WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinese nnsa

  1. NNSA Staff Member Receives NNSA Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Elaine S.

    2013-04-01

    This article is intended for publication in the NNSA Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) Highlights, a quarterly newsletter available in print and e-form. It will be published on the NNSA website and is intended for public release.

  2. NNSA Program Develops the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Disney, Maren V.

    2015-09-02

    NNSA is fostering the next generation of nuclear security experts is through its successful NNSA Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP). NGFP offers its Fellows an exceptional career development opportunity through hands-on experience supporting NNSA mission areas across policy and technology disciplines. The one-year assignments give tomorrow’s leaders in global nuclear security and nonproliferation unparalleled exposure through assignments to Program Offices across NNSA.

  3. System Engineering for the NNSA Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C.; Ballard, S.; Hipp, J.

    2006-05-01

    To improve ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring capability, GNEM R&E (Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research & Engineering) researchers at the national laboratories have collected an extensive set of raw data products. These raw data are used to develop higher level products (e.g. 2D and 3D travel time models) to better characterize the Earth at regional scales. The processed products and selected portions of the raw data are stored in an archiving and access system known as the NNSA (National Nuclear Security Administration) Knowledge Base (KB), which is engineered to meet the requirements of operational monitoring authorities. At its core, the KB is a data archive, and the effectiveness of the KB is ultimately determined by the quality of the data content, but access to that content is completely controlled by the information system in which that content is embedded. Developing this system has been the task of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and in this paper we discuss some of the significant challenges we have faced and the solutions we have engineered. One of the biggest system challenges with raw data has been integrating database content from the various sources to yield an overall KB product that is comprehensive, thorough and validated, yet minimizes the amount of disk storage required. Researchers at different facilities often use the same data to develop their products, and this redundancy must be removed in the delivered KB, ideally without requiring any additional effort on the part of the researchers. Further, related data content must be grouped together for KB user convenience. Initially SNL used whatever tools were already available for these tasks, and did the other tasks manually. The ever-growing volume of KB data to be merged, as well as a need for more control of merging utilities, led SNL to develop our own java software package, consisting of a low- level database utility library upon which we have built several

  4. The process for integrating the NNSA knowledge base.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, Lisa K.; Carr, Dorthe Bame; Young, Christopher John; Hampton, Jeff (Lockheed Martin Mission Services, Houston, TX); Martinez, Elaine

    2009-03-01

    From 2002 through 2006, the Ground Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research & Engineering (GNEMRE) program at Sandia National Laboratories defined and modified a process for merging different types of integrated research products (IRPs) from various researchers into a cohesive, well-organized collection know as the NNSA Knowledge Base, to support operational treaty monitoring. This process includes defining the KB structure, systematically and logically aggregating IRPs into a complete set, and verifying and validating that the integrated Knowledge Base works as expected.

  5. NNSA/NV Consequence Management Capabilities for Radiological Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) provides an integrated Consequence Management (CM) response capability for the (NNSA) in the event of a radiological emergency. This encompasses planning, technical operations, and home team support. As the lead organization for CM planning and operations, NNSA/NV coordinates the response of the following assets during the planning and operational phases of a radiological accident or incident: (1) Predictive dispersion modeling through the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the High Consequence Assessment Group at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); (2) Regional radiological emergency assistance through the eight Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) regional response centers; (3) Medical advice and assistance through the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; (4) Aerial radiological mapping using the fixed-wing and rotor-wing aircraft of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS); (5) Consequence Management Planning Teams (CMPT) and Consequence Management Response Teams (CMRT) to provide CM field operations and command and control. Descriptions of the technical capabilities employed during planning and operations are given below for each of the elements comprising the integrated CM capability

  6. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  7. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  8. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  9. Nuclear Materials Management U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of the changing Defense Complex mission, the high cost to storing and protecting nuclear materials, and in consideration of scarcity of resources, it is imperative that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned nuclear materials are managed effectively. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Action Plan outlines the strategy for continuing to meet America's nuclear security goals, meeting the overall mission challenges of DOE and NNSA as well as giving focus to local missions. The mission of the NNSA/NSO Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) Program is to ensure that nuclear material inventories are accurately assessed and reported, future material needs are adequately planned, and that existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) inventories are efficiently utilized, staged, or dispositioned. The NNSA/NSO understands that the NTS has unique characteristics to serve and benefit the nation with innovative solutions to the complex problems involving Special Nuclear Materials, hazardous materials, and multi-agency, integrated operations. The NNSA/NSO is defining infrastructure requirements for known future missions, developing footprint consolidation strategic action plans, and continuing in the path of facility modernization and improvements. The NNSA/NSO is striving for the NTS to be acknowledged as an ideal location towards mission expansion and growth. The NTS has the capability of providing isolated, large scale construction and development locations for nuclear power or alternate energy source facilities, expanded nuclear material storage sites, and for new development in 'green' technology

  10. NNSA Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program 2008 Symposium--Focus on Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotta, P R; Sketchley, J A

    2008-08-20

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program was authorized by Congress in 1991 to fund leading-edge research and development central to the national laboratories core missions. LDRD anticipates and engages in projects on the forefront of science and engineering at the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, and has a long history of addressing pressing national security needs at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) laboratories. LDRD has been a scientific success story, where projects continue to win national recognition for excellence through prestigious awards, papers published and cited in peer-reviewed journals, mainstream media coverage, and patents granted. The LDRD Program is also a powerful means to attract and retain top researchers from around the world, to foster collaborations with other prominent scientific and technological institutions, and to leverage some of the world's most technologically advanced assets. This enables the LDRD Program to invest in high-risk and potentially high-payoff research that creates innovative technical solutions for some of our nation's most difficult challenges. Worldwide energy demand is growing at an alarming rate, as developing nations continue to expand their industrial and economic base on the back of limited global resources. The resulting international conflicts and environmental consequences pose serious challenges not only to this nation, but to the international community as well. The NNSA and its national security laboratories have been increasingly called upon to devote their scientific and technological capabilities to help address issues that are not limited solely to the historic nuclear weapons core mission, but are more expansive and encompass a spectrum of national security missions, including energy security. This year's symposium highlights some of the exciting areas of research in alternative fuels and technology, nuclear power, carbon

  11. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  12. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  13. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  14. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  15. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  16. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  18. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  19. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  20. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  1. NNSA Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program Annual Report June 2009 - May 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009, the Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP) completed its 17th successful year in support of the NNSA's mission by developing future leaders in nonproliferation and promoting awareness of career opportunities. This annual report to reviews program activities from June 2009 through May 2010 - the fellowship term for the Class of 2009. Contents include: Welcome Letter (Mission Driven: It's all about results), Introduction, Structure of the NGFP, Program Management Highlights, Annual Lifecycle, Class of 2009 Incoming Fellows, Orientation, Global Support of the Mission, Career Development, Management of the Fellows, Performance Highlights, Closing Ceremony, Where They Are Now, Alumni Highlight - Mission Success: Exceptional Leaders from the NGFP, Class of 2009 Fall Recruitment Activities, Established Partnerships, Face-to-Face, Recruiting Results, Interviews, Hiring and Clearances, Introducing the Class of 2010, Class of 2011 Recruitment Strategy, On the Horizon, Appendix A: Class of 2010 Fellow Biographies.

  2. Progress in safeguards by design (SBD) by the United States National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has described the Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept as an approach in which international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning. Often, international safeguards features are added following completion of the facility design. Earlier consideration of safeguards features has the potential to reduce the need for costly re-designs or retrofits of the facility and can result in a more efficient and effective safeguards design. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) initiated a project in 2008 through its Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to establish a global norm for the use of SBD. The NGSI SBD program is evolving in parallel with a similar effort at the IAEA, while taking into account the IAEA's SBD achievements and future plans. The NGSI program includes DOE laboratory studies, international workshops, engagement with industry and the IAEA, and setting an example through its planned use in new nuclear facilities in the United States. Consistent with this effort, the NGSI program has sponsored 'Lessons Learned' studies and the preparation of facility-specific SBD Guidance documents. The NGSI program also takes into account successes that the NNSA has had with implementing safeguards early into facility designs within the U.S. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of the most recent developments in SBD under NGSI within the U.S. as well as the presentation of 'Lessons Learned' integrating safeguards into new nuclear facility designs of the U.S. Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE), namely the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) project at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and to discuss its relevance to international safeguards. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  3. Potential application of LIBS to NNSA next generation safeguards initiative (NGSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barefield Ii, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browne, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Leon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Ron [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le, Loan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamontagne, Stephen A [DOE/NNSA/NA241; Veal, Kevin [NN/ADTR

    2009-01-01

    In a climate in which states and nations have been and perhaps currently are involved in the prol iferation of nuclear materials and technologies, advanced methodologies and improvements in current measurement techniques are needed to combat new threats and increased levels of sophistication. The Department of Energy through the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has undertaken a broad review of International Safeguards. The conclusion from that review was that a comprehensive initiative to revitalize international safeguards technology and the human resource base was urgently needed to keep pace with demands and increasingly sophisticated emerging safeguards challenges. To address these challenges, NNSA launched the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to develop policies, concepts, technologies, expertise, and infrastructure necessary to sustain the international safeguards system as its mission evolves for the next 25 years. NGSI is designed to revitalize and strengthen the U.S. safeguards technical base, recognizing that without a robust program the United States of America will not be in a position to exercise leadership or provide the necessary support to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). International safeguards as administrated by the IAEA are the primary vehicle for verifying compliance with the peaceful use and nonproliferation of nuclear materials and technologies. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy or LIBS has the potential to support the goals of NGSI as follows: by providing (1) automated analysis in complex nuclear processing or reprocessing facilities in real-time or near real-time without sample preparation or removal, (2) isotopic and important elemental ratio (Cm/Pu, Cm/U, ... etc) analysis, and (3) centralized remote control, process monitoring, and analysis of nuclear materials in nuclear facilities at multiple locations within the facility. Potential application of LIBS to international safeguards as

  4. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  5. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  6. Epilepsy in Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T M; Yang, S H; Ng, P K

    2001-01-01

    This article reviewed the meaning and development of epilepsy in Chinese culture. The theories of Yin and Yang and the five elements, fundamentals of traditional Chinese medicine, were introduced, which form the context of understanding of the etiology, classification, and treatment of epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:11321477

  7. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  8. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  9. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  10. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  11. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  12. Psychiatry and Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tsung-Yi

    1983-01-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chines...

  13. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  14. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  15. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  16. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  17. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  18. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  19. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  20. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  1. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  2. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  3. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  4. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  5. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  6. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  7. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  8. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  9. Preparing for Chinese New Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Gordon

    This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English, designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. The booklet follows the activities of a Chinese-American family in its preparations for the Chinese New Year. (CLK)

  10. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  11. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...... are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural...

  12. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  13. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The feature and development direction of ecological garden city; The problem and countermeasures in urban construction audio-visual file management task;Youth network moral education is imperative;A shallow discussion about moral education penetration in Chinese classroom;

  14. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  15. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  16. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  17. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  18. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  19. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  20. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  1. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...

  2. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  4. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  5. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  6. Psychiatry and Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T Y

    1983-12-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chinese have a relatively favorable prognosis of schizophrenia, low rates of depressive illness, a strong tendency towards somatization and the presence of several unique culture-bound syndromes. From studying Chinese in Vancouver, it was found that they have a characteristic way of dealing with mental illness in the family, in that there is first a protracted period of intrafamilial coping with serious psychiatric illness, followed by recourse to friends, elders and neighbors in the community; third, consultation with traditional specialists, religious healers or general physicians; fourth, outpatient or inpatient treatment from specialists, and, finally, a process of rejection and scapegoating of the patient. The efficacy of Western psychiatric treatment of Chinese patients has yet to be objectively assessed. PMID:6364576

  7. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  8. Proposed Methodology for Developing a National Strategy for Human Resource Development: Lessons Learned from a NNSA Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a recent National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) workshop on Human Resource Development, which was focused on the potential methodology for developing a National Human Resource strategy for nuclear power in emerging nuclear states. The need for indigenous human resource development (HRD) has been singled out as a key milestone by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its 2007 Milestones document. A number of countries considering nuclear energy have reiterated this need for experts and specialists to support a national nuclear program that is sustainable and secure. Many have expressed concern over how best to assure the long-term availability of crucial human resource, how to approach the workforce planning process, and how to determine the key elements of developing a national strategy.

  9. Chinese boxes: "Typhoon" and Conrad's history of the Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D.

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the novel "Typhoon," by Joseph Conrad, as a story about Chinamen coolies and seamen onboard a steamer transporting Chinese laborers. It argues that the Chinese boxes of the coolies represent several versions of the history of the Chinese and that the coolies are also representatives of a civilization with ideas and institutions, a law and order of nature. It also describes the images of Chinese life and their association to sociality, cooperation, nourishment, simplicity, ...

  10. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  11. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  12. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  13. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their

  14. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  15. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  16. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  17. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  18. Chinese Contemporary Art: Ink Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiDaojian

    2003-01-01

    Chinese ink painting is an age-old art tradition that embodies distinctive characteristics of Chinese culture. In these exquisite paintings, artists integrate nature and everyday life to show how the two exist in harmonyalso a frequent theme in Chinese philosophy.

  19. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  20. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  1. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  2. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    2012 with 41 students studying journalism at People's University, Tsinghua University, China Youth University for Political Sciences, Central University for Nationalities, Beijing Foreign Languages University and Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing and at Fudan University in Shanghai....... society. This chapter is concerned with Chinese journalism students' self-perceptions and evaluations of journalistic performances in order to understand the professional values to which they adhere. The study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted in two periods in Spring 2011 and Fall...

  3. The Chinese Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Moderation, or “the doctrine of the mean,” is the preferred Chinese practice. In order to stimulate the economy since its downturn seven years ago, the Chinese government has adopted a pro-active financial policy that will, in the wake of rapid economic growth, effect its economic soft landing. Since the beginning of 2005, the government has followed the fiscal strategy of cutting deficits and curbing government investment with this aim in mind. Staff reporter Luo Yuanjun examines this issue in his report “Economic Soft Landing: A Common Desire.”

  4. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we......-ba /pha pa/ ta-da /tha ta/ ka-ga / kha-ka/ For L2 acquisition it is held that same and new phonemes are (relatively) easy acquired, whereas similar but not identical sounds are difficult to learn. New sounds are initially mapped onto the L1 phoneme inventory (Kuhl 1991). For Danish, this would predict...

  5. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  6. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming;

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  7. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  8. Milestone for Chinese physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Chinese scientists have discovered a new particle predicted decades ago but never observed before. It could be what was once called the "multi-quark state," tiny elementary particles with a strong interaction or force that serves as the source of nuclear energy (1/2 page).

  9. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Corbiere

    2013-01-01

    <正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in

  10. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  11. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  12. Cataloging Pirated Chinese Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sze-Tseng

    1971-01-01

    Various types of pirated Chinese books are given with specific examples. The basic steps followed for the proper identification of these books is described, and remedies suggested in case the original is discovered after the book has been cataloged according to the information given by the book pirate. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  13. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  14. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  15. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Li Yiyi, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of Shenyang Metal Research Institute, has developed a new system for creating a low temperature and high pressure anti-hydrogen material in the research of engineering material. She has also been successful in her research of various types of steel.

  16. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  17. Chinese Lacquer Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengXiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the

  18. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  19. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  20. Chinese Yuan after Chinese Exchange Rate System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eiji Ogawa; Michiru Sakane

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the actual exchange rate policy conducted by the Chinese government after the Chinese exchange rate system reform on 21 July 2005 is investigated. Also, the long-run effect is investigated, including the Balassa-Samuelson effect on the Chinese yuan. It was found that the Chinese government generated a statistically significant but small change in exchange rate policy during the sample period until 25 January 2006. It was not identifted that the Chinese monetary authority is adopting the currency basket system because the change is too small in the economic sense. It is indicated that the Chinese government should take account of the productivity growth of countries composing the currency basket in order to operate a currency basket regime.

