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Sample records for chinese non-smoking females

  1. 非吸烟女性肺癌发病危险因素的Meta分析%Meta-analysis of risk factors on lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬; 陈坤; 张海蕾; 朱益民

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the risk factors of lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women.Methods The results of 7 case-control studies from 1990 to 1999 were analyzed by Meta-analysis method in this study. The cumulative cases and controls were 1 115 and 1 520, respectively. Der Simonian and Nan Laid model were applied to process data. Results The pools OR values of family history of lung cancer, personal history of non-neoplastic lung disease, cooking oil fume pollution, coal pollution and exposure to environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) were 2.87,2.79,2.52,1.42 and 1.64 respectively. Conclusion Family history of lung cancer and personal history of non-neoplastic lung disease might serve as the most important risk factors of female lung cancer in China. There appeared also significantly positive relationship between female lung cancer and the degree of cooking oil fume pollution or pollution of coal burning. The effect on lung cancer of exposure to ETS was uncertain in this study which calls for further investigation. Bias and confounding factors were also discussed in this study.%目的 综合评价我国非吸烟女性肺癌发病的危险因素。方法 应用Meta分析方法对国内7篇有关非吸烟女性肺癌危险因素的病例对照研究进行定量综合分析,共累积病例1 115例,对照1 520例。统计处理采用Meta分析的随机效应模型。结果 肺部疾病史、家族肺癌史、油烟污染、煤烟污染、被动吸烟等5个研究因素的合并比值比(OR值)分别是2.87、2.79、2.52、1.42和1.64,进一步分层研究提示随着油烟污染程度的加重,其OR值也有明显的上升。结论 家族肺癌史、肺部疾病史、油烟污染、煤烟污染等因素可能与非吸烟女性肺癌的发生有关,被动吸烟的作用尚不能肯定。

  2. The Impact of Menthol Cigarettes on Smoking Initiation among Non-Smoking Young Females in Japan

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    Yoneatsu Osaki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Japan presents an excellent case-study of a nation with low female smoking rates and a negligible menthol market which changed after the cigarette market was opened to foreign competition. Internal tobacco industry documents demonstrate the intent of tobacco manufacturers to increase initiation among young females through development and marketing of menthol brands. Japanese menthol market share rose rapidly from less than 1% in 1980 to 20% in 2008. Menthol brand use was dominated by younger and female smokers, in contrast with non-menthol brands which were used primarily by male smokers. Nationally representative surveys confirm industry surveys of brand use and provide further evidence of the end results of the tobacco industry’s actions—increased female smoking in Japan. These findings suggest that female populations may be encouraged to initiate into smoking, particularly in developing nations or where female smoking rates remain low, if the tobacco industry can successfully tailor brands to them. The Japanese experience provides a warning to public health officials who wish to prevent smoking initiation among young females.

  3. The impact of menthol cigarettes on smoking initiation among non-smoking young females in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Gregory N; Behm, Ilan; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Wayne, Geoffrey F

    2011-01-01

    Japan presents an excellent case-study of a nation with low female smoking rates and a negligible menthol market which changed after the cigarette market was opened to foreign competition. Internal tobacco industry documents demonstrate the intent of tobacco manufacturers to increase initiation among young females through development and marketing of menthol brands. Japanese menthol market share rose rapidly from less than 1% in 1980 to 20% in 2008. Menthol brand use was dominated by younger and female smokers, in contrast with non-menthol brands which were used primarily by male smokers. Nationally representative surveys confirm industry surveys of brand use and provide further evidence of the end results of the tobacco industry's actions-increased female smoking in Japan. These findings suggest that female populations may be encouraged to initiate into smoking, particularly in developing nations or where female smoking rates remain low, if the tobacco industry can successfully tailor brands to them. The Japanese experience provides a warning to public health officials who wish to prevent smoking initiation among young females.

  4. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  5. Meta-analysis on related risk factors regarding lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women%中国非吸烟女性肺癌危险因素的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余艺文; 王传鹏; 韩耀风; 牛建军; 张一中; 方亚

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨中国非吸烟女性肺癌发病的主要危险因素,为制定肺癌防控措施提供科学依据.方法 收集国内外1995年1月至2014年11月公开发表的关于中国非吸烟女性肺癌发病危险因素的病例对照研究文献,采用Meta分析方法计算中国非吸烟女性肺癌发病危险因素的合并OR直及其95%CI,辅以敏感性分析和发表偏倚检测.结果 共纳入文献24篇,累计病例1 1 946例,对照12 596例.非吸烟女性肺癌发病危险因素的合并OR值及其95%CI分别为:总肺部疾病史1.89(1.57 ~ 2.27)、肺结核病史1.86(1.53 ~ 2.27)、慢性支气管炎病史1.51(1.04~2.19)、肿瘤家族史2.02(1.67~2.44)、肺癌家族史2.45(1.80~ 3.34)、成年期被动吸入香烟烟雾[工作场所1.47(1.28~1.69)、家庭环境1.22(1.09~ 1.36)]、终生被动吸入香烟烟雾1.52(1.29~ 1.79)、烹饪烟雾量2.21(1.27~2.96)、厨房位置1.76(1.48 ~2.09)、每周油炸频次2.24(1.61 ~ 3.12).结论 中国非吸烟女性肺癌发病的主要危险因素为肺部疾病史、肿瘤家族史、被动吸烟(香烟烟雾、烹饪烟雾),其中肺癌家族史和烹饪烟雾量的合并OR值具有更为强烈的关联效应,提示遗传因素和环境因素在肺癌发病中的重要作用.%Objective To explore the risk factors of lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women and to provide evidence for lung cancer prevention and control.Methods Information was collected on case-control studies published in the journals,both nationally and internationally from January,1995 to November,2014 that reported correlations between lung cancer and risk factors.Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of risk factors on lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women were calculated,using the Meta-analysis method,with sensitivity and publication bias tested.Results Information on 24 case-control studies was selected including 11 946 cumulative cases and 12 596 controls.Pooled ORs (95

  6. 中国人群GSTM1基因多态性与非吸烟肺癌发病风险的Meta分析%Correlation between glutathione S-transferase M1 polymorphism and risk of lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese: A meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包晓玲; 杨磊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the correlation between glutathione S-transferase Ml (GSTM1) polymorphism and risk of developing lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese by meta-analysis. Methods Papers on the correlation between GSTM1 polymorphism and risk of lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese were searched from CNKI (1979-2011), CQVIP (1989-2011), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1979-2011), Wanfang Database (1998-2011), EMbase (1900-2011) and PubMed (1966-2011). Results Sixteen papers on case-control study were included in this study, involving 818 non-smoking patients with lung cancer and 921 healthy controls. Meta-analysis showed that the risk of developing lung cancer was significantly higher in non-smoking Chinese with GSTM1 -deficit genotype than in those without GSTMl-deficit genotype (OR=1.65, 95%CI=1.34, 2.04). Egger's and Begg's analysis showed that the risk of developing lung cancer was 1.48-fold (95%CI=1.14, 1.91) and 2.03-fold (95%CI=1.42, 2.90) higher in Chinese of both South and North China with GSTMl-deficit genotype than that in controls. Conclusion The risk of developing lung cancer is significantly higher in non-smoking Chinese with GSTMl-deficit genotype.%目的 利用Meta 分析方法评价谷胱甘肽S- 转移酶M1(glutathione S-transferase M1,GSTM1) 基因多态性与中国人群非吸烟肺癌发病的相关性.方法 检索中国期刊全文数据库(1979-2011)、维普中文科技期刊数据库(1989-2011)、中国生物医学文献数据库(1979-2011)、万方数据库(1998-2011)、EMbase(1900-2011) 和PubMed (1966-2011) 数据库,收集有关中国人群GSTM1 基因多态性与非吸烟肺癌关系的研究.结果 共纳入16 篇文献对照研究,包括非吸烟肺癌患者818 例,对照组921 例.Meta 分析结果显示:GSTM1 缺失基因型的中国人群患非吸烟肺癌的风险明显增高(OR=1.65,95%CI=1.34,2.04).亚组分析发现,具有GSTM1 缺失基因型的中国南方和北方人群罹患非吸烟肺癌

  7. Chinese Female Jet-Fighter Pilots Change New Uniforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Prior to the 60th anniversary of founding of People's Republic of China that marks calendar day of Oct.1st this year,Chinese armed forces stage on a new change of uniforms to welcome the birthday of the New China that was announced by Chairman Mao 60 years ago.On Aug.30th,a ceremony was started at an air-force base in North China to show a new generation of air-force uniforms for the female jet-fighter pilots.A total of 16 Chinese female jetfighter pilots to debut on National Day are expected to appear in new dress for an unprecedented dress parade on the Oct.1st.

  8. Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice

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    Leontina Lipan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.

  9. Oral exfoliative cytology in female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C R; Sarma, P R; Kameswari, V R

    1975-01-01

    1. The Karyopyknotic index of the palatal and lingual mucosa is increased in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 2. The Karyopyknotic index of the buccal mucosa did not show any change in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 3. The Karyopyknotic index did not show any change with age in the non-smoking females. 4. Very few cases show epithelial atypia in palatal smears from female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

  10. Sociodemographic characteristics and diabetes predict invalid self-reported non-smoking in a population-based study of U.S. adults

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    Shelton Brent J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all studies reporting smoking status collect self-reported data. The objective of this study was to assess sociodemographic characteristics and selected, common smoking-related diseases as predictors of invalid reporting of non-smoking. Valid self-reported smoking may be related to the degree to which smoking is a behavior that is not tolerated by the smoker's social group. Methods True smoking was defined as having serum cotinine of 15+ng/ml. 1483 "true" smokers 45+ years of age with self-reported smoking and serum cotinine data from the Mobile Examination Center were identified in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Invalid non-smoking was defined as "true" smokers self-reporting non-smoking. To assess predictors of invalid self-reported non-smoking, odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for age, race/ethnicity-gender categories, education, income, diabetes, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Multiple logistic regression modeling took into account the complex survey design and sample weights. Results Among smokers with diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 15%, ranging from 0% for Mexican-American (MA males to 22%–25% for Non-Hispanic White (NHW males and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB females. Among smokers without diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 5%, ranging from 3% for MA females to 10% for NHB females. After simultaneously taking into account diabetes, education, race/ethnicity and gender, smokers with diabetes (ORAdj = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.35–7.34, who did not graduate from high school (ORAdj = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.30–3.22 and who were NHB females (ORAdj = 5.12; 95% CI: 1.41–18.58 were more likely to self-report as non-smokers than smokers without diabetes, who were high school graduates, and MA females, respectively. Having a history of myocardial infarction or hypertension did not predict invalid reporting of non-smoking. Conclusion Validity of self

  11. Reproductive efficiency of captive Chinese- and Indian-origin rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, H Michael; Falkenstein, Kathrine P; Deroche, Chelsea B; Franke, Donald E

    2012-02-01

    Reproductive and survival records (n=2,913) from 313 Chinese-origin and 365 Indian-derived rhesus macaques at the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC) spanning three generations were studied. Least-squares analysis of variance procedures were used to compare reproductive and infant survival traits while proportional hazards regression procedures were used to study female age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from last birth to death. Chinese females were older at first parturition than Indian females because they were older when placed with males, but the two subspecies had similar first postpartum birth interval (1st PPBI) and lifetime postpartum birth interval (LPPBI). Females that gave birth to stillborn infants had shorter first postpartum birth intervals (1st PPBI) than females giving birth to live infants. Postpartum birth intervals decreased in females from age 3 to 12 but then increased again with advancing age. Chinese infants had a greater survival rate than Indian infants at 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year of age. Five hundred and forty-three females (80.01%) had uncensored, or true records for age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from the birth until death whereas 135 females (19.91%) had censored records for these traits. Low- and high-uncensored observations for age at death were 3 and 26 years for Chinese, and 3 and 23 years for Indian females. Uncensored number of infants born per female ranged from 1 to 15 for Chinese females and 1 to 18 for Indian females. Each of these traits was significantly influenced by the origin×generation interaction in the proportional hazards regression analyses, indicating that probabilities associated with age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from last birth to death for Chinese and Indian females did not rank the same across generations.

  12. Effects of indoor air pollution on respiratory symptoms of non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia

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    Stanković Aleksandra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale The aim of this study was to determine the effects of indoor air pollution exposure on respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia. Materials and methods The study was carried out in 1,082 never-smoking females, aged 20-40 years, who were not occupationally exposed to indoor air pollution. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was assessed using the American Thoracic Society questionnaires. Multivariate methods were used in the analysis. Results A strong association was found between respiratory symptoms and indoor air pollution. The associations between home dampness and sinusitis and bronchitis were also found to be statistically significant. Conclusions Indoor air pollution exposure is an important risk factor for respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia.

  13. SMOKING / NON-SMOKING IN THE CERN RESTAURANTS AND CAFETERIAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee, tel. 77551

    2001-01-01

    As you may remember, all CERN buildings and cars are considered to be non-smoking areas with a few exceptions (Safety Instruction no. 46). The ban on smoking applies in particular to all public areas, such as restaurants and cafétérias. Smoking is therefore prohibited in all parts of the free-flow and the dining rooms. As for the cafétérias, they are divided into well-defined non-smoking and smoking areas, the latter being clearly indicated as such, i.e : Cafétéria of Restaurant no. 1 : at the back of the cafétéria (on the outside terrace side) opposite the Users' Office and the offices of the Staff Association; Cafétéria of Restaurant no. 2 : the full length of the cafétéria on the wineyard side, except for the room next to the entrance to the building, furnished with red arm-chairs; Cafétéria of Restaurant no. 3 : between the bar and the row of artificial ...

  14. Non-smoking male adolescents' reactions to cigarette warnings.

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    Jessica K Pepper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA is working to introduce new graphic warning labels for cigarette packages, the first change in cigarette warnings in more than 25 years. We sought to examine whether warnings discouraged participants from wanting to smoke and altered perceived likelihood of harms among adolescent males and whether these warning effects varied by age. METHODS: A national sample of 386 non-smoking American males ages 11-17 participated in an online experiment during fall 2010. We randomly assigned participants to view warnings using a 2 × 2 between-subjects design. The warnings described a harm of smoking (addiction or lung cancer using text only or text plus an image used on European cigarette package warnings. Analyses tested whether age moderated the warnings' impact on risk perceptions and smoking motivations. RESULTS: The warnings discouraged most adolescents from wanting to smoke, but lung cancer warnings discouraged them more than addiction warnings did (60% vs. 34% were "very much" discouraged, p<.001. Including an image had no effect on discouragement. The warnings affected several beliefs about the harms from smoking, and age moderated these effects. Adolescents said addiction was easier to imagine and more likely to happen to them than lung cancer. They also believed that their true likelihood of experiencing any harm was lower than what an expert would say. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that warnings focusing on lung cancer, rather than addiction, are more likely to discourage wanting to smoke among adolescent males and enhance their ability to imagine the harmful consequences of smoking. Including images on warnings had little effect on non-smoking male adolescents' discouragement or beliefs, though additional research on the effects of pictorial warnings for this at-risk population is needed as the FDA moves forward with developing new graphic labels.

  15. Mirror rubbing: a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex eroticism.

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    Shi, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate.

  16. Chinese Female Jet-Fighter Pilots Change New Uniforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the 60th anniversary of founding of People’s Republic of China that marks calendar day of Oct.1st this year, Chinese armed forces stage on a new change of uniforms to welcome the birthday of the New China that was announced

  17. Anthropometric Characteristics of Chinese Professional Female Marathoners and Predicted Variables for Their Personal Bests.

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    Yang, Xian-Gang; Wang, Yang; Bao, Da-Peng; Hu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate anthropometric characteristics of Chinese professional female marathoners and suitable predicted variables correlated with their personal bests (PB), 96 Chinese female long-distance runners were divided into international (triceps surae skin-folds and PB for total athletes. Negative correlation between biiliac breadth and PB in international athletes, and positive correlations between abdominal and triceps surae skin-folds and PB in national athletes were found. For average runners, high positive correlation was found between upper arm girth and PB, and between subscapular, abdominal, iliac crest and triceps surae skin-folds and PB. The findings suggested that compared to stride length, stride frequency and efficiency were more important factors influencing running performance, which were in accordance with running technique in Chinese female marathoners.

  18. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in two Chinese females.

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    Liu, N; Li, Y; Zhou, Y; Zeng, X

    2012-08-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia, or Heck's disease, is a relatively rare virus-induced benign disease. To the best of the authors' knowledge it has not been reported in an ethnic Chinese population. The authors report two cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) in Chinese patients, which were clinically and histologically in accord with FEH. In particular, the lesions in one case were located on the gingival mucosa, which is rarely affected by FEH. DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded specimens from the two patients was tested for the presence of human papilloma virus followed by specific polymerase chain reaction testing for 16, 18, 13, and 32 subtypes in order to confirm the clinical diagnosis.

  19. Breaking the Barriers in Chinese Female Career Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2013-01-01

    Career development is an important part of modern human resource management. Women are an important and integral part in human resources. Paying at ention to women's career development can’t be ignored both for women own career development and the economic development of society. But compared to men, the Chinese women encounter more barriers in the process of career development, the purpose of this paper is to analyze these barriers and put forward corresponding countermeasures to break the barriers.

  20. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Older Adults: Do Living Arrangements Matter?

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    Jiaan Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998–2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker, the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others, and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults’ health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  1. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese older adults: do living arrangements matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-02-23

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998-2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults' health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  2. Female Cross-Dressing in Chinese Literature Classics and their English Versions

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    Wing Bo Tso Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-dressing, as a cultural practice, suggests gender ambiguity and allows freedom of self expression. Yet, it may also serve to reaffirm ideological stereotypes and the binary distinctions between male and female, masculine and feminine, homosexual and heterosexual. To explore the nature and function of cross-dressing in Chinese and Western cultures, this paper analyzes the portrayals of cross-dressing heroines in two Chinese stories: The Ballad of Mulan (500-600 A.D., and The Butterfly Lovers (850-880 A.D.. Distorted representations in the English translated texts are also explored..

  3. Eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors for eating disorders among Chinese female dance students

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    Zhuoli Tao

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Along with the economic development, eating disorders begin to appear in China. In this context, we study potential risks for eating disorders. Methods: 1,199 Chinese students, aged 12-25 years, were randomly selected in spring 2006 from a survey with a series of scales (EAT-26, EDI that were used as a screening examination for eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors. Among them were 31 female Chinese dance students. The dancer students were compared with the female high risk group of eating disorders (EAT ≥ 20 and the female low risk group (EAT 0-9 according to their scores on EAT-26 and EDI. Results: There were just 3 dancers (10% with scores on the EAT-26 who were over the cut-off point of 20 for high risk of an eating disorder. The dance group also showed significantly higher scores than the low risk group (EAT 0-9 not only on the subscales Dieting, and EAT-26 total scores on the EAT-26, but also on the subscales Perfectionism and Maturity Fears on the EDI. Conclusions: Among the group of female Chinese dance students, most participants did not show a high risk for eating disorders and their high scores on some subscales on the EAT-26 and EDI could be caused by their occupation.

  4. Construction of boundary-surface-based Chinese female astronaut computational phantom and proton dose estimation.

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    Sun, Wenjuan; Jia, Xianghong; Xie, Tianwu; Xu, Feng; Liu, Qian

    2013-03-01

    With the rapid development of China's space industry, the importance of radiation protection is increasingly prominent. To provide relevant dose data, we first developed the Visible Chinese Human adult Female (VCH-F) phantom, and performed further modifications to generate the VCH-F Astronaut (VCH-FA) phantom, incorporating statistical body characteristics data from the first batch of Chinese female astronauts as well as reference organ mass data from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP; both within 1% relative error). Based on cryosection images, the original phantom was constructed via Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) boundary surfaces to strengthen the deformability for fitting the body parameters of Chinese female astronauts. The VCH-FA phantom was voxelized at a resolution of 2 × 2 × 4 mm(3)for radioactive particle transport simulations from isotropic protons with energies of 5000-10 000 MeV in Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. To investigate discrepancies caused by anatomical variations and other factors, the obtained doses were compared with corresponding values from other phantoms and sex-averaged doses. Dose differences were observed among phantom calculation results, especially for effective dose with low-energy protons. Local skin thickness shifts the breast dose curve toward high energy, but has little impact on inner organs. Under a shielding layer, organ dose reduction is greater for skin than for other organs. The calculated skin dose per day closely approximates measurement data obtained in low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  5. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-03-01

    Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility.

  6. NaFeEDTA Fortified Soy Sauce Showed Higher Iron Absorption Rate in Chinese Females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN-SHENG HUO; XIAO-GUANG YANG; JIAN-HUA PIAO; JUN-QUAN GAO; HONG MIAO; Bo YU; CHENG-QIAN LU; JUN-SHI CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective NaFeEDTA was considered as a promising iron fortificant for controlling iron deficiency anemia. Soy sauce is a suitable food carrier for iron fortification and is a popular condiment in China. Iron absorption rates of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4were observed and compared in adult female subjects. Methods The stable isotope tracer method was used in Chinese females consuming a typical Chinese diet. Ten healthy young Chinese women were selected as subjects in the 15-day study. A plant-based diet was used based on the dietary pattern of adult women in the 1992 National Nutrition Survey. Six milligram of54Fe in 54FeSO4 soy sauce and 3 mg 58Fe in Na58FeEDTA soy sauce were given to the same subjects in two days. Food samples and fecal samples were collected and analyzed. Results Iron absorption rates of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 were 10.51%±2.83and 4.73%±2.15 respectively. The 58Fe (NaFeEDTA) absorption was significantly higher than that of 54Fe (FeSO4) (P<0.01).The iron absorption rate from NaFeEDTA was 1.2 times higher than that from FeSO4 in Chinese adult women consuming a typical Chinese diet. Conclusion The higher absorption rate of NaFeEDTA suggested that NaFeEDTA would be a better iron fortificant used in soy sauce for the controlling of iron deficiency anemia in China.

  7. Correlates of psychological distress, burnout, and resilience among Chinese female nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZOU, Guiyuan; SHEN, Xiuying; TIAN, Xiaohong; LIU, Chunqin; LI, Guopeng; KONG, Linghua; LI, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The present survey investigated the association between resilience, burnout and psychological distress among Chinese female nurses. A total of 366 female nurses were enrolled in our study. A series of self-reported questionnaires that dispose of the following constructs: psychological distress, burnout, and resilience were estimated. The hierarchical linear regression models were used to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Results of the survey showed 85.5% nurses experienced psychological distress. Resilience was negatively related to psychological distress and burnout whereas burnout was positively associated with psychological distress. Mediation analysis revealed that resilience could partially mediate the relationship between the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. This study highlights the mediator of resilience between burnout and psychological distress of female nurses. As such, interventions that attend to resilience training may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavors. PMID:27021058

  8. Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in Chinese female patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-ling ZHOU; Qiu-xiong LIN; Chuan-yue WANG; Wen-biao LI; Shu-guang LIN; Huan-de LI; Xin LI; Huai-yan PENG; Xi-yong YU; Ming YANG; Feng-li SU; Feng WANG; Rong-hua ZHU; Chun-yu DENG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the multiple dose clinical pharmacokinetics of risperidone and its main active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, in Chinese female patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The subjects were 23 Chinese female inpatients aged 18-65 years who met the CCMD-Ⅲ (third revision of the Chinese Criteria of Mental Disorders) criteria for schizophrenia. Subjects were tested after 17 d of treatment with 2 mg risperidone twice daily. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone were assayed by using validated high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) methods. Results: Risperidone was rapidly absorbed (Tmax was 1.6 h) and its Tin in plasma was short (3.2 h).9-hydroxy-risperidone was quickly metabolized from the parent drug with a mean Tmax of 2.5 h. It had a long half-life of 24.7 h. The Cssav of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were 36.9±33.1 and 110.6±30.5 μg·h·L-1, respectively, and the AUCss0-12 were 443.2±397.4 and 1327.2±402.3 μg·h·L-1, respectively. CL/F and V/F of risperidone were 8.7±6.2 L/h and 34.1±24.3 L, respectively. Interindividual variations for pharmacokinetic parameters were quite large for risperidone. All 23 subjects experienced high prolactin levels when treated with risperidone. However there was no correlation between prolactin level and the concentration of risperidone, 9-hydroxy-risperidone, or the active moiety. Conclusion: Risperidone showed large interindividual variations in pharmacokinetics. Administration of risperidone resulted in high serum prolactin levels. The results indicate that systemic exposure to risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone in female Chinese schizophrenic patients is higher relative to published data for white Caucasian patients. Larger studies regarding the PK/PD relationship may be required to develop a reasonable clinical dosage regimen for Chinese female patients.

  9. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    cai; de-pei

    2001-01-01

    In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.……

  10. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡德培; 季志英; 陈伯英; 张炜

    2001-01-01

    @@In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.

  11. The Influence of Sister Carrie’s Female Consciousness on Chinese Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳

    2015-01-01

    Since Sister Carrie’s publication, it has attracted various criticism and comments on Carrie. There are many studies to explore Sister Carrie from various perspectives. The influence of Carrie’s female consciousness on Chinese women is the focus to discuss in the thesis. From Carrie, we realize Carrie is brave and successful in that “survival for the fittest” world. We cannot deny that Carrie is of great importance in present China in enlightening people’s value and women’s social position.

  12. Plasma antioxidant status in healthy smoking and non-smoking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraca, A; Skibska, B

    2005-01-01

    Human serum contains many different antioxidants which may be important in the maintenance of an antioxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between lipid peroxidation and total plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy smoking and non-smoking young and elderly subjects. Plasma concetrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were detected by HPLC. Additionally, in the in vitro experiments, the effects of exogenous compounds (ascorbic acid, uric acid, Trolox) on total ferric reducing activity of plasma were tested. We demonstrated that total antioxidant capacity of plasma obtained from healthy non-smoking young subjects was significantly higher than plasma antioxidant capacity of smoking elderly subjects. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) (p < 0.001) in young non-smoking volunteers was lower than that in young smokers. The concentration of TBARS in elderly non-smoking volunteers was lower than in elderly smokers. Plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were significantly lower in elderly smokers than in elderly non-smokers of same age. No difference in plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were found in 22-year-old smoking and non-smoking subjects. In vitro addition of ascorbic acid, uric acid, or Trolox to plasma samples significantly increased their total antioxidant capacity. Decrease of FRAP values and increase of TBARS concentra-' tions is a significant physiologic condition of aging process. Supplementation of antioxidants could be useful for the enhancement of plasma antioxidant status (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref: 35).

  13. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Huang, Yu-Bei; Liu, Xue-Ou; Gao, Ying; Dai, Hong-Ji; Song, Feng-Ju; Li, Wei-Qin; Wang, Jing; Yan, Ye; Wang, Pei-Shan; Wang, Yao-Gang; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especially for Chinese females. Thus, we systematically searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort studies and 48 case-control studies) covering 17 provinces of China were finally included in this systematic review. Among Chinese females, there was significant association between passive smoking and this risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-1.85; I2 = 75.8%, P smoke in the workplace was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.50) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07-2.59), respectively. The OR of light and heavy passive smoking was 1.11 and 1.41, respectively, for women exposed to their husband's smoke (smoke in the workplace (passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and the risk seems to increase as the level of passive exposure to smoke increases among Chinese females. Women with passive exposure to smoke in the workplace have a higher risk of breast cancer than those exposed to their husband's smoking.

  14. Transferrin Sialylation in Smoking and Non-Smoking Pregnant Women with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniak, Marta; Kepinska, Marta; Bizoń, Anna; Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk, Ewa; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a glycosylated protein responsible for transporting iron. Various sialylation levels of Tf are observed during physiological and pathological processes. We studied if the changes in iron stores as well as tobacco smoke may have an impact on foetal development and in consequence lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester of pregnancy, lower levels of 4-sialoTf isoform and higher levels of 5-sialoTf were observed in the serum of non-smoking women with IUGR in comparison to the control group. On the day of labour, level of 2-sialoTf was significantly lower and level of 3-sialo was Tf higher in the serum of non-smoking women. Level of 4-sialo was found lower in the serum of smoking women with IUGR than in the control group. The observed changes may suggest a connection between iron stores, transport of iron to the foetus and foetal development.

  15. Olfactory and erectile dysfunction association in smoking and non-smoking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Süay; Dülger, Seyhan; Çoban, Soner; Özmen, Ömer Afşın; Güzelsoy, Muhammed; Dikiş, Özlem Şengören; Akdeniz, Önder

    2016-06-01

    The studies evaluating the effect of smoking on olfaction reveals opposite results. In vitro and animal studies and epidemiological evidence from volunteers and patients, demonstrated the association between olfaction and erectile functions. In smoking man the reduction of olfactory acuity could adversely affect sexuality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED) and olfactory dysfunction (OD) by comparing a group of healthy adult men with a group of smoking adult men. This prospective study involved 62 volunteers, who were recruited and divided into two groups; one consisted of 35 smoking adult men, and the other included 27 healthy non-smoking men. All participants in both groups were examined in detail for any condition with the potential to cause OD. They all had a normal genitourinary system suffered from no circulatory diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease nor hyperlipidemia; they had no history of medication affecting genitourinary system. Butanol threshold test and sniffin' stick® (Burghart, Wedel; Germany) screening test was used to asses olfactory functions in both groups. Participants' sexual desire was assessed using an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) scale. The means of sniffin' sticks scores, butanol threshold scores and IIEF-5 scores were statistically higher in non-smoking group. Butanol threshold scores and sniffin' sticks scores are correlated statistically with IIEF-5 in non-smoking and smoking groups. This study found an association between olfaction and erectile function in smoking and non-smoking men. As far as we know this study is the third published study to show the relationship olfactory and erectile function. In the future studies electrophysiological olfactory methods could be used to confirm in large cohorts the results obtained by the psychophysical approach.

  16. Passive Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk among Non-Smoking Women: A Case-Control Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    Full Text Available The role of passive smoking on breast cancer risk was unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk among Chinese women.A hospital-based case-control study, including 877 breast cancer cases and 890 controls, frequency-matched by age and residence, was conducted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on passive smoking history through face-to-face interview by trained interviewers. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk. A positive association between any passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk was observed. Compared with women who were never exposed to passive smoking, women who were ever exposed had a higher breast cancer risk, with the adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.35 (1.11-1.65. Similar result was found on home passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk, but not on workplace passive smoking exposure. Women who were ever exposed to tobacco smoke at home had a higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed women, with the adjusted OR (95% CI of 1.30 (1.05-1.61. Home passive smoking exposure showed significant dose-response relationships with breast cancer risk in smoker-years, cigarettes/day and total pack-years (Ptrend=0.003, 0.006 and 0.009, respectively. An increased total smoker-years of any passive exposure significantly elevated the risk of breast cancer (Ptrend<0.001. Positive associations and dose-response relationships were found among postmenopausal women and all subtypes of estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR status of breast cancer.Passive smoking was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. A stronger positive association with breast cancer risk was seen mainly among postmenopausal women.

  17. Chinese female breast cancer patients show a better overall survival than their male counterparts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Liang-ping; ZHOU Fei-fei; GUO Gui-fang; WANG Fang; WANG Xi; YUAN Zhong-yu; ZHANG Bei

    2010-01-01

    Backgroud It is not clear if there is a difference in prognosis between male breast cancer (MBC) and female breast cancer (FBC) patients. The aim of this study was to compare the prognosis of MBC and FBC patients in China and the prognosis of MBC and their corresponding postmenopausal FBC patients.Methods Thirty-five MBC patients who were treated at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between 1969 and 2004 were enrolled in the study. Seventy FBC patients who were matched with the MBC patients for TNM stage, year of diagnosis, and age at diagnosis were simultaneously enrolled in the study. A second group comprising 18 MBC patients and their corresponding 36 matched postmenopausal FBC patients were also enrolled. The whole group and the postmenopausal groups were compared for five- and ten-year survivals. Results All the factors that could potentially affect prognosis were comparable among the groups except more FBC than MBC patients underwent endocrine therapy and a modified radical mastectomy. The 5- and 10-year survivals in the whole group were 81.6% and 60.3% for men and 90.7% and 73.5% for women (P=0.02). The 5- and 10-year survival in the postmenopausal group was 82.5% and 100% for men and 66.0% and 85.9% for women (P=0.159).Conclusions Chinese FBC patients had a better prognosis than Chinese MBC patients. However, MBC patients and their corresponding postmenopausal FBC patients had a similar prognosis.

  18. Work-family conflict and burnout among Chinese female nurses: the mediating effect of psychological capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout among nurses not only threatens their own health, but also that of their patients. Exploring risk factors of nurse’ burnout is important to improve nurses’ health and to increase the quality of health care services. This study aims to explore the relationship between work-family conflict and burnout among Chinese female nurses and the mediating role of psychological capital in this relationship. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed during the period of September and October 2010. A questionnaire that consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS, the work-family conflict scale and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24 scale, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to nurses in Liaoning province, China. A total of 1,332 individuals (effective response rate: 78.35% became our subjects. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of psychological capital. Results Both work interfering family conflict and family interfering work conflict were positively related with emotional exhaustion and cynicism. However, work interfering family conflict was positively related with professional efficacy whereas family interfering work conflict was negatively related with it. Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship of work interfering family conflict with emotional exhaustion and cynicism; and partially mediated the relationship of family interfering work conflict with emotional exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy. Conclusion Work-family conflict had effects on burnout and psychological capital was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Psychological capital was a positive resource for fighting against nurses’ burnout.

  19. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females:a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Chen; Pei-Shan Wang; Yao-Gang Wang; Ke-Xin Chen; Yu-Bei Huang; Xue-Ou Liu; Ying Gao; Hong-Ji Dai; Feng-Ju Song; Wei-Qin Li; Jing Wang; Ye Yan

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especial y for Chinese females. Thus, we systematical y searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort studies and 48 case-control studies) covering 17 provinces of China were finally included in this systematic review. Among Chinese females, there was significant association between passive smoking and this risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-1.85; I2 = 75.8%, P < 0.001; n = 26] but no significant association between active smoking and the risk of breast cancer (OR:1.04;95%CI:0.89-1.20;I2=13.9%, P=0.248;n=31). The OR of exposure to husband’s smoking and to smoke in the workplace was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.50) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07-2.59), respectively. The OR of light and heavy passive smoking was 1.11 and 1.41, respectively, for women exposed to their husband’s smoke (<20 and≥20 cigarettes per day), and 1.07 and 1.87, respectively, for those exposed to smoke in the workplace (<300 and≥300 min of exposure per day). These results imply that passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and the risk seems to increase as the level of passive exposure to smoke increases among Chinese females. Women with passive exposure to smoke in the workplace have a higher risk of breast cancer than those exposed to their husband’s smoking.

  20. Association of Female Reproductive Factors with Hypertension, Diabetes and LQTc in Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bayi; Chen, Yequn; Xiong, Jianping; Lu, Nan; Tan, Xuerui

    2017-01-01

    The association of female reproductive factors (FRFs) with cardiovascular risk factors among different population was variable and inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine the association between FRFs and hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and long heart-rate-corrected QT interval (LQTc) in Chinese post-menopausal women (Post-MW). A total of 8046 Post-MW from the China Chaoshan Biobank Cohort Study were included for analysis. Logistic regression and general linear regression models were used to estimate the association between FRFs and hypertension, DM, and LQTc. Compared with women with 0 or 1 live birth, increasing risk of hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–1.96), DM (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.22–2.22), and LQTc (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.01–2.09) were observed in women who had five or more live births. Further analysis demonstrated that the association between parity and hypertension, DM, and LQTc was mediated by lifestyle and dyslipidemia. Women with more live births had increased body mass index and waist circumstance, and were inclined to consume more salty food, animal fat, and alcohol, but less meat, vegetable, fish, plant oil, and tea, compared with that had fewer live births (all P < 0.05). PMID:28211485

  1. Study on features of female fetal reproductive system development in Chinese northeast fine-wool sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunbo; ZHANG Guixue; HU Pengfei; HUANG He; ZHENG Peng; LI Wanhua

    2007-01-01

    Some charaterasics of female fetal reproductive system were studied in different gestation phases of Chinese northeast fine-wool sheep. The results showed that reproductive system consisted of ovary, oviduct, uterus and genitalia. The fetal ovaries were granular in early phase and became elliptic in later phase. The functional formula of ovarian weight, length and volume was obtained.Primary oocyte was encapsulated by monolayer cells in 7-week fetal ovary cortex. Primordial follicles were formed in 8-week fetal ovary, the follicular cells were sporadically arranged and not always regular. Complete organization of primordial follicles appeared until 10-week gestation, most of them scattered in nests in the following weeks of gestation. Two types of follicular complexes were found in fetal. There were continuous and quick mitosis of oogonia in fetal ovaries, large complexes were formed by oogoniaes encapsulated by multilayer of follicular cells, then they differentiated into small complexes, one or more primary oocytes were formed by mitosis of oogonia, primordial follicles which were caused by follicular cell approaching into them developed.

  2. Salivary alcohol dehydrogenase in non-smoking and smoking alcohol-dependent persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Jelski, Wojciech; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-09-01

    Increasing attention to the importance of saliva testing is not surprising because smoking and alcohol drinking act synergistically on oral tissues, and their metabolite levels, e.g., acetaldehyde, are much higher in saliva than in blood. The activity of salivary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) comes from oral microbiota, mucosa, and salivary glands. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of ADH in the oral health pathology of smoking (AS) and non-smoking (ANS) alcohol-dependent males. The results indicated that the AS group had a more significant and longer duration (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence) decrease in ADH activity and output than the ANS group (until the 15th day of alcohol abstinence) compared to controls (social drinkers; C). The decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcoholics was observed longer in the ANS group (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence), whereas in the AS group SF normalized at the 15th day, probably due to the irritating effect of tobacco smoke on the oral mucosa. Because saliva was centrifuged to remove cells and debris (including microbial cells), the detected salivary ADH activity was derived from salivary glands and/or oral mucosa. A more profound and longer decrease in ADH activity/output in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics was likely due to the damaged salivary glands and/or oral mucosa, caused by the synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and smoking. The lower values of salivary ADH in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics might also be partly due to the reversed/inhibited ADH reaction by high levels of accumulated acetaldehyde.

  3. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona C Fang

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in public multi-unit housing (MUH is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear.We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD 0.02 ng/ml and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng. Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine.Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively. Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml, with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%. TSE in the home, car, and other peoples' homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15-0.25, while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161, a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6% compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4% (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3 (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%.Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population.

  4. Recurrent pulmonary mucormycosis after lobectomy in a non-smoking patient without predisposing risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary mucormycosis is a very rare clinical condition in patients without underlying risk factors. A limited number of cases have been reported in predominantly elderly patients; history of smoking appears to be a common feature. A case of non-smoking male who developed pulmonary mucormycosis with the longest reported follow-up is presented. In addition, this is also the first reported case with disease recurrence after lobectomy (two years in an immunocompetent host. Treatment with an additional lobectomy and amphotericin B was successful in this patient.

  5. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and its Non-Smoking Risk Factors in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Gagandeep Kaur; Vellakkal, Remya; Gupta, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    The rising prevalence of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is generally attributed to smoking, since the role of other risk factors among non-smokers are not well established especially in low and middle income countries like India. This is also reflected by the limited literature available on non-smoking related COPD risk factors like indoor and outdoor air pollution. The present review is an attempt to assess the influence of non-smoking risk factors on COPD and its measures in Indian subcontinent. The most noteworthy factors among non-smokers appear to be the use of biomass fuel for cooking and heating purposes. We observed that the studies undertaken to evaluate the role of such risk factors are inconclusive due to weak methodologies and small sample sizes, may be due to limited financial resources. The present review suggests the need of a nationally representative study to estimate the effect of each of the potential modifiable risk factor (other than smoking) for framing impactful public health policies to prevent and manage COPD at community and population level in India.

  6. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked and non-smoked black teas and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincemaille, Justine; Schummer, Claude; Heinen, Eric; Moris, Gilbert

    2014-02-15

    This study describes the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked tea and tea infusions, via the monitoring of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene (PAH4) that have been chosen as indicators for the occurrence of PAHs in food by the European Food Safety Agency. The concentrations ranged from 1.2 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene to 125.0 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene in smoked tea leaves, and from 0.6 μg/L for benzo(a)anthracene to 1.2 μg/L for benzo(b)fluoranthene in smoked tea infusions. Benzo(a)pyrene was never detected in infusions. The concentrations in non-smoked tea leaves ranged from 0.6 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene to 10.8 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene. It was shown that the concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene were higher in smoked tea than in non-smoked tea while no difference was observed for benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. The concentrations of PAHs in tea infusions are low compared to other foodstuffs, but the migration rates from leaves into water are high (82-123%).

  7. A Survey on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviors in Chinese Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To get information in the sexual and contraceptive behaviors in Chinese female college students, a randomized cluster sampling was conducted in colleges and universities in Wuhan Area,China, in terms of types of colleges, subjects (literature, sciences, medicines, art etc), and grades etc.A total number of 2450 questionnaires were distributed, with 2365 questionnaires returned being valid. The return rate of valid questionnaires was 96.6%. The questionnaire investigation was conducted on a multiple-choice and anonymous basis. Data were input into computer and SPSS12.0software package was employed for statistical analysis. Among the female students, 1196 had the experiences of hugging and kissing (50.57%) and 423 (17.89%) had sexual experiences (sexual intercourse). The first sexual intercourse took place at the age of 19.23±1.74 y. There were significant differences in the sexual experiences among the majors of different subjects, with the rate of sexual experiences in art majors (43.17%) and high-grade students (34.31%) being the highest. The causes of the first sexual intercourse included sexual impulse, curiosity, intention to strengthen the relationship or to show loyalty to boyfriend and sometimes violence. While the motives of the sexual intercourse within the past one year before the investigation were to satisfy the sexual needs and to strengthen the relation with their boyfriends. With both first intercourse and sexual experiences within last one year,the partners of the sexual intercourse were mainly their boyfriends (95.7% and 97.3% respectively),but the partners also included acquaintances, "one night stand" partners and customers of sex trade.Some of them had multiple sexual partners, with the highest number of the sexual partners being 11.In the first sexual intercourse of the subjects, 44.0% of them did not take any contraceptive measures;only 16.4 % of them used condoms. In the sexual intercourse within the last one year, only 44.6%took

  8. Women on Women Femininity and Independence in the Work of Chinese Contemporary Female Artists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jade; Franklin

    2007-01-01

    ■The history of China, as seen through the eyes of a Chinese woman, would no doubt present a very different story to that which we are accustomed to. The centuries of oppression endured by Chinese women were ratified by the teachings of Confucius which assert that

  9. Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with insulin resistance and β-cell function in a healthy Chinese female population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-fang TAO; Zeng ZHANG; Yao-hua KE; Jin-wei HE; Wen-zhen FU; Chang-qing ZHANG; Zhen-lin ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To assess associations of the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with insulin resistance and β-cell function in a healthy Chinese female population.Methods:This cross-sectional study included 1382 female participants free of type 2 diabetes who were recruited in Shanghai.Blood samples were collected within a winter season and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D,fasting plasma glucose and insulin,and other biochemical parameters were determined.Insulin resistance and β-cell function were assessed using the homeostasis model assessments of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-B),respectively.Results:Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age,parathyroid hormone,Ca2+ and BMI revealed that independent inverse associations existed between the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and HOMA-IR (P<0.001) and between the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and HOMA-B (P=0.001).Conclusion:Serum vitamin D level is significantly and independently associated with insulin resistance and β-cell function in a healthy Chinese female population.

