking high school students was analyzed. Susceptibility was considered to be a student who would accept a cigarette from his or her best friend and would smoke the following year. Multilevel logistic regression models were obtained. RESULTS: The prevalence of susceptibility was 30%. Associated factors were low self-esteem (RM = 1.2, IC95% 1.0-1.5, seeking new sensations (RM = 1.6, IC95% 1.3-2.0 and a favorable attitude towards smoking (RM = 2.6, IC95% 2.2-3.2, as well as the social permissibility reflected in the norms at home (RM = 2.2, IC95% 1.7-2.8. The interaction between permissibility of smoking at home and tobacco consumption

  7. 中国不同性别亚健康人群差异分析%Sub-health status in male and female Chinese populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀; 何裕民

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore different sub-health status between populations of different gender. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze sub-health status of 13 439 people in 8 provinces in China. Results Sub-health status of male was much more expressed in sexual life( male:5. 22 ± 1.06,femal:4.92 ±0. 96), while female was much more expressed in physical and psychological symptoms ( physical symptoms score for male: 104. S3 ± 20.47, for female; 110.27 ±20.90:psychological score for male:53.63 ±8.04,for female:55. 89 ±7. 88;P0.05). For somatic symptoms, the men had a hypo-immunity and were susceptible to cold or with a longer period of the disease compared to the woman (P < 0.001). While women felt tired easily and frequently had digestive problem, poor sleep, autonomic nervous disorders, allergy, aging apperance, a variety of pain or discomfort, constipation, and frequent drug usage (P < 0.001). In psychological symptoms, women showed more depression, anxiety problem,memory loss,and severe stress than men(P<0.001 for all). There was a significant difference in sexual satisfaction score between the men and the women with sub-health (P <0.01) and the men were more likely to worry about sexuality than women (P < 0. 01). Conclusion The symptoms of sub-health are different between men and-women in Chinese population.%目的 探讨不同性别亚健康状态人群症状表现差异.方法 采用流行病学横断面调查方法对中国8个省市13 439名各类人群进行亚健康状态调查分析.结果 男、女性亚健康症状性生活得分分别为(5.22±1.06)、(4.92±0.96)分,躯体症状分别为(104.53±20.47)、(110.27±20.90),心理方面分别为(53.63±8.04)、(55.89±7.88)分,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);社会适应性方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在躯体症状方面,男性免疫力低下,易患有感冒或感冒不易痊愈;与男性比较,女性易感到疲劳,消化系统不适多见,睡眠差,多有植

  8. Distinct role of the Fas rs1800682 and FasL rs763110 polymorphisms in determining the risk of breast cancer among Han Chinese females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Xi-Jing; Jin, Tian-Bo; Dai, Zhi-Ming; Kang, Hua-Feng; Guan, Hai-Tao; Ma, Xiao-Bin; Liu, Xing-Han; Dai, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms in the promoters of Fas and FasL are significantly associated with breast cancer risk. However, the results of these studies were inconsistent. This case–control study was performed to explore the associations between Fas rs1800682 and FasL rs763110 polymorphisms and breast cancer. Materials and methods A hospital-based case–control study of 560 Han Chinese females with breast cancer (583 controls) was conducted. The MassARRAY system was used to search for a possible association between the disease risk and the two single nucleotide polymorphisms, Fas rs1800682 and FasL rs763110. Statistical analyses were performed using SNPStats software to conduct Pearson’s chi-square tests in five different genetic models. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated after adjustment to age and body mass index. PHASE v2.1 software was used to reconstruct all common haplotypes. Results A statistically significant association was found between Fas rs1800682 and increased breast cancer risk (AG vs AA: OR =1.37, 95% CI =1.06–1.78; AA+AG vs GG: OR =1.32, 95% CI =1.04–1.66), and also it was found that the FasL rs763110 polymorphism may decrease the risk. Stratified analyses demonstrated that the rs763110 polymorphism was associated with lower breast cancer risk among postmenopausal females (heterozygote model: OR =0.69, 95% CI =0.49–0.97; dominant model: OR =0.70, 95% CI =0.51–0.96). The T allele of rs763110 was also associated with a decreased risk of lymph node metastasis (allele model: OR =0.75, 95% CI =0.57–0.97) and an increased risk of the breast cancer being human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (allele model: OR =1.37, 95% CI =1.03–1.18). Moreover, haplotype analysis showed that Ars1800682Trs763110 was associated to a statistically significant degree with lower risk of breast cancer (OR =0.70, 95% CI =0.53–0.91). Conclusion These data suggest that

  9. Polymorphisms in GEMIN4 and AGO1 Genes Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA biosynthesis genes can affect the regulatory effect of global microRNAs to target mRNA and hence influence the genesis and development of human cancer. Here, we selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs7813, rs2740349, rs2291778, rs910924, rs595961 in two key microRNA biosynthesis genes (GEMIN4 and AGO1 and systematically evaluated the association between these SNPs, the gene-environment interaction and lung cancer risk. To control the impact of cigarette smoking on lung cancer, we recruited Chinese female non-smokers for the study. The total number of lung cancer cases and cancer-free controls were 473 and 395 in the case-control study. Four SNPs showed statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. After Bonferroni correction, rs7813 and rs595961 were evidently still associated with lung cancer risk. In the stratified analysis, our results revealed that all five SNPs were associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma; after Bonferroni correction, significant association was maintained for rs7813, rs910924 and rs595961. Haplotype analysis showed GEMIN4 haplotype C-A-G-T was a protective haplotype for lung cancer. In the combined unfavorable genotype analysis, with the increasing number of unfavorable genotypes, a progressively increased gene-dose effect was observed in lung adenocarcinoma. We also found that individuals exposed to cooking oil fumes showed a relatively high risk of lung cancer, but no interactions were found between cooking oil fume exposure or passive smoking exposure with these SNPs, either on an additive scale or a multiplicative scale. Overall, this is the first study showing that rs7813 and rs595961 could be meaningful as genetic markers for lung cancer risk.

  10. 南京市城区女性性功能障碍的调查%An investigation on female sexual dysfunction among urban Chinese women in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱霞; 潘连军; 陈湘玉; 潘锋; 阚延静

    2011-01-01

    目的:女性性功能障碍(FSD)是影响女性生活质量的常见疾病,有关中国女性FSD的报道少见.本研究探讨南京城区女性FSD的发病情况,为制定中国女性FSD的防治策略提供依据.方法:本研究为回顾性调查,调查对象为2008年8月至2009年3月在南京医科大学附属南京市妇幼保健院进行健康体检的20岁以上女性及其女性陪护人.采用女性性功能指数(FSFI)问卷评估性功能,以FSFI评分总分<25分作为FSD的诊断标准.以各单项评分的中位数作为诊断各类型性功能障碍的标准.结果:共发放问卷1 002份,收回有效问卷609份,有效问卷回收率60.8%.本组女性FSFI得分(24.21±4.40)分,随着年龄增长,FSFI评分及各单项评分逐渐下降.本调查各年龄组总的FSD发生率为56.8%,随年龄增长,FSD发生率逐渐增加,<29岁组为47.1%,30~39岁组为57.0%,40~49组为75.0%,50岁以上高达90.3%.最常见的性功能障碍类型为性满意度下降(43.2%),其次为性高潮障碍(41.7%)、性交疼痛(40.2%)、性欲低下(35.1%)、阴道润滑障碍(31.4%)及性唤起困难(29.6%).结论:FSD是困扰中国城市女性的常见问题,最常见的类型为性满意度下降及性高潮障碍.%Objective: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a common problem affecting women's quality of life. However, reports are rarely seen on sexual problems in Chinese women. This study is to investigate the prevalence of FSD among urban Chinese women in Nanjing and offer some evidence for the establishment of preventative measures for FSD in China. Methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based survey was conducted in Nanjing, China between August 2008 and March 2009. The sexual function of 609 women aged 20 - 56 years from the urban area of Nanjing were investigated using the Female Sexual Function Index ( FSFI ). The total FSFI score of < 25 was used as the diagnostic criterion for FSD. Results: The total FSFI score was 24.21 ± 4.40 in this group of women

  11. Factors associated with second-hand smoke exposure in non-smoking pregnant women in Spain: self-reported exposure and urinary cotinine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Castilla, Ane Miren; Guxens, Mònica; López, María José; Lertxundi, Aitana; Espada, Mercedes; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Santa-Marina, Loreto

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the main sources of and sociodemographic factors associated with second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure, assessed both by questionnaire and by urinary cotinine (UC) levels, in non-smoking pregnant women. We conducted a cross-sectional study in pregnant women from 4 different regions in Spain. A total of 1783 non-smoking pregnant women completed a questionnaire about their previous smoking habit and SHS exposure in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy and provided a urine sample for measuring UC levels. We used logistic regression models to assess the relationship between several sociodemographic variables and some potential sources of SHS exposure. In addition, we analysed the association of several sociodemographic variables and the SHS exposure according to UC levels, using Tobit regression analysis. More than half of women (55.5%) were exposed to SHS in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The following variables were associated with SHS exposure: having smoked previously, low educational level, and being primiparous. Data collection after the first law banning smoking in public places was associated with lower risk of SHS exposure in restaurants and at work. UC levels were higher among women exposed to more than one source. Having a partner who smoked at home was the source of SHS with the greatest impact on UC levels, followed by having a partner who smoked but not at home, other people smoking in the household, being exposed during leisure time, at work and at restaurants. The most important source of SHS exposure was exposure at home. Prevention of SHS exposure should be addressed not only with pregnant women but also with their families.

  12. A Gender Perspective of North American Sinologists in the Studies of Chinese Female Writers%论北美汉学界中国女作家研究中的性别视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩

    2015-01-01

    In recent years ,the sinological studies in North America have witnessed a new turn .A group of female sinologists deviate from the traditional sinological studies and have adopted the perspective of gender in their broad and in-depth studies of contemporary and modern Chinese female w riters .Based on the theo-ries of gender criticism ,biography text criticism ,ideological context as well as gender politics ,their re-search has provided a new way of studying and understanding Chinese modern and contemporary female writers and set up a platform of communication ,exchanges and dialogue for scholars both at home and abroad .%近年来北美汉学研究出现了新的转折,一批女性汉学家运用性别批评理论,从传记生平考据、意识形态语境以及性别政治等角度,对中国现当代女作家进行了广泛而深入的研究,对传统的汉学研究形成了强有力的冲击,为重新认识中国现当代女作家及创作提供了新的研究视角和解读方式,为海内外学界跨文化的沟通、交流与对话搭建平台。

  13. Empirical Analysis of the Behavioral Characteristics and Factors Influencing Chinese Female Entrepreneurship%中国女性创业的行为特征与影响因素实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琪; 张永胜

    2012-01-01

    女性创业越来越受到政府和学术界的关注。女性创业具有巨大的发展潜力与增长空间,与男性创业相比,女性创业有自身的特点。文章在理论分析的基础上,运用中央电视台《致富经》栏目和清华大学中国创业研究中心共同完成的中国百姓创业致富调查所得数据,对中国女性群体在创业活动中的行为特征、影响因素以及相互关系作了实证分析,并提出了有效促进女性创业的对策建议。%Female entrepreneurship is increasingly concerned by the government and academia. It has huge potential for development and growth. Compared to male entrepreneurship, female entrepreneurship has its own characteristics. On the basis of theoretical analysis, this article uses the data from the "Survey of Chinese Entrepreneurial Wealth" co-conducted by CCTV "Become Rich Classics" column and National Entrepreneurship Research Center of Tsinghua University to analyze empirically the behavioral characteristics, important factors affecting female entrepreneurship and their correlations of Chinese female group in the entrepreneurial activities. Finally, the paper puts forward effective countermeasures for promoting female entrepreneurship.

  14. 中韩女将小说中“谪降”母题研究%Motif of “Banished from Heaven” in Chinese and South Korean Novels about Female Generals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立; 王琪

    2014-01-01

    比较中韩女将小说,主要人物经历中均设有“谪降”母题,成为一种惯用叙述模式,而中韩两国均存在极大的相似性,甚至复制的痕迹。中国“谪降”母题历时悠久,来源于传统道教文化,而韩国“谪降”母题鲜有自身文化因子的影响因素,可以考虑其是受到中国传统道教文化和中国通俗小说的深刻影响。挖掘中国因素对韩国“谪降”母题的具体影响,有利于促进中韩文学间相互影响关系的进一步研究。%It is found by comparison that there is motif of “banished from Heaven” in both Chinese and South Korean novels about female generals .As a customary narration style , the motif of Chinese and Japanese novels is very similar.Coming from the Taoist culture , this motif of Chinese novels has a long history .The motif of South Ko-rean novels is formed profoundly influenced by both the Chinese Taoist culture and the popular Chinese novels , while having rare trace of its own cultural factors .

  15. 从2014年世界女子冰球锦标赛看中国女冰现状%Analyzing the Current Situation of Chinese Female Ice Hockey from 2014 World Ice Hockey Championships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志男

    2014-01-01

    通过对2014年世界女子冰球锦标赛B组各队比赛成绩、技战术进行统计,对目前中国女子冰球队的状态进行分析,深刻总结训练和比赛中存在的问题。中国女冰在技战术的综合能力上与世界强队相比具有较大差距,尤其是在攻区抢断、回追阻截、射门得分、防守反击等方面的问题较为突出。提出加强个人技战术的培养,结合比赛提高对抗能力,培养多变的战术体系,形成自己的技战术风格等对策和建议,旨在提高女冰的技战术水平,对中国女冰重返世界强队取得冬奥会参赛资格显得尤为重要。%By counting the performance,techniques and tactics of Group B in 2014 World Female Ice Hockey Championships,technical analyze the current situation of Chinese female ice hockey team, deeply summarize the existing problems in training and competitions. The comprehensive ability of techniques and tactics of Chinese female ice hockey team compared with the strong power list of the world with a large gap,especially on stealing in attacking zone,back up and trackles,scoring and defencing and fighting back. Put forward to strengthen the cultivation of individual techniques and tactics,improve counterforce,cultivate variable tactics system,form their own technical and tactical style,in order to improve the technical and tactical level of female ice hocky team,it is extremely important for Chinese female ice hockey team returning the world strong team to get qualification for Winter Olympics.

  16. 中国女性对于FMR1突变产前筛查的态度调查%Acceptance of prenatal screening for FMR1 mutation in Chinese female population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岚; 章远志

    2012-01-01

    Objective Study the attitude of Chinese female population on prenatal screening of FXS in order to investigate the feasibility of offering prenatal screening.Methods Two hundred and eighty four women with no family history of mental retardation or FXS were recruited in the study.They were grouped into:females married with child (ren) (67/284),females married without child (54/284),unmarried single women (163/284).Then the participants were tested whether they retained the basic genetic knowledge of fragile X by using the adapted questionnaire.Results The proportions of the women who preferred to have prenatal screening for FXS in each group were 77.6%,66.7% and 74.9%.Further more,95.5% of the women in the first female group would like to terminate the pregnancy if a positive result of FXS was reported,so did 92.6% of the women in the second female group and 90.2% of women in the third female group.Conclusion There is a big acceptance of prenatal screening for FMR1 mutation in Chinese female population.Most people would like to take prenatal screening of fragile X syndrome.%目的 调查中国女性对于脆性X综合征产前筛查的态度.方法 随机调查284位没有智力发育障碍及脆性X综合征家族史的女性,分为已婚已育(67/284)、已婚未育(54/284)及未婚未育(163/284)三组.结果 各组愿意接受产前筛查的比率分别为77.6%、66.7%及74.9%.而各组选择在得知产前筛查结果阳性时愿意终止妊娠的比率分别为95.5%、92.6%及90.2%.结论 在中国女性群体中对FMR1基因突变进行产前筛查有较高的接受度.大多数人选择接受针对脆X综合征的产前筛查.

  17. RISKS FOR BREAST CANCER IN CHINESE FEMALE:A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW%中国女性乳腺癌危险因素的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清然

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To assess the risks for breast cancer in Chinese females. [Methods] We comprehensively searched the databases including CNKI, VIP and CBM disc for the case control studies about the risks of breast cancer. [ Results] There were 19 studies in total involving 5 522 participants in case group versus 5 714 participants in control group. It revealed that three factors, the age of menopause ≤44, the first delivery age≤25 and the age of menarche≥17, may be protective factors for the disease. BMI≥24 may be an impertinent factor, while others may be risks for breast cancer. [Conclusion] This systematic review analyses on common risk factors for breast cancer. By enlarging sample size, we reduce the possibility of bias from single study. But as a second evaluation, its reliability is influenced by the quality of included studies and some other factors. So higher quality could be gotten from prospective cohort studies, which provides more reliable data in order to guide the primary prevention of breast cancer.%[目的]系统评价乳腺癌(breast carcinoma)的相关危险因素.[方法]全面检索中国期刊全文数据库、中文科技期刊全文数据库(重庆维普)、中国生物医学文献数据库,从建库截至2010年5月31日,国内公开发表的关于中国女性乳腺癌危险因素的独立病例对照研究.采用RevMan5.O进行Meta分析.[结果]共纳入19项研究,均采用平行的病例对照研究设计,病例组合计5522人,对照组合计5714人.绝经年龄≤44岁,初产年龄≤25岁及初潮年龄≥17岁3个因素可能是乳腺癌发生的保护性因素;BMI≥24可能与疾病发生的相关性不大;而流产次数、是否哺乳、主动与被动吸烟情况等均可能为乳腺癌发生的危险因素.[结论]本系统评价对多种乳腺癌常见相关危险因素进行了综合性分析,通过扩大样本含量,减少了单项研究产生偏倚的可能性.但因本文为二次评价,其论证强度受到纳入研

  18. Coprescription of Chinese herbal medicine and Western medication among female patients with breast cancer in Taiwan: analysis of national insurance claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang BR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bih-Ru Wang,1,2,* Yuh-Lih Chang,1,2,* Tzeng-Ji Chen,3,4 Jen-Hwey Chiu,5,6 Jing Chong Wu,7 Min-Shan Wu,1 Chia-Lin Chou,1 Yueh-Ching Chou1,2,81Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department and Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Institute of Hospital and Health Care Administration, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 7Traditional Medicine Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 8College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Many female breast cancer (FBC patients take Chinese herbal medicine (CHM and Western medication (WM concurrently in Taiwan. Despite the possibility of interactions between the CHM and WM mentioned in previous studies, the pattern of these coprescriptions in FBC patients remains unclear. Hence, the aim of the present study is to investigate the utilization of coprescriptions of CHM and WM among the FBC patients in Taiwan.Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey using the sampled cohort in 2009 obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. There were 3,507 FBC patients identified from the registry for catastrophic illness patients. Ambulatory visit records, corresponding prescriptions, and the data of beneficiaries belonging to the FBC patients were further extracted. A total of 1,086 FBC patients used CHM at least once. CHM and WM prescribed within any overlapping duration were defined as coprescriptions.Results: There were 868 (80.0% patients simultaneously receiving CHM and WM. A total of 4,927 CHM prescriptions and 6,358 WM

  19. 中国女性乳腺癌人群归因危险估计%Population-attributable risk estimates for breast cancer in Chinese females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓凤; 姜勇; 曲宸绪; 王建炳; 陈万青; 李辉; 乔友林

    2013-01-01

    目的 评估已知乳腺癌危险因素对我国女性人群的人群归因危险,为中国女性乳腺癌的预防与控制提供依据.方法 利用文献中人群暴露率和相对危险度的数据,计算已知危险因素的人群归因分值(PAF),并利用全国第三次死因调查的数据估计乳腺癌的归因死亡和发病人数.人群暴露率的数据主要来源于大样本、大范围的代表全国人群的调查数据,相对危险度的数据来自Meta分析研究和中国或其他国家的大样本的单个研究资料.结果 居前5位的乳腺癌发病的危险因素依次为良性乳腺疾病(RR =2.62)、乳腺癌家族史(RR =2.39)、吸烟(RR=l.86)、超重(RR=1.60)和月经初潮年龄(RR=l.54).生殖因素、生活方式、良性乳腺疾病、外源性激素治疗及乳腺癌家族史的PAF分别为27.84%、23.55%、15.09%、3.60%和2.49%,五大危险因素总PAF为55.95%.2005年,我国女性乳腺癌归因于生殖因素、生活方式、良性乳腺疾病、外源性激素治疗及乳腺癌家族史的发病和死亡人数分别为79 862和22 456例.结论 预防控制各种不良生活方式将可能显著降低中国乳腺癌发病与死亡.%Objective To estimate the contribution of known identified risk factors to breast cancer incidence and mortality in China,and provide evidence to support the prevention and control of breast cancer for Chinese females.Methods We calculated the proportion of breast cancer attributable to specific risk factors.Data on exposure prevalence were obtained from Meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population.Data on relative risks were obtained from Meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies.Cancer mortality and incidence were taken from the Third National Death Survey and from cancer registries in China.Results The first 5 risk factors of breast cancer in China were benign breast disease (RR =2.62),family history of breast cancer

  20. Rehabilitation of Female Prisoners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE women imprisoned for various crimes undergo a reeducation and rehabilitation program which often results in repentance for past wrongdoings, and providing an avenue for them to make a fresh start. Female prisoners study general education courses, learn basic legal concepts and working skills as part of a rehabilitation program that helps reintigrate them into society upon release.

  1. Perceived Multiple Intelligences among Male and Female Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong: The Structure of the Student Multiple Intelligences Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the structure of perceived multiple intelligences of 1,464 Chinese gifted students using the Student Multiple Intelligences Profile. To evaluate whether perceived multiple intelligences could be applied adequately across boys and girls, a model hypothesizing different degrees of equivalence across the two gender groups was…

  2. Proportion research of under 1/3 soft tissue profile in Chineses beautiful females%中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3软组织侧貌比例的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖青; 米丛波; 宋美云; 杨川

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨公众审美标准,研究中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3软组织侧貌比例的美学特征.方法:选取时尚杂志、电影、电视剧作品中美貌女性35例,年龄18~35岁,计算机图像处理进行标准化,分别测量8项常用的面下1/3软组织比例.结果:①中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3中,上唇皮肤部分占整个上唇的66%,上唇红高度约占上唇的40%,下唇的外形皮肤部分占整个下唇的52%,下唇红高度约占下唇的68%,下唇与下颌高度比为36%,颏部与下领高度比值为62%(近似黄金指数0.618),下颌高度占下面高度的66%;②中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3许多比例值间都有较强的正相关关系.结论:①初步建立了中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3的软组织侧貌比例值范围;②比例值初步分析出中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3的侧貌特征,有利于与类似研究进行比较分析.%Objective To find out the facial profile standard of beautiful female in Chinese people and discuss appreciation of the beauty trend. Methods 35 lateral pictures of famous beautiful females superstars were collected, ages ranging from 18 to 35 years. They were standardized by computer and measuremented 8 proportion indexes of surface under 1/3 soft tissue. Results ①Surface under 1/3 soft tissue of the beautiful females.The chin occupied 2/3 of the entire mandibular height. The cutaneous part occupied 2/3 of the entire upper lip height and the vermilion 1/3. The cutaneous part occupied more than 1/3 of the entire lower lip height. the lower lip occupied more than 1/3 of the entire mandibular height. The chin occupied more than 2/3 of the entire mandibular height. The mandibular occupied more than 2/3 of the following department of face; ②lndex of soft tissue 1/3 of under face profile in Chinese beautiful females have relativity. Conclusion ①Sept up soft tissue profile in the lower third of the beautiful females normal value scope in Chinese;②Measure proportion

  3. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin 2 for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110≤Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  4. Relationship between Tourist Motivation and Satisfaction of Chinese Female Tourists to Korea%中国大陆女性赴韩旅游动机对游客满意度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 仇梦嫄; 沙润; 杨燕

    2015-01-01

    旅游动机与游客满意度是旅游研究的核心问题,但较少有将二者纳入一个模型中系统地探讨女性出境旅游动机与满意度之间的关系. 以中国大陆赴韩女性旅游者为例,从行为心理学视角,运用定量与定性分析方法分析赴韩女性旅游动机对游客满意度的影响. 结果显示:中国女性具有多种维度的赴韩旅游动机,且各维度动机间存在强度差异,不同维度的旅游动机强度与体验满意度呈倒"U"型曲线关系,当旅游动机强度过高或过低时,女性旅游体验满意度均较低,只有当动机强度适中时,才能使旅游者表现出比较理性的旅游心态与行为,获得较高的满意度.%Travel motivation and satisfaction of tourists has been the core issue of tourism research, But little research had the two into a model system in which to explore the relationship between women outbound travel moti-vation and satisfaction.This paper takes the Chinese female tourists who visit Korea for example, from the perspec-tive of behavioral psychology, analysis the relationship between the female' s travel motivation and satisfaction by u-sing the quantitative and qualitative methods.The result indicates that there are multi dimension of travel motivation for Chinese female to visit Korea and these motivations have different intensity.The relationship between the inten-sity of multi travel motivation and tourists' satisfaction likes an inverted"U" curve.When the intensity of motiva-tion is too high or too low, the female tourists' satisfaction is relatively low, only when the level of motivation is ap-propriate, female tourists may have a high satisfaction.

  5. 我国少数民族女性嫁衣研究(下)--文化与配饰%A Study on Female Wedding Dress of Chinese Minority Nationalities (Part 2) - Culture and Accessories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非

    2015-01-01

    Each nationality has its own cultural heritage of wedding customs, while female wedding dress also have stable heritage in terms of culture and accessories. The female wedding dress of Chinese minority nationalities is also regarded as an important embodiment of ethnic aesthetic ideal and aesthetic taste. The female wedding dresses of Yao, Miao, Shui, Hui, Zhuang, Dong, Korean, Tibetan and Tu nationalities are the most distinctive and important ethnic costumes.%我国任何民族的婚俗都有其传承特点,而女性嫁衣的文化解读及配饰亦有其稳定的传承性,少数民族女性嫁衣亦被认为是民族审美理想和审美趣味的重要体现。在我国少数民族女性嫁衣中,瑶族、苗族、水族、回族、壮族、侗族、朝鲜族、藏族及土族女性嫁衣都是颇具特点、也极为重要的民族服饰。

  6. A Study on Female Wedding Dress of Chinese Minority Nationalities (Part 2) - Culture and Accessories%我国少数民族女性嫁衣研究(下)--文化与配饰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非

    2015-01-01

    Each nationality has its own cultural heritage of wedding customs, while female wedding dress also have stable heritage in terms of culture and accessories. The female wedding dress of Chinese minority nationalities is also regarded as an important embodiment of ethnic aesthetic ideal and aesthetic taste. The female wedding dresses of Yao, Miao, Shui, Hui, Zhuang, Dong, Korean, Tibetan and Tu nationalities are the most distinctive and important ethnic costumes.%我国任何民族的婚俗都有其传承特点,而女性嫁衣的文化解读及配饰亦有其稳定的传承性,少数民族女性嫁衣亦被认为是民族审美理想和审美趣味的重要体现。在我国少数民族女性嫁衣中,瑶族、苗族、水族、回族、壮族、侗族、朝鲜族、藏族及土族女性嫁衣都是颇具特点、也极为重要的民族服饰。

  7. RELN基因rs12705169位点与女性偏执型精神分裂症关联%Positive association between rs12705169 in RELN and female schizophrenia patients in a Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟云; 张红星; 赵晶媛; 宋学勤; 李文强; 郝伟; 吕路线

    2012-01-01

    目的 以中国汉族偏执型精神分裂症患者为研究对象,重复验证RELN(Reelin)基因单核苷酸多态性与精神分裂症的关联性.方法 以美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第四版为诊断标准(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition,DSM-Ⅳ)在河南省北部地区收集326 例偏执型精神分裂症患者(男女各半),在同一地域招募健康体检者334 名(男女各半) 作为对照,检测RELN 基因rs12705169、rs11764507 和rs17157643 单核苷酸多态性位点.结果 仅发现患者组和对照组之间rs12705169 位点的基因型和等位基因频率差异有统计学意义(P < 0.01).按性别分层后进一步分析,rs12705169 在女性患者和对照之间基因型和基因频率分布差异具有统计学意义(CC:OR = 0.27,95%CI = 0.18 ~ 0.45; AC:OR = 0.43,95%CI = 0.29 ~ 0.63,P < 0.01).结论 RELN 基因多态性与中国女性偏执型汉族精神分裂症存在关联,RELN 基因可能是精神分裂症的易感基因.%Objective To analyze the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) , in RELN gene and paranoid schizophrenia, and to determine if the RELN gene is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. Methods The participants consisted of 326 patients with paranoid schizophrenia (163 males and 163 females) and 334 healthy controls (167 males and 167 females). All patients were unrelated Han Chinese born and living in the North Henan province. The concurrent diagnoses were made by psychiatrists according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) (1994). Healthy controls were recruited from volunteers with simple nonstructured interview performed by psychiatrists. Three SNPs were selected and genotyped. Genotyping was performed using the Real-time PCR. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between patients and controls to assess the association to schizophrenia. Results A

  8. 从Mrs Dalloway两个译本的比较中探究译者的女性意识%Female Consciousness in Translators:Contrastive Study of Two Chinese Versions of Mrs Dalloway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑川

    2013-01-01

    The study of feminist translation theory starts very late in China, researchers begin to pay attention to the feminist translation in the late 20th century.By comparing two Chinese versions of Mrs Dalloway from the perspective of feminist transla-tion theory,this paper is to probe into translator`s female consciousness in the translation of feminist text.%女性主义翻译理论研究在我国起步较晚,20世纪末期翻译研究者才开始关注女性主义翻译。该文将从女性主义翻译理论角度出发,通过对Mrs Dalloway的两个中文译本的对比,探究译者在翻译女性主义文本过程中的女性意识显现。

  9. 我国优秀女子三级跳远运动员单足跳技术的生物力学分析%Biomechanical Analysis of the Hop Technique of Chinese Elite Female Triple Jumpers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹景川

    2012-01-01

    This research chooses the top eight athletes of the female triple jump finals in track and field events of the llth National Games as the objects, and takes the kinetic index of the hop techniques as the content of the research. In light of the relevant data of the world elite female triple jumpers, the research is trying to find out the factors which influence the hop technology of Chinese elite female triple jumpers. The results indicate that the touching-ground angle and the body' s anteversion angle of Chinese elite female triple jumpers is universally small, the tortuosity of the keen joint of the take-off leg is comparatively big, the angle of the hip is a little smaller, the keen joint of the take-off leg has a small range, the hip-bone joint angel and the pedaled and stretch range of the take-off leg are also smaller. The cushion period is a little longer; while in a very short time of the take-off leg leaving the ground, the take-off foot manifests the technique characteristics as the touching-ground angle is bigger than the take-off angle.%以参加第11届全运会田径比赛女子三级跳远决赛的前8名运动员作为研究对象,就其单足跳技术的运动学指标作为研究内容,结合世界优秀女子三级跳远运动员的相关资料,试图找出影响我国优秀女子三级跳远运动员单足跳技术的因素所在。结果表明:我国优秀女子三级跳远运动员的着地角与躯干前倾角普遍偏小;起跳腿膝关节的弯曲程度较大,髋角偏小;起跳腿膝关节的蹬伸幅度小,缓冲时间较长;起跳腿离地瞬间的起跳脚表现出"着地角大于起跳角"技术特征。

  10. Is the growth of the fetus of a non-smoking mother influenced by the smoking of either grandmother while pregnant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L Miller

    Full Text Available There are animal data that indicate that prenatal environmental exposures have sex-specific effects on subsequent generations. In humans, an increase in birthweight has been reported if the maternal grandmother had smoked in the pregnancy giving rise to the mother. Here we assess whether prenatal exposure of either parent to cigarette smoke has a sex-specific effect on the grandchild's birth measurements.Information from 12707 maternal and 9677 paternal grandmothers of children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC concerned whether they had smoked while expecting the study parent. Study children were weighed and measured at birth. Analyses to test effects of grandmaternal prenatal smoking used multiple regression allowing for several potential confounders; analyses were restricted to births to non-smoking study mothers.After adjustment, the average birthweight, birth length and bmi measurements of the grandsons (but not granddaughters were greater if the maternal grandmother smoked prenatally: birthweight  = +61 [95% CI +30, +92] g; birth length  = +0.19 [95% CI +0.02, +0.35] cm; BMI  = +1.6 [95% CI +0.6, +2.6] g/m(2. Similar effects were seen in births to primiparae and multiparae. Additional allowance for maternal birthweight resulted in an average increase in boys to +100 g [95% CI +61, +140] g. There were no fetal growth differences if the paternal grandmother had smoked prenatally.The evidence from this study suggests that when the mother does not smoke in pregnancy the maternal grandmother's smoking habit in pregnancy has a positive association with her grandson's fetal growth.