  1. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Socicty of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology,Immunological Journal,Current Immunology,Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology,Chinese Journal of

  2. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Society of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology, Immunological Journal, Current Immunology, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology; Chinese Journal of

  3. Chinese New Year Materials for Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene

    This is a resource book designed to be used by teachers in Chinese bilingual bicultural programs. The materials in the book are based on Chinese New Year customs still observed in Chinese-American communities. The resource book contains five types of materials: (1) a general introduction to the Chinese New Year, including the Chinese Lunar Year…

  4. Chinese Investment in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    At the 12th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) held on September 8-11 in Xiamen, Fujian Province, government officials and entrepreneurs from all over the world canvassed Chinese entrepreneurs and investors to invest in their countries. Foreign countries and regions rented 16,000 square meters of exhibition space, an increase of more than 50 percent from last year. Among the 74 participating countries and regions, more than 50 held seminars about their invest- ment environments. Besides the Caribbean countries and underdeveloped African nations that are actively attracting investment, developed countries such as the Untied States, Germany, France, Italy and Sweden also showed extraordinary enthusiasm in trying to win over Chinese investors. Beijing Review interviewed Marinella Loddo, Director of the Industrial Cooperation Division of the Italian Institute for Foreign Trade which is also known as the Italian Trade Commission (ICE).

  5. Chinese Experiences on Orthokeratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peiying; Guo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of myopia in Chinese children has been rising each year. Research has shown that orthokeratology is a good method for controlling the progression of myopia. In this article, we review the current prevalence of myopia, the development and management of orthokeratology, and the myopia control methods used in China. A physical and health survey release indicated that the ratio of poor vision in every range of ages is still high in China. During the past 17 years, Chinese doctors have developed a standard fitting procedure and medical management of orthokeratology patients. This article also reviews the clinical studies in China for Ortho-K lenses, such as myopia control, effects and safety, corneal change, and lens design and fitting. Finally, we review the development of the International Academy of Orthokeratology Asia in China. PMID:26704137

  6. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  7. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Discoverer of the Origin of Life The origin of life on earth has long been a subject explored by scientists around the world. At the 11th International Conference on the Origin of Life held at Orleans University in France on July 9th, 1996, Chinese scientist Zhao Yufen and her partner Cao Peisheng announced the contents of the origin of the seed of life.

  8. The Developing Chinese Garment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1997-01-01

    CHINA is a country with a 5,000-year history and a population of 1.2 billion people. Clothing plays an important role in Chinese people’s cultural and social life. Since the reform and opening up in the 1980s, the garment industry has greatly developed and has increased progressively by an average of 15.7 percent a year. In the past 10 years particularly, township-run garment production enterprises have suddenly come to the fore,

  9. INSET for Chinese Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 陈涛; 刘子春

    2007-01-01

    By setting examples,giving tables or taxonomy and so on,the thesis mainly explains the eight general INSET ( in-service teacher training) principles,including Participation,Sympathetic to the context,Teachers' attitude change,Integration of approaches,Communication and support,Evaluation and follow-up,Adequate timescale,then especially concentrate on the problems and solutions to Chinese teacher in using the INSET principles.

  10. Pollution Across Chinese Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Yap Co; Fanying Kong; Shuanglin Lin

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis using 1987-1995 data for Chinese provinces. A comparison of off-sample (1996-2004) predictions to actual emissions indicates that more stringent rules are still needed to fight industrial (waste water and dust) pollution. Auxiliary regressions show that conditional on income, northern provinces have lower industrial waste water pollution; non-coastal and provinces with smaller secondary industry shares have lower industrial (waste wa...

  11. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dutch-based information provider expands in China to tap new market There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them. "You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,

  12. Chinese institutional investors’ sentiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kling, Gerhard; Gao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    We use daily survey data on Chinese institutional investors’ forecasts to measure investors' sentiment. Our empirical model uncovers that share prices and investor sentiment do not have a long-run relation; however, in the short-run, the mood of investors follows a positive feedback process. Hence, institutional investors are optimistic when previous market returns were positive. Contrarily, negative returns trigger a decline in sentiment, which reacts more sensitively to negative than positi...

  13. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    to interpret their own educational histories and prior experiences, while at the same time making use of imaginaries of 'Western' education to redefine themselves as independent individuals in an increasingly globalised and individualised world. Through a case study of prospective pre-school teachers preparing...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  14. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2011-01-01

    There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them."You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,Wolters Kluwer China CEO.

  15. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  16. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  17. A classification of chinese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of Chinese Cultural Values (CCVs). Although there exist great differences between the Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, it is still possible to identify certain core cultural values that are shared by the Chinese people no matter where they live. Based on the original list by the Chinese Cultural Connection (1987), the paper creates a new list that contains 71 core values against 40 in the old. The implications and limitations of the classification are...

  18. Current Chinese bryological literature (4)

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Yu, Jin

    2000-01-01

    According to our collections of literature, about 400 scientific papers dealing with Chinese bryophytes have been published in China and abroad during 1990’s. Among these, more than 50 % were published in different scientific journals in China and often written in Chinese with English abstract, which are not well known and assessable for foreign bryologists. Therefore, in addition to previous Chinese literature I-III (Cao et al. 1990, Li et Zhang 1993, 1994), we present the fourth part of Chi...

  19. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    projects to acquiring more systemic properties. Chinese companies have acquired a broader sectoral presence in Indonesia and Chinese invested companies in e.g. extractive or manufacturing activities can increasingly rely on complementary Chinese investments in logistics, travel, finance etc....

  20. I Married a Chinese Woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEPHEN SAYERS

    1997-01-01

    He became known all over China because of his appearance on the national television competition "Foreigners Singing Chinese Songs."Dressed in traditional Chinese costume and accompanied by his Chinese wife,he Chinese Girl."In this article,Stephen Sayers tells about his marriage and his personal feelings during his five years in China,Stephen and his wife Candy just moved to Macao in July.In arecent letter he asked the editor to give the money for this article to the education-aiding"Hope project" and specified it for Guizhou.

  1. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  2. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  3. Why Do I Study Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Translator’s Note: The cross language year program-the Chinese Language Year in France and the French Language Year in China-initiated by Chinese and French leaders were held in 2011 and 2012 to promote cultural exchanges and further deepen the China-France comprehensive strategic partnership. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the CPAFFC and the

  4. Danish Chinese Center for Nanometals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    The Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The Chinese partners in the Center are Institute of Metal Research in Shenyang, Tsinghua University and Chongqing University. The Danish part...

  5. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  6. Chinese Converstations: An Intellectual Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, John J.

    1980-01-01

    A profile of how Chinese urban intellectuals view life in their country is presented. Information was obtained through many conversations with Chinese educators and students during the author's visit to China. Discussed are family, education, the cultural revolution, the Gang of Four, the quest for modernization, and the policy toward…

  7. Chinese Festivals: Keeping Traditions Alive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    WE all love holidays and the happy gatherings of family and friends that they bring, and the Chinese are no exception. The Chinese celebrate festivals based on the lunar calendar dating back thousands ofyears. The popular favorite is Lunar New Year, or Spring Festival, which falls on the first day of the first

  8. Chinese private yards catch up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese shipbuilding industry was dominated by state-owned companies for a long time. In 2005, when a global shipbuilding summit was held in China for the first time, no Chinese private shipyards appeared except two national shipbuilders, namely COSCO and CSIC. However, in the same year, Rongsheng,Mingde and Hantong began their first step.

  9. Criminaliteit en traditionele Chinese medicijnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is deeply rooted in the Chinese culture. Although thousands of animal and plant species are used for medicines legally, some medications contain more sinister elements; illegal animal or plant ingredients of protected species. What is the origin of this demand for

  10. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from

  11. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  12. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LI Ru-long: Huang Diancheng's Great Contributions to Chinese Phonology Abstract: Huang Diancheng inherited the essence of traditional Chinese phonology and the research results of the Zhang and Huang School. On the basis of the analysis on the facts of modern dialects, he put forward the principle that Qiangsheng bi ruoyun,

  13. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  14. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Over 1.5 million women workers from 13,000 enterprises have joined the social coordinated system for child-bearing insurance funds in Zhejiang Province. The funds are paid by regular and contract workers and casual laborers from state-owned and collective enterprises and Chinese employees from joint ventures. The social labor insurance committees under the local governments at the city or county levels are in charge of the practical work for taking over the funds. The amounts of money each pays varies according to the different living standard and salary level in each area.

  15. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chinese children are taller and heavier than ever before. According to a national survey from 1995, the average height of children aged 7-14 was 142.3 centimeters, 2 centimeters taller than the average height of children in the same age group ten years before. The average weight was 31.9 kilograms, which is 2.8 kilograms heavier than children of the same age group in 1985. Such improvements must be credited to the development of China’s health care network for children. By the end of last

  16. Chinese Vegetarian Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ONCE in a restaurant specializing in vegetarian food in Hubei Province, I saw some dishes on the menu which did not sound like vegetarian food, such as chicken, duck, fish and pork. Only after I ordered and tasted did I understand that these were all made of bean products. Simply speaking, the Chinese vegetarian diet is comprised of grains, vegetables, bean products and fruits. It also includes bamboo shoots, mushrooms, edible fungus, aquatic plants and dried fruit. This kind of diet boasts a long history. As early as the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) and the early Han

  17. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  18. CHINESE COMMUNITY IN ECUADOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARIA JOSE CIFUENTES CERVANTES

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Republic Of Ecuador is located in the west coast of South America.It has a total area of 256.370 km2 and a population of approximately 14 million.Spanish is considered as the official language.The country is subdivided into 24 provinces with the capital city being Quito and the other major city being Guayaquil.Since the year 2000 US Dollar had been the official currency.Approximately 50,000 people from China live now in Ecuador.Although the Chinese community in Ecuador is not as large as those in Brazil and Peru, it has a strong economic and social weight in the country.

  19. The "Coop-Comp" Chinese Negotiation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    T. Fang

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the cultural roots of Chinese business negotiation strategy. The article argues that, Chinese culture, with its cooperative and competitive components, has bestowed upon Chinese negotiators a distinctive "coop-comp" negotiation strategy. The Chinese are culturally capable of negotiating both sincerely and deceptively at the international business negotiation table.

  20. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment beh

  1. Genetic Algorithm for Chinese Postman Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hua; Kang Li-shan

    2003-01-01

    Chinese Postman Problem is an unsettled graphic problem. It was approached seldom by evolutionary computation. Now we use genetic algorithm to solve Chinese Postman Problem in undirected graph and get good results. It could be extended to solve Chinese postman problem in directed graph. We make these efforts for exploring in optimizing the mixed Chinese postman problem.

  2. Multicultural Awareness for the Classroom: The Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Felix Mario; And Others

    This guide provides the teacher of multiethnic students with information and teaching resources on Chinese. An historical overview of China and the Chinese experience in America is presented in English and Chinese. Several lesson plans and classroom activities reviewing Chinese geography, holidays, legends, and stories are presented. (APM)

  3. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  4. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  5. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  6. The Analysis of the Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓慧

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of pragmatic studies, politeness has aroused great interest among Chinese scholars. Different cultures have different traditions and values, which bring out different understanding and application of politeness strategies. Great Chinese culture brings out the complicated Chinese politeness scale. A successful communication depends on politeness principle. Learning the Chinese politeness scale will make we know more about the Chinese culture. By researching this, we will perform better in communication.

  7. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Fung Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publicatio...

  8. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    2013-01-01

    enterprises supplemented with key informant interviews, available official statistics and secondary data. Considering the evolution of Chinese investments in Indonesia over time, investments have evolved from being individual and isolated projects to acquiring more systemic properties. Chinese companies have...... acquired a broader sectoral presence in Indonesia and Chinese invested companies in, e.g., extractive or manufacturing activities can increasingly rely on complementary Chinese investments in logistics, travel, finance, etc. Where the local development effects are concerned, a picture emerges where Chinese...

  9. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Study on the Application of Mass Media and English Han cui xia (ShanDong BinZhou medical college ShanDong YanTai 264003)Read and Write Periodica,vol.9, No.5,16,2012(ISSN1672-1578,in,Chinese ) Abstract: Rapid technological development of mass media and Internt chances of improvement. This paper analyzes the present situation of adult teaching and learning of English and the application of mass media and Internet in it in the hope of changing the present situation and improving the effect in order for adult learners to benefit more from it.. Key words: mass media; Internet; adult education; teaching and learning of English

  11. TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930433 A study on relationship between hy-pothyroidism and deficiency of kidney YANG.ZHA Lianglun(查良伦),et al.lnstit Integr TCM& West Med,Shanghai Med Univ,Shanghai,200040.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 1993;13(4):202—204.Thirty—two cases of hypothyroidism causedby various factors were treated for one year withChinese medicinal herbs preparation“Shen Lutablet”(SLT)to warm and reinforce the KidneyYang.34 normal persons were studied as a con-trol group.After treatment with SLT,the clini-cal symptoms of hypothyroidism were markedlyimproved.Average serum concentration of totalT3,T4 increased significantly from 67.06±4.81

  12. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives.

  13. Chinese Family: Some New Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    It is a familiar sight in many Chinese cities to witness a large team escorting a baby pram in public: mother, grandmothers, ayi (nan-ny), another ayi maybe, grandfathers quiet possible, and finally tither if you are lucky.

  14. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  15. "Fractal Expression" in Chinese Calligraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuelin

    2008-01-01

    We show that from historical record and mathematic analysis, "fractal expressions" may have been a conscious pursuit at least one thousand years ago as an element of beauty in ancient Chinese calligraphy.

  16. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  17. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  18. The chinese health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese h...... healthcare system. The current situation will be further challenged in the future by an aging population, an increasing need for privatization and growing expectations about quality of healthcare....

  19. English and Chinese language ambiguity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海

    2009-01-01

    This article from the Voice of Ambiguity,Lexical Ambiguity and Ambiguity in the three aspects of the grammatical structure of English and Chinese languages are compared ambiguity And analysis.Ambiguity in English and Chinese language through the comparison,resulted in two languages to explore the reasons for ambiguity;analysis of the characteristics of English language ambiguities;Research Should not be some ambiguity on how to avoid the emergence of the phenomenon.

  20. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  1. The art of Chinese management?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlevogt, Kai-Alexander.

    1998-01-01

    An empirical study was undertaken (a) to examine the characteristics, influencing factors, and effectiveness of a distinctive Chinese management model adopted by the newly founded private enterprises in mainland China, as well as (b) to test the "fit" notion in contingency theory. The study was based on a random sample of 124 standardized personal interviews with CEOs of Chinese industrial and service companies in Beijing and Shanghai. The standardized questionnaire mainly con...

  2. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  3. Chinese Loan Words in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜战莹

    2015-01-01

    English language is the most common working language.In the history of its development,English has widened its vocabulary by borrowing.Borrowing plays an important role in the formation of modern English.Chinese loan words are a part in the family of all the loan words.Therefore,the number of loan words which originate from Chinese is not that great,but they hold an important role in contemporary English.

  4. Who Will Save Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Like a drama unfolding in a riveting suspense novel, the quadrennial global football gala is becoming more and more compelling as the climax approaches. Billions of people are glued to the tube watching the World Cup in Germany, and Chinese football fans are following the countdown with the rest of the world. According to a poll by China Central Television, the national broadcaster, World Cup games have attracted combined viewers of at least 10 billion. For Chinese football enthusiasts, however, the joy ...

  5. Chinese kindergartners learn to read characters analytically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; McBride, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Do Chinese children implicitly extract information from Chinese print before they are formally taught to read? We examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to regularities in Chinese characters and the relationship between such sensitivity and later literacy ability. Eighty-five kindergartners from Beijing were given a character-learning task and assessed on word reading and word writing twice within a 1-year interval. Sensitivity to the structural and phonetic regularities in Chinese appeared in 4-year-olds, and sensitivity to the positions of radicals in Chinese characters emerged in 5-year-olds. Such sensitivities explained unique variance in Chinese word reading and writing 1 year later, with age and nonverbal IQ statistically controlled. Young children detected regularities in written Chinese before they received formal instruction in it, which underscores both the importance of early statistical learning for literacy development and the analytic properties of Chinese print.