  10. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement. PMID:28168198

  11. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Li; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui; Wu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

  12. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330 completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%. Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes’ asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

  13. Predictors of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers: an application of the protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    We utilized Protection Motivation Theory to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy, and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. Sexually transmitted infection/ HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs.

  14. 'One cigarette for you and one for me': Children of smoking and non-smoking parents during pretend play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Verhagen, M.; Wit, C. de; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether perceived parental smoking is related to pretend smoking in young children and whether children influence each other in pretend smoking. Methods Children who reported to have at least one smoking parent were coupled with children who had non-smoking parents. Both ch

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of mental health problems among monogamous Chinese female patients with sexually transmitted diseases in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T F; You, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted disease (STD) increases risk of HIV infection and has profound psychological consequences. The present study examined the mental health problems (poor emotional well-being, insomnia, probable depression) and their associated factors among monogamous Chinese female STD patients. A total of 537 Chinese female STD patients who self-reported having had only one male sex partner in the last 12 months were recruited from a STD clinic in Hong Kong. They completed a survey including measures of mental health, STD-related history, perceptions, feelings related to STD infection, and perceptions toward condom use. Results showed that 22% had poor emotional well-being, 25.7% had insomnia, and 43% were probable cases of depression. Unemployment, worsened relationship with partners after STD diagnosis, STD history in last three months, finding STD examinations embarrassing, and feelings of helplessness were significant risk factors for poor emotional well-being and insomnia. Also, unemployment, worsened relationships with partners after STD diagnosis, and perceived high chance of STD in the coming six months were significant risk factors for probable depression. Perceived efficacy of condom use for STD prevention was a significant protective factor against poor emotional well-being and probable depression. Findings suggest that interventions are warranted to improve the mental health among this population.

  16. I Am the Invincible Sword Goddess: Mediatization of Chinese Gender Ideology through Female Kung-Fu Practitioners in Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Hiramoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The media are avid portrayers of gender binarism and the belief in male-female distinctions, which are mainly attributed to perceived differences of a physical nature. In this paper, we investigate representations of female kung-fu practitioners (nuxia in films to discuss how processes of mediation and mediatization depict their femininity, so as to mitigate their appropriation of Chinese martial arts masculinity. Often, nuxias are portrayed as empowered women who are equipped to take control of their own lives and to courageously take on challenges from a variety of opponents. However, multimodal deconstruction of the various characteristics of nuxias must be placed in an Asian-specific context in order to understand the femininity specific to these characters and to move beyond Western gender ideologies displayed by the media. Perpetuating Confucian patriarchal ideals, nuxia roles constantly and consistently associate conformation to Confucian values with virtuousness and non-conformation with wickedness. We therefore can use the ideals of Confucianism as a more accurate foundation in deconstructing the identities of nuxias, which allows us to better understand the mediation and mediatization processes of ideologies associated with Chinese femininity and masculinity in martial arts films.

  17. Assessing the underlying breast cancer risk of Chinese females contributed by dietary intake of residual DDT from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Zhao, Meirong; Zhou, Shanshan; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    The greatest concern over DDT exposure in China arose since the early 1990s for the rising breast cancer incidence, and the cause still remains to be elucidated. An extensive survey of DDT background in agricultural soils, covered the entire region of China, was conducted. DDT at concentrations greater than 100 ng/g (the China's Farmland Environmental Quality Evaluation Standards for Edible Agricultural Products) was found to impact 42.3 million Chinese population. Considering the geographical differences with diverse DDT contributions and different diet products and habits, the average daily dietary intake was modeled and estimated to be 0.34 μg/kg p,p'-DDE (the main bioactive constituent in DDT). Population attributable fraction derived from a case-control study from 78 women with breast cancer and 72 controls was used to assess the DDT exposure risk to breast cancer. Based on the estimated population attributable fraction with a median value of 0.6% (IQR 0.23-2.11%), the excess annual breast cancer incidence rate attributable to p,p'-DDE exposure averaged 0.06×10(-5) with significant spatial variations varying from 0.00021×10(-5) to 11.05×10(-5) in Chinese females. Exposure to DDT is a contributor to breast cancer, but the overall limited relative risk and population attributable fraction imply confounding factors for breast cancer in Chinese females. Exposure risk in a regional scale helps understand the cause and prevention of breast cancer. Our mapping and modeling method could be used to assess other environmental carcinogens and related cancer diseases.

  18. Cutural Predictors of Self-Esteem: A Study of Chinese American Female and Male Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen

    2001-01-01

    Domains of cultural orientation such as language, social affiliation, and cultural pride, were examined in Chinese American college students (N=353) to see how they related to self-esteem. Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem differences. Cultural predictors of self-esteem varied by gender; self-esteem was mainly related to…

  19. Meta Analysis of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Lung Cancer Risk of Non-smoking Women of China%中国非吸烟女性环境烟草烟雾暴露与肺癌风险的 Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑞敏; 孙德俊; 许莉; 高丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective to explore the relationship between environment tobacco smoke exposure among non-smoking women in China and lung cancer risk. Methods we collected case-control studys on ETS exposure among Chinese non-smoking women and lung cancer risk. The quality of included case-control studies were evaluated and Meta analysis was conducted. Results 12 articles were included, total cases3963 and controls 4878.Combined results showed that ETS exposure among Chinese non-smoking women were found to be significantly associated with lung cancer ris, which combined OR(95%CI)were1.33(1.20-1.47). Conclusion ETS was a significant risk of lung cancer among Chinese non-smoking women.%目的:分析中国非吸烟女性环境烟草烟雾暴露(environmental tobacco smoke,ETS)与肺癌发生危险之间的关系。方法纳入有关中国非吸烟女性 ETS 暴露与肺癌发生关联的病例-对照研究,对纳入研究的质量进行评价,并进行 Meta 分析。结果最终纳入12篇文献,累计肺癌病例3963例,对照4878例,合并分析结果显示 ETS 暴露与非吸烟女性肺癌发生的关联有统计学意义,合并 OR(95%CI)值为1.33(1.20-1.47)。结论 ETS 是中国非吸烟女性肺癌发生的重要危险因素。

  20. Chromosome aberrations frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes in young tobacco smoking and non-smoking people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Haverić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is associated with severe health problems, especially cancers. In addition, cigarette smoking causes different genotoxic effects. Chromosome aberrations are one of well-known intermediate end points in carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to compare frequencies of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes between young smokers and non-smokes groups.Methods: The study was conducted with 30 smokers (average age 26.93 years and 30 non-smokers (average age 26.96 years, and included the analysis of 100 metaphases per each blood sample. Differences in the arithmetic means of determined frequencies of chromosome aberrations were tested by two-tailed t-test for independent samples with the significance level of p < 0.05.Results: The results showed a significant increase in the frequencies of chromatid-type aberrations and total structural chromosome aberrations in smoker group. Frequencies of numerical aberrations did not differ significantly between two groups.Conclusions: This study confirmed genotoxicity of cigarette smoking and provided new evidence about its clastogenic activity.

  1. Dose conversion coefficients for Chinese reference adult male and female voxel phantoms from idealized neutron exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Huan; Qiu, Rui; Yang, Yue; Pan, Yu-Xi; Liu, Li-Ye

    2015-01-01

    A new set of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the Chinese reference adult voxel phantoms CRAM and CRAF are presented for six idealized external neutron exposures from 10-8 MeV to 20 MeV. The voxel phantoms CRAM and CRAF were adjusted from the previous phantoms CNMAN and CNWM respectively, and the masses of individual organs have been adjusted to the Chinese reference data. The calculation of organ-absorbed doses and effective doses were performed with the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX. The resulting dose conversion coefficients were compared with those published in ICRP Publication 116, which represents the reference Caucasian. The organ-absorbed dose conversion coefficients of most organs are in good agreement with the results in ICRP Publication 116, however, obvious discrepancies are observed for some organs and certain geometries. For neutrons with energies above 2 MeV, the effective dose conversion coefficients of Chinese reference adult are almost identical to those of ICRP Publicatio...

  2. Analysis on the Educational Background of Chinese Female Academicians%中国女院士的教育背景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 李斌

    2014-01-01

    Science education is the necessary soil for the generation of Chinese female scientific groups.Female academicians mark the peak of the women image in sciences.Taking Chinese female academicians as an example,this paper tries to focus on clarifying the educational growth trajectory of female academicians of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Chinese Academy of Engineering and Aca-demia Sinica in (Taiwan),in order to provide the reference for the contemporary women's education in science,the women's education of science and technology in the modern and contemporary age,and show the whole overall style of female academicians.%科学教育是中国女性科学群体产生的必要土壤,女院士是女性科学形象的高峰标志。文章以中国女院士群体为样本,试图厘清中国科学院、工程院与台湾中央研究院女院士的教育成长轨迹,以期为现当代女子科技教育提供借鉴参考,展示我国女院士的整体风采。

  3. Effect of duration of exposure to cement dust on respiratory function of non-smoking cement mill workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Al Masri, Abeer A; Al Rouq, Fawzia; Azeem, Muhammad Abdul

    2013-01-16

    This study aimed to determine the effect of long term exposure to cement dust on lung function in non-smoking cement mill workers. This is a cross-sectional study of respiratory functions. Spirometry was performed in 100 apparently healthy volunteers; 50 non-smoking cement mill workers and 50 non-smoking un-exposed subjects. Based on the duration of exposure, cement mill workers were divided into three groups, less than 5, 5-10 and greater than 10 years. All subjects were individually matched for age, height, weight, and socioeconomic status. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic spirometer. Significant reduction was observed in the mean values of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV(1)), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) and Maximal Voluntary Ventilation in cement mill workers who had been working in the cement industry for more than 10 years compared to their matched un-exposed group. Lung functions in cement mill workers were significantly impaired and results show a long term duration response effect of years of exposure to cement dust on lung functions.

  4. Ghrelin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with female metabolic syndrome in Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-ju; ZHEN Yi-song; SUN Kai; XUE Hao; SONG Xiao-dong; WANG Yi-bo; FAN Xiao-han; HAN Yun-feng; HUI Ru-tai

    2008-01-01

    Background The ghrelin plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis.Therefore,the ghrelin receptor gene (GHSR) is an excellent candidate for studying metabolic syndrome.This study aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms in ghrelin receptor gene are associated with metabolic syndrome in Chinese population.Methods Subjects consisted of 698 patients aged 41 to 80 years,diagnosed as metabolic syndrome by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) 2005 criteria,and 762 age-and gender-matched controls.Three variants within the GHSR were selected and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).Odds ratios were estimated using a case-control study design by controlling confounding factors.Results The NA genotype (rs2922126) in the promoter was associated with metabolic syndrome (OR 1.41,95%CI 1.03-1.94),increased waist circumference (OR 1.75,95%CI 1.26-2.42),and increased fast blood glucose (OR 1.49,95%CI 1.07-2.06) in women.The A/A genotype (rs509030) in the intron was associated with lower plasma high density lipoprotein in women (OR 1.37,95%CI 1.02-1.84).Conclusion The polymorphisms within GHSR might be a genetic risk factor for metabolic syndrome in women.

  5. Evaluation the susceptibility of five polymorphisms in microRNA-binding sites to female breast cancer risk in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bang-Shun; Pan, Yu-Qin; Lin, Kang; Ying, Hou-Qun; Wang, Feng; Deng, Qi-Wen; Sun, Hui-Ling; Gao, Tian-Yi; Wang, Shu-Kui

    2015-11-15

    Polymorphisms in microRNA (miRNA) binding site have been widely discussed to be associated with cancer risk; however, the associations were unclear in Chinese population. To investigate the associations of five polymorphisms (rs11097457, rs1434536, rs1970801, rs1044129, rs11169571) in miRNA binding sites with breast cancer risk, a total of 435 female patients with breast cancer and 439 age- and gender-matched tumor-free individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. Sequenom MassARRAY was applied to detect the polymorphisms, and the immunohistochemistry assay was used to measure the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and CerbB-2. The data showed that these polymorphisms were not associated with breast cancer risk or clinical characters of breast cancer in all participants and sub-group with the exception that, in the sub-group of women with their first menstruation after 14 years old, those who carried rs1970801 T allele (genotype TT/GT) were associated with decreased breast cancer risk. In short, this case-control study provided the evidence that women with their first menstruation after 14 years old and carried rs1970801 T allele (genotype TT/GT) were associated with decreased breast cancer risk.

  6. Effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 genotype on N-acetylaspartate levels and neurocognition in non-smoking, active alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3 gene on brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA concentrations and executive function (EF skills in non-smoking, active alcoholics, and evaluated associations between these variables. Methods SNPs (rs6465084, rs1468412, and rs2299225 in GRM3 were genotyped in 49 male, non-smoking, alcohol-dependent patients and 45 healthy control subjects using ligase detection reactions. NAA/creatine (Cr ratios in left prefrontal gray matter (GM and white matter (WM, left parietal GM, left parietal WM, and cerebellar vermis regions were measured by Proton 1 H Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. EF was measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Results Compared to controls, alcoholics had lower NAA/Cr ratios in prefrontal GM and WM regions and performed more poorly on all EF tests (P P P P P P  Conclusions Our results provide evidence that glutamate system dysfunction may play a role in the prefrontal functional abnormalities seen in alcohol dependence. It is possible that certain GRM3 SNP genotypes (the A/A genotype of rs6465084 and the T allele of rs1468412 may further lower NAA/Cr levels and EF skills in addition to the effect of alcohol.

  7. Air quality, mortality, and economic benefits of a smoke - free workplace law for non-smoking Ontario bar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repace, J; Zhang, B; Bondy, S J; Benowitz, N; Ferrence, R

    2013-04-01

    We estimated the impact of a smoke-free workplace bylaw on non-smoking bar workers' health in Ontario, Canada. We measured bar workers' urine cotinine before (n = 99) and after (n = 91) a 2004 smoke-free workplace bylaw. Using pharmacokinetic and epidemiological models, we estimated workers' fine-particle (PM2.5 ) air pollution exposure and mortality risks from workplace secondhand smoke (SHS). workers' pre-law geometric mean cotinine was 10.3 ng/ml; post-law dose declined 70% to 3.10 ng/ml and reported work hours of exposure by 90%. Pre-law, 97% of workers' doses exceeded the 90th percentile for Canadians of working age. Pre-law-estimated 8-h average workplace PM2.5 exposure from SHS was 419 μg/m(3) or 'Very Poor' air quality, while outdoor PM2.5 levels averaged 7 μg/m(3) , 'Very Good' air quality by Canadian Air Quality Standards. We estimated that the bar workers' annual mortality rate from workplace SHS exposure was 102 deaths per 100000 persons. This was 2.4 times the occupational disease fatality rate for all Ontario workers. We estimated that half to two-thirds of the 10620 Ontario bar workers were non-smokers. Accordingly, Ontario's smoke-free law saved an estimated 5-7 non-smoking bar workers' lives annually, valued at CA $50 million to $68 million (US $49 million to $66 million).

  8. Effects of 8-Week Hatha Yoga Training on Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy, Female Chinese Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the effects of an 8 wk Hatha yoga training on blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, endothelial microparticles (EMPs, and inflammatory status in healthy, lean, and female Chinese subjects. A total of 30 healthy, female Chinese subjects were recruited and randomized into control or yoga practice group. The yoga practice included 8 wks of yoga practice (2 times/wk for a total of 16 times. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after yoga training. Plasma was isolated for the measurement of lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, EMPs, and inflammatory cytokines. Whole blood was cultured ex vivo and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and Pam3Cys-SK4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated for the measurement of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression. Yoga practice significantly reduced plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and CD31+/CD42b− EMPs. Cultured whole blood from the yoga group has reduced proinflammatory cytokines secretion both at unstimulated condition and when stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4; this might be associated with reduced TLR2 protein expression in PBMCs after yoga training. Hatha yoga practice in healthy Chinese female subjects could improve hallmarks related to MetS; thus it can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the primary MetS prevention for the healthy population. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOR-14005747.

  9. Effects of 8-Week Hatha Yoga Training on Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy, Female Chinese Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neng; Xia, Xianghou; Qin, Liqiang; Luo, Li; Han, Shufen; Wang, Guiping; Zhang, Ru; Wan, Zhongxiao

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of an 8 wk Hatha yoga training on blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, endothelial microparticles (EMPs), and inflammatory status in healthy, lean, and female Chinese subjects. A total of 30 healthy, female Chinese subjects were recruited and randomized into control or yoga practice group. The yoga practice included 8 wks of yoga practice (2 times/wk) for a total of 16 times. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after yoga training. Plasma was isolated for the measurement of lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, EMPs, and inflammatory cytokines. Whole blood was cultured ex vivo and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3Cys-SK4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for the measurement of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression. Yoga practice significantly reduced plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and CD31+/CD42b- EMPs. Cultured whole blood from the yoga group has reduced proinflammatory cytokines secretion both at unstimulated condition and when stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4; this might be associated with reduced TLR2 protein expression in PBMCs after yoga training. Hatha yoga practice in healthy Chinese female subjects could improve hallmarks related to MetS; thus it can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the primary MetS prevention for the healthy population. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOR-14005747.

  10. Effect of Nourishing “Yin”-Removing “Fire” Chinese Herbal Mixture on Hypothalamic NKB/NK3R Expression in Female Precocious Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiran Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The present study aims to investigate the effects of nourishing “Yin”-removing “Fire” Chinese herb mixture on the hypothalamic NKB/NK3R expression in female precocious model rats. Materials and Methods. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal (N, central precocious puberty (CPP model (M, CPP fed with Chinese herbal mixture (CHM, and CPP fed with normal saline (MS. Rats on postnatal day 5 were given a single subcutaneous injection of 300 μg to establish CPP model rats. Rats of CHM and MS groups were continuously administered with nourishing “Yin”-removing “Fire” Chinese herb mixture or saline since postnatal day 15. The expressions of hypothalamic NKB/NK3R were detected by means of real-time PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence histochemistry. Results. The day of vaginal opening and establishment of two regular estrous cycles were delayed in the CHM group compared with M and MS groups. The expression of hypothalamic NKB/NK3R mRNA and protein in the arcuate nucleus (ARC and medial preoptic (MPO area were decreased significantly in the CHM group compared with the M and MS groups on the day of onset-puberty. Conclusions. These results indicate that the NKB/NK3R signaling pathway might be involved in the effect of herbal mixture treatment on CPP.

  11. Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Liao, Yong; Liu, Jia; Fang, Wenjie; Hong, Nan; Ye, Xiaofei; Li, Jianjun; Tang, Qinglong; Pan, Weihua; Liao, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Currently, research in sexual behavior and awareness in female Chinese college students (FCCSs) is limited, particularly regarding the difference and the influencing factors between students from rural areas and urban areas. To fill the gap in available data, a cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 3193 female students from six universities located in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China, from February to June, 2013. Of the 2669 respondents, 20.6% and 20.9% of the students from urban and rural areas, respectively, reported being sexually experienced. The proportion of students who received safe-sex education prior to entering university from rural areas (22.4%, 134/598) was lower (P Sexual behavior has become increasingly common among FCCSs, including high-risk sexual behavior such as unprotected commercial sex. However, knowledge concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission and the risks is insufficient, particularly for those from rural areas, which is a challenge for HIV/AIDS control in China. The Chinese government should establish more specific HIV/AIDS prevention policies for Chinese young women, strengthen sex education, and continue to perform relevant research.

  12. Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, research in sexual behavior and awareness in female Chinese college students (FCCSs is limited, particularly regarding the difference and the influencing factors between students from rural areas and urban areas. To fill the gap in available data, a cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 3193 female students from six universities located in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China, from February to June, 2013. Of the 2669 respondents, 20.6% and 20.9% of the students from urban and rural areas, respectively, reported being sexually experienced. The proportion of students who received safe-sex education prior to entering university from rural areas (22.4%, 134/598 was lower (P<0.0001 than the proportion from urban areas (41.8%, 865/2071. Sexual behavior has become increasingly common among FCCSs, including high-risk sexual behavior such as unprotected commercial sex. However, knowledge concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS transmission and the risks is insufficient, particularly for those from rural areas, which is a challenge for HIV/AIDS control in China. The Chinese government should establish more specific HIV/AIDS prevention policies for Chinese young women, strengthen sex education, and continue to perform relevant research.

  13. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, M.J.; Russell, M.A.; Feyerabend, C.; Eiser, J.R.; Morgan, M.; Gammage, P.; Gray, E.M.

    1985-10-05

    Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health.

  14. Fine particulate matter measurements in Swiss restaurants, cafés and bars: what is the effect of spatial separation between smoking and non-smoking areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, A.; Kooijman, C.; Breuer, M.; Bohler, P.; Zund, T.; Wenk, S.; Roosli, M.

    2010-01-01

    We performed 124 measurements of particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in 95 hospitality venues such as restaurants, bars, cafés, and a disco, which had differing smoking regulations. We evaluated the impact of spatial separation between smoking and non-smoking areas on mean PM(2.5) concentration, taking rel

  15. Prediction of inspired oxygen fraction for targeted arterial oxygen tension following open heart surgery in non-smoking and smoking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Khalil, Pierre; Zeineldine, Salah; Chatburn, Robert; Ayyoub, Chakib; Elkhatib, Farouk; Bou-Akl, Imad; El-Khatib, Mohamad

    2016-10-24

    Simple and accurate expressions describing the PaO2-FiO2 relationship in mechanically ventilated patients are lacking. The current study aims to validate a novel mathematical expression for accurate prediction of the fraction of inspired oxygen that will result in a targeted arterial oxygen tension in non-smoking and smoking patients receiving mechanical ventilation following open heart surgeries. One hundred PaO2-FiO2 data pairs were obtained from 25 non-smoking patients mechanically ventilated following open heart surgeries. One data pair was collected at each of FiO2 of 40, 60, 80, and 100% while maintaining same mechanical ventilation support settings. Similarly, another 100 hundred PaO2-FiO2 data pairs were obtained from 25 smoking patients mechanically ventilated following open heart surgeries. The utility of the new mathematical expression in accurately describing the PaO2-FiO2 relationship in these patients was assessed by the regression and Bland-Altman analyses. Significant correlations were seen between the true and estimated FiO2 values in non-smoking (r(2) = 0.9424; p < 0.05) and smoking (r(2) = 0.9466; p < 0.05) patients. Tight biases between the true and estimated FiO2 values for non-smoking (3.1%) and smoking (4.1%) patients were observed. Also, significant correlations were seen between the true and estimated PaO2/FiO2 ratios in non-smoking (r(2) = 0.9530; p < 0.05) and smoking (r(2) = 0.9675; p < 0.05) patients. Tight biases between the true and estimated PaO2/FiO2 ratios for non-smoking (-18 mmHg) and smoking (-16 mmHg) patients were also observed. The new mathematical expression for the description of the PaO2-FiO2 relationship is valid and accurate in non-smoking and smoking patients who are receiving mechanical ventilation for post cardiac surgery.

  16. Safety and immunogenicity of human papillomavirus-16/18AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy Chinese females aged 15 to 45 years: a phase I trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Cai Zhu; Chang-Gui Li; Hong-Xing Pan; Yi-Ju Zhang; Dan Bi; Hai-Wen Tang; Sanjoy Datta

    2011-01-01

    Globally,about 70% of cervical cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 or HPV-18 infection. A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies in China showed that HPV was present in 98% of cervical cancer samples. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine Cervarix(R)* has shown a high level of protection against HPV-16/18 infections and associated cervical lesions. This phase I trial (NCT00549900)assessed the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the vaccine in Chinese. Thirty healthy Chinese females, aged 15 to 45 years with a median age of 29.5 years, received three doses of Cervarix(R) in Months 0, 1, and 6. Safety was assessed via recording solicited local and systemic symptoms within 7days and unsolicited symptoms within 30 days after each vaccination. Serious adverse events, new onset of chronic diseases, and other medically significant conditions were recorded throughout this trial. As an exploratory objective, HPV-16/18 antibody titers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum samples collected in Months 0 and 7. Pain at the injection site was the most frequently reported local symptom. Two subjects reported medically significant adverse events. Both cases were assessed as unrelated to vaccination by the investigator. In Month 7, 100% seroconversion was observed for both anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 with high geometric mean antibody titers. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine,evaluated for the first time in Chinese females, was generally well tolerated and immunogenic, as previously shown in global studies.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated persistent organic pollutants in canned fish and seafood products: smoked versus non-smoked products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabova, Lucie; Pulkrabova, Jana; Kalachova, Kamila; Tomaniova, Monika; Kocourek, Vladimir; Hajslova, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In this study, levels of several groups of environmental contaminants represented by PAHs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were determined in various types of canned smoked and non-smoked fish and seafood products (54 samples) obtained from the Czech market. PAHs were detected in all of the studied samples, and at least one of the target halogenated persistent organic pollutants was present above the LOQ in 85% of the samples. The levels of PAHs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (mainly DDTs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers found in the canned products varied in the range of 1.4-116 µg kg(-1), 0.6-59.6 µg kg(-1), 0.6-82.7 µg kg(-1) and 0.1-2.1 µg kg(-1) can content, respectively. Smoked sprats were the most contaminated fish product (n = 12) in which the highest levels of both PAHs and persistent organic pollutants were found. In 67% of the samples of smoked sprats in oil, the level of benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the maximum level of 5 µg kg(-1) established for smoked fish by European Union legislation. The distribution of target analytes between oil and fish fractions was also assessed. Significantly higher levels of PAHs were measured in the oil fraction.

  18. Relationship between flow volume curve and CT findings in non-smoking patients with long histories of bronchial asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Kambe, Masayuki; Yamagata, Mitsunori; Nakajima, Hidekatsu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Yamane, Kousuke; Kuraoka, Toshihiko; Miyamura, Isao

    2001-08-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether bronchial asthma (BA) alone causes pulmonary emphysema (PE), and to examine the computed tomography (CT) findings in non-smokers with BA demonstrating the flow volume curve (FV curve) characteristic of PE. Non-smoking patients with a history of BA for more than 20 years were divided into 2 groups: the dogleg pattern group (n=5), with an FV curve characteristic of PE, and the concave pattern group (n=16) with an FV curve characteristic of BA. CT scans was performed using CT values (level, 900 H.U.; width, 400 H.U.) that facilitate detection of a low attenuation area (LAA), and using conventional CT values (level, 700 H.U.; width, 1,300 H.U.). LAA (including air trapping), thickness of the bronchial wall, and partial atelectasis were compared between the 2 groups. PE was not detected, although air trapping was found in all subjects. The thickness of the airway was greater in the dogleg pattern than in the concave pattern. The incidences of air trapping and partial atelectasis were higher in the former than in the latter. BA alone may not cause PE. Some BA patients without PE show the FV curve characteristic of PE, reflecting an increase in the thickness of the airway wall and a decrease in the pulmonary ventilation probably due to the air trapping and the partial atelectasis. (author)

  19. On Female Poets and Their Works in Chinese Russian Immigrants%论中国俄罗斯侨民女诗人及作品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲雪萍

    2012-01-01

    中国俄罗斯侨民文学,是俄罗斯文学当中极具特色的一支,近年来受到了越来越多人的关注。文章研究俄侨女诗人的创作"共性"特征,并在此框架下就其作品的题材和女性形象等加以分析。首先,根据《松花江畔紫丁香》一书中收寻的作品剖析女诗人创作的普遍题材;其次,在此基础上,解析大量作品中彰显的艺术特色;最后,又着重解读女诗人笔下的女诗人形象,进而挖掘俄侨作品中的共性和个性,努力找寻女诗人作品中独到之处,进而阐述俄侨女诗人作品的研究价值。%Chinese Russian immigrant literature is an extremely unique branch of Russian literature and much attention is given to it in recent years. This paper mainly focuses on the common features of Russian immigrant female poets and analyzes the themes and female images. The first point is to explore the common theme of female poets in their works taking Lilac along Songhua River as example. Then, it goes to analyze the artistic features of the works. And lastly the paper interprets the female poet images and finds their common features and uniqueness and points out their research value.

  20. Comparable rate of EGFR kinase domain mutation in lung adenocarcinomas from Chinese male and female never-smokers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-hua SUN; Rong FANG; Bin GAO; Xiang-kun HAN; Jun-hua ZHANG; William PAO; Hai-quan CHEN; Hong-bin JI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Lung cancer patients with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations frequently show good responses to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including Iressa and Tarceva, in clinical studies[1-3]. Previous studies have demonstrated that EGFR kinase domain mutations are commonly observed in lung adenocarcinomas, never-smokers,East Asian, and females[4-8].

  1. A yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula enhances mitochondrial functional ability and antioxidant capacity in various tissues of male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Hoi Yan; Chiu, Po Yee; Poon, Michel K T; Ko, Kam Ming

    2005-01-01

    The practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) always emphasizes the prevention of diseases and delaying the onset of senility. In this regard, the maintenance of a balance of Yin and Yang-two opposing components involved in life activities as exemplified by the antagonistic action of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems-is essential in achieving a healthy condition. Previous studies have shown that long-term treatment with a Yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula (VI-28) could increase red cell CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in male human subjects. In the present study, we examined the effects of chronic VI-28 treatment (80 and 240 mg/kg/day for 30 days) on red cell CuZn-SOD activity as well as mitochondrial functional ability and antioxidant components in various tissues of male and female rats. The results indicated that VI-28 treatment increased red cell CuZn-SOD activity as well as mitochondrial ATP generation capacity, reduced glutathione and alpha-tocopherol levels, and Mn-SOD activity in brain, heart, liver, and skeletal muscle tissues in both male and female rats to varying extents. The VI-28?induced increase in mitochondrial antioxidant capacity in various tissues was evidenced by the significant reduction in the extent of reactive oxygen species generation assessed by in vitro measurement. The red cell CuZn-SOD activities correlated positively with tissue mitochondrial antioxidant component levels/activity. The beneficial effect of VI-28 treatment on mitochondrial functional ability and antioxidant capacity may have clinical implications in the prevention of age-related diseases.

  2. Prevalence and Clinicopathological Characteristics of HER2 and BRAF Mutation in Chinese Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Shan

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of BRAF V600E mutation and HER2 exon 20 insertions in Chinese lung adenocarcinoma (ADC patients.Given the fact that the driver mutations are mutually exclusive in lung ADCs, 204 EGFR/KRAS wild-type cases were enrolled in this study. Direct Sanger sequencing was performed to examine BRAF V600E and HER2 exon 20 mutations. The association of BRAF and HER2 mutations with clinicopathological characteristics was statistically analyzed.Among the 204 lung ADCs tested, 11 cases (5.4% carried HER2 exon 20 insertions and 4 cases (2.0% had BRAF V600E mutation. HER2 mutation status was identified to be associated with a non-smoking history (p<0.05. HER2 mutation occurs in 9.4% of never smokers (10/106, 8.7% of female (8/92 and 2.7% of male (3/112 in this selected cohort. All four BRAF mutated patients were women and three of them were never-smokers. No HER2 mutant patients harbor BRAF mutation.HER2 and BRAF mutations identify a distinct subset of lung ADCs. Given the high prevalence of lung cancer and the availability of targeted therapy, Chinese lung ADC patients without EGFR and KRAS mutations are recommended for HER2 and BRAF mutations detection, especially for those never smokers.

  3. Susceptibilidad al consumo de tabaco en estudiantes no fumadores de 10 ciudades mexicanas Susceptibility to use tobacco among non-smoking students in 10 Mexican cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Arillo-Santillán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar la susceptibilidad cognitiva a fumar y los factores asociados en estudiantes de 12 a 15 años. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó la medición basal de una encuesta autoaplicable en 12 293 estudiantes no fumadores de escuelas secundarias, en el ciclo 2005-2006. Susceptible es aquel que contestó que aceptará un cigarrillo de su mejor amigo y cree que el año próximo fumará. Se obtuvieron modelos de regresión logística de multinivel. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de susceptibilidad fue de 30%. Los factores asociados fueron autoestima baja (RM = 1.2, IC95% 1.0-1.5, búsqueda de nuevas sensaciones (RM = 1.6, IC95% 1.3-2.0 y actitud favorable a fumar (RM = 2.6, IC95% 2.2-3.2, así como permisividad social reflejada en reglas del hogar (RM = 2.2, IC95% 1.7-2.8. Sólo en mujeres existió interacción entre permisividad de fumar en el hogar y consumo de tabaco en padres (RM = 2.1, IC95% 1.1-3.8. CONCLUSIONES: La prevención debe promover la sensibilización de profesores y padres de familia como modelos antitabaco e incentivar hogares libres de tabaco.OBJECTIVE: To identify the cognitive susceptibility to smoking and associated factors in students between 12 and 15 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The baseline measurement of a self-administered survey conducted between 2005 and 2006 of 12 293 non-smoking high school students was analyzed. Susceptibility was considered to be a student who would accept a cigarette from his or her best friend and would smoke the following year. Multilevel logistic regression models were obtained. RESULTS: The prevalence of susceptibility was 30%. Associated factors were low self-esteem (RM = 1.2, IC95% 1.0-1.5, seeking new sensations (RM = 1.6, IC95% 1.3-2.0 and a favorable attitude towards smoking (RM = 2.6, IC95% 2.2-3.2, as well as the social permissibility reflected in the norms at home (RM = 2.2, IC95% 1.7-2.8. The interaction between permissibility of smoking at home and tobacco consumption

  4. Study on soft tissue profile in chinese beautiful females%中国美貌汉族女性软组织侧貌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰睿; 乔珺; 米丛波; 潘旭; 张双

    2013-01-01

    目的:初步探讨中国美貌汉族女性软组织侧貌U1-STP指标、前额与上颌中切牙矢状向关系,为正畸、正颌外科及整形的临床诊治提供了美学评价的重要参考依据之一.方法:选取2008 ~2013年著名电影、电视剧及时尚杂志中面型美观、自然的美貌汉族女性75例,年龄18 ~ 36岁,对所有研究对象软组织侧貌图均采用Photoshop CS3图像处理软件进行测量分析、统计.结果:获得中国美貌汉族女性软组织侧貌U1-STP数据,发现45例女性(60%)上切牙颊面中点位于该平面之前(A);14例女性(19%)上切牙颊面中点位于该平面之上(N);16例女性(21%)上切牙颊面中点位于该平面之后(P);前额与上颌中切牙矢状向距离为(1.27±1.05) mm;前额倾斜度为(15.58± 2.61)°.结论:U1-STP指标结合了硬组织标志点及软组织标志线,是一种新的可靠的正畸正颌临床诊治美学参考指标.%Objective To investigate the UI-STP and the anteroposterior relationship of the maxillary central incisor to the forehead of Chinese Beautiful females,providing one of the clinical references of the aesthetic evaluation for orthodontics、orthognathic surgery and plastic surgery.Methods Totally 75 lateral pictures of famous beautiful females from 2008 to 2013 were collected from Chinese films and teleplay poster,ages ranging from 18 to 36 years.The measurements were performed with the application of Photoshop CS3,and the analysis to the data was carried out.Results The aesthetic data of Chinese beautiful females' U1-STP were obtained,the incisor was located in front of the STP (A)in 45 cases(60%);it was located on the plane(N)in 14 cases (19%);and it was behind(P)in 16 cases (21%);The distance between the maxillary central incisor to the forehead was (1.27 ±1.05)mm,the forehead inclination was(15.58±2.61)°.Conclusion The U1-STP relates a soft tissue reference with a hard tissue landmark,it could be a useful diagnostic and

  5. 我国高等学校中的女性领导特征调查研究%A Survey of the Female Leaders of Chinese Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王饮寒; 喻恺

    2015-01-01

    本文采用履历研究法,对我国1166所普通本科高等学校的7796位校级领导的简历进行整理分析研究。研究发现:我国高校领导中女性数量较少,且存在女性领导担任正职少、副职多的纵向隔离现象,以及女性担任党委领导多、行政领导少的横向隔离现象。此外,女性自身教育与学术背景偏低、国际化经历不足等问题,制约了女性领导的发展。我国的高校领导研究还未将性别因素作为一个主要的分析范畴和内容来对待,这一领域还需要更多的学术与政策关注。%Using Curriculum Vitae research method, this paper studies the characteristics of female leaders of Chinese universities. By studying 7796 top-level university leaders at 1166 Chinese universities, this paper finds that, there are not only insufficient women leaders in higher education institutions, but also segregation at both vertical and horizontal levels. The relatively insufficient educational and academic background and international experience are factors that restrict women from gaining leadership in higher education. The paper argues that gender differences deserve more academic and policy attention in the realm of university leadership.

  6. Association between Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Female Nurses: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Psychological Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms have been in the limelight for many kinds of people, but few studies have explored positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese nurses. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between work-family conflict (WFC and depressive symptoms among Chinese female nurses, along with the mediating and moderating role of psychological capital (PsyCap in this relationship. This cross-sectional study was completed during the period of September and October 2013. A questionnaire that consisted of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Work-Family Conflict scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnair scale was distributed to nurses in Shenyang, China. A total of 824 individuals (effective response rate: 74.9% participated. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of PsyCap in the relationship between WFC and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the moderating role of PsyCap. Both WFC and family-work conflict (FWC were positively related with depressive symptoms. PsyCap positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy and hope positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Hope and optimism partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Work-family conflict, as the risk factor of depressive symptoms, can increase nurses’ depressive symptoms, and PsyCap is a positive resource to combat nurses’ depressive symptoms. PsyCap can aggravate the effects of WFC on depressive symptoms and FWC can impact PsyCap to increase nurses’ depressive symptoms.

  7. Association between Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Female Nurses: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Psychological Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Junhui; Wu, Di; Liu, Li; Li, Xirui; Wu, Hui

    2015-06-12

    Depressive symptoms have been in the limelight for many kinds of people, but few studies have explored positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese nurses. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between work-family conflict (WFC) and depressive symptoms among Chinese female nurses, along with the mediating and moderating role of psychological capital (PsyCap) in this relationship. This cross-sectional study was completed during the period of September and October 2013. A questionnaire that consisted of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Work-Family Conflict scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnair scale was distributed to nurses in Shenyang, China. A total of 824 individuals (effective response rate: 74.9%) participated. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of PsyCap in the relationship between WFC and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the moderating role of PsyCap. Both WFC and family-work conflict (FWC) were positively related with depressive symptoms. PsyCap positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy and hope positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Hope and optimism partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Work-family conflict, as the risk factor of depressive symptoms, can increase nurses' depressive symptoms, and PsyCap is a positive resource to combat nurses' depressive symptoms. PsyCap can aggravate the effects of WFC on depressive symptoms and FWC can impact PsyCap to increase nurses' depressive symptoms.

  8. Association of polymorphisms in genes involved in the dopaminergic pathway with blood pressure and uric acid levels in Chinese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Weng, Chi-Feng; Shih, Bing-Fu; Tsao, Hsueh-Jen; Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Chuang, Fu-Tai; Hu, Chung-Yi; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2010-12-01

    Since the high degree of heritability of physiological traits was demonstrated by twin and adoption studies, contemporary researchers in the fields of clinical medicine, behavioral science, and genetics have acknowledged the crucial role of genetic factors in human physiology. The study described herein explores the association between physiological parameters and the dopaminergic system using molecular genetic techniques. A total of 558 Taiwanese female volunteers, ranging from 16 to 17 years, were recruited. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in the dopaminergic pathway were selected for analysis. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were associated significantly with the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and the dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) C1021T polymorphism. Furthermore, plasma uric acid was associated significantly with the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. Our study suggests the possible involvement of genetic polymorphisms in COMT and DBH in the regulation of blood pressure and plasma uric acid.

  9. 大学生汉字自由联想的性别差异的实验研究%Experimental Study on Differences in the Free Association of Chinese Characters between Male and Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建英; 姚本先

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解大学生汉字自由联想的性别差异.方法:运用实验法对110名大学生的汉字自由联想进行分析.结果:(1)男女大学生对音联和字联的回忆率存在差异;(2)男女大学生对感觉情绪词的回忆率存在差异;(3)男女大学生对反映心理的关键字的回忆率存在差异;(4)男女大学生自由联想汉字的偏旁部首存在差异.结论:汉字自由联想法可以用来分析大学生的思维、个性和心理健康状况.%Aim: to probe the differences in the free association of Chinese characters between male and female college students. Method: analyzing the free association of Chinese characters among 110 college students by an experimental study. Results: (l)There is difference in recall rale of thyme association and word association between male and female college students; (2)There is difference in recall rate of identifying emotional words between male and female college students; (3)There is difference in recall rate of key words reflecting psychological world between male and female college students; (4)There is difference in free association of radicals of Chinese characters between male and female college students. Conclusion: the free association of Chinese characters can be applied to analyze the college students' thoughts, personalities and psychological health status.