  11. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle, E-mail: helle.margrete.meltzer@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lise Brantsaeter, Anne [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Borch-Iohnsen, Berit [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, Dag G. [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Alexander, Jan [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Thomassen, Yngvar [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Stigum, Hein [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Chronic Diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ydersbond, Trond A. [Statistics Norway, P.Box 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-07-15

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  12. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts and epithelial ovarian cancer: a nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Travis, Ruth C.; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fortner, Renée T.; Ose, Jennifer; Boeing, Heiner; Menéndez, Virginia; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Chamosa, Saioa; Huerta Castaño, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Klinaki, Eleni; Saieva, Calogero; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert W.; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Background Acrylamide was classified as ‘probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)’ by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case-control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent. Methods A nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk. Results No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but non-statistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1:1.91, 95%CI:0.96-3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1:1.90, 95%CI:0.94-3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose-response trends were observed. Conclusion This EPIC nested case-control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC. Impact It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk. PMID:26376083

  13. Technique and training characteristics of Chinese elite female javelin throwers%我国女子标枪运动员技术特征与训练特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立冬; 曲淑华

    2016-01-01

    Chinese female javelin throwers have achieved great results both in Inchon Asia Games and Beijing World Championships,Zhang Li winning the gold medal in Asia Games,and Lv Huihui winning the silver medal in World Championships.Foreign javelin coaches’training theory and un-derstanding on technique had a deep influence on Chinese athletes.By using literature review,trac-ing method,interview and video-tapes,this paper made a comparison on the technique character-istics of domestic and international elite female javelin throwers.The results show that there is still a gap in release parameters between domestic athletes and international elite athletes.The release ve-locity is a decisive element to distance rather than the only parameter;Chinese athletes’release ve-locity is slow.Release angle tends to be larger,angle of trunk and impulse step are small while the delivery step is too long.In view of the above,we need to have a deep understanding on foreign coa-ches’technique and training theory,and this paper mainly introduce the four aspects:rotational throwing,shoulder joint strength training,force sequence and training characteristics.%运用文献资料法、跟踪法、访谈法及录像分析法,对国家队以及国内优秀运动员技术特征与国际优秀运动员进行对比。研究结果显示,与国际优秀运动员相比,国内运动员在出手参数方面仍存在一定差距,运动员出手速度偏低,出手速度是决定运动成绩的重要因素但不是唯一因素;出手角度呈偏大趋势;躯干倾角过小、冲量步过小而制动步过大,膝关节角度与国际优秀运动员一致。外教对标枪技术的理解与训练理念值得我们学习,研究主要从“旋转”掷标枪技术、肩关节力量训练、运动员发力顺序以及训练特征四个方面加以介绍。

  14. 我国高等学校女性领导群体特征分析%On Characteristics of Female Leaders of Chinese Higher Education Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻恺; 王饮寒

    2015-01-01

    On the data base of resumes of 770 female leaders from 1,166 regular undergraduate colleges and universities,this research adopts CV research method to study similarities and differences of group characteristics of female leader in colleges and universities from school level,position and du-ties in China. The study found that there are few female leaders of the overall number with low pro-portion. School level,position and duties have a mutual influence on serving for female leaders. The higher the school level is,the better working conditions are for female leaders. There is little difference in female leadership characteristics between chief and deputy posts. Due to different positions,working conditions for female executive leaders are generally better than the Party leaders. Based on the current characteristics and current situation,the women themselves,colleges and universities as well as the com-munity need to work together to improve their post competence,optimize the service proportions and structure of female leaders in our organizations,create a social support system for their development,and optimize the educational ecology.%运用履历研究法,以我国1166所普通本科高等学校的770位校级女性领导的简历为数据基础,从学校层次、职位与职务三个维度探讨我国高等学校女性领导的群体特征,研究发现:我国本科院校女性领导总体人数少、比例低;学校层次、职位与职务彼此间对女性领导的任职具有相互影响;学校层次越高,女性领导的任职条件越好;正副职职位间,女性领导任职特征差异不大;不同职务间,女性行政领导的任职条件普遍优于党委领导。针对当前特征与现状,女性自身、高校以及社会需共同努力,提高女性自身任职能力,优化组织中女性领导的任职比例与结构,创建女性发展的社会支持系统,优化教育生态。

  15. On Characteristics of Female Leaders of Chinese Higher Education Institutions%我国高等学校女性领导群体特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻恺; 王饮寒

    2015-01-01

    On the data base of resumes of 770 female leaders from 1,166 regular undergraduate colleges and universities,this research adopts CV research method to study similarities and differences of group characteristics of female leader in colleges and universities from school level,position and du-ties in China. The study found that there are few female leaders of the overall number with low pro-portion. School level,position and duties have a mutual influence on serving for female leaders. The higher the school level is,the better working conditions are for female leaders. There is little difference in female leadership characteristics between chief and deputy posts. Due to different positions,working conditions for female executive leaders are generally better than the Party leaders. Based on the current characteristics and current situation,the women themselves,colleges and universities as well as the com-munity need to work together to improve their post competence,optimize the service proportions and structure of female leaders in our organizations,create a social support system for their development,and optimize the educational ecology.%运用履历研究法,以我国1166所普通本科高等学校的770位校级女性领导的简历为数据基础,从学校层次、职位与职务三个维度探讨我国高等学校女性领导的群体特征,研究发现:我国本科院校女性领导总体人数少、比例低;学校层次、职位与职务彼此间对女性领导的任职具有相互影响;学校层次越高,女性领导的任职条件越好;正副职职位间,女性领导任职特征差异不大;不同职务间,女性行政领导的任职条件普遍优于党委领导。针对当前特征与现状,女性自身、高校以及社会需共同努力,提高女性自身任职能力,优化组织中女性领导的任职比例与结构,创建女性发展的社会支持系统,优化教育生态。

  16. Can variation in HIV/STD-related risk be explained by individual SES? Findings from female sex workers in a rural Chinese county

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiaoyi; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Hongmei; Hong, Yan; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Ran; Dong, Baiqing; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liang, Shaoling

    2008-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) at a macro level because the majority of new cases of HIV infection in the world have been reported in underdeveloped or developing countries. However, empirical data on the relationship between individual SES and HIV/STD related risk have been mixed. Employing quantitative data from 454 female sex workers, this study was designed to examine the profile of the study sample in terms of their individual...

  17. CT assessment of subtypes of pulmonary emphysema in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed a retrospective study examining the prevalence and subtypes of pulmonary emphysema (PE) identified by computed tomography (CT) in females. We reviewed the records of 1,687 female subjects who had undergone CT. They were divided into the following 2 age groups: group A (<50 years) and group B (≥50 years). PE was diagnosed by the presence of low-attenuation areas using visual assessment (grades 0-3) on CT images. Two subtypes of PE were observed: centrilobular emphysema (CLE) and paraseptal emphysema (PSE). PE was divided into the following 3 categories: I (CLE or CLE-predominant); II (CLE and PSE of equal extent); and III (PSE or PSE-predominant). PE was found in 64 of 274 smokers (23.3%) and 54 of 1,413 non-smokers (3.8%). In smoking subjects, when grades 1 and 2 were grouped together as mild PE, the mean age for CT grade 3 (severe PE) was significantly higher than that for mild PE. In group A, category III predominated, whereas category I was more prevalent in group B, in both smoking and non-smoking subjects. A high incidence of PE was found in smoking subjects as compared with non-smoking subjects. PSE predominated in younger subjects, whereas CLE predominated in older subjects. (author)

  18. CT Assessment of Subtypes of Pulmonary Emphysema in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togami,Taro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed a retrospective study examining the prevalence and subtypes of pulmonary emphysema (PE identified by computed tomography (CT in females. We reviewed the records of 1,687 female subjects who had undergone CT. They were divided into the following 2 age groups:group A (<50 years and group B (>_50 years. PE was diagnosed by the presence of low-attenuation areas using visual assessment (grades 0-3 on CT images. Two subtypes of PE were observed:centrilobular emphysema (CLE and paraseptal emphysema (PSE. PE was divided into the following 3 categories:I (CLE or CLE-predominant;II (CLE and PSE of equal extent;and III (PSE or PSE-predominant. PE was found in 64 of 274 smokers (23.3% and 54 of 1,413 non-smokers (3.8%. In smoking subjects, when grades 1 and 2 were grouped together as mild PE, the mean age for CT grade 3 (severe PE was significantly higher than that for mild PE. In group A, category III predominated, whereas category I was more prevalent in group B, in both smoking and non-smoking subjects. A high incidence of PE was found in smoking subjects as compared with non-smoking subjects. PSE predominated in younger subjects, whereas CLE predominated in older subjects.

  19. 我国女性传统婚服的文脉与趋势%A Study on the Trends and Cultural Context of Chinese Female Traditional Wedding Dress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非; 季勇

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese female traditional wedding dress has experienced long-time evolution and development, the core cultural meaning and ethnic features have retained. In an era of pursuing individualism, though people can freely choose their wedding dress, wedding customs are still tinged with traditional characteristics. With necessary guidance, promotion and innovation, female traditional wedding dress will continue to play important role in meet personalized needs of contemporary people.%我国女性传统婚服虽经漫长演变,其蕴含的民族特征与文化精髓至今依存。在追求个性的时代中,人们虽可自由选择婚服,但婚礼习俗依然带有传统特色。如加以引导、推广和创新,女性传统婚服依然有着满足现代消费者的基础。

  20. Influence of a chinese traditional medicine recipes for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation on levels of serum with interleukin-6 and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism in female rats after ovariectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the influence of a Chinese traditional medicine recipe for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation (CRRK) in female rats on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism after ovariectomy. Methods: Ninety female SD rats were divided into 6 groups: control, model (ovariectomy only) treated with nyl-estriol, treated with CRRK (high, moderate and low doses). CRRK (Gu Kang) was administered at the three dose levels for 90 days. Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the serum levels of estradiol (E2), IL-6, calcitonin (CT) and BGP. The weight and histo-morphology of the uterus of the rats sacrificed after 90 days of treatment was also studied. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-6 in the model group were significantly higher (P 2 and CT, BGP were significantly lower (P 2 and BGP were significantly higher (P < 0.05-0.001). The weight of uterus was also increased (P < 0.05). The composite recipe proved to have definite effects on normalizing the uterine histomorphology. Conclusion: The results had showed that the composite recipe had good effects on prevention and therapy of osteoporosis after ovariectomy in rats

  1. A Study on the Trends and Cultural Context of Chinese Female Traditional Wedding Dress%我国女性传统婚服的文脉与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非; 季勇

    2015-01-01

    我国女性传统婚服虽经漫长演变,其蕴含的民族特征与文化精髓至今依存。在追求个性的时代中,人们虽可自由选择婚服,但婚礼习俗依然带有传统特色。如加以引导、推广和创新,女性传统婚服依然有着满足现代消费者的基础。%Although Chinese female traditional wedding dress has experienced long-time evolution and development, the core cultural meaning and ethnic features have retained. In an era of pursuing individualism, though people can freely choose their wedding dress, wedding customs are still tinged with traditional characteristics. With necessary guidance, promotion and innovation, female traditional wedding dress will continue to play important role in meet personalized needs of contemporary people.

  2. 女性性功能量表的汉化及其信效度评价%Translation of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) into Chinese and its reliability and validity evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼青青; 张琴薇; 姚慧岚; 田园; 嵇加佳; 刘超

    2013-01-01

    目的 翻译女性性功能量表(female sexual function index,FSFI)并评价其在普通人群和糖尿病患者中的信度及效度.方法 通过系统的翻译-回译形成中文版FSFI量表,再对其进行信、效度评价.结果 内容效度系数值为0.953;2次测量在每个维度均有良好的相关性,r值在0.817~0.922,以阴道润滑维度相关系数最高(0.922),而性唤起维度最低(0.817);所有样本(包括糖尿病与非糖尿病)各维度的克朗巴赫α信度系数0.760~0.874;糖尿病样本中各维度的克朗巴赫α信度系数0.783~0.882;而非糖尿病样本则为0.757~0.865.Pearson相关系数分析发现所有样本、糖尿病组及普通人群组各维度之间的相关性良好.结论 中文版FSFI有良好的内容效度、重测信度和内部一致性,可作为今后临床评估女性性功能的量表.%Objective To translate the Female Sexual Function Index(FSFI) into Chinese and establish its psychometric properties among ordinary Chinese people and diabetes patients.Methods A two-phase study design was applied.The Chinese version of FSFI was established by translation and back translation,then the reliability and validity of the FSFI were evaluated.Results The content validity coefficient of FSFI was 0.953.The test-retest reliability in each dimension had good correlations (r value was 0.817~0.922),with the highest correlation coefficient in vaginal lubrication dimension (0.922) and arousal dimension the minimum (0.817).In all samples (including diabetes and non diabetes) a reliability coefficients of the Cronbach alpha of each dimension was from 0.760 to 0.874.The Cronbach alpha of each dimension for the diabetic group was from 0.783 to 0.882,and from 0.757 to 0.865 in the non-diabetes group.Pearson correlation of each dimension was very good in total samples,the diabetes group,and the non-diabetes group.Conclusions The psychometric properties of the FSFI demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability

  3. Analysis on risk factors of chronic diseases among Chinese female physicians%我国女医师慢性病相关危险因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐士格; 李晓燕; 王临虹; 王丽敏

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解女医师烟草暴露、饮酒、不合理饮食和身体活动4类慢性病相关危险因素的流行状况.方法 采用多阶段分层随机抽样方法抽取全国医疗机构和疾控机构的女医师共5 468名,以自填式问卷了解其一般人口学特征、慢性病相关危险因素(吸烟、饮酒、饮食和身体活动)的流行状况.结果 我国女医师的现在吸烟率为0.34%(95%CI:0.18%~0.50%),二手烟暴露率为76.49%(95%CI:75.18%~77.79%),有害饮酒率为1.82%(95%CI:1.45%~2.19%);蔬菜水果不足率为51.79%(95%CI:49.96%~53.62%);经常锻炼率为20.06%(95%CI:18.90%~21.23%),每日静态行为时间的中位数为7小时(P25~P75:4~10小时).结论 我国女医师存在一定水平的慢性病相关危险因素暴露,尤以二手烟暴露、蔬菜水果摄入量不足、身体活动不足更为突出.%Objective To describe the prevalence of risk factors of chronic diseases among Chinese female physicians, including tobacco exposure, alcohol drinking, unhealthy dietary and physical activity. Methods A total of 5 468 female physicians, which were sampled from nationwide medical institutions and disease control centers, were enrolled in the survey. The demographic characteristics and prevalence of chronic disease risk factors ( smoking, alcohol drinking, dietary and physical activity ) of them were understood with self-administered questionnaires. Results The current smoking rate, second-hand smoke exposure rate, harmful alcohol drinking rate, inadequate intake rate of vegetables and fruits and regular exercise rate of Chinese female physicians was 0. 34% ( 95% CI:0. 18% -0. 50% ), 76. 49% ( 95% CI: 75.18%-77.79% ), 1. 82% ( 95% CI: 1. 45%-2. 19% ), 51. 79% ( 95% CI:49. 96%-53. 62% ) and 20. 06% ( 95% CI: 18.90%-21. 23% ), respectively. The median of time spent on sedentary behaviors per day was 7 hours ( P25-P75 :4-10 hours ). Conclusion There is certain level of exposure to risk factors among Chinese female physicians

  4. A meta-analysis on overweight, obesity and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese female population%超重肥胖与中国女性乳腺癌关系的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪; 钱云; 靳子义; 董美华; 韩仁强; 周金意; 赵金扣; 张作风; 武鸣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between overweight,obesity and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese female population.Methods Literatures published in China and abroad about overweight,obesity and breast cancer risk among Chinese females were searched.We used "breast cancer","overweight"," obesity"," weight"," body mass index" and "risk factors" as keywords,to retrieve papers in Chinese literature databases including CNKI,Wanfang and Weipu database.The same strategy was used to retrieve English papers in English literature database including Embase database,PubMed,Science Direct,Elsevier and Cochrane database,supplemented by literature tracing method.Time range was from the founding of each database to April 2012.A total of 124 research papers were collected.Using Stata11.2 software,meta-analysis was conducted,combined odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to estimate the associations between overweight,obesity and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese female population.Results Eighteen studies were included in meta-analysis,among them 12 studies were in Chinese and 6 were in English,with a number of 7217 cases and 81 605 controls.Results showed a 7.7%increased risk of breast cancer among overweight or obesity women (OR =1.08,95% CI:1.04-1.12).Compared with normal BMI women,the OR(95% CI) of overweight or obesity women were 1.07 (1.03-1.11) and 1.56 (1.29-1.84) before and after the adjustment of menopausal status.Conclusion Overweight,obesity may be important risk factors of breast cancer in Chinese female population.The intervention and control activities may reduce the risk of breast cancer at population level.%目的 探讨超重肥胖与中国女性乳腺癌发病风险的关系.方法 收集国内外公开发表的关于超重肥胖与中国女性乳腺癌研究的文献,以“乳腺癌”、“超重”、“肥胖”、“体重”、“体质指数”、“体重指数”和“危险因素”为关键词,

  5. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Ginseng among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lung Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of our study is to analyze the association between prescribed Chinese herbal products (CHPs containing Ginseng and the risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen (TMX users and to identify any possible interactive effects between Ginseng and TMX with respect to preventing the development of subsequent endometrial cancer in an estrogen-dependent breast cancer population in Taiwan. Methods. All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer receiving tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008, were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service, and CHP-Ginseng prescribed across the 30,556 TMX-treated breast cancer (BC survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for the utilization of CHP-Ginseng. Cox’s proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs for endometrial cancer associated with Ginseng use among the TMX-treated BC cohort. Results. The HR for the development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors who had ever taken Ginseng after TXM treatment was significantly decreased compared to those who never used CHP. Conclusion. A significant inhibitory relationship between Ginseng consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer less than 2 years after TMX treatment was detected among BC survivors.

  6. Experience of Southern Chinese: new challenges in treating young female breast cancer patients at child-bearing age--a call for multi-disciplinary collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Ava; Chu, Annie Tsz-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Compared with western populations, Southern Chinese, especially those residing in Hong Kong, are experiencing increasing breast cancer incidence and also a younger onset of breast cancer. Combating this problem and treating young women with breast cancer poses specific challenges and complicated considerations. With reference to the postponement in the age of marriage and reproduction in modern societies, the issue of fertility after breast cancer, especially for high-risk young patients, is one significant quality of life concern that cannot be underestimated as a secondary medical topic. While the issue has its significance and is confronting front-line breast cancer care teams of different disciplines, related research is mostly on Caucasians. In cultures where the traditional expectation on women for child-bearing is still prominent, young breast cancer patients may endure significant distress over fertility options after breast cancer. There is a lack of related data on Asian breast cancer survivors at child-bearing age, which calls for a pressing need to encourage qualitative groundwork, case reports, and cohort experiences in hope for providing insight and arouse research interest. In order to provide a long-term comprehensive multidisciplinary management service with encouragement to encompass prospects for a positive future among young breast cancer survivors, relevant disciplines need to collaborate and work efficaciously together both on clinical and research aspects of cancer-related fertility issues. PMID:22994790

  7. Feasibility and acute toxicity of 3-dimensional conformal external-beam accelerated partial-breast irradiation for early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery in Chinese female patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-yan; HE Zhen-yu; XUE Ming; CHEN Li-xin; WU San-gang; GUAN Xun-xing

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing number of studies worldwide have advocated the replacement of whole-breast irradiation with accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiation (APBI-3DCRr) for early-stage breast cancer. But APBI can be only used in selected population of patients with early-staged breast cancer. It is not replacing the whole breast radiotherapy. This study aimed to examine the feasibility and acute normal tissue toxicity of the APBI-3DCRT technique in Chinese female patients who generally have smaller breasts compared to their Western counterparts.Methods From May 2006 to December 2009, a total of 48 Chinese female patients (with early-stage breast cancer who met the inclusion criteria) received APBI-3DCRT after breast-conserving surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The total dosage from APBI-3DCRT was 34 Gy, delivered in 3.4 Gy per fractions, twice per day at intervals of at least six hours. The radiation dose, volume of the target area and volume of irradiated normal tissues were calculated.Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) 3.0.Results Among the 48 patients, the planning target volume for evaluation (PTVE) was (90.42±9.26) cm3, the ipsilateral breast volume (IBV) was (421.74±28.53) cm3, and the ratio between the two was (20.74±5.86)%. Evaluation of the dosimetric characteristics of the PTVE revealed excellent dosimetric results in 14 patients and acceptable results in 34 patients. The dose delivered to the PTVE ranged from 93% to 110% of the prescribed dose. The average ratio of the volume of PTVE receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V95) was (99.26±0.37)%. The habituation index (HI) and the conformity index (CI) were 1.08±0.01 and 0.72±0.02, respectively, suggesting good homogeneity and conformity of the dose delivered to the target field. The radiation dose to normal tissues and organs was within the dose limitation.Subjects experienced mild acute

  8. 论20世纪中国女性写作的历史意识与史述传统%On the Historical Consciousness and Tradition of Chinese Female Writings in the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王侃

    2011-01-01

    Women are the blind spots in China history of two thousand years, which makes "history" as a relative huge political concept for women. Thus, "history" or "historical narrative" is a writing topic for women to choose after they gain writing power which is significant for the modern Chinese women's writing. There are three stages to develop in the 20th Century for Chinese women writing: from the recognition of "female national writing" to looking at the history of revolutionary writing, and a broken and critical historical narrative in the 1990s to emphasize the building of the main type.%女性是两千年历史的盲点,这使得“历史”成为一个相对于女性的巨大的政治概念。由此,“历史”或“历史叙事”成为女性获得写作权力后必须面对的一个写作主题。这个主题的写作对于进入现代以来的中国女性写作意义非凡。20世纪中国女性写作的史述传统经历了由认同历史的“女性国民化写作”到审视历史的革命化写作的演进,并在20世纪90年代发展为旨在强调主体性构建的断裂式、批判性的历史叙事。

  9. 第30届奥运会中国女篮比赛失利技术统计分析研究%Statistical Analysis of the 30 th Olympic Games Chinese Female Basketball Team’ s Technical Failures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩

    2015-01-01

    采用统计法、文献资料法、专家访谈法对第30届奥运会中国女篮比赛失利的技术指标进行统计分析,认为中国女篮在助攻数据上存在显著性差异,抢断数据存在非常显著性差异;运动员平均年龄较轻,身高上具有一定优势,但力量相对较差,对抗能力较弱;心理素质和对节奏的掌控、自我调节能力相对比较差,积极主动性不高;个人补、协防意识和技术较差,整体防守的积极主动性、攻击性不强。%On the basis of statistics , literature review and expert interview , this study statistically analyzes the 30th Olympic Games Chinese female basketball team ’ s tactic failures.The conclusions are: Chinese basketball team’s data of assists exhibit significant disparities;the data of steals exhibit highly significant disparities;the ath-letes’ average age is comparatively young;their heights are an advantage , but comparatively weak in physical and offensive strength;the athletes exhibit relatively weak mental strength , rhythm control , self-adjusting ability and aggressiveness;weaknesses are found in the aspects of individual fill-in and double-cover awareness and technique;the whole team exhibit lack of aggressiveness in defense and attack .

  10. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  11. The Comparison of Female Images in Chinese and Western Classical Tragedies%中西古典悲剧中的女性形象比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锐

    2011-01-01

    The feminine images in Chinese classical tragedies are passive, responsible compared with these in western classical tragedies, they often has to do something and control theirselves, what' s more, they often obeyed the anticipation of male and the society unconsciously . Their images have manifested morality and justice esteem in China national culture, and neglected human nature and individual emotion. But in the Western classical tragedies, the feminine images manifested strong individualism ideas such as the humanist , respection to individuality and emotion. This kind of different national culture point of view in China and the West has the inalienable relation with different economic society lifes. Analysing the similarities and differences of these images, we can understand thoroughly China and the West culture tradition.%中国悲剧中的女性形象和西方悲剧中的女性形象相比,更多的是被动,是责任,是诸多的不得已和自控,而且更多的是不自觉地顺从了男性和社会对她们的期待。她们的形象体现了中国民族文化中对道义的推崇,对人性和个人情感的忽视。而西方古典悲剧中的女性形象则体现了西方以人为本、尊重个性、尊重情感的浓重的个人主义观念。这种不同的民族文化心态与中西不同的经济社会生活有着不可分割的联系。

  12. 女医师自诉颈肩痛及其影响因素%Self-Reported Neck and Shoulder Pain and Its Influencing Factors among Chinese Female Medical Professionals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐士格; 王临虹; 王丽敏; 李晓燕; 王志会

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解女医师颈肩痛自报患病情况及其影响因素. [方法]采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法抽取全国医疗和疾病预防控制机构的女医师共5468名,以自填式问卷了解其一般人口学特征、工作相关情况、个人生活习惯及颈肩痛自报患病情况等. [结果]女医师的颈肩痛自报患病率为46.1%(95%CI:44.7%~47.4%).不同年龄、地区和机构类别间的颈肩痛自报患病率差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).不同年龄组间,年龄越大自报患病率越高(P<0.05);不同地区间,西部自报患病率最高,东部次之,中部最低(P<0.05);不同机构间,医疗机构自报患病率高于疾控机构(P<0.05).多因素非条件logistic回归分析显示,教育程度高、工作年限长、加班、值夜班、静态行为时间长、饮酒和入睡困难是颈肩痛的危险因素. [结论]我国女医师颈肩痛自报患病率较高,其危险因素来自人口学特征、工作相关情况和个人生活习惯等多个方面.%[ Objective ] To estimate the prevalence of neck and shoulder pain (NSP) and its influential factors among Chinese female medical professionals. [ Methods ] A multistage, stratified cluster sampling strategy was employed to select 5 468 female medical professionals from medical institutions and centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) in China. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted to collect information on demographic characteristics, work-related conditions, lifestyle, and self-reported prevalence of NSP. [ Results ] The self-reported NSP prevalence was 46.1% (95%CI: 44.7%-47.4%), and significantly different among different age groups, regions, and institutions (P<0.05). The older age group showed a higher self-reported NSP prevalence (P<0.05). The highest self-reported prevalence was found in western area, followed by eastern area and middle area (P<0.05). Female medical professionals in medical institutions

  13. Research on the Menstruation Related Issue in Female Reserve Forces for Chinese Table Tennis Players%中国乒乓球女子后备力量月经状况的调查与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永安; 李小娟

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the menstrual function of 67 players in the winter training of Women's Youth Team of Chinese Table Tennis Team. The result showed that early and long - term table tennis train- ing has no obvious adverse effects on the menstruation of the female players but the menarche age has the trends to get younger; a higher incidence of menstrual cycle abnormity, dysmenorrheal, premenstrual symp- toms but the low attendance rates and lack of the menstrual - related knowledge. Proposal: It is important to teach the female reserve forces adolescent physical knowledge, encourage the players to have an active treat- ment, strengthen ~ientific training.%对参加中国乒乓球女二队冬训67名运动员的月经状况进行问卷调查。结果表明:早期、长期系统的乒乓球训练对女子运动员月经初潮无明显及不良影响,但是月经初潮年龄有变小的趋势;运动员月经周期异常、痛经和经前期症状发生率较高,但是就诊率较低,月经相关知识欠缺。建议:重视时女子后备力量实施青春生理卫生知识教育、鼓励运动员积极治疗、加强科学训练。

  14. A nation-wide multicenter 10-year (1999-2008 retrospective clinical study of endocrine therapy for Chinese females with breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Zhou

    Full Text Available Endocrine therapy (ET is one of the main systemic treatments for patients with breast cancer. To our knowledge, few studies have addressed the performance of ET or relevant influencing factors in cancer treatment in China. By retrospectively analyzing the clinicopathological data on breast cancer collected from representative hospitals of 7 traditional areas in China in one random month from each year between year 1999 and 2008, we found that: 1 The rate of the use of hormone receptor (HR testing was 83.8% (3529/4211, with the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ rate and/or the progesterone receptor-positive (PR+ rate being 67.9% (2395/3529, and the ER-PR rate being 32.1% (1134/3529. 2 Of the 1599 patients who had received ET, 999 patients (58.3% were premenopausal while 600 (41.7% were postmenopausal; 1598 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT, whereas only 1 patient received palliative therapy. The medications mainly administered to patients were anti-estrogen agents (80.3% [1283/1598], followed by AIs (15.5% [248/1598]. Of the 1598 patients receiving AHT, 1416 patients (88.6% were positive for ER and/or PR, while 75 (4.7% were negative for both and 108 patients (6.7% had unknown HR status. The ratio of the use of endocrine therapy for breast cancer patients with ER+ and/or PR+ status was 60.0% (1416/2395. 3 Results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that geography, occupations, and history of chemotherapy and surgery were dependent factors affecting the application of ET in breast cancer treatment in China (P<0.001. In conclusion, the use of ET on Chinese women with breast cancer is increasingly and gradually accounted into the standardized process. Economic status, occupations, and history of chemotherapy and surgery were key factors affecting the application of ET. People residing in developed areas, engaging in mental labour, having history of chemotherapy and surgery are susceptible to accept ET.