  6. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive Warm-up in Jiang Hua (Department of Foreign Language, Modern College of Northwest University, Xi'an 710130, China)Read and Write Perodica,vol.9,No.10,10,2012 (ISSN1672 -1578,in, Chinese) Abstract: Classroom teaching activities should be an interactive process, which includes not only interaction between teachers and students but also includes the interaction between students and learning materials and the interaction between students and design activities in class. These interaction processes will directly affect the students learning interest and the effect. So classroom interactions are very important. But how to present these interactions well and make them educational in the classroom is a question which needs considered carefully by teachers. Because of the warm-up is the key part for teachers to introduce the whole unit and stimulate the interests of students, this article mainly discusses the warming-up part of college English teaching, to improve the classroom interactions, and stimulate the students' study enthusiasm and the initiative. Key words: Interaction; Educational; Warm-up

  7. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  8. The Chinese-American Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, S.H.

    1990-05-01

    The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Oscar Montelius and Chinese Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, the world-famous Swedish archaeologist, had a key role in the development of modern scientific Chinese archaeology and the discovery of China’s prehistory. We know that one of his major works, Die Methode, the first volume of his Älteren kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, translated into Chinese in the 1930s, had considerable influence on generations of Chinese archaeologists and art historians. What has previously remained unknown, is that Montelius personally promoted the research undertaken in China by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960, whose discoveries of Neolithic cultures in the 1920s constituted the breakthrough and starting point for the development of prehistoric archaeology in China. In this paper, we reproduce, translate and discuss a long forgotten memorandum written by Montelius in 1920 in support of Andersson’s research. In this Montelius indicated his belief in the potential of prehistoric Chinese archaeology as well as his predictions regarding the discoveries about to be made. It is therefore an important document for the study of the history of Chinese archaeology as a whole.

  10. Traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    @@ Further progress has been made in the traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer over the past few years, especially in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment principle, improvement of therapeutic results and prolonging the survival.

  11. Chinese Private Direct Investment and Overseas Chinese Network in Africa%Chinese Private Direct Investment and Overseas Chinese Network in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Song

    2011-01-01

    Based on extensive interviews in China and in Africa over 2 years, the present paper investigates Chinese private direct investment in Africa. Drawing on the Swedish Uppsala model, we explore two mian issues. First, do Chinese private enterprises follow t

  12. "Uighur's Contributions to the Ancient Chinese Culture"

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIN, Geng

    2010-01-01

    In this my paper I speak briefly on the contributions made by the Uighurs and their ancestors to the Chinese civilization. Of course, the Chinese people also made great contributions to the civilization of Uighur people

  13. Translating Chinese Zero Anaphoric Subjects into English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher-leng

    1993-01-01

    Deals with a major difference between European languages and Chinese, namely the sparse use of anaphoric reference in Chinese. Suggests that the translator's way of rendering references will affect the interpretational potential of the text in the target language. (NKA)

  14. A Primer on Chinese Music Instruments Released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuSan

    2005-01-01

    Chinese traditional musical instruments, with a history of 8,000 years, are known for their diverse forms and types. The qualities, functions and materials of these instrunents reflect the unique aesthetic value of Chinese traditional music.

  15. Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

  16. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation: Report to the NNSA DOE Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) convened a workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. Safeguards instrumentation software must be sustained in a changing environment to ensure existing instruments can continue to perform as designed, with improved security. The approaches to the development and maintenance of instrument software used in the past may not be the best model for the future and, therefore, the organizers' goal was to investigate these past approaches and to determine an optimal path forward. The purpose of this report is to provide input for the DOE NNSA Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) and other stakeholders that can be utilized when making decisions related to the development and maintenance of software used in the implementation of international nuclear safeguards. For example, this guidance can be used when determining whether to fund the development, upgrade, or replacement of a particular software product. The report identifies the challenges related to sustaining software, and makes recommendations for addressing these challenges, supported by summaries and detailed notes from the workshop discussions. In addition the authors provide a set of recommendations for institutionalizing software sustainability practices in the safeguards community. The term ''software sustainability'' was defined for this workshop as ensuring that safeguards instrument software and algorithm functionality can be maintained efficiently throughout the instrument lifecycle, without interruption and providing the ability to continue to improve that software as needs arise.

  17. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation: Report to the NNSA DOE Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, Susan E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pickett, Chris A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Queirolo, Al [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Worrall, Louise G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-07

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) convened a workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. Safeguards instrumentation software must be sustained in a changing environment to ensure existing instruments can continue to perform as designed, with improved security. The approaches to the development and maintenance of instrument software used in the past may not be the best model for the future and, therefore, the organizers’ goal was to investigate these past approaches and to determine an optimal path forward. The purpose of this report is to provide input for the DOE NNSA Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) and other stakeholders that can be utilized when making decisions related to the development and maintenance of software used in the implementation of international nuclear safeguards. For example, this guidance can be used when determining whether to fund the development, upgrade, or replacement of a particular software product. The report identifies the challenges related to sustaining software, and makes recommendations for addressing these challenges, supported by summaries and detailed notes from the workshop discussions. In addition the authors provide a set of recommendations for institutionalizing software sustainability practices in the safeguards community. The term “software sustainability” was defined for this workshop as ensuring that safeguards instrument software and algorithm functionality can be maintained efficiently throughout the instrument lifecycle, without interruption and providing the ability to continue to improve that software as needs arise.

  18. Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingjin

    2015-01-01

    In his article "Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature" Yingjin Zhang revisits the challenge of mapping Chinese literature as world literature in three steps: 1) he delineates of positions of view as proposed by Western scholars who engaged in rethinking world literature(s) in the age of globalization, 2) evaluates consequences of such a new mapping for Chinese literature and tests a different set of "technologies of recognition" (Shih) in the context of Chinese versus Sinophone studi...

  19. Introduction to CRM Systems in Chinese SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoting

    2015-01-01

    CRM (Customer Relationship Management) is an efficient management tool for an enterprise to improve the service level and customer relationships. However, CRM is not widely applied by Chinese SMEs. The implementation of CRM still faces some problems in Chinese CRM market. In this thesis is CRM systems applied in Chinese SMEs were discussed Chinese,including the current situation of CRM and what the SMEs need from a CRM system. In addition, it was discussed how to implement a CRM system in...

  20. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    OpenAIRE

    Addendum by Penny Edwards; Lorraine Paterson

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45). He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967) and...

  1. The Lancaster Corpus of Mandarin Chinese.

    OpenAIRE

    McEnery, A. M.; Xiao, R. Z.

    2003-01-01

    The Lancaster Corpus of Mandarin Chinese (LCMC) addresses an increasing need within the research community for a publicly available balanced corpus of Mandarin Chinese. LCMC has been constructed as part of a research project undertaken by the Linguistics Department, Lancaster University. The corpus is designed as a Chinese match of the Freiburg-LOB Corpus of British English (FLOB), and, as such, will provide a valuable resource for contrastive studies between English and Chinese as well as a ...

  2. Chinese Consumers' Preferences for Livestock Products

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xuehua; Marchant, Mary A.; Qin, Xiang Dong; Zhuang, Jun

    2005-01-01

    This research surveyed over 784 Chinese consumers in Shanghai and Nanjing in 2001 and 2002, evaluating their preferences for livestock product attributes using ordered-probit models and factor analyses. Empirical results confirm the heterogeneity of Chinese livestock retail markets and suggest that livestock distributors should focus on Chinese female consumers and young consumers considering cooking convenience as a key attribute. Chinese consumers with higher incomes placed less importance ...

  3. Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yun; Walter J B van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    We present Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N=28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1429 English words. The results revealed that 71% of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigat...

  4. Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chengjun; Ma, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    In their article "Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture" Chengjun Wang and Junhong Ma discuss three main channels of the "traveling" of Chinese culture to the outside world. Focusing on the situation of bilingualism (i.e., Chinese and English) and the need of spreading Chinese literature and culture especially in the English-speaking world, Wang and Ma argue for "localization and globalization." Further, Wang and Ma argue that in order to narrow the gap of the cultural di...

  5. Informization Implementation for Chinese Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; QIAN Yu; CHEN Jianfeng; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    Retailing is an important component of every country's economic system. The current status and developments in the informization of Chinese retail industry were investigated by using questionnaires and interviews to survey 139 retailers throughout China. The investigation shows that Chinese retailers are in the initial informization stage, and can be classified into different types with corresponding informization characteristics. In addition, the survey identified the key problems faced by retailers in the initial stage. Developments in the information technology field were analyzed to identify the key technologies that Chinese retailers should focus on during the informization process. The investigation also shows that the retailers have not arrived at a consensus about information technology adoption, and thus hesitate to use new information technologies, such as the radio frequency identification.

  6. Moon Cakes, A Chinese Favorite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINA is a nation with many ethnic groups. Thus, there are many legends to explain the nation’s many festivals. The largest and most striking of these festivals are the Spring Festival and Midautumn Festival. Anywhere Chinese people go, they will remember and celebrate these two festivals. The Mid-autumn Festival falls on the fifteenth day of the 8th lunar month. In this festival, Chinese people eat moon cakes, a baked food, with a flour crust around a dense filling. Coming in a great variety of flavors and styles, the moon cake carries a great deal of symbolic significance. The moon cake is round like the moon. "Round" is pronounced "yuan" in Chinese. This character is full of good meanings. When used in reference to a

  7. Chinese Feelings Cherished By Canadians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On March 30, "The Chinese Feelings Across the Pacific-The Century Exhibition of the Old Photos Treasured by the Canadians" was open in the Lu Xun Museum in Beijing. The exhibition lasted for one week. At the exhibition some old photos taken in the early 20th century were on display, showing James G. Endicott, envoy of world peace, together with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai; the family of O. L. Kilborn, one of the founders of West China Union University, together with Chinese women with bound feet: O. L. Kilborn treating the wounded soldiers during the Revolution of 1911; Leslie Earl Willmott in Chinese tunic suit and his wife reluctant to bid farewell to China, as well as photos of Ashley Woodward Lindesay, founder of China’s modern

  8. English Loan Words in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡悦

    2016-01-01

    During the process of language contact, a lot of language changes may appear, among which lexical borrowing, the ori-gin lexical item from one language being used by another language, is one of the most common phenomena. As a result of glo-balization, the frequent contact with western culture and the English language has brought a huge amount of lexical borrowings to the Chinese language. This paper mainly looks at the language contact of the English loan words in Chinese in the following three methods, namely transliteration, semantic loan and a mixture of the two respectively. The discussion over the examination will contribute to the understanding of English as a lingua franca and its language contact with Chinese.

  9. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  10. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  11. Chinese Information Processing and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Li; Tie-Jun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents some main progresses and achievements in Chinese information processing. It focuses on six aspects, I.e., Chinese syntactic analysis, Chinese semantic analysis, machine translation, information retrieval, information extraction, and speech recognition and synthesis. The important techniques and possible key problems of the respective branch in the near future are discussed as well.

  12. WEB BASED TRANSLATION OF CHINESE ORGANIZATION NAME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Muyun; Liu Daxin; Zhao Tiejun; Qi Haoliang; Lin Kaiming

    2009-01-01

    A web-based translation method for Chinese organization name is proposed. After analyzing the structure of Chinese organization name, the methods of bilingual query formulation and maximum entropy based translation re-ranking are suggested to retrieve the English translation from the web via public search engine. The experiments on Chinese university names demonstrate the validness of this approach.

  13. Problems of Textbook in Teaching Chinese Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ta-hsia

    It is proposed that teachers of Chinese expose their students to traditional critical views of Chinese poetics and criticism through careful selection of poems. This approach to language study is based on the assumption that the student may gain insight and appreciation of Chinese poetry as well as a feeling for the culture. Arguments favoring…

  14. How Do Chinese Enterprises Look at REACH?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The new European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization of Chemicals) regulation has come into force. As soon as the REACH white paper was issued, Chinese enterprises started to research the possible impacts of REACH and prepare to cope with them. How then do these Chinese enterprises look at REACH? Following are views of some Chinese enterprises exporting chemical products to the European Union.

  15. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  16. Scientific and Technical Chinese, Volume II. Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kung-yi; And Others

    A composite English-to-Chinese glossary of all terms introduced in the individual lessons of "Scientific and Technical Chinese" is presented here. The appendices include lists of weights and measures and chemical elements, and a partial list of Chinese government organizations and research institutes related to science and technology. (AMH)

  17. Writing Concepts in Chinese Writing Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on how Chinese writing instruction can cause negative interference for Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language students writing in English. The study shows that in Chinese writing, the main idea can be more general, as a theme, or specific, as a thesis statement. It can also come at the beginning or end of a paper, and the writer…

  18. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  19. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  20. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  1. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addendum by Penny Edwards

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45. He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967 and The Political Structure of the Chinese Community in Cambodia (1970. However, subsequent to his research, Chinese communities suffered terribly during the repression of the Lon Nol government between 1970 and 1975 and the atrocities of the Democratic Kampuchea regime. Willmott thus declared Chinese communities—and a willingness to identify as Chinese—destroyed. This understandably pessimistic vision turned out to be unfounded; the next extensive research done on Chinese in Cambodia by Penny Edwards and Chan Sambath in 1995 showed Chinese communities rebuilding. However, the descriptions of these communities showed a complexity of identity formation—from recent immigrants, “the raw Chinese,” to the five “traditional” Chinese dialect groups—that differed markedly from the indexes of identity applied by Willmott in his initial analysis. Academic ideas of how Chineseness should be configured had shifted and complicated; ascribing identity had become increasingly problematic...

  2. Mamma Mia!Hits Chinese Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese version of Broadway’s musical sensation set to run for six months The Chinese version of Mamma Mia!,one of the most popular musicals in the world,has come to China,to demonstrate the charm of the musical to Chinese citizens in three major cities in 2011.

  3. How Should We Revive Traditional Chinese Culture?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    There has been a growing interest during the past year in the popularity of traditional Chinese culture, both domestically and globally. Currently, over 40 Confucius Institutes have been set up worldwide, focusing on promoting Chinese culture. Named after China's most eminent philosopher and the father of Confucianism, the Chinese

  4. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  5. Modern Chinese Punctuation and CSL Reading Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickel, Stan

    1988-01-01

    Provides a brief history of Chinese punctuation and detailed analysis of modern Chinese punctuation. Three tables show: 1) uniquely Chinese punctuation markers; 2) markers graphemically identical and functionally similar to Western markers; and 3) markers graphemically identical but functionally different from Western markers. Each punctuation…

  6. Teaching Oral Chinese in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    1976-01-01

    Because Chinese language textbooks were judged inadequate in teaching vocabulary dealing with everyday life in the U.S. and in China, new methods and materials were introduced into an oral Chinese course. Prepared discussion topics, Chinese films, soap operas, and shortwave radio broadcasts were used. (CHK)

  7. A Cultural Perspective on Chinese Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaofang

    2011-01-01

    Politeness is a universal phenomenon, but its actual manifestations and the standards for judgment are culturally different. This paper analyzes the characteristics of Chinese politeness from a cultural perspective. It aims to improve our understanding of Chinese politeness and our knowledge of Chinese traditional culture and undertake interpersonal communication successfully.

  8. Chinglish in Chinese-English Interpreting in Light of Chinese Thought Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔蓓; 翟娜; 李瑞超

    2014-01-01

    As most interpreters in China are native speakers of Chinese, it is inevitable that the deep-rooted Chinese thinking patters lead to Chinglish in Chinese-English interpreting, which is shown in both lexical and syntactical levels. Based on the theories and problems appeared in Chinese-English interpreting, this article attempts to explore the major phenomena of Chinglish and their relations with Chinese thought patterns and proposes coping strategies.

  9. Ikea success in chinese furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Yihong, Li

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will focus on the market exploiting and development of IKEA in China, analysis the characteristics of Chinese market and the supply-demand of the IKEA products in China. It also analyze the main Chinese consumers’ behaviour and evaluating the furniture retail market in China. IKEA is a successful case to open the china market recent years. The main goal is to acquire this information in order to provide the overseas retailers with a good starting point for creating an effective bu...

  10. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.;

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue....... Finally, we conclude with our suggestions for future indigenous research....

  11. The globalisation of Chinese brands

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.