  10. 从社会性别视角审视当代中国女性消费%Study on Chinese Contemporary Female Consumption from the Perspective of Social Gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁翠清

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rapid development of China’ s economy and society as well as the spreading of western consumption concept, Chi-nese contemporary female consumption shows some new features and developmental tendency.Leading by the so-called thought of man-made beauty, the Chinese female indulge in beauty consumption and unilaterally pursue fashion, resulting in the unbalance between material consumption and psychological consumption.The female become the slave of consumption.Society and law should take meas-ures to relieve the blockade of the traditional gender idea on Chinese female consumption; abolish the corruption of consumerism on Chinese female;rectify the misleading by public media on Chinese female;study the present legal system from social gender view and protect female consumers′legal rights.%我国经济及社会的高速发展,西方消费主义观念的传入,当代中国女性消费呈现出新的特点及发展趋势。女性在所谓人造美丽意念的引导下,沉迷于美丽消费,片面追求时尚,导致物质消费与精神消费失衡,女性被物化、异化,沦为他者、被看者和消费奴隶。社会及法律应积极采取措施解除传统性别观念对女性消费代理社会角色的禁锢;破除消费主义对当代中国女性的毒性腐蚀;纠正大众传媒对当代中国女性的误导;从社会性别视角审视我国现有相关法律制度,保障女性消费者的合法权益。

  11. Association between Secondhand Smoke in Hospitality Venues and Urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol Concentrations in Non-Smoking Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Lee, Kiyoung; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Lee, Do Hoon; Kim, KyooSang

    2016-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between urinary cotinine and total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) concentrations in non-smoking staff and the indoor levels of fine particles (PM2.5) in hospitality venues that allow smoking, with respect to demographic and indoor environmental factors. We evaluated 62 hospitality venues that allowed smoking in Seoul, Korea. A real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Field technicians recorded indoor environmental characteristics. One non-smoking staff member in each hospitality venue was tested for urinary cotinine and total NNAL concentrations. Demographic characteristics were obtained from self-reported staff questionnaires. Natural-log (ln)-transformed PM2.5 concentrations were significantly correlated with the ln-transformed cotinine (r = 0.31) and the total NNAL concentrations (r = 0.32). In multivariable regression analysis, the urinary cotinine concentrations of the staff members were significantly correlated with indoor PM2.5 concentrations; those with the highest concentrations were more likely to be women or staff members that worked in venues with a volume hospitality venues that allow smoking.

  12. 中国不同性别亚健康人群差异分析%Sub-health status in male and female Chinese populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀; 何裕民

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore different sub-health status between populations of different gender. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze sub-health status of 13 439 people in 8 provinces in China. Results Sub-health status of male was much more expressed in sexual life( male:5. 22 ± 1.06,femal:4.92 ±0. 96), while female was much more expressed in physical and psychological symptoms ( physical symptoms score for male: 104. S3 ± 20.47, for female; 110.27 ±20.90:psychological score for male:53.63 ±8.04,for female:55. 89 ±7. 88;P0.05). For somatic symptoms, the men had a hypo-immunity and were susceptible to cold or with a longer period of the disease compared to the woman (P < 0.001). While women felt tired easily and frequently had digestive problem, poor sleep, autonomic nervous disorders, allergy, aging apperance, a variety of pain or discomfort, constipation, and frequent drug usage (P < 0.001). In psychological symptoms, women showed more depression, anxiety problem,memory loss,and severe stress than men(P<0.001 for all). There was a significant difference in sexual satisfaction score between the men and the women with sub-health (P <0.01) and the men were more likely to worry about sexuality than women (P < 0. 01). Conclusion The symptoms of sub-health are different between men and-women in Chinese population.%目的 探讨不同性别亚健康状态人群症状表现差异.方法 采用流行病学横断面调查方法对中国8个省市13 439名各类人群进行亚健康状态调查分析.结果 男、女性亚健康症状性生活得分分别为(5.22±1.06)、(4.92±0.96)分,躯体症状分别为(104.53±20.47)、(110.27±20.90),心理方面分别为(53.63±8.04)、(55.89±7.88)分,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);社会适应性方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在躯体症状方面,男性免疫力低下,易患有感冒或感冒不易痊愈;与男性比较,女性易感到疲劳,消化系统不适多见,睡眠差,多有植

  13. Distinct role of the Fas rs1800682 and FasL rs763110 polymorphisms in determining the risk of breast cancer among Han Chinese females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Xi-Jing; Jin, Tian-Bo; Dai, Zhi-Ming; Kang, Hua-Feng; Guan, Hai-Tao; Ma, Xiao-Bin; Liu, Xing-Han; Dai, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms in the promoters of Fas and FasL are significantly associated with breast cancer risk. However, the results of these studies were inconsistent. This case–control study was performed to explore the associations between Fas rs1800682 and FasL rs763110 polymorphisms and breast cancer. Materials and methods A hospital-based case–control study of 560 Han Chinese females with breast cancer (583 controls) was conducted. The MassARRAY system was used to search for a possible association between the disease risk and the two single nucleotide polymorphisms, Fas rs1800682 and FasL rs763110. Statistical analyses were performed using SNPStats software to conduct Pearson’s chi-square tests in five different genetic models. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated after adjustment to age and body mass index. PHASE v2.1 software was used to reconstruct all common haplotypes. Results A statistically significant association was found between Fas rs1800682 and increased breast cancer risk (AG vs AA: OR =1.37, 95% CI =1.06–1.78; AA+AG vs GG: OR =1.32, 95% CI =1.04–1.66), and also it was found that the FasL rs763110 polymorphism may decrease the risk. Stratified analyses demonstrated that the rs763110 polymorphism was associated with lower breast cancer risk among postmenopausal females (heterozygote model: OR =0.69, 95% CI =0.49–0.97; dominant model: OR =0.70, 95% CI =0.51–0.96). The T allele of rs763110 was also associated with a decreased risk of lymph node metastasis (allele model: OR =0.75, 95% CI =0.57–0.97) and an increased risk of the breast cancer being human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (allele model: OR =1.37, 95% CI =1.03–1.18). Moreover, haplotype analysis showed that Ars1800682Trs763110 was associated to a statistically significant degree with lower risk of breast cancer (OR =0.70, 95% CI =0.53–0.91). Conclusion These data suggest that

  14. Polymorphisms in GEMIN4 and AGO1 Genes Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA biosynthesis genes can affect the regulatory effect of global microRNAs to target mRNA and hence influence the genesis and development of human cancer. Here, we selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs7813, rs2740349, rs2291778, rs910924, rs595961 in two key microRNA biosynthesis genes (GEMIN4 and AGO1 and systematically evaluated the association between these SNPs, the gene-environment interaction and lung cancer risk. To control the impact of cigarette smoking on lung cancer, we recruited Chinese female non-smokers for the study. The total number of lung cancer cases and cancer-free controls were 473 and 395 in the case-control study. Four SNPs showed statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. After Bonferroni correction, rs7813 and rs595961 were evidently still associated with lung cancer risk. In the stratified analysis, our results revealed that all five SNPs were associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma; after Bonferroni correction, significant association was maintained for rs7813, rs910924 and rs595961. Haplotype analysis showed GEMIN4 haplotype C-A-G-T was a protective haplotype for lung cancer. In the combined unfavorable genotype analysis, with the increasing number of unfavorable genotypes, a progressively increased gene-dose effect was observed in lung adenocarcinoma. We also found that individuals exposed to cooking oil fumes showed a relatively high risk of lung cancer, but no interactions were found between cooking oil fume exposure or passive smoking exposure with these SNPs, either on an additive scale or a multiplicative scale. Overall, this is the first study showing that rs7813 and rs595961 could be meaningful as genetic markers for lung cancer risk.

  15. Factors associated with second-hand smoke exposure in non-smoking pregnant women in Spain: self-reported exposure and urinary cotinine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Castilla, Ane Miren; Guxens, Mònica; López, María José; Lertxundi, Aitana; Espada, Mercedes; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Santa-Marina, Loreto

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the main sources of and sociodemographic factors associated with second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure, assessed both by questionnaire and by urinary cotinine (UC) levels, in non-smoking pregnant women. We conducted a cross-sectional study in pregnant women from 4 different regions in Spain. A total of 1783 non-smoking pregnant women completed a questionnaire about their previous smoking habit and SHS exposure in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy and provided a urine sample for measuring UC levels. We used logistic regression models to assess the relationship between several sociodemographic variables and some potential sources of SHS exposure. In addition, we analysed the association of several sociodemographic variables and the SHS exposure according to UC levels, using Tobit regression analysis. More than half of women (55.5%) were exposed to SHS in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The following variables were associated with SHS exposure: having smoked previously, low educational level, and being primiparous. Data collection after the first law banning smoking in public places was associated with lower risk of SHS exposure in restaurants and at work. UC levels were higher among women exposed to more than one source. Having a partner who smoked at home was the source of SHS with the greatest impact on UC levels, followed by having a partner who smoked but not at home, other people smoking in the household, being exposed during leisure time, at work and at restaurants. The most important source of SHS exposure was exposure at home. Prevention of SHS exposure should be addressed not only with pregnant women but also with their families.

  16. 南京市城区女性性功能障碍的调查%An investigation on female sexual dysfunction among urban Chinese women in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱霞; 潘连军; 陈湘玉; 潘锋; 阚延静

    2011-01-01

    目的:女性性功能障碍(FSD)是影响女性生活质量的常见疾病,有关中国女性FSD的报道少见.本研究探讨南京城区女性FSD的发病情况,为制定中国女性FSD的防治策略提供依据.方法:本研究为回顾性调查,调查对象为2008年8月至2009年3月在南京医科大学附属南京市妇幼保健院进行健康体检的20岁以上女性及其女性陪护人.采用女性性功能指数(FSFI)问卷评估性功能,以FSFI评分总分<25分作为FSD的诊断标准.以各单项评分的中位数作为诊断各类型性功能障碍的标准.结果:共发放问卷1 002份,收回有效问卷609份,有效问卷回收率60.8%.本组女性FSFI得分(24.21±4.40)分,随着年龄增长,FSFI评分及各单项评分逐渐下降.本调查各年龄组总的FSD发生率为56.8%,随年龄增长,FSD发生率逐渐增加,<29岁组为47.1%,30~39岁组为57.0%,40~49组为75.0%,50岁以上高达90.3%.最常见的性功能障碍类型为性满意度下降(43.2%),其次为性高潮障碍(41.7%)、性交疼痛(40.2%)、性欲低下(35.1%)、阴道润滑障碍(31.4%)及性唤起困难(29.6%).结论:FSD是困扰中国城市女性的常见问题,最常见的类型为性满意度下降及性高潮障碍.%Objective: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a common problem affecting women's quality of life. However, reports are rarely seen on sexual problems in Chinese women. This study is to investigate the prevalence of FSD among urban Chinese women in Nanjing and offer some evidence for the establishment of preventative measures for FSD in China. Methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based survey was conducted in Nanjing, China between August 2008 and March 2009. The sexual function of 609 women aged 20 - 56 years from the urban area of Nanjing were investigated using the Female Sexual Function Index ( FSFI ). The total FSFI score of < 25 was used as the diagnostic criterion for FSD. Results: The total FSFI score was 24.21 ± 4.40 in this group of women

  17. A Gender Perspective of North American Sinologists in the Studies of Chinese Female Writers%论北美汉学界中国女作家研究中的性别视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩

    2015-01-01

    In recent years ,the sinological studies in North America have witnessed a new turn .A group of female sinologists deviate from the traditional sinological studies and have adopted the perspective of gender in their broad and in-depth studies of contemporary and modern Chinese female w riters .Based on the theo-ries of gender criticism ,biography text criticism ,ideological context as well as gender politics ,their re-search has provided a new way of studying and understanding Chinese modern and contemporary female writers and set up a platform of communication ,exchanges and dialogue for scholars both at home and abroad .%近年来北美汉学研究出现了新的转折,一批女性汉学家运用性别批评理论,从传记生平考据、意识形态语境以及性别政治等角度,对中国现当代女作家进行了广泛而深入的研究,对传统的汉学研究形成了强有力的冲击,为重新认识中国现当代女作家及创作提供了新的研究视角和解读方式,为海内外学界跨文化的沟通、交流与对话搭建平台。

  18. Effects of gibberellin A4/7, 6-benzylaminopurine and chlormequat chloride on the number of male and female strobili and immature cones in Chinese Pine (Pinus tabuliformis) with foliar sprays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng; FAN Jun-feng; ZHANG Shuo-xin; HUANG Zhong-lian; YANG Pei-hua; MA Zhen-hua; Keith E. Woeste

    2011-01-01

    Three kinds of plant growth regulators, gibberellinA (GA),6-benzylaminopurine (BA), and chlormequat chloride (CCC), wereevaluated for their ability to promote strobilus and cone production in aChinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr.) clonal seed orchard. Treatments(0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg-L) were applied during three periods (June-July, July-August and August-September) in 2005. Of the three plantgrowth regulators, GA was the best for promoting flower and coneproduction. Trees sprayed with GA(500 mg·L) from June to Septem-ber had significantly more female strobili and immature cones than con-trols and other treatments (p≤0.0001). The best time to apply GA was inJune. BA at 500 mg.L significantly increased female flower and imma-ture cone production, compared to other treatments and controls(p≤0.0001), while promotion of male strobili was unchanged. Chlorme-quat chloride at 1000 mg.L significantly increased the number of malestrobili, compared to the other treatments (P≤0.0001). Spraying CCC at500 mg.L significantly increased the number of female strobili, com-pared to controls (p0.05). These results are important for improving seed productionand seed orchard management of Chinese pine.

  19. Empirical Analysis of the Behavioral Characteristics and Factors Influencing Chinese Female Entrepreneurship%中国女性创业的行为特征与影响因素实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琪; 张永胜

    2012-01-01

    女性创业越来越受到政府和学术界的关注。女性创业具有巨大的发展潜力与增长空间,与男性创业相比,女性创业有自身的特点。文章在理论分析的基础上,运用中央电视台《致富经》栏目和清华大学中国创业研究中心共同完成的中国百姓创业致富调查所得数据,对中国女性群体在创业活动中的行为特征、影响因素以及相互关系作了实证分析,并提出了有效促进女性创业的对策建议。%Female entrepreneurship is increasingly concerned by the government and academia. It has huge potential for development and growth. Compared to male entrepreneurship, female entrepreneurship has its own characteristics. On the basis of theoretical analysis, this article uses the data from the "Survey of Chinese Entrepreneurial Wealth" co-conducted by CCTV "Become Rich Classics" column and National Entrepreneurship Research Center of Tsinghua University to analyze empirically the behavioral characteristics, important factors affecting female entrepreneurship and their correlations of Chinese female group in the entrepreneurial activities. Finally, the paper puts forward effective countermeasures for promoting female entrepreneurship.

  20. Internal exposure to trace elements in non-smoking residents living in a northern Taiwan industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tser-Sheng; Wu, Chin-Ching

    2011-12-01

    A total of 94 (54 males, 40 females) healthy adult residents living in an industrial city in northern Taiwan were recruited to study their exposure to industrial metals by measuring their blood levels of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, and W. All participants were non-smokers without obvious direct occupational exposure to these elements, although by working in administrative sectors in industrial facilities their indirect or potential exposure was increased. The average concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, and W in blood were 0.30, 1.49, 15.1, 3.84, 2.73, 21.1, 204, 3.2, 0.76, 51.1, and 0.40 ng/mL, respectively. These values were significantly higher than reference values reported for the general population, in some cases exceeding those of occupationally exposed workers. The principal component and correlation analyses among blood element levels suggested that the predominant sources of exposure were glass manufacturing and traffic-related sources. Despite of some limitations, the study demonstrates that the residents in this industrial area may suffer adverse chronic health effects attributable to exposures to these elements.

  1. 从2014年世界女子冰球锦标赛看中国女冰现状%Analyzing the Current Situation of Chinese Female Ice Hockey from 2014 World Ice Hockey Championships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志男

    2014-01-01

    通过对2014年世界女子冰球锦标赛B组各队比赛成绩、技战术进行统计,对目前中国女子冰球队的状态进行分析,深刻总结训练和比赛中存在的问题。中国女冰在技战术的综合能力上与世界强队相比具有较大差距,尤其是在攻区抢断、回追阻截、射门得分、防守反击等方面的问题较为突出。提出加强个人技战术的培养,结合比赛提高对抗能力,培养多变的战术体系,形成自己的技战术风格等对策和建议,旨在提高女冰的技战术水平,对中国女冰重返世界强队取得冬奥会参赛资格显得尤为重要。%By counting the performance,techniques and tactics of Group B in 2014 World Female Ice Hockey Championships,technical analyze the current situation of Chinese female ice hockey team, deeply summarize the existing problems in training and competitions. The comprehensive ability of techniques and tactics of Chinese female ice hockey team compared with the strong power list of the world with a large gap,especially on stealing in attacking zone,back up and trackles,scoring and defencing and fighting back. Put forward to strengthen the cultivation of individual techniques and tactics,improve counterforce,cultivate variable tactics system,form their own technical and tactical style,in order to improve the technical and tactical level of female ice hocky team,it is extremely important for Chinese female ice hockey team returning the world strong team to get qualification for Winter Olympics.

  2. 中国女性对于FMR1突变产前筛查的态度调查%Acceptance of prenatal screening for FMR1 mutation in Chinese female population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岚; 章远志

    2012-01-01

    Objective Study the attitude of Chinese female population on prenatal screening of FXS in order to investigate the feasibility of offering prenatal screening.Methods Two hundred and eighty four women with no family history of mental retardation or FXS were recruited in the study.They were grouped into:females married with child (ren) (67/284),females married without child (54/284),unmarried single women (163/284).Then the participants were tested whether they retained the basic genetic knowledge of fragile X by using the adapted questionnaire.Results The proportions of the women who preferred to have prenatal screening for FXS in each group were 77.6%,66.7% and 74.9%.Further more,95.5% of the women in the first female group would like to terminate the pregnancy if a positive result of FXS was reported,so did 92.6% of the women in the second female group and 90.2% of women in the third female group.Conclusion There is a big acceptance of prenatal screening for FMR1 mutation in Chinese female population.Most people would like to take prenatal screening of fragile X syndrome.%目的 调查中国女性对于脆性X综合征产前筛查的态度.方法 随机调查284位没有智力发育障碍及脆性X综合征家族史的女性,分为已婚已育(67/284)、已婚未育(54/284)及未婚未育(163/284)三组.结果 各组愿意接受产前筛查的比率分别为77.6%、66.7%及74.9%.而各组选择在得知产前筛查结果阳性时愿意终止妊娠的比率分别为95.5%、92.6%及90.2%.结论 在中国女性群体中对FMR1基因突变进行产前筛查有较高的接受度.大多数人选择接受针对脆X综合征的产前筛查.

  3. Coprescription of Chinese herbal medicine and Western medication among female patients with breast cancer in Taiwan: analysis of national insurance claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang BR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bih-Ru Wang,1,2,* Yuh-Lih Chang,1,2,* Tzeng-Ji Chen,3,4 Jen-Hwey Chiu,5,6 Jing Chong Wu,7 Min-Shan Wu,1 Chia-Lin Chou,1 Yueh-Ching Chou1,2,81Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department and Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Institute of Hospital and Health Care Administration, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 7Traditional Medicine Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 8College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Many female breast cancer (FBC patients take Chinese herbal medicine (CHM and Western medication (WM concurrently in Taiwan. Despite the possibility of interactions between the CHM and WM mentioned in previous studies, the pattern of these coprescriptions in FBC patients remains unclear. Hence, the aim of the present study is to investigate the utilization of coprescriptions of CHM and WM among the FBC patients in Taiwan.Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey using the sampled cohort in 2009 obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. There were 3,507 FBC patients identified from the registry for catastrophic illness patients. Ambulatory visit records, corresponding prescriptions, and the data of beneficiaries belonging to the FBC patients were further extracted. A total of 1,086 FBC patients used CHM at least once. CHM and WM prescribed within any overlapping duration were defined as coprescriptions.Results: There were 868 (80.0% patients simultaneously receiving CHM and WM. A total of 4,927 CHM prescriptions and 6,358 WM

  4. Rehabilitation of Female Prisoners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE women imprisoned for various crimes undergo a reeducation and rehabilitation program which often results in repentance for past wrongdoings, and providing an avenue for them to make a fresh start. Female prisoners study general education courses, learn basic legal concepts and working skills as part of a rehabilitation program that helps reintigrate them into society upon release.

  5. 中国女性乳腺癌人群归因危险估计%Population-attributable risk estimates for breast cancer in Chinese females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓凤; 姜勇; 曲宸绪; 王建炳; 陈万青; 李辉; 乔友林

    2013-01-01

    目的 评估已知乳腺癌危险因素对我国女性人群的人群归因危险,为中国女性乳腺癌的预防与控制提供依据.方法 利用文献中人群暴露率和相对危险度的数据,计算已知危险因素的人群归因分值(PAF),并利用全国第三次死因调查的数据估计乳腺癌的归因死亡和发病人数.人群暴露率的数据主要来源于大样本、大范围的代表全国人群的调查数据,相对危险度的数据来自Meta分析研究和中国或其他国家的大样本的单个研究资料.结果 居前5位的乳腺癌发病的危险因素依次为良性乳腺疾病(RR =2.62)、乳腺癌家族史(RR =2.39)、吸烟(RR=l.86)、超重(RR=1.60)和月经初潮年龄(RR=l.54).生殖因素、生活方式、良性乳腺疾病、外源性激素治疗及乳腺癌家族史的PAF分别为27.84%、23.55%、15.09%、3.60%和2.49%,五大危险因素总PAF为55.95%.2005年,我国女性乳腺癌归因于生殖因素、生活方式、良性乳腺疾病、外源性激素治疗及乳腺癌家族史的发病和死亡人数分别为79 862和22 456例.结论 预防控制各种不良生活方式将可能显著降低中国乳腺癌发病与死亡.%Objective To estimate the contribution of known identified risk factors to breast cancer incidence and mortality in China,and provide evidence to support the prevention and control of breast cancer for Chinese females.Methods We calculated the proportion of breast cancer attributable to specific risk factors.Data on exposure prevalence were obtained from Meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population.Data on relative risks were obtained from Meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies.Cancer mortality and incidence were taken from the Third National Death Survey and from cancer registries in China.Results The first 5 risk factors of breast cancer in China were benign breast disease (RR =2.62),family history of breast cancer

  6. Perceived Multiple Intelligences among Male and Female Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong: The Structure of the Student Multiple Intelligences Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the structure of perceived multiple intelligences of 1,464 Chinese gifted students using the Student Multiple Intelligences Profile. To evaluate whether perceived multiple intelligences could be applied adequately across boys and girls, a model hypothesizing different degrees of equivalence across the two gender groups was…

  7. Proportion research of under 1/3 soft tissue profile in Chineses beautiful females%中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3软组织侧貌比例的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖青; 米丛波; 宋美云; 杨川

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨公众审美标准,研究中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3软组织侧貌比例的美学特征.方法:选取时尚杂志、电影、电视剧作品中美貌女性35例,年龄18~35岁,计算机图像处理进行标准化,分别测量8项常用的面下1/3软组织比例.结果:①中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3中,上唇皮肤部分占整个上唇的66%,上唇红高度约占上唇的40%,下唇的外形皮肤部分占整个下唇的52%,下唇红高度约占下唇的68%,下唇与下颌高度比为36%,颏部与下领高度比值为62%(近似黄金指数0.618),下颌高度占下面高度的66%;②中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3许多比例值间都有较强的正相关关系.结论:①初步建立了中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3的软组织侧貌比例值范围;②比例值初步分析出中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3的侧貌特征,有利于与类似研究进行比较分析.%Objective To find out the facial profile standard of beautiful female in Chinese people and discuss appreciation of the beauty trend. Methods 35 lateral pictures of famous beautiful females superstars were collected, ages ranging from 18 to 35 years. They were standardized by computer and measuremented 8 proportion indexes of surface under 1/3 soft tissue. Results ①Surface under 1/3 soft tissue of the beautiful females.The chin occupied 2/3 of the entire mandibular height. The cutaneous part occupied 2/3 of the entire upper lip height and the vermilion 1/3. The cutaneous part occupied more than 1/3 of the entire lower lip height. the lower lip occupied more than 1/3 of the entire mandibular height. The chin occupied more than 2/3 of the entire mandibular height. The mandibular occupied more than 2/3 of the following department of face; ②lndex of soft tissue 1/3 of under face profile in Chinese beautiful females have relativity. Conclusion ①Sept up soft tissue profile in the lower third of the beautiful females normal value scope in Chinese;②Measure proportion

  8. 我国少数民族女性嫁衣研究(下)--文化与配饰%A Study on Female Wedding Dress of Chinese Minority Nationalities (Part 2) - Culture and Accessories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非

    2015-01-01

    Each nationality has its own cultural heritage of wedding customs, while female wedding dress also have stable heritage in terms of culture and accessories. The female wedding dress of Chinese minority nationalities is also regarded as an important embodiment of ethnic aesthetic ideal and aesthetic taste. The female wedding dresses of Yao, Miao, Shui, Hui, Zhuang, Dong, Korean, Tibetan and Tu nationalities are the most distinctive and important ethnic costumes.%我国任何民族的婚俗都有其传承特点,而女性嫁衣的文化解读及配饰亦有其稳定的传承性,少数民族女性嫁衣亦被认为是民族审美理想和审美趣味的重要体现。在我国少数民族女性嫁衣中,瑶族、苗族、水族、回族、壮族、侗族、朝鲜族、藏族及土族女性嫁衣都是颇具特点、也极为重要的民族服饰。

  9. RELN基因rs12705169位点与女性偏执型精神分裂症关联%Positive association between rs12705169 in RELN and female schizophrenia patients in a Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟云; 张红星; 赵晶媛; 宋学勤; 李文强; 郝伟; 吕路线

    2012-01-01

    目的 以中国汉族偏执型精神分裂症患者为研究对象,重复验证RELN(Reelin)基因单核苷酸多态性与精神分裂症的关联性.方法 以美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第四版为诊断标准(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition,DSM-Ⅳ)在河南省北部地区收集326 例偏执型精神分裂症患者(男女各半),在同一地域招募健康体检者334 名(男女各半) 作为对照,检测RELN 基因rs12705169、rs11764507 和rs17157643 单核苷酸多态性位点.结果 仅发现患者组和对照组之间rs12705169 位点的基因型和等位基因频率差异有统计学意义(P < 0.01).按性别分层后进一步分析,rs12705169 在女性患者和对照之间基因型和基因频率分布差异具有统计学意义(CC:OR = 0.27,95%CI = 0.18 ~ 0.45; AC:OR = 0.43,95%CI = 0.29 ~ 0.63,P < 0.01).结论 RELN 基因多态性与中国女性偏执型汉族精神分裂症存在关联,RELN 基因可能是精神分裂症的易感基因.%Objective To analyze the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) , in RELN gene and paranoid schizophrenia, and to determine if the RELN gene is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. Methods The participants consisted of 326 patients with paranoid schizophrenia (163 males and 163 females) and 334 healthy controls (167 males and 167 females). All patients were unrelated Han Chinese born and living in the North Henan province. The concurrent diagnoses were made by psychiatrists according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) (1994). Healthy controls were recruited from volunteers with simple nonstructured interview performed by psychiatrists. Three SNPs were selected and genotyped. Genotyping was performed using the Real-time PCR. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between patients and controls to assess the association to schizophrenia. Results A

  10. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle, E-mail: helle.margrete.meltzer@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lise Brantsaeter, Anne [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Borch-Iohnsen, Berit [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, Dag G. [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Alexander, Jan [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Thomassen, Yngvar [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Stigum, Hein [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Chronic Diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ydersbond, Trond A. [Statistics Norway, P.Box 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-07-15

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  11. Is the growth of the fetus of a non-smoking mother influenced by the smoking of either grandmother while pregnant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L Miller

    Full Text Available There are animal data that indicate that prenatal environmental exposures have sex-specific effects on subsequent generations. In humans, an increase in birthweight has been reported if the maternal grandmother had smoked in the pregnancy giving rise to the mother. Here we assess whether prenatal exposure of either parent to cigarette smoke has a sex-specific effect on the grandchild's birth measurements.Information from 12707 maternal and 9677 paternal grandmothers of children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC concerned whether they had smoked while expecting the study parent. Study children were weighed and measured at birth. Analyses to test effects of grandmaternal prenatal smoking used multiple regression allowing for several potential confounders; analyses were restricted to births to non-smoking study mothers.After adjustment, the average birthweight, birth length and bmi measurements of the grandsons (but not granddaughters were greater if the maternal grandmother smoked prenatally: birthweight  = +61 [95% CI +30, +92] g; birth length  = +0.19 [95% CI +0.02, +0.35] cm; BMI  = +1.6 [95% CI +0.6, +2.6] g/m(2. Similar effects were seen in births to primiparae and multiparae. Additional allowance for maternal birthweight resulted in an average increase in boys to +100 g [95% CI +61, +140] g. There were no fetal growth differences if the paternal grandmother had smoked prenatally.The evidence from this study suggests that when the mother does not smoke in pregnancy the maternal grandmother's smoking habit in pregnancy has a positive association with her grandson's fetal growth.

  12. Association between lifetime exposure to passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by hormone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumylaite, Loreta; Kregzdyte, Rima; Poskiene, Lina; Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Pranys, Darius; Norkute, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is inconsistently associated with breast cancer. Although some studies suggest that breast cancer risk is related to passive smoking, little is known about the association with breast cancer by tumor hormone receptor status. We aimed to explore the association between lifetime passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women. A hospital-based case-control study was performed in 585 cases and 1170 controls aged 28–90 years. Information on lifetime passive smoking and other factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used for analyses restricted to the 449 cases and 930 controls who had never smoked actively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72–1.41) in women who experienced exposure to passive smoking at work, 1.88 (95% CI: 1.38–2.55) in women who had exposure at home, and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.84–4.25) in women who were exposed at home and at work, all compared with never exposed regularly. Increased risk was associated with longer exposure: women exposed ≤ 20 years and > 20 years had 1.27 (95% CI: 0.97–1.66) and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.87–3.74) times higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed (Ptrend receptor-positive breast cancer did not differ from that with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer (Pheterogeneity > 0.05). There was evidence of interaction between passive smoking intensity and menopausal status in both overall group (P = 0.02) and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer group (P receptor status with the strongest association in postmenopausal women. PMID:28151962

  13. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts and epithelial ovarian cancer: a nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Travis, Ruth C.; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fortner, Renée T.; Ose, Jennifer; Boeing, Heiner; Menéndez, Virginia; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Chamosa, Saioa; Huerta Castaño, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Klinaki, Eleni; Saieva, Calogero; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert W.; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Background Acrylamide was classified as ‘probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)’ by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case-control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent. Methods A nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk. Results No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but non-statistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1:1.91, 95%CI:0.96-3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1:1.90, 95%CI:0.94-3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose-response trends were observed. Conclusion This EPIC nested case-control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC. Impact It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk. PMID:26376083

  14. 从Mrs Dalloway两个译本的比较中探究译者的女性意识%Female Consciousness in Translators:Contrastive Study of Two Chinese Versions of Mrs Dalloway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑川

    2013-01-01

    The study of feminist translation theory starts very late in China, researchers begin to pay attention to the feminist translation in the late 20th century.By comparing two Chinese versions of Mrs Dalloway from the perspective of feminist transla-tion theory,this paper is to probe into translator`s female consciousness in the translation of feminist text.%女性主义翻译理论研究在我国起步较晚,20世纪末期翻译研究者才开始关注女性主义翻译。该文将从女性主义翻译理论角度出发,通过对Mrs Dalloway的两个中文译本的对比,探究译者在翻译女性主义文本过程中的女性意识显现。

  15. 我国优秀女子三级跳远运动员单足跳技术的生物力学分析%Biomechanical Analysis of the Hop Technique of Chinese Elite Female Triple Jumpers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹景川

    2012-01-01

    This research chooses the top eight athletes of the female triple jump finals in track and field events of the llth National Games as the objects, and takes the kinetic index of the hop techniques as the content of the research. In light of the relevant data of the world elite female triple jumpers, the research is trying to find out the factors which influence the hop technology of Chinese elite female triple jumpers. The results indicate that the touching-ground angle and the body' s anteversion angle of Chinese elite female triple jumpers is universally small, the tortuosity of the keen joint of the take-off leg is comparatively big, the angle of the hip is a little smaller, the keen joint of the take-off leg has a small range, the hip-bone joint angel and the pedaled and stretch range of the take-off leg are also smaller. The cushion period is a little longer; while in a very short time of the take-off leg leaving the ground, the take-off foot manifests the technique characteristics as the touching-ground angle is bigger than the take-off angle.%以参加第11届全运会田径比赛女子三级跳远决赛的前8名运动员作为研究对象,就其单足跳技术的运动学指标作为研究内容,结合世界优秀女子三级跳远运动员的相关资料,试图找出影响我国优秀女子三级跳远运动员单足跳技术的因素所在。结果表明:我国优秀女子三级跳远运动员的着地角与躯干前倾角普遍偏小;起跳腿膝关节的弯曲程度较大,髋角偏小;起跳腿膝关节的蹬伸幅度小,缓冲时间较长;起跳腿离地瞬间的起跳脚表现出"着地角大于起跳角"技术特征。

  16. CT Assessment of Subtypes of Pulmonary Emphysema in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togami,Taro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed a retrospective study examining the prevalence and subtypes of pulmonary emphysema (PE identified by computed tomography (CT in females. We reviewed the records of 1,687 female subjects who had undergone CT. They were divided into the following 2 age groups:group A (<50 years and group B (>_50 years. PE was diagnosed by the presence of low-attenuation areas using visual assessment (grades 0-3 on CT images. Two subtypes of PE were observed:centrilobular emphysema (CLE and paraseptal emphysema (PSE. PE was divided into the following 3 categories:I (CLE or CLE-predominant;II (CLE and PSE of equal extent;and III (PSE or PSE-predominant. PE was found in 64 of 274 smokers (23.3% and 54 of 1,413 non-smokers (3.8%. In smoking subjects, when grades 1 and 2 were grouped together as mild PE, the mean age for CT grade 3 (severe PE was significantly higher than that for mild PE. In group A, category III predominated, whereas category I was more prevalent in group B, in both smoking and non-smoking subjects. A high incidence of PE was found in smoking subjects as compared with non-smoking subjects. PSE predominated in younger subjects, whereas CLE predominated in older subjects.

  17. On the Chinese Female Image of Thousand Pieces of Gold-A Chinese American novel%论华裔美国小说《千金》中的华人女性形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高瑞怡

    2013-01-01

      《千金》是华裔美国作家林露德的第一部传记体小说,塑造了一位早期进入美国西部的华人女性开拓者。女主人公腊露自尊自爱、坚毅刚强,她的一生坎坷曲折,她的精神贵逾千金。本文运用比较文学形象学的研究方法,分析林露德在创作过程中的阶段性差异,从中探讨女主人公形象的转变及其创新;同时,通过追寻林露德对华人女性形象的表述,不仅可以照见林露德幼年时的经历,也言说了她对华裔文化身份建构的思考。%  Thousand Pieces of Gold, giving shape of a Chinese woman pioneer of the western United States in the early stage, is the first biographical novel written by a Chinese American writer named Ruthanne Lum MeCun. Heroine La Lu is a woman with self-esteem, determination and full of twists and turns in her life. Her spirit is precious than a thousand gold. Through imagology research methods, this article make analyses of Ruthanne Lum MeCun’s staged differences in the creation process, from which to explore the transition and innovation of the Heroine’s image. At the same time, through Ruthanne Lum MeCun’s expression of the image of Chinese women, we can not only see the shadow of Lum MeCun’s childhood experiences but also show her concern about the construction of ethnic Chinese cultural identity.

  18. 中药祛斑胶囊治疗女性黄褐斑的临床研究%Clinical study of Chinese Medicine Removing Beverage Capsule in the Treatment of Female Chloasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王步安

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study and analyze the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine removing beverage capsule in the treatment of female chloasma. Methods:Selecting 38 cases of female melasma patients in the hospital from January, 2013 to December, 2013 as the research object, and randomly dividing them into the observation group and control group. The observation group was treated Chinese medicine removing beverage capsule, and the control group was treated with oral vitamin E and vitamin C. Detailed record and analysis of the curative effect of the two groups was done. Results:The effective rate of treatment group was 73.7%, which was significantly better than the control group 57.9%, with significant difference (P<0.05). The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion:The traditional Chinese medicine removing beverage capsule can effectively improve facial chloasma women, and this approach is worthy of popularization and application in clinic.%目的:研究并分析中药祛斑胶囊治疗女性黄褐斑的疗效。方法:选择我院于2013年1月到2013年12月收治的38例女性黄褐斑患者为研究对象,按随机方式分为观察组与对照组,观察组使用中药祛斑胶囊进行治疗,对照组患者口服维生素E与维生素C,针对两组患者治疗疗效进行详细记录与分析。结果:观察组治疗有效率为73.7%,显著优于对照组的57.9%,上述数据组间比较差异显著(p<0.05),差异有统计学意义。结论:中药祛斑胶囊能够有效改善女性面部的黄褐斑,该种治疗方式是值得在临床中进行推广和使用的。

  19. 我国高等学校女性领导群体特征分析%On Characteristics of Female Leaders of Chinese Higher Education Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻恺; 王饮寒

    2015-01-01

    On the data base of resumes of 770 female leaders from 1,166 regular undergraduate colleges and universities,this research adopts CV research method to study similarities and differences of group characteristics of female leader in colleges and universities from school level,position and du-ties in China. The study found that there are few female leaders of the overall number with low pro-portion. School level,position and duties have a mutual influence on serving for female leaders. The higher the school level is,the better working conditions are for female leaders. There is little difference in female leadership characteristics between chief and deputy posts. Due to different positions,working conditions for female executive leaders are generally better than the Party leaders. Based on the current characteristics and current situation,the women themselves,colleges and universities as well as the com-munity need to work together to improve their post competence,optimize the service proportions and structure of female leaders in our organizations,create a social support system for their development,and optimize the educational ecology.%运用履历研究法,以我国1166所普通本科高等学校的770位校级女性领导的简历为数据基础,从学校层次、职位与职务三个维度探讨我国高等学校女性领导的群体特征,研究发现:我国本科院校女性领导总体人数少、比例低;学校层次、职位与职务彼此间对女性领导的任职具有相互影响;学校层次越高,女性领导的任职条件越好;正副职职位间,女性领导任职特征差异不大;不同职务间,女性行政领导的任职条件普遍优于党委领导。针对当前特征与现状,女性自身、高校以及社会需共同努力,提高女性自身任职能力,优化组织中女性领导的任职比例与结构,创建女性发展的社会支持系统,优化教育生态。

  20. A Study on the Trends and Cultural Context of Chinese Female Traditional Wedding Dress%我国女性传统婚服的文脉与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非; 季勇

    2015-01-01

    我国女性传统婚服虽经漫长演变,其蕴含的民族特征与文化精髓至今依存。在追求个性的时代中,人们虽可自由选择婚服,但婚礼习俗依然带有传统特色。如加以引导、推广和创新,女性传统婚服依然有着满足现代消费者的基础。%Although Chinese female traditional wedding dress has experienced long-time evolution and development, the core cultural meaning and ethnic features have retained. In an era of pursuing individualism, though people can freely choose their wedding dress, wedding customs are still tinged with traditional characteristics. With necessary guidance, promotion and innovation, female traditional wedding dress will continue to play important role in meet personalized needs of contemporary people.

  1. 女性性功能量表的汉化及其信效度评价%Translation of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) into Chinese and its reliability and validity evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼青青; 张琴薇; 姚慧岚; 田园; 嵇加佳; 刘超

    2013-01-01

    目的 翻译女性性功能量表(female sexual function index,FSFI)并评价其在普通人群和糖尿病患者中的信度及效度.方法 通过系统的翻译-回译形成中文版FSFI量表,再对其进行信、效度评价.结果 内容效度系数值为0.953;2次测量在每个维度均有良好的相关性,r值在0.817~0.922,以阴道润滑维度相关系数最高(0.922),而性唤起维度最低(0.817);所有样本(包括糖尿病与非糖尿病)各维度的克朗巴赫α信度系数0.760~0.874;糖尿病样本中各维度的克朗巴赫α信度系数0.783~0.882;而非糖尿病样本则为0.757~0.865.Pearson相关系数分析发现所有样本、糖尿病组及普通人群组各维度之间的相关性良好.结论 中文版FSFI有良好的内容效度、重测信度和内部一致性,可作为今后临床评估女性性功能的量表.%Objective To translate the Female Sexual Function Index(FSFI) into Chinese and establish its psychometric properties among ordinary Chinese people and diabetes patients.Methods A two-phase study design was applied.The Chinese version of FSFI was established by translation and back translation,then the reliability and validity of the FSFI were evaluated.Results The content validity coefficient of FSFI was 0.953.The test-retest reliability in each dimension had good correlations (r value was 0.817~0.922),with the highest correlation coefficient in vaginal lubrication dimension (0.922) and arousal dimension the minimum (0.817).In all samples (including diabetes and non diabetes) a reliability coefficients of the Cronbach alpha of each dimension was from 0.760 to 0.874.The Cronbach alpha of each dimension for the diabetic group was from 0.783 to 0.882,and from 0.757 to 0.865 in the non-diabetes group.Pearson correlation of each dimension was very good in total samples,the diabetes group,and the non-diabetes group.Conclusions The psychometric properties of the FSFI demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability

  2. A meta-analysis on overweight, obesity and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese female population%超重肥胖与中国女性乳腺癌关系的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪; 钱云; 靳子义; 董美华; 韩仁强; 周金意; 赵金扣; 张作风; 武鸣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between overweight,obesity and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese female population.Methods Literatures published in China and abroad about overweight,obesity and breast cancer risk among Chinese females were searched.We used "breast cancer","overweight"," obesity"," weight"," body mass index" and "risk factors" as keywords,to retrieve papers in Chinese literature databases including CNKI,Wanfang and Weipu database.The same strategy was used to retrieve English papers in English literature database including Embase database,PubMed,Science Direct,Elsevier and Cochrane database,supplemented by literature tracing method.Time range was from the founding of each database to April 2012.A total of 124 research papers were collected.Using Stata11.2 software,meta-analysis was conducted,combined odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to estimate the associations between overweight,obesity and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese female population.Results Eighteen studies were included in meta-analysis,among them 12 studies were in Chinese and 6 were in English,with a number of 7217 cases and 81 605 controls.Results showed a 7.7%increased risk of breast cancer among overweight or obesity women (OR =1.08,95% CI:1.04-1.12).Compared with normal BMI women,the OR(95% CI) of overweight or obesity women were 1.07 (1.03-1.11) and 1.56 (1.29-1.84) before and after the adjustment of menopausal status.Conclusion Overweight,obesity may be important risk factors of breast cancer in Chinese female population.The intervention and control activities may reduce the risk of breast cancer at population level.%目的 探讨超重肥胖与中国女性乳腺癌发病风险的关系.方法 收集国内外公开发表的关于超重肥胖与中国女性乳腺癌研究的文献,以“乳腺癌”、“超重”、“肥胖”、“体重”、“体质指数”、“体重指数”和“危险因素”为关键词,

  3. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Ginseng among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lung Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of our study is to analyze the association between prescribed Chinese herbal products (CHPs containing Ginseng and the risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen (TMX users and to identify any possible interactive effects between Ginseng and TMX with respect to preventing the development of subsequent endometrial cancer in an estrogen-dependent breast cancer population in Taiwan. Methods. All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer receiving tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008, were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service, and CHP-Ginseng prescribed across the 30,556 TMX-treated breast cancer (BC survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for the utilization of CHP-Ginseng. Cox’s proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs for endometrial cancer associated with Ginseng use among the TMX-treated BC cohort. Results. The HR for the development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors who had ever taken Ginseng after TXM treatment was significantly decreased compared to those who never used CHP. Conclusion. A significant inhibitory relationship between Ginseng consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer less than 2 years after TMX treatment was detected among BC survivors.