  15. CURRENT SITUATION OF FEMALE RUGBY TEAMS IN CHINESE COLLEGES AND SOME MEASURES FOR IMPROVEMENTS%我国高校女子英式"七人制"橄榄球运动队发展现状及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟勇; 王长权; 郎健

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing returned questionnaires and interviews, the current situation of female rugby teams in Chinese colleges was assessed and problems identified. Proposed solutions and countermeasures against identified problems were put forward, in the hope to promote rugby in colleges and universities.%为结合高校现有资源开展英式"七人制"橄榄球运动,在促进高校竞技体育发展的同时为国家培养出更多优秀的橄榄球人才,从而实现奥运金牌战略目标.本文运用问卷调查、专家访谈等方法对现阶段我国高校女子"七人制"橄榄球运动队发展现状进行分析,找出高校女子"七人制"橄榄球运动发展中的优势和不足,提出相应的解决方案,为女子"七人制"橄榄球运动在高校中快速、健康发展提出合理化建议.

  16. A Study on Female Wedding Dress of Chinese Minority Nationalities (Part 1) - The Workmanship and Colors%我国少数民族女性嫁衣研究(上)--做工与色彩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非

    2015-01-01

    我国少数民族女性嫁衣,不论做工还是色彩,都代表了民族服饰的一个较高水准,有的乃至是精致而时尚的民族服饰。在女性嫁衣中,有的以鱼皮为材料,有的用粗麻线和五色彩布圈缝制,有的则嵌以古老图腾和象征符,不仅做工细腻且别具韵味,亦有着丰富的文化内涵。%The female wedding dresses of Chinese minority nationalities represent the highest level of ethnic costumes in terms of both workmanship and colors and some are even exquisite and fashionable ethnic costumes. Among these wedding dresses, some are made from fish skin, some are sewn with hemp thread and five-color cloth coil and some are embedded with ancient totem and symbolic characters, exhibiting not only fine workmanship and unique charm, but also rich cultural connotations.

  17. A Study on Female Wedding Dress of Chinese Minority Nationalities (Part 1) - The Workmanship and Colors%我国少数民族女性嫁衣研究(上)--做工与色彩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非

    2015-01-01

    The female wedding dresses of Chinese minority nationalities represent the highest level of ethnic costumes in terms of both workmanship and colors and some are even exquisite and fashionable ethnic costumes. Among these wedding dresses, some are made from fish skin, some are sewn with hemp thread and five-color cloth coil and some are embedded with ancient totem and symbolic characters, exhibiting not only fine workmanship and unique charm, but also rich cultural connotations.%我国少数民族女性嫁衣,不论做工还是色彩,都代表了民族服饰的一个较高水准,有的乃至是精致而时尚的民族服饰。在女性嫁衣中,有的以鱼皮为材料,有的用粗麻线和五色彩布圈缝制,有的则嵌以古老图腾和象征符,不仅做工细腻且别具韵味,亦有着丰富的文化内涵。

  18. Polymorphisms in pre-miRNA genes and cooking oil fume exposure as well as their interaction on the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhihua; Li, Hang; Cui, Zhigang; Ren, Yangwu; Li, Xuelian; Wu, Wei; Guan, Peng; Qian, Biyun; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zhou, Baosen

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are suggested to be very important in the development of lung cancer. This study assesses the association between polymorphisms in miRNA-related (miR)-26a-1, miR-605, and miR-16-1 genes and risk of lung cancer, as well as the effect of gene–environment interaction between miRNA polymorphisms and cooking fume exposure on lung cancer. Methods A case–control study including 268 diagnosed nonsmoking female lung cancer patients and 266 nonsmoking female controls was carried out. Three miRNA polymorphisms (miR-26a-1 rs7372209, miR-605 rs2043556, and miR-16-1 rs1022960) were analyzed. Both additive and multiplicative interactions were assessed. Results MiR-16-1 rs1022960 may be associated with the risk of lung cancer. Carriers with TT genotype of miR-16-1 rs1022960 were observed to have a decreased risk of lung cancer compared with CC and CT genotype carriers (odds ratio =0.550, 95% confidence interval =0.308–0.983, P=0.044). MiR-26a-1 rs7372209 and miR-605 rs2043556 showed no statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. There were no significant associations between the three single nucleotide polymorphisms and lung adenocarcinoma. People with exposure to both risk genotypes of miR-26a-1 rs7372209 and cooking oil fumes were more likely to develop lung cancer than those with only genetic risk factor or cooking oil fumes (odds ratios were 2.136, 1.255, and 1.730, respectively). The measures of biological interaction and logistic models indicate that gene–environment interactions were not statistically significant on additive scale or multiplicative scale. Conclusion MiR-16-1 rs1022960 may be associated with the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population. The interactions between miRNA polymorphisms (miR-26a-1 rs7372209, miR-605 rs2043556, and miR-16-1 rs1022960) and cooking oil fumes were not statistically significant. PMID:26855588

  19. Chinese Consumers' Preferences for Livestock Products

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xuehua; Marchant, Mary A.; Qin, Xiang Dong; Zhuang, Jun

    2005-01-01

    This research surveyed over 784 Chinese consumers in Shanghai and Nanjing in 2001 and 2002, evaluating their preferences for livestock product attributes using ordered-probit models and factor analyses. Empirical results confirm the heterogeneity of Chinese livestock retail markets and suggest that livestock distributors should focus on Chinese female consumers and young consumers considering cooking convenience as a key attribute. Chinese consumers with higher incomes placed less importance ...

  20. 盐度对中华绒螯蟹雌性亲蟹代谢的影响%Effect of salinity on the metabolism of female Chinese crabs,Eriocheir sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄平; 贾小燕; 冯广朋; 章龙珍; 王瑞芳

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of salinity on the metabolism of female Chinese crabs (Eriocheir sinensis). The crabs, body weight (55.59 ± 6.24) g, were held at salinities of 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24, (16 ± l)tl, and we measured oxygen consumption, CO2 production, and ammonia-N excretion. Using this data, we calculated the respiratory quotient, oxygen-nitrogen ratio, energy consumption rate, and metabolic substrate ratio. Salinity had a significant effect on the oxygen consumption rate and ammonia-N excretion rate (P0.05). Between salinity 12-24, CO2 production and energy consumption were significantly lower than in the control group. Salinity had no effect on the respiratory quotient and oxygen-nitrogen ratio (P>0.05). Our results suggest that lipids are used preferentially as an energy source. Furthermore, proteins were utilized to a much greater extent than carbohydrates. The proportion of lipids in the metabolic substrate increased as salinity increased. Conversely, the carbohydrate metabolic substrate ratio decreased as salinity increased, whereas the protein metabolic substrate ratio remained constant. At salinity 24, the ratio of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid used as metabolic substrate was 6.4:14.6:79.0. During the reproductive migration, the female Chinese crab migrates from fresh water into the Yangtze River estuary. Thus, individuals must adjust to the higher salinity and modify their energy metabolism. Our results suggest that energy consumption decreases after entering salt water, allowing female crabs to divert energy into reproduction.%测定了不同盐度(0,6,12,18,24)条件下,中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)雌性亲蟹的耗氧率、CO2排出率及NH3-N排泄率,并研究了其呼吸熵、氧氮比、代谢率及能源物质供能比随盐度的变化情况.结果表明,体质量为(55.59±6.24)g的中华绒螯蟹雌性亲蟹,在水温(16±1)℃条件下,盐度对其耗氧率及NH3-N排泄率影响显著(P<0.05).在实验盐度范围内(0~24),

  1. Female Managers, Institutional Environment and Corporate Charitable Donation --Evidence from Chinese Capital Market%女性高管、制度环境与慈善捐赠——基于中国资本市场的经验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜兴强; 冯文滔

    2012-01-01

    本文实证研究了女性高管、制度环境对慈善捐赠行为的影响。研究结果表明,女性高管与中国上市公司的慈善捐赠显著正相关,即当公司中有女性高管、女性高管的比例越高,上市公司的慈善捐赠越多。本文进一步发现,政府干预调和了女性与公司捐赠之间的正相关关系,即当上市公司处于政府对市场干预较少的地区时,女性高管对公司慈善捐赠的正面影响显著下降,表明女性高管和外部制度环境之间呈现替代关系。本文的研究结论丰富了慈善捐赠相关领域的研究,且拓展了女性高管在公司决策中的经济后果研究。%Using a sample of Chinese listed firms, this paper empirically examines the influence of female man- agers on corporate charitable donation. The results show that female managers have a significantly positive impact on corporate charitable donation. In particular, the existence of female manager and the ratio of female managers are significantly positively associated with corporate charitable donation. Moreover, my paper also reveals that the positive association between female managers and corporate charitable donation is attenuated for firms located in provinces with better institutional environment. That is, the better the institutional environment is, the smaller the positive effect of female managers on corporate charitable donation is. This finding implies that there is a substitu- tion relationship between female managers and institutional environment. Above results are robust for a battery of sensitivity tests. San Cong Si De, Qin Nv Gong, and You Fu Gong. These old Chinese sayings reflect the narrow traditional value of Chinese women for thousands of years. However, the economic miracle of reforming and opening up in past 30 years changed the traditional views of the Chinese society towards women. Recent annual reports of Chinese lis- ted firms show that the female managers in the

  2. Polymorphisms in pre-miRNA genes and cooking oil fume exposure as well as their interaction on the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Z

    2016-01-01

    were 2.136, 1.255, and 1.730, respectively. The measures of biological interaction and logistic models indicate that gene–environment interactions were not statistically significant on additive scale or multiplicative scale. Conclusion: MiR-16-1 rs1022960 may be associated with the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population. The interactions between miRNA polymorphisms (miR-26a-1 rs7372209, miR-605 rs2043556, and miR-16-1 rs1022960 and cooking oil fumes were not statistically significant. Keywords: lung cancer, microRNA, single nucleotide polymorphism, cooking oil fume, interaction

  3. Preliminary characterization of the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with and without gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial communities inhabiting human mouth are associated with oral health and disease. Previous studies have indicated the general prevalence of adult gingivitis in China to be high. The aim of this study was to characterize in depth the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with or without gingivitis, by defining the microbial phylogenetic diversity and community-structure using highly paralleled pyrosequencing. Methods Six non-smoking Chinese, three with and three without gingivitis (age range 21-39 years, 4 females and 2 males were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study. Gingival parameters of inflammation and bleeding on probing were characterized by a clinician using the Mazza Gingival Index (MGI. Plaque (sampled separately from four different oral sites and salivary samples were obtained from each subject. Sequences and relative abundance of the bacterial 16 S rDNA PCR-amplicons were determined via pyrosequencing that produced 400 bp-long reads. The sequence data were analyzed via a computational pipeline customized for human oral microbiome analyses. Furthermore, the relative abundances of selected microbial groups were validated using quantitative PCR. Results The oral microbiomes from gingivitis and healthy subjects could be distinguished based on the distinct community structures of plaque microbiomes, but not the salivary microbiomes. Contributions of community members to community structure divergence were statistically accessed at the phylum, genus and species-like levels. Eight predominant taxa were found associated with gingivitis: TM7, Leptotrichia, Selenomonas, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella, Lautropia, and Haemophilus. Furthermore, 98 species-level OTUs were identified to be gingivitis-associated, which provided microbial features of gingivitis at a species resolution. Finally, for the two selected genera Streptococcus and Fusobacterium, Real-Time PCR based quantification of relative bacterial

  4. 福建省创建无烟医院控烟效果评价%Effect evaluation on smoking control intervention among non-smoking hospitals in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林竹; 洪源浩; 陈翔; 何水荣; 林英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate situation of non-smoking hospital in Fujian and provide evidence for imple-mentation of total smoking ban in medical institutions. Methods Before and after smoking control intervention, 2065 health care workers and 480 patients or their family members from 12 hospitals in Fuzhou , Sanming and Jiangle were randomly se-lected to participate for in the survey. Results The smoking rates of male staffs before and after intervention were 31. 78% and 16. 67% , respectively, and the difference had statistical significance (x2= 15. 18, P 0. 05). After the enforcement of non-smoking hospital program, the rates of health care workers who accepted intervention and smoking dissuasion were 10. 41 % and 9. 58% higher than that of baseline survey. But cigarette ends still can be found in the non-smoking areas in hospitals and no one discour-aged the smokers. Conclusion The program of non-smoking hospital in Fujian Province has made some improvement. To consolidate this achievement, it is necessary for medical institutions to strengthen tobacco control at the service-provide de-partment and improve the tobacco control ability. Furthermore, the medical institutions should set up long-effect model to spread tobacco control in society.%目的 了解福建省创建无烟医院情况,为实现医疗卫生单位全面禁烟提供依据.方法 在于预前和干预后分别采用简单随机方法抽取福州市、三明市及将乐县12家医院共2065名工作人员和采用拦截法抽取480名患者及家属进行相关调查.结果 干预前男性工作人员吸烟率31.78%(女性吸烟率为0),干预后降为16.67%,干预前后差异有统计学意义(x2=15.18,P<0.05).干预前后大部分医生都能主动关心患者吸烟状况并提供戒烟建议,差异无统计学意义(x2 =3.62,P>0.05).经过无烟医院创建活动,接受过控烟宣传的人和在院内看到有人劝阻吸烟者的比率,分别超出基线调查的10.41%和9.58%,但大

  5. Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  6. Endostatin and physical exercise in young female and male athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponder, M; Sepiol, K; Lankisch, S; Priglinger, M; Kampf, S; Litschauer, B; Fritzer-Szekeres, M; Strametz-Juranek, J

    2014-12-01

    It was suggested that endostatin, an angiogenic mediator, is influenced by physical exercise. We performed bicycle stress testing in 88 healthy non-smoking female and male individuals, divided into athlete and non-athlete groups. Serum endostatin and norepinephrine were measured at rest, after reaching maximum workload and after 20 min of recovery. At baseline, both female and male controls showed significant lower levels compared to female and male athletes (89.39±15.32 resp. 93.39±15.00 ng/ml; plevels in both groups and sexes was associated with bicycle stress testing (p for all groupslevels in athletes and controls of both sexes, the extent of increase depending on the extent of workload. An athletic lifestyle with >3 h of endurance training/week seems to lead to higher long-term endostatin levels which might play a role in the connection between sports and cardiovascular prevention.

  7. Female Managers, Institutional Environment and Corporate Charitable Donation --Evidence from Chinese Capital Market%女性高管、制度环境与慈善捐赠——基于中国资本市场的经验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜兴强; 冯文滔

    2012-01-01

    本文实证研究了女性高管、制度环境对慈善捐赠行为的影响。研究结果表明,女性高管与中国上市公司的慈善捐赠显著正相关,即当公司中有女性高管、女性高管的比例越高,上市公司的慈善捐赠越多。本文进一步发现,政府干预调和了女性与公司捐赠之间的正相关关系,即当上市公司处于政府对市场干预较少的地区时,女性高管对公司慈善捐赠的正面影响显著下降,表明女性高管和外部制度环境之间呈现替代关系。本文的研究结论丰富了慈善捐赠相关领域的研究,且拓展了女性高管在公司决策中的经济后果研究。%Using a sample of Chinese listed firms, this paper empirically examines the influence of female man- agers on corporate charitable donation. The results show that female managers have a significantly positive impact on corporate charitable donation. In particular, the existence of female manager and the ratio of female managers are significantly positively associated with corporate charitable donation. Moreover, my paper also reveals that the positive association between female managers and corporate charitable donation is attenuated for firms located in provinces with better institutional environment. That is, the better the institutional environment is, the smaller the positive effect of female managers on corporate charitable donation is. This finding implies that there is a substitu- tion relationship between female managers and institutional environment. Above results are robust for a battery of sensitivity tests. San Cong Si De, Qin Nv Gong, and You Fu Gong. These old Chinese sayings reflect the narrow traditional value of Chinese women for thousands of years. However, the economic miracle of reforming and opening up in past 30 years changed the traditional views of the Chinese society towards women. Recent annual reports of Chinese lis- ted firms show that the female managers in the

  8. 中国城市女性面部皮肤状态与中医体质类型相关性研究%A Relevant Research on Facial Skin Conditions of Chinese Urban Females and TCM Constitutional Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲建宁; 王济; 赵亚; 熊卫国; 方程; 戴竞; 孙淑娴; 王琦; 魏少敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between facial skin conditions and TCM constitutional types; To provide new means and methods for guidance of skin conservation and skin health improvement from the aspect of constitutional types. Methods Totally 2241 female volunteers in nine provincial capital cities and municipalities participated in this research, and were investigated by web questionnaire. Constitutional types were determined according to the“Classification and Judgment of TCM Constitutional Types”standard issued by China Association of Chinese Medicine. Skin color, glossiness, delicate degree, moistness, firmness, resilience, uniformity and other indicators were scored. Skin conditions were classified into three groups:1-3 score group, 4-6 score group, and 7-9 score group, and the constitutional differences among each group were compared. Results Yang-deficiency and mild constitutional types accounted for the largest proportion. Yellowish skin color accounted for the largest proportion, and the next were white, dark and reddish. Yang-deficiency constitutional type accounted for the largest proportion in 1-3 score group, and the second was Qi-stagnation; Yang-deficiency and mild constitutional types accounted for the largest proportion in 4-6 score group; mild constitutional type accounted for the largest proportion in 7-9 score group. Conclusion People with mild constitutional type got highest score in every skin index, while biased constitutional types influenced the score in varied degrees. The constitutional types which influenced Chinese urban females’ facial skin index more were Yang-deficiency and Qi-stagnation constitutional types.%目的:研究面部皮肤状态与中医体质类型的相关性,为从中医体质角度指导皮肤养护、增进皮肤健康提供新方法。方法在9个省会城市和直辖市招募女性志愿者2241名,以网络问卷的方式对受访者进行调查。体质类型判定依照中华中医药学会《

  9. 中国城市女性面部皮肤状态与中医体质类型相关性研究%A Relevant Research on Facial Skin Conditions of Chinese Urban Females and TCM Constitutional Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲建宁; 王济; 赵亚; 熊卫国; 方程; 戴竞; 孙淑娴; 王琦; 魏少敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究面部皮肤状态与中医体质类型的相关性,为从中医体质角度指导皮肤养护、增进皮肤健康提供新方法。方法在9个省会城市和直辖市招募女性志愿者2241名,以网络问卷的方式对受访者进行调查。体质类型判定依照中华中医药学会《中医体质分类与判定》标准进行,面部皮肤测评针对肤色、光泽度、细腻程度、水润度、紧致程度、弹性、均匀程度等指标进行评分;将皮肤状态按1~3、4~6、7~9分进行分组,比较不同分值的体质构成差异。结果被调查者中阳虚质、平和质最多;肤色偏黄者最多,其次为偏白、偏黑、偏红者;皮肤状态评分1~3分者中,阳虚质最多,气郁质次之;4~6分者中阳虚质和平和质均较多;得分7~9分者中平和质最多。结论平和质者各项皮肤指标得分均最高,偏颇体质会影响皮肤指标得分,对中国城市女性面部皮肤指标影响较大的体质类型是阳虚质和气郁质。%Objective To study the relationship between facial skin conditions and TCM constitutional types; To provide new means and methods for guidance of skin conservation and skin health improvement from the aspect of constitutional types. Methods Totally 2241 female volunteers in nine provincial capital cities and municipalities participated in this research, and were investigated by web questionnaire. Constitutional types were determined according to the“Classification and Judgment of TCM Constitutional Types”standard issued by China Association of Chinese Medicine. Skin color, glossiness, delicate degree, moistness, firmness, resilience, uniformity and other indicators were scored. Skin conditions were classified into three groups:1-3 score group, 4-6 score group, and 7-9 score group, and the constitutional differences among each group were compared. Results Yang-deficiency and mild constitutional types accounted for the largest

  10. Birth weight and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes across two generations in Chinese females%女性出生体重与2型糖尿病风险的跨代研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铭灵; 方红; 张华; 严玉洁; 姚保栋; 秦国友; 徐望红

    2015-01-01

    目的 探索女性出生体重与T2DM的代际关联.方法 2012年11月至2013年1月对10 324名上海市有亲缘关系的2~4代女性开展横断面调查,通过问卷调查出生信息及T2DM史.将所有对象分成连续2代,共6 436对母女纳入分析.运用通径分析方法评估母代出生体重及T2DM患病状况对子代的影响;并采用中介效应分析方法分析子代出生体重是否为2代T2DM患病风险的中介因素.结果 2代人群的出生体重呈正相关,母代出生体重每增加1kg,子代出生体重平均增加0.335 kg(95%CI:0.307 ~ 0.363).与无T2DM母亲的子代相比,患T2DM母亲的子代出生体重平均高0.066 kg(95%CI:0.025 ~ 0.107),患T2DM的风险增加3.173倍(95%CI:1.946~5.174).≥20岁研究对象中,调整年龄后,未见出生体重对成年期T2DM的影响.通径和中介分析显示,母代出生体重对子代出生体重的影响较大;子代出生体重高是母代患T2DM与子代患T2DM的中介因素,并减弱了二者关联的2.8%.结论 母代出生体重及T2DM状况对子代出生体重及成年后的T2DM风险有一定影响.%Objective To evaluate the association between birth weight and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) across two generations in Chinese females.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 10 324 blood-related females in Shanghai from November 2012 to January 2013.A structured questionnaire was used to collect data about demographic information,birth weight,lifestyle factors and diagnosis of T2DM.Path analysis was performed to estimate the matemal effect of birth weight and diabetes status on their offspring,and mediation analysis was conducted to test whether birth weight mediates the association between maternal and daughters' diabetes status.Results A positive association was observed between maternal and daughters' birth weight.One kg increase in maternal birth weight was associated with an average of 0.335 (95%CI:0.307-0.363) kg elevated

  11. Construction of a Voxel Phantom of Chinese Adult Female for Radiation Dosimetry%一个中国成年女性体素模型的建立及辐射剂量学应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉海; 李桃生

    2013-01-01

    开发了一个基于中国女性彩色解剖断层图像的体素剂量学模型VPCF,并用FLUKA程序计算了光子能量在0.02~10 MeV范围内的20个能量点、外照射方向为腹背向(AP)、背腹向(PA)的组织或器官剂量转换因子和有效剂量转换系数,并与ICRP 74号报告的推荐值、CRAM和Regina的计算值进行了比较.结果表明:VPCF有些器官(如膀胱)的剂量转换因子与ICRP 74号出版物差别较大;有效剂量转换系数的差别不如器官或组织的剂量转换因子明显;VPCF的有效剂量转换系数要大于ICRP 74号出版物推荐值、CRAM和Regina的计算值.%A voxel phantom of Chinese female called VPCF has been constructed. The FLUKA code was utilized for computation of dose conversion coefficients ( DCCs) expressed in absorbed dose per air kerma or effective dose per air kerma free-in-air due to a broad parallel beam of mono-energetic photons impinging in anterior-posterior and posterior-anterior directions of the 20 mono-energetic photon beams of energies in the range of 20 keV—10 MeV. The resultant dose coefficients were compared with those from ICRP Publication 74, CRAM and Regina. The results indicate noticeable differences between VPCF and CRAM for some organ' s dose conversion coefficients ( e. g. bladder) . Smaller differences for the effective dose conversion coefficient are found than for the dose conversion coefficients in individual organs. Comparing with ICRP Publication 74,Regina and CRAM, the VPCF's effective dose conversion coefficients are larger.

  12. Narrative Research of Female Educational Experiences in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suling

    2010-01-01

    Female education is an indispensable part of educational practice and research. In recent years, along with the development of both the women's liberation movement and the expansion of the practice of female education, Chinese academic circles have become increasingly concerned with female education. Of these concerns, methodological innovation…

  13. Analysis of Curative Effect of Comprehensive Therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Female Endocrine Disorders%中医综合治疗女性内分泌失调疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹胜雁

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical curative effect of comprehensive therapy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on female endocrine disorders, so as to provide more reference data for clinical treatment of gynecological diseases. Methods: 122 patients with endocrine disorders treated in our hospital from June 2013 to May 2014 were randomly divided into control group and observation group, with 61 cases in each group. The control group was treated with western medicine and the observation group was treated with comprehensive therapy of TCM. The curative effects of the two groups were retrospectively compared. Results: The total effective rate of the control group was 68.9% and the observation group was 90.2%. The incidence of adverse reactions of the observation group was significantly better than that of the control group. All the differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Treating female endocrine disorders by comprehensive therapy of TCM can achieve good clinical effect. It can improve the hormone secretion, metabolism and pathogenic condition of the patients. So it is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的:探讨应用中医综合治疗女性内分泌失调的临床疗效,旨在为妇科临床治疗提供更多的参考数据。方法:选取我院妇科2013年6月—2014年5月收治的内分泌失调患者122例,随机将患者分为对照组及观察组各61例。对照组采用西医治疗,观察组进行中医综合治疗,对两组的临床效果进行回顾性比较。结果:对照组的治疗总有效率为68.9%,观察组为90.2%,且观察组的不良反应发生率明显优于对照组,两组比较差异均具有显著的统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:采用中医综合疗法对女性内分泌失调进行治疗可取得良好的临床疗效,对患者体内激素分泌状况、机体代谢功能、病情等均具有明显的改善作用,具有较高的临床价值,值得推广。

  14. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  15. 数字化虚拟中国人女性一号(VCH-F1)实验数据集研究报告%Research report of experimental database establishment of digitized virtual Chinese No.1 female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟世镇; 原林; 唐雷; 黄文华; 戴景兴; 李鉴轶; 刘畅; 王兴海; 洪辉文; 李华; 罗述谦; 秦笃烈; 曾绍群; 吴涛; 张美超; 吴坤成; 焦培峰; 陆云涛; 陈浩; 李培良; 郜元; 王彤; 樊继宏

    2003-01-01

    目的为建造具有东方人种特征的中国数字化虚拟人,获取中国女性人体数字图像的数据集.方法通过广州市遗体捐献中心,选取一位因食物中毒急性死亡19岁女性尸体,经CT、MRI采集图像后,在股动脉灌注红色填充剂,冷冻包埋,在JZ1500A立式铣床上,以400mm刀盘切削,转速850r/m,断面间距0.2 mm,用第三代富士数码相机摄像.结果按中国解剖学会的加以评价,VCH-F1体型指数为94%,有较大的代表性.共获取断面图像8 556个,图像总像数649万,每个文件数据量为17.5MB,VCH-F1数据集总量149.7GB.共编制6个不同版本,分别为VCH-F1(149.73GB、6.60GB、0.27GB)及VCH-F1头部数据集(1.93GB、0.67GB、0.46GB).结论借鉴国外经验和教训,VCH-F1在下列几个方面有所改进和提高:(1)尸体选材代表性较大;(2)血管标记鲜明,对后续图像配准和分割提供了良好条件;(3)立式切削较卧式切削更符合人体生理姿势;(4)本文采用的人体的冷存,一次装夹,双温冰库,大口径刀盘处理,能提高图像质量和工作效率.VCH-F1的实验数据集,在若干关键技术上有所改进和提高,构建了切削精度高,血管显示鲜明,体型代表性良好,为我国今后虚拟人体的物理化和生理化,提供了一个高质量的框架.%Objective To establish digitized virtual Chinese No. 1 female (VCH-F 1) image database. Methods A 19 years old female cadaver was scanned by CT, MRI, and perfused with red filling material through formal artery before freezing and embedding. The whole body was cut by JZ1500A vertical milling machine with a 0.2 mm inter-spacing. All the images was produced by Fuji FinePix S2 Pro camera. Results The body index of VCH-F1 was 94%. We cut 8 556 sections of the whole body,and each image was 17.5 MB in size and the whole database reached 149.7 GB. We have totally 6 versions of the database for different applications. Conclusions Compared with other databases,VCH-F1 has good

  16. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products That Contain Dang-Qui and Risk of Endometrial Cancer among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Tung Wu; Jung-Nien Lai; Yueh-Ting Tsai

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. We analyzed the usage of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui and investigated whether dang-qui therapy increases endometrial cancer risk among tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors in Taiwan. METHODS: All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008 were selected from the ...