    2006-01-01

    China has taken over Japan over the last decade to become the largest manufacturer and exporter of more than one hundred consumer products. However, China, as “the world factory”, has yet to create a single brand that is recognised worldwide. The recent acquisition of IBM’s PC business by China’s Lenovo may signal the beginning of the globalisation of Chinese brands. This paper considers the current brand revolution in China, focusing on the unique challenge faced by major Chinese enterprises...

  12. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  13. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  14. Brilliance Auto: Chinese, Global, Successful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      As the only automobile sponsor of BOAO FORUM FOR ASIA in April 2004, Brilliance Auto had a great opportunity to show her 'New Zhonghua" sedan which is an upper-medium car with completely independent intellectual property rights and repre sents the independent development philosophy of Brilliance Auto and is especially made for business personnel. The development pattern of Zhonghua sedan set a brand new model in Chinese auto industry to utilize the global resources and talents and international division of labor in the international arena, and she has become a typical sample of independent brand sedans in the contemporary Chinese auto industry.……

  15. HILL: The High-Intensity Laser Laboratory Core Team's Reply to Questions from the NNSA Experimental Facilities Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omega may offer additional advantages and we would expect these to be explored and evaluated during the CD process. Question 3 - A laser/optics experts group should review this proposal to ensure the level of R and D is reasonable to provide a sufficient chance of success (>50%). In the preparation of the HILL proposal, we sent our proposal and cost estimates to laser designers/scientists across the complex. Though risks were identified with our design, the prevailing view of those we engaged was that the risks were appropriately represented by the TRL levels assigned and that the enabling R and D planned in our proposal was adequate for risk mitigation. Question 4 - More data and peer review is needed from its sister facilities around the world. It is our specific intent to conduct both scientific and technical workshops with the user community if the High Intensity Science field is further encouraged as part of the NNSA Roadmap. Question 5 - Does HILL have to be co-located with MARIE 1.0? Is that feasible from the point of view of TA-53 real estate? Multiple siting options were considered for HILL, including co-location with MaRIE 1.0 (the most cost-effective and flexible option), as well as in a separate, stand-alone building and in a retro-fitted existing building. The cost estimate included these contingencies and candidate locations for HILL in TA-53 were identified. There is actually significant space at TA-53 on the hill in the northeast end of the mesa. Question 6 - What would be the impact on the weapons program if this facility were NOT built? An inability to elucidate aspects of weapons science in the dense plasma regime and validate computer models for same. This will lead to reduced confidence in the computer tools used for certification. Question 7 - Will HILL allow some of the x-ray vulnerability studies proposed by SPARC? If so what does Sandia's vulnerability group think of this method versus SPARC. It is possible that some of the scope envisioned for

  16. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual skills…

  17. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  18. Discursive Construction of Chinese Language Teacher Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers within the field of TCFL 1 (teaching Chinese as a foreign language) have begun to examine the notion of Chinese language teacher identity (Bianco, 2009; Cruickshank, 2011; Gao, 2012; Zhang & Jensen, 2013; Zhang, 2013); however, whilst insightful, this research has...... not addressed the ways in which Chinese language teachers identify themselves while interacting with students and how they construct their identities as TCFL teachers in other cultures. In this study, I address this research gap by exploring the discursive construction of three native Chinese language teachers...... (NCLTs) 2 teaching Chinese to Danish students....

  19. Approaches in Treating AIDS with Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕维柏

    2002-01-01

    @@ Editorial: AIDS is the archenemy of mankind, it also threatened Chinese people seriously. Although anti-retroviral drugs are effective, yet too expensive, the majority of 600 000 Chinese patients can't afford to purchase and use them. Decades ago, some scientists were trying to use Chinese Medicine in treating AIDS, experienc e gained but problems also exposed concerning strategy of research, methodol ogy, racial difference, Chinese drugs screening, integrative Chinese and western medicine, HIV and immunity, etc., sustained and integrative effort would bring safe, effective, and affordable drugs for the fatal pandemic all over the world

  20. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  1. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen; C. van Marrewijk

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 ¿ 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such as Galtonian

  2. Dynamics of Chinese Comparative Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  3. Autobiography of a Chinese City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of gazetteer [a peculiar Chinese genre of officially supervised local history writing] work in the Northeastern city of Harbin. It is a study of the interaction of politics, bureaucracy, and historical work at the local level in contemporary China, and it points...

  4. Spoken Grammar for Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓敏

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the concept of spoken grammar has been mentioned among Chinese teachers. However, teach-ers in China still have a vague idea of spoken grammar. Therefore this dissertation examines what spoken grammar is and argues that native speakers’ model of spoken grammar needs to be highlighted in the classroom teaching.

  5. Chinese President Meets Stephen Hawking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Shuqin

    2002-01-01

    @@ Chinese President Jiang Zemin met on August 19 with Stephen Hawking and other world-renown scientists, including Shing-tung Yau, Edward Witten, D.Gross, A. Strominger, et al., who were attending an international conference on string theory and Prof.Hawking had just given a public speech titled "Brane New World" in Beijing.

  6. Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in…

  7. The Magic of Chinese Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Betty Siu Junn

    Although this booklet is intended for use in the classroom, the author cautions the reader that it is an adventure into Chinese music rather than a teaching or history experience. By learning how to play the music, students "travel" through China, giving them a better understanding of this country. The author describes the invention of ancient…

  8. The Revolution in Chinese Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifman, Eli

    1978-01-01

    Evaluates the extent to which the "revolution in education" in China has succeeded in integrating communist theory with practice. Concludes that the pre-1975 emphasis on political indoctrination has been tempered by efforts to raise the cultural and technical levels of the Chinese people. (Author/DB)

  9. Chinese Middle-Aged Confusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXINXIN

    2003-01-01

    THE middle-aged generation,those of the age 40 to 55, is special in China. Born in the 1950s and early 1960s, they grew up in the most difficult and chaotic periods of recent Chinese history, having experienced and suffered the Great Leap Forward at the end of the fifties and the “cultural revolution” ( 1966-1976).

  10. 2006 Chinese RE Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since 2005,China government established series of regulations to rectify Chinese rare earth industry.Especially,the notice of "ceasing the issue of new mining license and controlling the gross rare earth mining volume" implemented in April of 2006 largely reduced the mining in Southern China.

  11. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  12. ENERGY CALCULUS IN CHINESE LANGUAGESEGMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on cognitive science, the EnergyCalculus in Chinese language segmentation was presented to eliminate segmentation ambiguity. The notion of "EnergyCost" was advanced to denote the extent of the under-standability of a certain segmentation. EnergyCost function was defined with Z-notation. This approcah is effective to all natural language segmentation.

  13. Foreign Diplomats Cooking Chinese Dishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2nd Chinese Cuisine Contest for Foreign Diplomats(Shanghai),a large-scale activity as part of the 1st Shanghai Shopping Festival,was held at 15:30 on September 22 in Shanghai with the theme of "The Passionate Shanghai".

  14. Chinese Cities in Foreigners' Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU LINTAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ To introduce Chinese cities to the world, a book series Cities of China written by foreign authors will be published during the next three years by the Beijing-based Foreign Languages Press (FLP), a company af-filiated to China International Publishing Group (CIPG).

  15. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g

  16. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN oracle-bone inscription, 面 (mian) depictsthe outline of a face with a large eye at its center.To this end its original meaning was the humanface. However, in ancient Chinese 面 referred tothe front of the head and another characterdenoted the cheek, specifically the area between

  17. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN ancient Chinese characters,母(pronounced mu)depicts a womanbending on her knees and crossingher hands in front with two points onher chest symbolizing her breasts.The original meaning of 母 is anadult woman who has given birth tochildren,i.e.a mother It was later

  18. Clinical Service of Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) faces three major challenges:(1)How to enhance its contribution on overall medical service quality? (2) How to best address the unmet medical needs in the contemporary society? (3)How to guarantee that the traditional perspective for disease diagnosis and treatment not be neglected in clinical practice?

  19. Chinese Sculpture as Public Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YinShuangxi

    2003-01-01

    Chinese arts have undergone tremendous changes thanks to the fast-growing modernization and urbanization process in China. One of the monumental changes is the emergence of “public art”, most notably, urban sculpture. This art is increasingly related to modern urban planning, architecture, and community building.

  20. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  1. Foreign Policies and Foreign Exchanges for Chinese Publishing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's present foreign publishing policies Chinese Government respects and protects intellectual property rights. Chinese Government always attaches importance to the exchange and cooperation between Chinese publishing industry and that of other countries, encourages and supports Chinese publishing industry to actively introduce foreign excellent works to Chinese readers, and meanwhile, also actively advocates introduction of Chinese excellent works to foreign readers. Our persistent guideline is to support and promote exchanges between Chinese and foreign publishing industries in all fields.

  2. Chinese Leadership Styles in Public Sector in Tianjin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Considerable studies on Chinese leadership styles apply Western models to test Chinese managers, and then define Chinese leadership style with Western ideas. This study assumes that Chinese managers have their own leadership styles distinctive from Westerners and tried to investigate the cultural and historical origin of Chinese leadership style, especially to explore how Confucianism have affected and shaped Chinese leadership style in modern Chinese society. This study adopted a qualitative...

  3. Translation Strategy of Chinese Culture-loaded Lexes and the Dissemina-tion of Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-li

    2016-01-01

    Lexes are the most important and basic element of a language. Chinese culture-loaded lexes are those words or expres-sions that are greatly rich in Chinese culture. They can reflect the characteristics of Chinese culture and Chinese nation. There-fore, it is of great significance to pay attention to the translation of Chinese culture-loaded lexes as they play a decisive role in disseminating Chinese culture. It can help promote Chinese culture worldwide, improve China’s cultural exchanges and commu-nication with other nations and strengthen China’s status in the world. This paper focuses on the Chinese culture-loaded words and proposes some possible means of translation with the purpose of spreading Chinese culture.

  4. A Dialectal Chinese Speech Recognition Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Thomas Fang Zheng; William Byrne; Dan Jurafsky

    2006-01-01

    A framework for dialectal Chinese speech recognition is proposed and studied, in which a relatively small dialectal Chinese (or in other words Chinese influenced by the native dialect) speech corpus and dialect-related knowledge are adopted to transform a standard Chinese (or Putonghua, abbreviated as PTH) speech recognizer into a dialectal Chinese speech recognizer. Two kinds of knowledge sources are explored: one is expert knowledge and the other is a small dialectal Chinese corpus. These knowledge sources provide information at four levels: phonetic level, lexicon level, language level,and acoustic decoder level. This paper takes Wu dialectal Chinese (WDC) as an example target language. The goal is to establish a WDC speech recognizer from an existing PTH speech recognizer based on the Initial-Final structure of the Chinese language and a study of how dialectal Chinese speakers speak Putonghua. The authors propose to use contextindependent PTH-IF mappings (where IF means either a Chinese Initial or a Chinese Final), context-independent WDC-IF mappings, and syllable-dependent WDC-IF mappings (obtained from either experts or data), and combine them with the supervised maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) acoustic model adaptation method. To reduce the size of the multipronunciation lexicon introduced by the IF mappings, which might also enlarge the lexicon confusion and hence lead to the performance degradation, a Multi-Pronunciation Expansion (MPE) method based on the accumulated uni-gram probability (AUP) is proposed. In addition, some commonly used WDC words are selected and added to the lexicon. Compared with the original PTH speech recognizer, the resulting WDC speech recognizer achieves 10-18% absolute Character Error Rate (CER) reduction when recognizing WDC, with only a 0.62% CER increase when recognizing PTH. The proposed framework and methods are expected to work not only for Wu dialectal Chinese but also for other dialectal Chinese languages and

  5. Chinese Tea Tradition:From Tea Service to Tea Drinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangFeng

    2003-01-01

    Tea was first discovered and drunk in China several thousand years ago and over the sweep of Chinese history drinking tea has developed to be part of Chinese culture and a reversible habit of Chinese people.With the spread of Chinese civilization,Chinese tea has been introduced to many countries across

  6. Chinese traditional elements in the application of graphic design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹倩倩

    2013-01-01

    Chinese traditional graphic art resources is extremely abundant, this article will from the Chinese tradi-tional culture elements are composed of the Chinese calligraphy, traditional auspicious patterns, national color three aspects, expounds the application of Chinese traditional elements in modern plane design, this paper expounds the application of Chinese traditional elements in modern plane design, research how to dig, change and reform.

  7. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2010-01-22

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology and evolutionary biology based on new fossils from China. These fossils and their studies help to clarify some historical debates about a particular fossil group, or to raise new questions about history of life, or to pose a new challenge in our pursuit of science. These works on new Chinese fossils have covered the whole range of the diversity through the entire Phanerozoic fossil record. PMID:19812080

  8. Thinking Chinese Translation A Course in Translation Method; Chinese to English

    CERN Document Server

    Valerie, Pellatt

    2010-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation

  9. Chinese Youth Delegation Visits France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of Secours Populaire Francais (SPF), a Chinese youth delegation composed of members of the Beijing Fengtai Children and Youth Palace and students of No. 1 Middle School of Anyang City of Henan Province, sent by the CPAFFC,paid a visit to France from July 19 to 30, 2012. The aim was to deepen and expand cooperation between the CPAFFC and the SPF and strengthen friendly exchanges between the youth of the two countries and contribute to the

  10. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Junping; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Weicun; CISC’15

    2016-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers from the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference (CISC’15), held in Yangzhou, China. The topics covered include multi-agent systems, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, complex systems, computation intelligence and soft computing, intelligent control, advanced control technology, robotics and applications, intelligent information processing, iterative learning control, and machine learning. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent systems.

  11. New Hope for Chinese Stocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Many people in recent years have held that investing in the Chinese stock markets posed risks. But remarkable changes have taken place in China's stock markets during the past year, according to Mark De Weaver, a research analyst in Shenzhen who now manages a fund investing in Asian equities called Quantrarian Asia Hedge. According to De Weaver, the changes include split-share and brokerage reforms, a new securities law and more opportunities for qualified foreign investors. His main ideas follow:

  12. Interculutral Polish-Chinese QQing

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Gajek,

    2012-01-01

    Working in tandem with the use of information and communication technologies is well-known and frequently used as a method of supporting learning of foreign languages in authentic communication. It is based on a constructivist approach to teaching. In the reported case study Polish and Chinese students discussed in English preprepared topics. The work shows the potential of e-learning at the micro level, as the language and intercultural task is implemented into an academic course without mod...

  13. The Chinese Health Care System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Yu, Yi

    In the present paper we describe the structure of the Chinese health care system and sketch its future development. We analyse issues of provider incentives and the actual burden sharing between government, enterprises and people. We further aim to identify a number of current problems and link...... these to a discussion of future challenges in the form of an aging population, increased privatization and increased inequity...

  14. Distance Dependent Chinese Restaurant Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Blei, David M.; Frazier, Peter I.

    2009-01-01

    We develop the distance dependent Chinese restaurant process (CRP), a flexible class of distributions over partitions that allows for non-exchangeability. This class can be used to model many kinds of dependencies between data in infinite clustering models, including dependencies across time or space. We examine the properties of the distance dependent CRP, discuss its connections to Bayesian nonparametric mixture models, and derive a Gibbs sampler for both observed and mixture settings. We s...

  15. Research into Chinese media organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of media marketisation in China upon organisational structure and journalistic practices of Chinese news organisations. It aims to assess to what extent market factors have weakened the centralised control over local journalistic practices in the last two and a half decades. This paper focuses on Xinhua Shanghai Bureau, a local division within a central news organisation, Xinhua News Agency, which is headquartered in Beijing and operates nationwide. This artic...

  16. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  17. Comment on Chinese food culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣

    2014-01-01

    <正>Enjoying all kinds of food can be the most important issue in China,Chinese people love to have nice food and to study them,after a few thousand years,food have become the most important part of China and has gradually formed a unique culture.There is a saying,food is the paramount necessity of people(民以食为天),however,in China,people are not eating only when they

  18. On the Chinese People's Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Appreciation of art is not a birthright. In the prehistoric primitive society, the ancestors of the Chinese people rooted in the harsh natural environment of the Yellow River Basin and began forging their own solid characteristics as the loess and rock. Our ancestors survived in the harsh natural conditions. Pressure of keeping alive deprived of their original romantic, despite that Neolithic primitive rock art, pottery painting

  19. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology an...