  4. Influence of polymorphisms in insulin-like growth factor-1 on the risk of osteoporosis in a Chinese postmenopausal female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Xing, Wen-Hua; Yang, Xue-Jun; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Xia, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study in a Chinese postmenopausal population, and explore the potential role of the promoter region variation of the IGF-1 gene in bone mineral density and osteoporosis risk. 485 postmenopausal women with a primary diagnosis of osteoporosis and 485 age-matched controls were selected between 2012 and 2014. The Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for rs35767, rs2288377 and rs5742612 of IGF-1 genotyping. By conditional regression analysis, individuals carrying TT genotype and CT+TT genotype of rs35767 were found to be correlated with an elevated risk of osteoporosis, with adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 1.90 (1.23-2.93) and 1.35 (1.04-1.76), respectively. Our study found that CT+TT genotype of rs35767 was significantly associated with moderate increased risk of osteoporosis in smokers and drinkers, and the ORs (95% CI) were 2.11 (1.06-4.20) and 2.36 (1.29-4.32), respectively. We found that those carrying CT+TT genotype of rs35767 had a significant lower BMD levels at L1-L4 vertebrae, femoral neck, total hip and trochanter compared to those with CC genotype. Our study suggests that TT genotype and CT+TT genotype of IGF-I rs35767 were associated with risk of osteoporosis and BMD levels.

  5. Association of the IGF-1 rs35767 and rs972936 polymorphisms with the risk of osteoporosis in a Chinese postmenopausal female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y K; Ma, H L; Guo, Y Z; Yang, B H; Pang, W X

    2015-11-13

    The aim of our study was to conduct a case-control study in a Chinese postmenopausal population to evaluate the roles of the IGF-1 rs35767 and rs972936 polymorphisms on bone mineral density (BMD) levels and osteoporosis risk. A total of 272 consecutive postmenopausal women with a primary diagnosis of osteoporosis and 272 controls were enrolled in the study between 2012 and 2014. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to genotype the rs35767 and rs972936 IGF-1 polymorphisms. By comparing the demographic characteristics between patients and controls, patients with osteoporosis were found to be more likely to have a habit of alcohol drinking (P = 0.023). Furthermore, the BMD levels of the L1-L4 vertebrae, femoral necks, total hips, and trochanters in patients with osteoporosis were significantly lower than those in controls. By conditional regression analysis, we found that the IGF-1 rs2288377 and rs972936 gene polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of osteoporosis (P osteoporosis.

  6. Feasibility and acute toxicity of 3-dimensional conformal external-beam accelerated partial-breast irradiation for early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery in Chinese female patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-yan; HE Zhen-yu; XUE Ming; CHEN Li-xin; WU San-gang; GUAN Xun-xing

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing number of studies worldwide have advocated the replacement of whole-breast irradiation with accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiation (APBI-3DCRr) for early-stage breast cancer. But APBI can be only used in selected population of patients with early-staged breast cancer. It is not replacing the whole breast radiotherapy. This study aimed to examine the feasibility and acute normal tissue toxicity of the APBI-3DCRT technique in Chinese female patients who generally have smaller breasts compared to their Western counterparts.Methods From May 2006 to December 2009, a total of 48 Chinese female patients (with early-stage breast cancer who met the inclusion criteria) received APBI-3DCRT after breast-conserving surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The total dosage from APBI-3DCRT was 34 Gy, delivered in 3.4 Gy per fractions, twice per day at intervals of at least six hours. The radiation dose, volume of the target area and volume of irradiated normal tissues were calculated.Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) 3.0.Results Among the 48 patients, the planning target volume for evaluation (PTVE) was (90.42±9.26) cm3, the ipsilateral breast volume (IBV) was (421.74±28.53) cm3, and the ratio between the two was (20.74±5.86)%. Evaluation of the dosimetric characteristics of the PTVE revealed excellent dosimetric results in 14 patients and acceptable results in 34 patients. The dose delivered to the PTVE ranged from 93% to 110% of the prescribed dose. The average ratio of the volume of PTVE receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V95) was (99.26±0.37)%. The habituation index (HI) and the conformity index (CI) were 1.08±0.01 and 0.72±0.02, respectively, suggesting good homogeneity and conformity of the dose delivered to the target field. The radiation dose to normal tissues and organs was within the dose limitation.Subjects experienced mild acute

  7. 第30届奥运会中国女篮比赛失利技术统计分析研究%Statistical Analysis of the 30 th Olympic Games Chinese Female Basketball Team’ s Technical Failures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩

    2015-01-01

    采用统计法、文献资料法、专家访谈法对第30届奥运会中国女篮比赛失利的技术指标进行统计分析,认为中国女篮在助攻数据上存在显著性差异,抢断数据存在非常显著性差异;运动员平均年龄较轻,身高上具有一定优势,但力量相对较差,对抗能力较弱;心理素质和对节奏的掌控、自我调节能力相对比较差,积极主动性不高;个人补、协防意识和技术较差,整体防守的积极主动性、攻击性不强。%On the basis of statistics , literature review and expert interview , this study statistically analyzes the 30th Olympic Games Chinese female basketball team ’ s tactic failures.The conclusions are: Chinese basketball team’s data of assists exhibit significant disparities;the data of steals exhibit highly significant disparities;the ath-letes’ average age is comparatively young;their heights are an advantage , but comparatively weak in physical and offensive strength;the athletes exhibit relatively weak mental strength , rhythm control , self-adjusting ability and aggressiveness;weaknesses are found in the aspects of individual fill-in and double-cover awareness and technique;the whole team exhibit lack of aggressiveness in defense and attack .

  8. The Struggle between the Chinese Female Students Studying Sports abroad and the Gender Stereotypes%性别刻板印象与近代女体育留学生的抗争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝强

    2016-01-01

    运用文献资料法、逻辑分析法等方法,对在1903年至1963年期间出国的47位中国女体育留学生进行全面分析。研究认为,近代以来女体育留学生在获得国外博士学位、发展体育教育事业、取得优异运动成绩、培养高水平运动员、引进新兴运动项目、开展体育科学研究以及从事体育管理等方面,为发展中国体育事业做出了积极贡献;她们挑战并打破了近代以来在体育领域“女子不如男”的刻板印象,为中国妇女走出家门、走进体坛、走向世界起了开创性作用。%Using the research methods of literature review,logical analysis and so on, the paper summarizes 47 Chinese female students studying sports abroad during 1903-1963 . The author holds that since modern times the main contribution of these students mainly includes re-ceiving foreign doctorates,developing physical education, obtaining excellent results of competition, training high level athletes, introducing new sports to China, engaging in the sports management, and carrying out scientific re-search of sports. They broke the gender stereotypes in the field of sports since modern times and played a pioneering role for the Chinese women outside the home, into the sports and towards the world.

  9. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  10. Research on the Menstruation Related Issue in Female Reserve Forces for Chinese Table Tennis Players%中国乒乓球女子后备力量月经状况的调查与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永安; 李小娟

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the menstrual function of 67 players in the winter training of Women's Youth Team of Chinese Table Tennis Team. The result showed that early and long - term table tennis train- ing has no obvious adverse effects on the menstruation of the female players but the menarche age has the trends to get younger; a higher incidence of menstrual cycle abnormity, dysmenorrheal, premenstrual symp- toms but the low attendance rates and lack of the menstrual - related knowledge. Proposal: It is important to teach the female reserve forces adolescent physical knowledge, encourage the players to have an active treat- ment, strengthen ~ientific training.%对参加中国乒乓球女二队冬训67名运动员的月经状况进行问卷调查。结果表明:早期、长期系统的乒乓球训练对女子运动员月经初潮无明显及不良影响,但是月经初潮年龄有变小的趋势;运动员月经周期异常、痛经和经前期症状发生率较高,但是就诊率较低,月经相关知识欠缺。建议:重视时女子后备力量实施青春生理卫生知识教育、鼓励运动员积极治疗、加强科学训练。

  11. A nation-wide multicenter 10-year (1999-2008 retrospective clinical study of endocrine therapy for Chinese females with breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Zhou

    Full Text Available Endocrine therapy (ET is one of the main systemic treatments for patients with breast cancer. To our knowledge, few studies have addressed the performance of ET or relevant influencing factors in cancer treatment in China. By retrospectively analyzing the clinicopathological data on breast cancer collected from representative hospitals of 7 traditional areas in China in one random month from each year between year 1999 and 2008, we found that: 1 The rate of the use of hormone receptor (HR testing was 83.8% (3529/4211, with the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ rate and/or the progesterone receptor-positive (PR+ rate being 67.9% (2395/3529, and the ER-PR rate being 32.1% (1134/3529. 2 Of the 1599 patients who had received ET, 999 patients (58.3% were premenopausal while 600 (41.7% were postmenopausal; 1598 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT, whereas only 1 patient received palliative therapy. The medications mainly administered to patients were anti-estrogen agents (80.3% [1283/1598], followed by AIs (15.5% [248/1598]. Of the 1598 patients receiving AHT, 1416 patients (88.6% were positive for ER and/or PR, while 75 (4.7% were negative for both and 108 patients (6.7% had unknown HR status. The ratio of the use of endocrine therapy for breast cancer patients with ER+ and/or PR+ status was 60.0% (1416/2395. 3 Results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that geography, occupations, and history of chemotherapy and surgery were dependent factors affecting the application of ET in breast cancer treatment in China (P<0.001. In conclusion, the use of ET on Chinese women with breast cancer is increasingly and gradually accounted into the standardized process. Economic status, occupations, and history of chemotherapy and surgery were key factors affecting the application of ET. People residing in developed areas, engaging in mental labour, having history of chemotherapy and surgery are susceptible to accept ET.

  12. A Study on Female Wedding Dress of Chinese Minority Nationalities (Part 1) - The Workmanship and Colors%我国少数民族女性嫁衣研究(上)--做工与色彩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非

    2015-01-01

    我国少数民族女性嫁衣,不论做工还是色彩,都代表了民族服饰的一个较高水准,有的乃至是精致而时尚的民族服饰。在女性嫁衣中,有的以鱼皮为材料,有的用粗麻线和五色彩布圈缝制,有的则嵌以古老图腾和象征符,不仅做工细腻且别具韵味,亦有着丰富的文化内涵。%The female wedding dresses of Chinese minority nationalities represent the highest level of ethnic costumes in terms of both workmanship and colors and some are even exquisite and fashionable ethnic costumes. Among these wedding dresses, some are made from fish skin, some are sewn with hemp thread and five-color cloth coil and some are embedded with ancient totem and symbolic characters, exhibiting not only fine workmanship and unique charm, but also rich cultural connotations.

  13. 论20世纪中国女性文学创作中的漂泊意识%On the Wandering Consciousness in Twentieth Century Chinese Female Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟瑞青

    2016-01-01

    The literature works by the twentieth century Chinese women writers is an important part of Chinese new literature unique . Throughout the twentieth century Chinese women literature writing ,there has been a refuge for wandering nothing latent consciousness ,which has its different rendering features though each period .If we placed the women writers’ wandering consciousness in the context of the development of Chinese literature ,we can find its unique significance and value individuality .Women writers have obviously difference between mechanisms and manifestations in terms of awareness generated by wandering from male writers .Since the majority of women writers are more sensitive to their ow n sex characteristics , they have been looking for the existence or construction of their ow n culture from the resistance to the patriarchal culture in the process ,in order to explore female’s culture w hich has long been obscured the significance of individual life .It is female cultural construction process that women writers constantly toward self life to explore the depths of life ,spirit and emotion of the landing site ,in order to place their own long wandering soul and look for the cultural value of their ow n existence .%20世纪中国女性作家的文学创作是中国新文学中独具特色的重要组成部分。在20世纪中国女性文学创作中,一直有一种无所归依的漂泊意识,而且各个时期有着不同的呈现特点。如果把女作家的漂泊意识放置在整个20世纪中国文学发展的大背景中去考察,可以发现其独特的意义与个性价值。在漂泊意识产生的机制和表现形态方面,女作家与男作家显然不同。女作家更加敏感于自身的性别特点,在抗拒男权中心文化的过程中,她们一直在寻找或者建构着自己所存在的文化,发掘女性长期以来被男权文化遮蔽了的个体生命意义。女性文化建构的过程是女性作

  14. 中国青年女性软组织侧貌特征研究%Study on soft tissue profile of features in Chinese young females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兆霞; 梁丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the facial profile of aesthetic features about soft tissue in the normal young fe-males,evaluation of the young females′soft tissue of angles in facial profile,establish the relationship of the facial profile angles.The aim of this study was to provide a reference basis for aesthetics and plastic surgery of field op-eration treatment.Methods Seventy-two females in Grade 2010-2012 were selected randomly.The facial profile of angles in normal young females was measured and analyzed in the FreeHand MX software.Results The fron-tonasal angle,nasolabial angle and nasal tip angle were no difference in NoESR and E,ES,ESR (P>0.05).Up-per lip inclination angle,mentolabial sulcus inclination angle and ∠Z were significant difference between NoESR and E,ES,ESR (P0.05).Facial convexity angle and total facial convexity angle of soft tissue were significant difference between NoESR and E,ES,ESR (P0.05).The mean values of soft tissue of angles in facial profile were obtained from the ESR sample u-sing FreeHand MX software.Conclusion Young women facial profile of soft tissue of angles with ESR standard was harmonious,and the positive correlation between facial convexity angle,full facial convexity angle and ∠Z;the relations of forehead,nose,lips and chin were in harmony.The distance between trichion,soft tissue of nasal tip point,soft tissue pogonion and the tragus center was to equal.On the other hand facial profile of soft tissue of angles with NoESR,E,ES,standard was no harmonious,the position was been varied in forehead,nose,upper lips and chin.%目的:探讨正常青年女性侧貌软组织特征,建立符合侧貌美的青年女性侧面角度均值及各角度之间关系。方法选择72例2010-2012级在校汉族女学生,采用 FreeHand MX 软件对青年女学生面侧貌外部软组织角度进行测量分析。结果鼻额角、鼻唇角及鼻尖角在 NoESR 与 E、ES、ESR 之间差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);上唇

  15. Female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.

  16. 我国优秀女子链球选手投掷技术整体节奏的运动学研究%Kinematical Research on the Whole Pace and the Features of the Kip and Knee of the Throwing Technique of Chinese Elite Female Hammer Throwers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋伊

    2011-01-01

    运用近景动态三维录像分析系统对我国八名优秀女子链球运动员的旋转技术进行运动学分析.结果表明,我国女子链球运动员旋转技术的动作节奏和时间结构不合理,单双支撑时间比率低.%By using the method of close-range dynamic three-dimensional cinema, the author makes a kinematical analysis on the technique of torque for Chinese elite female hammer throwers. The study shows that the pace of movement and the construction of time of the technique of torque of Chinese female hammer throwers are irrational. Single and double support ratio is low.

  17. Female Managers, Institutional Environment and Corporate Charitable Donation --Evidence from Chinese Capital Market%女性高管、制度环境与慈善捐赠——基于中国资本市场的经验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜兴强; 冯文滔

    2012-01-01

    本文实证研究了女性高管、制度环境对慈善捐赠行为的影响。研究结果表明,女性高管与中国上市公司的慈善捐赠显著正相关,即当公司中有女性高管、女性高管的比例越高,上市公司的慈善捐赠越多。本文进一步发现,政府干预调和了女性与公司捐赠之间的正相关关系,即当上市公司处于政府对市场干预较少的地区时,女性高管对公司慈善捐赠的正面影响显著下降,表明女性高管和外部制度环境之间呈现替代关系。本文的研究结论丰富了慈善捐赠相关领域的研究,且拓展了女性高管在公司决策中的经济后果研究。%Using a sample of Chinese listed firms, this paper empirically examines the influence of female man- agers on corporate charitable donation. The results show that female managers have a significantly positive impact on corporate charitable donation. In particular, the existence of female manager and the ratio of female managers are significantly positively associated with corporate charitable donation. Moreover, my paper also reveals that the positive association between female managers and corporate charitable donation is attenuated for firms located in provinces with better institutional environment. That is, the better the institutional environment is, the smaller the positive effect of female managers on corporate charitable donation is. This finding implies that there is a substitu- tion relationship between female managers and institutional environment. Above results are robust for a battery of sensitivity tests. San Cong Si De, Qin Nv Gong, and You Fu Gong. These old Chinese sayings reflect the narrow traditional value of Chinese women for thousands of years. However, the economic miracle of reforming and opening up in past 30 years changed the traditional views of the Chinese society towards women. Recent annual reports of Chinese lis- ted firms show that the female managers in the

  18. Analysis on the event-related potentials N400 of female Uyghur-Chinese bilingual students whose second language is Chinese%以汉语为第二语言的维汉双语女大学生事件相关电位N400分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白吉可; 陆佳骏; 张景玉; 郭恒; 李华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the cognitive characteristics of language of female Uyghur-Chinese Bilingual*. Methods Observations were made by match and mismatch two semantic N400 different wave of ERP( event-related potentials) , elicited from two primes; pictures and sentences while using verbs and nouns as the target stimulus. A total of 14 healthy right-handed women participated the test, a mean age of (21.2 ± 1.3) years who were Uyghur-Chinese bilinguals. Results on amplitudes: N400 different waves had a central top edge. The electrode distribution had a significant main effect (P <0.05). Hemispheres was not significant. The target stimuli was significant ( P < 0. 01 ) , the verb was higher than the noun. Primes was a very significant stimulus main effect (P < 0.01) , the sentence above the picture; on the latencies: the main effect of target stimuli was significantly! P <0.01). Sentence was later than the picture. Conclusion The result indicated that in Chinese representation of female Uighur-Chinese bilinguals: the verb and the noun is different, while the photo cognitive processing is more difficult than sentence.%目的 探讨以汉语为第二语育的女性维吾尔语-汉语双语者语言认知特点,为研究言语加工及识别过程中大脑的电位变化提供依据.方法 利用事件相关电位(ERP)技术对14名纯右利手,平均年龄(21.2±1.3)岁的女性健康维-汉双语被试者,基于动词、名词2种靶刺激,图片、句子2种启动刺激,匹配与不匹配2种语义条件下研究事件相关电位N400差异波的特点.结果 在波幅上N400差异波具有中央顶部优势,电极分布位置的主效应差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).左右半球差异无统计学意义.靶刺激的主效应显著(P<0.01),动词高于名词.启动刺激主效应显著(P<0.01),句子高于图片;在潜伏期上靶刺激的主效应显著(P<0.01),句子比图片潜伏期延迟.女性维汉双语者汉语认知:动词与名词之间存在

  19. 福建省创建无烟医院控烟效果评价%Effect evaluation on smoking control intervention among non-smoking hospitals in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林竹; 洪源浩; 陈翔; 何水荣; 林英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate situation of non-smoking hospital in Fujian and provide evidence for imple-mentation of total smoking ban in medical institutions. Methods Before and after smoking control intervention, 2065 health care workers and 480 patients or their family members from 12 hospitals in Fuzhou , Sanming and Jiangle were randomly se-lected to participate for in the survey. Results The smoking rates of male staffs before and after intervention were 31. 78% and 16. 67% , respectively, and the difference had statistical significance (x2= 15. 18, P 0. 05). After the enforcement of non-smoking hospital program, the rates of health care workers who accepted intervention and smoking dissuasion were 10. 41 % and 9. 58% higher than that of baseline survey. But cigarette ends still can be found in the non-smoking areas in hospitals and no one discour-aged the smokers. Conclusion The program of non-smoking hospital in Fujian Province has made some improvement. To consolidate this achievement, it is necessary for medical institutions to strengthen tobacco control at the service-provide de-partment and improve the tobacco control ability. Furthermore, the medical institutions should set up long-effect model to spread tobacco control in society.%目的 了解福建省创建无烟医院情况,为实现医疗卫生单位全面禁烟提供依据.方法 在于预前和干预后分别采用简单随机方法抽取福州市、三明市及将乐县12家医院共2065名工作人员和采用拦截法抽取480名患者及家属进行相关调查.结果 干预前男性工作人员吸烟率31.78%(女性吸烟率为0),干预后降为16.67%,干预前后差异有统计学意义(x2=15.18,P<0.05).干预前后大部分医生都能主动关心患者吸烟状况并提供戒烟建议,差异无统计学意义(x2 =3.62,P>0.05).经过无烟医院创建活动,接受过控烟宣传的人和在院内看到有人劝阻吸烟者的比率,分别超出基线调查的10.41%和9.58%,但大

  20. Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  1. Endostatin and physical exercise in young female and male athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponder, M; Sepiol, K; Lankisch, S; Priglinger, M; Kampf, S; Litschauer, B; Fritzer-Szekeres, M; Strametz-Juranek, J

    2014-12-01

    It was suggested that endostatin, an angiogenic mediator, is influenced by physical exercise. We performed bicycle stress testing in 88 healthy non-smoking female and male individuals, divided into athlete and non-athlete groups. Serum endostatin and norepinephrine were measured at rest, after reaching maximum workload and after 20 min of recovery. At baseline, both female and male controls showed significant lower levels compared to female and male athletes (89.39±15.32 resp. 93.39±15.00 ng/ml; plevels in both groups and sexes was associated with bicycle stress testing (p for all groupslevels in athletes and controls of both sexes, the extent of increase depending on the extent of workload. An athletic lifestyle with >3 h of endurance training/week seems to lead to higher long-term endostatin levels which might play a role in the connection between sports and cardiovascular prevention.

  2. Preliminary characterization of the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with and without gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial communities inhabiting human mouth are associated with oral health and disease. Previous studies have indicated the general prevalence of adult gingivitis in China to be high. The aim of this study was to characterize in depth the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with or without gingivitis, by defining the microbial phylogenetic diversity and community-structure using highly paralleled pyrosequencing. Methods Six non-smoking Chinese, three with and three without gingivitis (age range 21-39 years, 4 females and 2 males were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study. Gingival parameters of inflammation and bleeding on probing were characterized by a clinician using the Mazza Gingival Index (MGI. Plaque (sampled separately from four different oral sites and salivary samples were obtained from each subject. Sequences and relative abundance of the bacterial 16 S rDNA PCR-amplicons were determined via pyrosequencing that produced 400 bp-long reads. The sequence data were analyzed via a computational pipeline customized for human oral microbiome analyses. Furthermore, the relative abundances of selected microbial groups were validated using quantitative PCR. Results The oral microbiomes from gingivitis and healthy subjects could be distinguished based on the distinct community structures of plaque microbiomes, but not the salivary microbiomes. Contributions of community members to community structure divergence were statistically accessed at the phylum, genus and species-like levels. Eight predominant taxa were found associated with gingivitis: TM7, Leptotrichia, Selenomonas, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella, Lautropia, and Haemophilus. Furthermore, 98 species-level OTUs were identified to be gingivitis-associated, which provided microbial features of gingivitis at a species resolution. Finally, for the two selected genera Streptococcus and Fusobacterium, Real-Time PCR based quantification of relative bacterial

  3. Polymorphisms in pre-miRNA genes and cooking oil fume exposure as well as their interaction on the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Z

    2016-01-01

    were 2.136, 1.255, and 1.730, respectively. The measures of biological interaction and logistic models indicate that gene–environment interactions were not statistically significant on additive scale or multiplicative scale. Conclusion: MiR-16-1 rs1022960 may be associated with the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population. The interactions between miRNA polymorphisms (miR-26a-1 rs7372209, miR-605 rs2043556, and miR-16-1 rs1022960 and cooking oil fumes were not statistically significant. Keywords: lung cancer, microRNA, single nucleotide polymorphism, cooking oil fume, interaction

  4. 中药、针灸加强排卵周期的促孕治疗经验%Effect of Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture on female infertility by inducing ovarian cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江丹

    2011-01-01

    The disorders of reproductive and endocrinal system are the common cause of female infertility. The problems can be caused from either organic or dysfunctional reason. The author analyses the pathogenesis of the infertility common incident in the West and the mechanisms of acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments. The article is the report of how TCM therapies of which acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine are utilised together treat infertility. Acupuncture plays the unique role to support conceive by stimulating and strengthening the self-regulating, self-healing functions and promote ovulation; Chinese herbal medicine is able to be prescribed, according to the particular condition in the individual case and following the menstrual circle as well. United both of TCM therapies will make a good enough treating level in the lesser rates of patient visiting the clinic for gaining an expectant treating effect. This is a successful experience to manage TCM treatment during the practicing condition in the West. Some successful cases that are treated in UK which are involved in some natural pregnancies supported by TCM and pregnancies assisted with IVF treatment which is supported by TCM is illustrated in the paper.%女性不孕既有器质性病变的原因,也有由功能障碍导致的.作者总结了中医治疗不孕的机理,报道了联合应用针灸、中药,根据女性月经周期的变化规律,辨证治疗的经验和成功案例.具体方法是:第1周:补肾健脾,加强先、后天之本,而促进卵子的生长;第2周:补阴养精,活血化瘀,而促进卵子的成熟与排出;第3周:温阳育阴,以促黄体生成; 第4周:疏肝活血以调经,或健脾补肾以固胎.针灸通过加强人体自身调节与自愈的能力,并有确切的促排卵作用,在治疗中具有不可取代的作用;而中药则可以根据月经周期及病患的个体状况辨证加减,同样担负着重要的作用.这两种疗法的联合应用,可以让病患在较

  5. 中国城市女性面部皮肤状态与中医体质类型相关性研究%A Relevant Research on Facial Skin Conditions of Chinese Urban Females and TCM Constitutional Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲建宁; 王济; 赵亚; 熊卫国; 方程; 戴竞; 孙淑娴; 王琦; 魏少敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究面部皮肤状态与中医体质类型的相关性,为从中医体质角度指导皮肤养护、增进皮肤健康提供新方法。方法在9个省会城市和直辖市招募女性志愿者2241名,以网络问卷的方式对受访者进行调查。体质类型判定依照中华中医药学会《中医体质分类与判定》标准进行,面部皮肤测评针对肤色、光泽度、细腻程度、水润度、紧致程度、弹性、均匀程度等指标进行评分;将皮肤状态按1~3、4~6、7~9分进行分组,比较不同分值的体质构成差异。结果被调查者中阳虚质、平和质最多;肤色偏黄者最多,其次为偏白、偏黑、偏红者;皮肤状态评分1~3分者中,阳虚质最多,气郁质次之;4~6分者中阳虚质和平和质均较多;得分7~9分者中平和质最多。结论平和质者各项皮肤指标得分均最高,偏颇体质会影响皮肤指标得分,对中国城市女性面部皮肤指标影响较大的体质类型是阳虚质和气郁质。%Objective To study the relationship between facial skin conditions and TCM constitutional types; To provide new means and methods for guidance of skin conservation and skin health improvement from the aspect of constitutional types. Methods Totally 2241 female volunteers in nine provincial capital cities and municipalities participated in this research, and were investigated by web questionnaire. Constitutional types were determined according to the“Classification and Judgment of TCM Constitutional Types”standard issued by China Association of Chinese Medicine. Skin color, glossiness, delicate degree, moistness, firmness, resilience, uniformity and other indicators were scored. Skin conditions were classified into three groups:1-3 score group, 4-6 score group, and 7-9 score group, and the constitutional differences among each group were compared. Results Yang-deficiency and mild constitutional types accounted for the largest

  6. Narrative Research of Female Educational Experiences in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suling

    2010-01-01

    Female education is an indispensable part of educational practice and research. In recent years, along with the development of both the women's liberation movement and the expansion of the practice of female education, Chinese academic circles have become increasingly concerned with female education. Of these concerns, methodological innovation…

  7. Analysis of Curative Effect of Comprehensive Therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Female Endocrine Disorders%中医综合治疗女性内分泌失调疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹胜雁

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical curative effect of comprehensive therapy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on female endocrine disorders, so as to provide more reference data for clinical treatment of gynecological diseases. Methods: 122 patients with endocrine disorders treated in our hospital from June 2013 to May 2014 were randomly divided into control group and observation group, with 61 cases in each group. The control group was treated with western medicine and the observation group was treated with comprehensive therapy of TCM. The curative effects of the two groups were retrospectively compared. Results: The total effective rate of the control group was 68.9% and the observation group was 90.2%. The incidence of adverse reactions of the observation group was significantly better than that of the control group. All the differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Treating female endocrine disorders by comprehensive therapy of TCM can achieve good clinical effect. It can improve the hormone secretion, metabolism and pathogenic condition of the patients. So it is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的:探讨应用中医综合治疗女性内分泌失调的临床疗效,旨在为妇科临床治疗提供更多的参考数据。方法:选取我院妇科2013年6月—2014年5月收治的内分泌失调患者122例,随机将患者分为对照组及观察组各61例。对照组采用西医治疗,观察组进行中医综合治疗,对两组的临床效果进行回顾性比较。结果:对照组的治疗总有效率为68.9%,观察组为90.2%,且观察组的不良反应发生率明显优于对照组,两组比较差异均具有显著的统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:采用中医综合疗法对女性内分泌失调进行治疗可取得良好的临床疗效,对患者体内激素分泌状况、机体代谢功能、病情等均具有明显的改善作用,具有较高的临床价值,值得推广。

  8. Survey on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Passive Smoking Among Non - smoking Pregnant Women in Early Gestational Stage%长沙市孕早期非吸烟孕妇被动吸烟KAP调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婧瑜; 胡劲松; 王进; 朱江

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the condition of passive smoking, and the related knowledge, attitude and practice among non - smoking pregnant women in Changsha, and to provide the evidence for reducing passive smoking exposure of non-smoking pregnant women. Methods Six hundred and forty - one non - smoking pregnant women whose pregnant periods were < 12 - week were interviewed by questionnaires. The data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software. Results Most of the pregnant women were short of the knowledge about the exact diseases caused by passive smoking. Pregnant women had a lower opposed rate on smoking in repast and entertainment places towards hospitals, schools and other public places. On persuading people not to smoke around, pregnant women had different attitudes towards different people. Pregnant women had the highest expected value on persuading their husbands smoking around, followed by their parents, father and mother in law, and other intimate family members. Pregnant women had the lowest expected value on persuading their leaders and strangers smoking around (< 35%). Conclusions Passive smoking exposure is a very serious public health problem among pregnant women. Educations and trainings are needed to increase the awareness of passive smoking harm and the ability to persuade people to stop smoking around.%目的 了解长沙市非吸烟孕妇被动吸烟情况以及相关知识、态度和行为,为减少孕妇被动吸烟提供科学依据.方法 对641位孕龄不大于12周的非吸烟孕早期孕妇进行有关被动吸烟的问卷调查,SPSS13.0统计软件进行分析.结果 孕妇对被动吸烟具体可以导致的危害了解不足;对在餐厅、咖啡吧等餐饮娱乐场所吸烟的容忍度显著高于医院、中小学校、公交车等公共场所;对周围吸烟者进行劝阻时,对丈夫的预计成功率最高,其次为父母、公公婆婆等亲密家庭成员,对单位领导和公共场所吸烟的陌生人的

  9. Female-specific DNA sequences in geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M C; Lin, W C; Horng, Y M; Rouvier, R; Huang, C W

    2003-07-01

    1. The OPAE random primers (Operon Technologies, Inc., CA) were used for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting in Chinese, White Roman and Landaise geese. One of these primers, OPAE-06, produced a 938-bp sex-specific fragment in all females and in no males of Chinese geese only. 2. A novel female-specific DNA sequence in Chinese goose was cloned and sequenced. Two primers, CGSex-F and CGSex-R, were designed in order to amplify a 912-bp sex-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment on genomic DNA from female geese. 3. It was shown that a simple and effective PCR-based sexing technique could be used in the three goose breeds studied. 4. Nucleotide sequencing of the sex-specific fragments in White Roman and Landaise geese was performed and sequence differences were observed among these three breeds.

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence, trends, and geographical distribution of HIV among Chinese female sex workers (2000–2011: implications for preventing sexually transmitted HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The HIV epidemic has shown a gradual declining or stabilizing trend among Chinese FSWs. Intervention efforts should be diverted to high-risk subgroups of FSWs, such as drug-using and low-tier FSWs.

  11. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  12. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  13. Long-term dietary supplementation with a yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula increases lifespan and mitigates age-associated declines in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability of various tissues in male and female C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kam Ming; Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Siu, Ada Hoi Ling; Chen, Na; Leong, Eriol Pou Kwan; Poon, Michel K T

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether Vigconic 28 (VI-28), a Yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula, could affect survival of aging animals, male and female C57BL/6J mice were given a VI-28-supplemented diet (0.05 and 0.5%, wt/wt) starting at 36 weeks of age, until death. VI-28 dietary supplementation at 0.05% significantly increased median lifespans of both male and female mice as compared to controls. Survival enhancement was associated with protection against age-associated impairments in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability in various tissues. In conclusion, VI-28 could retard the aging process in mice, probably by mitigating age-associated declines in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability in tissues.

  14. FEMALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Bulotta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. 21α-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent cause of virilization in patients with female karyotype due to exposure of a female fetus to excess of androgen. We report anatomical and cosmetic results of feminizing genital reconstruction of two related patients (second cousin with XX karyotype born with urogenital sinus anomalies (UGS and not treated at birth. Materials and Metods. Patient 1 is 6-years old with ambiguous genitalia graded as Prader V and never undergone therapy or surgery. Patient 2 is 10-years old, graded as Prader IV and subjected to hormonal therapy and clitoral amputation at the age of 6. Mobilization of urogenital sinus, pull-through of vagina and tubulization of urethra was performed in both after placement of Foley chateters in vagina and bladder by cisto-vaginoscopy. Genitoplasty involved refashioning the tissues to create minora and majora labia and, after removal of corpora, partial clitorectomy was carried in patient 1 and clitoridal reconstruction in patient 2. Result. Vaginal introitus was positioned in the vestibule region below urethral meatus. Foley chateters was removed after two weeks in narcosis and the cosmetic and anatomic result was good. Conclusion. Goals of feminizing genitoplasty are to restore, soon as possible, anatomy achieving a more feminine appareance with a vagina for menstruation, to preserve reproductive capacity and to prevent urological sequelae but it’s also important to contribute in a development of a more stable gender identity. This procedure in two stage, based on an accurate diagnosis, is good to create feminine genital appareance in children with female pseudohermaphroditism expecially if not treated at birth.

  15. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Beijing Celebrates 10th Anniversary of the CWJA On March 20, more than 200 female journalists gathered in Beijing together to celebrate the 10th Anniversary of the Capital Women Journalists’ Association. The celebration, ended with the establishment of a women’s media supervision network. Since its founding in March 1986, the CWJA has accomplished a great deal in uniting as many female journalists as possible. The association has made great strides in developing socialist journalism, promoting exchanges between Chinese and foreign female journalists, reporting on the achievements of women from all walks of life, and safeguarding the legal rights of women. The CWJA membership has grown from the original 5,000 women from 60 media units, to the current total of more than 7,000 from nearly 100 media units.

  16. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  17. Sex and the Contemporary Chinese woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXINXIN

    2005-01-01

    THE importance of a mutually fulfilling sex life has gained greater acknowledgement in China in recent years but it is nonetheless a taboo topic. There have been few social surveys on this delicate subject, particularly as regards the degree of sexual satisfaction enjoyed by Chinese women,The 35-question survey on female attitudes to sex, formulated by the Chinese Sexology Society and the Chinese Medical Association, was, therefore, a major breakthrough. Sponsored by Sina.com and carried out in major Chinese cities from August to September 2004, the survey attracted 400,000 hits and drew 31,482 responses.

  18. Changes in the SF-8 scores among healthy non-smoking school teachers after the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy: a comparison by passive smoke status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Yoshitaka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free workplace policy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL among a healthy population are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy on HRQOL among healthy non-smoking schoolteachers with respect to their exposure to passive smoke. Methods Two self-reported questionnaire surveys were conducted, the first before and the second after the enforcement of a total smoke-free public school policy in Nara City. A total of 1534 teachers were invited from 62 schools, and their HRQOL was assessed using six domains extracted from the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8: general health perception (GH, role functioning-physical (RP, vitality (VT, social functioning (SF, mental health (MH, and role functioning-emotional (RE. The participants were divided into two groups according to their exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS at baseline: participants not exposed to ETS at school (non-smokers, and participants exposed to ETS at school (passive smokers. Changes in each SF-8 score were evaluated using paired t-tests for each group, and their inter-group differences were evaluated using multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for sex, age, school type, managerial position, and attitude towards a smoke-free policy. Results After ineligible subjects were excluded, 689 teachers were included in the analyses. The number of non-smokers and passive smokers was 447 and 242, respectively. Significant changes in SF-8 scores were observed for MH (0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.5 and RE (0.7; 95% CI, 0.0-1.3 in non-smokers, and GH (2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1, VT (1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-2.7, SF (2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8, MH (2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9, and RE (2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8 in passive smokers. In the multiple linear regression analyses, the net changes in the category scores of GH (1.8; 95% CI, 0

  19. The Evolution of Female Consciousness in Chinese American New Immigrant Novels from the Perspective of Five Divorced Women%从五个离婚的女性看美华新移民小说女性意识的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓鸥

    2015-01-01

    From 1995 to 2010,great change had taken placed in the image of divorced females in the Chinese American new immigrant novels.In American Dream,American Love,American Lover to Gone Daily Trip,the divorce of heroines becomes reasonable.It can be regarded as the new female immigrants’ forceful response to the patriarchy,but marriage morality is still the main theme of the novels.In Traces the US (1 9 9 6 )by Zhang Ci in America,the heroine Xie Siyu disobeyed marriage morality to dissolve patriarchy,showing unusual radical female consciousness in Chinese American new immigrant novels.%1995年到2010年,美华新移民小说中离婚女性形象发生了很大的变化。从«美国梦里»、«美国爱情»、«美国情人»到«白日飘行»,女主人公离婚逐渐获得了合理性,可看做新移民女性对男权保守的“进阶突围”,但婚姻道德始终是小说中的重要主题。1996年张慈在美国出版的小说«浪迹美国»通过谢思羽反叛婚姻道德的方式消解男权,显示出美华新移民小说中少见的激进女性意识。

  20. Significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and haplotypes in candidate genes on B[a]P-DNA adducts in a NYC cohort of non-smoking African-American and Dominican mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Shoba; Perera, Frederica; Zhang, Bingzhi; Chanock, Stephen; Wang, Shuang; Tang, Deliang

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a class of chemicals common in the environment. Certain PAH are carcinogenic, although the degree to which genetic variation influences susceptibility to carcinogenic PAH remains unclear. Also unknown is the influence of genetic variation on the procarcinogenic effect of in utero exposures to PAH. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-studied PAH that is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Within our New York City-based cohort, we explored interactions between maternal exposure to airborne PAH during pregnancy and maternal and newborn haplotypes (and in one case, a single-nucleotide polymorphism) in key B[a]P metabolism genes on B[a]P-DNA adducts in paired cord blood samples. The study subjects included non-smoking African-American (n = 132) and Dominican (n = 235) women with available data on maternal PAH exposure, paired cord adducts and genetic data who resided in the Washington Heights, Central Harlem and South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City. We selected seven maternal and newborn genes related to B[a]P metabolism, detoxification and repair for our analyses: CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, GSTM3, GSTT2, NQO1 and XRCC1. We found significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and haplotype on cord B[a]P-DNA adducts in the following genes: maternal CYP1B1, XRCC1 and GSTM3, and newborn CYP1A2 and XRCC1 in African-Americans; and maternal XRCC1 and newborn NQO1 in Dominicans. These novel findings highlight differences in maternal and newborn genetic contributions to B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, as well as ethnic differences in gene-environment interactions, and have the potential to identify at-risk subpopulations who are susceptible to the carcinogenic potential of B[a]P.

  1. Significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes on B[a]P-DNA adducts in a cohort of non-smoking Polish mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Shoba; Wang, Ya; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Deliang; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Chanock, Stephen; Wang, Shuang; Stigter, Laura; Mróz, Elzbieta; Perera, Frederica

    2016-08-26

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a class of chemicals common in the environment. Certain PAH are carcinogenic, although the degree to which genetic variation influences susceptibility to carcinogenic PAH remains unclear. Also unknown is the influence of genetic variation on the procarcinogenic effect of in utero exposures to PAH. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-studied PAH that is classified as a known human carcinogen. Within our Polish cohort, we explored interactions between maternal exposure to airborne PAH during pregnancy and maternal and newborn single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in plausible B[a]P metabolism genes on B[a]P-DNA adducts in paired cord blood samples. The study subjects included non-smoking women (n = 368) with available data on maternal PAH exposure, paired cord adducts, and genetic data who resided in Krakow, Poland. We selected eight common variants in maternal and newborn candidate genes related to B[a]P metabolism, detoxification, and repair for our analyses: CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTT2, NQO1, and XRCC1 We observed significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and SNPs on cord B[a]P-DNA adducts in the following genes: maternal CYP1A1 and GSTT2, and newborn CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 These novel findings highlight differences in maternal and newborn genetic contributions to B[a]P-DNA adduct formation and have the potential to identify at-risk subpopulations who are susceptible to the carcinogenic potential of B[a]P.

  2. The prescription pattern of Chinese herbal products that contain dang-qui and risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen-treated female breast cancer survivors in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Tung Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. We analyzed the usage of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui and investigated whether dang-qui therapy increases endometrial cancer risk among tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors in Taiwan. METHODS: All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service and type of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui prescribed across the 31,970 survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios for utilization of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratio of endometrial cancer associated with dang-qui use within the cohort. RESULTS: Almost one in two study subjects had used dang-qui. Among 31,938 tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors, 157 cases of subsequent endometrial cancer were identified. The hazard ratio for development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors aged 20-79 years who had taken dang-qui after tamoxifen treatment was decreased compared to survivors who had never used dang-qui (HR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.44-0.84. To minimise potential confounding factors, women with breast cancer in the reproductive age were excluded from further analysis, and the negative relationship between dang-qui consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors aged 55-79 years was still observed, although not significantly (HR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.46-1.17. CONCLUSIONS: Dang-qui consumption is common among breast cancer survivors aged 20-79 years and seems decrease the risk of subsequent endometrial cancer after less than a cumulative dose of 7,500 mg of tamoxifen treatment.