  17. Parental smoking status, stress, anxiety, and depression are associated with susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking school adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Chong, Zhuolin; Khoo, Yi Yi; Kaur, Jasvindar

    2014-09-01

    Susceptibility to smoking is a reliable predictor of smoking initiation. This article describes its prevalence and associated factors among Malaysian school adolescents. Data were obtained from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012, a nationwide representative sample of school adolescents. The overall prevalence of susceptibility to smoking was 6.0% and significantly higher among males (9.5%) compared with females (3.6%). Multivariable analyses revealed that males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.70-4.18) and school adolescents of indigenous Sabahan or Sarawakian descents (aOR 1.62, 95%CI 1.21-2.18) were significantly more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Susceptible school adolescents had a slightly higher likelihood to have symptoms of stress (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), anxiety (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40), depression (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.25-1.96), including those whose one or both parents/guardians were smokers (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.21-1.82; aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.22-4.44, respectively). The findings from this study point out the need for proactive measures to reduce smoking initiation among Malaysian adolescents with particular attention toward factors associated with susceptibility to smoking. PMID:25038194

  18. Gender Differences in Risk Aversion Among Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Desmond

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines gender differences in risk aversion among Chinese university students. Chinese females are proposed to be more risk averse and require a higher risk premium when faced with a gamble option in the gain-domain frame as compared to Chinese males. Two groups of 100 participants each (male = 100 and female = 100 in total) were recruited to fill up questionnaires that included items relating to objective probability lotteries. Within each group, it was found that Chinese males and females did not differ in their risk aversion. However, results show that Chinese males tend to react more readily to rising risk premium by taking up options with higher expected values when compared to Chinese females. Current findings will have useful implications to marketers (particularly, promoters of gambling products) and problem gambling counselors. PMID:25112219

  19. Survey on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Passive Smoking Among Non - smoking Pregnant Women in Early Gestational Stage%长沙市孕早期非吸烟孕妇被动吸烟KAP调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婧瑜; 胡劲松; 王进; 朱江

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the condition of passive smoking, and the related knowledge, attitude and practice among non - smoking pregnant women in Changsha, and to provide the evidence for reducing passive smoking exposure of non-smoking pregnant women. Methods Six hundred and forty - one non - smoking pregnant women whose pregnant periods were < 12 - week were interviewed by questionnaires. The data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software. Results Most of the pregnant women were short of the knowledge about the exact diseases caused by passive smoking. Pregnant women had a lower opposed rate on smoking in repast and entertainment places towards hospitals, schools and other public places. On persuading people not to smoke around, pregnant women had different attitudes towards different people. Pregnant women had the highest expected value on persuading their husbands smoking around, followed by their parents, father and mother in law, and other intimate family members. Pregnant women had the lowest expected value on persuading their leaders and strangers smoking around (< 35%). Conclusions Passive smoking exposure is a very serious public health problem among pregnant women. Educations and trainings are needed to increase the awareness of passive smoking harm and the ability to persuade people to stop smoking around.%目的 了解长沙市非吸烟孕妇被动吸烟情况以及相关知识、态度和行为,为减少孕妇被动吸烟提供科学依据.方法 对641位孕龄不大于12周的非吸烟孕早期孕妇进行有关被动吸烟的问卷调查,SPSS13.0统计软件进行分析.结果 孕妇对被动吸烟具体可以导致的危害了解不足;对在餐厅、咖啡吧等餐饮娱乐场所吸烟的容忍度显著高于医院、中小学校、公交车等公共场所;对周围吸烟者进行劝阻时,对丈夫的预计成功率最高,其次为父母、公公婆婆等亲密家庭成员,对单位领导和公共场所吸烟的陌生人的

  20. Female sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  1. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  2. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  3. FEMALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Bulotta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. 21α-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent cause of virilization in patients with female karyotype due to exposure of a female fetus to excess of androgen. We report anatomical and cosmetic results of feminizing genital reconstruction of two related patients (second cousin with XX karyotype born with urogenital sinus anomalies (UGS and not treated at birth. Materials and Metods. Patient 1 is 6-years old with ambiguous genitalia graded as Prader V and never undergone therapy or surgery. Patient 2 is 10-years old, graded as Prader IV and subjected to hormonal therapy and clitoral amputation at the age of 6. Mobilization of urogenital sinus, pull-through of vagina and tubulization of urethra was performed in both after placement of Foley chateters in vagina and bladder by cisto-vaginoscopy. Genitoplasty involved refashioning the tissues to create minora and majora labia and, after removal of corpora, partial clitorectomy was carried in patient 1 and clitoridal reconstruction in patient 2. Result. Vaginal introitus was positioned in the vestibule region below urethral meatus. Foley chateters was removed after two weeks in narcosis and the cosmetic and anatomic result was good. Conclusion. Goals of feminizing genitoplasty are to restore, soon as possible, anatomy achieving a more feminine appareance with a vagina for menstruation, to preserve reproductive capacity and to prevent urological sequelae but it’s also important to contribute in a development of a more stable gender identity. This procedure in two stage, based on an accurate diagnosis, is good to create feminine genital appareance in children with female pseudohermaphroditism expecially if not treated at birth.

  4. "Marriage to a smoker" may not be a valid marker of exposure in studies relating environmental tobacco smoke to risk of lung cancer in Japanese non-smoking women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P N

    1995-01-01

    There is no direct evidence that workplace environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases lung cancer risk. Demands for regulation of workplace smoking are based on studies reporting increased risk in non-smoking women whose husbands smoke. Although denying smoking can artificially elevate risk estimates, and although many studies reporting an increase have been conducted in Asia, no previous study of smoking habit misclassification has been conducted there. In this study 400 married Japanese women answered questions on smoking and ETS exposure and supplied urine for cotinine analysis. Of 106 with a cotinine/creatinine ratio (CCR) indicating current smoking (> 100 ng/mg), 22 reported never smoking. These misclassified smokers had a median CCR (1408 ng/mg) similar to the 78 self-reported current smokers (1483 ng/mg). Of current smokers, 89.7% had a currently smoking husband, while this was true of 51.0% of non-smokers. Among 264 confirmed non-smokers (with CCR marriage to a smoker" to index ETS exposure may therefore have compared groups with similar ETS exposure, suggesting that associations reported between lung cancer and this index in some of these studies may result from bias. While other biases, including confounding, may also be important, bias resulting from smoking misclassification combined with husband/wife smoking concordance is shown to be of major concern. The high misclassification rates in Japan, much higher than in Western populations, undermine conclusions from epidemiological studies conducted there. PMID:8543375

  5. Sex and the Contemporary Chinese woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXINXIN

    2005-01-01

    THE importance of a mutually fulfilling sex life has gained greater acknowledgement in China in recent years but it is nonetheless a taboo topic. There have been few social surveys on this delicate subject, particularly as regards the degree of sexual satisfaction enjoyed by Chinese women,The 35-question survey on female attitudes to sex, formulated by the Chinese Sexology Society and the Chinese Medical Association, was, therefore, a major breakthrough. Sponsored by Sina.com and carried out in major Chinese cities from August to September 2004, the survey attracted 400,000 hits and drew 31,482 responses.

  6. 细胞色素P4501A1基因多态性和谷胱甘肽硫转移酶基因缺失及烹调油烟暴露与非吸烟女性肺癌易感性的关系%CYP1 A1 polymorphisms,lack of glutathione S-transferase M1 ( GSTM1 ),cooking oil fumes and lung cancer risk in non-smoking women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝小霞; 胡成平; 顾其华

    2010-01-01

    risk of non-smoking lung cancer in females.Methods One hundred and sixty female non-smoking patients with primary lung cancer and 160controls were enrolled from Xiangya Hospital of Central South University.PCR-RELP and PCR were used to detect the distribution of CYP1A1 MspI and GSTM1 genotypes respectively.The correlation of these genes and cooking oil fumes with the susceptibility to lung cancer was analyzed.Results There was a significant difference in the frequencies of cooking oil fumes exposure between cancer cases and controls( x2 = 10.734,P < 0.01 );but there was no statistical difference in CYP1A1 MspI polymorphisms between the 2 groups (x2= 3.731 ,P > 0.05 ).The combination of CYP1A1 polymorphisms and cooking oil fumes significantly increased the risk of lung cancer.The frequencies of GSTM1 null genotype was significantly different between cancer cases and controls ( x2 = 0.518,P < 0.05).The risk of lung cancer was higher in those with the GSTM1 null genotype and the OR was 1.697 ( 95% CI 1.090 - 2.640).Individuals with both GSTM1 null genotype and exposure to cooking fumes had a higher risk of cancer than those with only one of them,the OR being 3.617(95% CI 1.899 -6.891 ).The combination of the two genes significantly increased the risk of lung cancer.Conclusions Cooking oil fumes exposure was a risk factor for non-smoking lung cancer in females.The combination of CYP1 A1 with cooking oil fume increased the risk of female lung cancer.GSTM1 null genotype was associated with risk of lung cancer in non-smoking females.The combination of GSTM1 null genotype and cooking oil fumes significantly increased the risk of female lung cancer.The combination of CYP1 A1 and GSTM1 significantly increased the risk of lung cancer.

  7. The Evolution of Female Consciousness in Chinese American New Immigrant Novels from the Perspective of Five Divorced Women%从五个离婚的女性看美华新移民小说女性意识的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓鸥

    2015-01-01

    From 1995 to 2010,great change had taken placed in the image of divorced females in the Chinese American new immigrant novels.In American Dream,American Love,American Lover to Gone Daily Trip,the divorce of heroines becomes reasonable.It can be regarded as the new female immigrants’ forceful response to the patriarchy,but marriage morality is still the main theme of the novels.In Traces the US (1 9 9 6 )by Zhang Ci in America,the heroine Xie Siyu disobeyed marriage morality to dissolve patriarchy,showing unusual radical female consciousness in Chinese American new immigrant novels.%1995年到2010年,美华新移民小说中离婚女性形象发生了很大的变化。从«美国梦里»、«美国爱情»、«美国情人»到«白日飘行»,女主人公离婚逐渐获得了合理性,可看做新移民女性对男权保守的“进阶突围”,但婚姻道德始终是小说中的重要主题。1996年张慈在美国出版的小说«浪迹美国»通过谢思羽反叛婚姻道德的方式消解男权,显示出美华新移民小说中少见的激进女性意识。

  8. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  9. The Analysis of the Anxiety Expression of the Female Awareness in Chinese Women Documentary%试析中国女性纪录片中女性意识的焦虑抒发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晔菲

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, all kinds of the cultural and ideological trends swarmed into China. The feminist movement and the feminist consciousness came to the orient. Meanwhile, a group of female directors who explored female consciousness of their own life were not satisfied with shaping the female from the male's views in the movies. They tried to seek for the female unique life experience. Taking documentary films Go Back to Phoenix Bridge for example, This article tries to investigate the female's mood and sorrow deep inside, explore the female group implemented animadversion, backlash and battle cry to the unfair oppression of the ideology from the society and culture and analyze the anxious expression of the female awareness.%20世纪80年代,各种文化思潮涌入中国,女权运动与女性主义意识也踏上了东方这片土地.与此同时,一批探索女性自我意识的导演,不满足影视中以男性为中心视角来塑造女性,试图寻找女性独特的意识体验,女性纪录片应运而生.文章以《回到凤凰桥》等纪录片为例,在剖析女性内心深处的情感和悲痛的过程中,探讨女性群体对社会、文化在其意识形态上的压迫所进行的批判、反抗以及呐喊,分析女性意识的焦虑抒发.

  10. Changes in the SF-8 scores among healthy non-smoking school teachers after the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy: a comparison by passive smoke status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Yoshitaka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free workplace policy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL among a healthy population are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy on HRQOL among healthy non-smoking schoolteachers with respect to their exposure to passive smoke. Methods Two self-reported questionnaire surveys were conducted, the first before and the second after the enforcement of a total smoke-free public school policy in Nara City. A total of 1534 teachers were invited from 62 schools, and their HRQOL was assessed using six domains extracted from the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8: general health perception (GH, role functioning-physical (RP, vitality (VT, social functioning (SF, mental health (MH, and role functioning-emotional (RE. The participants were divided into two groups according to their exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS at baseline: participants not exposed to ETS at school (non-smokers, and participants exposed to ETS at school (passive smokers. Changes in each SF-8 score were evaluated using paired t-tests for each group, and their inter-group differences were evaluated using multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for sex, age, school type, managerial position, and attitude towards a smoke-free policy. Results After ineligible subjects were excluded, 689 teachers were included in the analyses. The number of non-smokers and passive smokers was 447 and 242, respectively. Significant changes in SF-8 scores were observed for MH (0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.5 and RE (0.7; 95% CI, 0.0-1.3 in non-smokers, and GH (2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1, VT (1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-2.7, SF (2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8, MH (2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9, and RE (2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8 in passive smokers. In the multiple linear regression analyses, the net changes in the category scores of GH (1.8; 95% CI, 0

  11. 月经初潮年龄对中国女性乳腺癌临床病理特征及分子表型的影响%Influence of age at menarche on clinical pathological features and molecular phenotype in Chinese female breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙刚; 王珂

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索中国女性月经初潮年龄对乳腺癌临床病理特征及分子表型的影响。方法:收集本院收治的女性乳腺癌临床资料共210例,按月经初潮年龄分为≤13岁组和>13岁组,采用卡方检验分别比较各组间临床病理特征及分子表型的差异。结果:月经初潮年龄越早(≤13岁),腋窝淋巴结转移几率越高,同时肿瘤分期越晚(P <0.05);初潮年龄越早,非 Luminal 型出现的比例越高(P <0.05)。结论:月经初潮越早,乳腺癌的恶性程度越高并且多呈现出非 Luminal 型的分子表型。%Objective:To investigate the influence of age at menarche on tumor clinical characteristics and molec-ular subtypes in Chinese females with breast cancer.Methods:The clinical findings of 2 1 0 Chinese females with breast cancer were divided into 2 groups:≤13 years old and >13 years old,then analyzed as age at menarche retro-spectively.Results:The age of menarche ≤13 years old was a higher risk factor of axillary lymph nodes metastasis, later TNMstaging and non -Luminal subtype than that of >13 years old(P <0.05).Conclusion:Earlier age at menarche might be related to higher grade malignancy,TNMstaging and appearance of non -Luminal subtype in Chi-nese females with breast cancer.

  12. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  13. A case -control study on risk factors of lung cancer among non -smoking women%非吸烟女性肺癌危险因素病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘劲; 龚巍巍; 王浩; 胡如英; 何青芳; 俞敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨浙江省非吸烟女性患肺癌的危险因素。方法采用1∶2配对的病例对照研究,收集浙江省30个县(区)2005年11月-2008年12月期间发病的新发非吸烟女性肺癌病例229例;配对对照选取患者,女性邻居、年龄±3岁、无吸烟史。通过面访调查收集有关危险因素的暴露史,采用单因素及多因素 Logistic 回归模型进行拟合,筛选肺癌的主要危险因素。结果单因素分析发现有15个暴露因素与非吸烟女性肺癌的发生有关。多因素及因子分析发现,被动吸烟(OR =1.598,95%CI:1.016~2.512)、家族肿瘤史(OR =5.359,95%CI:1.658~17.326)、呼吸道病史(OR =24.427,95%CI:6.111~97.642)、精神心理因素不良(OR =2.622,95%CI:1.149~5.983)、人际关系不佳(OR =3.041,95% CI:1.534~6.032)、做饭时自感油烟重(OR =1.856,95%CI:1.043~3.301)、常食用腌晒食品(OR =1.724,95%CI:1.205~2.466)和初潮年龄晚(OR =1.565,95%CI:1.086~2.253)等因素是肺癌发生的危险因素;收入水平高(OR =0.650,95%CI:0.484~0.873)和常食用新鲜蔬菜(OR =0.683,95%CI:0.504~0.926)是肺癌的保护因素。趋势性检验发现,非吸烟女性被动吸烟与肺癌的相对危险度之间存在一定剂量反应关系。结论针对非吸烟女性肺癌的相关危险因素,需采取综合干预措施,以降低肺癌的发生率。%Objective To explore the risk factors of lung cancer among non -smoking women.Methods A total of 229 new cases of lung cancer among non -smoking women from 2005 to 2008 were collected.The design method of 1 to 2 matching case -control study was used controlling age,sex and smoking conditions.The data was analyzed by univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis.Results Single factor analysis identified 13 risk factors (all P <0.05).The multivariate

  14. Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China-a report from 32 Chinese cancer registries,2003-2007%中国女性乳腺癌的发病和死亡现况——全国32个肿瘤登记点2003-2007年资料分析报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄哲宙; 陈万青; 吴春晓; 郑荣寿; 陈建国; 杨念念; 王宁; 张思维; 郑莹

    2012-01-01

    one of the most common cancers among Chinese women. The incidence and mortality rates of female breast cancer in urban areas are significantly higher than those in rural areas, although the overall incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer in Chinese women are still at a medium or low level in the world.

  15. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences.

  16. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences. PMID:26371449

  17. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  18. The status of occupational health of female migrant workers in traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine and bio-pharmaceutical industry in Gansu province%甘肃省制药行业女工职业卫生现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖萍泰; 寇振霞; 李芝兰; 何玉红; 俞文兰; 周安寿

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of occupational health of female migrant workers in different kinds of pharmaceutical industries in Gansu province and to provide the basis for improving occupational health condition. Methods One thousand eight hundreds and one female workers from 16 enterprises were selected by cluster sampling in Gansu province and investigated by interviewing and questionnaires.Ressuts There were statistical significances of education level, status of residency registrations, employment relationship and occupational hazards among female workers in three types of enterprises (P<0.05 or P<0.01 ).The morbidities of skin disease in female workers for three kinds of enterprises were 4.46%, 2.53% and 3.70%,respectively. The morbidities of reproductive system disease in female workers for three kinds of enterprises were 48.57%, 36.70% and 36.11%, respectively. Conclusion The levels of education and working conditions of female workers in the traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine plants are low. There are more severe occupational hazards in female workers of the traditional Chinese medicine plants.%目的 分析甘肃省制药行业中药、西药和生物制品企业女工职业卫生现状,为改善其职业健康状况提供科学依据。方法 采用整群抽样方法,选取甘肃省制药行业16家企业1801名女工进行面访式问卷调查。结果 中药、西药和生物制品企业女工文化程度构成的差异有统计学意义(X2=205.98,P<0.01),户籍类型构成的差异有统计学意义(x2=76.27,P<0.01);三类企业女工雇佣关系、女工从业情况和接触职业性危害因素情况的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);女工患皮肤病者在中药制品企业42人(4.46%),西药制品企业19人(2.53%),生物制品企业4人(3.70%);中药制品企业患生殖系统疾病女工457人(48.57%),西药制品企业276人(36.70%),生物制品企业39人(36.11

  19. An Analysis of Literary Translation from the Perspective of Feminism:Case Study of the First Female Chinese Translator’s Version of Jane Eyre%女性主义视域下的文学翻译分析--以《简·爱》的女性译者译本为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林治勋

    2014-01-01

    女性主义翻译理论强调译者的存在,强调译者对原文的占有和摆布,使女性译者与男性译者拥有同样的话语权。对于女性主义翻译理论的研究可以拓宽翻译研究的视野,从不同视角对翻译实践进行观察。本文以我国第一本《简•爱》的女性译者译本为例,分析女性主义对文学翻译在不同层面的影响。%The theory of feminism translation gives emphasis on the existence of the translator, emphasizing the translator’s the possession and manipulation of the original text, which endows female translators the same discursive power as that of male translators. The study on feminism translation broadens the field of translation study and observes translation practice from different perspectives. This paper tries to analyze the influence of feminism on literary translation in different aspects by examining the first female Chinese translator’s version of Jane Eyre.

  20. 中国古代女性贞节观解读——以明清拟话本小说中的贞节烈女形象为例%Interpretation of Chinese Ancient Female Chastity View --Case Study on Virtuous Women Image in Vernacular Short Novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李停停

    2012-01-01

    There were large number of virtuous woman images in vernacular short novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. We can see the gender characteristics of female chastity view in feudal period and dominant effect on female thoughts and behaviors from the images, especially those typical images. Taking virtuous women images in vernacular short novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties as an example, the chastity view which Chinese ancient women understood reflects some features: the chastity is women's "duty", keeping chastity is bidirectional and chastity is important than filial piety and utilitarian.%明清拟话本小说中存在着大量的贞节烈女形象,从这些形象,尤其是那些典型形象身上,可以透视出封建时代女性贞节观的性别特点及其对女性思想行为的支配作用。以明清拟话本小说中的贞节烈女形象为例,中国古代女性视角所理解的贞节观体现出了贞节是女人的“本分内事”、守贞具有双向性和贞节重于孝道、实利等特点。

  1. 23例女性甲状腺功能减退中医证治规律探讨%Study on differentiation-prescription rules of 23 female patients with hypothyroidism by Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春勇

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察中药“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”对甲状腺功能减退(简称甲减)患者的治疗效果,探索中药防治甲减新思路.方法:观察甲减患者应用“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”治疗前后的临床表现和甲状腺功能改变并评估疗效.结果:患者在服用“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”治疗后,临床症状明显改善,甲状腺功能治疗前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”对甲减治疗有效,说明部分甲减患者病机属于“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”所主病机,丰富了中医对甲减的认识.%Objective; The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction on patients with hypothyroidism and to assess hypothyroidism using traditional Chinese medicine. Methods; Observe the clinical manifestations and the change of thyroid functions on patients with hypothyroidism before and after the treatment of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction, and then assess the effect of the decoction. Result; Clinical symptoms of patients with hypothyroidism are improved significantly after the treatment of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction; and there is significant difference between the thyroid functions before and after the treatment ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion; The treatment of hypothyroidism by use of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction is effective, which indicates that pathogenesis of some patients with hypothyroidism is mainly based on which Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction is used in traditional Chinese medicine theory, thereby enriching knowledge of hypothyroidism in traditional Chinese medicine.

  2. 壮医的“公药”、“母药”与中医药学“对药”的内涵思考%Reflection on Connotation of “Male Herb” and “Female Herb” in Zhuang Nationality Medicine and “Matched Herb” of ;Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐汉庆; 黄岑汉; 黄秀峰; 李克明; 窦锡彬; 李晓华

    2015-01-01

    壮医药理论是壮族先民长期医疗实践经验的总结,具有浓郁的民族特色。“阴阳为本”是壮医药理论体系的重要组成部分。“公药”、“母药”的配伍以壮医阴阳思想为指导,配伍规律有主药配主药、主药配帮药、主药配带药、主药配解毒药,这与中药“对药”的配伍应用既相类似也有差异。通过总结相关“公药”、“母药”的应用实践经验,与中药“对药”的配伍应用进行比较,进一步认识“公药”、“母药”与“对药”的学术内涵。加强壮医药与中医药的交流,使两者相互借鉴,更好地指导临床工作。%Zhuang people have accumulated and summarized lots of medicine knowledge in long time of practice , which is characterized with Zhuang nationality .“Yin‐Yang thoughts”is an important part of Zhuang nationality medicine theory ,which is the guide of combination of “male herb” and “female herb” .There are some rules about the combination of “male herb” and“female herb”such as combination of main herb and main herb ,combination of main herb and auxiliary herb ,combination of main herb and guide herb ,combination of main herb and detoxify herb ,to which the rules of combination of “matched herb” of Traditional Chinese Medicine are similar .Meanwhile ,there is difference between them .Comparing the difference will promote better understnding of the academic value of “male herb”,“female herb” and “matched herb”,and provide better guidance for clinical application of Zhuang nationality medicine with more communication and reference with Traditional Chinese Medicine .

  3. Discussion on problems of Chinese Female Basketball from Development Trend of World Basketball Movement%从世界篮球运动发展趋势谈中国男篮亟需解决的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖荣亮; 郑尚武

    2016-01-01

    通过对欧美篮球运动发展趋势的分析,揭示中国男子篮球在近些年国际赛事中竞赛成绩不理想的深层原因;提出中国男篮应坚持走自己“快、灵、准、全、逼防”的技战术风格,在最基础的选材、育人时就要注重球员必须具备“优质”体能,在技术和战术素养的培养中更要立足于谋求全队各位置的“平衡”发展,以形成全队“内外结合、多点进攻”的团队优势。%Through the analysis of the development trend of Europe and the United States basketball , it reveals deep reasons about the Chinese men's basketball competition results in international competitions in recent years. It puts forward that Chinese men's basketball team should adhere to the “quick, spirit, accurate, complete, and forced” tactical style; focus on players must have “high quality” physical ability on basic materials, educational. In the cultivation of the technique and tactics, must base on seeking the “balance”the development of the location , in order to form a team of “combination of inside and outside , the more offensive”team advantage.

  4. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  5. 论20世纪50—70年代中国文学女性身体形态脸谱化叙述%Portraits of Female Body in the Chinese Literature in 1950-1970

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传霞; 蒋凯旋

    2012-01-01

    1949年中国大陆的女性解放运动,拓展了女性参与社会生产的广度和深度,以“铁姑娘”为代表的女英雄形象的出现,改变了社会对女性能力的评价,打破了女性柔弱无力的僵化性别印象,在一定程度上触动了“男主外,女主内”的传统性别分工模式以及支持这一模式的文化观念系统,为女性争取到了更多地参与到社会公共领域的权力,改变了传统社会评判女性的标准,瓦解了传统社会对女性角色的设定,但是,消匿女性特征的女英雄和凸显女性性别特征的反面女性的脸谱化文学叙述,又将中国社会具有巨大进步意义现代性社会性别建构推向了另一个二元对立、不平等的性别神话之中。%The women's liberation movement in Mainland China since 1949 had expanded the depth and width of women's participation in social production. As well, the appearance of "Iron Girl" images as women's heroines changed the evaluation of women's capability in society and broke the fixed gender based image of women being weak and helpless. At certain level, it challenged the tradition of gender based division of labor as "men managing outside while women managing inside the households" as well as its cultural values and helped win rights for women to participate in social and public processes. It, moreover, helped change the traditional standards of evaluating women and undermine the traditional female stereotypes. However, the existence of women heroines without female characteristics and female negative characters with distinct female characteristic facial profiles in literary writings again created a dichotomy and inequality in the mythical construction of gender order.

  6. The emerging of"female citizen":The subject identity of modern Chinese women through literary practices%女国民的兴起:近代中国女性主体身份与文学实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔以钢; 刘堃

    2009-01-01

    The construction of"citizen-state"relations in the intellectual World of modern China and the establishment of individual citizenship in political discourse have opened up a political and discourse sphere for modern women to strive for new identities,wherein some intellectually advanced women have managed to establish their individual identity as"female citizen"by carrying the debate on the relationship between women and the state with regard to their rights and responsibilities,and on the relationship between gender role and citizenship.Though the idea of"female citizen"was not provided with a political theory of practical significance,the subject identity of women,however,was repeatedly spoken about and strengthened in brand-new literary practices,resulting in a dynamic discourse of "female citizen":in the meantime,disagreements concerning the concepts of"female rights,""civil rights,"and "natural rights"have all helped ereate significant tension inside the related discourse sphere.%近代中国思想界对"围民一国家"关系的建构及个体国民身份在政治话语中的确立,为近代女性谋求新的身份认同开拓了话语空间和政治空间.近代先进女性也正是在这种话语空间和政治空间中,通过女性与国家之间责任和权利关系的辩难以及性别角色与国民身份的博弈,确立了独立的个体身份--"女国民".尽管这一概念并未形成系统而具有实践指导意义的政治理论,但她们通过别开生面的文学实践,一再言说和强化着这一主体身份,形成了声势颇为浩大的"女国民"话语;同时也因对"女权"、"民权"、"天赋人权"等概念的不同理解,在相关话语场的内部形成了富有意义的张力.