  20. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  1. Chinese Culture and Business Etiquette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丰

    2011-01-01

    Today the etiquette is playing an important role in the process of globalization. It becomes the reflection and manifestation of one country's politics, economy, culture in people's social contact. Every nation has its own etiquette standard, which created with the spirit of the nation. In this essay will focus on the cultural difference in Chinese business etiquette and search for its root.

  2. "Chinese Style" Auto marketing Thrives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Over the past 10 years, China's auto industry has seen rapid growth.The miracle of such fast development, from a humble beginning to a strong player in the world's auto industry,can be attributed to a variety of factors.The most important factor, however, is that the auto industry has incorporated Chinese characteristics during its growth,whether facing challenges or developing new innovations.

  3. How Chinese learn mathematics perspectives from insiders

    CERN Document Server

    Ngai-Ying, Wong; Lianghuo, Fan; Shiqi, Li

    2004-01-01

    The book has been written by an international group of very active researchers and scholars who have a passion for the study of Chinese mathematics education. It aims to provide readers with a comprehensive and updated picture of the teaching and learning of mathematics involving Chinese students from various perspectives, including the ways in which Chinese students learn mathematics in classrooms, schools and homes, the influence of the cultural and social environment on Chinese students' mathematics learning, and the strengths and weaknesses of the ways in which Chinese learn mathematics. Furthermore, based on the relevant research findings, the book explores the implications for mathematics education and offers sound suggestions for reform and improvement. This book is a must for anyone who is interested in the teaching and learning of mathematics concerning Chinese learners.

  4. Annual Meeting Reveals Competitiveness of Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓午

    2008-01-01

    This is the fifth year since the first "Chinese Enterprises Competitiveness Annual Meeting" convened in 2003. During those five years,we have witnessed a period of remarkable performance by Chinese enterprises. These last five years have seen a reaping of the fruits brought about by China’s three-decade-long reform and opening, as evidenced by the increasing growth and maturity of Chinese enterprises and the rising competitiveness of publicly listed Chinese enterprises. Along with the development of globalization initiatives, Chinese enterprises are moving firmly and solidly towards internationalization and have begun to have a profound impact on the world economy. The roadmap of Chinese enterprises has now become a focus of global attention.

  5. Chinese Massage Therapy for Ankle Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming-xia; LI Nian-qun; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the therapeutic methods and effects in the treatment of acute and chronic injuries of the ankle joint by Chinese massage therapy in combination with external application of Chinese herbal drugs and functional exercises. Methods: Totally, 36 cases of the patients with acute soft tissue injury, chronic soft tissue injury and post-fracture sequelae of the ankle joint were treated by Chinese massage therapy, external application or external wash of Chinese herbal drugs, and exercises of dorsal flexion and extension of the ankle joint, to observe the restoration of the ankle functions.Results: In 36 cases of the patients, the results showed remarkable effect in 18 cases, effect in 16 cases, failure in 2 cases and the effective rate in 94.4%. Conclusion: The combined use of Chinese massage therapy, external application of Chinese herbal drugs and functional exercises can produce precise effect in the treatment of soft tissue injury of the ankle joint.

  6. Chinese geodetic coordinate system 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YuanXi

    2009-01-01

    The basic strategies In establishing the Chinese geodetic coordinate system 2000 have been summarized,including the definition of the coordinate system,the structure of the terrestrial reference frame,the functional and stochastic models involved in the realization of the reference frame as well as the Improvements of the adjustment procedures.First,the fundamental frame of the coordinate system is composed of the permanent GPS tracking network in China which is integrated into the international GPS service stations by combined adjustment,in order to guarantee the consistence between the international terrestrial reference system and the Chinese geodetic coordinate system.Second,the extended frame of the coordinate system is composed of the unified 2000' national GPS network which is Integrated by 6 nationwide GPS networks with more than 2500 stations under the controlling of the fundamental frame.Third,the densified frame is composed of national astronomical geodetic network with nearly 50 thousand stations which was updated by the combined adjustment with the 2000' national GPS network,thus the datum of the national astronomical geodetic network has been unified and the precision greatly improved.By the optimal data fusion method the influences of the datum errors,systematic errors and the outliers in the separated geodetic networks are weakened in the unified Chinese geodetic coordinate frame.The significance in application of the new geodetic coordinate system and the existing problems In the reference frame are described and analyzed.

  7. A history of Chinese mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Martzloff, Jean-Claude

    1997-01-01

    For the English language edition, this completely unique book of J.C. Martzloff has been fully revised and updated. It includes many new recent insights and illustrations, a new appendix on Chinese primary sources and a guide to the to the bibliography. From the reviews: "This book ranks with the most erudite Asian publications, and is the most informative and most broadly informed on its topic in any language." N. Sivin, China Quarterly "... crammed with insights, cautionary tales and a great deal of information about current research ... will surely become a standard reference for students, teachers, and researchers alike", J. N. Crossley, Annals of Science "... a truly scholarly and balanced exposition ... a book that the reviewer believes belongs in the library of every university or college, as well as in that of every individual seriously interested in the history of Chinese mathematics", B. L. McAllister, ZBfM "Martzloff History demonstrates clearly that while the Chinese were adept in applying their m...

  8. Reading Ng Kim Chew: Malaysian-Chineseness and memory in contemporary Malaysian Chinese literature in taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Paoliello, Antonio; Prado Fonts, Carles

    2008-01-01

    The idea of Chineseness as a geographic, cultural-specific and ethnically-charged concept, and the pivotal role assumed by memory linger throughout the writings of most authors hailing from Chinese community in Southeast Asia. Among these communities, being the Malaysian Chinese the more prolific in terms of number of writers and pieces of literature produced, this paper deals specifically with it. Its focus is put on the literature produced by Malaysian Chinese authors residing in Taiwan, wh...

  9. Strategic Trend of Chinese Urban Forestry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhiyong

    2004-01-01

    China is facing new challenges of urban expansion of scale and deterioration of the ecological environment. Urban forestry has a new role and position in Chinese forestry development. ""Chinese Sustainable Development Forestry Strategic Research"" established the strategic objectives and policy measures on urban forestry, improved urban ecological environment and pushed Chinese urban ecological process through building up green forest island in urban central district, green forest zone in suburbs, forest system in remoter outskirts of cities.

  10. On the English Translation of Chinese Neologisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Menglin

    2014-01-01

    <正>1 Introduction A Chinese neologism refers to a word or expression that is widely understood and used nowadays,both new in content and form,just entering into the Chinese vocabulary or old word with new senses.(Zhang Jian,2001,p.10)The newness of Chinese neologism brings great difficulties to its translation.According to the Adaptation Theory,proposed by

  11. Introduction of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The journal published monthly since January 1970 is an academic and technical journal sponsored by Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research (TIPR). The journal which has a long history of 40-years offers the columns of research papers brief reports, reviews, dissertation, and special treatises to report the recent achievements of our basic study, production quality control, and clinic application on traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese materia medica.

  12. The First Chinese Emperor in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Vietnam,a close neighbor of China,was influenced by the Chinese Culture for generations.In history,Vietnam had been under the administration and protection of ancient Chinese imperial court for a long period of time.The first Chinese emperor in Vietnam,who can be traced far back to Qin and Han dynasty,is referred to as the oldest emperor worldwide, His name was Zhao Tuo,

  13. Study on Chinese and American Compliments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东英; 刘宝昌

    2006-01-01

    Chinese and Americans have different cultural background. They value different principles in expressing compliments and respond to them. Chinese tend to be self-denial to show modesty. Americans have a tendency of self-praising to demonstrate their confidence. Based on Leech's politeness principle, the paper analyzes typical instances. In conclusion, as language learner, we should aware it and prepare to be bicultural instead of bilingual. As a Chinese, we should keep our own culture identity instead of Americanized.

  14. OVERVIEW OF CHINESE CHAIN CATERING MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yiting

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a market overview for chain catering business situation in China. Chinese chain catering market is developing rapidly in recent years, it is a business where everybody can become a customer, but the business is highly competitive. The subject of this thesis is to give an overview of the market situation and strategies for market expansion of Chinese chain catering industry. It contains knowledge of chain management and introduction of Chinese chain catering ma...

  15. Industrial Organisation of the Chinese Food Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.; Locke, Christopher G.

    1996-01-01

    The controversy on the convergence of socialism and capitalism has recently been focused on China. In this paper, an industrial organisation framework is used to portray the key features of "Socialism with Chinese Characteristics." The structure of supply and demand and the process of price formation is analysed to explicate the ramifications of the Chinese reform process, and the changing patterns of both government intervention and market forces in the Chinese food economy. An examination o...

  16. Determinants of Global Competitiveness of Chinese Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Elmas Demircioglu Karabiyik

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese economy has reached approximately average annual growth of 9% after economic reform era that began in 1978. This economic development miracle resulted from by exploiting the economic potential of internal factors in a complimentary external environment.  Main aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of the global competitiveness of Chinese economy by considering economic development process of the Chinese economy and World Economic Forum the Global Competitiveness Inde...

  17. Contrast between China English and Chinese English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨公建

    2014-01-01

    With the globalization of English,the discussion about China English and Chinese English attracts many scholars’ interest and attention.The concept of China English and Chinese English usual y makes people confused, so the article wil make some tentative contrasts in terms of definition、attributes and causes of the two terms and make people have a clear comprehension of China English and Chinese English.

  18. Contrast between China English and Chinese English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨公建

    2014-01-01

    With the globalization of English, the discussion about China English and Chinese English attracts many scholars ’interest and attention. The con-cept of China English and Chinese English usual y makes people confused, so the article wil make some tentative contrasts in terms of definition、attri-butes and causes of the two terms and make people have a clear comprehension of China English and Chinese English.

  19. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruite...

  20. Exploring Mobile Technologies for Learning Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Wang; Christine H. Leland

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal how learners of Chinese as a foreign language use mobile technology to study Chinese outside the classroom. Researchers used sociocultural perspectives to frame the study and grounded theory to analyze data. Eleven English-speaking students who had learned Chinese for different years at a midwestern university participated in the study. They answered 23 major questions by submitting journal entries and participating in an interview. Co...

  1. Chinese-English Translation of Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍凤; 李爱琴

    2013-01-01

    This paper is on the Chinese-English advertisement translation. It gives people an orderly discussion with examples in three parts: the problems in current advertisement translation, the causes of these problems, essential steps of making the Chinese-English translation of advertisement onto an appropriate way. This paper also suggests the principles of Chinese-English advertise⁃ment translation: natural, precise and understandable.

  2. The Translation of Chinese Dish Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚佳文

    2015-01-01

    The traditional food of a nation reflects its historical and cultural characteristics This thesis begins with an introduction to the translation situation of Chinese dish names and its existing problem nowadays, and proceeds to the translation principles and tactics for English translation of the names of Chinese dishes, based on Eugene A. Nida’ s Functional Equivalence, with an aim to improve translation efficiency and promote cross-cultural communication, and promoting Chinese food culture throughout the globe.

  3. Origins of English and Chinese Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊

    2012-01-01

    Both English and Chinese are rich in idioms. There is a similarity in theorigins of English and Chinese idioms, but on the one hand, owing to the different social background, customs, religious beliefs, geographic environment, differences are sure to appear in idioms.By comparing English and Chinese idioms from their origins, we could learn more about the relationship between idioms and culture,learning of English and the language as a whole,and have a better mastery of English.

  4. Chinese Function Manager of 2006 Partenariat Comments on the Selection Principle for Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Fang Lei, EU-China Partenariat 2006Function Manager for Chinese Host Companies, worked together with Mr. Richard Morgan, EU Project Expert,Mr. Han Meiqing, Chinese Project Expert in the primary selection of Chinese enterprises.In reply to the strong request of the relevant governmental institutions, CCPIT and enterprises, he gave the following introductions about the details of selection.

  5. Chinese integrative medicine:inclusion of a Chinese medicine programme in a conventional medical institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yong Chen; Yibin Feng; Lixing Lao

    2014-01-01

    To meet community demands with optimal Chinese and conventional medical treatment, the University of Hong Kong is promoting integrative medicine by developing Chinese medicine programmes that train students of both Western and Chinese medicine. The programmes emphasize multi-disciplinary training and interaction between the two therapeutic approaches, enabling students to establish reliable, consistent, and respectful mutual cooperation in their future careers.

  6. Corpora and Collocations in Chinese-English Dictionaries for Chinese Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    The paper identifies the major problems of the Chinese-English dictionary in representing collocational information after an extensive survey of nine dictionaries popular among Chinese users. It is found that the Chinese-English dictionary only provides the collocation types of "v+n" and "v+n," but completely ignores those of…

  7. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  8. Acquired Dyslexia and Dysgraphia in Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wengang Yin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the mappings between orthography and phonology in alphabetic languages are learned, represented and processed has been enhanced by the cognitive neuropsychological investigation of patients with acquired reading and writing disorders. During the past decade, this methodology has been extended to understanding reading and writing in Chinese leading to new insights about language processing, dyslexia and dysgraphia. The aim of this paper is to review reports of patients who have acquired dyslexia and acquired dysgraphia in Chinese and describe the functional architecture of the reading and writing system. Our conclusion is that the unique features of Chinese script will determine the symptoms of acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia in Chinese.

  9. Chinese Statistical Parser Based on Semantic Dependencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涓子; 王作英

    2002-01-01

    A new tagging method is presented to build a Chinese semantic corpus. The method characterizes the sentence meaning as a linear sequence of dependency relationships which are the semantic or syntactic relationships between words in the sentence. This representation method is used to build a Chinese statistical parser model to understand the sentence meaning. Specific experiments on automatic telephone switchboard conversations show that the proposed parser has a precision of 80%. This work provides a foundation for building a large-scale Chinese semantic corpus and for research on understanding modeling of the Chinese language.

  10. On Chinese Translation Methods of English Pun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jin

    2015-01-01

    English pun is the humorous of a word to suggest different meanings or applications or of words having the same or nearly the same sound but different meanings. Due to the great discrepancy between English and Chinese in terms of pronuncia⁃tion, form, sentence structure and ways of expression, the translation of pun into Chinese has been generally thought as untranslat⁃able. Hence, the translator faces great challenges in its Chinese translation. However, puns are not necessarily untranslatable. Six methods are usually employed in English puns’translation into Chinese.

  11. Moment in Peking and Chinese Traditional Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶金

    2014-01-01

    Lin Yutang’s Moment in Peking was a huge success, because he showed the long history of Chinese traditional culture in the book. The era background, character set and the plot of Moment in Peking reflects the significance of Chinese culture in many aspects. The great English masterpiece is a Chinese culture carrier which painted a grand social and historical picture, created a series of vivid images, especially images of traditional Chinese women character. The philosophy of novel is going through the history of space and time tunnel and becoming the main clue of many events in the book.

  12. The Mixing of English in Chinese Newspapers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文娟; 熊剑琴; 毕志伟

    2010-01-01

    This paper conducted a research on examining the code-mixing phenomenon in Chinese local newspapers. This paper will find out the top ten frequently used code-mixing between Chinese and English in local newspapers. After analysing the data, this paper will study the purpose of using code-mixing in Chinese local newspapers .The findings indicate that the codemixing is a trend in Chinese internet discourse, but there is not a sign of cultural invasion by those words, because those words are purely having the linguistic function other than other features.

  13. Sex and the Contemporary Chinese woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXINXIN

    2005-01-01

    THE importance of a mutually fulfilling sex life has gained greater acknowledgement in China in recent years but it is nonetheless a taboo topic. There have been few social surveys on this delicate subject, particularly as regards the degree of sexual satisfaction enjoyed by Chinese women,The 35-question survey on female attitudes to sex, formulated by the Chinese Sexology Society and the Chinese Medical Association, was, therefore, a major breakthrough. Sponsored by Sina.com and carried out in major Chinese cities from August to September 2004, the survey attracted 400,000 hits and drew 31,482 responses.