  3. The Analysis of the Anxiety Expression of the Female Awareness in Chinese Women Documentary%试析中国女性纪录片中女性意识的焦虑抒发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晔菲

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, all kinds of the cultural and ideological trends swarmed into China. The feminist movement and the feminist consciousness came to the orient. Meanwhile, a group of female directors who explored female consciousness of their own life were not satisfied with shaping the female from the male's views in the movies. They tried to seek for the female unique life experience. Taking documentary films Go Back to Phoenix Bridge for example, This article tries to investigate the female's mood and sorrow deep inside, explore the female group implemented animadversion, backlash and battle cry to the unfair oppression of the ideology from the society and culture and analyze the anxious expression of the female awareness.%20世纪80年代,各种文化思潮涌入中国,女权运动与女性主义意识也踏上了东方这片土地.与此同时,一批探索女性自我意识的导演,不满足影视中以男性为中心视角来塑造女性,试图寻找女性独特的意识体验,女性纪录片应运而生.文章以《回到凤凰桥》等纪录片为例,在剖析女性内心深处的情感和悲痛的过程中,探讨女性群体对社会、文化在其意识形态上的压迫所进行的批判、反抗以及呐喊,分析女性意识的焦虑抒发.

  4. 基于女性地理学视角的中国城市女性居民社会-生活空间研究综述%REVIEW ON SOCIAL- LIVING SPACE RESEARCHES OF CHINESE URBAN FEMALE RESIDENTS --BASED ON THE FEMINISM GEOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锴; 李开宇

    2012-01-01

    Feminism geography has got significantly theoretical influences in the western countries in the later 20th century. The classical geography saw the space problem with neutral or male perspective which is based on male knowledge system and male evaluation system. And the feminist geography not only criticizes the traditional geo- graphical position on space that are regarded as based on patriarchy system, but also presents the essence of social justice and humanism. With the rapid development of Chinese urbanization, Chinese economy and society problem has got more complexity and diversification. Based on the neo - humanism theory, the academic circle should give much attention on the urban female residents to promote their living quality. And we try to review and appraise the current literatures in the aspects of the urban female social - living space, and tentatively propose from four as- pects: the urban female family space, the urban female work space, the urban female shopping space and the ur- ban female recreation space in order to get the summary and analysis of Chinese feminism geography studies.%城市化的快速发展导致当代中国城市社会问题日益复杂和多元化。在以人为本、追求社会公平、公正的“新人本主义”发展观思潮下,学术界需要对城市女性这样一个重要的亚群体单元加以关注,以提高城市中女性群体生活质量。女性地理学在西方国家经过近40年的发展,从以人为本、重视差异的后现代人本主义思潮中汲取丰富的养分,在理论以及实践上都趋于成熟。尝试性从女性地理学视角回顾目前中国多元化社会、快速城市化发展下的城市女性居民社会-生活空间问题的现有研究成果,分别从城市女性家庭行为空间、城市女性工作行为空间、城市女性购物行为空间、城市女性休闲娱乐空间4个方面进行梳理总结以期得出相关启示。

  5. Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China-a report from 32 Chinese cancer registries,2003-2007%中国女性乳腺癌的发病和死亡现况——全国32个肿瘤登记点2003-2007年资料分析报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄哲宙; 陈万青; 吴春晓; 郑荣寿; 陈建国; 杨念念; 王宁; 张思维; 郑莹

    2012-01-01

    one of the most common cancers among Chinese women. The incidence and mortality rates of female breast cancer in urban areas are significantly higher than those in rural areas, although the overall incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer in Chinese women are still at a medium or low level in the world.

  6. 苦难的歌者——解读加华小说《红浮萍》的女性主体性表现%Suffering Singer-On Female Subjectivity in Chinese Canadian Novel Daughters of the Red Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李镜

    2012-01-01

    In Daughters of the Red Land, elist, describes three generations of women' s the masterpiece of Li Yan, a Chinese Canadian novfate and experience from 1940s to the era of Chinese and opening - up, presenting the changes of a big family and society. From the perspective of Feminism, the paper interprets female subjectivity in surviving and love motif in the novel, revealing the tortures, confusions and struggles that women experience in seeking of true self, independent personality and indignity.%旅加华人作家李彦通过《红浮萍》描写了中国四十年代至改革开放时期三代女性的人生境遇,呈现了一个家族和历史的变迁。本文从女性主义视角出发,对小说中生存和爱情母题的女性主体性表现进行解读,力求揭示苦难中的女性找寻自我、追求独立人格与尊严过程中的曲折、困惑及为之付出的不懈努力。

  7. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences.

  8. 23例女性甲状腺功能减退中医证治规律探讨%Study on differentiation-prescription rules of 23 female patients with hypothyroidism by Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春勇

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察中药“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”对甲状腺功能减退(简称甲减)患者的治疗效果,探索中药防治甲减新思路.方法:观察甲减患者应用“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”治疗前后的临床表现和甲状腺功能改变并评估疗效.结果:患者在服用“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”治疗后,临床症状明显改善,甲状腺功能治疗前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”对甲减治疗有效,说明部分甲减患者病机属于“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”所主病机,丰富了中医对甲减的认识.%Objective; The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction on patients with hypothyroidism and to assess hypothyroidism using traditional Chinese medicine. Methods; Observe the clinical manifestations and the change of thyroid functions on patients with hypothyroidism before and after the treatment of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction, and then assess the effect of the decoction. Result; Clinical symptoms of patients with hypothyroidism are improved significantly after the treatment of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction; and there is significant difference between the thyroid functions before and after the treatment ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion; The treatment of hypothyroidism by use of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction is effective, which indicates that pathogenesis of some patients with hypothyroidism is mainly based on which Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction is used in traditional Chinese medicine theory, thereby enriching knowledge of hypothyroidism in traditional Chinese medicine.

  9. Normative values of pulmonary function testing in Chinese adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑劲平; 钟南山

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To compare the difference in pulmonary function between Caucasians and Chinese and assess the best reference values of pulmonary function for Chinese adults. Methods Values for pulmonary function were predicted by tests on 4773 Chinese healthy subjects (male: 2560, female: 2213, aged 15-78 years) in six parts (north, northeast, northwest, east, southwest and south) of China. Prediction equations of the European Community for Steel and Coal (ECSC), other equations for overseas Chinese or for Caucasians were also selected. The regression coefficients of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) were summarized. Results ECSC predictions were closer to the Chinese ones than other selected equations. Comparison with ECSC predictions showed that on average the values for FVC, FEV1 were 5.3% smaller in Chinese males and 3.3% smaller in Chinese females, with the maximal differences in south China and the minimal differences in North China. RV and TLC in Chinese were lower than in Caucasians (males 4.8%, 5.5%, respectively; females 8.7% and 6.0%, respectively). Conversion factors were given for adjusting ECSC equations to fit Chinese. Conclusions For predicting values of pulmonary function in Chinese, we suggest to use the equations reported here. Alternatively, ECSC regression equations may be used with appropriate conversion factors.

  10. 中国古代女性贞节观解读——以明清拟话本小说中的贞节烈女形象为例%Interpretation of Chinese Ancient Female Chastity View --Case Study on Virtuous Women Image in Vernacular Short Novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李停停

    2012-01-01

    There were large number of virtuous woman images in vernacular short novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. We can see the gender characteristics of female chastity view in feudal period and dominant effect on female thoughts and behaviors from the images, especially those typical images. Taking virtuous women images in vernacular short novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties as an example, the chastity view which Chinese ancient women understood reflects some features: the chastity is women's "duty", keeping chastity is bidirectional and chastity is important than filial piety and utilitarian.%明清拟话本小说中存在着大量的贞节烈女形象,从这些形象,尤其是那些典型形象身上,可以透视出封建时代女性贞节观的性别特点及其对女性思想行为的支配作用。以明清拟话本小说中的贞节烈女形象为例,中国古代女性视角所理解的贞节观体现出了贞节是女人的“本分内事”、守贞具有双向性和贞节重于孝道、实利等特点。

  11. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  12. 我国优秀女子链球运动员关键动作技术的生物力学分析%Biomechanical Analysis on the Key Motion Technique of Chinese Elite Female Hammer Throwers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾谊; 张青粉

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors which influenced and restrict‐ed the performance of some Chinese elite hammer throwers by using the three‐dimensional pho‐tographic measuring method .Methods :1 ) captured the video of athletes with fixed three‐di‐mensional photography ;2) get the raw kinematics data from the video used APAS motion anal‐ysis system ;3) get the smooth data form raw analysis data used digital filtering method and the cut frequency was 8Hz .The result shows that 1 ) The double support phase of Chinese athletes was insufficient .2) The motion of Chinese throwers in the wind were insufficient and lead to excessive velocity increment in the first turn .A few throwers also experienced negative increment of hammer speed in other turns .3) Our athletes generally used the technique charac‐terized by “lift late and land early” to increase the acceleration distance of the hammer .Conclu‐sion :1) Chinese athletes should increase the hammer velocity of the last phase of swing .2 ) Throwers should keep the center of gravity as far as possible in the period of double support in order to reduce the influence of "runner" effect on the hammer speed .3 ) Throwers should prolong the double support phase .%研究目的:通过拍摄我国部分优秀女子链球运动员的动作,对影响和制约运动员成绩发挥的因素进行了分析和研究。研究方法:1)用立体定机拍摄法,获得运动员比赛视频录像;2)利用APAS运动图像分析系统对比赛视频进行解析,获得原始运动学参数;3)数字滤波法,对原始运动学参数进行低通滤波平滑,截断频率为8 Hz。研究结果:1)我国运动员双支撑时间不足;2)我国运动员普遍存在预摆动作不充分的现象,导致旋转第1圈链球速度增量过大,个别运动员在旋转过程中还出现了链球速度的负增长。3)我国运动员普遍采用“晚抬早落”的旋转技术

  13. The emerging of"female citizen":The subject identity of modern Chinese women through literary practices%女国民的兴起:近代中国女性主体身份与文学实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔以钢; 刘堃

    2009-01-01

    The construction of"citizen-state"relations in the intellectual World of modern China and the establishment of individual citizenship in political discourse have opened up a political and discourse sphere for modern women to strive for new identities,wherein some intellectually advanced women have managed to establish their individual identity as"female citizen"by carrying the debate on the relationship between women and the state with regard to their rights and responsibilities,and on the relationship between gender role and citizenship.Though the idea of"female citizen"was not provided with a political theory of practical significance,the subject identity of women,however,was repeatedly spoken about and strengthened in brand-new literary practices,resulting in a dynamic discourse of "female citizen":in the meantime,disagreements concerning the concepts of"female rights,""civil rights,"and "natural rights"have all helped ereate significant tension inside the related discourse sphere.%近代中国思想界对"围民一国家"关系的建构及个体国民身份在政治话语中的确立,为近代女性谋求新的身份认同开拓了话语空间和政治空间.近代先进女性也正是在这种话语空间和政治空间中,通过女性与国家之间责任和权利关系的辩难以及性别角色与国民身份的博弈,确立了独立的个体身份--"女国民".尽管这一概念并未形成系统而具有实践指导意义的政治理论,但她们通过别开生面的文学实践,一再言说和强化着这一主体身份,形成了声势颇为浩大的"女国民"话语;同时也因对"女权"、"民权"、"天赋人权"等概念的不同理解,在相关话语场的内部形成了富有意义的张力.

  14. 论20世纪50—70年代中国文学女性身体形态脸谱化叙述%Portraits of Female Body in the Chinese Literature in 1950-1970

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传霞; 蒋凯旋

    2012-01-01

    1949年中国大陆的女性解放运动,拓展了女性参与社会生产的广度和深度,以“铁姑娘”为代表的女英雄形象的出现,改变了社会对女性能力的评价,打破了女性柔弱无力的僵化性别印象,在一定程度上触动了“男主外,女主内”的传统性别分工模式以及支持这一模式的文化观念系统,为女性争取到了更多地参与到社会公共领域的权力,改变了传统社会评判女性的标准,瓦解了传统社会对女性角色的设定,但是,消匿女性特征的女英雄和凸显女性性别特征的反面女性的脸谱化文学叙述,又将中国社会具有巨大进步意义现代性社会性别建构推向了另一个二元对立、不平等的性别神话之中。%The women's liberation movement in Mainland China since 1949 had expanded the depth and width of women's participation in social production. As well, the appearance of "Iron Girl" images as women's heroines changed the evaluation of women's capability in society and broke the fixed gender based image of women being weak and helpless. At certain level, it challenged the tradition of gender based division of labor as "men managing outside while women managing inside the households" as well as its cultural values and helped win rights for women to participate in social and public processes. It, moreover, helped change the traditional standards of evaluating women and undermine the traditional female stereotypes. However, the existence of women heroines without female characteristics and female negative characters with distinct female characteristic facial profiles in literary writings again created a dichotomy and inequality in the mythical construction of gender order.

  15. Studying Overseas: Factors Impacting Intention of Female Students in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jie; Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that impact Chinese female students' intention to study overseas. This study also aimed to understand how these factors impact female students' decision making process. Using a survey questionnaire, data were collected from 96 female undergraduates who enrolled in a 4-year public university…

  16. Genetic and environmental influences on Chinese language and reading abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow; Connie Suk-Han Ho; Simpson Wai-Lap Wong; Waye, Mary M. Y.; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the etiology of individual differences in Chinese language and reading skills in 312 typically developing Chinese twin pairs aged from 3 to 11 years (228 pairs of monozygotic twins and 84 pairs of dizygotic twins; 166 male pairs and 146 female pairs). Children were individually given tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary, phonological memory, tone awareness, syllable and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming, morphological awareness and orthographic s...

  17. A lateral cephalometric study of sella turcica in Southern Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Makhbuol, MZB; Wong, RWK; Rabie, ABM

    2012-01-01

    The dimensions of sella might be associated with pathological conditions, yet data related to these are scanty. This study is to quantitatively investigate the dimensions of sella in southern Chinese population. This retrospective pilot study consists 150 randomly selected Chinese lateral cephalometric radiographs (50 females and 100 males) presented to PPDH for Orthod...

  18. Estimation on the numbers of Chinese homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behaviors and relat- ed female group%中国同性爱者、同性性行为者和相关女性群体人口数值估测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明华; 于增照; 张北川; 史同新; 李秀芳; 李洋; 王燕飞; 朱明泉

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:In the new social demography and medical background,to estimate the numbers of Chinese homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behaviors and related female groups to provide scientific basis for the related research in China.Methods:According to the population provided by 201 3 China Statistical Yearbook and the related data offered by professor Pan’s "Multilayer equal probability sexology sampling survey a-bout China adult population"in 201 0,data sample calculation was performed.Results:The total number of Chi-nese male homosexuality (including bisexuality)may significantly exceed 21 million.The number of sexually active MSM was about 9.224 million;the number of female homosexuality in China was up to 1 2 million.The number of sexually active WSW was about 8.1 67 million;there were approximately 1 3.6 million female whose spouses were male homosexuality.There were nearly 1 0 million female whose spouses were MSM.Conclusion:There are huge numbers of homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behavior and related groups of women in China.Their physical and psychological health need to be paid particular attention by medical community and other related com-munity.In the next ten years,the number of"visible"homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behavior will increase.While the number of female whose fixed sex-partners are male homosexuality and MSMwill continue to decline.%目的:在新的社会人口学和医学背景下,估测中国同性爱者、同性性行为者和相关女性群体人口数量,为当今中国的相关研究提供科学依据。方法:主要根据《2013年中国统计年鉴》提供的人口基数和潘绥铭2010年对中国成年人口的多层等概率性学抽样调查给出的相关数据进行计算。结果:估测我国男同性爱者(包括男双性爱者)总人口极可能明显超过2100万,性活跃期男男性行为者约922.4万;我国女同性爱者总人口可达1200万左右,

  19. Prediction of percentage body fat from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance in Singaporean and Beijing Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Jingzhong Wang,; Fu Po Lin,; Schmidt, G.

    2000-01-01

    Body composition was measured in 205 male and female Beijing Chinese and in 148 male and female Singaporean Chinese, age 34 (mean) (range 18-68) years and body mass index (BMI) 22.3 (15.9-38.5) kg/m 2. In Beijing Siri's two-compartment model based on densitometry was used as a reference technique an

  20. 我国跆拳道优秀女选手历届奥运会技、战术特征研究%Study on Taekwondo's Technical and Tactical Characteristics of the Chinese Elite Female Athletes in the 27th,28th and 29th Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会景

    2011-01-01

    我国自1995年引进开展跆拳道项目以来,经过教练员、运动员及其相关人员的努力,我国跆拳道女子项目已进入世界先进水平的行列,多次在奥运会上成功夺冠。本文综合运用录像观摩、常规数理统计和调查访问等研究方法,对我国优秀跆拳道女选手在奥运会比赛中的技、战术运用情况进行分析、归纳和总结,以期为跆拳道技、战术训练科学化提供参考和理论依据,并为备战2012年奥运会提供有效的、可供参考的理论依据。%Since 1995,China has introduced and developed Taekwondo.With the coaches and athletes' efforts,Chinese women's Taekwondo has entered the ranks of advanced level in the world,winning the gold medal in the Olympic Games for several times.By watching video of competition,statistics and interviews,the paper researched the technical and tactical characteristics of Chinese elite female athletes in the 27th、28th and 29th Olympic Games.The purpose is to provide theoretical basis and reference to the skill training of Taekwondo,and provide effective references for the 2012 Olympic Games.

  1. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  2. Velocity characteristics of the rotation technique of Chinese elite female discus throwers%我国优秀女子铁饼运动员旋转技术的速度特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁从万; 王鹏; 刘海国

    2011-01-01

    采用文献资料法、专家访谈法、三维高速影像解析法和数理统计法,对现阶段我国优秀女子铁饼运动员旋转技术的时空特征进行分析,得出以下结论:重心和铁饼的分速度大小及比例对运动员技术风格的形成有重要影响;在旋转技术完成瞬间,李艳凤和宋爱民的铁饼合速度分别是最大和最小的,不同的是李艳风水平分速度占的比例大,宋爱民垂直分速度占的比例大,孙太凤在左脚单支撑阶段铁饼速度较快,导致腾空和过渡阶段铁饼速度下降;在左脚单支撑阶段,宋爱民右髋的速度最大导致她重心轨迹偏向左,孙太凤最慢的右髋速度和最快的右肩速度使她的重心轨迹偏右;李艳凤在过渡阶段过快的肩关节速度是她获得较快饼速的主要原因之一。在形成最后用力双支撑瞬间,我国运动员的肩轴角速度要大于髋轴,说明我国运动员已经开始最后用力。%This article adopted the methods of literature, expert interview, photography of three dimensional in high speed, and mathematic statistics to analyze the rotation technique of Chinese elite women's discus throwers. It has been shown that size and proportion of component velocity of CG and discus have very important influence to form athlete' s technique style ; Body -discus system at flight and transition stage is very complex and the most difficulty controllable. System changes in the two stages have the decisive effect to form personal optimum technique; the second and third rotation axis of Chinese athletes have steady velocity transfer. Hip and knees velocity of the second axis decide the style of displacement. The shoulder velocity of third has a close relation to the space - time characteristics of discus.

  3. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  4. 国家女子网球队运动员大力发球技术的运动学分析%A Kinematics Analysis of the Female Chinese National Tennis Players' Power Serve Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宇亮; 周兴龙; 朱文斐

    2012-01-01

    通过国家队网球运动员的大力发球的运动学指标分析,以期提高我国网球运动员发球水平,并为教练员教学、训练提供理论依据。利用两台200Hz高速摄像机对8名国家网球队女队员发球进行三维拍摄,通过jE京体育大学视迅解析系统对所拍摄影像进行三维重构及运动学解析。结果显示:运动员抛球离手时,抛球高度平均为3.67m,最高点到击球点落差平均为1.10m。球拍后引时,膝关节最小角度分别为持拍侧91.35°、非持拍侧104.64°。“搔背”动作完成时,拍头均低于重心,平均落差为0.21m。击球后平均球速为42.64m/s,击球点高度平均为2.57m。由此可见,我国网球运动员发球时抛球较高,建议降低抛球高度;相对于FB技术,FU技术能使运动员获得更大幅度的躯干扭转角度;缓冲结束时刻,部分运动员过度顶髋的现象造成下肢发力不充分,最终导致球速下降。“搔背”动作是典型的超越器械动作,下肢的充分蹬伸是动作质量的保证。%By analyzing the kinematics indicators of the power serve of the national tennis players, to improve the serve quality of China's tennis players, to provide both the player and coach with a better understanding of the mechanical basis of the serve, 8 Chinese national tennis team players have been taken as the subject in this research 8 players were filmed using two cameras, threc-dimensional direct linear transformation set-up. Two highspeed cameras were used to record the calibration frame, which was necessary for calculating three-dimensional coordinate data using the direct linear transformation (DLT) method. Data were processed by Shi Xun Analysis System of Beijing Sport University. The result shows that the ball was hit at a mean distance of 1.10m below a peak ball toss height of 3.67m. In backswing, the front knee flexion angle was 91.35°and the back one was 104

  5. Feel Fine with Chinese Folk Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoZi

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese folk music band “Feel Fine” is composed of three accomplished young female instrumentalists. These young musicians, since their debut, have brought to audiences fresh music experiences with their splendid costumes, extraordinary skills and pop-style music.

  6. LEARNING CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Vocabulary: 银行 yin hang bank 邮局 you jǔ (you as in "slow") post office 电报 dian bao telegram 邮票 you piao (you as in "know") stamp 信 xin letter 信封 xin feng envelope 航空 hang kong airmail 包裹 bao guo parcel 元 yuan a unit of currency in China 人民币 ren min bi RMB (the name of Chinese currency)

  7. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  8. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  9. Arduous Female Body - Shape---historical reflection of modern Chinese women's involvement in sports%艰难的女性身体塑造--我国近代女子体育参与的历史思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 蒋苏

    2014-01-01

    以民国女性的"身体"塑造为研究对象,通过对民国时期画报、图像、照片资料的解读、分析,使得史料的表述更具“张力”。通过研究,突出社会结构变迁层面对女性身体塑造的影响。女性的身体生物性塑造,暗合了"强种保国"的军国主义的思维;在道德身体的塑造上,对塑造新女性、新国民的历史进程中,发挥了一定的作用;在沟通态的身体上,体育运动的参与,突破了女性的存在空间,是时代变革在她们身体塑造过程中的力量彰显。%Women's " body" shaping in the republic of China is used as the research object. The paper analyzes the pictorials, images and photographs in the period of the Republic of China, which makes the expression of the materials more forceful. The research highlights the influence of social level structure change on female body shaping. The biologi-cal shaping of women's body coincides with the military philosophy of “strengthening the seed to protect the country”. The moral shaping of women's bodies plays a role in shaping new women and new citizens. In the communication mode of body shaping, the involvement of sports breaks through the space in which women exist and this is the reflection of the power in their body - shaping process.

  10. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  11. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  12. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  14. 沙美特罗/丙酸氟替卡松治疗稳定期COPD患者的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Inhalation Therapy of Salmeterol/fluticasone(50/500) for Non-smoking Stable stage of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超; 沈美珠; 俞江月; 谷亮; 唐华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the treatment effects of inhaled saLmeterol/fluticasone( 50/500 ) for non-smoking stable stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease( COPD ). Methods 133 patients with COPD were randomly divided into 3 groups. They had been hospitalized for acute-exacerbation COPD. Smoking group was 52 cases, non-smoking group was 36 cases, both were given inhaled salmet-erol/fluticasone propionate ( 50/500 ) treatment, and the control group was 45 cases without the drug. All patients were followed up for 12 months, record SGRQ scores, pulmonary function and times of acute exacerbations at the treatment. Results Compared with before treatment in Smoking group, pulmonary function improved notabily, SGRQ total scores improved significantly, acute exacerbation has diminished significantly ( P 0. 05 ). Conclusion Inhalation therapy of Salmeterol/fluticasone propionate ( 50/500 ) can improve the quality of life and lung function, reduce acute exacerbations in smoking patients with stable stage COPD, but non-smoking patients can not benefit from it.%目的 探讨吸入型沙美特罗/丙酸氟替卡松(50/500)对非吸烟、稳定期COPD的治疗效果.方法 因AECOPD住院后经治疗缓解的出院患者133例,随机分成3组,吸烟组52例,非吸烟组36例,吸入沙美特罗/丙酸氟替卡松(50/500)治疗,对照组45例,不吸入上述药物;3组患者随访12月,记录治疗前后SGRQ、肺功能、急性加重次数等.结果 吸烟组治疗前后比较,肺功能、SGRQ明显改善,急性加重次数明显减少(P0.05).结论 沙美特罗/丙酸氟替卡松(50/500)可以改善吸烟组COPD患者生存状态、改善肺功能和减少急性加重,而非吸烟、稳定期COPD患者并没有从沙美特罗/丙酸氟替卡松(50/500)治疗中获益.

  15. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  16. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  17. Association of cigarette smoking with Chinese ankylosing spondylitis patients in Taiwan: a poor disease outcome in systemic inflammation, functional ability, and physical mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hsiung; Chen, Hung-An; Lu, Chin-Li; Liao, Hsien-Tzung; Liu, Chin-Hsiu; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Chou, Chung-Tei

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the association between smoking and the disease activity, functional ability, physical mobility, and systemic inflammation in Chinese ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Seventy five male Chinese AS patients in Taiwan were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. These patients fulfilled the 1984 modified New York criteria. Patients completed the questionnaires, containing the demographic data, disease activity, functional ability (BASFI), and patient's global assessment. Meanwhile, physical examinations were performed to determine the patient's physical mobility. Acute-phase reactants, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein levels were also measured in the AS patients. Smoking habits with smoking duration and smoking intensity (pack-years of smoking) were recorded. Among these physical mobility parameters, modified Schober's index (p expansion (p = 0.016), and occiput-to-wall distances (p = 0.003) were significantly impaired in smoking AS patients (n = 35) as compared to non-smoking (n = 40). Systemic inflammation parameter, ESR was significantly higher in smoking AS patients than non-smoking (p = 0.03). The odds ratio of advanced modified Schober's index, lateral lumbar flexion, fingertip-to-floor distance, chest expansion, and occiput-to-wall were significantly elevated in smoking AS patients as compared to non-smoking. Moreover, the smoking intensity correlated significantly with BASFI (r = 0.481, p = 0.005), cervical rotation (r = -0.401, p = 0.031), fingertip-to-floor distance (r = 0.485, p = 0.004), and occiput-to-wall distance (r = 0.473, p = 0.005) in the 35 smoking AS patients. The cigarette smokers in the Chinese AS patients have increased systemic inflammation and poor physical mobility. In addition, the higher smoking intensity in the AS smokers is associated with poor disease outcome, including functional ability and physical mobility. Thus, it is quite important for the physician to emphasize the association of

  18. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  19. A comparison between composition and density of the fat-free mass of young adult Singaporean Chinese and Dutch Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, A.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    The body composition was measured in 30 female Singapore Chinese and 34 female Dutch Caucasians aged (mean ± SD) 22.7 ± 3.6 years and in 39 male Singapore Chinese and 39 male Dutch Caucasians aged 23.3 ± 3.2 years. Methods: The body fat percentage (BF€was measured using densitometry and deuterium ox

  20. 盆底康复仪结合中医调护治疗女性性功能障碍的临床效果研究%Study on the clinical effect of Chinese medicine nursing for the treatment of female sexual dysfunction combined with pelvic floor rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    言彩蝶; 黄慧红; 梁鸿

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of Chinese medicine nursing combined with pelvic floor rehabilitation treatment of female sexual dysfunction. Methods Female sexual dysfunction 60 patients selected in July 2014~October 2014 by the hospital gynecology clinic“medical history questionnaire” investigate the initial diagnosis of patients with female sexual dysfunction were randomly divided into ob⁃servation group and control group(30 cases)both groups were given bio-electric stimulation therapy,based on this observation group were treated with acupressure,emotional nursing music therapy,the treatment period of 8 weeks. Results After treatment,the observation group and control group response rate was 93.33% and 73.33%,respectively.Clinical observation group was significantly higher,the difference was statistically sig⁃nificant(P<0.05).Comprehensive treatment of pelvic floor muscle strength,frequency of sexual activity,quality of life and the incidence of dyspa⁃reunia has improved significantly,comparing with before treatment differences were statistically significant( P<0.05) ,after treatment than before treatment,comparison between the two groups at the same time the differences were statistically significant( P<0.05) ,the observation group than the control group.Conclusion TCM nursing binding instrument pelvic floor rehabilitation treatment of female sexual dysfunction can improve the prognosis of integrated pelvic floor muscle strength,improve the prognosis of patient quality of life,worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨中医调护结合盆底康复仪治疗女性性功能障碍的临床效果。方法女性性功能障碍患者60例,选取2014年7月~2014年10月本院妇科门诊经《病史问卷调查表》调查初步诊断为女性性功能障碍的患者随机分为观察组与对照组各30例,两组都给予生物电刺激进行治疗,在此基础上观察组加用穴位按摩、情志调护音

  1. Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ:a meta-analysis%强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓珍; 李永刚; 林川; 黄海溶

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价强力霉素联合中药治疗女性支原体感染的疗效及安全性。方法通过检索1966年—2014年3月期间中英文数据库,运用Endnote软件筛选相关随机对照试验(randomized controlled trial,RCT)研究。采用RevMan5.2软件进行Meta分析。结果共纳入13项RCT,1107例患者,其中7项强力霉素联合口服中药,6项强力霉素联合外用中药。根据给药方式进行亚组分析,强力霉素联合口服中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01);强力霉素联合外用中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01)。强力霉素联合中药组不良反应发生率是单用强力霉素组的0.68倍(95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03)。结论强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染有一定疗效,但受纳入研究质量和样本量的限制,以上结论需更多高质量研究予以验证。%Objectives This study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. Methods Literatures from Chinese and English databases published between 1966 and March of 2014 were screened for relevant randomized controlled trials(RCTs).The software package of Review Manager 5.2(Cochrane Collaboration) was used for data analysis.Results 13 RCTs involving 930 patients were included in the study. Doxycycline plus oral TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate (P<0.01)and Cure rate (P<0.01)for the studies;Doxycycline plus external TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate(P<0.01)and Cure rate(P<0.01)for the studies. In addition,Doxycycline plus TCM was inferior to Doxycycline alone in terms of adverse effects rate (RR=0.68,95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03).Conclusion Doxycycline combined with TCM was effective in treating mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ

  2. Empirical Study on Functional Training of Chinese Female Hockey Team Preparing for London Olympic Games%中国女子曲棍球队备战第30届夏季奥运会过程中体能训练的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫琪; 王明波; 裴怡然; 赵焕彬

    2014-01-01

    Functional training of the Chinese female hockey team was studied during the prepa-ration for 2012 London Olympic Games ,and a functional training method system specified for elite female hockey players was constructed .The preparation period was divided into three macro-cycles ,and each macro-cycle was divided into three micro-cycles :basic physical function development ,general motion function development and specific function development .Each mi-cro-cycle had specific training goals and different emphases .After 19 months of systematic im-plementation ,the athletes’ court physical fitness test results were comprehensively improved , and the Functional Movement Screen (FMS ) score ,starting velocity ,speed ,agility ,functional strength ,anaerobic endurance have been significantly increased(P<0 .01) .%以备战第30届夏季奥运会(2012,英国·伦敦)过程中中国女子曲棍球队的体能训练为研究对象,建立了体能训练系统,把备战过程划分为3个大周期,每个大周期又划分为“身体基本运动功能训练周期”、“一般运动功能训练周期”和“专项运动功能训练周期”3个中周期,在每个中周期中有其明确的体能训练目标,在训练安排比例上有所侧重。通过长达19个月的系统实施,应用功能性体能训练的理念与方法,全面提高运动员场地体能测试的成绩,在身体基本功能性动作筛查(FMS )、起动速度、速度、灵敏性、功能性力量、无氧耐力几个方面都得到明显提高(P<0.01)。

  3. THAI LITERATURES REFLECTING CHINESE IDENTITY IN THAI SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchawadee Kesmanee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures present the picture of people’s lives in the society in details. There have been numerous studies on Chinese-Thai literatures but none of them has an in-depth study on the Chinese identity. This study has been conducted due to personal interest to analyze the authors’ effort to present the Chinese identity through the characters, contents and social contexts. The data were collected from Thai novels and documentaries dated between 1957 and 2007 of which main characters, content and context were related to the Chinese residing in Thailand. Data collected had been inspected, classified, analyzed and composed. It was found that the Thai literatures could possibly represent Chinese identity in Thai society in the areas of the relationship of the family members from being a male-dominated family to a female-accepted one, the conservation of Chinese language to represent the unity of the Chinese community, the importance of the Chinese opera and its struggle to survive in recent times and the existence of Chinese culture and tradition, which are acculturated and assimilated to the Thai culture. From the study of Chinese identity in Thai literature in four aspects: (1 family relationships, system of relatives and surnames; (2 Chinese Language; (3 Performing Arts and (4 Culture and tradition, it was found that no matter how strict the first generations are to the traditions, they cannot resist the cultural assimilation in the next generations, who are descendants of Chinese overseas in Thailand. Since these new generations were born and grew up in Thai culture, which is different from the one of their ancestors, their versions of Chinese traditions were affected by the Thai society, economy and political situations which led to the changes of the old Chinese tradition and even result in the loss of some tradition.

  4. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  5. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the opti

  6. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  7. Female Sexuality: An Enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

  8. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reproductive System en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. The female needs a ... like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of themselves ...

  9. 体质指数与非吸烟男性肺癌发病关系的前瞻性队列研究%Association between body mass index and risk of lung cancer in non-smoking males: a prospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢双华; 王刚; 郭兰伟; 陈朔华; 苏凯; 李放; 昌盛; 冯小双; 吕章艳

    2016-01-01

    目的 利用前瞻性队列研究,探讨BMI与非吸烟男性肺癌发病的关系.方法 利用始建于2006年5月的开滦集团动态人群队列,收集基线调查时社会人口学资料,吸烟、饮酒等生活方式和身高、体重等测量指标及肺癌发病结局信息.采用多因素Cox比例风险回归模型分析非吸烟男性基线BMI与其肺癌发病的风险比(HR)及其95%CI.结果 截止2011年12月31日在纳入的48 799名非吸烟男性中,共计随访214 620.18人年,平均随访4.40年,共收集肺癌新发病例198例.以BMI(kg/m2)正常组(18.5≤BMI<24.0)为参比组,调整年龄、教育程度、饮酒情况、体育锻炼、工作环境和糖尿病史后,低体重组(BMI<18.5)、超重组(24.0≤BMI<28.0)和肥胖组(BMI≥28)的HR值及其95%CI分别为1.14(0.53 ~2.45)、0.57(0.41 ~0.78)和0.61(0.38~ 0.97),趋势检验差异有统计学意义(P<0.001).将BMI作为连续性变量,调整年龄、教育程度、饮酒、体育锻炼、工作环境和糖尿病史后,BMI每增加5 kg/m2,肺癌的发病风险降低22%(HR=0.78,95%CI:0.64 ~ 0.95).在年龄≥50岁组、锻炼频率<4次/周组、不饮酒组以及井上作业组中,BMI每增加5 kg/m2,其肺癌的发病风险分别降低26%(HR=0.74,95%CI:0.60~0.92),24%(HR=0.76,95%CI:0.62 ~ 0.95),20%(HR=0.80,95%CI:0.65 ~ 1.00)和23%(HR=0.77,95%CI:0.61 ~ 0.97),剔除随访1年内新发肿瘤患者及其贡献的人年数后,结果无明显变化.结论 该队列人群中非吸烟男性的BMI与肺癌发病相关,且发病风险随BMI增加呈下降趋势.%Objective To assess the association between baseline body mass index (BMI) and risk of lung cancer in non-smoking males.Methods A dynamic non-smoking male cohort was established on May,2006.Baseline information on demography,lifestyle,such as smoking status and alcohol consumption,anthropometry,such as body height and weight,were collected during the baseline interview,and the information

  10. 我国优秀青少年雪上项目女运动员体质与体成分特点及相关性研究%STUDY ON CHARACTERISTIC OF PHYSIQUE AND BODY COMPOSITION AND CORRELATION BETWEEN BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL HEALTH OF OUTSTANDING YOUNG CHINESE SNOW PROJECT FEMALE ATHLETE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴菲; 魏亚茹

    2016-01-01

    With the methods of document,test and mathematical statistic,the author investigated the physique,body composition characteristics and correlation between body composition and physical health,and studied the principle and characteristics in order to provide the beneficial reference for improving body function and quality of elite female athletes of teenagers in Ice and Snow project. The results showed that:1)Body composition of outstanding young female athletes of Chinese snow project has its own characteristics,body fat rate is relatively low and a higher lean body mass. Compared with the foreign excellent ice snow athletes,body fat rate was not significant but significant difference in lean body weight existed;2 )Body function and quality of female athletes are in good condition,but the pulmonary function,strength and coordination still has potential to be further improved in the quality of the sports training;3 )There was positive correlation between the lean body weight and the ratio of lung capacity while then was negative correlation between body weight,fat content,body fat rate and BMI and the ratio of lung capacity. Also,there was negative correlation between body weight,fat content,body fat rate with standing long jump and flexibility. Body weight,body fat rate and fat content were positively correlated with grip. There was positive correlation between lean body mass with standing long jump and grip strength. It is conclucled that there were correlation between body composition and physical health of Chinese elite female athletes on the snow.%采用文献资料法、测试法、数理统计法对我国优秀青少年雪上项目女运动员体质、体成分特点及相关性进行分析,研究其规律及特点,为最大限度发挥我国优秀青少年雪上项目女运动员的身体机能、素质提供有益参考。研究结果显示:1)我国优秀青少年雪上项目女运动员体成分具有自身特点,体脂率较低,瘦体重较

  11. Female urethral syndrome. A female prostatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The cause of the female urethral syndrome has previously been obscure, as it has been associated by definition with a lack of objective findings but a plethora of subjective complaints of retropubic pressure, dyspareunia, urinary frequency, and dysuria. There is now strong evidence that the microscopic paraurethral glands connected to the distal third of the urethra in the prevaginal space are homologous to the prostate. They stain histologically for prostate-specific antigen and, like the pr...

  12. A comparison of the effect of work stress on burnout and quality of life between female nurses and female doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si-Ying; Li, Huang-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Yang, Shu-Juan; Qiu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of work stress on job burnout and quality of life between female nurses and doctors in China. The participants were 947 female nurses and 685 female doctors selected from Fujian provinces by using stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese version of Short Form-36 Health Survey was used to measure quality of life; the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition was applied for occupational stress; and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to assess job burnout. Occupational stress (indicated by different stressors) played an important role in job burnout and quality of life among female nurses and female doctors when taking into account other potential influencing factors simultaneously. These results show that it is important to adopt different preventive measures to prevent burnout and improve quality of life among the 2 populations according to the different stressors.

  13. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

  14. Cigarette smoking in male patients with chronic schizophrenia in a Chinese population: prevalence and relationship to clinical phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yang Zhang

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of smoking in schizophrenia of European background may be related to smoking's reducing clinical symptoms and medication side effects. Because smoking prevalence and its associations with clinical phenotypes are less well characterized in Chinese than European patients with schizophrenia, we assessed these smoking behaviors using clinician-administered questionnaires and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND in 776 Chinese male schizophrenia and 560 control subjects. Patients also were rated on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, the Simpson and Angus Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (SAES, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. We found that the schizophrenia patients had a higher lifetime incidence of smoking (79% vs 63%, were more likely to be heavy smokers (61% vs 31%, and had lower smoking cessation rates (4% vs 9% (all p0.05 than the non-smoking patients. These results suggest that Chinese males with schizophrenia smoke more frequently than the general population. Further, smokers with schizophrenia may display fewer negative symptoms and possibly less parkinsonism than non-smokers with schizophrenia.

  15. Functional consequences of iron deficiency in Chinese female workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.

    1993-01-01

    Women of the reproductive age in China play a very important role in the labour force. Information on anaemia prevalence in this group is hardly available, notwithstanding the fact that iron deficiency anaemia is considered to be a major public health problem in China. Iron deficiency may cause adve

  16. Análise comparativa do resultado da sutura artroscópica da lesão do manguito rotador em pacientes fumantes e não fumantes Comparative analysis on the result from arthroscopic suturing of rotator cuff injuries between smoking and non-smoking patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Almeida

    2011-04-01

    cuff injuries between smoking and non-smoking patients. METHODS: A group of 286 patients who underwent arthroscopic suturing of primary rotator cuff injuries between June 12, 2002, and May 14, 2008, was analyzed. The patients included in the study were evaluated using the UCLA scale, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months and average of 56.52 months. The variables studied were age, sex, side operated, dominance, profile of cigarette use and UCLA index. RESULTS: This study evaluated a total of 205 patients. Mean age (p = 0.289 and sex (p = 0.124 were analyzed statistically between the smoking and non-smoking patients and the two groups were considered to be similar. The average UCLA score for the non-smoking patients (143 was 34 (32 to 35. The average UCLA score for the smoking patients (51 was 33 (29 to 35. There was no statistically significant difference in UCLA score (p = 0.123 between the smoking and non-smoking patients. For the purposes of statistical analysis, we grouped the small and medium tears (107 and compared these with the large and extensive tears (80, between smokers and non-smokers. There was no statistically significant difference using the Mann-Whitney test regarding the small and medium tears (p = 818. There was a statistically significant difference using the Mann-Whitney test regarding the large and extended tears, between the smoking and non-smoking patients, such that the non-smokers showed better UCLA scores (p = 0.038. CONCLUSION: The results from arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries are inferior among smoking patients.

  17. Ideal female brow aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. This analysis provided objective evidence that the ideal youthful brow peak has migrated laterally over time to lie at the lateral canthus. There has been a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower and flatter brows. These findings are discussed in relation to current concepts of female brow aging, with repercussions regarding endoscopic brow lift and aesthetic forehead surgery.