  7. Studying Overseas: Factors Impacting Intention of Female Students in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jie; Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that impact Chinese female students' intention to study overseas. This study also aimed to understand how these factors impact female students' decision making process. Using a survey questionnaire, data were collected from 96 female undergraduates who enrolled in a 4-year public university…

  8. 女性高管参与对企业技术创新的影响——基于创业板企业的实证研究%The impact of female executives participation on technological innovation——evidence from Chinese GEM companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾萍; 邬绮虹

    2012-01-01

    全球女性高管的强势崛起引起了社会各界的广泛关注,越来越多的学者开始探索女性参与高管团队对于企业经营管理的影响。然而,女性高管参与对企业技术创新的影响仍然是学术界尚未深入探讨的问题。本文以中国创业板企业为研究对象,探讨女性高管参与对企业技术创新的影响。同时,考察女性高管人力资本与行业差异作为情境因素对于女性高管参与和企业技术创新之间关系的调节作用。研究结果表明:女性高管参与对于企业技术创新具有显著的促进作用,不同行业企业的技术创新存在显著差异;女性高管人力资本强化了女性高管参与对企业技术创新的正面影响;行业差异调节了女性高管参与和企业技术创新的关系,科技与电信行业企业中,女性高管参与对于企业技术创新的积极作用更为明显。%It has attracted wide attention that female executives are strongly raising all over the world.An increasing number of scholars have explored how female participation in top management teams affects corporate performance.The problem of female executives' impact on technological innovation has not been in-depth investigated.This paper uses the data of Chinese GEM companies during 2009 to 2010,empirically examines the relationship between female executives and technological innovation.Meanwhile,we investigate how human capital and industry moderate the relationship between female executives and technological innovation.The results show that women executives have a positive significant effect on technological innovation.Human capital strengthens the positive significant effect of female executives on innovation performance.Industry factor plays a significant regulatory role in relationship between female executives and technological innovation;In technology and telecommunications companies,female executives have a stronger impact on promoting innovation.

  9. Analysis of Chinese Elite Female Swimmer Ye Shi-wen’s Turning Technique in Individual Medley%我国优秀女子混合泳运动员叶诗文的转身技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洪; 陈立新; 李波; 沈思佳; 陈洁; 郑燕; 蔡合玉; 李征艳; 应春意; 韩照岐; 程燕; 张明飞; 高捷; 周兴龙; 蒋川

    2015-01-01

    The research applies sport biomechanics methods ,i .e .strength testing and video an‐alysis .By comparing and analyzing Ye Shi‐wen’ s turning technical parameters in IM with some other female IM elites in the world ,we obtained world‐class female swimmers’ technical characteristic during the turn as well as the development trend of turning on women’s IM .On the basis of summarization and analysis of this information ,the research advises Ye Shi‐wen how to optimize and improve turning technique in training .%研究采用视频分析和力量测试的运动生物力学方法,通过对比和分析叶诗文与部分世界级女子混合泳运动员的转身技术参数,获取了女子混合泳世界级运动员转身技术特点以及发展趋势。在总结和分析这些信息的基础上,对叶诗文在训练中如何改进和优化转身技术提出建议。

  10. Inspiration of American STEM Intervention Programs on Chinese female civil engineering higher education%美国 STEM 学科干预措施对我国建筑女性培养启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2015-01-01

    对旨在提高美国STEM学科女大学生教育水平的干预计划进行了分类,总结了干预计划应着重考虑的四个因素,指出建筑工程类隶属于STEM学科体系,美国的女性STEM学科对我国建筑工程类学科女大学生教育问题有重要启示:可以深化该方面的理论研究,丰富教育实践活动的类型和内容,并重视加强政府的引导作用。%The STEM intervention programs aiming to improve the female education level are classified,and four factors should be emphasized for the implementation of STEM intervention programs. In China,the female undergraduate education in civil engineering should be taken seriously, the theoretic analysis should be further studied,the types and content of intervention programs should be enriched,and the guidance of govern-ment should be stressed.

  11. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  12. Estimation on the numbers of Chinese homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behaviors and relat- ed female group%中国同性爱者、同性性行为者和相关女性群体人口数值估测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明华; 于增照; 张北川; 史同新; 李秀芳; 李洋; 王燕飞; 朱明泉

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:In the new social demography and medical background,to estimate the numbers of Chinese homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behaviors and related female groups to provide scientific basis for the related research in China.Methods:According to the population provided by 201 3 China Statistical Yearbook and the related data offered by professor Pan’s "Multilayer equal probability sexology sampling survey a-bout China adult population"in 201 0,data sample calculation was performed.Results:The total number of Chi-nese male homosexuality (including bisexuality)may significantly exceed 21 million.The number of sexually active MSM was about 9.224 million;the number of female homosexuality in China was up to 1 2 million.The number of sexually active WSW was about 8.1 67 million;there were approximately 1 3.6 million female whose spouses were male homosexuality.There were nearly 1 0 million female whose spouses were MSM.Conclusion:There are huge numbers of homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behavior and related groups of women in China.Their physical and psychological health need to be paid particular attention by medical community and other related com-munity.In the next ten years,the number of"visible"homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behavior will increase.While the number of female whose fixed sex-partners are male homosexuality and MSMwill continue to decline.%目的:在新的社会人口学和医学背景下,估测中国同性爱者、同性性行为者和相关女性群体人口数量,为当今中国的相关研究提供科学依据。方法:主要根据《2013年中国统计年鉴》提供的人口基数和潘绥铭2010年对中国成年人口的多层等概率性学抽样调查给出的相关数据进行计算。结果:估测我国男同性爱者(包括男双性爱者)总人口极可能明显超过2100万,性活跃期男男性行为者约922.4万;我国女同性爱者总人口可达1200万左右,

  13. 索契冬奥会中外单板滑雪U型场地女子优秀运动员实力比较研究%Comparative Research on the Performance of Chinese and Foreign Elite Female Half-pipe Snowboarders in Sochi Winter Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范春来; 孟述; 王化梁

    2014-01-01

    With the methods of observation statistics,contrastive analysis and interview,the paper analyzes the performance and results of Chinese and foreign female half-pipe snowboarders in finals in Sochi Winter Olympics,which purpose is to understand the current technical development and find out Chinese snowboarders' shortages. It thinks that the main cause of Chinese snowboarders not winning a medal is the lower strength,and the frontside1080 or backside900 will be chosen by more female snowboarders to compete in the next Winter Olympics. It suggests that Chinese snowboarders should further increase the difficulty of front and back side turn,and look for the breakthrough in diversity of movement based on improving the quality and success rate of existing skills. At the next Winter Olympics,it should be to get rid of the mind-set of"combination of spurt and keep",and full exert the high difficult tricks in the final two rounds in order to create more opportunities and possibility of breakthrough the zero medal.%采用运用观察统计法、对比分析法及访谈法对索契冬奥会单板滑雪U型场地女子决赛中外优秀运动员比赛完成情况及结果进行分析,总结项目的技术发展现状,查找我们与国外优秀运动员实力上的差距,认为与国外优秀运动员实力上的差距是我国女子运动员在本次比赛中未能获得奖牌的主要原因;在下一届冬奥会中,frontside1080或backside900必然为多数女子运动员所选用。建议我国运动员在提高现有难度动作完成质量与成功率的基础上,进一步提高前、后刃转体动作的难度,并在动作多样性方面寻求突破;下一届冬奥会中,我们应突破“冲、保结合”的思维定势,在决赛的两轮比赛中全力冲击高难度动作,为实现奖牌零的突破创造更多的机会与可能。

  14. Interpretation of the marriage values of contemporary Chinese female through boycott against Baihe net-work%从“万人抵制百合网”事件解读当代中国女性婚姻价值观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丛烨; 曹顺仙; 曹宁校

    2014-01-01

    During the Spring Festival holiday in 2014,many people on micro blogs criticized an advertise-ment of Baihe Network,a famous dating website in China.People launched a boycott against Baihe Network because they thought the advertisement propagandized old values which were against the present social moralities.This dis-cussion demonstrated Chinese female’s awareness of values in different aspects,freedom of marriage and gender e-quality.%2014年的春节假期,国内著名婚恋网站百合网投放的广告遭到了微博上网友的批判,发起“万人抵制百合网”的话题,多数网友认为这个广告宣传了旧的价值观念,有悖于现有的社会道德。这样的“万人抵制百合网”体现了当代我国的女性对自身在各方面的价值体现、自己婚姻自由、男女地位平等的重视。

  15. The social image of the young female smoker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W H; Kohn, P M

    1989-08-01

    Community college students (N = 229) read a brief narrative about a young female college student and rated her on 14 bipolar scales. Half the subjects read a version in which the protagonist smoked, and half an otherwise identical version in which she didn't. Although most subjects recalled the protagonist's smoking status, very few recognized this as the focal variable in the experiment. Subjects rated the heroine less positively for social attractiveness (p less than 0.001) and personal resourcefulness (p less than 0.01) when she was represented as a smoker. They specifically considered the smoking protagonist more masculine (p less than 0.01), less feminine (p less than 0.001), less healthy (p less than 0.001), a poorer student (p less than 0.001), less wise (p less than 0.001), less self-disciplined (p less than 0.001), less sophisticated (p less than 0.001), and less gentle (p less than 0.02). Non-smoking subjects also rated the smoking heroine as less (physically) attractive (p less than 0.05), although smoking subjects did not discriminate significantly. PMID:2775913

  16. 我国跆拳道优秀女选手历届奥运会技、战术特征研究%Study on Taekwondo's Technical and Tactical Characteristics of the Chinese Elite Female Athletes in the 27th,28th and 29th Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会景

    2011-01-01

    我国自1995年引进开展跆拳道项目以来,经过教练员、运动员及其相关人员的努力,我国跆拳道女子项目已进入世界先进水平的行列,多次在奥运会上成功夺冠。本文综合运用录像观摩、常规数理统计和调查访问等研究方法,对我国优秀跆拳道女选手在奥运会比赛中的技、战术运用情况进行分析、归纳和总结,以期为跆拳道技、战术训练科学化提供参考和理论依据,并为备战2012年奥运会提供有效的、可供参考的理论依据。%Since 1995,China has introduced and developed Taekwondo.With the coaches and athletes' efforts,Chinese women's Taekwondo has entered the ranks of advanced level in the world,winning the gold medal in the Olympic Games for several times.By watching video of competition,statistics and interviews,the paper researched the technical and tactical characteristics of Chinese elite female athletes in the 27th、28th and 29th Olympic Games.The purpose is to provide theoretical basis and reference to the skill training of Taekwondo,and provide effective references for the 2012 Olympic Games.

  17. 中国女子足球运动员运动损伤规律及防治的初步研究%The Prevention and Treatment of Injuries in Chinese Female Football Players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国川; 欧阳孝

    2001-01-01

    1997年春训时,对国家队等8支女子足球队共175名运动员进行了运动损伤调查及病因分析,结果显示:女子足球运动损伤发生率为235.4%,其中急性损伤占41.8%,慢性损伤占58.2%。发病率列前6位的运动损伤依次为踝关节扭伤、膝关节韧带损伤、大腿后肌群拉伤、颈椎劳损、踝部骨关节病、腰肌劳损。损伤原因为:训练水平不足、训练缺乏科学性、人为因素、客观原因。针对病因,我们以广东队等4队93名运动员作为防治组(陕西队等3队58人作为自然对照组),采取了综合防治措施。1998年春训时调查结果显示:防治组运动损伤发生率为105.4%,而对照组运动损伤发生率为229.3%,二者有显著性差异(P<0.05),表明在目前条件下,采取本文综合性防治措施是行之有效的。%For the purpose of preventing and treating the injuries in female football players, we investigated the incidence and the types of injuries, and analyzed the causes that lead to the injuries in 175 players from 8 female football teams. The results were as follows: (1) The incidence of injuries was 235.4 %, including 41.8 % of acute and 58.2 % of chronic injuries. (2) The main injures included contusion (46.5 %), sprain (22.8 %), muscle torsion (11.5 %), and abrasion (10.9 %). (3) The injuries usually occurred in ankle (22%), knee (14.8 %), thigh (14 %), head and neck (9.5 %), leg (8.5 %), foot (7.4 %), lumbar (6.6 %). (4) The major causes of injuries included: inadequate training (33.3 %), disobeying training principles (25.2 %), man-made factors (24.2 %),and others (17.5 %). In accordance with the causes, 93 players from Guangdong, Henan, Shandong, Bayi female football teams in 1997 were taken as the treatment group with various prevention and treatment measures, while 58 players from Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi female football teams were taken as the control group. The

  18. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  19. Velocity characteristics of the rotation technique of Chinese elite female discus throwers%我国优秀女子铁饼运动员旋转技术的速度特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁从万; 王鹏; 刘海国

    2011-01-01

    采用文献资料法、专家访谈法、三维高速影像解析法和数理统计法,对现阶段我国优秀女子铁饼运动员旋转技术的时空特征进行分析,得出以下结论:重心和铁饼的分速度大小及比例对运动员技术风格的形成有重要影响;在旋转技术完成瞬间,李艳凤和宋爱民的铁饼合速度分别是最大和最小的,不同的是李艳风水平分速度占的比例大,宋爱民垂直分速度占的比例大,孙太凤在左脚单支撑阶段铁饼速度较快,导致腾空和过渡阶段铁饼速度下降;在左脚单支撑阶段,宋爱民右髋的速度最大导致她重心轨迹偏向左,孙太凤最慢的右髋速度和最快的右肩速度使她的重心轨迹偏右;李艳凤在过渡阶段过快的肩关节速度是她获得较快饼速的主要原因之一。在形成最后用力双支撑瞬间,我国运动员的肩轴角速度要大于髋轴,说明我国运动员已经开始最后用力。%This article adopted the methods of literature, expert interview, photography of three dimensional in high speed, and mathematic statistics to analyze the rotation technique of Chinese elite women's discus throwers. It has been shown that size and proportion of component velocity of CG and discus have very important influence to form athlete' s technique style ; Body -discus system at flight and transition stage is very complex and the most difficulty controllable. System changes in the two stages have the decisive effect to form personal optimum technique; the second and third rotation axis of Chinese athletes have steady velocity transfer. Hip and knees velocity of the second axis decide the style of displacement. The shoulder velocity of third has a close relation to the space - time characteristics of discus.

  20. Quality of Life in Chinese Patients with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Angela; Wong-Kim, Evaon; Stearman, Sarah; Chow, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    Chinese are the largest Asian group in the U.S., constituting 23.8% of the nation’s total Asian-American population. Cancer is the leading cause of death for female Asian Americans, and breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females for all racial/ethic groups in San Francisco, which ranks 4th in the number of Asian Americans and where 152,620 Chinese account for 19.6% of the city’s total population. Previous observations among Chinese immigrant women suggested that a dia...

  1. The Folklore - Archetypal Criticism of Feminity : with the Female Image of Southern Yangtze in Chinese Modem Literature as a Critical Example%女性气质的民俗-原型批评论——以现代文学江南女性形象为批评范例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛海莹

    2012-01-01

    The folklore - prototypal criticism of feminity is a native theory on Chinese female literature criticism, originated from feminist prototypal criticism. The paper attempts to analyze the female iamge in Southern Yangtze literature and tries to delineate a trajectory of prototype development from the theme, the figure to the imago in folklore. Under the multiple approaches to mod- em literature, folklore - prototypal criticism of feminity has also taken on more theoretical significance in three aspects : the em- phasis on exploration of universality and totality along with the ecological significance of the inner world development, the empha- sis on individuality and particularity along with the prominance of the author' s inner creative temperament, and the emphasis on the fusion of psychological prototype and literary prototype along with the creation of aesthetic enjoyment. As an original native theoretical approach to Chinese literature, folklore - prototypal criticism of feminity may prove to be of unique significance in building female image and developing female inner world.%从文学人类学的视角研究中国现当代文学,是对传统研究方法的一次突破与创新。女性气质的民俗一原型批评理论是在文学人类学精神关照下诞生的一种本土化的女性文学理论。这一理论的渊源是女性主义原型批评,运用此对现代文学江南作家笔下的女性文学形象进行分析,可以触摸到一条由民俗主题原型、民俗形象原型、民俗意象原型串联起来的“原型”发展轨迹。经过现代文学的多维诠释,女性气质的民俗一原型批评凸显出其理论实质,即注重普遍性与整体性及内部精神生态意义的开拓,注重个体性与特殊性及作家内在创作气质的彰显,注重心理原型与文学原型的融合并创造审美愉悦。女性气质的民俗一原型批评理论是中国文学本土化实践的又一先例,对于女性个体

  2. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  3. The Anxious “Chicks”:Identification of Female Images in Chinese “Chick Flicks”%焦虑的“小妞”:中国小妞电影中女性形象体认

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李攀

    2016-01-01

    Highly popular among urban women,“Chick Flicks”is not only a film genre but also an important tool to reveal existence and development of urban women.A careful observation of female body and urban space is an effective way to explore the characters in such movies and contemporary urban women in reality as well.“Chick Flicks”highlight the spiritual anxiety of current urban women,which is different from tradition-al binary gender conflict,but existential anxiety resulting from social development.Anxieties about body and space are two major sources of female anxiety.Through cultural identification with body and space in “Chick Flicks”,based both on traditional study and practical situation,we can accurately pinpoint the problems fa-cing urban women,and further more put forth suggestions to women in the new era.%作为备受都市女性观众欢迎的“小妞电影”不仅是一种电影类型,更是剖析当下都市女性生存与发展状态的重要途径。而对“小妞电影”中的女性身体与都市空间的仔细观照是体认片中人物乃至当下都市女性形象的有效策略。“小妞电影”集中且深刻地折射出当下社会都市女性所存有的精神焦虑,这是不同于传统性别二元对立冲突的生存焦虑,是在社会发展中产生的新问题。对身体与空间的焦虑是都市女性焦虑的两大源头,通过对“小妞电影”中女性身体与都市空间的文化指认,我们可以准确地认识到当下都市女性所面临的问题,并进而在传统女性研究与实践的基础上结合实际情况为新时期女性生存与发展提供新的建议。

  4. Feel Fine with Chinese Folk Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoZi

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese folk music band “Feel Fine” is composed of three accomplished young female instrumentalists. These young musicians, since their debut, have brought to audiences fresh music experiences with their splendid costumes, extraordinary skills and pop-style music.

  5. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  6. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  7. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. 国家女子网球队运动员大力发球技术的运动学分析%A Kinematics Analysis of the Female Chinese National Tennis Players' Power Serve Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宇亮; 周兴龙; 朱文斐

    2012-01-01

    通过国家队网球运动员的大力发球的运动学指标分析,以期提高我国网球运动员发球水平,并为教练员教学、训练提供理论依据。利用两台200Hz高速摄像机对8名国家网球队女队员发球进行三维拍摄,通过jE京体育大学视迅解析系统对所拍摄影像进行三维重构及运动学解析。结果显示:运动员抛球离手时,抛球高度平均为3.67m,最高点到击球点落差平均为1.10m。球拍后引时,膝关节最小角度分别为持拍侧91.35°、非持拍侧104.64°。“搔背”动作完成时,拍头均低于重心,平均落差为0.21m。击球后平均球速为42.64m/s,击球点高度平均为2.57m。由此可见,我国网球运动员发球时抛球较高,建议降低抛球高度;相对于FB技术,FU技术能使运动员获得更大幅度的躯干扭转角度;缓冲结束时刻,部分运动员过度顶髋的现象造成下肢发力不充分,最终导致球速下降。“搔背”动作是典型的超越器械动作,下肢的充分蹬伸是动作质量的保证。%By analyzing the kinematics indicators of the power serve of the national tennis players, to improve the serve quality of China's tennis players, to provide both the player and coach with a better understanding of the mechanical basis of the serve, 8 Chinese national tennis team players have been taken as the subject in this research 8 players were filmed using two cameras, threc-dimensional direct linear transformation set-up. Two highspeed cameras were used to record the calibration frame, which was necessary for calculating three-dimensional coordinate data using the direct linear transformation (DLT) method. Data were processed by Shi Xun Analysis System of Beijing Sport University. The result shows that the ball was hit at a mean distance of 1.10m below a peak ball toss height of 3.67m. In backswing, the front knee flexion angle was 91.35°and the back one was 104

  9. Influence of malignant tumors on the life expectancy of Chinese females in different decades%不同时期主要恶性肿瘤对中国女性预期寿命影响的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 康晓平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influence of main malignant tumors on female life expectancies in 1989, 1999 and 2009, and to provide evidences for the highest priorities of malignant tumor prevention strategies in female population. Methods The cause of death information was collected from China Annual Health Statistics Report in 2010, 1999 and 1989. The loss of life due to malignant cancers and its influences on life expectancies were analyzed for the women of different areas within different age groups.Results The mortality rate of malignant tumors was increasing rapidly in both rural and urban areas for the last two decades. Lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer death in rural and urban areas in 2009.Breast cancer increased to the fifth leading cause of cancer death while gastric cancer death decreased.The five leading causes of cancer death followed the sequence of lung, colon, liver, stomach and breast cancers among urban residents, while liver cancer took the second position of leading causes of cancer death among rural residents. Cancer death had larger influence on the loss of life in women younger than 50 years old than in women aged over 50 years. The loss of life due to cancer death was more obvious in the women of rural areas than in urban areas. Conclusion It is essential to prevent women from lung cancer risk factors including smoking and the second hand smoking exposures. Breast cancer screening is important for the middle-aged women in rural areas.%目的 比较1989年、1999年与2009年3个不同时期主要恶性肿瘤对中国女性预期寿命的影响,针对城乡及不同年龄段提出肿瘤防治重点,为改善中国女性生存质量提供参考依据.方法 利用2010年中国卫生统计年鉴与1999年、1989年全国卫生统计年报资料的死亡资料,采用Excel软件计算和编制简略寿命表及去死因简略寿命表进行分析,比较因肿瘤损失的寿命和环比增长速度等指标的时间趋势

  10. 基于推拉理论的我国女性参与体育旅游动机与特征研究%An Empirical Study of the Characteristics and Motivations of Chinese Female Sports Tourists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆龙; 邓维霞; 张明亚

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of relevant research , this paper studied the motivations of mountain -climb tourists in the Yulong Snow Mount in Lijiang Scenic Spot by using literature data , questionnaire and mathematical statistics and so on .The results are as fol-lows:First, most of the participants have a good educational , economic and professional background .Second, there is an space dif-ferentiation in tourist region .Based on the analysis of such characteristics , the paper put forward some suggestions on market seg-mentation, diversified management , providing personalized services to meet the needs of different levels of female sports tourists .%从“推-拉”理论的视角出发,运用文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计等研究方法对丽江玉龙雪山景区女性参与体育旅游的动机及影响因素进行研究与分析。调查研究结果显示:女性体育旅游者具有年轻化、高学历、高收入的人口学特征;客源地上呈现出明显的空间分异现象;参与动机及影响因素存在多元化趋势。进而提出了细分市场、多样化经营、提供个性化服务相整合的产品开发和营销策略迎合女性不同层次的体育旅游消费需求的开发建议。

  11. Arduous Female Body - Shape---historical reflection of modern Chinese women's involvement in sports%艰难的女性身体塑造--我国近代女子体育参与的历史思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 蒋苏

    2014-01-01

    以民国女性的"身体"塑造为研究对象,通过对民国时期画报、图像、照片资料的解读、分析,使得史料的表述更具“张力”。通过研究,突出社会结构变迁层面对女性身体塑造的影响。女性的身体生物性塑造,暗合了"强种保国"的军国主义的思维;在道德身体的塑造上,对塑造新女性、新国民的历史进程中,发挥了一定的作用;在沟通态的身体上,体育运动的参与,突破了女性的存在空间,是时代变革在她们身体塑造过程中的力量彰显。%Women's " body" shaping in the republic of China is used as the research object. The paper analyzes the pictorials, images and photographs in the period of the Republic of China, which makes the expression of the materials more forceful. The research highlights the influence of social level structure change on female body shaping. The biologi-cal shaping of women's body coincides with the military philosophy of “strengthening the seed to protect the country”. The moral shaping of women's bodies plays a role in shaping new women and new citizens. In the communication mode of body shaping, the involvement of sports breaks through the space in which women exist and this is the reflection of the power in their body - shaping process.

  12. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  13. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  14. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  15. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  16. Are Female Supervisors More Female-Friendly?

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Bednar; Dora Gicheva

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the idea that easily inferable demographic characteristics such as gender may not be sufficient to define type in the supervisor-employee mentoring relationship. We use longitudinal data on athletic directors at NCAA Division I programs to identify through observed mobility the propensity of top-level administrators to hire and retain female head coaches, above and beyond an organization's culture. We show that supervisor gender appears to be unrelated to female friendliness in t...

  17. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  18. A comparison between composition and density of the fat-free mass of young adult Singaporean Chinese and Dutch Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, A.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    The body composition was measured in 30 female Singapore Chinese and 34 female Dutch Caucasians aged (mean ± SD) 22.7 ± 3.6 years and in 39 male Singapore Chinese and 39 male Dutch Caucasians aged 23.3 ± 3.2 years. Methods: The body fat percentage (BF€was measured using densitometry and deuterium ox

  19. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  20. THAI LITERATURES REFLECTING CHINESE IDENTITY IN THAI SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchawadee Kesmanee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures present the picture of people’s lives in the society in details. There have been numerous studies on Chinese-Thai literatures but none of them has an in-depth study on the Chinese identity. This study has been conducted due to personal interest to analyze the authors’ effort to present the Chinese identity through the characters, contents and social contexts. The data were collected from Thai novels and documentaries dated between 1957 and 2007 of which main characters, content and context were related to the Chinese residing in Thailand. Data collected had been inspected, classified, analyzed and composed. It was found that the Thai literatures could possibly represent Chinese identity in Thai society in the areas of the relationship of the family members from being a male-dominated family to a female-accepted one, the conservation of Chinese language to represent the unity of the Chinese community, the importance of the Chinese opera and its struggle to survive in recent times and the existence of Chinese culture and tradition, which are acculturated and assimilated to the Thai culture. From the study of Chinese identity in Thai literature in four aspects: (1 family relationships, system of relatives and surnames; (2 Chinese Language; (3 Performing Arts and (4 Culture and tradition, it was found that no matter how strict the first generations are to the traditions, they cannot resist the cultural assimilation in the next generations, who are descendants of Chinese overseas in Thailand. Since these new generations were born and grew up in Thai culture, which is different from the one of their ancestors, their versions of Chinese traditions were affected by the Thai society, economy and political situations which led to the changes of the old Chinese tradition and even result in the loss of some tradition.

  1. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  2. 强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染的Meta分析%Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓珍; 李永刚; 林川; 黄海溶

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. Methods Literatures from Chinese and English databases published between 1966 and March of 2014 were screened for relevant randomized controlled trials(RCTs).The software package of Review Manager 5.2(Cochrane Collaboration) was used for data analysis.Results 13 RCTs involving 930 patients were included in the study. Doxycycline plus oral TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate (P<0.01)and Cure rate (P<0.01)for the studies;Doxycycline plus external TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate(P<0.01)and Cure rate(P<0.01)for the studies. In addition,Doxycycline plus TCM was inferior to Doxycycline alone in terms of adverse effects rate (RR=0.68,95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03).Conclusion Doxycycline combined with TCM was effective in treating mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. But the results were limited quality and sample,More RCTs with high quality and large sample size should be conducted.%目的:评价强力霉素联合中药治疗女性支原体感染的疗效及安全性。方法通过检索1966年—2014年3月期间中英文数据库,运用Endnote软件筛选相关随机对照试验(randomized controlled trial,RCT)研究。采用RevMan5.2软件进行Meta分析。结果共纳入13项RCT,1107例患者,其中7项强力霉素联合口服中药,6项强力霉素联合外用中药。根据给药方式进行亚组分析,强力霉素联合口服中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01);强力霉素联合外用中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01)。强力霉素联合中药组不良反应发生率是单用强力霉素组的0.68倍(95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03)。结论强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体

  3. Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ:a meta-analysis%强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓珍; 李永刚; 林川; 黄海溶

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价强力霉素联合中药治疗女性支原体感染的疗效及安全性。方法通过检索1966年—2014年3月期间中英文数据库,运用Endnote软件筛选相关随机对照试验(randomized controlled trial,RCT)研究。采用RevMan5.2软件进行Meta分析。结果共纳入13项RCT,1107例患者,其中7项强力霉素联合口服中药,6项强力霉素联合外用中药。根据给药方式进行亚组分析,强力霉素联合口服中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01);强力霉素联合外用中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01)。强力霉素联合中药组不良反应发生率是单用强力霉素组的0.68倍(95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03)。结论强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染有一定疗效,但受纳入研究质量和样本量的限制,以上结论需更多高质量研究予以验证。%Objectives This study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. Methods Literatures from Chinese and English databases published between 1966 and March of 2014 were screened for relevant randomized controlled trials(RCTs).The software package of Review Manager 5.2(Cochrane Collaboration) was used for data analysis.Results 13 RCTs involving 930 patients were included in the study. Doxycycline plus oral TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate (P<0.01)and Cure rate (P<0.01)for the studies;Doxycycline plus external TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate(P<0.01)and Cure rate(P<0.01)for the studies. In addition,Doxycycline plus TCM was inferior to Doxycycline alone in terms of adverse effects rate (RR=0.68,95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03).Conclusion Doxycycline combined with TCM was effective in treating mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ

  4. Study on the relation between the degree of dental calcification and chronological age about Chinese Han nationality aged 6~18 years old groups of the female gender%中国汉族6~18周岁女性人群牙齿生长发育的年龄研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雪梅; 封华; 董迎春; 谭宇; 王晓明; 王昊; 韩冰; 庹琳; 王坚; 张继宗

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was to explore the relation between degree of dental calcification and age in Chinese Han nationality adolescents and youths of the female gender, then to set up equations for estimating age by tooth.Methods The samples consisted of 6 923 pieces of digital orthopantomograms belonging to the groups aged 6 ~ 18 years old,accordance to the standard for grading the degree of dental calcification,the observers graded the low mandibular dental calcification degree showing in the samples, then dealt the data with SPSS 13.0 and set up the regression equations for estimating age;finally, a blind test was carried out based on 181 samples not used in the study.Results There was a perfect relation between chronological age and each tooth( r > 0.6 ), there were no significant statistic differences (P > 0.05 ) in the low mandibular dental calcification degree between homonymic teeth and there was a good correlation between them (r >0.93) ;the regression model used in the research was rational and the mean error between the estimated age and chronological age is 0.421 ± 0.272 year.Conclusion The methods used in this study shows a favorable foreground in estimating age for Chinese Han nationality groups aged 6 ~ 18 years old of the female gender in forensic practice.%目的 研究牙齿钙化程度与年龄的关系,建立利用牙齿推断中国汉族女性人群年龄的方程.方法 通过对6 923名6~18周岁汉族女性儿童及青少年全口曲面断层影像下领恒牙的钙化程度进行评分;将分级值及其对应的年龄输入SPSS软件进行分析,最终建立推断年龄的方程模型;从研究样本外随机抽取已知年龄的样本181例进行盲测.结果 牙齿钙化评分值与年龄相关分析结果相关系数r均大于0.6,同名牙评分值侧别间统计分析结果P>0.05且相关系数r均大于0.93,方程拟合优度检验R2=0.789,估计值标准误为1.28岁,盲测结果与真实年龄的平均误差为0.421±0

  5. Empirical Study on Functional Training of Chinese Female Hockey Team Preparing for London Olympic Games%中国女子曲棍球队备战第30届夏季奥运会过程中体能训练的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫琪; 王明波; 裴怡然; 赵焕彬

    2014-01-01

    Functional training of the Chinese female hockey team was studied during the prepa-ration for 2012 London Olympic Games ,and a functional training method system specified for elite female hockey players was constructed .The preparation period was divided into three macro-cycles ,and each macro-cycle was divided into three micro-cycles :basic physical function development ,general motion function development and specific function development .Each mi-cro-cycle had specific training goals and different emphases .After 19 months of systematic im-plementation ,the athletes’ court physical fitness test results were comprehensively improved , and the Functional Movement Screen (FMS ) score ,starting velocity ,speed ,agility ,functional strength ,anaerobic endurance have been significantly increased(P<0 .01) .%以备战第30届夏季奥运会(2012,英国·伦敦)过程中中国女子曲棍球队的体能训练为研究对象,建立了体能训练系统,把备战过程划分为3个大周期,每个大周期又划分为“身体基本运动功能训练周期”、“一般运动功能训练周期”和“专项运动功能训练周期”3个中周期,在每个中周期中有其明确的体能训练目标,在训练安排比例上有所侧重。通过长达19个月的系统实施,应用功能性体能训练的理念与方法,全面提高运动员场地体能测试的成绩,在身体基本功能性动作筛查(FMS )、起动速度、速度、灵敏性、功能性力量、无氧耐力几个方面都得到明显提高(P<0.01)。

  6. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type)...