  14. Chinese-American foods : Geography, culture and tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Alan A.

    2016-01-01

    Food is a major way that Chinese, and other ethnic groups, engage with their cultural heritage. Behavioral perspectives from tourism studies give insight into the range of food neophyllics (love of new foods) and food neophobics (fear of new foods), as well as the role of authenticity in food experiences. Three general types of Chinese food are identified in the US: Chinese American (restaurant) Food, Real Chinese (restaurant) Food, and American Born Chinese (home) Food. Traditional Chinese A...

  15. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation andInformation Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Networkof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanicsand Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science andtechnology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy ofSciences.The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  16. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation andInformation Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Networkof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanicsand Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science andtechnology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  17. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  18. The Development of Chinese Education in Malaysia, 1952-1975: Political Collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association and the Chinese Educationists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yao Sua; Teoh, Hooi See

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Chinese education in Malaysia from 1952 to 1975, focusing on the political collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and the Chinese educationists to advance the cause of Chinese education instead of the usual macro policy analysis. This collaboration was compounded by the different stand…

  19. Look before You Leap: Underestimating Chinese Student History, Chinese University Setting and Chinese University Steering in Sino-British HE Joint Ventures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ewan G.

    2010-01-01

    This article makes the case--in three parts--that many Anglo-Chinese university collaborations (joint ventures) to date have seriously underestimated Chinese (student) history, the Chinese university setting and Chinese national governmental steering as part of the process of "glocalisation". Recent turbulence in this particular HE collaborative…

  20. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985, with the name of Chinese Science and Technology Document Catalogues: Optics and Applied Optics. It changed into a bimonthly publication with the name of Chinese Optics and Applied

  1. The Chinese of Pasuruan : their language and identity

    OpenAIRE

    Oetomo, D.

    1987-01-01

    Chinese language--Indonesia --Pasuruan, Chinese--Indonesia--Pasuruan, Sociolinguistics--Indonesia--Pasuruan, Ethnology--Indonesia--Pasuruan, Pasuruan (Indonesia)--Languages Originally presented as the author's thesis

  2. Chop Suey as Imagined Authentic Chinese Food: The Culinary Identity of Chinese Restaurants in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Haiming Liu

    2009-01-01

    At least until the 1960s, chop suey was synonymous with Chinese food in the United States, where most Chinese restaurants were called chop suey houses. By uncovering the history of chop suey, this article analyzes the development of Chinese cuisine in the U.S. as an example of transnational cultural exchange. The authenticity and culinary identity of Chinese food in America often rested on its real or imagined Chinese roots while its popularity depended on how well Chinese restaurant...

  3. Templates of "Chineseness" and Trajectories of Cambodian Chinese Entrepreneurship in Phnom Penh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Verver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, William Willmott described Cambodia as a plural society in which different ethnic groups occupy different places in the economic structure. The Chinese made up the economic class, active in trade and commerce, and formed a definable ethnic community, both socioculturally and politically. Since Willmott’s seminal studies, Cambodia’s ethnic Chinese have endured the destruction and repression of both private enterprise and Chinese sociocultural life (1970–1990, followed by a revitalization of Chinese business. Through ethnographic case studies, this paper explores the relationship between “Chineseness” and business life in trajectories of Cambodian Chinese entrepreneurship in Phnom Penh. How do entrepreneurs deploy notions of Chinese business? The author argues that Chinese family businesses, trust-based networks, patronage arrangements, and cultural representations have indeed been greatly revitalized over the last few decades, but that they also remain challenged in certain contexts. Moreover, such revitalization has taken a fundamentally different form from Willmott’s description. Practices of Chinese business can no longer be ascribed to an ethnic Chinese “community” in Phnom Penh. Rather, as the latter has become increasingly multiform, Chinese business has developed into a template at the deployment (or neglect of a broader category of Cambodian Chinese entrepreneurs.

  4. On Strategies of Translating Chinese Characteristic Terms into English-Taking Chinese Economic Terms as Examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsering Dekyi

    2016-01-01

    After the reform and opening up to the outside world, great changes have taken place in many fields like economy, poli-tics, and culture in China. In the field of economy, a multitude of new phenomena, new ideas and new things spring up continu-ously. At the same time, many Chinese characteristic terms reflecting these new things have been emerging. The creation of these terms requires the translators to provide accurate and idiomatic translation of them in time. The English translation of Chi-nese characteristic terms plays an important role not only in promoting Chinese characteristic socialist economy but also in deep-ening the understanding of Chinese economy for English readers. Therefore, this paper will analyze the features and translation obstacles of Chinese characteristic terms, then point out some practical guidelines and methods to solve the problems in translat-ing Chinese characteristic terms into English. This paper aims to improve the translation of Chinese Characteristic terms.

  5. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  6. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  7. Chinese, US scientists find new particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Chinese and US scientists have discovered a new particle at the Beijing Electron Position Collider, which is hard to be explained with any known particles, according to scientists from the Institute of High Energy Physics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences Wednesday" (1/2 page).

  8. MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN CHINESE UTILITY COAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of analyzing representative samples of 20 Chinese utility coals for mercury content, and proximate, ultimate, and heating values. The data for these bituminous coals, obtained from China with the cooperation of the Chinese University of Mining Technology,...

  9. New progresses of Chinese art casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN De-rui

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Chinese art casting with 5 000 years history has been rapidly developed in recent ten years. This benefits from the great development of Chinese economy, the large-scale urban construction and transformation, the increasing demands for the cultural work of art, the loose religious environment and the expanding international market.

  10. Understanding Managerial Effectiveness: A Chinese Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to examine the managerial behavior of Chinese managers, as observed by their superiors, subordinates, and peers in a state-owned enterprise in China. Specifically, this study aims to explore two questions. First, what managerial behaviors are perceived as being effective in the Chinese state-owned enterprise? Second, what…

  11. Factor Structure of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Yu, Bai; Tang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yonghong; Li, Tingting; Yuen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the factorial invariance and functional equivalence of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) among the Chinese. Methods: A total of 839 undergraduate students completed the 240-item Simplified Chinese version of the VIA-IS online. Another 40 students participated in qualitative interviews to…

  12. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  13. Fake Makes Chinese Retailers Lose Millions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On April 13,the judiciary of Brazil St.Paul under the help of the local police suddenly confiscated the wholesales market of Chinese clothing,located at Street 25 of the shopping center. In all,48 Chinese dealers were seized under allegation of

  14. Case Study of Chinese Exclusion Act Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Joanne, Comp.

    2012-01-01

    While nearly 85 percent of the U.S. population is currently made up of immigrants and their descendants, some groups were specifically targeted for exclusion and deliberately expelled. The Chinese were the first to experience this. In the 1850s, many Chinese who came to this land to search for gold or to help build the transcontinental railroad,…

  15. Chinese-Cantonese (Toishan) Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This seven-volume series constitutes the Defense Language Institute (Army Language School) 47-week course in the Toishan dialect of Cantonese. Beginning lessons present the tone and sound system in romanized script. Chinese characters are introduced in the fourth lesson. (See related document AL 001 479, "Chinese Cantonese Basic Course," for a…

  16. Is Chinese as a Subject Important?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ In January,six universities in Shanghai held independent admission tests to select students from more than 10,000 applicants.At four of the universities,Chinese was not a test subject or science students were exempted from being tested in Chinese.

  17. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…

  18. Chinese Demand Boosts Luxury Brand Profits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The world’s biggest luxury brands have their eyes set on the Chinese consumer - a strategy that is reaping profits. In the next few months,the British fashion house Burberry will expand its retail space in China to capitalize on strong Chinese consumer demand for luxury products.Already,sales in China have contributed 4 percent to the

  19. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  20. Information Literacy in Chinese Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the new informational and educational environment in China and considers the increasing needs for information and knowledge in Chinese higher education, focusing on information literacy. Highlights include the new learning environment; information skills education in Chinese universities; teaching materials; computer labs; courseware;…

  1. Communicative Language Teaching in the Chinese Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore effective ways to develop Chinese English learners' communicative competence, this study first briefly reviews the advantages of communicative language teaching (CLT) method which widely practiced in the Western countries and analyzes in details its obstacles in Chinese classroom context. Then it offers guidelines for…

  2. Teaching Chinese at an Urban University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Chinese-language program at Portland State University. Elements of this program include newspaper and classical courses; textbooks from China, Taiwan, and English-speaking countries; the use of characters on the first day; and a diverse student body. The university's goal is to make a solid Chinese education available to anyone in…

  3. Ethnic Awareness of Chinese-American Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Esther Lee

    1983-01-01

    American-born Chinese students in Houston, Texas, possess a bicultural identity with strong attachment to their Chinese heritage, a high level of self-esteem, early acceptance of racial differences, and proximity to ethnic social contacts. The students also have assimilated American cultural values and are receptive to social integration. (AOS)

  4. View Chinese & American Culture by VOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓芸

    2010-01-01

    The value orientation method provides a way to understand core culture differences well.Chinese culture and American culture are usually regarded as the representation of the'eastrn and western culture respectively.This paper tries to view Chinese and American Culture by Value Orientations Method to view these two cultures in details.

  5. Quality Assurance in Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Quality assurance has been integrated into the fabric of higher education in China, with the issue of quality in higher education--how to evaluate it and how to enhance it--now taking centre stage in Chinese higher education. In the past decade, the development of quality assurance in Chinese higher education has covered a broad spectrum of…

  6. Implicit Reading in Chinese Pure Alexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chunlei; Zhu, Renjing; Xu, Mingwei; Luo, Benyan; Weng, Xuchu

    2010-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that some patients with pure alexia display evidence of implicit access to lexical and semantic information about words that they cannot read explicitly. This phenomenon has not been investigated systematically in Chinese patients. We report here a case study of a Chinese patient who met the criteria for pure…

  7. Thesaurus Dataset of Educational Technology in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linjing; Liu, Qingtang; Zhao, Gang; Huang, Huan; Huang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The thesaurus dataset of educational technology is a knowledge description of educational technology in Chinese. The aims of this thesaurus were to collect the subject terms in the domain of educational technology, facilitate the standardization of terminology and promote the communication between Chinese researchers and scholars from various…

  8. Chinese immigrants’ parental experiences in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    European Master in Social Work with Families and Children Existing empirical studies of parents in China found that this population presents features of authoritarian parenting style: greater parental demands and control together with lower parental responsiveness. However, when the investigation conducted on Chinese immigrants, parental practice is characterized as more authoritative style, combining high levels of controlling and responsiveness. Paradoxical findings between Chinese paren...

  9. Moral Reasoning in a Communist Chinese Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lawrence J.; Moran, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the cross-cultural universality of Kohlberg's theory of moral development in Communist Chinese society. Presents results of a study that supports the structure criterion of the moral model. Confirms the collectivistic and utilitarian themes in Chinese morality. Concludes further research is necessary to determine compatibility with…

  10. Instruction to Authors of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chinese Herbal Medicines, an international journal sponsored by the Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research and Institute of Medicinal Plant Develop-ment. The Journal s purpose is to provide a forum for the studies on Chinese herbal medicines, traditional medicines, and natural products.

  11. Re-creation of Chinese Traditional Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑜; 张祖芳

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of analysis on both the typical characteristics of Chinese traditional clothing and trendy fashion on present market that is inspired from it,this paper illustrates several re-creation methods of Chinese traditional clothing.These suggestions would push this oriental traditional clothing to a new high in world fashion field and adopted by more and more common people.

  12. The changing Chinese SEA indicator guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2014-01-01

    general trends in the development of SEA and other environmental policies in a recent, Chinese context. Beside a more top-down, intentional approach specifying indicators for different sectors based on Chinese experiences from the preceding years, another significant change, following the new guidelines...

  13. Why do I study Chinese at university?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    The purpose of this case study is to describe the motivational orientations to learn Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in the context of Danish university. The basis of the study is the survey data collected from 64 university students majoring in Chinese at Aarhus University in the year 2011...

  14. Brand Development Suggestions of Chinese Clothing Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 陈素英

    2013-01-01

    According to the analysis of the current situation and problems of Chinese clothing brand, the corresponding measures are raised from three aspects of brand positioning, brand broadcast and brand extension strategy. Some guidance and reference value is provided for the brand building and upgrading of Chinese clothing brand.

  15. A Massive Chinese Floral Corpus Completed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Through the efforts of several generations of Chinese botanists over the past 50years, a massive 80-volume corpus (in 126 books) on China's flora,Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Chinese edition), has finally been completed. This was announced at a press meeting on March 31 in Beijing.

  16. 2006 Chinese Government Auto Purchase Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sponsored by Economic Daily and the China Machinery Enterprises Management Association, the 2006 Chinese Government Auto Purchase Forum will be held in Tianjin on July 11-13. This represents another high-level dialogue and exchange between the government and the auto industry hot on the heels of the 2005 Chinese Government Auto Purchase Forum. This event is launched to promote

  17. Bravo! China: Experience Chinese Culture in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiShegxian

    2004-01-01

    On july 13,2004,"Hail for China and Africa; A Chinese Cultural Tour of Africa" was launched in Prertoria,South Africa,Senior Officials from china and South Africa attended the opening ceremony,including Chinese State Councilor Madame Chen Zhili ,South Africa cultural minister,agricultural minister and mayor of Pretoria.

  18. Study on international standard multilingual nomenclature of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Liu, Lu; Li, Wei; Shi, Da-zhuo; Zeng, Wen-ying; Zhu, Mian-sheng; Angles, Michel; Attali, Jean-Raymond; Choy, Pedro; Choy, Joao; Wu, Chi-haur; Zhai, Fu-han; Ramon, Maria Calduch; Chung, Ching

    2010-04-01

    The International Standard Chinese-English Basic Nomenclature of Chinese medicine (ISN) was released in 2007, a nomenclature list consisting of 6 500 Chinese medical terms. ISN was the culmination of several years of collaborative diligent work of over 200 specialists who represent Chinese medicine in 68 countries. The overall goal for devising standard English nomenclature for Chinese medicine is to develop a practical international standard nomenclature for Chinese medical basic terms, to make it compatible with contemporary research and educational standards in the globalized health care service. In this article, provided is an overview of principles and methods for the multilingual translations, the processes behind the particular content of the Chinese-English ISN and an introduction to the ongoing new projects, i.e. the multilingual versions of ISN (International Standards of Chinese-Spanish, Chinese-French and Chinese-Portuguese Basic Nomenclature of Chinese Medicine).

  19. Reflections on Chinese Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kalim SIDDIQUI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the reasons for the rapid growth in the Chinese economy over the last three decades. China has been growing fastest in human history, which has an impact on the global economy and also various challenges that the country faces. It is seen as heralding a major shift in the international division of labour through changes in its output and employment pattern. China is described as becoming the “work-shop” of the world as a result of the expansion of its manuf...

  20. Western Transitology and Chinese Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    It is the object of considerable debate in Western scholarship whether an authoritarian political order dominated by a strong communist party can continue to exist in China given the many challenges stemming from internal reform and the impact of globalization. Will China eventually turn democrat...... and will the communist party become obsolete and disappear, just as has happened in many other former communist countries. There seems to be a general consensus that Chinese political system is bound to change, but there is no agreement as to the direction and form of change...

  1. Architecture of Chinese Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chen-Zhou; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2004-06-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is brought forward under the background of progresses of astronomical technologies and information technologies. VO architecture design embodies the combination of above two technologies. As an introduction of VO, principle and workflow of Virtual Observatory are given firstly. Then the latest progress on VO architecture is introduced. Based on the Grid technology, layered architecture model and service-oriented architecture model are given for Chinese Virtual Observatory. In the last part of the paper, some problems on architecture design are discussed in detail.

  2. Bamboo and the Chinese Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUOJIANYING

    2003-01-01

    THE bamboo plant, fargesia spathacea, is the staple food of the giant panda and a cultural icon in Chinese history. In sharp contrast to other plants, the bamboo only blossoms every 60 to 80 years, and perishes soon after. It takes one to three decades for its seeds to grow. In the past 3 million years bamboos have undergone more than 50,000 extensive blooms. Pandas survived by migrating,but this is no longer an option owing to the sharp decrease of bamboo forests. The last two bloomings of bamboo caused 250 giant pandas to starve to death.