  18. A thymic neuroendocrine tumour in a young female: a rare cause of relapsing and remitting Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M J Trott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a young female patient with a rare cause of relapsing and remitting Cushing’s syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion from a thymic neuroendocrine tumour. A 34-year-old female presented with a constellation of symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome, including facial swelling, muscle weakness and cognitive impairment. We use the terms ‘relapsing and remitting’ in this case report, given the unpredictable time course of symptoms, which led to a delay of 2 years before the correct diagnosis of hypercortisolaemia. Diagnostic workup confirmed ectopic ACTH secretion, and a thymic mass was seen on mediastinal imaging. The patient subsequently underwent thymectomy with complete resolution of her symptoms. Several case series have documented the association of Cushing’s syndrome with thymic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs, although to our knowledge there are a few published cases of patients with relapsing and remitting symptoms. This case is also notable for the absence of features of the MEN-1 syndrome, along with the female gender of our patient and her history of non-smoking.

  19. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... habits, their periods may stop. Triad Factor #3: Osteoporosis Estrogen is lower in girls with female athlete triad. Low estrogen levels and poor nutrition, especially low calcium intake, can lead to osteoporosis, the third aspect of the triad. Osteoporosis is ...

  20. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair follicle shrinks over time, ...

  1. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  2. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are signs of hormone imbalance, such as excess facial or body hair, a hormone evaluation should be done. Hormonal changes are a common cause of female hair loss. Many women do not realize that hair loss can occur ...

  3. Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

  4. Elevated levels of mercapturic acids of acrolein and crotonaldehyde in the urine of Chinese women in Singapore who regularly cook at home.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen S Hecht

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is unusually common among non-smoking women in Southeastern Asia but the causes of this frequently fatal disease are not well understood. Several epidemiology studies indicate that inhalation of fumes from high temperature Chinese style cooking with a wok may be a cause. Only one previous study investigated uptake of potential toxicants and carcinogens by women who cook with a wok. We enrolled three-hundred twenty-eight non-smoking women from Singapore for this study. Each provided a spot urine sample and answered a questionnaire concerning their cooking habits and other factors. The urine samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for mercapturic acid metabolites of acrolein (3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid, crotonaldehyde (3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid, and benzene (S-phenylmercapturic acid, accepted biomarkers of uptake of these toxic and carcinogenic compounds. We observed statistically significant effects of wok cooking frequency on levels of 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid, but not S-phenylmercapturic acid. Women who cooked greater than 7 times per week had a geometric mean of 2600 (95% CI, 2189-3090 pmol/mg creatinine 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid compared to 1901 (95% CI, 1510-2395 pmol/mg creatinine when cooking less than once per week (P for trend 0.018. The corresponding values for 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid were 1167 (95% CI, 1022-1332 and 894 (95% CI, 749-1067 pmol/mg creatinine (P for trend 0.008. We conclude that frequent wok cooking leads to elevated exposure to the toxicants acrolein and crotonaldehyde, but not benzene. Kitchens should be properly ventilated to decrease exposure to potentially toxic and carcinogenic fumes produced during Chinese style wok cooking.

  5. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  6. 2011年中国女医师休闲锻炼和业余静态行为情况分析%Analyzing the situation of leisure-time physical exercise and sedentary behaviors in Chinese female medical doctors during 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓燕; 齐士格; 王临虹

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解2011年我国女医师休闲锻炼和业余静态行为情况.方法 2011年在全国9个省份共125家医疗和疾控机构中抽取女医师5468名进行自填式问卷调查.计算我国不同机构类别、地区、年龄女医师的经常锻炼率、业余静态行为时间.结果 我国女医师业余时间经常锻炼率为20.3%(95%CI:19.2%~21.4%).医疗和疾控机构分别为18.9%、21.3%,东、中、西部分别为17.7%、19.8%、23.9%、<35、35~和≥45岁组分别为15.3%、20.5%、27.9%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).医疗机构中,内科类(15.3%)、外科类(17.5%)低于其他临床类(23.7%)和辅助类(25.9%)科室,三级医院(15.4%)低于二级医院(23.6%),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);疾控机构中,不同科室间的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),地市级疾控机构(26.9%)高于其他各级疾控机构(17.7%~19.3%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).我国女医师每天业余静态行为时间中位数为4.2 h(P25-P75:3.0~6.3 h),医疗和疾控机构分别为4.0、4.5 h,东、中、西部分别为4.2、4.5、4.0 h,<35、35~和≥45岁组分别为4.5、4.0、4.5 h,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);医疗机构中,外科类(3.5 h)短于其他科室(均为4.0 h),三级医院(4.0h)较二级医院(3.8 h)长;疾控机构中,不同科室间的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);国家级疾控机构(5.0 h)长于其他各级疾控机构(均为4.5 h).结论 我国女医师业余时间经常锻炼率较低,平均业余静态行为时间明显过长.%Objective To investigate the situation of leisure-time physical exercise and sedentary behaviors in Chinese female medical doctors during 2011.Methods A total of 5 468 medical female doctors collected from 125 hospitals and centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) of 9 provinces in China were investigated using questionnaire.According to medical organizations,areas and age,the rates of regular

  7. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  8. Shimoda's Program for Japanese and Chinese Women's Education

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In her article "Shimoda Program for Japanese and Chinese Women's Education" Mamiko Suzuki discusses Western developments as a facet of educational curricula in Japan in the early twentieth century. When in the early 1900s a number of elite Chinese women traveled to Tokyo — for most, their first time abroad — to receive a modern education, it was at Jissen Women's Academy, which was the first to enroll female Chinese students in Tokyo and thus a crucial site for the development of a modern pan...

  9. Scanorama in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scanorama, the SAS on-board magazine,is now also available in Chinese. Table-tennis star,J-O Waldner, Scandinavian design and delicious Norwegian seafood are what SAS Chinese customers can read about while sitting on board SAS flights on the Copenhagen - Beijing and Copenhagen-Shanghai routes. The magazine uses the written Chinese language that is read by nearly one billion mainland Chinese.

  10. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  11. Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chinese College Students in China--A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Kay, Noy S.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the association between four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e. perceived severity of smoking-related health problems, perceived susceptibility to smoking-health related problems, perceived barriers to non-smoking and perceived benefits of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking …

  12. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  13. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  14. 某中医医院连续3年女性生殖系统感染解脲脲原体的耐药性%Antimicrobial resistance of Ureaplasma urealyticum from reproductive systems of female patients at a traditional Chinese medicine hospital in three consecutive years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁志红; 吕春兰; 苏大林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antimicrobial resistance and change trends ofUreaplasma urealyticum (Uu) from reproductive system of female patients at a traditional Chinese medicine hospital in three consecutive years. Methods Antimicrobial resistance of Uu isolated from gynaecology leucorrhea and cervical secretion specimens of patients of dermatology & sexually transmitted diseases department and gynaecology department from January 2011 to December 2013 were analyzed retrospectively.Results A total of 327 Uu strains were isolated,except resistance rates of Uu to doxycycline(5.23%-6.12%)and josamycin(0-1 .96%)remained at a relatively low level in three consecutive years,resistance rate to the other antimicrobials showed an upward trend year by year,but the difference was not significant (P >0.05).The resistance of Uu to ofloxacin,clarithromycin and sparfloxacin were relatively high(42.11 %-61 .40%),to josamycin,doxycycline and minocycline were lower(0-13.07%),and multidrug re-sistance was serious.Conclusion Antimicrobial resistanc of Uu isolated from reproductive system of female patients in this hospital is high.It is necessary to realize the status and change trends of antimicrobial resistance of Uu for the treatment of disease and control of the emergence of multidrug resistance pathogens.%目的:了解某中医医院女性生殖系统解脲脲原体(Uu)感染患者连续3年的耐药现状和变化趋势。方法对该中医医院2011年1月—2013年12月皮肤性病科和妇科门诊及住院女性患者送检的白带及宫颈分泌物标本分离的 Uu 的耐药性进行回顾性分析。结果共分离 Uu 327株,其3年耐药率,除多西环素(5.23%~6.12%)和交沙霉素(0~1.96%)较低外,其余抗菌药物均稍有增高,但差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。Uu 对氧氟沙星、克拉霉素、司帕沙星的耐药率(42.11%~61.40%)较高,对交沙霉素、多西环素

  15. Validation of the Offending-Related Attitudes Questionnaire of CRIME-PICS II Scale (Chinese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong; Wu, Joseph; Kwok, Yan Yuen; Liu, Liu

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the first part of the Chinese version of the CRIME-PICS II Scale, a self-administrated instrument assessing offending-related attitudes. Data were collected from three samples: male Hong Kong young offenders, female Mainland Chinese prisoners, and Hong Kong college students.…

  16. Family Mastery Enhances Work Engagement in Chinese Nurses: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chang-qin; Siu, Oi-ling; Chen, Wei-qing; Wang, Hai-jiang

    2011-01-01

    Based on Greenhaus and Powell's (2006) theory of work-family enrichment and the job demands-resources (JD-R) model of work engagement (Bakker & Demerouti, 2008), this study focused on the family-to-work enrichment process by investigating the effect of family mastery on work engagement in a Chinese context. A sample of 279 Chinese female nurses…

  17. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  18. Violent female offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Loinaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Female violent offending is an understudied topic in Spanish-speaking countries. This review explores themajor research findings accumulated internationally over the last decade (2003-2013 about women'sviolence and crimes. The focus of the review is the intimate partner violence (IPV and sexual violencecommitted by females, the psychopathy and violence risk assessment, and the treatment and recidivism ofthese female offenders. Although the female offender topic is too wide to review all crime typologies (childphysical abuse is not included, for example the review indicates that: there are legal and police biases inthe treatment of women offenders; women can commit the same IPV and share the motivations of maleoffenders; sexual violence has a low prevalence, but there are many limitations in this research topic;predicting the risk of non-specific violence is feasible with the available tools; psychopathy is less prevalentamong adult female offenders, although there are fewer differences with male offenders among adolescentsamples; research about treatments is very limited and there are not effectiveness evidences; and last,recidivism rates for violent crimes are very low (in cases where information is available. Main implicationsand research lines are discussed.

  19. Female rose bitterling prefer MHC-dissimilar males: experimental evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reichard

    Full Text Available The role of genetic benefits in female mate choice remains a controversial aspect of sexual selection theory. In contrast to "good allele" models of sexual selection, "compatible allele" models of mate choice predict that females prefer mates with alleles complementary to their own rather than conferring additive effects. While correlative results suggest complementary genetic effects to be plausible, direct experimental evidence is scarce. A previous study on the Chinese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus demonstrated a positive correlation between female mate choice, offspring growth and survival, and the functional dissimilarity between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC alleles of males and females. Here we directly tested whether females used cues associated with MHC genes to select genetically compatible males in an experimental framework. By sequentially pairing females with MHC similar and dissimilar males, based on a priori known MHC profiles, we showed that females discriminated between similar and dissimilar males and deposited significantly more eggs with MHC dissimilar males. Notably, the degree of dissimilarity was an important factor for female decision to mate, possibly indicating a potential threshold value of dissimilarity for decision making, or of an indirect effect of the MHC.

  20. B7-H4基因多态性与乳腺浸润性导管癌预后的相关性研究%Relationship between the polymorphisms of B7-H4 gene and the prognosis of breast infiltrative ductal carcinoma in Chinese Han females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大林; 章婕; 傅振坤; 许凤燕; 李殿俊

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨B7-H4基因rs10754339、rs10801935和rs3738414等单核苷酸多态性(SNP)位点多态性与黑龙江省妇女乳腺浸润性导管癌预后的相关性.方法 取280例乳腺浸润性导管癌患者的外周血提取基因组DNA,利用聚合酶链式反应限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)技术进行B7-H4单核苷酸多态性检测,引用统计学软件分析基因多态性与患者临床指标(包括肿瘤大小,淋巴结转移,以及雌激素受体、孕激素受体和P53基因的表达)间的关系(卡方检验计算P值),进而确定该基因与黑龙江省汉族妇女乳腺癌预后的相关性.结果 B7-H4基因的rs10754339中,AA和AG基因型发生频率在雌激素受体表达阳性和阴性患者中有统计学差异(χ~2=4.06,P<0.05;χ~2=3.97,P<0.05),AA基因型和G等位基因发生频率在孕激素受体表达阳性和阴性患者中有显著差异(χ~2=4.74,P<0.05;χ~2=5.30,P<0.05).rs10801935中,AA基因型和C等位基因发生频率在孕激素受体表达阳性和阴性患者中有显著差异(χ~2=5.36,P<0.05;χ~2=5.90,P<0.05),而AC基因型发生频率在P53基因表达阳性和阴性患者中有显著差异(χ~2=5.82,P<0.05).结论 B7-H4基因多态性与乳腺浸润性导管癌患者雌激素受体,孕激素受体及P53基因的表达有关联,与乳腺癌患者的预后有一定相关性.%Objective To investigate the association between the polymorphisms of B7-H4 gene (in cluding rsl0754339, rs10801935 and rs3738414) and the prognosis of infiltrating ductal carcinoma in Chinese women of Heilongjiang province. Methods Two hundreds and eighty Chinese females with infiltrative ductal carcinoma were included in the study. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of rsl0754339, rsl0801935 and rs3738414 in B7-H4 gene were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. The association of the SNPs of B7 H4 gene with the clinical features of breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma (including tumor size, lymph node in volvement , and the expression status

  1. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  2. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  3. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findings....... Such a review is indtended to provide some insight into how scholars in different social contexts, who study apparently the same phenomenon, direct their focus. It should also enrich research into female entrepreneurship in both regions of the world and provide directions for further research in the field....

  4. Female hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments.

  5. Gender and the Politics of Female Infanticide and Prostitution Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Michelle T. King. Between Birth and Death: Female Infanticide in Nineteenth-Century China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. 264 pp. $50.00 (cloth/e-book. Elizabeth J. Remick. Regulating Prostitution in China: Gender and Local Statebuilding, 1900–1937. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. 288 pp. $45.00 (cloth/e-book. The two works under review are both compelling historical studies that use gender as a category of analysis to make important contributions to our understanding of the construction of the modern Chinese state, the periodization of modern Chinese history, and the political and cultural significance of controlling the female body. While both books engage with gender as broadly construed, they adopt different approaches. Michelle King’s analysis focuses on discursive representations that took place, for the most part, outside the context of the state—what Confucian elites, foreign experts and missionaries, and Chinese nationalists wrote about female infanticide over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This discursive approach has been used before but rarely to such insightful effect. King’s research deepens our understanding of gender and imperialism in the nineteenth century by illustrating how imperialist notions of China as a backward and heathen place were constructed in part on dubious claims that identified female infanticide as an emblematically Chinese cultural practice. Elizabeth Remick’s gender analysis, in contrast, centers on the state institutions that were developed in the early 1900s to regulate prostitution, including tax policies, licensing fees, zoning regulations, medical examinations, and police supervision. Her study of the newly erected local and provincial government regulatory regimes is a pathbreaking demonstration of how the regulation of gender roles was at the heart of state-building efforts in early twentieth-century China...

  6. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  7. On Female Consumption Formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平

    2012-01-01

    This is an observation by the daily deliberation of China major consuming force-female,which should be a great master piece.Because of the not-in-depth study and analysis,I can only put it in the air as a clue for further research by experts.

  8. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  9. Use of Internet viral marketing to promote smoke-free lifestyles among Chinese adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ip

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Youth smoking is a global public health concern. Health educators are increasingly using Internet-based technologies, but the effectiveness of Internet viral marketing in promoting health remains uncertain. This prospective pilot study assessed the efficacy of an online game-based viral marketing campaign in promoting a smoke-free attitude among Chinese adolescents. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-one Hong Kong Chinese adolescents aged 10 to 24 were invited to participate in an online multiple-choice quiz game competition designed to deliver tobacco-related health information. Participants were encouraged to refer others to join. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to explore the factors contributing to the referral process. Latent transition analysis utilising a pre- and post-game survey was used to detect attitudinal changes toward smoking. RESULTS: The number of participants increased almost eightfold from 121 to 928 (34.6% current or ex-smokers during the 22-day campaign. Participants exhibited significant attitudinal change, with 73% holding negative attitudes toward smoking after the campaign compared to 57% before it. The transition probabilities from positive to negative and neutral to negative attitudes were 0.52 and 0.48, respectively. It was also found that attempting every 20 quiz questions was associated with lower perceived smoking decision in future (OR = 0.95, p-value <0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Our online game-based viral marketing programme was effective in reaching a large number of smoking and non-smoking participants and changing their attitudes toward smoking. It constitutes a promising practical and cost-effective model for engaging young smokers and promulgating smoking-related health information among Chinese adolescents.

  10. The sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators Alligator sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan ZHAO, Hai-Qiong YANG, Li-Ming FANG, Guo-Liang PAN, Wei-Qiang ZOU, Da-Bin REN, Qiu-Hong WAN, Sheng-Guo FANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is one of the most endangered crocodilian species, and typically exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. It is extremely important to clarify the sex structure of Chinese alligators to implement recovery projects successfully. However, the sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators remains unknown. In this study, we collected 28 years of sex ratio data from Chinese alligators residing in the natural and artificial habitats of Changxing Nature Reserve, China, and examined the differences in the sex ratio dynamics between these two populations.We observed that the sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators is 1 male to 4.507 females, which was significantly lower compared to that of the captive population (1 to 2.040; P 0.05. Overall, this study indicates that the stabilized female-biased sex ratio of Changxing Chinese alligators might result from selection pressure caused by local mate competition and major inbreeding [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 725–731, 2013 ].

  11. Counseling Chinese Patients about Cigarette Smoking: The Role of Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han Zao; Zhang, Yu; MacDonell, Karen; Li, Xiao Ping; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses. Design/methodology/approach: At the time of data collection, the hospital had 260 nurses, 255 females and five males. The 200 nurses working on the two daytime shifts were given the…

  12. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  13. Female athletes and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malara Marzena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on human health by affecting the metabolic processes that are of fundamental importance in the body’s functions, such as insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal, as well as lipid and lipoprotein turnover. On the other hand, there is a wealth of studies which indicate that strenuous, regular physical activity, such as that performed by high performance athletes, may be detrimental for the athletes’ health especially in women. This review focuses on the factors that contribute to health problems in female athletes, named the female athlete triad, which includes excessive dieting, menstrual dysfunctions (anovulatory menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea and a low bone mineral density (BMD. As a result of these factors, women who participate in sports, especially those focused on leanness, need special attention and education from health professionals, coaches and the athletes themselves to prevent the detrimental effects of an inadequate energy supply against high energy demands.

  14. Press Reviews of Mei Lanfang in the Soviet Union, 1935, by Female Writers: Neher Versus Shaginyan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Janne

    2016-01-01

    There are two interesting female exceptions to the all-male chorus reviewing the Chinese performer of female roles Mei Lanfang and his troupe in the local newspapers during Mei's Soviet tour in the spring of 1935. One is the well-established Russian writer Marietta Shaginyan (1888-1982), whose re......, and to uncover why Neher's expert professional analysis has so far been unduly and sadly neglected. To further set off their contrasting views of Mei Lanfang and Chinese theatre, I compare these to the more well-known viewpoints of Sergei Tretyakov and Bertolt Brecht....

  15. Hormones and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

  16. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  17. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

  18. Risk for non-smoking-related cancer in atherosclerotic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Olsen, J H

    1999-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and that of cancer have common features, and in addition to tobacco smoking, oxidative stress, diet, and sex hormones have been considered as common etiological factors. To investigate whether there is an association between ath...

  19. Female-female aggression and female mate choice on black grouse leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo

    2000-05-01

    We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  20. INGUINAL HERNIA IN FEMALES

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    9 patients of inguinal hernia in females were diagnosed in a total of 50 patients who presented with congenital groin problems, 8 of these were managed surgically. There were 6 small children, 1 young girl and 2 elderly ladies. All children were managed by herniotomy and herniorrhaphy was done in women. 2 patients under one year presented with irreducible hernia, one of them on exploration was found to be having sliding hernia with incarcerated ovary and tube as contents while other one had i...

  1. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  2. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  3. Not Your Father's Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government's first annual report on the evolution of the Chinese language contains some surprisesThe Chinese people are proud of their language, which they consider the most essential part of their civilization of 5,000 years. The charm of the language includes its ideographic writing system, in which the structure of the characters is directly related

  4. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...

  5. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  6. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  7. Doorway to Chinese Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xi’an,the ancient Chinese capital and modern day metropolis,offers an exciting array of historic attractions and tourist charms The long and extensive history of Xi’an,an ancient Chinese capital,has endowed it with an abundant variety of cultural sites and artifacts,including the

  8. Chinese Conversation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  9. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  10. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  11. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  12. Female entrepreneurial activity in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Annamária DÉZSI-BENYOVSZKI; Tünde Petra SZABÓ; Ágnes NAGY

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the female entrepreneurial activity in Romania. We will compare the socio-demographic characteristics, the entrepreneurial attitudes and perceptions of female early-stage entrepreneurs and the female employees in order to highlight the main differences. Using a logistic regression we will identify the main influencing factors of the probability of becoming a female early-stage entrepreneur.

  13. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  14. The young female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life.

  15. [Female sexual dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Mijal

    2009-09-01

    Female sexual problems are common, frequently overlooked and have a significant impact on the lives of women. Research in the last decade has brought to the understanding and recognition of a number of standpoints, mainly the broad range of normative function. In 2003, the American Urological Association Foundation convened an international committee of experts in the field of women's sexuality, to reconsider the existing definitions of women's sexual dysfunction. Based on the circular response cycle developed by Basson, the group emphasized motivations that might move a woman from being sexually "neutral" to making a decision to be sexual with her partner, as a normative alternative to the need for spontaneous sexual desire as the trigger for sexual behavior. Etiology may stem from medical as well as psychological factors, thus assessment must include a complete evaluation. Treatment includes psycho-education, improvement of interpersonal communication, cognitive behavioral treatment and elucidation and treatment of medical problems, if necessary. Several pharmacological treatments are under investigation, with modest results and uncertainties about their long term safety. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the current diagnostic and therapeutic understandings and directions.

  16. Word-Processor or Pencil-and-Paper? A Comparison of Students' Writing in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Mark Shum, Shiu-Kee; Brian Tse, Shek-Kam; Liu, Jinghui Jack

    2016-01-01

    A study is reported of the performance and attainment of 32 students from overseas studying elementary Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in a Chinese university. With an AB-BA design, they were asked to use two forms of writing media to present two essays: one a word-processed essay entitled "My Favourite Female" and the other a…

  17. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  18. The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In the movement of Chinese indigenous management research, a sort of ‘Chinese exceptionalism’ (as critiqued by Peng, 2005: 133) seems to have been emerging, namely, some Chinese scholars see Chinese culture, philosophy, and way of thinking are unique and cannot be accounted for by some...

  19. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  20. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in western Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Ren, Jiayin; Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Na; Wu, Wanhong; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Hu

    2012-06-10

    The purpose of this study is to provide reference data about estimating dental age from third molars of the western Chinese population for comparing with other populations and being applied to the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents. A total of 2078 digital panoramic radiographs of 989 male and 1089 female Chinese subjects aged between 5 and 23 years were examined. The mineralization status of the third molars was assessed using the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. The results showed that the development of third molars in the western Chinese population was likely to begin at age 5 in both males and females. The third molars 28 and 48 showed significantly higher frequency in females than in males. The third molars 18 in the stage 1, 38 in the stages 1, A and G, and 48 in the stage H showed significantly older average age in females than in males. The Demirjian's stages C and D could be used as a reference stage to determine dichotomously whether a western Chinese is more likely to be under or above age 14 or 16, respectively. This study provided reference data for the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents by the mineralization stages of the third molar. Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons.

  1. [Female athlete triad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Luc; Giusti, Vittorio

    2009-08-05

    The practitioner, as well as specialist such as gynecologist and endocrinologist, may face in their office women with eating disorders, abnormalities of menstrual cycles and low bone mass, which may be the first hints of the female athlete triad. In these situations, the practitioner may search other findings of these triad by looking at some particular physical findings and by using appropriate questionnaire. In some advanced forms of this triad specific abnormalities of eating disorders (anorexia and boulimia) may be present as well as amenorrhea and osteoporosis, which may disturb the well-being and cause health damages of women practising sport either as amateur or in a elite setting. An appropriate handling of such disorders has to be proposed to these women.

  2. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James;

    2012-01-01

    in one entity. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a new entity which is suggested to be defined as Restless Genital Syndrome. Aims.  The aims of this brief review are to give definitions of the different types of FSAD, describe their aetiology, prevalence and comorbidity with somatic....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...... comorbid with other sexual problems and are of biopsychosocial etiology. In the assessment, a thorough sexological history as well as medical and gynecological history and examination are recommended. Treatment should be based on of the symptoms, clinical findings and, if possibly, on underlying etiology...

  3. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both tr

  4. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  5. Acquirement of a new male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiurui; LIU Ling; LIU Mengjun; ZHOU Junyi

    2007-01-01

    A male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),named 'male sterile No.1'(JMS1),was firstly identified from a natural population through studies of pollen amount and vitality and its anatomy.Its microspores got massed and then disaggregated after the tetrad stage during pollen development.Then its anthers became empty,or only pollen vestiges remained in the yellow buds.The pollen became abortive after the tetrad stage.Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tapetum at the tetrad stage were related to pollen abortion.In view of its moderate could be used as a worthwhile female parent in the cross breeding of Chinese jujube.

  6. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  7. HEALTH ATTITUDES OF THE FEMALE STUDENTS FROM OLSZTYN, POLAND - THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, ADDICTIONS AND THE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HEALTH BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to improve the health of the population are now focused on promoting healthy lifestyle, improve living conditions and to reduce mortality. Health education activities include regular physical activity, optimal nutrition, reduce addictions and stress. The purpose of the survey conducted among 672 first-year female students at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland was to determine the attitudes of young women towards a healthy lifestyle. Using anonymous survey questionnaire asked students about the form of physical activity, nutrition, the presence of stressful situations, the use of drugs, such as alcohol and cigarettes, and the interest in deepening knowledge of public health. The majority of students have participated only in obligatory physical education classes in high school and college. They considered that physical activity during the studies should be voluntary. Only 4.24% of students were total abstinence from alcohol, but 79.10% was non-smoking. Many of the women declared the need to change the diet, reducing alcohol intake and give up smoking habit. The students felt that stress connected with attending university is unavoidable, and thus revealed an interest in reducing and limiting mental tension. Despite their young age, students expressed interest in topics such as: first aid course, nutrition, sexuality, and pregnancy problems.

  8. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  9. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  10. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  11. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  12. Ancient Chinese Dress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Chinese archaeologists discov- ered in Zhoukoudian on theoutskirts of Beijing the firstneedle made by Chinese about 18,000years ago.It was about 82 mm longand 3.3 mm in diameter,polishedcarefully and had a hole,showing thatthe Chinese of that time had masteredthe skill of polishing and drilling andcould make clothes ont of animalskins.It Is recorded in The Book of Rites(one of the Confucian classics,includ- ing essays on rites and etiquette of theQin and Han dynasties),compiled byDai Sheng of the Western Han Dy- nasty(206 B.C.-A.D.24),that therehad been no flax or silk in the pastand people wore animal skins or feathers as clothes.That proves that appa-rel appeared earlier than textiles in theChinese culture.

  13. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The feature and development direction of ecological garden city; The problem and countermeasures in urban construction audio-visual file management task;Youth network moral education is imperative;A shallow discussion about moral education penetration in Chinese classroom;

  14. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Compiled by the Central Document Compiling Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CPC), the third volume of the Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping was published by the People’s Publishing House and was issued nationwide on November 2, 1993.

  15. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  16. Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CHINESE people have accu-mulated a great deal ofexperience in architecture,constantly improving building ma-terials and thus creating uniquebuilding styles.The history of ancient Chinesearchitechtural development can be

  17. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  18. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  19. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  20. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  1. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  2. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  3. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  4. CERN's first female firefighter

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the women's changing room in the Fire Station, built in 2005, has always been empty. With the arrival of Séverine Peverelly, CERN's first female firefighter, it now has a purpose. Séverine Peverelly took up her post as a firefighter in April. Séverine, who comes from Gap in France, took up her post as a firefighter in the CERN fire brigade at the beginning of April. "We were looking for a new member," explains David Peyron, Head of the Fire and Rescue Service. It didn't matter if it was a man or a woman; we needed a firefighter with the right skills, and Séverine just happened to have them." With ten years experience working in French fire services, Séverine was looking for a new challenge. "What attracted me to CERN was the international dimension, because that creates additional challenges," she explains. And these can be considerable! For one thing, every country has its own way of worki...

  5. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  6. The necessity of female population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C

    1989-01-01

    Justification for and an illustrative example of female focused population studies in China is given in this article. Many questions which have not been empirically answered have been raised about women. Traditional Chinese social norms favor males over females. How has this tradition affected women's fertility, mortality, lifespan, education, and employment? How is this impact felt and to what extent? Empirical research on women is appropriate for the development of the women's movement. Women's issues are universal, of importance socially, politically, and economically. There have been 3 women's liberation movements: during the 1898 Reformation, the 1911 Revolution, and the May 4th Movement in 1919. In the past 10 years, there have been debates about Chinese women's liberation consciousness. Although women make up 50% of the population, educational levels are still below men and employment options are limited. The changing roles of women and future implications need to be investigated. Reform has benefited women, yet in economically underdeveloped areas of the north and south west there is a higher early marriage rate than in more developed areas. What accounts for this pattern? What is woman's role in reproduction in light of changing government policy? The value of women's contribution to family life and reproduction, and to economic life directly needs to be assessed. Statistical information, even though it has been collected, is not generally published as sex specific figures for urban and rural populations, the nonagricultural population, educational levels, or new employment. This prevents an appraisal of the current status or an assessment of the extent of change in the status of women. The governmental statistical system, the departmental statistical system, and statistical departments of enterprises and institutions such as the All China Federation of Women should make available indices on women. Sources of relevant statistics also need to be increased

  7. Does “Tiger Parenting” Exist? Parenting Profiles of Chinese Americans and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    “Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and s...

  8. Female Consciousness in Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁存

    2014-01-01

    Charlotte Bront is a remarkable women writer in the 19th-century English literature. Jane Eyre received comprehensive attention. This thesis analyzes main characters from three aspects, Jane Eyre’s female consciousness, pursuit of equality, freedom and presents the limitation in Jane Eyre. It also examines the nature of Charlotte Bront?’s pioneering female consciousness and demonstrates its positive development.

  9. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  10. Brain Embolism Secondary to Cardiac Myxoma in Fifteen Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youming Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Heart myxoma-related embolisms commonly involve the central nervous system, but data are lacking in Chinese patients. Methods. 27 patients diagnosed with myxoma were reviewed retrospectively. Results. Among 27 patients, fourteen (51.9% patients were women. Fifteen (55.6% patients had brain embolisms. Rarely, patients were misdiagnosed with central nervous system vasculitis (n = 2, moyamoya disease (n = 1, and neuromyelitis optica (n = 1. We found positive associations between mRS (>3 and female gender (r = 0.873, P10 × 109/L (r = 0.722, P = 0.002, tumour size (r = 0.866, P0.05. Conclusions. Neurologic manifestations in Chinese patients with cardiac myxoma-related stroke were complicated and multifarious. Female gender, infection, other severe complications, low SBP, tumour size, bilateral brain lesions, TACI, and high WBC counts could be associated with a poor prognosis.

  11. Representation of Self among Chinese College Job-hunters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐嗣群

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Some of their researches (Booher, 1988; Smith and Bernhardt, 1996; Munter, 2006) have been concentrated on teaching students writing skills.On the other hand, some of their researches (Lakoff, 1975; Labov, 1990; Coates, 1998) have been carried on about identifying and instantiating possible differences in linguistic styles between males and females.However, little work has been undertaken on investigating gender differences reflected in business letters writing, especially job-application letter, by analyzing the genre components and politeness strategies.In this project, by providing a content analysis of 20 job application letters written by Chinese college job applicants, I try to explore the differences between Chinese male and female college job hunters presented in their job application letters.

  12. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  13. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  14. Thoughts on the World Conference on Women. A Chinese woman writes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, R

    1995-01-01

    Increasing social consciousness about human rights issues in China has, in turn, stimulated Chinese women's awareness of their individual rights. The Chinese government, however, has maintained tight control over the dissemination of feminist ideas and restricted media coverage of the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995. To discredit feminism, Chinese officials link it with sexual liberation, single motherhood, and lesbianism. Nonetheless, there is a new awareness that government statistics on the high rates of female employment conceal the reality that Chinese women are concentrated in low-paying, low-status occupations. In contrast to official propaganda, a United Nations Development Report ranked China 23rd in the world for women's participation in politics and the economy. In the course of preparing for the World Conference, a few nonofficial, grass-roots Chinese women's organizations were able to present their ideas.

  15. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their

  16. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate

    for asymmetric games when some valuations are zero. In that case we prove that the auctioneer can stabilize the game by placing his own ticket in each basket. On the other hand, when all the valuations are strictly positive, a pure Nash equilibrium is guaranteed to exist, and the equilibrium strategies......Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...... are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural...

  17. Ancient Chinese Landscape Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    IN the past decade,the worldhas suddenly discovered thewonders of Chinese landscapegardening and garden architecture,and places like New York,Singaporeand London have all built Chinese-style gardens.The architectural stylespecial to Chinese gardens has,infact,developed·a“school”of itsown.In China,the landscaped gardenhas long been a part of culture,andliterature,painting,philosophy,cal-ligraphy and folk customs have alldealt with it at one time or another.Two categories of garden architec-ture exist:the imperial garden andthe private garden.The former is,ofcourse,grand and palatial and occu-pies large tracts of land,while the

  18. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  19. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  20. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  1. Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Katharina; Dörfler, Daniela Marianne

    2013-12-01

    "Female genital circumcision" or "female genital mutilation", as it is called more often, is an operation that is primarily carried out in Africa. Owing to migration, physicians are increasingly confronted with this issue in Western countries as well. A range of negative effects may result from this operation and this article aims to address consequences for female pelvic health. Special emphasis is placed on urogynaecological health consequences; in particular, on "voiding difficulties", "recurrent urinary tract infections" and "vesicovaginal fistula". All of these occur mostly in infibulated women, i.e. in women whose genitalia are sealed by the most severe form of circumcision. Some of the problems that may emerge as a result of the operation can be resolved by defibulation (i.e. surgical reopening of the sealed vulva). Female genital circumcision is a sensitive topic even in the area of research and reliable data are therefore scarce.

  2. Postmating Female Control: 20 Years of Cryptic Female Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Renée C; Gasparini, Clelia; Manier, Mollie K; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2017-03-16

    Cryptic female choice (CFC) represents postmating intersexual selection arising from female-driven mechanisms at or after mating that bias sperm use and impact male paternity share. Although biologists began to study CFC relatively late, largely spurred by Eberhard's book published 20 years ago, the field has grown rapidly since then. Here, we review empirical progress to show that numerous female processes offer potential for CFC, from mating through to fertilization, although seldom has CFC been clearly demonstrated. We then evaluate functional implications, and argue that, under some conditions, CFC might have repercussions for female fitness, sexual conflict, and intersexual coevolution, with ramifications for related evolutionary phenomena, such as speciation. We conclude by identifying directions for future research in this rapidly growing field.

  3. Sleep Quality among Female Hospital Staff Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Li Chien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate sleep quality of hospital staff nurses, both by subjective questionnaire and objective measures. Methods. Female staff nurses at a regional teaching hospital in Northern Taiwan were recruited. The Chinese version of the pittsburgh sleep quality index (C-PSQI was used to assess subjective sleep quality, and an electrocardiogram-based cardiopulmonary coupling (CPC technique was used to analyze objective sleep stability. Work stress was assessed using questionnaire on medical worker’s stress. Results. A total of 156 staff nurses completed the study. Among the staff nurses, 75.8% (117 had a PSQI score of ≥5 and 39.8% had an inadequate stable sleep ratio on subjective measures. Nurses with a high school or lower educational degree had a much higher risk of sleep disturbance when compared to nurses with a college or higher level degree. Conclusions. Both subjective and objective measures demonstrated that poor sleep quality is a common health problem among hospital staff nurses. More studies are warranted on this important issue to discover possible factors and therefore to develop a systemic strategy to cope with the problem.

  4. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  5. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  6. How Iconic Are Chinese Characters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The study explores the notion that some Chinese characters contain pictorial indications of meanings that can be used to help retrieve the referent. Thirty adults with no prior knowledge of Chinese guessed the meanings of twenty Chinese characters by choosing between one of two photographs. Half of the characters were considered to be iconic and…

  7. Directory of Chinese American Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese American Librarians Association, River Forest, IL.

    This directory was compiled by the Chinese American Librarians Association based on replies to questionnaires sent to more than 500 Chinese American librarians in the United States and research based on secondary sources. Information provided on each person includes: name, name in Chinese, position/title, institution, institution's address, field…

  8. Chinese Contemporary Art: Ink Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiDaojian

    2003-01-01

    Chinese ink painting is an age-old art tradition that embodies distinctive characteristics of Chinese culture. In these exquisite paintings, artists integrate nature and everyday life to show how the two exist in harmonyalso a frequent theme in Chinese philosophy.

  9. The influence and clinical significance of different pacing modes on central aortic pressure and augmentation index in non-smoking individuals%非吸烟患者不同起搏模式对中心动脉压和动脉波增强指数的影响及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪帅; 李广平; 叶岚; 阎哲慧

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence and clinical significance of single and dual-chamber pacing on central aortic pressure (CAP) and augmentation index (AI) in non-smoking individuals. Methods Totally, 83 non-smokers with pacemaker-implanted were consecutively enrolled in this study, and they were divided into three groups:dual-chamber pacemaker group (DDD, n=35), single-chamber pacemaker group (VVI, n=33) and control group (n=15). Heart rate (HR), CAP, AI, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured in three groups of patients. Finally, DDD pacing mode was turned into VVI pacing mode in patients of DDD group and the indexes were measured again. All of the indexes were recorded and analyzed. Results There were no significant changes in baseline characteristics and laboratory data between three groups (P>0.05). Left atrial diameters were significantly higher in VVI group than those of control group (P0.05). All of these indexes (CAP, AI and brachial BP) were significantly reduced after the pacing mode was changed (P<0.05). Conclusion In non-smokers, dual-chamber pacing mode can increase CAP and AI.%目的:探讨非吸烟患者单腔和双腔起搏对中心动脉压(CAP)和动脉波增强指数(AI)的影响及临床意义。方法入选因缓慢性心律失常入院并植入起搏器的非吸烟患者83例,并将其分为双腔起搏器患者35例(DDD组),单腔起搏器患者33例(VVI组),术后正常窦性心律者15例(对照组),分别测量3组患者的心率(HR)、CAP、AI、外周收缩压(SBP)、外周舒张压(DBP)等指标,然后对DDD组患者的起搏器进行程控,将DDD模式程控成VVI模式,待患者心率稳定后测量以上指标。结果3组患者一般情况和实验室指标比较差异均无统计学意义。VVI组左心房直径大于对照组(P<0.05);DDD组CAP明显高于对照组和VVI组(P<0.05);DDD组AI、校正AI(AIC)和

  10. 吸烟和不吸烟急性心肌梗死患者住院期间焦虑、抑郁水平的比较%Comparison of the anxiety and depression level between non-smoking and smoking acute myocardial infarction patients in hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹淼; 张海咏; 肖树芹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the psychological stress between non-smoking AMI patients and smoking patients in the CCU.Methods A cross-sectional survey was piloted on a sample of 74 AMI patients (33 smokers and 41 non-smokers) in the CCU.Psychological stress was measured the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-rating Depression Scale(SDS).Results Among 74 patients,75.68% had anxiety symptoms,63.51% had depression symptoms; The scores of SAS and SDS in smokers were (64.39 ± 15.39),(65.80 ±15.39),the scores of SAS and SDS in non-smokers were (52.50 ± 6.55 ),(53.96 ± 5.32) ; Smokers reported higher anxiety and depression levels than nonsmokers reported on both scales,the statistics was significant( t =4.15,4.87 ; P < 0.01 ) ; more severe anxiety and depression in smokers.Conclusions Smoking patients with AMI symptoms are exposed higher levels of anxiety and depression.Nurses should pay more attention to these patients,and give them the well targeted preventive measures.%目的 探讨吸烟和不吸烟的急性心肌梗死(AMI)患者在入住心脏监护室(CCU)期间压力水平的差异.方法 选择在CCU住院的AMI患者74例,根据患者是否吸烟分为吸烟组(n=33)和不吸烟组(n=41),采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)调查患者的焦虑、抑郁状况.结果 74例患者中有焦虑症状的占75.68%,有抑郁症状的占63.51%;吸烟组患者的SAS、SDS评分分别为(64.39±15.39),(65.80±15.39)分,不吸烟组的SAS、SDS评分分别为(52.50±6.55),(53.96±5.32)分;吸烟组焦虑、抑郁程度高于不吸烟组,差异均有统计学意义(t=4.15,4.87;P <0.01);且吸烟组重度焦虑、抑郁发生率较高.结论 吸烟的AMI患者在入住CCU期间表现出更高的焦虑、抑郁水平,护理人员应给予重视,进行有针对性的干预.

  11. Central Corneal Thickness in Adult Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The central corneal thickness (CCT) in age 48 years or less of Chinese was characterized and its relationship with gender, age, refraction and intraocular pressure (IOP) was investigated.Right eyes of 1669 participants were included in this study (880 men, 52.7 % and 789 women,47.3 %). Mean age of the samples was 23.8±5.9 years. After the examination of corneal topography and refraction, Goldman applanation tonometry was carried out by one physician. Tonometric values were the mean of three consecutive readings. Subsequently, another physician carried out ultrasonic pachymetry with the DGH 2000 AP ultrasonic pachymeter. Six measuremen ts were made at the center of the cornea of each eye. The mean value was used for analysis. The results showed that mean CCT of male participants was 551.33± 34. 62 μm, 5.79 μm more than that of female participants. Linear regression analyses revealed that CCT was negatively related with age only in female and no association was found between refractive status and CCT. IOP was positively related to CCT, and there was a difference in IOP of 1.5 mmHg (1 mmHg=0. 133 kPa) per 100 μm difference in CCT. Ocular hypertension group was prone to have thicker cornea than average. The results indicated that in adult Chinese CCT tended to decrease with aging in female only. IOP measured by Goldmann tonometry was positively related with CCT so that CCT should be measured along with IOP.