  7. The grotesque female in Malaysian poems: shaping the migrant's psyche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DMani, Sheba

    2011-12-01

    The works of Malaysian poet, Wong Phui Nam's Against the Wilderness (vii) China bride and Variations on a Birthday Theme (iv) Kali, illustrate a bride and a mother in terrifying images. Wong's stylistic form of representing the female body through startling images of inversion and degradation evoke feelings of unease. The suspension between the known and the unknown causes a bewildering reality verging on madness. Interpreted through the lens of the carnivalesque, specifically, the grotesque body, festive language and parody, I attempt to reconstruct the psyche of the Chinese migrant which underpins these poems. The migrant who arrived in Malaya during the colonial era in the early nineteenth century faced political and social struggles in adapting to a new land. In the poems, the migrant juxtaposes his position to a female and uses the female body as a site of contention to intensify the torment of the psyche and to reflect the despair of the Chinese in Malaysia. PMID:21826502

  8. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... periods Learn more about healthy eating habits and healthy lifestyle choices Other Organizations Female Athlete Triad Coalition Questions to Ask Your Doctor ... female athlete triad? How do I strike a balance between my desire to be healthy and my desire to win? Could there be ...

  9. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  10. A comparison of the effect of work stress on burnout and quality of life between female nurses and female doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si-Ying; Li, Huang-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Yang, Shu-Juan; Qiu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of work stress on job burnout and quality of life between female nurses and doctors in China. The participants were 947 female nurses and 685 female doctors selected from Fujian provinces by using stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese version of Short Form-36 Health Survey was used to measure quality of life; the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition was applied for occupational stress; and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to assess job burnout. Occupational stress (indicated by different stressors) played an important role in job burnout and quality of life among female nurses and female doctors when taking into account other potential influencing factors simultaneously. These results show that it is important to adopt different preventive measures to prevent burnout and improve quality of life among the 2 populations according to the different stressors.

  11. Cigarette smoking in male patients with chronic schizophrenia in a Chinese population: prevalence and relationship to clinical phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yang Zhang

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of smoking in schizophrenia of European background may be related to smoking's reducing clinical symptoms and medication side effects. Because smoking prevalence and its associations with clinical phenotypes are less well characterized in Chinese than European patients with schizophrenia, we assessed these smoking behaviors using clinician-administered questionnaires and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND in 776 Chinese male schizophrenia and 560 control subjects. Patients also were rated on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, the Simpson and Angus Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (SAES, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. We found that the schizophrenia patients had a higher lifetime incidence of smoking (79% vs 63%, were more likely to be heavy smokers (61% vs 31%, and had lower smoking cessation rates (4% vs 9% (all p0.05 than the non-smoking patients. These results suggest that Chinese males with schizophrenia smoke more frequently than the general population. Further, smokers with schizophrenia may display fewer negative symptoms and possibly less parkinsonism than non-smokers with schizophrenia.

  12. Functional consequences of iron deficiency in Chinese female workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.

    1993-01-01

    Women of the reproductive age in China play a very important role in the labour force. Information on anaemia prevalence in this group is hardly available, notwithstanding the fact that iron deficiency anaemia is considered to be a major public health problem in China. Iron deficiency may cause adve

  13. Functional consequences of iron deficiency in Chinese female workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, R.

    1993-01-01

    Women of the reproductive age in China play a very important role in the labour force. Information on anaemia prevalence in this group is hardly available, notwithstanding the fact that iron deficiency anaemia is considered to be a major public health problem in China. Iron deficiency may cause adverse effects on physical performance. However, data available are fragmentary, inconsistent and the results are inconclusive. Furthermore, only a few studies so far have been carried out under free ...

  14. Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

  15. Female intrasexual competition decreases female facial attractiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Maryanne L

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that female intrasexual competition will occur when males of high genetic quality are considered to be a resource. It is probable that women compete in terms of attractiveness since this is one of the primary criteria used by men when selecting mates. Furthermore, because hormones influence the mate-selection process, they may also mediate competition. One competitive strategy that women use is derogation--any act intended to decrease a rival's perceived value. To...

  16. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

  17. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415

  18. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  19. PBL and critical thinking disposition in Chinese medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Emmersen, Jeppe; Toft, Egon;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL) and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT) and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU...... scores and CCTDI-CV results. Male students scored slightly higher on the CCS test compared to female students (male 113.4±18.9 vs. female 109.7±19.7), but the difference was not significant. This study concludes that in Chinese medical students, PBL teaching was related to a higher disposition...

  20. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  1. Epilepsy in Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T M; Yang, S H; Ng, P K

    2001-01-01

    This article reviewed the meaning and development of epilepsy in Chinese culture. The theories of Yin and Yang and the five elements, fundamentals of traditional Chinese medicine, were introduced, which form the context of understanding of the etiology, classification, and treatment of epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:11321477

  2. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  3. Ideal female brow aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. This analysis provided objective evidence that the ideal youthful brow peak has migrated laterally over time to lie at the lateral canthus. There has been a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower and flatter brows. These findings are discussed in relation to current concepts of female brow aging, with repercussions regarding endoscopic brow lift and aesthetic forehead surgery.

  4. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Explain Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine among Hong Kong Chinese in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L. Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The UK Chinese are known for their underutilisation of western healthcare services. Reasons for this underutilisation are complex. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB is a widely used model of social cognition, which in the present study is being applied to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM utilisation and satisfaction with TCM services. Two hundred and seventy-two UK Chinese aged between 15 and 91 years (M=46.55; SD = 18.53 enrolled in the study. TCM utilisation was associated with gender, age, cultural attachment, and subjective norms. TCM users were more likely to be female and older and have a strong attachment to Chinese culture, and be influenced by the views of important others. Findings highlight the potential of the TPB in exploring TCM utilisation, whilst also throwing light on other factors influential in the use of TCM and satisfaction with TCM service provision among Chinese in the UK.

  5. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Explain Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine among Hong Kong Chinese in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Tina L; Shardlow, Steven M; Ng, Sik Hung

    2015-01-01

    The UK Chinese are known for their underutilisation of western healthcare services. Reasons for this underutilisation are complex. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is a widely used model of social cognition, which in the present study is being applied to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) utilisation and satisfaction with TCM services. Two hundred and seventy-two UK Chinese aged between 15 and 91 years (M = 46.55; SD = 18.53) enrolled in the study. TCM utilisation was associated with gender, age, cultural attachment, and subjective norms. TCM users were more likely to be female and older and have a strong attachment to Chinese culture, and be influenced by the views of important others. Findings highlight the potential of the TPB in exploring TCM utilisation, whilst also throwing light on other factors influential in the use of TCM and satisfaction with TCM service provision among Chinese in the UK. PMID:26504477

  6. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Measurement in Predicting Fat-Free Mass of Chinese Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen; Wong, Stephen Heung-sang

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study aimed to examine the validity of various published bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations in estimating FFM among Chinese children and adolescents and to develop BIA equations for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate for Chinese children and adolescents. Material/Methods A total of 255 healthy Chinese children and adolescents aged 9 to 19 years old (127 males and 128 females) from Tianjin, China, participated in the BIA measurement at 50 kHz...

  7. A thymic neuroendocrine tumour in a young female: a rare cause of relapsing and remitting Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M J Trott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a young female patient with a rare cause of relapsing and remitting Cushing’s syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion from a thymic neuroendocrine tumour. A 34-year-old female presented with a constellation of symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome, including facial swelling, muscle weakness and cognitive impairment. We use the terms ‘relapsing and remitting’ in this case report, given the unpredictable time course of symptoms, which led to a delay of 2 years before the correct diagnosis of hypercortisolaemia. Diagnostic workup confirmed ectopic ACTH secretion, and a thymic mass was seen on mediastinal imaging. The patient subsequently underwent thymectomy with complete resolution of her symptoms. Several case series have documented the association of Cushing’s syndrome with thymic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs, although to our knowledge there are a few published cases of patients with relapsing and remitting symptoms. This case is also notable for the absence of features of the MEN-1 syndrome, along with the female gender of our patient and her history of non-smoking.

  8. Family Mastery Enhances Work Engagement in Chinese Nurses: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chang-qin; Siu, Oi-ling; Chen, Wei-qing; Wang, Hai-jiang

    2011-01-01

    Based on Greenhaus and Powell's (2006) theory of work-family enrichment and the job demands-resources (JD-R) model of work engagement (Bakker & Demerouti, 2008), this study focused on the family-to-work enrichment process by investigating the effect of family mastery on work engagement in a Chinese context. A sample of 279 Chinese female nurses…

  9. Chinese Basic Block - The Structure Designing Principle and Technology of Dong Hua Basic Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-bin; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2002-01-01

    The principles and the interrelated factors of the basic garment pattern are discussed. Furthermore the regression relation between the different parts of the Chinese female bodies and the application rules of the box pattern are analyzed. Chinese basic block - the DongHua Basic Block is founded theoretically and practically.

  10. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administration (FDA) to treat female pattern baldness is minoxidil: It is applied to the scalp. For women, the 2% solution or 5% foam is recommended. Minoxidil may help hair grow in about 1 in ...

  11. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  12. Self catheterization - female

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000144.htm Self catheterization - female To use the sharing features on ... incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Multiple sclerosis - discharge Stroke - discharge Urinary catheters - ...

  13. Análise comparativa do resultado da sutura artroscópica da lesão do manguito rotador em pacientes fumantes e não fumantes Comparative analysis on the result from arthroscopic suturing of rotator cuff injuries between smoking and non-smoking patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Almeida

    2011-04-01

    cuff injuries between smoking and non-smoking patients. METHODS: A group of 286 patients who underwent arthroscopic suturing of primary rotator cuff injuries between June 12, 2002, and May 14, 2008, was analyzed. The patients included in the study were evaluated using the UCLA scale, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months and average of 56.52 months. The variables studied were age, sex, side operated, dominance, profile of cigarette use and UCLA index. RESULTS: This study evaluated a total of 205 patients. Mean age (p = 0.289 and sex (p = 0.124 were analyzed statistically between the smoking and non-smoking patients and the two groups were considered to be similar. The average UCLA score for the non-smoking patients (143 was 34 (32 to 35. The average UCLA score for the smoking patients (51 was 33 (29 to 35. There was no statistically significant difference in UCLA score (p = 0.123 between the smoking and non-smoking patients. For the purposes of statistical analysis, we grouped the small and medium tears (107 and compared these with the large and extensive tears (80, between smokers and non-smokers. There was no statistically significant difference using the Mann-Whitney test regarding the small and medium tears (p = 818. There was a statistically significant difference using the Mann-Whitney test regarding the large and extended tears, between the smoking and non-smoking patients, such that the non-smokers showed better UCLA scores (p = 0.038. CONCLUSION: The results from arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries are inferior among smoking patients.

  14. Studies on the hepatic three-dimensional reconstruction and virtual surgery using the hepatic images of the digitized virtual Chinese human female number 1 database%虚拟中国人女性一号肝脏图像三维重建和虚拟手术的切割

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方驰华; 周五一; 黄立伟; 王博亮; 钟世镇

    2005-01-01

    目的研究数字化虚拟肝脏三维重建及虚拟肝脏手术的切割.方法采用数字化虚拟中国人女性一号(Virtual Chinese Human Female No.1 VCH-F1)数据集中所有包含肝脏的连续图像, 首先对组织切片图像进行配准后从中分割提取出肝实质、肝静脉、胆管、胆囊等组织的图像信息,然后应用可视化工具包(Visualization Toolkit, VTK )三维重建,建立肝脏表面及内部结构的三维形态模型,并开发一个基于PC 机和Windows 平台的肝脏三维可视化演示系统.结果在肝脏三维可视化演示系统中,肝脏实体立体感强,可以通过设定肝脏及其管道系统的透明度,以及对模型的放大、缩小和上下左右不同方向的旋转,来观察肝脏及管道结构的立体形态.并可以按任意角度对虚拟的肝脏进行切割和观察切割面结构.结论利用VCH-F1数据集中肝脏图像,在VTK基础上开发的基于PC 机和Windows 平台的肝脏三维可视化演示系统基本达到了比较满意的程度,为今后数字化虚拟肝脏及虚拟各种肝脏手术的研究做了积极探索.

  15. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  16. Postadolescent acne in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, R; Shakery, K

    2014-01-01

    Acne in the adult female often presents as a chronic condition that can have a considerable negative psychological, social and emotional impact on the affected individual. Estimated prevalence rates of adult female acne vary widely according to study type. Case reports and clinical examinations estimate the prevalence of clinical acne at 10-12%, while survey estimates of physiological disease states are as high as 54%. Two subtypes of adult female acne may be defined according to time of onset: 'persistent' and 'late-onset', accounting for approximately 80 and 20% of cases, respectively. Postadolescent acne is generally mild-to-moderate in severity and presents with more inflammatory lesions and fewer comedones compared to adolescent acne. Furthermore, the impact of acne on the quality of life is often greater in adult females than in younger individuals. Despite these important differences, the key principles of acne treatment in the adult female do not differ significantly from those of other age groups. However, specific characteristics relating to the adult female should be considered when selecting a treatment regimen. PMID:24280643

  17. 某中医医院连续3年女性生殖系统感染解脲脲原体的耐药性%Antimicrobial resistance of Ureaplasma urealyticum from reproductive systems of female patients at a traditional Chinese medicine hospital in three consecutive years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁志红; 吕春兰; 苏大林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antimicrobial resistance and change trends ofUreaplasma urealyticum (Uu) from reproductive system of female patients at a traditional Chinese medicine hospital in three consecutive years. Methods Antimicrobial resistance of Uu isolated from gynaecology leucorrhea and cervical secretion specimens of patients of dermatology & sexually transmitted diseases department and gynaecology department from January 2011 to December 2013 were analyzed retrospectively.Results A total of 327 Uu strains were isolated,except resistance rates of Uu to doxycycline(5.23%-6.12%)and josamycin(0-1 .96%)remained at a relatively low level in three consecutive years,resistance rate to the other antimicrobials showed an upward trend year by year,but the difference was not significant (P >0.05).The resistance of Uu to ofloxacin,clarithromycin and sparfloxacin were relatively high(42.11 %-61 .40%),to josamycin,doxycycline and minocycline were lower(0-13.07%),and multidrug re-sistance was serious.Conclusion Antimicrobial resistanc of Uu isolated from reproductive system of female patients in this hospital is high.It is necessary to realize the status and change trends of antimicrobial resistance of Uu for the treatment of disease and control of the emergence of multidrug resistance pathogens.%目的:了解某中医医院女性生殖系统解脲脲原体(Uu)感染患者连续3年的耐药现状和变化趋势。方法对该中医医院2011年1月—2013年12月皮肤性病科和妇科门诊及住院女性患者送检的白带及宫颈分泌物标本分离的 Uu 的耐药性进行回顾性分析。结果共分离 Uu 327株,其3年耐药率,除多西环素(5.23%~6.12%)和交沙霉素(0~1.96%)较低外,其余抗菌药物均稍有增高,但差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。Uu 对氧氟沙星、克拉霉素、司帕沙星的耐药率(42.11%~61.40%)较高,对交沙霉素、多西环素

  18. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  19. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  20. Female rose bitterling prefer MHC-dissimilar males: experimental evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reichard

    Full Text Available The role of genetic benefits in female mate choice remains a controversial aspect of sexual selection theory. In contrast to "good allele" models of sexual selection, "compatible allele" models of mate choice predict that females prefer mates with alleles complementary to their own rather than conferring additive effects. While correlative results suggest complementary genetic effects to be plausible, direct experimental evidence is scarce. A previous study on the Chinese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus demonstrated a positive correlation between female mate choice, offspring growth and survival, and the functional dissimilarity between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC alleles of males and females. Here we directly tested whether females used cues associated with MHC genes to select genetically compatible males in an experimental framework. By sequentially pairing females with MHC similar and dissimilar males, based on a priori known MHC profiles, we showed that females discriminated between similar and dissimilar males and deposited significantly more eggs with MHC dissimilar males. Notably, the degree of dissimilarity was an important factor for female decision to mate, possibly indicating a potential threshold value of dissimilarity for decision making, or of an indirect effect of the MHC.

  1. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  2. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-06-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  3. Promoting the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, H

    1997-01-01

    AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia. PMID:12292734

  4. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  5. Gender and the Politics of Female Infanticide and Prostitution Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Michelle T. King. Between Birth and Death: Female Infanticide in Nineteenth-Century China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. 264 pp. $50.00 (cloth/e-book. Elizabeth J. Remick. Regulating Prostitution in China: Gender and Local Statebuilding, 1900–1937. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. 288 pp. $45.00 (cloth/e-book. The two works under review are both compelling historical studies that use gender as a category of analysis to make important contributions to our understanding of the construction of the modern Chinese state, the periodization of modern Chinese history, and the political and cultural significance of controlling the female body. While both books engage with gender as broadly construed, they adopt different approaches. Michelle King’s analysis focuses on discursive representations that took place, for the most part, outside the context of the state—what Confucian elites, foreign experts and missionaries, and Chinese nationalists wrote about female infanticide over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This discursive approach has been used before but rarely to such insightful effect. King’s research deepens our understanding of gender and imperialism in the nineteenth century by illustrating how imperialist notions of China as a backward and heathen place were constructed in part on dubious claims that identified female infanticide as an emblematically Chinese cultural practice. Elizabeth Remick’s gender analysis, in contrast, centers on the state institutions that were developed in the early 1900s to regulate prostitution, including tax policies, licensing fees, zoning regulations, medical examinations, and police supervision. Her study of the newly erected local and provincial government regulatory regimes is a pathbreaking demonstration of how the regulation of gender roles was at the heart of state-building efforts in early twentieth-century China...

  6. Female hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

  7. Distribution of hair on the dorsum of the phalanges of the hand in a Chinese population from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharap, A S; Lim, B C; Ong, L B

    1996-12-01

    Hair distribution on the dorsum of phalanges of the hand was studied on 302 Chinese subjects (134 males and 168 females) randomly selected from the residents of Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Proximal phalangeal hair was seen on the dorsum of both hands in 99.3% of male subjects but in only 85.1% of female subjects. Chinese females showed a significantly lower (p hair on the hands than Chinese males. Comparison with other racial groups showed that Chinese females had significantly less (p hair on the proximal phalanges of the hands than Malay and African (Nigerian) females. The least common digital combination of proximal phalangeal hair in female subjects was the presence of proximal phalangeal hair only on the fourth digit (ring finger) and was noted in 0.6% of subjects. This has not been reported before. The frequency of middle phalangeal hair (MPH) distribution in Chinese falls between that in Malays and in Japanese which is probably explained by the fact that all these three racial groups originate from Asia. A study of digital combination of MPH in Chinese showed that the most common and the least common combinations in the Chinese differ considerably from those in other races. A total of 16 patterns of hair distribution was noted on the dorsum of the phalanges of the hands in Chinese subjects. Our study showed that though Chinese females had less digital hair on the hands than Chinese males, they showed a much larger variety of patterns of digital hair distribution than males. PMID:9008788

  8. Use of Internet viral marketing to promote smoke-free lifestyles among Chinese adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ip

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Youth smoking is a global public health concern. Health educators are increasingly using Internet-based technologies, but the effectiveness of Internet viral marketing in promoting health remains uncertain. This prospective pilot study assessed the efficacy of an online game-based viral marketing campaign in promoting a smoke-free attitude among Chinese adolescents. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-one Hong Kong Chinese adolescents aged 10 to 24 were invited to participate in an online multiple-choice quiz game competition designed to deliver tobacco-related health information. Participants were encouraged to refer others to join. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to explore the factors contributing to the referral process. Latent transition analysis utilising a pre- and post-game survey was used to detect attitudinal changes toward smoking. RESULTS: The number of participants increased almost eightfold from 121 to 928 (34.6% current or ex-smokers during the 22-day campaign. Participants exhibited significant attitudinal change, with 73% holding negative attitudes toward smoking after the campaign compared to 57% before it. The transition probabilities from positive to negative and neutral to negative attitudes were 0.52 and 0.48, respectively. It was also found that attempting every 20 quiz questions was associated with lower perceived smoking decision in future (OR = 0.95, p-value <0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Our online game-based viral marketing programme was effective in reaching a large number of smoking and non-smoking participants and changing their attitudes toward smoking. It constitutes a promising practical and cost-effective model for engaging young smokers and promulgating smoking-related health information among Chinese adolescents.

  9. The sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators Alligator sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan ZHAO, Hai-Qiong YANG, Li-Ming FANG, Guo-Liang PAN, Wei-Qiang ZOU, Da-Bin REN, Qiu-Hong WAN, Sheng-Guo FANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is one of the most endangered crocodilian species, and typically exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. It is extremely important to clarify the sex structure of Chinese alligators to implement recovery projects successfully. However, the sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators remains unknown. In this study, we collected 28 years of sex ratio data from Chinese alligators residing in the natural and artificial habitats of Changxing Nature Reserve, China, and examined the differences in the sex ratio dynamics between these two populations.We observed that the sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators is 1 male to 4.507 females, which was significantly lower compared to that of the captive population (1 to 2.040; P 0.05. Overall, this study indicates that the stabilized female-biased sex ratio of Changxing Chinese alligators might result from selection pressure caused by local mate competition and major inbreeding [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 725–731, 2013 ].

  10. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  11. Factorial Structure of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shujuan, Wang; Meihua, Qian; Jianxin, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the psychometric structure of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) in Chinese adolescents. With the data collected from 212 senior high school students (94 females, 110 males, 8 unknown), seven models are tested using confirmatory factor analyses in the framework of the multitrait-multimethod strategy. Results indicate…

  12. Counseling Chinese Patients about Cigarette Smoking: The Role of Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han Zao; Zhang, Yu; MacDonell, Karen; Li, Xiao Ping; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses. Design/methodology/approach: At the time of data collection, the hospital had 260 nurses, 255 females and five males. The 200 nurses working on the two daytime shifts were given the…

  13. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  14. Psychiatry and Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tsung-Yi

    1983-01-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chines...

  15. Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.). Health complications of female genital mutilation Who is at risk? Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and adolescence, and occasionally on adult women. More than 3 ...

  16. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findin...

  17. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  18. DNA修复基因XPD 312 Asn和751Lys多态性与非吸烟女性肺癌的关系%Association of genetic polymorphism in the DNA repair gene XPD and risk of lung cancer in non-smoking females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉彦; 孙喜文; 王新玲; 王波; 唐雅莉

    2010-01-01

    目的 着色性干皮病互补基因D(xeroderma pigmentosum group D,XPD)是一种重要的DNA损伤修复基因,其常见的多态是位于751密码子的A→C颠换和312密码子G→A转换.本研究旨在探讨XPD基因751位点和312位点单核苷酸多态性与非吸烟女性肺癌易感性的关系.方法 采用病例-对照研究方法,纳入非吸烟女性肺癌患者222人和对照222人.以聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性方法分析XPD基因Lys751Gln和Asp312Asn多态基因型.结果 携带至少1个751Gln等位基因者和携带至少1个312Asn等位基因者患肺癌的风险均显著增高,调整OR分别为3.36(95%CI为2.29-4.90)和1.83(95%CI为1.16-2.91).结论 XPD基因Lys751Gln和Asp312Asn多态是非吸烟女性肺癌的遗传易感因素.

  19. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  20. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  1. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  2. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  3. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  4. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  5. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  6. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  7. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  8. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  9. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  10. Hormones and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelica Artur L.; Kapamadžija Aleksandra; Maticki-Sekulić Milana

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

  11. FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN AFGHANISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    MAGNUS HOLMÉN; THAW TAR MIN; EMILIA SAARELAINEN

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the motivations of eight female Afghan entrepreneurs to start up their own business and the problems they encountered during start-up and operations. Income generation was the most important push factor but pull factors including desire for independence and autonomy were also important. However, in contrast to studies in other countries, the desire for achievement was not emphasized. An unexpected finding was the emphasis on the desire to help non-family members by running...

  12. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  13. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  14. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  15. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  16. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  17. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  18. Word-Processor or Pencil-and-Paper? A Comparison of Students' Writing in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Mark Shum, Shiu-Kee; Brian Tse, Shek-Kam; Liu, Jinghui Jack

    2016-01-01

    A study is reported of the performance and attainment of 32 students from overseas studying elementary Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in a Chinese university. With an AB-BA design, they were asked to use two forms of writing media to present two essays: one a word-processed essay entitled "My Favourite Female" and the other a…

  19. Female-female aggression and female mate choice on black grouse leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo

    2000-05-01

    We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  20. Preparing for Chinese New Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Gordon

    This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English, designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. The booklet follows the activities of a Chinese-American family in its preparations for the Chinese New Year. (CLK)

  1. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  2. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in western Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Ren, Jiayin; Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Na; Wu, Wanhong; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Hu

    2012-06-10

    The purpose of this study is to provide reference data about estimating dental age from third molars of the western Chinese population for comparing with other populations and being applied to the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents. A total of 2078 digital panoramic radiographs of 989 male and 1089 female Chinese subjects aged between 5 and 23 years were examined. The mineralization status of the third molars was assessed using the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. The results showed that the development of third molars in the western Chinese population was likely to begin at age 5 in both males and females. The third molars 28 and 48 showed significantly higher frequency in females than in males. The third molars 18 in the stage 1, 38 in the stages 1, A and G, and 48 in the stage H showed significantly older average age in females than in males. The Demirjian's stages C and D could be used as a reference stage to determine dichotomously whether a western Chinese is more likely to be under or above age 14 or 16, respectively. This study provided reference data for the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents by the mineralization stages of the third molar. Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons.

  3. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values

  4. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

  5. Risk for non-smoking-related cancer in atherosclerotic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Olsen, J H

    1999-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and that of cancer have common features, and in addition to tobacco smoking, oxidative stress, diet, and sex hormones have been considered as common etiological factors. To investigate whether there is an association between ath...

  6. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...... are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural...

  7. The young female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  8. Cardiovascular mortality of Chinese in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jing; Madhavan, Shantha; Alderman, Michael H

    1999-01-01

    To determine cardiovascular disease mortality among Chinese migrants in New York City and compare it to both that of residents in China and whites in New York City, mortality records for 1988 through 1992 for New York City and the 1990 US census data for New York City were linked. Age-specific death rates for urban China, reported by the World Health Organization, were used for comparison. The results show that male and female Chinese residents in New York City had lower mortality rates for a...

  9. Acquirement of a new male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiurui; LIU Ling; LIU Mengjun; ZHOU Junyi

    2007-01-01

    A male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),named 'male sterile No.1'(JMS1),was firstly identified from a natural population through studies of pollen amount and vitality and its anatomy.Its microspores got massed and then disaggregated after the tetrad stage during pollen development.Then its anthers became empty,or only pollen vestiges remained in the yellow buds.The pollen became abortive after the tetrad stage.Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tapetum at the tetrad stage were related to pollen abortion.In view of its moderate could be used as a worthwhile female parent in the cross breeding of Chinese jujube.