  3. Chinese RE Industry Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The development goals set for Chinese rare earthindustry in the '10th-Five-Year Plan" (year 2001~2005) wereachieved one year in advance. By 2004, following economyindexes were realized: production of rare earth minerals wasrestricted to around 90,000 tons; consumption of rare earthincreased to 32,000~33,000 tons from 19,200 tons; exportvolume was 70% of the world total, keeping the same level asthat in 2000; export of high value-added products wasincreased. During 2001-2005, rare earth separation capacitywa...

  4. SUBORDINATE GAPS IN MANDARIN CHINESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chi Wei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of subordinate gaps in Mandarin Chinese casts doubt on analyses built on canonical coordinate gapping. We observe that the minimality of contrastive focus and the type of subordinate clause determine the acceptability of a missing gap in subordinate structure. Along this vein, we propose that a semantic-based deletion account can be used to interpret gapping in Mandarin. Such account relies on two violable constraints, AvoidF and Focus condition on gapping (Schwarzchild 1999, Merchant 2001 to compute the acceptability of a gap.

  5. Development of Chinese Lotus Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何娇飞

    2013-01-01

    There is a very long history of lotus culture in China. Lotus has a very high medicinal value. Lotus seed is nutritious food. Lotus has anti-aging, prolong the life of the role. Since ancient time, the image of lotus was recorded in various books and literature works. Lotus is a common and tasty food in China. Chinese people like lotus not only because of its useful value, but al⁃so because of its holy spirit. And people even think highly of soul of lotus.

  6. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  7. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  8. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann;

    2014-01-01

    Chinese scientific output has increased dramatically in recent years, but its internal spatial structure has received scant attention. Estimated gravity models of intercity scientific coauthorships show that there are two types of spatial political bias in China, apart from the expected mass...... and distance effects. Intercity coauthorships involving Beijing are more common than Beijing's output volume and location would imply, and this Beijing bias is increasing over time. The second type of spatial political bias is greater intraprovincial collaboration than is accounted for by size and distance...

  9. Chinese Native Speakers Counterfactuals Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.IntroductionI have found,in my teaching experience,that English counterfactuals are among the most diffi-cult problems for Chinese native speaker EFL learners. A recent survey of EFL teachers in Guilin,China also supports these findings. In response to the question“What do you think is the most diffi-cult for your students to learn in English”,5 6out of 71 ,or 79% said the English subjunctive verbsare. To the question“Do you think the English subjunctives are difficultfor your students”,1 0 0 % ofthe EFL ...

  10. The Chinese Economy Speeds Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In a sign of calming down,the overheating Chinese economy headed for growth in tune with microeconomic controls in the first quarter of 2008 On April 16,the National Bureau of Statistics(NBS)released the eco- nomic data of the first quarter for this year,which backed the tighten- ing efforts of the government.Data show that China’s gross domestic product(GDP) of the first quarter continued a rosy path as it ballooned 10.6 percent year on year to 6.15

  11. Professional Ethics of Chinese Judges

    OpenAIRE

    LI, YUWEN

    2006-01-01

    On October 18th 2001, the Chinese Supreme People’s Court issued the Code of Conduct for Judges in the PRC (the Code) , which makes China one of the few countries in the world with a specific code of conduct for the judiciary. Following the amendment of the Law on Judges in June 2001, the introduction of the Code was an important event, and one that illustrated the continued efforts of the Supreme People’s Court (SPC) to improve professionalism among judges. The promulgation of the Code can be...

  12. Chinese biobanks: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Le; Shi, Chuan; Wang, Xian; Li, Qiyuan; Wan, Qian; Yan, Zhixiang; Zhang, Yong

    2013-12-01

    As the demands of scientific research and application for specimens increase rapidly, biobanks in China have been springing up over the recent years. This paper summarizes Chinese biobanks through investigation and survey on operative, managerial, ethical conditions and challenges of biobanks. At present, hospitals and research institutes in China set up and operate most of the biobanks, collecting human specimens to support clinical and scientific research. With the development of bio-industry and arrival of the big data era, biobanks need not only collect and store human and non-human specimens but also to manage the big data associated with these specimens.

  13. The Chinese Communist Party in Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Yongnian, Zheng

    Contrary to the expectations of many people, China's recent economic growth has not led to the collapse of the Chinese Communist Party. In fact, the party has recently carried out a peaceful and orderly transition to the so-called fourth generation of leadership, has revitalised itself, and created...... social groups, and increasing dissatisfaction among workers who seem to be losing out in the present transition process. "The Chinese Communist Party in Reform" explores the current state of the Chinese Communist Party and the many challenges which it faces. It considers the dynamics of development......, and the likely nature of its evolution. Overall, this book provides a comprehensive assessment of the internal dynamics of the Chinese Communist Party and its role in Chinese society....

  14. Two Language Models Using Chinese Semantic Parsing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingqin; WANG Xia; WANG Zuoying

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents two language models that utilize a Chinese semantic dependency parsing technique for speech recognition. The models are based on a representation of the Chinese semantic structure with dependency relations. A semantic dependency parser was described to automatically tag the semantic class for each word with 90.9% accuracy and parse the sentence semantic dependency structure with 75.8% accuracy. The Chinese semantic parsing technique was applied to structure language models to develop two language models, the semantic dependency model (SDM) and the headword trigram model (HTM). These language models were evaluated using Chinese speech recognition. The experiments show that both models outperform the word trigram model in terms of the Chinese character recognition error rate.

  15. On Interference of Chinese with ELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    九曼

    2011-01-01

    It is popularly admitted that the foreign language learning is strongly influenced by learners' first language.Generally speaking,the interference of Chinese with ELL is divided into negative transfer and positive transfer,which are manifested at various levels during ELL.The thesis aims to show the interference of Chinese with ELL,with the approach of qualitative analysis,the paper is arranged into Part Ⅰ:Introduction; Part Ⅱ:The Contrast between ELL and Chinese Language Acquisition; Part Ⅲ:The Influence of Chinese on ELL:Part Ⅵ:Conclusion.Being aware of the interference of Chinese with ELL will help students overcome the obstacles and promote ELL.

  16. Chinese Diplomacy Since 1949:an Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A prominent Chinese international relations scholar has explored and reviewed the history of Chinese diplomacy over the past 60 years,and has amassed some insightful views and incisive conclusions in his book Sixty Years of China’s Foreign Affairs:1949-2009. Published in September by the China Social Sciences Press,this book is the second volume of a series,Chinese Diplomatic Studies. It not only analyzes the evolution of Chinese diplomacy over the past 60 years but also predicts what the future will hold. Recently,Beijing Review reporters Ding Ying and Yu Yan spoke about the book with its editor in chief Dr. Wang Yizhou,who is also deputy director of the Institute of World Economics and Politics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and a professor at the School of International Studies,Peking University.

  17. Exploring Mobile Technologies for Learning Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to reveal how learners of Chinese as a foreign language use mobile technology to study Chinese outside the classroom. Researchers used sociocultural perspectives to frame the study and grounded theory to analyze data. Eleven English-speaking students who had learned Chinese for different years at a midwestern university participated in the study. They answered 23 major questions by submitting journal entries and participating in an interview. Compared with computer assisted language learning, mobile devices bring changes to tutorial functions, social computing, and gaming. Participants heavily explored tutorial functions, used mobile devices differently from computers for social computing, and showed interest in gaming. Although participants were enthusiastic about using mobile devices to learn Chinese, the number of applications they used and the variety of activities they engaged in were limited. Findings suggest that the effective incorporation of mobile devices to learn Chinese depends on collaboration and scaffolding

  18. Media Development with Chinese Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iginio Gagliardone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese authorities often frame their activities in the development sector as distinctive from those pursued by Western donors by stressing that they are not seeking to export a specific model but simply to help countries reach their potential. This demand-driven approach has applied to old and new development areas, from education to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs, and has appeared fairly consistent across countries. This pledge, however, has not meant that Chinese aid is neutral or without significant political implications. China’s concessionary loans and support to development projects have tended to shift balances of power by favouring certain actors over others and have challenged existing development paradigms, revitalizing ideas of the developmental state. Building on fieldwork conducted in Ghana, Ethiopia, and Kenya this article explains to which extent China’s entrance in the media and telecommunication sector actually challenges the dominant, Western-driven approaches to media development, promoting a state centred vision of the information society.

  19. Geographic Determinants of Chinese Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccord, G. C.; Christensen, P.

    2011-12-01

    In the first years of the 21st century, the human race became primarily urban for the first time in history. With countries like India and China rapidly undergoing structural change from rural agricultural-based economies to urbanized manufacturing- and service-based economies, knowing where the coming waves of urbanization will occur would be of interest for infrastructure planning and for modeling consequences for ecological systems. We employ spatial econometric methods (geographically weighted regression, spatial lag models, and spatial errors models) to estimate two determinants of urbanization in China. The first is the role of physical geography, measured as topography-adjusted distance to major ports and suitability of land for agriculture. The second is the spatial agglomeration effect, which we estimate with a spatial lag model. We find that Chinese urbanization between 1990 and 2000 exhibited important spatial agglomeration effects, as well as significant explanatory power of nearby agricultural suitability and distance to ports, both in a nationwide model and in a model of local regression estimates. These results can help predict the location of new Chinese urbanization, and imply that climate change-induced changes in agricultural potential can affect the spatial distribution of urban areas.

  20. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,

  1. Managing Chinese Catalogingat The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NoraFung

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the experience and the observation of the author as a cataloger of Chinese publications at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Library. The trends in collection development of Chinese language materials in the Library have a crucial impact on Chinese cataloging. The way that Chinese cataloging has been haudled in this rapidly changing environment is reported here.

  2. The Learning of Chinese Idioms through Multimedia Storytelling Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ee Hui; Hew, Soon Hin; Choo, Siew Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the growth of China has successfully boosted the Chinese language to be studied by people from different language-speaking societies. The Chinese language has become the most preferred second or third language among non-Chinese native novices due to the great development of China and global economic change. The Chinese idiom is…

  3. Misrepresenting Chinese Folk Happiness: A Critique of a Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. A recent study on Chinese folk happiness using qualitative method seems to provide some empirical findings beyond anecdotal evidence on Chinese folk happiness. This paper critically examines the study's constructed image of Chinese folk happiness,…

  4. "CLASS Professional Standards" for K-12 Chinese Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lucy C.; Lin, Yu-Lan; Su, Chih-Wen

    2007-01-01

    "CLASS Professional Standards" is a resource for Chinese teachers, foreign language specialists, school administrators, parents, and policy makers who recognize the importance of Chinese cultures taught by professional teachers of Chinese. The release of the book also marks the celebration of the Chinese Language Association of…

  5. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is one of the series of science and technology in-

  6. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

  7. The Influence of Confucianism on Traditional Chinese Families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓玲

    2007-01-01

    Since the time Confucianism was generally accepted by the Chinese populace in the Han Dynasty(2nd century B.C. ), it has become an integral part of Chinese society and what it means to be Chinese. Three aspects of traditional Chinese family under the influence of Confucianism are observed: the family and the state,positional role behavior and ancestor worship.

  8. The Differences between English and Chinese in My View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雪; 叶文冰

    2010-01-01

    this essay is aimed to explore the differences between English and Chinese from three aspects. Firstly, English is hypotactic, while Chinese is paratactic; secondly, passive voice is more often used in English than that in Chinese; thirdly, the expressions of English is stative, on the contrary, Chinese is dynamic.

  9. Chinese coal supply and future production outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's energy supply is dominated by coal, making projections of future coal production in China important. Recent forecasts suggest that Chinese coal production may reach a peak in 2010–2039 but with widely differing peak production levels. The estimated URR (ultimately recoverable resources) influence these projections significantly, however, widely different URR-values were used due to poor understanding of the various Chinese coal classification schemes. To mitigate these shortcomings, a comprehensive investigation of this system and an analysis of the historical evaluation of resources and reporting issues are performed. A more plausible URR is derived, which indicates that many analysts underestimate volumes available for exploitation. Projections based on the updated URR using a modified curve-fitting model indicate that Chinese coal production could peak as early as 2024 at a maximum annual production of 4.1 Gt. By considering other potential constraints, it can be concluded that peak coal in China appears inevitable and immediate. This event can be expected to have significant impact on the Chinese economy, energy strategies and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction strategies. - Highlights: • Review of Chinese coal geology and resources/reserves. • Presentation of the Chinese coal classification system. • Forecasting future Chinese coal production using Hubbert curves. • Critical comparison with other forecasts. • Discussions transportation, environmental impact, water consumption, etc

  10. The Influence of Chinese Character Handwriting Diagnosis and Remedial Instruction System on Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Chen, Chiao-Jia; Wu, Chia-Hou; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study designed and developed a Chinese character handwriting diagnosis and remedial instruction (CHDRI) system to improve Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners' ability to write Chinese characters. The CFL learners were given two tests based on the CHDRI system. One test focused on Chinese character handwriting to diagnose the CFL…

  11. The Voices of Thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese Parents Sharing Views about their Children Attending Chinese Heritage Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Li-yuan; Larke, Patrica J.

    2008-01-01

    Many Chinese and Taiwanese parents in the United States see benefits of Chinese schools in providing their children the opportunity to learn Chinese culture and language. The results of this qualitative study involving interviews with thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese parents indicated that there were three main reasons why parents want to send their…

  12. Preservation of home of Malaysian Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Yee-mei, Agnes; 譚懿媚

    2013-01-01

    The study of diaspora dictates a yearning to return home which finds its Chinese equivalent in the notion of louye-guigen ( 落葉歸根) - returning to the roots. However, reality is that diaspora comes to an end after settlement for two to three generations. We do see the prevailing trend of luodi-shenggen (落地生根) – the planting of permanent roots in the soils of different countries of Chinese overseas. In some Chinese communities, luodi-shenggen turns out to be a total assimilation while others dev...

  13. Artemisinin, a miracle of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling Yi; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2015-12-19

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared by Professor Youyou Tu, focused worldwide attention on artemisinin, a natural product antimalarial drug inspired by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first Nobel Prize in natural sciences presented to a Chinese scientist for her impactful research work in China in collaboration with other Chinese scientists. We are delighted to provide the background and implications of the discovery of artemisinin, along with our personal viewpoints toward the affordability of modern medicines from natural products. PMID:26561737

  14. Chinese librarianship in the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Conghui

    2013-01-01

    The library in China has been transformed by rapid socioeconomic development, and the proliferation of the Internet. The issues faced by Chinese libraries andlibrarians are those faced by library practitioners more globally, however, China also has its own unique set of issues in the digital era, including developmental imbalance between East and West, urban and rural areas, and availability of skilled practitioners. Chinese Librarianship in the Digital Era is the first book on Chinese libraries responding to these issues, and more.The first part of the book places discussion in historical con

  15. Chinese Martial Arts in the Republican Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Acevedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the beginning of the XXth century, China suffered attacks from foreign powers causing the lost of parts of its territory as well as a challenge to its national pride. The traditional Chinese martial arts were unable to defeat the tactics and modern weaponry that China’s enemies had in their arsenal. Despite the overwhelming odds, the Chinese forces made use of their ingenuity and adapted the ancient weapons and fighting skills succeeding to some extent in slowing down the enemy’s advance. This period witnessed the last time cold weapons would play an important role in modern Chinese warfare.

  16. Development of a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shia; Teng, Ching-I

    2009-06-01

    Traditional Western superstitious beliefs, such as black cats and the number 13 bringing bad luck, may not be applicable to different cultures. This study develops a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale by conducting two studies with 363 and 395 participants, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis was used to construct the scale and then structural equation modeling was applied to verify its reliability and validity. The scale contains six dimensions, Homonym, Traditional customs, Power of crystal, Horoscope, Feng-shui, and Luck for gambling. Findings are helpful for understanding the difference between Chinese superstitions and the traditional Western superstitions and permits subsequent development of sociopsychological theories on correlates and effects of Chinese superstitions. PMID:19708408

  17. Is the Chinese Stock Market Really Efficient?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine whether Chinese Stock Market is weak- form efficient. The sample involves daily index price of Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchange for both A share and B share over an extensive period of 1993-2013. In order to seek out whether the result of market efficiency is sensitive to sub-period, this paper computes the different time period of sample. This essay will use three empirical methods, namely unit root test, auto correlation test and run test, to examine whether Chinese Stock Marketis weak-form efficient. The results, regarding efficiency, indicate that Chinese Stock Market is not weak-form efficient.