  12. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  13. Increasing obesity in treated female HIV patients from Sub-Saharan Africa: Potential causes and possible targets for intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMcCormick

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To investigate changing nutritional demographics of treated HIV-1-infected patients and explore causes of obesity, particularly in women of African origin.Methods We prospectively reviewed nutritional demographics of clinic attenders at an urban European HIV clinic during four one-month periods at 3-yearly intervals (2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010 and in two consecutive whole-year reviews (2010-11 and 2011-12. Risk-factors for obesity were assessed by multiple linear regression. A sub-study of 50 HIV-positive African female patients investigated body-size/shape perception using numerical, verbal and pictorial cues. Results We found a dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2, from 8.5% (2001 to 28% (2011-12 for all clinic attenders, of whom 86% were on antiretroviral treatment. Women of African origin were most affected, 49% being obese, with a further 32% overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2, in 2012. Clinical factors strongly associated with obesity included female gender, black African ethnicity, non-smoking, age and CD4 count (all P<0.001; greater duration of cART did not predict obesity. Individual weight-time trends mostly showed slow long-term progressive weight gain. Investigating body weight perception, we found that weight and adiposity were underestimated by obese subjects, who showed a greater disparity between perceived and actual adiposity (P<0.001. Obese subjects targeted more obese target ideal body shapes (P<0.01, but were less satisfied with their body shape overall (P=0.02. Conclusions Seropositive African women on antiretroviral treatment are at heightened risk of obesity. Although multifactorial, bodyweight perception represents a potential target for intervention.

  14. Self-Esteem as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Social Support and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Zhao, Jingjing; You, Xuqun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined both the mediating and moderating effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between social support and subjective well-being among Chinese university students. Three hundred and ninety-one university students (260 males and 131 females) from two different Chinese universities completed the social support scale, the…

  15. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  16. Changes on Human Spirits Discussion on World Values of Novels Looking at the Sky and Beyond the Sky by Chinese Dutch Female Writer Lin Mei%以社会众生灵魂相探究“人类精神”生态嬗变--荷兰华裔女作家林湄长篇小说《天望》《天外》的世界性价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红旗

    2016-01-01

    《天望》《天外》是荷兰华裔女作家林湄,运用俯仰天地的特殊“边缘”视角,超越时空与文化的跨国界、跨宗教、跨文体的写作方式,以隐喻的诗哲性语言、博爱的性别关怀伦理,书写曾经领跑世界现代文明的欧洲这一片人文沃土,华丽表层之下弥漫着自然与精神的重重雾霾,导致生存与此的人类患上极度的恐惧焦虑症。在这两部作品里,林湄关于灵魂与人性、时空与存在、家国与宗教、钱权与欲望、有限与无限等等哲学问题的沉思,以东西方人性的情感世界内核、婚姻家庭物象的文学叙事,走进了社会众生的一个个灵魂的秘境深处。并以一代代人的灵魂镜像群,寻找人类之爱的心性同构,探究“人类精神”生态之嬗变的世界性意义。%Looking at the Sky and Beyond the Sky are two novels that is written by Chinese Dutch female writer Lin Mei. With a trans-border, interfaith and across-genre writing method, the author, from a special marginal perspective, tries to show us a real Europe, which once led to the world’s modern civilization, is filled with natural and spiritual degradation under its gorgeous surface, leaving the citizens suffering from the extreme fear and anxiety. In these two books, Lin ponders over the philosophical problems of the soul and humanity, time, space and existence, home and religion, and money, rights and desire, as well as the finite and infinite. With the literary narration of emotional world, marriage and family of humanity in western and eastern world, Lin also delves into the deep inside of human beings. At the same time, she also tries to find the heart isomorphism for the love from human mirror groups, so as to explore the world values of changes on human spirits. .

  17. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  18. Foreign female immigrants in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Fakiolas, Rossetos

    2000-01-01

    Strong push, pull and network formation factors account for the over 600,000 foreign immigrants, mostly economic and with irregular status, who have been since the early 1990s in Greece, a traditionally emigration country. Over a quarter of them are females who have come alone, marking the new trend in female migration. And like their male counterparts, they find jobs due to their wage and job flexibility. The recent Greek policy to regularise irregular or undocumented immigrants (UI), that i...

  19. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    Objectif : Renforcer le cadre national des soins offerts aux adolescentes et aux femmes affectées par l’excision génitale féminine (EGF) au Canada en fournissant aux professionnels de la santé : (1) des renseignements ayant pour but d’approfondir leur compréhension de cette pratique et leurs connaissances à ce sujet; (2) des consignes quant aux aspects légaux liés à cette pratique; (3) des directives cliniques pour la gestion des soins obstétricaux et gynécologiques, y compris la prise en charge des complications liées à l’EGF; et (4) des conseils quant à l’offre de soins compétents au plan culturel aux adolescentes et aux femmes ayant subi une EGF. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en septembre 2010 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « Circumcision », « Female ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « female genital mutilation », « clitoridectomy », « infibulation ») appropriés. Nous avons également mené des recherches dans Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database et ProQuest Dissertations and Theses en 2010 et en 2011. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en décembre 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins

  20. Aetiological factors in oesophageal cancer in Singapore Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, U W; Breslow, N; Hong, J G; Sridharan, M; Shanmugaratnam, K

    1974-03-15

    Analysis of a hospital-based case-control study of esophageal cancer among Singapore Chinese (composed of Cantonese, Hokkien, Teochew, and other dialect groups) revealed the following statistically significant risk factors for both sexes: 1) belonging to either Hokkien or Teochew dialect group; 2) consuming beverages at temperatures stated subjectively to be burning hot before illness; and 3) smoking Chinese cigarettes. Additional risk factors for males were birth in China and consumption of Samsu (Chinese wine). Bread, potato, and banana consumption was reported at significantly lower levels in male esophagus cancer patients than controls. Esophageal cancer was less common in males who attended school for more than 8 years. Multivariate analysis (joint influence of selected variables) confirmed the strong effects of dialect group and beverage temperature for both sexes. For females, Chinese cigarette smoking remained a risk factor; for males, Samsu consumption. Smoking western cigarettes and drinking strong liquors were not significantly related for either sex. These findings suggest that esophageal cancer is more likely to occur among traditional Chinese who maintain dietary patterns which include Samsu and scalding beverages but avoid bland foodstuffs not native to the culture. The greater risk in Teochew and Hokkien may be due in part to beverage temperature, since "burning hot" was cited more frequently in these dialect groups. However, these differences are based on subjective impressions and require further verification.

  1. Maternal investment and reproductive success in Chinese water deer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiane MAUGET; Robert MAUGET

    2009-01-01

    Among cervids, maternal investment, estimated as the amount of resources and care allocated to the offspring, was expected to be related to species body size. Therefore, maternal investment in a herd of captive Chinese water deer Hydropotes inermis, a relatively small species of cervid, was investigated over 3 years. Except during the lactation period, reproductive females spent about 2-fold more time resting than feeding. During lactation, the amount of time spent feeding increased highly (25.3 min/h during lactation vs 17.3 min/h during the gestation period). Females spent less than 30% of time in communal behaviours with offspring. They did not reject alien fawns during this care period. Frequency and duration of suckling events decreased exponentially from the second week onwards. More than 10% of suckling bouts were non-filial. Prenatal investment leads to a mean litter mass (about 12% of maternal mass) higher than in most cervid species. Postnatal investment in fawns represents a daily mass gain of ca. 85 g/d during the first 2 weeks, without any sexual difference. Female production, timing and synchrony of births and survival of fawns characterized reproductive success. Seventy percent of mature females gave birth, with a mean of 1.9 offspring per female. The sex ratio was even. Births were synchronous, 80% of births occurring in 25 days. In this herd, 0.74 fawn per female was successfully weaned and 0.56 fawn per female survived through their first year. Based on these results we conclude that reproductive strategy of Chinese water deer was efficient and characterized by mother-offspring relationships typical of hiders and high levels of pre- and postnatal investments. This strategy seems typical of small species of cervids without marked sexual dimorphism.[Current Zoology 55(2):102-110,2009].

  2. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  3. Chinese Commercial Negotiating Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    the importance of whatever activities they are a part of-a form of Sinocentrism --and relations among all others belong to the periphery of the Chinese...Siemens, 22 73-74 "Silent Treatment," 68-69 Trade agreements, 4. See a/so Singapore, 32 Agreements; Compensatory Sinocentrism , 86 trade I----- Index / 105

  4. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  5. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  6. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  7. Milestone for Chinese physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Chinese scientists have discovered a new particle predicted decades ago but never observed before. It could be what was once called the "multi-quark state," tiny elementary particles with a strong interaction or force that serves as the source of nuclear energy (1/2 page).

  8. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  9. Chinese court case fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    established as early as the 6th Century AD, whereas the first substantial evidence of the tradition is from 13th Century and the first Chinese crime fiction novels were written during the 17th Century. This article is, then, a corrective for the international history of crime fiction based on numerous...

  10. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Corbiere

    2013-01-01

    <正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in

  11. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Li Yiyi, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of Shenyang Metal Research Institute, has developed a new system for creating a low temperature and high pressure anti-hydrogen material in the research of engineering material. She has also been successful in her research of various types of steel.

  12. Chinese Students' Constructive Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Last June the author, a teacher of political theory at Tsinghua University, was asked by a Canadian television crew to get hold of some students for a special on modern China. During the discussion, the author observed that his Chinese students express a thoughtful and informed nationalism, and a distrust of Western-style democracy. Some of the…

  13. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese Ethnic Park, divided into two parts, occupies 45 hectares. The northern section, which opened first, occupies 20 hectares, featuring 16 ethnic villages where people can enjoy indigenous music and dance. About 200 performers working in the village represent a number of minority nationalities. Their performances are based on local custom, and mostly comprise greeting and bidding

  14. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  15. Chinese Lacquer Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengXiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the

  16. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  17. Chinese Decorative Coatings Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Growth prospects The Chinese market for decorative coatings, excluding non-architectural products such as industrial varnishes,marine paint and other industrially applied coatings, has been growing byaround 10% annually and was estimated to be worth Eurol.3 billion a year, with an annual per capita consumption of just less than 1 liter ofpaint.

  18. SWOT analysis - Chinese Petroleum

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  19. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Lan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000, an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework. Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement, history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain

  20. Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, E. Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes (“seeds”) as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis, and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research. Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine. In this article, prominent historical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine are chronologically reviewed, and indications found in ancient Chinese literature that may relate to cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ9-THC are investigated. PMID:28344554

  1. Strategies for piloting a breast health promotion program in the Chinese-Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Fung Kuen; Kwok, Cannas; White, Kate; D'Abrew, Natalie; Roydhouse, Jessica K

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, women from non-English-speaking backgrounds participate less frequently in breast cancer screening than English-speaking women, and Chinese immigrant women are 50% less likely to participate in breast examinations than Australian-born women. Chinese-born Australians comprise 10% of the overseas-born Australian population, and the immigrant Chinese population in Australia is rapidly increasing. We report on the strategies used in a pilot breast health promotion program, Living with Healthy Breasts, aimed at Cantonese-speaking adult immigrant women in Sydney, Australia. The program consisted of a 1-day education session and a 2-hour follow-up session. We used 5 types of strategies commonly used for cultural targeting (peripheral, evidential, sociocultural, linguistic, and constituent-involving) in a framework of traditional Chinese philosophies (Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism) to deliver breast health messages to Chinese-Australian immigrant women. Creating the program's content and materials required careful consideration of color (pink to indicate femininity and love), symbols (peach blossoms to imply longevity), word choice (avoidance of the word death), location and timing (held in a Chinese restaurant a few months after the Chinese New Year), communication patterns (the use of metaphors and cartoons for discussing health-related matters), and concern for modesty (emphasizing that all presenters and team members were female) to maximize cultural relevance. Using these strategies may be beneficial for designing and implementing breast cancer prevention programs in Cantonese-speaking Chinese immigrant communities.

  2. Cultures unfolding: experiences of Chinese-Hungarian mixed couples in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kovács

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The research outlined in this paper focuses on a subfield related to Chinese migrants’ integration in Hungary: Chinese-Hungarian mixed partner relationships. I present some findings of an anthropological study on Chinese-Hungarian couples in Hungary, although other localities may also be involved in some of these couples’ lives. Participants and procedure Based on interviews conducted with members of Chinese-Hungarian married, cohabiting and dating, separated or divorced couples, and on data gathered through predominantly online fieldwork, this research explores notions and values that are at play in shaping the dynamics of these relations. Results The sample of thirty-seven couples features two characteristically different types of relationships: those referred to as “student love”, and the relationships of “typical” Chinese migrants with Hungarians. The former tend to be much more successful and persistent in time, with two cases of divorce or separation out of sixteen, whereas the latter are considerably less persistent, with eight cases of divorce or separation and two cases of crises out of thirteen bonds. Another notable finding is that Chinese-Hungarian marriages are much more persistent in time if the Chinese partner is female. Conclusions The paper consists of the following consecutive parts: an introduction to the Chinese migrant context and inter-ethnic partner relations in Hungary; a review of relevant literature; presentation of research methods and fieldwork; presentation and discussion of the research sample; presentation of some results from the interviews; and conclusions.

  3. Female sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1996-01-01

    It is observed that the working activity period has recently been decreasing in Poland; this applies to both the male and female populations. Since women constitute 48% of all workers employed in the national economy, this tendency may pose an important problem for the community and public health. The main information source for the absenteeism analysis are medical certificates which in Poland obligatorily document every instance of a sick-leave from work, irrespective of the length of sickness. A 15% random sample of all sickness certificates constitutes a database for the monitoring system of sickness absence. The lost time rate is the main parameter analysed by the system. In 1994 the rate of female sickness absence in Poland amounted to 25.1 days per one employee. In Poland the main causes of female sickness absence are: respiratory diseases--18% of all sickness absence (in the 16-19 age group--49%), and disorders of female genital tract and complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium (17% of all sickness absence and 48% in the 20-29 age group). The most important chronic diseases that substantially contribute to the level of sickness absence include: musculoskeletal diseases (15%), diseases of the circulatory system (15%) and the nervous system and sense organs (11%). Over the period of 1990-1994 the highest rate of the female sickness absence related to gynecological diseases and pregnancy complications (mean annual increase--22%), and the musculoskeletal diseases (mean annual increase--10%).

  4. Female Consumers Recreational Shopping Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjot Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the core meaning of intrinsic shopping to understand their experimental aspects of recreational and leisure shopping. The study focus only on female shoppers of age group ranging from 25-30, and understand their mall experiences because this segment is newly transform into self dependent segment which have less social and familial liabilities and have enough enthusiasm to explore the world or their boundaries. The Grounded theory use for identification of recreational shopping themes which are (a seeking experiences and (b experimental shopping and each have respective sub themes. The themes are connected to the key idea that shoppers are motivated by their expectations and desires. The study uses social constructivism to find and understand the shopper meanings in real terms rather than imposing and judgment on them. The findings described the way people do recreational shopping and how shopping malls use as leisure space and become facilitators of recreational shopping activities. Females use malls to fulfill their recreational and leisure shopping experiences as this is the great way of enjoying shopping for females of small towns. In malls females not only enjoy product experiences but services experiences also which makes their shopping interesting. The way the female of this age category use malls help the marketers and retailers to understand this segment shopping patterns.

  5. Chinese Yuan after Chinese Exchange Rate System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eiji Ogawa; Michiru Sakane

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the actual exchange rate policy conducted by the Chinese government after the Chinese exchange rate system reform on 21 July 2005 is investigated. Also, the long-run effect is investigated, including the Balassa-Samuelson effect on the Chinese yuan. It was found that the Chinese government generated a statistically significant but small change in exchange rate policy during the sample period until 25 January 2006. It was not identifted that the Chinese monetary authority is adopting the currency basket system because the change is too small in the economic sense. It is indicated that the Chinese government should take account of the productivity growth of countries composing the currency basket in order to operate a currency basket regime.

  6. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brazdova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  7. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  8. An Interpretation of the Females in Patriarchal Society in Eat A Bow of Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yuan-qing

    2016-01-01

    Louis Chu is a pioneer of the Asian American literature whose only novel , Eat A Bowl of Tea has taken an important position in and has even been reagrded as a literary landmark both in Chinese and in American literature. This paper aims to ex-plore the fate of two female characters Lau Shee and Mei Oi in the patriarchal society and Louis Chu's ambivalence towards pa-triarchy reflected from his characterization of the female characters. The obedient Lau Shee embodies the patriarchal virtuous women. Mei Oi stands for the new-type women's immature rebellion against the patriarchal authority. They two are the represen-tatives of the true Chinese women in the 1940s.

  9. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  10. Shanxi Female Social Security Situation and Countermeasure Research:Based on the 3rd Survey Data of the Chinese Women ’ s Social Status%山西女性社会保障状况及对策研究--基于第三期中国妇女社会地位调查调研数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽; 陕劲松

    2014-01-01

    The 3 rd suvvey of Chiese women ’ s social status shows that Shanxi Province have done a lot of work In the aspect of social security ,but the social security coverage still be narrow and difficult.The pension , unemploy-ment and medical insurance of the female worker in private enterprise are not guaranteed.Violation of female work-er’s rights is often happened.Their special rights and interests are not protected.Women’s social security issues of Shanxi Province become more prominent.Preventive care and health education is difficult to implement in rural are-as.More efforts needed to boost the economic development ,more attention needeal to pay the rural ’ s women social security,in order to promote women ’ s social status.%第三期中国妇女社会地位调查调研结果表明,山西在社会保障方面做了大量的工作,但是社会保障覆盖面还较窄,扩大覆盖面有难度,私营企业的女职工养老、失业、医疗等保险得不到保证,非公有制企业女职工参加社会保险人数偏少,女职工特殊权益得不到保护。农村社会保障尤为薄弱,农村妇女的社会保障问题更加突出,预防保健和健康教育难以落实。需要不断促进经济发展,更加注重农村妇女的社会保障权益来提升妇女社会地位。

  11. I-Ching, Chinese Thinking Mode And Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧媛

    2013-01-01

      I-Ching regards human-being as an integral part of nature and stresses the relative complimentary of the two opposing principles of nature, Yin and Yang. Therefore, under the influence of I-Ching, the Chinese thinking mode is different from the west-erners’. The Chinese thinking pattern is holistic, dynamic and abstract, but lacking logic and inference. The Chinese tend to express their ideas succinctly in a few simple remarks. Consequently Chinese is a concise and comprehensive language full of hint and ambiguity.

  12. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...... that contemporary China studies have increasingly developed into a collective effort and that no scholar conducts his/her research in a vacuum devoid of dept to other contributions in the field. The paper will focus on the period since the Cultural Revolution. Consequently, we will not attempt a discussion...

  13. Worry, General Self-Efficacy and School Achievement: An Exploratory Study with Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Natalia Yuen Yi; Westwood, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study identified issues in school--and in life outside school--that caused significant worry for 120 Chinese adolescents (72 males, 48 females) attending a secondary school in Hong Kong. The study explored relationships existing among 3 variables comprising degree of worry, students' general self-efficacy, and their academic achievement.…

  14. Craniofacial morphological characteristics of Chinese adults with normal occlusion and different skeletal divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Danna; Gao, Hui; Ren, Yijin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the craniofacial morphologic characteristics of different vertical dysplasias in a population of Chinese adults with normal occlusion. Sixty-nine subjects (39 males and 30 females) were selected from 800 healthy students between 18 and 24 years of age. Lat

  15. Association analysis of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene polymorphisms with early-onset schizophrenia in Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕钦谕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the tyrosine hydroxylase(TH)gene and early-onset schizophrenia in Chinese Han population.Methods To tag single nucleotide polymorphisms(tag SNPs)rs2070762,rs6356 and rs11042978 in the TH gene were genotyped in 315 early-onset schizophrenics(188 male patients,127 female patients)and 391 controls subjects

  16. Effect of a Chinese herb medicine formulation, as an alternative for antibiotics, on performance of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Soede, J.; Williams, B.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    1. A total of 720 female broiler chicks was used to test the effects of 4 dietary concentrations of a Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formulation (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg), as an alternative for virginiamycin (VRG), on growth performance in broilers. 2. A total of 72 birds from non-supplemented, VRG a

  17. The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was…

  18. Career Decision-Making, Career Barriers and Occupational Aspirations in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Peter A.; Wong, Oi Yin; Hood, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The study tested the relationship between occupational aspirations/expectations (type and status) and decision-making difficulties, efficacy and career barriers in 498 Chinese high school students. Males aspired to investigative and enterprising types, but expected realistic and enterprising ones; females aspired to enterprising and conventional…

  19. Validation of the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale in a Sample of Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shengquan

    2007-01-01

    The study aims at validating the Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale (TSWLS; Pavot et al., 1998, "The Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale", Journal of Personality Assessment 70, pp. 340-354) in a non-western context. Data from 646 Chinese university students (330 females and 316 males) supported the three-factor structure of the TSWLS.…

  20. Empirical Research on Factors Related to the Subjective Well-Being of Chinese Urban Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peigang; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2011-01-01

    Data from the China General Social Survey are used in order to investigate the factors that are related to the subjective well-being of Chinese urban residents. Factors predicting higher subjective well-being include female gender, high-income class, marriage, employment, fashionable consumption, less sense of relative deprivation, and party…

  1. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Discoverer of the Origin of Life The origin of life on earth has long been a subject explored by scientists around the world. At the 11th International Conference on the Origin of Life held at Orleans University in France on July 9th, 1996, Chinese scientist Zhao Yufen and her partner Cao Peisheng announced the contents of the origin of the seed of life.

  2. INSET for Chinese Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 陈涛; 刘子春

    2007-01-01

    By setting examples,giving tables or taxonomy and so on,the thesis mainly explains the eight general INSET ( in-service teacher training) principles,including Participation,Sympathetic to the context,Teachers' attitude change,Integration of approaches,Communication and support,Evaluation and follow-up,Adequate timescale,then especially concentrate on the problems and solutions to Chinese teacher in using the INSET principles.

  3. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  4. My Chinese Teacher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金平; 郭克晴

    2002-01-01

    I have already been a student for about six and half years.So many teachers have taught me.I like them all,but the best one I like is my Chinese teacher,Mr Liu.He is more than thirty years old.He is a little short man,but he is really a good teacher and we all love him.

  5. The Developing Chinese Garment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1997-01-01

    CHINA is a country with a 5,000-year history and a population of 1.2 billion people. Clothing plays an important role in Chinese people’s cultural and social life. Since the reform and opening up in the 1980s, the garment industry has greatly developed and has increased progressively by an average of 15.7 percent a year. In the past 10 years particularly, township-run garment production enterprises have suddenly come to the fore,

  6. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dutch-based information provider expands in China to tap new market There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them. "You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,

  7. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2011-01-01

    There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them."You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,Wolters Kluwer China CEO.

  8. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  9. Cultural Conflict Mirrored by the Female Characters in the Woman Warrior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙贻红

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing the contradiction between the first immigrant American Chinese women and their America-born children as well as the inner emotional dilemma within the second immigrant women,this paper attempts to explore the cultural conflict manifested by female characters in The Woman Warrior,demonstrating the American immigrant women’s depression,desperation and bitterness in their adaptation to a new circumstance.

  10. REQUESTS IN CHINESE AND ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sociolinguistic competence is essential for foreign languagelearners to acquire effective communication becausecommunication is subject to social appropriateness.Differentlanguages,however,have different sociallinguistic rules(Wolfson,1989),the knowledge as to what is appropriate tosay to whom,and under what conditions.This paper attemptsto study requests in Chinese and English contrastively,in orderto account for the Chinese transfer influence and the pragmaticfailure in the use of English by Chinese students of English,andto draw pedagogical implications.

  11. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of mode...

  12. I Married a Chinese Woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEPHEN SAYERS

    1997-01-01

    He became known all over China because of his appearance on the national television competition "Foreigners Singing Chinese Songs."Dressed in traditional Chinese costume and accompanied by his Chinese wife,he Chinese Girl."In this article,Stephen Sayers tells about his marriage and his personal feelings during his five years in China,Stephen and his wife Candy just moved to Macao in July.In arecent letter he asked the editor to give the money for this article to the education-aiding"Hope project" and specified it for Guizhou.

  13. Statistical distribution of Chinese names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jin-Zhong; Chen Qing-Hua; Wang You-Gui

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the statistical characteristics of Chinese surnames,first names and full names based on a credible sample.The distribution of Chinese surnames,unlike that in any other countries,shows an exponential pattern in the top part and a power-law pattern in the tail part.The distributions of Chinese first names and full names have the characteristics of a power law with different exponents.Finally,the interrelation of the first name and the surname is demonstrated by using a computer simulation and an exhibition of the name network.Chinese people take the surname into account when they choose a first name for somebody.

  14. An Update on Gifted Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses selected issues and literature concerning gifted female students, examining achievement and aptitude, career choice, self-perceptions of ability, course taking, parental influences, the glamorization of sex differences, stereotyping, effects of classroom groupings and teaching strategies, and effects of single-sex schools and…

  15. Archetypes of Outstanding Female Superintendents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen

    This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…

  16. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... designed to produce, nourish, and transport either the egg or sperm. Unlike the male, the human female has a ... male gonads produce male gametes (sperm). After an egg is fertilized by the sperm, the fertilized egg is called the zygote (pronounced: ...

  17. Charismatic female leadership and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi

    2015-01-01

    , socio-economic characteristics and the voters' attitudes towards issues such as immigration, those that analyse the role and position of gender issues are still rare. Similarly, or even more, overlooked is an analysis of the rhetoric, style, charisma and discourse of populist female leaders...

  18. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  19. 汉族女性精神分裂症首发患者利培酮治疗所致闭经的危险因素%Risk factors for medication-induced amenorrhea in first-episode female Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海支; 任丽华; 沈仲夏; 钱敏才; 沈鑫华; 杨胜良; 杨剑虹; 宋娟芬; 费小聪; 陶百平; 宋宝华

    2013-01-01

    Background:Amenorrhea is a common adverse effect of treatment with antipsychotic medications that influences both fertility and adherence to medication regimens. Most research suggests that medication-induced prolactinemia is the main cause of amenorrhea but few prospective studies have assessed this hypothesis. Aim:Identify risk factors for amenorrhea following treatment with antipsychotic medication. Methods:The study used a prospective, nested case-control design. First-episode, drug naïve female patients with schizophrenia who were in the middle of their menstrual cycle at the time of admission were enrolled. Serum levels of six reproductive hormones were assessed before and after a 12-week course of treatment with risperidone:progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone. The hormone levels of 31 patients who had no menstruation during the entire 12 weeks of treatment (the amenorrhea group) were compared to those of 31 age-matched subjects who had normal menstrual periods over the 12 weeks of treatment (the control group). Results:We found a dramatic 4-fold increase in prolactin levels in women of childbearing age treated with risperidone, but the pretreatment and posttreatment levels of prolactin were not different between patients who did and did not develop amenorrhea with treatment. However, there were significantly lower pretreatment levels of estradiol and progesterone in patients who subsequently developed amenorrhea with risperidone treatment than in patients who did not develop amenorrhea. A conditional logistic regression analysis found that pretreatment levels of estradiol remained significantly associated with the development of amenorrhea during treatment even when adjusting for the pretreatment levels of the other five reproductive hormones assessed. Conclusion:These findings do not support the suggestion that amenorrhea associated with the use of antipsychotic medication is the result

  20. Complete blood count reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhong Wu

    Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults.A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi'an. Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples.Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, and hematocrit (HCT values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles.We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently.

  1. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  2. Different Role Awareness between Chinese and Western Women in The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绮丽

    2015-01-01

    The Joy Luck Club was the first novel written by Chinese American female writer---Amy Tan,in which separately depicted three generations of women.These eight heroines in the novel best reflect the ideology and sensation of Chinese women.In this paper,the co-authors discussed the similarity and differences of role awareness between Chinese and Western women,through analyzing all the heroines’ struggle and fate in The Joy Luck Club,from the perspectives of Feminism.By comparing the different role awareness between Chinese and western women,we drew a general conclusion which enables us better understand western society,culture,economy and ideology.

  3. Different Role Awareness between Chinese and Western Women in The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绮丽

    2015-01-01

    The Joy Luck Club was the first novel written by Chinese American female writer---Amy Tan,in which separately depicted three generations of women.These eight heroines in the novel best reflect the ideology and sensation of Chinese women.In this paper,the co-authors discussed the similarity and differences of role awareness between Chinese and Western women,through analyzing all the heroines’struggle and fate in The Joy Luck Club,from the perspectives of Feminism.By comparing the different role awareness between Chinese and western women,we drew a general conclusion which enables us better understand western society,culture,economy and ideology.

  4. Use frequency of traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yu-Chun

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, an important category of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, has increased substantially in Western countries during the past decade. Use of TCM is also widespread in the Chinese population. However, few informative data have been obtained to date by large-scale investigations of TCM use in the Chinese population. This study was aimed at elucidating the demographics and patterns of TCM use in Taiwan. Methods We employed the complete datasets of TCM outpatient reimbursement claims from 1996 to 2001, including the use of Chinese herbal remedies, acupuncture and traumatology manipulative therapy, to analyse use frequencies, the characteristics of TCM users, and the disease categories that were treated by TCM in Taiwan. Results At the end of 2001, 6,142,829 (28.4% among the 21,653,555 valid beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan had used TCM during the year. However, 13,536,266 subjects (62.5% had used TCM at least once during the whole 6-year period from 1996 to 2001, with a total of 156,224,266 visits (mean 11.5 visits per user. The mean number of TCM users per annum was 5,733,602, with a mean increment of 1,671,476 (29.2% of new users yearly. Among TCM users, female was higher than male (female:male = 1.13:1, and the age distribution displayed a peak at around the 30s, followed by the 20s and 40s. Chinese herbal remedies (85.9% were the most common TCM modality used by this population, followed by acupuncture (11.0% and traumatology manipulative therapies (3.1%. Private TCM clinics provided most of the TCM care (82.6%, followed by private TCM hospitals (12.0%. The top ten major disease categories for TCM visits were diseases of the respiratory system, musculoskeletal system and connective tissue; symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions; injury and poisoning; diseases of the digestive system, genitourinary system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, nervous

  5. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  6. 论大众传媒对女性性别误解的强化--以我国近年两部谍战大片为例%On the Sexual Misunderstanding of Female Image Reinforced by the Mass Media---Case Study on Two Chinese Spy Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳

    2014-01-01

    It has been more than 30 years mass culture burgeoning in China .It has devel-oped rapidly due to the popularity of mass media .If the perspective of gender is taken to see the mass media culture ,we may notice that the female image stays at the stage of old stereotype or even worse .This misunderstanding and reinforcement is analyzed here with two spy movies as example .%大众文化在中国萌芽至今已有三十余年,并在近年来由于大众传媒的发展和普及得到迅猛发展。但从性别研究角度看待大众传媒文化,可以发现对女性形象的塑造仍是对过去刻板印象的延续,甚至有所强化,从近期的两部谍战电影中可以解读出对女性性别误解的强化。

  7. Gender difference of clinical characteristics in Chinese patients with spontaneous variant angina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Cheng-gang; GUO Yuan-lin; GAO Zhan; ZHENG Xin; LI Jian-jun; XU Yan-lu; YUAN Jin-qing; QIN Xue-wen; YANG Yue-jin; QIAO Shu-bin; CHEN Ji-lin; CHEN Zai-jia

    2010-01-01

    Background Spontaneous attack of variant angina (VA) is a unique component of coronary artery disease (CAD), and associated with severe cardiac events. However, no data are available regarding sex differences in Chinese patients with spontaneous attacks of VA. Accordingly, the present retrospective study was initiated to evaluate the Clinical characteristics of Chinese female patients with spontaneous attacks of VA.Methods From January 2003 to January 2008, a total of 209 patients were diagnosed to have had a spontaneous attack of VA at Fu Wai Hospital. Of them, 27 were female, and their clinical findings were collected and compared with male patients for aspects of risk factors, clinical features and angiographical findings.Results Spontaneous attacks of VA was relatively uncommon in female (12.9%) compared with male patients. The female patients were less likely to have a history of smoking (14.8% vs. 79.7%, P <0.001), more likely to have a family history of CAD (33.3% vs. 11.0%, P<0.01), and to have had a greater incidence of ventricular fibrillation during attack (11.1% vs. 2.2%, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in other characteristics between the two groups.Conclusion Chinese female patients who experienced a spontaneous attack of VA had the characteristics of less smoking history, more family history of CAD and higher occurrence of ventricular fibrillation than male patients.

  8. The Intelligibility of Chinese-Accented English to International and American Students at a U.S. University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardman, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the intelligibility of Chinese and American graduate students to their Indian, Chinese, Korean, and American peers. A psycholinguistic word-recognition-in-noise study investigated the effects on intelligibility of speakers’ L1 and segmental pronunciation accuracy and how...... this varied by listeners’ L1 and word familiarity. Participants included 6 male graduate students (Chinese & American) as speakers and 72 male and female graduate students (Indian, Chinese, Korean, & American) as listeners. Since there was no speech corpus publicly available that would help answer...... the research questions, the researcher first compiled the Buckeye GTA Corpus, which includes L1 and L2 speech recordings of Chinese, Indian, Korean, and American university students. A series of logistic regression mixed-effects models revealed that speaker L1, listener L1, and word familiarity were...

  9. Effects of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine for treating elderly female non-infectious urethral syndrome in 31 cases%中西医结合治疗老年女性非感染性尿道综合征31例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琼辉; 陈英

    2012-01-01

    To explore the therapeutic methods of non-infectious urethral syndrome in elderly women. Methods 83 cases of elderly female non-infectious urethral syndrome were randomly divided into 3 groups, the observation group(n = 31) , the pure Western medicine group(n=30) and the control group(n = 22). The pure Western medicine group was given Tibolone tablets produced by Nanjing Organon Pharmaceutical Co. ,Ltd. Oral 2. 5 mg,once daily. The observation group and the control group were given the same medication and added with acupuncture. The control group was orally given diazepam 2. 5 mg,once to twice daily(according to the severity of symptoms) ,oryzanol 10 mg,3 times daily. The curative effects were compared among 3 groups. Results The excellent effective rate,the effective rate and ineffective rate were 77. 42% ,19. 36% and 3. 23% in the observation group,43. 34% ,30. 00% and 26. 67% in the pure Western medicine group and 9. 08% , 18. 19% and 72. 73% in the control group, showing statistical difference among them(P<0. 05). Conclusion Acupuncture plus estrogen replacement is safe and effective to treat elderly female non-infectous urethral syndrome.%目的 探讨老年女性患者非感染性尿道综合征的治疗方法.方法 选择2008年1月至2011年3月该院收治的老年女性非感染性尿道综合征患者83例,随机分为观察组(n=31)、纯西药组(n=30)和对照组(n=22).纯西药组给予南京欧加农制药有限公司生产的替勃龙片每次2.5 mg,每日1次口服;观察组用药与对照组相同,再加针灸治疗;对照组给予地西泮每次2.5 mg,每日1~2次口服(以症状轻重而定),谷维素10 mg,3次/日口服,比较3组治疗效果.结果 观察组显效(77.42%)、有效(19.36%)和无效(3.23%)与单纯西医治疗组(43.34%、30.00%、26.67%)和对照组(9.08%、18.19%、72.73%)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 老年女性非感染性尿道综合征给予针灸加雌激素替代治疗安全、有效.

  10. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from

  11. Chinese private yards catch up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese shipbuilding industry was dominated by state-owned companies for a long time. In 2005, when a global shipbuilding summit was held in China for the first time, no Chinese private shipyards appeared except two national shipbuilders, namely COSCO and CSIC. However, in the same year, Rongsheng,Mingde and Hantong began their first step.

  12. The chinese health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese...

  13. Danish Chinese Center for Nanometals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    The Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The Chinese partners in the Center are Institute of Metal Research in Shenyang, Tsinghua University and Chongqing University. The Danish part...

  14. Why Do I Study Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Translator’s Note: The cross language year program-the Chinese Language Year in France and the French Language Year in China-initiated by Chinese and French leaders were held in 2011 and 2012 to promote cultural exchanges and further deepen the China-France comprehensive strategic partnership. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the CPAFFC and the

  15. Greenland and Chinese outbound investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Su, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    Chinese companies and their global partners. However, Chinese outbound investment faces many hurdles both at home and outside. This article analyzes some of the main aspects in relation to regulatory hurdles, political obstacles as well as environmental, labor and financial challenges primarily focusing...

  16. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  17. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  18. Chinese American Manpower and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Betty Lee

    A study of the economic characteristics and occupational status of the Chinese in the United States, based primarily on a special tabulation of the 1970 census, has resulted in a demographic profile of this bicultural and physically distinct ethnic group. Potential improvement and expansion of the occupational sphere of the Chinese is discussed in…

  19. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  20. Correlates of females' sexual fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J J; Hart, D H

    1977-12-01

    The intent of the study was to obtain data on the incidence of female sexual fantasy and on the relationship of background, personality, and attitudinal factors to the quantity of sexual fantasies. The participants were 102 university women students between the ages of 19 and 45 yr. An original Female Sexual Fantasy Questionnaire, a short form of the Attitude Toward Women Scale, the 16 PF, and the background variables of age, sexual experience, marital status, and religion provided data for the analysis. Conclusions were that 99% of the women engaged in sexual fantasy at least occasionally and that age, sexual experience, anxiety, independence, and liberal attitudes toward women are all related to frequency of sexual fantasy.

  1. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  2. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  3. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    As important providers of information, analysis of current events and debates, journalists are subject to high expectations regarding their professional values. Journalism is considered to be more than merely a career; it is construed as a profession that builds on personal commitment to serve...... society. This chapter is concerned with Chinese journalism students' self-perceptions and evaluations of journalistic performances in order to understand the professional values to which they adhere. The study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted in two periods in Spring 2011 and Fall...

  4. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    to study abroad, the article shows how personal, professional and even national goals are closely interwoven. Students expect education abroad to be a personally transformative experience, but rather than defining their goals of individual freedom and creativity in opposition to the authoritarian political......The article focuses on Chinese students' hopes and expectations before leaving to study abroad. The national political environment for their decision to go abroad is shaped by an official narrative of China's transition to a more creative and innovative economy. Students draw on this narrative...

  5. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chinese children are taller and heavier than ever before. According to a national survey from 1995, the average height of children aged 7-14 was 142.3 centimeters, 2 centimeters taller than the average height of children in the same age group ten years before. The average weight was 31.9 kilograms, which is 2.8 kilograms heavier than children of the same age group in 1985. Such improvements must be credited to the development of China’s health care network for children. By the end of last

  6. Chinese Vegetarian Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ONCE in a restaurant specializing in vegetarian food in Hubei Province, I saw some dishes on the menu which did not sound like vegetarian food, such as chicken, duck, fish and pork. Only after I ordered and tasted did I understand that these were all made of bean products. Simply speaking, the Chinese vegetarian diet is comprised of grains, vegetables, bean products and fruits. It also includes bamboo shoots, mushrooms, edible fungus, aquatic plants and dried fruit. This kind of diet boasts a long history. As early as the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) and the early Han

  7. CHINESE COMMUNITY IN ECUADOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARIA JOSE CIFUENTES CERVANTES

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Republic Of Ecuador is located in the west coast of South America.It has a total area of 256.370 km2 and a population of approximately 14 million.Spanish is considered as the official language.The country is subdivided into 24 provinces with the capital city being Quito and the other major city being Guayaquil.Since the year 2000 US Dollar had been the official currency.Approximately 50,000 people from China live now in Ecuador.Although the Chinese community in Ecuador is not as large as those in Brazil and Peru, it has a strong economic and social weight in the country.

  8. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Over 1.5 million women workers from 13,000 enterprises have joined the social coordinated system for child-bearing insurance funds in Zhejiang Province. The funds are paid by regular and contract workers and casual laborers from state-owned and collective enterprises and Chinese employees from joint ventures. The social labor insurance committees under the local governments at the city or county levels are in charge of the practical work for taking over the funds. The amounts of money each pays varies according to the different living standard and salary level in each area.

  9. Chinese Negative Transfer in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红琴

    2009-01-01

    The nat ive language can help learn a foreign language, but foreign language learners const ant ly suffer negat ivet ransfer from t heir mot her language. We,as Chinese English learners in t he environment ,in t he English-Chinese t ranslat ion inChinese is oft en negat ive impact .The present paper probes int o t he essence of language t ransfer ,making a det ailed comparisonbet ween Chinese and English vocabulary in t erms of concept ual meaning,connot at ive meaning and idioms in order t o find out t hebasic principle of t ranslat ion which may help avoid negat ive t ransfer from Chinese.

  10. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification. Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride, prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, minoxidil, finasteride, antiandrogens, spironolactone

  11. Melanoma of the female urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can affect any area of the anatomical economy. Its appearance in the female urethra is extremely rare, with approximately 121 cases in indexed literature since 1966. The subject to be described is an 86-year-old woman who seeks assessment for intermittent macroscopic hematuria with blood clots of 3 months progression. On physical examination, there are no suspicious lesions detected on the surface of the skin. On external genital examination, it is observed a friable lesion at the level of the urethral meatus, with heterogeneous digitations, dark brown to black, and irregular polycyclic borders. No inguinal adenomegalies were palpated. Cystourethroscopy and biopsy of the lesion confirm the diagnosis. Melanoma of the female urethra is an extremely infrequent pathology. Due to lack of published case reports and the absence of prospective randomized trials on treatment outcomes, treatment must be directed using the same anatomical and surgical criteria for female urethral tumors, adding also the concepts of treatment of mucosal melanoma, even though its prognosis is different from the before mentioned.

  12. FINGERNAIL GROWTH RATE IN A NORMAL CHINESE POPULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate fingernail growth rate (FNGR) role in the physiological or pathological status of the fingernails in normal Chinese population. Methods The FNGR was measured with vernier caliper. The data of 1 595 fingernails from 208 normal Chinese subjects (including 96 men and 112 women; age ranging from 14 to 78 years) were analyzed. Results The average FNGR was (0.104±0.027) mm per day. Higher growth rates were observed in males than in females, in the young individuals than in the old individuals, in summer than in winter, and in the right hand than in the left hand, respectively. The FNGR differed among fingernails and decreased in order of precedence: middle fingernails, index fingernails or ring fingernails, thumb and little fingernails. Conclusion FNGR was significantly associated with age, gender and temperature. Different fingernail grew at an individual speed.