  10. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  11. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The feature and development direction of ecological garden city; The problem and countermeasures in urban construction audio-visual file management task;Youth network moral education is imperative;A shallow discussion about moral education penetration in Chinese classroom;

  12. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  13. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  14. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  15. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  16. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  17. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  18. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...

  19. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  20. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  1. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  2. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  3. Psychiatry and Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T Y

    1983-12-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chinese have a relatively favorable prognosis of schizophrenia, low rates of depressive illness, a strong tendency towards somatization and the presence of several unique culture-bound syndromes. From studying Chinese in Vancouver, it was found that they have a characteristic way of dealing with mental illness in the family, in that there is first a protracted period of intrafamilial coping with serious psychiatric illness, followed by recourse to friends, elders and neighbors in the community; third, consultation with traditional specialists, religious healers or general physicians; fourth, outpatient or inpatient treatment from specialists, and, finally, a process of rejection and scapegoating of the patient. The efficacy of Western psychiatric treatment of Chinese patients has yet to be objectively assessed. PMID:6364576

  4. Female Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daniel S; Nitti, Victor W

    2016-04-01

    The non-specific symptoms the patients express upon the presentation of female bladder outlet obstruction make it a challenge to diagnose. There are subtle differences between the obstructed patient and those whose bladders are underactive and/or fail to mount a detrusor contraction. These disparities can be extracted through a thorough history and examination. At times, the clinician may utilize nomograms, non-invasive uroflow, and urodynamics with the addition of fluoroscopy to establish the diagnosis of obstruction. Management of the obstruction depends on the nature of the condition, whether functional or anatomical. The increase in the number of sling procedures performed to treat stress urinary incontinence has resulted in a rise in the number of iatrogenic obstructions. The temporal relationship between surgery and obstruction is the key to identifying the problem. PMID:26902625

  5. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in...... psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience...... comorbid with other sexual problems and are of biopsychosocial etiology. In the assessment, a thorough sexological history as well as medical and gynecological history and examination are recommended. Treatment should be based on of the symptoms, clinical findings and, if possibly, on underlying etiology...

  6. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  7. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  8. HEALTH ATTITUDES OF THE FEMALE STUDENTS FROM OLSZTYN, POLAND - THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, ADDICTIONS AND THE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HEALTH BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to improve the health of the population are now focused on promoting healthy lifestyle, improve living conditions and to reduce mortality. Health education activities include regular physical activity, optimal nutrition, reduce addictions and stress. The purpose of the survey conducted among 672 first-year female students at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland was to determine the attitudes of young women towards a healthy lifestyle. Using anonymous survey questionnaire asked students about the form of physical activity, nutrition, the presence of stressful situations, the use of drugs, such as alcohol and cigarettes, and the interest in deepening knowledge of public health. The majority of students have participated only in obligatory physical education classes in high school and college. They considered that physical activity during the studies should be voluntary. Only 4.24% of students were total abstinence from alcohol, but 79.10% was non-smoking. Many of the women declared the need to change the diet, reducing alcohol intake and give up smoking habit. The students felt that stress connected with attending university is unavoidable, and thus revealed an interest in reducing and limiting mental tension. Despite their young age, students expressed interest in topics such as: first aid course, nutrition, sexuality, and pregnancy problems.

  9. Does “Tiger Parenting” Exist? Parenting Profiles of Chinese Americans and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    “Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and s...

  10. A Case Study of Chinese Bound Feet: Application of Footprint Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reischl, Uwe; Nandikolla, Vidja; Colby, Conrad; Mijović, Budimir; Wei, Hsian-Chuen

    2008-01-01

    Foot print patterns of the bound feet of a 90-year-old Chinese female were made to obtain insight into the ergonomic consequences of a Chinese custom that caused significant disabilities for many women throughout history. Pressure patterns were evaluated using the techniques applied to standard thumb print analsyis. A digital summary of the pressure patterns were compared to the patterns obtained from a normal subject. The outcomes indicated that the bound foot produced greater pl...

  11. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  12. Chinese boxes: "Typhoon" and Conrad's history of the Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D.

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the novel "Typhoon," by Joseph Conrad, as a story about Chinamen coolies and seamen onboard a steamer transporting Chinese laborers. It argues that the Chinese boxes of the coolies represent several versions of the history of the Chinese and that the coolies are also representatives of a civilization with ideas and institutions, a law and order of nature. It also describes the images of Chinese life and their association to sociality, cooperation, nourishment, simplicity, ...

  13. The Female Athlete Triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions. PMID:27432852

  14. CERN's first female firefighter

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the women's changing room in the Fire Station, built in 2005, has always been empty. With the arrival of Séverine Peverelly, CERN's first female firefighter, it now has a purpose. Séverine Peverelly took up her post as a firefighter in April. Séverine, who comes from Gap in France, took up her post as a firefighter in the CERN fire brigade at the beginning of April. "We were looking for a new member," explains David Peyron, Head of the Fire and Rescue Service. It didn't matter if it was a man or a woman; we needed a firefighter with the right skills, and Séverine just happened to have them." With ten years experience working in French fire services, Séverine was looking for a new challenge. "What attracted me to CERN was the international dimension, because that creates additional challenges," she explains. And these can be considerable! For one thing, every country has its own way of worki...

  15. Representation of Self among Chinese College Job-hunters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐嗣群

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Some of their researches (Booher, 1988; Smith and Bernhardt, 1996; Munter, 2006) have been concentrated on teaching students writing skills.On the other hand, some of their researches (Lakoff, 1975; Labov, 1990; Coates, 1998) have been carried on about identifying and instantiating possible differences in linguistic styles between males and females.However, little work has been undertaken on investigating gender differences reflected in business letters writing, especially job-application letter, by analyzing the genre components and politeness strategies.In this project, by providing a content analysis of 20 job application letters written by Chinese college job applicants, I try to explore the differences between Chinese male and female college job hunters presented in their job application letters.

  16. Brain Embolism Secondary to Cardiac Myxoma in Fifteen Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youming Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Heart myxoma-related embolisms commonly involve the central nervous system, but data are lacking in Chinese patients. Methods. 27 patients diagnosed with myxoma were reviewed retrospectively. Results. Among 27 patients, fourteen (51.9% patients were women. Fifteen (55.6% patients had brain embolisms. Rarely, patients were misdiagnosed with central nervous system vasculitis (n = 2, moyamoya disease (n = 1, and neuromyelitis optica (n = 1. We found positive associations between mRS (>3 and female gender (r = 0.873, P10 × 109/L (r = 0.722, P = 0.002, tumour size (r = 0.866, P0.05. Conclusions. Neurologic manifestations in Chinese patients with cardiac myxoma-related stroke were complicated and multifarious. Female gender, infection, other severe complications, low SBP, tumour size, bilateral brain lesions, TACI, and high WBC counts could be associated with a poor prognosis.

  17. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  18. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  19. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  20. The necessity of female population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C

    1989-01-01

    Justification for and an illustrative example of female focused population studies in China is given in this article. Many questions which have not been empirically answered have been raised about women. Traditional Chinese social norms favor males over females. How has this tradition affected women's fertility, mortality, lifespan, education, and employment? How is this impact felt and to what extent? Empirical research on women is appropriate for the development of the women's movement. Women's issues are universal, of importance socially, politically, and economically. There have been 3 women's liberation movements: during the 1898 Reformation, the 1911 Revolution, and the May 4th Movement in 1919. In the past 10 years, there have been debates about Chinese women's liberation consciousness. Although women make up 50% of the population, educational levels are still below men and employment options are limited. The changing roles of women and future implications need to be investigated. Reform has benefited women, yet in economically underdeveloped areas of the north and south west there is a higher early marriage rate than in more developed areas. What accounts for this pattern? What is woman's role in reproduction in light of changing government policy? The value of women's contribution to family life and reproduction, and to economic life directly needs to be assessed. Statistical information, even though it has been collected, is not generally published as sex specific figures for urban and rural populations, the nonagricultural population, educational levels, or new employment. This prevents an appraisal of the current status or an assessment of the extent of change in the status of women. The governmental statistical system, the departmental statistical system, and statistical departments of enterprises and institutions such as the All China Federation of Women should make available indices on women. Sources of relevant statistics also need to be increased

  1. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  2. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their

  3. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  4. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  5. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  6. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  7. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  8. Chinese Contemporary Art: Ink Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiDaojian

    2003-01-01

    Chinese ink painting is an age-old art tradition that embodies distinctive characteristics of Chinese culture. In these exquisite paintings, artists integrate nature and everyday life to show how the two exist in harmonyalso a frequent theme in Chinese philosophy.

  9. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  10. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  11. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  12. Female Consciousness in Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁存

    2014-01-01

    Charlotte Bront is a remarkable women writer in the 19th-century English literature. Jane Eyre received comprehensive attention. This thesis analyzes main characters from three aspects, Jane Eyre’s female consciousness, pursuit of equality, freedom and presents the limitation in Jane Eyre. It also examines the nature of Charlotte Bront?’s pioneering female consciousness and demonstrates its positive development.

  13. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  14. Diagnostic Testing for Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine Diagnostic Testing for Female Infertility An evaluation of a woman for infertility is ... or suspected male infertility problems Any evaluation for infertility should be ... as well as female partners. The least invasive methods that can detect ...

  15. Dispelling Myths about Female Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Ethel

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are several myths and stereotypes about female physiology. Also included are new technical advances concerning the female reproduction physiology, new techniques in hormone measurement, hypotholomic-pituitary-ovarian axis, hormones and the monthly cycles, dysmenorrhea, menopause, infertility, and future areas for investigation about the…

  16. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    2012 with 41 students studying journalism at People's University, Tsinghua University, China Youth University for Political Sciences, Central University for Nationalities, Beijing Foreign Languages University and Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing and at Fudan University in Shanghai....... society. This chapter is concerned with Chinese journalism students' self-perceptions and evaluations of journalistic performances in order to understand the professional values to which they adhere. The study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted in two periods in Spring 2011 and Fall...

  17. The Chinese Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Moderation, or “the doctrine of the mean,” is the preferred Chinese practice. In order to stimulate the economy since its downturn seven years ago, the Chinese government has adopted a pro-active financial policy that will, in the wake of rapid economic growth, effect its economic soft landing. Since the beginning of 2005, the government has followed the fiscal strategy of cutting deficits and curbing government investment with this aim in mind. Staff reporter Luo Yuanjun examines this issue in his report “Economic Soft Landing: A Common Desire.”

  18. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we......-ba /pha pa/ ta-da /tha ta/ ka-ga / kha-ka/ For L2 acquisition it is held that same and new phonemes are (relatively) easy acquired, whereas similar but not identical sounds are difficult to learn. New sounds are initially mapped onto the L1 phoneme inventory (Kuhl 1991). For Danish, this would predict...

  19. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  20. Central Corneal Thickness in Adult Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The central corneal thickness (CCT) in age 48 years or less of Chinese was characterized and its relationship with gender, age, refraction and intraocular pressure (IOP) was investigated.Right eyes of 1669 participants were included in this study (880 men, 52.7 % and 789 women,47.3 %). Mean age of the samples was 23.8±5.9 years. After the examination of corneal topography and refraction, Goldman applanation tonometry was carried out by one physician. Tonometric values were the mean of three consecutive readings. Subsequently, another physician carried out ultrasonic pachymetry with the DGH 2000 AP ultrasonic pachymeter. Six measuremen ts were made at the center of the cornea of each eye. The mean value was used for analysis. The results showed that mean CCT of male participants was 551.33± 34. 62 μm, 5.79 μm more than that of female participants. Linear regression analyses revealed that CCT was negatively related with age only in female and no association was found between refractive status and CCT. IOP was positively related to CCT, and there was a difference in IOP of 1.5 mmHg (1 mmHg=0. 133 kPa) per 100 μm difference in CCT. Ocular hypertension group was prone to have thicker cornea than average. The results indicated that in adult Chinese CCT tended to decrease with aging in female only. IOP measured by Goldmann tonometry was positively related with CCT so that CCT should be measured along with IOP.

  1. Utilization of and Attitudes towards Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies in a Chinese Cancer Hospital: A Survey of Patients and Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    McQuade, Jennifer L.; ZhiQiang Meng; Zhen Chen; Qi Wei; Ying Zhang; WenYing Bei; J. Lynn Palmer; Lorenzo Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Background. In China, the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is very popular, but little is known about how it is integrated with conventional cancer care. We conducted parallel surveys of patients and physicians on TCM utilization. Methods. Two hundred forty-five patients and 72 allopathic physicians at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center completed questions on their use of and attitude towards TCM. Results. Patient mean age was 51, with 60% female. Eighty-three percent of pa...

  2. Urban imagination in contemporary Chinese women's fiction since 1976 = Zhongguo xin shi qi nü xing xiao shuo zhong de cheng shi xiang xiang

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Fangzhu; 濮方竹

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to examine the urban imagination in contemporary Chinese fictions created by women writers in the “New Era”, which began with the end of the Cultural Revolution in mainland China in 1976. Since then, writings on urban life and female’s literary works have been thriving in the Chinese literary community. Based on previous studies on urban imagination, my research attempts to examine in-depth and reconstruct widely the contemporary Chinese fiction written by female authors sinc...

  3. Self-Esteem as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Social Support and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Zhao, Jingjing; You, Xuqun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined both the mediating and moderating effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between social support and subjective well-being among Chinese university students. Three hundred and ninety-one university students (260 males and 131 females) from two different Chinese universities completed the social support scale, the…

  4. Maternal investment and reproductive success in Chinese water deer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiane MAUGET; Robert MAUGET

    2009-01-01

    Among cervids, maternal investment, estimated as the amount of resources and care allocated to the offspring, was expected to be related to species body size. Therefore, maternal investment in a herd of captive Chinese water deer Hydropotes inermis, a relatively small species of cervid, was investigated over 3 years. Except during the lactation period, reproductive females spent about 2-fold more time resting than feeding. During lactation, the amount of time spent feeding increased highly (25.3 min/h during lactation vs 17.3 min/h during the gestation period). Females spent less than 30% of time in communal behaviours with offspring. They did not reject alien fawns during this care period. Frequency and duration of suckling events decreased exponentially from the second week onwards. More than 10% of suckling bouts were non-filial. Prenatal investment leads to a mean litter mass (about 12% of maternal mass) higher than in most cervid species. Postnatal investment in fawns represents a daily mass gain of ca. 85 g/d during the first 2 weeks, without any sexual difference. Female production, timing and synchrony of births and survival of fawns characterized reproductive success. Seventy percent of mature females gave birth, with a mean of 1.9 offspring per female. The sex ratio was even. Births were synchronous, 80% of births occurring in 25 days. In this herd, 0.74 fawn per female was successfully weaned and 0.56 fawn per female survived through their first year. Based on these results we conclude that reproductive strategy of Chinese water deer was efficient and characterized by mother-offspring relationships typical of hiders and high levels of pre- and postnatal investments. This strategy seems typical of small species of cervids without marked sexual dimorphism.[Current Zoology 55(2):102-110,2009].

  5. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming;

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  6. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  7. Milestone for Chinese physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Chinese scientists have discovered a new particle predicted decades ago but never observed before. It could be what was once called the "multi-quark state," tiny elementary particles with a strong interaction or force that serves as the source of nuclear energy (1/2 page).

  8. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Corbiere

    2013-01-01

    <正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in

  9. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  10. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  11. Cataloging Pirated Chinese Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sze-Tseng

    1971-01-01

    Various types of pirated Chinese books are given with specific examples. The basic steps followed for the proper identification of these books is described, and remedies suggested in case the original is discovered after the book has been cataloged according to the information given by the book pirate. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  12. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  13. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  14. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Li Yiyi, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of Shenyang Metal Research Institute, has developed a new system for creating a low temperature and high pressure anti-hydrogen material in the research of engineering material. She has also been successful in her research of various types of steel.

  15. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  16. Chinese Lacquer Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengXiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the

  17. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  18. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  19. The female runner: gender specifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Stacy L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2010-07-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female runners of all ages and abilities in the past 35 years. Women who participate in running and sports are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, unique medical and orthopedic issues exist for the female runner. This article reviews the history of women in sports, physiologic and biomechanic differences between genders, the pregnant runner, knee osteoarthritis, an update on the female athlete triad and the relationship between amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction associated with athletics. PMID:20610034

  20. Much more than a ratio: multivariate selection on female bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R; Shelly, J P; Fan, J; Zhai, L; Chau, D K P

    2010-10-01

    Studies of the attractiveness of female bodies have focussed strongly on the waist, hips and bust, but sexual selection operates on whole phenotypes rather than the relative proportions of just two or three body parts. Here, we use body scanners to extract computer-generated images of 96 Chinese women's bodies with all traits unrelated to body shape removed. We first show that Chinese and Australian men and women rate the attractiveness of these bodies the same. We then statistically explore the roles of age, body weight and a range of length and girth measures on ratings of attractiveness. Last, we use nonlinear selection analysis, a statistical approach developed by evolutionary biologists to explore the interacting effects of suites of traits on fitness, to study how body traits interact to determine attractiveness. Established proxies of adiposity and reproductive value, including age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio, were all correlated with attractiveness. Nonlinear response surface methods using the original traits consistently outperform all of these indices and ratios, suggesting that indices of youth and abdominal adiposity tell only part of the story of body attractiveness. In particular, our findings draw attention to the importance of integration between abdominal measures, including the bust, and the length and girth of limbs. Our results provide the most comprehensive analysis to date of the effect of body shape and fat deposition on female attractiveness. PMID:20840313

  1. Increasing obesity in treated female HIV patients from Sub-Saharan Africa: Potential causes and possible targets for intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMcCormick

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To investigate changing nutritional demographics of treated HIV-1-infected patients and explore causes of obesity, particularly in women of African origin.Methods We prospectively reviewed nutritional demographics of clinic attenders at an urban European HIV clinic during four one-month periods at 3-yearly intervals (2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010 and in two consecutive whole-year reviews (2010-11 and 2011-12. Risk-factors for obesity were assessed by multiple linear regression. A sub-study of 50 HIV-positive African female patients investigated body-size/shape perception using numerical, verbal and pictorial cues. Results We found a dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2, from 8.5% (2001 to 28% (2011-12 for all clinic attenders, of whom 86% were on antiretroviral treatment. Women of African origin were most affected, 49% being obese, with a further 32% overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2, in 2012. Clinical factors strongly associated with obesity included female gender, black African ethnicity, non-smoking, age and CD4 count (all P<0.001; greater duration of cART did not predict obesity. Individual weight-time trends mostly showed slow long-term progressive weight gain. Investigating body weight perception, we found that weight and adiposity were underestimated by obese subjects, who showed a greater disparity between perceived and actual adiposity (P<0.001. Obese subjects targeted more obese target ideal body shapes (P<0.01, but were less satisfied with their body shape overall (P=0.02. Conclusions Seropositive African women on antiretroviral treatment are at heightened risk of obesity. Although multifactorial, bodyweight perception represents a potential target for intervention.

  2. 吸烟和不吸烟急性心肌梗死患者住院期间焦虑、抑郁水平的比较%Comparison of the anxiety and depression level between non-smoking and smoking acute myocardial infarction patients in hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹淼; 张海咏; 肖树芹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the psychological stress between non-smoking AMI patients and smoking patients in the CCU.Methods A cross-sectional survey was piloted on a sample of 74 AMI patients (33 smokers and 41 non-smokers) in the CCU.Psychological stress was measured the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-rating Depression Scale(SDS).Results Among 74 patients,75.68% had anxiety symptoms,63.51% had depression symptoms; The scores of SAS and SDS in smokers were (64.39 ± 15.39),(65.80 ±15.39),the scores of SAS and SDS in non-smokers were (52.50 ± 6.55 ),(53.96 ± 5.32) ; Smokers reported higher anxiety and depression levels than nonsmokers reported on both scales,the statistics was significant( t =4.15,4.87 ; P < 0.01 ) ; more severe anxiety and depression in smokers.Conclusions Smoking patients with AMI symptoms are exposed higher levels of anxiety and depression.Nurses should pay more attention to these patients,and give them the well targeted preventive measures.%目的 探讨吸烟和不吸烟的急性心肌梗死(AMI)患者在入住心脏监护室(CCU)期间压力水平的差异.方法 选择在CCU住院的AMI患者74例,根据患者是否吸烟分为吸烟组(n=33)和不吸烟组(n=41),采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)调查患者的焦虑、抑郁状况.结果 74例患者中有焦虑症状的占75.68%,有抑郁症状的占63.51%;吸烟组患者的SAS、SDS评分分别为(64.39±15.39),(65.80±15.39)分,不吸烟组的SAS、SDS评分分别为(52.50±6.55),(53.96±5.32)分;吸烟组焦虑、抑郁程度高于不吸烟组,差异均有统计学意义(t=4.15,4.87;P <0.01);且吸烟组重度焦虑、抑郁发生率较高.结论 吸烟的AMI患者在入住CCU期间表现出更高的焦虑、抑郁水平,护理人员应给予重视,进行有针对性的干预.

  3. Strategies for piloting a breast health promotion program in the Chinese-Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Fung Kuen; Kwok, Cannas; White, Kate; D'Abrew, Natalie; Roydhouse, Jessica K

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, women from non-English-speaking backgrounds participate less frequently in breast cancer screening than English-speaking women, and Chinese immigrant women are 50% less likely to participate in breast examinations than Australian-born women. Chinese-born Australians comprise 10% of the overseas-born Australian population, and the immigrant Chinese population in Australia is rapidly increasing. We report on the strategies used in a pilot breast health promotion program, Living with Healthy Breasts, aimed at Cantonese-speaking adult immigrant women in Sydney, Australia. The program consisted of a 1-day education session and a 2-hour follow-up session. We used 5 types of strategies commonly used for cultural targeting (peripheral, evidential, sociocultural, linguistic, and constituent-involving) in a framework of traditional Chinese philosophies (Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism) to deliver breast health messages to Chinese-Australian immigrant women. Creating the program's content and materials required careful consideration of color (pink to indicate femininity and love), symbols (peach blossoms to imply longevity), word choice (avoidance of the word death), location and timing (held in a Chinese restaurant a few months after the Chinese New Year), communication patterns (the use of metaphors and cartoons for discussing health-related matters), and concern for modesty (emphasizing that all presenters and team members were female) to maximize cultural relevance. Using these strategies may be beneficial for designing and implementing breast cancer prevention programs in Cantonese-speaking Chinese immigrant communities. PMID:22172170

  4. Cultures unfolding: experiences of Chinese-Hungarian mixed couples in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kovács

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The research outlined in this paper focuses on a subfield related to Chinese migrants’ integration in Hungary: Chinese-Hungarian mixed partner relationships. I present some findings of an anthropological study on Chinese-Hungarian couples in Hungary, although other localities may also be involved in some of these couples’ lives. Participants and procedure Based on interviews conducted with members of Chinese-Hungarian married, cohabiting and dating, separated or divorced couples, and on data gathered through predominantly online fieldwork, this research explores notions and values that are at play in shaping the dynamics of these relations. Results The sample of thirty-seven couples features two characteristically different types of relationships: those referred to as “student love”, and the relationships of “typical” Chinese migrants with Hungarians. The former tend to be much more successful and persistent in time, with two cases of divorce or separation out of sixteen, whereas the latter are considerably less persistent, with eight cases of divorce or separation and two cases of crises out of thirteen bonds. Another notable finding is that Chinese-Hungarian marriages are much more persistent in time if the Chinese partner is female. Conclusions The paper consists of the following consecutive parts: an introduction to the Chinese migrant context and inter-ethnic partner relations in Hungary; a review of relevant literature; presentation of research methods and fieldwork; presentation and discussion of the research sample; presentation of some results from the interviews; and conclusions.

  5. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

  6. TC in female pelvic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about the role of imaging in the female pelvis. The CT is an important key in the diagnosis of gynecological malignant pathologies such as Ovarian, endometrial cervical, bladder, vaginal and vulvar cancer

  7. Eating Disorders among Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot; Corbin, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  8. Chinese Yuan after Chinese Exchange Rate System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eiji Ogawa; Michiru Sakane

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the actual exchange rate policy conducted by the Chinese government after the Chinese exchange rate system reform on 21 July 2005 is investigated. Also, the long-run effect is investigated, including the Balassa-Samuelson effect on the Chinese yuan. It was found that the Chinese government generated a statistically significant but small change in exchange rate policy during the sample period until 25 January 2006. It was not identifted that the Chinese monetary authority is adopting the currency basket system because the change is too small in the economic sense. It is indicated that the Chinese government should take account of the productivity growth of countries composing the currency basket in order to operate a currency basket regime.

  9. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Socicty of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology,Immunological Journal,Current Immunology,Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology,Chinese Journal of

  10. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Society of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology, Immunological Journal, Current Immunology, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology; Chinese Journal of

  11. Chinese New Year Materials for Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene

    This is a resource book designed to be used by teachers in Chinese bilingual bicultural programs. The materials in the book are based on Chinese New Year customs still observed in Chinese-American communities. The resource book contains five types of materials: (1) a general introduction to the Chinese New Year, including the Chinese Lunar Year…

  12. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Lan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000, an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework. Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement, history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain

  13. Chinese Investment in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    At the 12th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) held on September 8-11 in Xiamen, Fujian Province, government officials and entrepreneurs from all over the world canvassed Chinese entrepreneurs and investors to invest in their countries. Foreign countries and regions rented 16,000 square meters of exhibition space, an increase of more than 50 percent from last year. Among the 74 participating countries and regions, more than 50 held seminars about their invest- ment environments. Besides the Caribbean countries and underdeveloped African nations that are actively attracting investment, developed countries such as the Untied States, Germany, France, Italy and Sweden also showed extraordinary enthusiasm in trying to win over Chinese investors. Beijing Review interviewed Marinella Loddo, Director of the Industrial Cooperation Division of the Italian Institute for Foreign Trade which is also known as the Italian Trade Commission (ICE).

  14. Chinese Experiences on Orthokeratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peiying; Guo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of myopia in Chinese children has been rising each year. Research has shown that orthokeratology is a good method for controlling the progression of myopia. In this article, we review the current prevalence of myopia, the development and management of orthokeratology, and the myopia control methods used in China. A physical and health survey release indicated that the ratio of poor vision in every range of ages is still high in China. During the past 17 years, Chinese doctors have developed a standard fitting procedure and medical management of orthokeratology patients. This article also reviews the clinical studies in China for Ortho-K lenses, such as myopia control, effects and safety, corneal change, and lens design and fitting. Finally, we review the development of the International Academy of Orthokeratology Asia in China. PMID:26704137

  15. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  16. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Discoverer of the Origin of Life The origin of life on earth has long been a subject explored by scientists around the world. At the 11th International Conference on the Origin of Life held at Orleans University in France on July 9th, 1996, Chinese scientist Zhao Yufen and her partner Cao Peisheng announced the contents of the origin of the seed of life.

  17. The Developing Chinese Garment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1997-01-01

    CHINA is a country with a 5,000-year history and a population of 1.2 billion people. Clothing plays an important role in Chinese people’s cultural and social life. Since the reform and opening up in the 1980s, the garment industry has greatly developed and has increased progressively by an average of 15.7 percent a year. In the past 10 years particularly, township-run garment production enterprises have suddenly come to the fore,

  18. INSET for Chinese Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 陈涛; 刘子春

    2007-01-01

    By setting examples,giving tables or taxonomy and so on,the thesis mainly explains the eight general INSET ( in-service teacher training) principles,including Participation,Sympathetic to the context,Teachers' attitude change,Integration of approaches,Communication and support,Evaluation and follow-up,Adequate timescale,then especially concentrate on the problems and solutions to Chinese teacher in using the INSET principles.

  19. Pollution Across Chinese Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Yap Co; Fanying Kong; Shuanglin Lin

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis using 1987-1995 data for Chinese provinces. A comparison of off-sample (1996-2004) predictions to actual emissions indicates that more stringent rules are still needed to fight industrial (waste water and dust) pollution. Auxiliary regressions show that conditional on income, northern provinces have lower industrial waste water pollution; non-coastal and provinces with smaller secondary industry shares have lower industrial (waste wa...

  20. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dutch-based information provider expands in China to tap new market There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them. "You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,

  1. Chinese institutional investors’ sentiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kling, Gerhard; Gao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    We use daily survey data on Chinese institutional investors’ forecasts to measure investors' sentiment. Our empirical model uncovers that share prices and investor sentiment do not have a long-run relation; however, in the short-run, the mood of investors follows a positive feedback process. Hence, institutional investors are optimistic when previous market returns were positive. Contrarily, negative returns trigger a decline in sentiment, which reacts more sensitively to negative than positi...

  2. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    to interpret their own educational histories and prior experiences, while at the same time making use of imaginaries of 'Western' education to redefine themselves as independent individuals in an increasingly globalised and individualised world. Through a case study of prospective pre-school teachers preparing...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  3. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2011-01-01

    There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them."You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,Wolters Kluwer China CEO.

  4. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  5. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed. PMID:7787654

  6. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  7. The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was…

  8. Validation of the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale in a Sample of Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shengquan

    2007-01-01

    The study aims at validating the Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale (TSWLS; Pavot et al., 1998, "The Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale", Journal of Personality Assessment 70, pp. 340-354) in a non-western context. Data from 646 Chinese university students (330 females and 316 males) supported the three-factor structure of the TSWLS.…

  9. Association analysis of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene polymorphisms with early-onset schizophrenia in Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕钦谕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the tyrosine hydroxylase(TH)gene and early-onset schizophrenia in Chinese Han population.Methods To tag single nucleotide polymorphisms(tag SNPs)rs2070762,rs6356 and rs11042978 in the TH gene were genotyped in 315 early-onset schizophrenics(188 male patients,127 female patients)and 391 controls subjects

  10. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang;

    2013-01-01

    stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages...

  11. Validation of the Chinese Version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhua; Zhu, Xiangru; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the validity of a Chinese version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (C-SAGOS), a measure testing the trichotomous framework of achievement goal orientations in a social domain. A total of 208 college students (51% female) aged 18 to 23 participated in the study. Factor analyses showed that the three-factor model…

  12. The effect of attribute order on judgment in Chinese and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Nader T; Lee, Yih Hwai

    2004-12-01

    The authors found that the order of attribute presentation had a stronger effect on judgment in English than in Chinese. In Experiment 1, with a sample of 102 female and 63 male bilingual Singaporeans, the authors found that participants' memory-based judgments showed a stronger primacy effect in English than in Chinese that was mediated by recall from long-term memory. In contrast, participants' online (immediate) judgments showed a primacy effect in both languages that was unmediated by recall from short-term memory. In Experiment 2, with a sample of 67 female and 53 male bilingual Singaporeans, the authors found that participants' online judgments were more influenced by the attribute order of a previously seen competitive advertisement in English than in Chinese. A cross-cultural field study in Mainland China and the United Kingdom provided external validity for the experimental results. PMID:15598123

  13. A classification of chinese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of Chinese Cultural Values (CCVs). Although there exist great differences between the Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, it is still possible to identify certain core cultural values that are shared by the Chinese people no matter where they live. Based on the original list by the Chinese Cultural Connection (1987), the paper creates a new list that contains 71 core values against 40 in the old. The implications and limitations of the classification are...

  14. Current Chinese bryological literature (4)

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Yu, Jin

    2000-01-01

    According to our collections of literature, about 400 scientific papers dealing with Chinese bryophytes have been published in China and abroad during 1990’s. Among these, more than 50 % were published in different scientific journals in China and often written in Chinese with English abstract, which are not well known and assessable for foreign bryologists. Therefore, in addition to previous Chinese literature I-III (Cao et al. 1990, Li et Zhang 1993, 1994), we present the fourth part of Chi...

  15. Population pharmacokinetics of propofol in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYu-Hong; RUIJian-Zhong; ZHOUYong-Gang; WANGLi-Qin; FUSu-E; YANGJian-Jun; LIuFu-Kun; HUShu-Ya; WENQuan; XUJian-Guo

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To analyze population pharmacokinetics of propofol in Chinese surgical patients using a nonlinear mixedeffect model (NONMEM) program and to quantitate the effects of covariance of gender, age, and body weight. METHODS: The population pharmacokinetics of propofol was investigated in 76 selective surgical patients (37 males and 39 females aged 19-77a, weighing 39-86kg). A total of 1439 blood samples were analyzed using NONMEM(NONMEM Projeft Group, University of California, San Francisco, CA). Interindividual variability was estimated fro clearances and distribution volumes. The effects of age, body weight, and gender were in vestigated. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetics of propofol in Chinese patients was best described by a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Body weight was found to be a significant factor for the elimination clearance, the two inter-compartmental clearances, and the volume of the central compartment. The volumes of the shallow peripheral compartment and deep peripheral compartment remain constant for all individuals. The estimates of these parameters for a 60-kg adult were 1.56L/min, 0.737L/min, 0.360L/min, 12.1L, 43L, and 213L, respectively. For old patients, the elimination clearance and volume of the central compartment decreased. CONCLUSION:The pharmacokinetics of propofol in Chinese patients can be well described by a standard three-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Inclusion of age and body weight as covariances significantly improved the model. Adjusting pharmacokinetics to the individual patients should improve the precision of target-controlled infusion system.

  16. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    projects to acquiring more systemic properties. Chinese companies have acquired a broader sectoral presence in Indonesia and Chinese invested companies in e.g. extractive or manufacturing activities can increasingly rely on complementary Chinese investments in logistics, travel, finance etc....

  17. Shanxi Female Social Security Situation and Countermeasure Research:Based on the 3rd Survey Data of the Chinese Women ’ s Social Status%山西女性社会保障状况及对策研究--基于第三期中国妇女社会地位调查调研数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽; 陕劲松

    2014-01-01

    The 3 rd suvvey of Chiese women ’ s social status shows that Shanxi Province have done a lot of work In the aspect of social security ,but the social security coverage still be narrow and difficult.The pension , unemploy-ment and medical insurance of the female worker in private enterprise are not guaranteed.Violation of female work-er’s rights is often happened.Their special rights and interests are not protected.Women’s social security issues of Shanxi Province become more prominent.Preventive care and health education is difficult to implement in rural are-as.More efforts needed to boost the economic development ,more attention needeal to pay the rural ’ s women social security,in order to promote women ’ s social status.%第三期中国妇女社会地位调查调研结果表明,山西在社会保障方面做了大量的工作,但是社会保障覆盖面还较窄,扩大覆盖面有难度,私营企业的女职工养老、失业、医疗等保险得不到保证,非公有制企业女职工参加社会保险人数偏少,女职工特殊权益得不到保护。农村社会保障尤为薄弱,农村妇女的社会保障问题更加突出,预防保健和健康教育难以落实。需要不断促进经济发展,更加注重农村妇女的社会保障权益来提升妇女社会地位。

  18. I Married a Chinese Woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEPHEN SAYERS

    1997-01-01

    He became known all over China because of his appearance on the national television competition "Foreigners Singing Chinese Songs."Dressed in traditional Chinese costume and accompanied by his Chinese wife,he Chinese Girl."In this article,Stephen Sayers tells about his marriage and his personal feelings during his five years in China,Stephen and his wife Candy just moved to Macao in July.In arecent letter he asked the editor to give the money for this article to the education-aiding"Hope project" and specified it for Guizhou.

  19. Complete blood count reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhong Wu

    Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults.A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi'an. Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples.Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, and hematocrit (HCT values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles.We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently.

  20. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  1. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  2. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brazdova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  3. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values. PMID:12158005

  4. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  5. Cultural Conflict Mirrored by the Female Characters in the Woman Warrior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙贻红

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing the contradiction between the first immigrant American Chinese women and their America-born children as well as the inner emotional dilemma within the second immigrant women,this paper attempts to explore the cultural conflict manifested by female characters in The Woman Warrior,demonstrating the American immigrant women’s depression,desperation and bitterness in their adaptation to a new circumstance.

  6. The association between social resources and depression among female migrants affected by domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Pan; Hall, Brian J.; Li, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal violence (IPV) is associated with higher risk of depression. Female Chinese rural-to-urban migrants may experience greater depression following exposure to IPV due to lack of social support and integration within their receiving communities. The current study estimated the prevalence of IPV among rural-to-urban migrants in Guangzhou, China, and evaluated the moderating effects of social resources on migrant’s depression symptoms.Method: We recruited 1,368 women (1,00...

  7. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  8. Different Role Awareness between Chinese and Western Women in The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绮丽

    2015-01-01

    The Joy Luck Club was the first novel written by Chinese American female writer---Amy Tan,in which separately depicted three generations of women.These eight heroines in the novel best reflect the ideology and sensation of Chinese women.In this paper,the co-authors discussed the similarity and differences of role awareness between Chinese and Western women,through analyzing all the heroines’struggle and fate in The Joy Luck Club,from the perspectives of Feminism.By comparing the different role awareness between Chinese and western women,we drew a general conclusion which enables us better understand western society,culture,economy and ideology.

  9. Different Role Awareness between Chinese and Western Women in The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绮丽

    2015-01-01

    The Joy Luck Club was the first novel written by Chinese American female writer---Amy Tan,in which separately depicted three generations of women.These eight heroines in the novel best reflect the ideology and sensation of Chinese women.In this paper,the co-authors discussed the similarity and differences of role awareness between Chinese and Western women,through analyzing all the heroines’ struggle and fate in The Joy Luck Club,from the perspectives of Feminism.By comparing the different role awareness between Chinese and western women,we drew a general conclusion which enables us better understand western society,culture,economy and ideology.

  10. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-01-01

    Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the pra...

  11. FEMALE EPISPADIAS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bianchi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is an extremely rare anomaly occurring in 1:480.000 girls. It presents typical features and can be diagnosed immediately at birth. Early surgical reconstruction of the bladder neck, urethra, and external genitalia within the physiological phase for the development for continence, is relevant towards establishing urinary conti- nence and to reduce the psychological impact on the parents and the child. In this case report we present a 3-years-old girl with isolated female epispadias who underwent total reconstruction at a single procedure with a follow-up of 6 months.

  12. 汉族女性精神分裂症首发患者利培酮治疗所致闭经的危险因素%Risk factors for medication-induced amenorrhea in first-episode female Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海支; 任丽华; 沈仲夏; 钱敏才; 沈鑫华; 杨胜良; 杨剑虹; 宋娟芬; 费小聪; 陶百平; 宋宝华

    2013-01-01

    Background:Amenorrhea is a common adverse effect of treatment with antipsychotic medications that influences both fertility and adherence to medication regimens. Most research suggests that medication-induced prolactinemia is the main cause of amenorrhea but few prospective studies have assessed this hypothesis. Aim:Identify risk factors for amenorrhea following treatment with antipsychotic medication. Methods:The study used a prospective, nested case-control design. First-episode, drug naïve female patients with schizophrenia who were in the middle of their menstrual cycle at the time of admission were enrolled. Serum levels of six reproductive hormones were assessed before and after a 12-week course of treatment with risperidone:progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone. The hormone levels of 31 patients who had no menstruation during the entire 12 weeks of treatment (the amenorrhea group) were compared to those of 31 age-matched subjects who had normal menstrual periods over the 12 weeks of treatment (the control group). Results:We found a dramatic 4-fold increase in prolactin levels in women of childbearing age treated with risperidone, but the pretreatment and posttreatment levels of prolactin were not different between patients who did and did not develop amenorrhea with treatment. However, there were significantly lower pretreatment levels of estradiol and progesterone in patients who subsequently developed amenorrhea with risperidone treatment than in patients who did not develop amenorrhea. A conditional logistic regression analysis found that pretreatment levels of estradiol remained significantly associated with the development of amenorrhea during treatment even when adjusting for the pretreatment levels of the other five reproductive hormones assessed. Conclusion:These findings do not support the suggestion that amenorrhea associated with the use of antipsychotic medication is the result

  13. The Intelligibility of Chinese-Accented English to International and American Students at a U.S. University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardman, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    the research questions, the researcher first compiled the Buckeye GTA Corpus, which includes L1 and L2 speech recordings of Chinese, Indian, Korean, and American university students. A series of logistic regression mixed-effects models revealed that speaker L1, listener L1, and word familiarity were......This study investigated the intelligibility of Chinese and American graduate students to their Indian, Chinese, Korean, and American peers. A psycholinguistic word-recognition-in-noise study investigated the effects on intelligibility of speakers’ L1 and segmental pronunciation accuracy and how...... this varied by listeners’ L1 and word familiarity. Participants included 6 male graduate students (Chinese & American) as speakers and 72 male and female graduate students (Indian, Chinese, Korean, & American) as listeners. Since there was no speech corpus publicly available that would help answer...

  14. Why Do I Study Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Translator’s Note: The cross language year program-the Chinese Language Year in France and the French Language Year in China-initiated by Chinese and French leaders were held in 2011 and 2012 to promote cultural exchanges and further deepen the China-France comprehensive strategic partnership. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the CPAFFC and the

  15. Danish Chinese Center for Nanometals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    The Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The Chinese partners in the Center are Institute of Metal Research in Shenyang, Tsinghua University and Chongqing University. The Danish part...

  16. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  17. Chinese Converstations: An Intellectual Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, John J.

    1980-01-01

    A profile of how Chinese urban intellectuals view life in their country is presented. Information was obtained through many conversations with Chinese educators and students during the author's visit to China. Discussed are family, education, the cultural revolution, the Gang of Four, the quest for modernization, and the policy toward…

  18. Chinese Festivals: Keeping Traditions Alive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    WE all love holidays and the happy gatherings of family and friends that they bring, and the Chinese are no exception. The Chinese celebrate festivals based on the lunar calendar dating back thousands ofyears. The popular favorite is Lunar New Year, or Spring Festival, which falls on the first day of the first

  19. Chinese private yards catch up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese shipbuilding industry was dominated by state-owned companies for a long time. In 2005, when a global shipbuilding summit was held in China for the first time, no Chinese private shipyards appeared except two national shipbuilders, namely COSCO and CSIC. However, in the same year, Rongsheng,Mingde and Hantong began their first step.

  20. Criminaliteit en traditionele Chinese medicijnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is deeply rooted in the Chinese culture. Although thousands of animal and plant species are used for medicines legally, some medications contain more sinister elements; illegal animal or plant ingredients of protected species. What is the origin of this demand for

  1. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from

  2. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LI Ru-long: Huang Diancheng's Great Contributions to Chinese Phonology Abstract: Huang Diancheng inherited the essence of traditional Chinese phonology and the research results of the Zhang and Huang School. On the basis of the analysis on the facts of modern dialects, he put forward the principle that Qiangsheng bi ruoyun,

  3. 论大众传媒对女性性别误解的强化--以我国近年两部谍战大片为例%On the Sexual Misunderstanding of Female Image Reinforced by the Mass Media---Case Study on Two Chinese Spy Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳

    2014-01-01

    It has been more than 30 years mass culture burgeoning in China .It has devel-oped rapidly due to the popularity of mass media .If the perspective of gender is taken to see the mass media culture ,we may notice that the female image stays at the stage of old stereotype or even worse .This misunderstanding and reinforcement is analyzed here with two spy movies as example .%大众文化在中国萌芽至今已有三十余年,并在近年来由于大众传媒的发展和普及得到迅猛发展。但从性别研究角度看待大众传媒文化,可以发现对女性形象的塑造仍是对过去刻板印象的延续,甚至有所强化,从近期的两部谍战电影中可以解读出对女性性别误解的强化。

  4. An Update on Gifted Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses selected issues and literature concerning gifted female students, examining achievement and aptitude, career choice, self-perceptions of ability, course taking, parental influences, the glamorization of sex differences, stereotyping, effects of classroom groupings and teaching strategies, and effects of single-sex schools and…

  5. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  6. Archetypes of Outstanding Female Superintendents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen

    This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…

  7. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  8. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  9. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Over 1.5 million women workers from 13,000 enterprises have joined the social coordinated system for child-bearing insurance funds in Zhejiang Province. The funds are paid by regular and contract workers and casual laborers from state-owned and collective enterprises and Chinese employees from joint ventures. The social labor insurance committees under the local governments at the city or county levels are in charge of the practical work for taking over the funds. The amounts of money each pays varies according to the different living standard and salary level in each area.

  10. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chinese children are taller and heavier than ever before. According to a national survey from 1995, the average height of children aged 7-14 was 142.3 centimeters, 2 centimeters taller than the average height of children in the same age group ten years before. The average weight was 31.9 kilograms, which is 2.8 kilograms heavier than children of the same age group in 1985. Such improvements must be credited to the development of China’s health care network for children. By the end of last

  11. Chinese Vegetarian Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ONCE in a restaurant specializing in vegetarian food in Hubei Province, I saw some dishes on the menu which did not sound like vegetarian food, such as chicken, duck, fish and pork. Only after I ordered and tasted did I understand that these were all made of bean products. Simply speaking, the Chinese vegetarian diet is comprised of grains, vegetables, bean products and fruits. It also includes bamboo shoots, mushrooms, edible fungus, aquatic plants and dried fruit. This kind of diet boasts a long history. As early as the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) and the early Han

  12. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  13. CHINESE COMMUNITY IN ECUADOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARIA JOSE CIFUENTES CERVANTES

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Republic Of Ecuador is located in the west coast of South America.It has a total area of 256.370 km2 and a population of approximately 14 million.Spanish is considered as the official language.The country is subdivided into 24 provinces with the capital city being Quito and the other major city being Guayaquil.Since the year 2000 US Dollar had been the official currency.Approximately 50,000 people from China live now in Ecuador.Although the Chinese community in Ecuador is not as large as those in Brazil and Peru, it has a strong economic and social weight in the country.

  14. The International Student: Female Circumcision Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengston, Barbara; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Describes the process and practice of female circumcision, the impact it may have on circumcised female international college students, and some counseling strategies for the college counselor who works with this population. Explains variety of reasons for performing female circumcision, different types of female circumcisions, and psychological…

  15. A structural comparison of female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheimer Carrier, Lydia; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Pellis, Sergio; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    In certain populations, female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) mount both males and females. Vasey (2007) proposed that female-female sexual mounting in Japanese macaques may be a neutral evolutionary by-product of a purported adaptation, namely, female-male mounting. In this study, we aim to further examine the proposed link between female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques by comparing the structural characteristics that define both forms of mounting. We do so using Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN), a globographic reference system that can be used to describe the position of body segments. No significant differences were observed in the female mounters' positioning of eight different body segments (i.e., lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot) during female-male and female-female mounting. This finding lends support to the conclusion that female-female and female-male mounting are structurally, and thus, evolutionarily, related. PMID:26232264

  16. FINGERNAIL GROWTH RATE IN A NORMAL CHINESE POPULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate fingernail growth rate (FNGR) role in the physiological or pathological status of the fingernails in normal Chinese population. Methods The FNGR was measured with vernier caliper. The data of 1 595 fingernails from 208 normal Chinese subjects (including 96 men and 112 women; age ranging from 14 to 78 years) were analyzed. Results The average FNGR was (0.104±0.027) mm per day. Higher growth rates were observed in males than in females, in the young individuals than in the old individuals, in summer than in winter, and in the right hand than in the left hand, respectively. The FNGR differed among fingernails and decreased in order of precedence: middle fingernails, index fingernails or ring fingernails, thumb and little fingernails. Conclusion FNGR was significantly associated with age, gender and temperature. Different fingernail grew at an individual speed.

  17. The Dutch Female Board Index 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch Female Board Index 2010 shows for the fourth year a survey of female representation on the Executive Boards and Supervisory Boards of 99 Dutch NVs listed on Euronext Amsterdam. The companies were classified by the percentage of women in their joint Executive Board and Supervisory Board. The Dutch ‘Female Board Index 'also gives an analysis of the differences between male and female directors and between companies with or without female representation on the Eexcutive Board and/or Su...

  18. Female Entrepreneurship in Finland and Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Sohana

    2016-01-01

    Female entrepreneurship plays a vital role in economic growth. In this study two countries with different social norms and economic situations are compared to describe the opportunities and challenges dealt with by female entrepreneurs. The major purposes of the study are to find out the obstacles of female entrepreneurs, opportunities provided to them and recommendations provided by female entrepreneurs to other female entrepreneurs as well as authorities. The implementation of the th...

  19. Effects of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine for treating elderly female non-infectious urethral syndrome in 31 cases%中西医结合治疗老年女性非感染性尿道综合征31例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琼辉; 陈英

    2012-01-01

    To explore the therapeutic methods of non-infectious urethral syndrome in elderly women. Methods 83 cases of elderly female non-infectious urethral syndrome were randomly divided into 3 groups, the observation group(n = 31) , the pure Western medicine group(n=30) and the control group(n = 22). The pure Western medicine group was given Tibolone tablets produced by Nanjing Organon Pharmaceutical Co. ,Ltd. Oral 2. 5 mg,once daily. The observation group and the control group were given the same medication and added with acupuncture. The control group was orally given diazepam 2. 5 mg,once to twice daily(according to the severity of symptoms) ,oryzanol 10 mg,3 times daily. The curative effects were compared among 3 groups. Results The excellent effective rate,the effective rate and ineffective rate were 77. 42% ,19. 36% and 3. 23% in the observation group,43. 34% ,30. 00% and 26. 67% in the pure Western medicine group and 9. 08% , 18. 19% and 72. 73% in the control group, showing statistical difference among them(P<0. 05). Conclusion Acupuncture plus estrogen replacement is safe and effective to treat elderly female non-infectous urethral syndrome.%目的 探讨老年女性患者非感染性尿道综合征的治疗方法.方法 选择2008年1月至2011年3月该院收治的老年女性非感染性尿道综合征患者83例,随机分为观察组(n=31)、纯西药组(n=30)和对照组(n=22).纯西药组给予南京欧加农制药有限公司生产的替勃龙片每次2.5 mg,每日1次口服;观察组用药与对照组相同,再加针灸治疗;对照组给予地西泮每次2.5 mg,每日1~2次口服(以症状轻重而定),谷维素10 mg,3次/日口服,比较3组治疗效果.结果 观察组显效(77.42%)、有效(19.36%)和无效(3.23%)与单纯西医治疗组(43.34%、30.00%、26.67%)和对照组(9.08%、18.19%、72.73%)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 老年女性非感染性尿道综合征给予针灸加雌激素替代治疗安全、有效.

  20. The "Coop-Comp" Chinese Negotiation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    T. Fang

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the cultural roots of Chinese business negotiation strategy. The article argues that, Chinese culture, with its cooperative and competitive components, has bestowed upon Chinese negotiators a distinctive "coop-comp" negotiation strategy. The Chinese are culturally capable of negotiating both sincerely and deceptively at the international business negotiation table.

  1. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment beh

  2. Genetic Algorithm for Chinese Postman Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hua; Kang Li-shan

    2003-01-01

    Chinese Postman Problem is an unsettled graphic problem. It was approached seldom by evolutionary computation. Now we use genetic algorithm to solve Chinese Postman Problem in undirected graph and get good results. It could be extended to solve Chinese postman problem in directed graph. We make these efforts for exploring in optimizing the mixed Chinese postman problem.

  3. Multicultural Awareness for the Classroom: The Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Felix Mario; And Others

    This guide provides the teacher of multiethnic students with information and teaching resources on Chinese. An historical overview of China and the Chinese experience in America is presented in English and Chinese. Several lesson plans and classroom activities reviewing Chinese geography, holidays, legends, and stories are presented. (APM)

  4. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  5. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  6. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  7. Ethnic Female Journalists Group Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ACROSS such a multi-national country as China with 56 ethnic groups, up to one third of those in the press circle are women journalists, among whom 56.2 percent are in the broadcasting and television arenas, 42.5 percent in newspapers and magazines and 1.3 percent in news agencies. Statistics from National Unity shows that 42 of China's minority groups have produced female

  8. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Levy LL; Emer JJ

    2013-01-01

    Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly ov...

  9. Melanoma of the female urethra

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Juan A.; Ramos, Wilmer E.; Ramos, Claudia V.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can affect any area of the anatomical economy. Its appearance in the female urethra is extremely rare, with approximately 121 cases in indexed literature since 1966. The subject to be described is an 86-year-old woman who seeks assessment for intermittent macroscopic hematuria with blood clots of 3 months progression. On physical examination, there are no suspicious lesions detected on the surface of the skin. On external genital examination, it is observed ...

  10. 松材线虫雌虫尾部形态和寄主的关系%The Relationship between the Tail Morphology of Adult Female Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Its Host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文霞; 杨宝君

    2005-01-01

    Tenninal mucro of adult female was the distinct character between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Bx) and its allied species Bursaphe/enchus mucronatus (Bb). In general, Bx had no mucro. But it could have mucro in some situations. In the test, Bx without mucro was inoculated on Chineses pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) and Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii). The results showed that 85% of adult females Bx isolated from Chinese pine had terminal mucro. On Japanese black pine only 4.2% of adult females Bx had terminal mucro. Bx with terminal mucro from Chinese pine was re-inoculated on the fungus, Pestalotia sp. and Japanese black pine. It was found that 100% adult females had no terminal mucro on the fungus and 3.4% with terminal mucro on Japanese black pine.

  11. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification. Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride, prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, minoxidil, finasteride, antiandrogens, spironolactone

  12. Glycemic index and glycemic load of selected Chinese traditional foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen; Heung-sang; Wong

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To determine the glycemic index(GI)and glycemic load(GL)values of Chinese traditional foods in Hong Kong.METHODS:Fifteen healthy subjects(8 males and 7 females)volunteered to consume either glucose or one of 23 test foods after 10-14 h overnight fast.The blood glucose concentrations were analyzed immediately before,15,30,45,60,90 and 120 min after food consumption using capillary blood samples.The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose respon...

  13. Breast cancer risk in Chinese women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Juan; He, Yingjian; Ouyang, Tao; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Tianfeng; Fan, Zhaoqing; Fan, Tie; Lin, Benyao; Xie, Yuntao

    2016-04-01

    BRCA1/2 mutations represent approximately 5 % of unselected Chinese women with breast cancer. However, the breast cancer risk of Chinese women with BRCA1/2 mutations is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the age-specific cumulative risk of breast cancer in Chinese women who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Our study included 1816 unselected Chinese women with breast cancer and 5549 female first-degree relatives of these probands. All probands were screened for BRCA1/2 mutation. The age-specific cumulative risks of BRCA1/2 carriers were estimated using the kin-cohort study by comparing the history of breast cancer in first-degree female relatives of BRCA1/2 carriers and non-carriers. Among the 1816 probands, 125 BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations were identified (70 in the BRCA1 gene and 55 in the BRCA2 gene). The incidence of breast cancer in the first-degree female relatives of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers was significantly higher (3.7-fold and 4.4-fold for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively) than in non-carriers. The estimated cumulative risks of breast cancer by age 70 years were 37.9 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 24.1-54.4 %] for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 36.5 % (95 % CI 26.7-51.8 %) for BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. Our study suggests that the breast cancer risk of Chinese women with BRCA1/2 mutations appears to be relatively high by the age of 70. Therefore, genetic counseling, enhanced surveillance, and individual preventive strategies should be provided for Chinese women who carry a BRCA1/2 mutation.

  14. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  15. The Analysis of the Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓慧

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of pragmatic studies, politeness has aroused great interest among Chinese scholars. Different cultures have different traditions and values, which bring out different understanding and application of politeness strategies. Great Chinese culture brings out the complicated Chinese politeness scale. A successful communication depends on politeness principle. Learning the Chinese politeness scale will make we know more about the Chinese culture. By researching this, we will perform better in communication.

  16. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Fung Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publicatio...

  17. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    2013-01-01

    enterprises supplemented with key informant interviews, available official statistics and secondary data. Considering the evolution of Chinese investments in Indonesia over time, investments have evolved from being individual and isolated projects to acquiring more systemic properties. Chinese companies have...... acquired a broader sectoral presence in Indonesia and Chinese invested companies in, e.g., extractive or manufacturing activities can increasingly rely on complementary Chinese investments in logistics, travel, finance, etc. Where the local development effects are concerned, a picture emerges where Chinese...

  18. Effects of Chinese opera on the reproductions of Ibsen's plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Leung Che LAU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of a globalized phenomenon, the reproductions of Ibsen’s plays on the Chinese theatrical stage increasingly focus upon the exploration and expansion of new cultural forms, as Patrice Pavis defines interculturalism as “grasping the dialectical of exchanges of civilities between cultures”. However, how do we evaluate the effectiveness of the many “intercultural” productions that surround us today? I attempt to answer this question by comparing two Chinese reproductions of Ibsen’s plays that employ elements of Chinese opera on varying scales. The first one is a total transformation of Hedda Gabler into a Hangzhou yue opera form, Xin Bi Tian Gao (Aspirations Higher than the Sky, 心比天高 in 2006. As part of the yue opera tradition, Hedda Gabler was staged in an all-female cast. The second one is a fragmented insertion of a Peking opera excerpt into the staging of A Doll’s House by the National Experimental Theatre of China in 1998. One of the highlights of the play is a Norwegian actress, who plays Nora, singing and dancing a short Peking opera excerpt, thus replacing the tarantella dance in the original play. Contextualising the multiple perspectives towards interculturalism by Patrice Pavis, Richard Schechner and Rustom Bharucha, I aim to explore how the appropriation of Chinese opera in such performances might strengthen or weaken the reciprocal flows between the source and target cultures in Pavis’s “hourglass model”, and whether the initial attempt of revitalising both Chinese and Western art forms has backfired and misproduced Bertolt Brecht’s alienation effect directed at the contemporary audience.

  19. Blood Lipid Profile and Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the plasma lipid levels in a national representative sample of subjects and to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Chinese population. Methods Plasma lipid profile was analyzed using the data obtained during the Chinese national nutrition and health survey (CNHS) in 2002 which involved 14 252 participants at the age of 18 years or older. Results The mean levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the participants were 3.81 mmol/L, 1.10 mmol/L, and 1.30 mmol/L, respectively. In the groups of participants at the age of 18-44 years, 45-59 years, and over 60 years the mean TC level was 3.70 mmol/L, 4.09 mmol/L and 4.21 mmol/L,respectively, and the mean TG level was 07 mmol/L, 1.21 mmol/L, 1.20 mmol/L, 1.29 mmol/L, 1.33 mmol/L, and 1.33 mmol/L,respectively. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults was 18.6% and 22.2% in males and 15.9% in females.Dyslipidemia prevalence was higher in urban districts than in rural areas (21.0% vs. 17.7%). The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL cholesterol was 2.9%, 11.9%, and 7.4% respectively among the participants. Conclusion Dyslipidemia has become one of the important health risk factors in the Chinese population. There is no significantly difference in the prevalence of dyslipidemia between the groups of participants at the age of 45-59 years and over 60 years. This study provides important lipid profile data for policy making and guideline development for the prevention of dyslipidemia in the Chinese population.

  20. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.