  13. Perinatal outcomes in native Chinese and Chinese-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinghui; Zhang, Jun; Li, Zhu

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to compare perinatal outcomes in native Chinese, foreign-born and US-born Chinese-American women by analysing a cohort of 950,624 singleton pregnancies in south-east China and 293,849 singleton births from the US live and stillbirth certificates from 1995 to 2004. Only births at 28 weeks or later were included. Compared with US-born Chinese-American women, native Chinese and foreign-born Chinese-American women had substantially lower risks of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant (adjusted relative risk [aRR] ranging from 0.46 to 0.66) or preterm birth (aRR ranging from 0.53 to 0.82). While having a White or Black father had a reduced risk of SGA (aRR=0.45 and 0.62, respectively), it has an increased risk for preterm birth (aRR=1.13 and 1.57, respectively). Infants with Chinese father and foreign-born mother were heavier than those with Chinese father and US-born mothers. All findings were statistically significant. Our findings demonstrated the protective role of foreign-born status on low birthweight and preterm delivery. The paternal contribution to fetal size is substantial.

  14. Biosolubilisation of Chinese lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Tao, Xiuxiang; Shi, Kaiyi [School of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The biosolubilisation of coal is a promising coal processing technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil at ambient conditions. In this study, the biosolubilisation of Chinese lignite was studied using a fungus isolated from decaying wood. The intensity of biosolubilisation was determined by estimating the liquid formation time and by measuring the weight loss of the lignite granules gravimetrically. The biosolubilisation product (black liquid) was characterized by ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, element analysis, and heating value. Results showed that this fungus isolated from the decaying wood solubilised 31.83% (by weight) of Chinese lignite to black liquid within 11 days at 27.5 C. The biosolubilisation product mainly contained aromatic acids and chain hydrocarbons, and had organic function groups of hydroxyl, cyclane, carbonyl, ether linkage and aromatic rings. The heating value of the biosolubilisation product was 14 MJ/kg. Chemical analysis of the biosolubilisation product indicated that side chains of lignite were important structures in the biosolubilisation mechanism. (author)

  15. 松材线虫雌虫尾部形态和寄主的关系%The Relationship between the Tail Morphology of Adult Female Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Its Host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文霞; 杨宝君

    2005-01-01

    Tenninal mucro of adult female was the distinct character between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Bx) and its allied species Bursaphe/enchus mucronatus (Bb). In general, Bx had no mucro. But it could have mucro in some situations. In the test, Bx without mucro was inoculated on Chineses pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) and Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii). The results showed that 85% of adult females Bx isolated from Chinese pine had terminal mucro. On Japanese black pine only 4.2% of adult females Bx had terminal mucro. Bx with terminal mucro from Chinese pine was re-inoculated on the fungus, Pestalotia sp. and Japanese black pine. It was found that 100% adult females had no terminal mucro on the fungus and 3.4% with terminal mucro on Japanese black pine.

  16. Thoughts on the socialization of the female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W

    1995-01-01

    In China in 1990 70% of illiterates were women, and in 1988 82% of school-age children who were not enrolled were girls. Educational attainment has increased however since 1949, but the effects are still not sufficiently widespread or at high enough levels, particularly in rural areas. Female employment since the mid-1970s increased at an annual rate of about 4.3%. Female employment in 1992 was 38% of total employment. Types of occupations engaging women have broadened somewhat. Women are over 50% of those employed by hygiene, sports, and social welfare occupations and 45% of those employed by public and commercial occupations. Over 1 million women are engaged in privately owned businesses out of a total of over 2 million. 40 million women are engaged in township enterprises out of a total of over 100 million township enterprises. A gap in female labor force participation is the lower number of women engaged in the tertiary sector jobs requiring a higher education. Women are still encouraged to be only homemakers, and many women still prefer to remain at home. Women do not actively seek employment outside the home. Women are assured of protection in the labor market or with social security. Women are treated as commodities. Chinese women in this largely agricultural society are not valued highly and are valued for their sexual functions, particularly in producing sons. Women are forced into a secluded environment. Rural women's social exchanges are limited to blood relatives and regional location and are usually among women only. Social exchanges are limited to chattiness about personal affairs and are constricted by time factors. Tradition determines family responsibilities and the range of behavior. Female social development is inhibited by women's personal attributes such as dependency and social factors such as gender discrimination and family and productivity constraints. Female socialization and modernization can bring out changes in marriage quality, family

  17. Genetic Algorithm for Chinese Postman Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hua; Kang Li-shan

    2003-01-01

    Chinese Postman Problem is an unsettled graphic problem. It was approached seldom by evolutionary computation. Now we use genetic algorithm to solve Chinese Postman Problem in undirected graph and get good results. It could be extended to solve Chinese postman problem in directed graph. We make these efforts for exploring in optimizing the mixed Chinese postman problem.

  18. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment beh

  19. Multicultural Awareness for the Classroom: The Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Felix Mario; And Others

    This guide provides the teacher of multiethnic students with information and teaching resources on Chinese. An historical overview of China and the Chinese experience in America is presented in English and Chinese. Several lesson plans and classroom activities reviewing Chinese geography, holidays, legends, and stories are presented. (APM)

  20. What Should American-Born Chinese Children Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shirley

    This paper discusses the teaching of Chinese to both students with Chinese background and students with non-Chinese background. It is suggested that students with a Chinese background be separated from those without a Chinese background in order not to discourage the latter group from studying Chinese. Chinese background students should be taught…

  1. Variations in nasopharyngeal cancer incidence among specific Chinese communities (dialect groups) in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugaratnam, K

    1978-01-01

    A total of 729 cases of NPC (93.6% confirmed histologically) were diagnosed among the Singapore Chinese population during a five-year period (1968--1972). Age-standardized incidence rates for the total Chinese population were 18.4 per 100,000 per year for males and 7.0 for females; the respective rates for the specific Chinese communities were 14.1 and 4.7 for Hokkien, 18.3 and 6.2 for Teochew, 29.1 and 11.0 for Cantonese, 14.2 and 3.3 for Hainanese, 12.6 and 4.8 for Hakka and 12.2 and 6.0 for the other dialect groups. It is evident that all of the Chinese communities in Singapore have high risks for NPC; only the Cantonese have risks significantly higher than that for the rest of the Chinese population. NPC incidence rates for males and females of the other major racial groups in Singapore were 4.7 and 0.6 for Malays and 0.9 and 0.0 for Indians, respectively.

  2. The Profound and Extensive Chinese Tea Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航

    2014-01-01

    Anyone who knows a little bit about Chinese culture usualy knows about Chinese tea culture.Chinese tea culture has a history of more than 4,000 years and stil emerges fresh and vigorous from the test of history. Chinese tea culture has played an important and indispensable role in Chinese culture. The extensiveness and profoundness of Chinese tea culture is unpaneled. Its importance to Chinese people is noticeable. Tea has surprising functions: it can not only refresh the body but also the mind. Tea is prevalent in and out of China and is loved by people throughout the world.

  3. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  4. SPECIAL ISSUE: SOCIAL CHANGE AND CHINESE WOMEN A Semiotic Analysis of Female Images in Chinese Women's Magazines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Yuliang

    2010-01-01

    本研究采用符号学分析法,分析了《中国妇女》、《家庭》、《女友》、《时尚·Cosmopolitan》四本中国女性杂志刊载的五个当代中国女性人物故事,得出铁姑娘、贤内助、时尚女三种女性形象类型。检视这三类女性形象的深层意义,可以发现它们事实上蕴含了传统父权社会对女性片面价值观的社会迷思;同时,它们也在鼓励女性参与父权体制建构的消费主义意识形态。

  5. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  6. Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine Liuweidihuangtang on the Expression of gonadal hormone and receptors of female sub -acutely aging rats%中药六味地黄汤对衰老大鼠性激素与其受体表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚丽; 王超; 冉战玲; 余小平; 楚伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore changes of gonadal hormone and receptors of female sub - acutely aging rats and the effects of Liuweidihuangtang on delaying senescence of ovary. Methods; The sub - acutely aging model was continually induced by ip injection of D - galactose in rats. Oral Liuweidihuangtang was administrated once daily for 60 days after aging induction. The rats were killed by being amputated by head and the pituitary and ovary was taken. Use the method by Access immunoassary systerm analyzer to detect LH, E2, FSH. hybridization in situ was used to observe the FSHRmRNA and LHRmRNA expressions of ovary cells. ER protein was detected by western bloting. Results; Compared with normal control group, pituitary and ovary index decreased obviously in model group, the contents of LH and FSH in model group increased significantly, and the content of E2 decreased remarkably, the expression of ER, FSHR, LHR in model group decreased significantly ( P < 0. 05 ). Liuweidihuangtang decreased the determination of LH and FSH, and raised the concentration of E2 and the expression of ER, FSHR, LHR. Conclusion: the normal function of ovary was disturbed in aging rats. Liuweidihuangtang had the effects on preventing and delaying senescence of ovary by regulating the disorder of sex hormonal and reportors.%目的 探讨衰老雌性大鼠性激素及其受体的变化情况和六味地黄汤延缓卵巢组织衰老的作用机制.方法 D一半乳糖连续腹腔注射致亚急性衰老动物模型,造模后灌胃六味地黄汤连续60天后,大鼠断头取垂体、卵巢.采用全自动微粒子化学发光免疫分析方法检测各组大鼠血清LH,E2,FSH的含量;原位杂交方法检测各组大鼠卵巢细胞FSHR和LHR的变化;Western Bloting法检测各组大鼠卵巢ER的变化.结果 同正常对照组相比,模型组大鼠垂体指数和卵巢指数均明显降低,血清E2含量明显降低、LH、FSH升高,ER、FSHR、LHR的表达明显降

  7. The General Situation of Chinese Elderly Women Today

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    CURRENTLY there are more thar 50 million Chinese women over the age of 60, making up nine percent of the total female population. This number is increasing at the rate of about 2.8 percent per year. It is estimate that by the end of this century, one of every 10 women will be over the age of 60. This group of older women, with its own characteristics and demands, needs the attention and help of society. Over half a century ago when these women were born, China was still an

  8. Glycemic index and glycemic load of selected Chinese traditional foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen; Heung-sang; Wong

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To determine the glycemic index(GI)and glycemic load(GL)values of Chinese traditional foods in Hong Kong.METHODS:Fifteen healthy subjects(8 males and 7 females)volunteered to consume either glucose or one of 23 test foods after 10-14 h overnight fast.The blood glucose concentrations were analyzed immediately before,15,30,45,60,90 and 120 min after food consumption using capillary blood samples.The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose respon...

  9. Breast cancer risk in Chinese women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Juan; He, Yingjian; Ouyang, Tao; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Tianfeng; Fan, Zhaoqing; Fan, Tie; Lin, Benyao; Xie, Yuntao

    2016-04-01

    BRCA1/2 mutations represent approximately 5 % of unselected Chinese women with breast cancer. However, the breast cancer risk of Chinese women with BRCA1/2 mutations is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the age-specific cumulative risk of breast cancer in Chinese women who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Our study included 1816 unselected Chinese women with breast cancer and 5549 female first-degree relatives of these probands. All probands were screened for BRCA1/2 mutation. The age-specific cumulative risks of BRCA1/2 carriers were estimated using the kin-cohort study by comparing the history of breast cancer in first-degree female relatives of BRCA1/2 carriers and non-carriers. Among the 1816 probands, 125 BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations were identified (70 in the BRCA1 gene and 55 in the BRCA2 gene). The incidence of breast cancer in the first-degree female relatives of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers was significantly higher (3.7-fold and 4.4-fold for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively) than in non-carriers. The estimated cumulative risks of breast cancer by age 70 years were 37.9 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 24.1-54.4 %] for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 36.5 % (95 % CI 26.7-51.8 %) for BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. Our study suggests that the breast cancer risk of Chinese women with BRCA1/2 mutations appears to be relatively high by the age of 70. Therefore, genetic counseling, enhanced surveillance, and individual preventive strategies should be provided for Chinese women who carry a BRCA1/2 mutation.

  10. Urinary concentrations of parabens in Chinese young adults: implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wan-Li; Wang, Lei; Guo, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Qi, Hong; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. However, recent studies have indicated that high and systemic exposure to parabens can be harmful to human health. Although a few studies have reported urinary paraben levels in western countries, studies on paraben exposure in the Chinese population are limited. China is currently a major producer of parabens in the world. In this study, 109 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults (approximately 20 years old) were analyzed for five parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzyl-parabens) by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Methyl-, propyl-, and ethyl-parabens were the three major paraben analogues found in all (100%) samples. The concentration of the sum of the five parabens ranged from 0.82 to 728 ng/mL with a geometric mean value of 17.4 ng/mL. Urinary concentration of parabens was 2-fold greater in females than in males. Based on the measured urinary concentrations, daily intake of parabens by the Chinese young adults was estimated and compared with those reported for United States adults. The estimated daily intakes (EDIurine) of parabens were 18.4 and 40.8 μg/kg bw/day for Chinese males and females, respectively, values that were lower than those reported for United States adults (74.7 μg/kg bw/day). Based on the reported concentrations of parabens in foods from China and the United States, the contribution of dietary intake to EDIurine was estimated to be 5.5, 2.6, and 0.42% for Chinese males, Chinese females, and United States adults, respectively, which indicates the significance of nondietary sources of parabens to human exposures.

  11. Aging changes in the female reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004016.htm Aging changes in the female reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly ...

  12. The Female Image in Children's TV Commercials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Mary Ellen

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of advertising on children's television programs shows that more than half were male-dominant ads and fewer than one-seventh were female dominated. Female roles were almost entirely dependent and passive. (LS)

  13. Blood Lipid Profile and Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the plasma lipid levels in a national representative sample of subjects and to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Chinese population. Methods Plasma lipid profile was analyzed using the data obtained during the Chinese national nutrition and health survey (CNHS) in 2002 which involved 14 252 participants at the age of 18 years or older. Results The mean levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the participants were 3.81 mmol/L, 1.10 mmol/L, and 1.30 mmol/L, respectively. In the groups of participants at the age of 18-44 years, 45-59 years, and over 60 years the mean TC level was 3.70 mmol/L, 4.09 mmol/L and 4.21 mmol/L,respectively, and the mean TG level was 07 mmol/L, 1.21 mmol/L, 1.20 mmol/L, 1.29 mmol/L, 1.33 mmol/L, and 1.33 mmol/L,respectively. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults was 18.6% and 22.2% in males and 15.9% in females.Dyslipidemia prevalence was higher in urban districts than in rural areas (21.0% vs. 17.7%). The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL cholesterol was 2.9%, 11.9%, and 7.4% respectively among the participants. Conclusion Dyslipidemia has become one of the important health risk factors in the Chinese population. There is no significantly difference in the prevalence of dyslipidemia between the groups of participants at the age of 45-59 years and over 60 years. This study provides important lipid profile data for policy making and guideline development for the prevention of dyslipidemia in the Chinese population.

  14. Effects of Chinese opera on the reproductions of Ibsen's plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Leung Che LAU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of a globalized phenomenon, the reproductions of Ibsen’s plays on the Chinese theatrical stage increasingly focus upon the exploration and expansion of new cultural forms, as Patrice Pavis defines interculturalism as “grasping the dialectical of exchanges of civilities between cultures”. However, how do we evaluate the effectiveness of the many “intercultural” productions that surround us today? I attempt to answer this question by comparing two Chinese reproductions of Ibsen’s plays that employ elements of Chinese opera on varying scales. The first one is a total transformation of Hedda Gabler into a Hangzhou yue opera form, Xin Bi Tian Gao (Aspirations Higher than the Sky, 心比天高 in 2006. As part of the yue opera tradition, Hedda Gabler was staged in an all-female cast. The second one is a fragmented insertion of a Peking opera excerpt into the staging of A Doll’s House by the National Experimental Theatre of China in 1998. One of the highlights of the play is a Norwegian actress, who plays Nora, singing and dancing a short Peking opera excerpt, thus replacing the tarantella dance in the original play. Contextualising the multiple perspectives towards interculturalism by Patrice Pavis, Richard Schechner and Rustom Bharucha, I aim to explore how the appropriation of Chinese opera in such performances might strengthen or weaken the reciprocal flows between the source and target cultures in Pavis’s “hourglass model”, and whether the initial attempt of revitalising both Chinese and Western art forms has backfired and misproduced Bertolt Brecht’s alienation effect directed at the contemporary audience.

  15. The Analysis of the Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓慧

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of pragmatic studies, politeness has aroused great interest among Chinese scholars. Different cultures have different traditions and values, which bring out different understanding and application of politeness strategies. Great Chinese culture brings out the complicated Chinese politeness scale. A successful communication depends on politeness principle. Learning the Chinese politeness scale will make we know more about the Chinese culture. By researching this, we will perform better in communication.

  16. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  17. Conditions for high-potential female entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Terjesen, Siri A.

    2016-01-01

    Female-led ventures that are market-expanding, export-oriented, and innovative contribute substantially to local and national economic development, as well as to the female entrepreneur’s economic welfare. Female-led ventures also serve as models that can encourage other high-potential female entrepreneurs. The supply of high-potential entrepreneurial ventures is driven by individuals’ entrepreneurial attitudes and institutional factors associated with a country’s conditions for entrepreneuri...

  18. Clinical Features of Chinese of Chinese Patients with Fuchs' Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peizeng Yang,; Haoli Jin,; Bing Li,; Xuan Chen,; Kijlstra, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the clinical features of Chinese patients with Fuchs' syndrome. Design: Retrospective noncomparative case series. Participants: One hundred eighteen eyes of 104 consecutive patients with Fuchs' syndrome initially examined between January 1999 and March 2005. Methods: The his

  19. Value Profiles of Male and Female Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…

  20. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  1. Normal development of the female reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species. The early gonad progresses from a form that is undifferentiated in both genotypic males and females. Rudimentary male (Wolffian) and female (M...

  2. TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930433 A study on relationship between hy-pothyroidism and deficiency of kidney YANG.ZHA Lianglun(查良伦),et al.lnstit Integr TCM& West Med,Shanghai Med Univ,Shanghai,200040.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 1993;13(4):202—204.Thirty—two cases of hypothyroidism causedby various factors were treated for one year withChinese medicinal herbs preparation“Shen Lutablet”(SLT)to warm and reinforce the KidneyYang.34 normal persons were studied as a con-trol group.After treatment with SLT,the clini-cal symptoms of hypothyroidism were markedlyimproved.Average serum concentration of totalT3,T4 increased significantly from 67.06±4.81

  3. Structure of Chinese algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Jaszunska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the algebra K[M] of the Chinese monoid M over a field K is studied. The minimal prime ideals are described. They are determined by certain homogeneous congruences on M and they are in a one to one correspondence with diagrams of certain special type. There are finitely many such ideals. It is also shown that the prime radical B(K[M]) of K[M] coincides with the Jacobson radical and the monoid M embeds into the algebra K[M]/B(K[M]). A new representation of M as a submonoid of the direct product of finitely many copies of the bicyclic monoid and finitely many copies of the infinite cyclic monoid is derived. Consequently, M satisfies a nontrivial identity.

  4. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Dr. Zhao Honored Dr. Zhao Xuefang is in charge of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of the Changzhi City People’s Hospital in Shanxi Province. On April 23, 1994, she received from the hands of Qian Zhengying, Vice-Chairman of Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, the first Norman Bethune Medal, granted by the Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of Labor and Personnel. Since Dr. Zhao began working in the medical field in 1963, she has continued to improve her techniques. After more than 30 years in medicine, she has treated thousands of patients without incident. Though Dr. Zhao has been diagnosed with cancer and has had two operations, she has continued to heal the wounded and rescue the dying. Her only wish is to relieve the pain of more patients as long as she can. —China Women’s News

  5. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Study on the Application of Mass Media and English Han cui xia (ShanDong BinZhou medical college ShanDong YanTai 264003)Read and Write Periodica,vol.9, No.5,16,2012(ISSN1672-1578,in,Chinese ) Abstract: Rapid technological development of mass media and Internt chances of improvement. This paper analyzes the present situation of adult teaching and learning of English and the application of mass media and Internet in it in the hope of changing the present situation and improving the effect in order for adult learners to benefit more from it.. Key words: mass media; Internet; adult education; teaching and learning of English

  7. Epigenetic Control of Female Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Loche, Alberto; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Ronnekleiv, Oline K.; Bosch, Martha; Kaidar, Gabi; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Wright, Hollis; Pfeifer, Gerd. P.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2013-01-01

    The timing of puberty is controlled by many genes. The elements coordinating this process have not, however, been identified. Here we show that an epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional repression times the initiation of female puberty in rats. We identify silencers of the Polycomb group (PcG) as major contributors to this mechanism, and show that PcG proteins repress Kiss1, a puberty-activating gene. Hypothalamic expression of two key PcG genes, Eed and Cbx7, decreases and methylation of their promoters increases preceding puberty. Inhibiting DNA methylation blocks both events and results in pubertal failure. The pubertal increase in Kiss1 is accompanied by EED loss from the Kiss1 promoter and enrichment of histone H3 modifications associated with gene activation. Preventing the eviction of EED from the Kiss1 promoter disrupts pulsatile GnRH release, delays puberty, and compromises fecundity. Our results identify epigenetic silencing as a novel mechanism underlying the neuroendocrine control of female puberty. PMID:23354331

  8. FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana, CIOCHINA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the pressure of globalization, local communities around the world are looking for new strategies to facilitate local economic development, to reduce poverty and for social inclusion, through harnessing local resources, the creation of workplaces and of better life quality for men and women. In this context, programs to encourage and promote the entrepreneurial spirit in women considering that, on a global level, one third of new businesses are their creation, a significant part of SMEs, the primary source of new workplaces and of economic growth in a local community. In a competition where women continue to be confronted with more obstacles than men, measures must be taken to ensure the best possible context to support female entrepreneurship in such a way that local communities to fully benefit from their potential in creating workplaces, economic and social development on a local, national and European scale. The lack of confidence in creating their own businesses, difficulty in balancing professional and family life, inability to obtain the capital necessary for developing their business, difficulty in preparation and limited access to information are all problems that hinder initiative and the development of women's entrepreneurship. Female entrepreneurs are in need of recognition, from financers and business partners, logistical support and help in increasing managerial and leading capacity.

  9. Female Facial Appearance and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W. Gray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study addressed whether rated femininity, attractiveness, and health in female faces are associated with numerous indices of self-reported health history (number of colds/stomach bugs/frequency of antibiotic use in a sample of 105 females. It was predicted that all three rating variables would correlate negatively with bouts of illness (with the exception of rates of stomach infections, on the assumption that aspects of facial appearance signal mate quality. The results showed partial support for this prediction, in that there was a general trend for both facial femininity and attractiveness to correlate negatively with the reported number of colds in the preceding twelve months and with the frequency of antibiotic use in the last three years and the last twelve months. Rated facial femininity (as documented in September was also associated with days of flu experienced in the period spanning the November-December months. However, rated health did not correlate with any of the health indices (albeit one marginal result with antibiotic use in the last twelve months. The results lend support to previous findings linking facial femininity to health and suggest that facial femininity may be linked to some aspects of disease resistance but not others.

  10. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives.

  11. Chinese culture approached through touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Champion, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Can recent technology help bridge cultures through playful interaction appropriate to traditional tacit means of acquiring knowledge? In order to help answer this question, we designed four Adobe Flash-based based game prototypes and evaluated them via a touch-screen PC. The goal was to offer non......Chinese participants a playful way of experiencing aspects of traditional Chinese culture. The four single-player games were based on the four arts of China (music, calligraphy, painting and the game of Go!). In the evaluation we asked non-Chinese and the Chinese participants to evaluate the games in terms of learning......, fun, and cultural authenticity. While this form of tangible computing proved engaging, it raises technical issues of how to convey appropriately the interactive elements without the help of the evaluator, and how to evaluate user satisfaction. We also briefly discuss more embodied and spatial...

  12. Soundscape of classical Chinese garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With deep humanized connotation,the classical Chinese garden uses human intuitive sensation and personal poetic observation to express natural sound phenomena.It differs from the rational modern soundscape in western countries.

  13. Tone features in whispered Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xueli; XU Boling

    2005-01-01

    Study on the whispered tone is important to speech recognition and conversion in whispered Chinese. In this paper, the characteristics of whispered speech are introduced and the tone features in whispered Chinese are discussed. There is no fundamental frequency in the whispered speech, so other features, such as the amplitude envelope, duration, glottal area, lip area, forrnant, and vocal tract length, are extracted and their contributions to the automatic tone recognition are compared. From the experiments with six simple Chinese whispered vowels in four tones, it is proved that loudness-weighted 32 Mel-frequency bands log-amplitude envelopes and duration can be used as the main tone features in the whispered Chinese tone recognition. The average tone recognition rate approaches that of the human perception level.

  14. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  15. A Model of Chinese Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    At a national conference at the end of May,the Chinese Government said partnership assistance in the past year had boosted development in northwestern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region remarkably and called for greater support.Since March2010,

  16. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  17. Chinese Women’s College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Chinese Women’s College is located in Yuhuidong Road, in northeast Beijing. The name of the college was written by Jiang Zemin, President of the People’s Republic of China in August 1995 to honor the school.

  18. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  19. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  20. Chinese Loan Words in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜战莹

    2015-01-01

    English language is the most common working language.In the history of its development,English has widened its vocabulary by borrowing.Borrowing plays an important role in the formation of modern English.Chinese loan words are a part in the family of all the loan words.Therefore,the number of loan words which originate from Chinese is not that great,but they hold an important role in contemporary English.

  1. English and Chinese language ambiguity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海

    2009-01-01

    This article from the Voice of Ambiguity,Lexical Ambiguity and Ambiguity in the three aspects of the grammatical structure of English and Chinese languages are compared ambiguity And analysis.Ambiguity in English and Chinese language through the comparison,resulted in two languages to explore the reasons for ambiguity;analysis of the characteristics of English language ambiguities;Research Should not be some ambiguity on how to avoid the emergence of the phenomenon.

  2. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    LI J

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  3. Female condom launched in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The lone-awaited female condom, Femidom, is to be launched at the end of September by manufacturers Chartex. It is being welcomed by the FPA [Family Planning Association] and other family planning experts as a valuable addition to the existing range of contraceptive methods and as an alternative to the male condom in offering effective protection against sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. A lubricated, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, Femidom is inserted into the vagina at any time before sex. An inner ring holds the condom in place beyond the pubic bone and an outer ring lies flat against the vulva. In addition to extending choice, it is under direct control of the woman. As FPA Director Doreen Massey puts it: "We have to face the fact that some women who want safer sex can't get their partners to use condoms. for the 1st time with Femidom, you can insist that if he won't use a condom, you'll use yours." In trails of self-selected couples, up to 2/3 of women and their partners found the product acceptable. a study at the Institute of Population Studies in Exeter showed that while some couples had initial misgivings about the condom's size and appearance, especially its visibility when in position, these often declined with repeated use. Researcher Dr. Nicholas Ford pointed out that if the female condom makes a woman feel unattractive, her partner's comments may well influence these feelings. Users' experience of insertion and the condom's comfort also improved with repeated use. While there are no large studies showing ranges of effectiveness, it is likely to be as effective as the male condom (about 85%-98%). In a study of 106 women at the margaret Pyke Center in London, there were 7 unplanned pregnancies: 4 were due to inconsistent use of the method and 3 were method failures. Breakages were rare. 1/3 of participants dropped out in the 1st month. Users should continue with their existing contraceptive method until they are sure that they are using

  4. Ankylosing spondylitis: Chinese perspective, clinical phenotypes, and associated extra-articular systemic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Huei-Huang; Chen, Ji-Yih

    2013-08-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common rheumatic disease in the Chinese population, which is the largest population in the world associated with the global burden of health care. Herein we review and report the epidemiology and specific clinical characteristics of Chinese AS. More than 90 % of Chinese AS patients are HLA-B27 positive with the predominant HLA-B*2704 subtype; the incidence of HLA-B27 positivity ranges from 4 to 8 % in the general Chinese population. The first-degree relatives of AS probands often develop atypical AS with relatively mild disease and particularly undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy in females. Chinese AS patients have higher frequencies of juvenile-onset AS and peripheral arthritis. Of extra-articular manifestations, AS patients have earlier onset and more recurrent attacks of HLA-B27-related acute anterior uveitis. Cardiac arrhythmias or other cardiovascular disorders and metabolic syndrome are not infrequently found. Importantly, apical lung diseases in Chinese AS patients are also frequently associated with tuberculosis infection.

  5. Anthropometry of Korean female industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J E; Malzahn, D E; Eyada, O K; Kim, C H

    1989-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on Korean female workers in the garment industry. The data was collected as part of a project to modify work stations that utilized equipment from other countries. A set of 23 body dimensions were taken from a sample of 101 workers (aged 18-28 years). The anthropometric measurements are presented and compared with those of the Western and Japanese female. The results indicate that the body dimensions of the Korean female are different from those of both the Western and the Japanese female. The ratio of sitting height to standing height for the Korean female is closer to that of the Western female than it is the Japanese female.

  6. An incident of female-female aggression in the house wren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alworth, T; Scheiber, IBR

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we describe one example of female-female aggression in the House Wren (Troglodytes aedon). An intruding female usurped the resident female and paired with the resident male. House Wrens are known for committing infanticide as well as puncturing and removing eggs of conspecifics and oth

  7. Flibanserin for female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reviriego, C

    2014-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment.

  8. The battle against female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Most of Nigeria's estimated 50 million females have suffered female genital mutilation (FGM). Those who have escaped FGM either belong to nonmutilating tribes, are members of enlightened families, or have been overlooked for some reason. Nigerian girls who undergo FGM are told that the pain the suffer will be eased when they marry, but they are not told that this will likely occur because sexual intercourse will widen their vaginal opening or else it will be surgically widened. Many who submit their children to this mutilation have no clear idea about why it is called for except to claim that it protects a family's honor by proving virginity. A Yoruba scholar claims that FGM is used in that tribe to reduce a woman's sexual desires so that she will not engage in intercourse during the 18 months she breast feeds her baby (it is believed that sperm migrates to the mother's milk and can make the baby ill). Yoruba husbands have no curb on their sexual pleasure and may marry as many wives as they can afford. Yorubas mutilate girls when they are 2-8 years old. Ibos, on the other hand, mutilate young women when they are preparing for marriage as part of an initiation ceremony. Abohs mutilate women during their first pregnancy in the belief that this aids the safe delivery of the child by protecting it from contact with the "lethal" clitoris during delivery. While some argue for maintaining FGM because it is an African tradition, other harmful customs, such as facial scarification, have been eliminated.

  9. Attitudes toward Same-Sex Attraction and Behavior among Chinese University Students: Tendencies, Correlates, and Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Chi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined Chinese university students’ attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, the socio-demographic correlates of these attitudes, and the potential gender differences in both tendencies and correlates. A total of 2,644 Chinese university students (49.7% male, mean age = 20.27 years indicated generally negative attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, with males reporting more negative attitudes than females. More years in university (i.e., higher grade levels, higher levels of maternal education, growing up in an urban area, and more frequent Internet use significantly predicted more positive attitudes. Gender significantly moderated one correlate: For female participants, a higher university grade was related to more positive attitudes; this correlation was not significant for male participants. The findings suggest valuable directions for related intervention practices for young people in China. Key words: Chinese university students, same-sex attraction and behavior, gender differences

  10. From diagnosis to therapy in lung cancer: management of CT detected pulmonary nodules, a summary of the 2015 Chinese-German Lung Cancer Expert Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chunxia; Meyer, Mathias; Pirker, Robert; Voigt, Wieland; Shi, Jingyun; Pilz, Lothar; Huber, Rudolf M; Wu, Yilong; Wang, Jinghong; He, Yonglan; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Jian; Zhi, Xiuyi; Shi, Meiqi; Zhu, Bo; Schoenberg, Stefan S; Henzler, Thomas; Manegold, Christian; Zhou, Caicun; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2016-08-01

    The first Chinese-German Lung Cancer Expert Panel was held in November 2015 one day after the 7th Chinese-German Lung Cancer Forum, Shanghai. The intention of the meeting was to discuss strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer within the context of lung cancer screening. Improved risk classification criteria and novel imaging approaches for screening populations are highly required as more than half of lung cancer cases are false positive during the initial screening round if the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demographic criteria [≥30 pack years (PY) of cigarettes, age ≥55 years] are applied. Moreover, if the NLST criteria are applied to the Chinese population a high number of lung cancer patients are not diagnosed due to non-smoking related risk factors in China. The primary goal in the evaluation of pulmonary nodules (PN) is to determine whether they are malignant or benign. Volumetric based screening concepts such as investigated in the Dutch-Belgian randomized lung cancer screening trial (NELSON) seem to achieve higher specificity. Chest CT is the best imaging technique to identify the origin and location of the nodule since 20% of suspected PN found on chest X-ray turn out to be non-pulmonary lesions. Moreover, novel state-of-the-art CT systems can reduce the radiation dose for lung cancer screening acquisitions down to a level of 0.1 mSv with improved image quality to novel reconstruction techniques and thus reduce concerns related to chest CT as the primary screening technology. The aim of the first part of this manuscript was to summarize the current status of novel diagnostic techniques used for lung cancer screening and minimally invasive treatment techniques for progressive PNs that were discussed during the first Chinese-German Lung Cancer. This part should serve as an educational part for the readership of the techniques that were discussed during the Expert Panel. The second part summarizes the consensus recommendations

  11. Genetic and environmental influences on Chinese language and reading abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Wong, Simpson Wai-Lap; Waye, Mary M Y; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2011-02-10

    This study investigated the etiology of individual differences in Chinese language and reading skills in 312 typically developing Chinese twin pairs aged from 3 to 11 years (228 pairs of monozygotic twins and 84 pairs of dizygotic twins; 166 male pairs and 146 female pairs). Children were individually given tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary, phonological memory, tone awareness, syllable and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming, morphological awareness and orthographic skills, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. All analyses controlled for the effects of age. There were moderate to substantial genetic influences on word reading, tone awareness, phonological memory, morphological awareness and rapid automatized naming (estimates ranged from .42 to .73), while shared environment exerted moderate to strong effects on receptive vocabulary, syllable and rhyme awareness and orthographic skills (estimates ranged from .35 to .63). Results were largely unchanged when scores were adjusted for nonverbal reasoning as well as age. Findings of this study are mostly similar to those found for English, a language with very different characteristics, and suggest the universality of genetic and environmental influences across languages.

  12. Genetic and environmental influences on Chinese language and reading abilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow

    Full Text Available This study investigated the etiology of individual differences in Chinese language and reading skills in 312 typically developing Chinese twin pairs aged from 3 to 11 years (228 pairs of monozygotic twins and 84 pairs of dizygotic twins; 166 male pairs and 146 female pairs. Children were individually given tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary, phonological memory, tone awareness, syllable and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming, morphological awareness and orthographic skills, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. All analyses controlled for the effects of age. There were moderate to substantial genetic influences on word reading, tone awareness, phonological memory, morphological awareness and rapid automatized naming (estimates ranged from .42 to .73, while shared environment exerted moderate to strong effects on receptive vocabulary, syllable and rhyme awareness and orthographic skills (estimates ranged from .35 to .63. Results were largely unchanged when scores were adjusted for nonverbal reasoning as well as age. Findings of this study are mostly similar to those found for English, a language with very different characteristics, and suggest the universality of genetic and environmental influences across languages.

  13. Attitudes of Chinese women towards sexuality and birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D; Ho, M S

    1982-03-01

    A small survey was conducted in the Vancouver area by the authors to determine some of the current beliefs and attitudes of Chinese women toward birth control and sexuality. 10 Chinese women aged from 16-72 were interviewed. Traditional beliefs in filial piety and in the concepts of Yin (negative, female force) and Yang (positive, male force) were subscribed to by the eldest women who also perceived a lack of fairness in the double standard permitting male promiscuity while prohibiting female sexual freedom. The elder women also felt that the balance of Yin and Yang would promote sexual satisfaction and good health (homosexuality represented an imbalance and was therefore unhealthy). Only 1 woman had received sex education in the home since most sex-related topics were considered taboo. The Canadian born women had been educated in school regarding sex and felt that this experience made them more responsible in sexual matters. Strict rules about behavior during menstruation were adhered to by the eldest women: no hair-brushing, eating of hot foods, or sexual intercourse; they also viewed masturbation as acceptable in women since their Yin is a renewable resource. Masturbation in men was frowned upon since it would lead to a depletion of Yang and possibly cause infertility. The Canadian born women viewed masturbation as a normal sexual act. Contraception was seen as negative by the 1st generation women whereas the younger women valued family planning as an improvement in thier lives. Coitus before marriage was viewed as acceptable and during marriage and pregnancy as enjoyable by the younger women; the elders felt that premarital intercourse resulted in a loss of prestige whereas marital coitus was seen as a duty and intercourse during and after pregnancy as dangerous for the unborn child and the mother. The ease with which these women dealt with the conflict of adhering to their culture while assimilating into a new environment was influenced by age, language

  14. Prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Zhan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: About 1 million people worldwide commit suicide each year, and college students with suicidal ideation are at high risk of suicide. The prevalence of suicidal ideation in college students has been estimated extensively, but quantitative syntheses of overall prevalence are scarce, especially in China. Accurate estimates of prevalence are important for making public policy. In this paper, we aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Databases including PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wangfang (Chinese database and Weipu (Chinese database were systematically reviewed to identify articles published between 2004 to July 2013, in either English or Chinese, reporting prevalence estimates of suicidal ideation among Chinese college students. The strategy also included a secondary search of reference lists of records retrieved from databases. Then the prevalence estimates were summarized using a random effects model. The effects of moderator variables on the prevalence estimates were assessed using a meta-regression model. RESULTS: A total of 41 studies involving 160339 college students were identified, and the prevalence ranged from 1.24% to 26.00%. The overall pooled prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese college students was 10.72% (95%CI: 8.41% to 13.28%. We noted substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates. Subgroup analyses showed that prevalence of suicidal ideation in females is higher than in males. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students is relatively high, although the suicide rate is lower compared with the entire society, suggesting the need for local surveys to inform the development of health services for college students.

  15. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive Warm-up in Jiang Hua (Department of Foreign Language, Modern College of Northwest University, Xi'an 710130, China)Read and Write Perodica,vol.9,No.10,10,2012 (ISSN1672 -1578,in, Chinese) Abstract: Classroom teaching activities should be an interactive process, which includes not only interaction between teachers and students but also includes the interaction between students and learning materials and the interaction between students and design activities in class. These interaction processes will directly affect the students learning interest and the effect. So classroom interactions are very important. But how to present these interactions well and make them educational in the classroom is a question which needs considered carefully by teachers. Because of the warm-up is the key part for teachers to introduce the whole unit and stimulate the interests of students, this article mainly discusses the warming-up part of college English teaching, to improve the classroom interactions, and stimulate the students' study enthusiasm and the initiative. Key words: Interaction; Educational; Warm-up

  16. Utilization of and Attitudes towards Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies in a Chinese Cancer Hospital: A Survey of Patients and Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. McQuade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In China, the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is very popular, but little is known about how it is integrated with conventional cancer care. We conducted parallel surveys of patients and physicians on TCM utilization. Methods. Two hundred forty-five patients and 72 allopathic physicians at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center completed questions on their use of and attitude towards TCM. Results. Patient mean age was 51, with 60% female. Eighty-three percent of patients had used TCM. Use was greatest for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM; 55.8%. Only 1.3% of patients used acupuncture and 6.8% Qi Gong or Tai Qi. Sixty-three percent of patients notified their oncologist about TCM use. The most common reason for use was to improve immune function. CHM was often used with a goal of treating cancer (66.4%, a use that 57% of physicians agreed with. Physicians were most concerned with interference with treatment, lack of evidence, and safety. Ninety percent of physicians have prescribed herbs and 87.5% have used TCM themselves. Conclusion. The use of TCM by Chinese cancer patients is exceptionally high, and physicians are generally well informed and supportive of patients’ use. Botanical agents are much more commonly used than acupuncture or movement-based therapies.

  17. The revised Stress Measurement of Female Marriage Immigrants in Korea: Evaluation of the psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Hee; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-one item Stress Measurement of Female Marriage Immigrants (SMFMI) was developed to assess stress of female marriage immigrants in Korea. This study reports the psychometric properties of a revised SMFMI (SMFMI-R) for application with female marriage immigrants to Korea who were raising children. Participants were 190 female marriage immigrants from China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and other Asian countries, who were recruited using convenience sampling between November 2013 and December 2013. Survey questionnaires were translated into study participants' native languages (Chinese, Vietnamese, and English). Principal component analysis yielded nineteen items in four factors (family, parenting, cultural, and economic stress), explaining 63.5% of the variance, which was slightly better than the original scale. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated adequate fit for the four-factor model. Based on classic test theory and item response theory, strong support was provided for item discrimination, item difficulty, and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.923). SMFMI-R scores were negatively associated with Korean proficiency and subjective economic status. The SMFMI-R is a valid, reliable, and comprehensive measure of stress for female marriage immigrants and can provide useful information to develop intervention programs for those who may be at risk for emotional stress.

  18. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  19. Acculturation Attitudes and Sociocultural Adaptation of Chinese Mainland Sojourners in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyi Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within these years, there has been a significant increase in the number of Chinese Mainland sojourners studying in Hong Kong. Due to the huge differences in various aspects like language, culture, cultural value, it would be considerably difficult for the Chinese Mainland students to adapt to the Hong Kong environment. This article investigates the ways for a group of doctoral students from Chinese Mainland to acculturate in Hong Kong. With the help of questionnaires, the difficulties that the sojourners have encountered in social situations are measured. It is found out that age and gender may have influenced the participants’ acculturation strategies, and interpersonal relationship is that which the subjects have the most difficulties with, while academic domain is the area with the least difficulties. Meanwhile, the results have shown that competence of local language is not a determinant factor of the sociocultural adaptation, and female subjects seem to adapt better than male subjects. Keywords: sojourner, acculturation, sociocultural adaptation, acculturation strategy

  20. Cross-Lagged Relationships between Morphological Awareness and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yahua; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Xinchun; Liu, Hongyun; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the developmental relationship between morphological awareness (MA) and reading comprehension (RC) using a 2-year and four-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 149 Chinese children (80 males and 69 females). We measured children's MA, word reading (WR), and RC from T1 to T4, in addition to phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, and general cognitive ability at T1 as control measures. Four plausible cross-lagged models were assessed and compared to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between MA and RC over time. Results found support for a reciprocal-causation model, that is, MA stably predicted subsequent RC, and the reverse relation was also found. Longitudinal mediation analyses revealed that WR partially mediated the relationship between MA and RC in Chinese children. These findings extend our understanding of the relationship between MA and RC. The practical implications for these two developing skills in Chinese children are discussed.