  18. Cultural Influences on English--Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the cultural influences on English and Chinese translation. Cultural differences between English and Chinese have existed in geographical culture, traditional culture, religious culture, historical culture and customary culture in their long history. Only when English, learners have a better understanding of the cultural factors as well as their influences on two languages, can they do a good job of English-Chinese translation. For English teachers, they should strengthen culture education and guide students to contact with Western culture materials extensively, and improve their cross-cultural awareness.

  19. Constructing a chinese international relations theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P.M.; Nielsen, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Chinese scholars are debating whether, and how, to innovate a Chinese theory of International Relations (IR). This article examines the driving forces behind this theoretical debate. It challenges the commonsensical link between external events in the subject matter (i.r.) and theorizing (IR......), which suggests that the innovation of a Chinese IR theory is a natural product of China's geopolitical rise, its growing political ambitions, and discontent with Western hegemony. We propose instead a sociological approach to intellectual innovation which opens the black box of knowledge production...

  20. Winners of the Japan Chinese Speech Contest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yui Tanaka; Yuka Goto

    2012-01-01

    <正>Editor’s Note:This year marks the 40th anniversary of the normalization of China-Japan diplomatic relations. The final of the 29th Japan Chinese Speech Contest sponsored by the Japan-China Friendship Association (JCFA) was held in Tokyo on January 8. The 28 contestants came from 17 Japanese prefectures. They spoke about their experience in learning Chinese language, their contacts with Chinese people and their views on removing misunderstanding and enhancing mutual understanding and friendship between the two countries.

  1. Foreign Talent Sought for Chinese Detroit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ If there is one thing China does not lack, it is engineers: every year, hundreds of thousands of them graduate from Chinese universities.But in May, Beijing Automotive Group (BAIC), the state-owned carmaker, held its first German recruitment fairs in Stuttgart, Munich and Aachen, to hire engineers.In the same month, Dongfeng Motor, another large Chinese carmaker, went to Munich looking for talent, following in the steps of state-owned car manufacturers such as SAIC Motor Corp and ambitious private carmakers such as Geely. "Increasing numbers of Chinese carmakers are recruiting overseas, in Detroit, Stuttgart and Nagoya," says Ivo Naumann, head of consultants AlixPartners in Shanghai.

  2. [Chinese Medicine in Overall Modern Scientific Technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuan-sheng; Zeng Yong

    2015-10-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) develops with the survival, reproduction, growth, and progressing of the Chinese nation. Scientific technologies not only promote continual progressing of human societies, but also provide new ideas and methods for the development of CM. In recent years, great changes have taken place in CM complying with developing modern scientific technologies, mainly manifested in the depth of CM theories at molecular levels, the combination of syndrome differentiation and disease identification, continuous innovation and development of clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, diversified dosages of Chinese materia medica, the academic tendency of education patterns, occupational refinement, diversified medical practice modes, and so on. PMID:26677664

  3. Pronunciation and Articulation for Singing Chinese Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑菲菲

    2013-01-01

    For singing Chinese works, pronunciation and articulation are the most essential and the most crucial factors. Their beginning should be brief, middle should be melodious and long-lasting, and end should be as clear and crisp as crystal. Considering from pronunciations, Chinese works can be divided into two categories:one is comprehensive style emphasizing clear enunciation; the other is local folk song that should be sung based on corresponding local accent of the works. Besides, based on correct pronunciation and articulation, balance between pro-nunciation and articulation should be achieved, both the essence of western traditional mode of singing and Chinese traditional music should be followed and inherited.

  4. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. On Empty Categories PRO and Pro in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢琼月

    2011-01-01

    With the development of:Generative Grammar,many scholars have done research on Chinese null subjects.However,there still remain controversies over the distinction between Chinese finiteness and non-finiteness and the existence of PRO and pro.Based on Chomsky's GB theory and some research achievements made by Chinese scholars,this paper attempts to propose some standards for the classification of Chinese finiteness and non-finiteness and m make a distraction between PRO and pro in Chinese.

  6. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Being Chinese or Being Different: Exploring Chinese Foreign Language (CFL) Teachers Use of Chineseness in Identity Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    that no matter which way they use ‘Chinese-ness’, the participants are able to reflect on their experiences and manifest a willingness to adapt to another culture, in which their identity as CFL teachers are constructed. By the end of study, the combination of teaching culture of Chinese and Danish, in which...... participants are forging new identities for them are discussed. Key words: CFL teacher, Danish university, teaching culture, Chinese-ness 中国式的汉语教师 探讨新汉语教师在构建其职业身份中对于中国特色的诠释和理解 中文摘要 在对外汉语教学中...

  9. Chinese Function Manager of 2006 Partenariat Comments on the Selection Principle for Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Fang Lei, EU-China Partenariat 2006Function Manager for Chinese Host Companies, worked together with Mr. Richard Morgan, EU Project Expert,Mr. Han Meiqing, Chinese Project Expert in the primary selection of Chinese enterprises.In reply to the strong request of the relevant governmental institutions, CCPIT and enterprises, he gave the following introductions about the details of selection.……

  10. Chinese for Business Professionals: The Workplace Needs and Business Chinese Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haidan

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of pragmatic competence in the workplace is the ultimate goal for business Chinese learners. Whether the business Chinese textbooks and instructional materials can meet the language needs of different workplaces in China has a close bearing on the quality and efficacy of business Chinese teaching. Funded by both the interdisciplinary research grant from the University of Hawai‘i Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER), and the Business Language Researc...

  11. Assessment of Problem Gambling in a Chinese Context: The Chinese G-MAP

    OpenAIRE

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Chan, Elda M. L.

    2009-01-01

    There is a severe lack of instruments to assess problem gambling in Chinese people. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Maroondah Assessment Profile for Problem Gambling (Chinese G-MAP), based on the responses of eight problem gamblers and 125 pathological gamblers seeking help from a problem gambling treatment center. Reliability analyses showed that the G-MAP and its related domains and scales were generally internally consistent. There are also sev...

  12. Chinese Online Hot Expressions:A Chinese Voice that Can Be Heard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jie

    2016-01-01

    Chinese online hot expressions, as one of Chinese popular cultures, were forming in the process of globalization and internetization. With about twenty years’development, now some Chinese online hot expressions have begun to enter into the international netspeak, forming a kind of counter-impact to the international net culture. It is an important part of our national culture and should be used as a special national resource in promoting the cultural soft power of our country.

  13. Negative Transfer of Mother Tongue (Chinese) in Chinese-English Translation of Public Signs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任军

    2009-01-01

    This paper is mainly about the influence of negative transfer of mother tongue on Chinese-English translation. By citing and analyzing errors in Chinese-English sign translation, the author finds that in translating Chinese public signs into English, the translators are influenced by the mother tongue, thus, a large number of errors appear.Key Words: Translation of Public Signs;Negative Transfer; Mother Tongue

  14. Chinese Climate Policy - Institutions and Intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until the late 1990's, the balance of Chinese energy production and consumption was treated by the rest of the world as a net figure. No-one knew what was going on inside the Chinese economy - it was a black box. As far as anyone was concerned, the Chinese would not soon be a major factor in world energy markets. Energy policy makers realized how totally blind they were in 2004 when Chinese electricity production could not keep up with internal demand and the world experienced a surge in liquids demand as Chinese entrepreneurs fired up generator sets across the economy. The incremental Chinese demand was a factor in the price surge that year that had been building since the OPEC accord in 1999. It was probably the catalyst for the spike but we didn't have the data to know. Times are certainly changing, but it is still only twilight in that black box. No country has confronted the need to collect data and formulate coherent policy for nearly a billion and a half consumers. State enterprises were set up to manage key energy sector activities, but coordinating among them proved difficult. A number of institutional arrangements have succeeded each other until now, when stronger energy policy and administrative functions of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) are gaining traction. NDRC vice-chairman Zhang Guobao has maintained a steady hand on Chinese energy-policy evolution for several years - overseeing the increasing coherence of Chinese domestic and international energy policy - but the tension with powerful state enterprises and other vested interests still effectively defies efforts to truly centralize and co-ordinate Chinese national-level energy policy and program authority. The first of the three studies looks back into the nature of Chinese institutions and governance for insights into how they function and to identify some of their limits, so as to pinpoint the nature of the forces that drive or constrain change within China's energy sector

  15. Chinese Climate Policy - Institutions and Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, William C.; Lesourne, Jacques [Institut Francais des Relations Internationales - Ifri, 27 rue de la Procession, 75740 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Andrews-Speed, Philip [Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Yishan, Xia; Dezhao, Chen [China Institute of International Studies (China)

    2011-06-15

    Until the late 1990's, the balance of Chinese energy production and consumption was treated by the rest of the world as a net figure. No-one knew what was going on inside the Chinese economy - it was a black box. As far as anyone was concerned, the Chinese would not soon be a major factor in world energy markets. Energy policy makers realized how totally blind they were in 2004 when Chinese electricity production could not keep up with internal demand and the world experienced a surge in liquids demand as Chinese entrepreneurs fired up generator sets across the economy. The incremental Chinese demand was a factor in the price surge that year that had been building since the OPEC accord in 1999. It was probably the catalyst for the spike but we didn't have the data to know. Times are certainly changing, but it is still only twilight in that black box. No country has confronted the need to collect data and formulate coherent policy for nearly a billion and a half consumers. State enterprises were set up to manage key energy sector activities, but coordinating among them proved difficult. A number of institutional arrangements have succeeded each other until now, when stronger energy policy and administrative functions of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) are gaining traction. NDRC vice-chairman Zhang Guobao has maintained a steady hand on Chinese energy-policy evolution for several years - overseeing the increasing coherence of Chinese domestic and international energy policy - but the tension with powerful state enterprises and other vested interests still effectively defies efforts to truly centralize and co-ordinate Chinese national-level energy policy and program authority. The first of the three studies looks back into the nature of Chinese institutions and governance for insights into how they function and to identify some of their limits, so as to pinpoint the nature of the forces that drive or constrain change within China

  16. Chinese Space Program for Heliophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji; Gan, Weiqun; Wang, Chi; Liu, Weining; Yan, Yihua; Liu, Yong; Sun, Lilin; Liu, Ying

    As one of the major field of space science, heliophysics research in China has not only long history but also strong research forces. Many space missions have been proposed by the community but with few got support. Since 2006, Chinese Academy of Science has organized a long term strategic study in space science. In 2011, the space science program has been kicked off with several new missions being selected for Phase A study. In this presentation, first a brief review on past programs, such as Double Star, Chang’e, and an introduction on the space science strategic study are given. Under the guidance of this strategic study or roadmap, a few missions have been proposed or re-proposed with new element, such as DSO, KUAFU, MIT, SPORT and ASO-S. Brief introductions of these programs and their current status will be given.

  17. The Paradox of Chinese Consumers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Never before has China’s consumption issue attracted so much attention from various countries as it has under the current gloomy economic conditions caused about by the global financial crisis. Domestically, China relies on national consumption to stimulate its own economy, which previously depended heavily on exports; Internationally, scholars in the United States alleged that China’s high savings rate was the origin of this financial crisis. Questions have been raised concerning the direction of China’s consumption trend and whether the country should shift into a high consumption gear similar to that of the United States and Europe. Beijing Review reporter Liu Xinlian interviewed Li Peilin, Director of the Institute of Sociology at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, China’s top think tank, for his insight into this issue. Edited excerpts follow:

  18. Evolution of Chinese airport network

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Cai, Kai-Quan

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy and the accelerated globalization process, the aviation industry plays more and more critical role in today's world, in both developed and developing countries. As the infrastructure of aviation industry, the airport network is one of the most important indicators of economic growth. In this paper, we investigate the evolution of Chinese airport network (CAN) via complex network theory. It is found that although the topology of CAN remains steady during the past several years, there are many dynamic switchings inside the network, which changes the relative relevance of airports and airlines. Moreover, we investigate the evolution of traffic flow (passengers and cargoes) on CAN. It is found that the traffic keeps growing in an exponential form and it has evident seasonal fluctuations. We also found that cargo traffic and passenger traffic are positively related but the correlations are quite different for different kinds of cities.

  19. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  20. The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Deng, Yuanyong; Ji, Haisheng

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Giant Solar Telescope is the next generation ground-based solar telescope. The main science task of this telescope is to observe the ultra fine structures of the solar magnetic field and dynamic field. Due to the advantages in polarization detection and thermal controlling with a symmetrical circular system, the current design of CGST is a 6~8 meter circular symmetrical telescope. The results of simulations and analysis showed that the current design could meet the demands of most science cases not only in infrared bands but also in near infrared bands and even in visible bands. The prominences and the filaments are very important science cases of CGST. The special technologies for prominence observation will be developed, including the day time laser guide star and MCAO. CGST is proposed by all solar observatories and several institutes and universities in China. It is supported by CAS and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) as a long term astronomical project.

  1. Documenting the Earliest Chinese Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-zhong (Joe Zhou

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:19-24

    According to various authoritative sources, the English word "journal" was first used in the 16lh century, but the existence of the journal in its original meaning as a daily record can be traced back to Acta Diuma (Daily Events in ancient Roman cities as early as 59 B.C. This article documents the first appearance of Chinese daily records that were much early than 59 B.C.

    The evidence of the earlier Chinese daily records came from some important archaeological discoveries in the 1970's, but they were also documented by Sima Qian (145 B.C. - 85 B.C., the grand historian of the Han Dynasty imperial court. Sima's lifetime contribution was the publication of Shi Ji (史記 (The Grand Scribe's Records, the Records hereafter. The Records is a book of history of a grand scope. It encompasses all Chinese history from 30lh century B.C. through the end of the second century B.C. in 130 chapters and over 525,000 Chinese

  2. Theory of Traditional Chinese Aesthetic Thoughts Influence on Ancient Chinese Architectural Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静

    2014-01-01

    the Chinese tradition of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism thought influence the design style of the building. Confu-cian, Taoist thought of"the doctrine of the mean"of"nature and humanity"ideology, traditional Confucian thought on the forma-tion of the traditional architectural style vital role. Of ancient Chinese architecture is harmonious and peaceful feelings, Confucian, Taoist, buddhist thought deeply, meanwhile, reflect the hand, reasonable aspiration is dependent of the aesthetic, the emotion affects the ancient Chinese architecture planning, layout and construction, formed the ancient Chinese architecture unique architectural style and artistic style and features.

  3. Chinese Youth Dance Delegation in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the China-Malaysia Friendship Association, a 96-member Chi- nese youth dance delegation organized by the CPAFFC and the Chinese Dancers Association, went to Pinang, a famous tourist

  4. Chinese students' errors in English reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊春霞

    2008-01-01

    @@ I Anaphoric expressions Anaphoric expression is another pitfall forChinese students in their reading comprehen-sion. According to Gui Sichuan (1991), refer-ence, substitution, ellipsis and lexical cohesionare often mentioned in Halliday's and Hasan'swritings.

  5. Chinese M&A,Opportunities & Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Recently, the cases of Chinese enterprises' merger and acquisition are emerging in multitude. It is believed that M&A will provide opportunities for China enterprises to go global and act in the global economic environment.

  6. A View of the Chinese Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Patsy

    1985-01-01

    Describes the current state of and the effect of new policies on Chinese families, in terms of marriage, family planning, housing, income, lifestyle, food practices, clothing, health care, education, religion, status of women, and retirement. (SK)

  7. Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The 2006 reception conference of the International Education College of the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine was held April 28 in Beijing, unveiling its overseas students recruitment program this year.

  8. Thappiness Metaphorical Cognition in English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭巧懿

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive function of metaphor enables people to conceptualize human experience.And emotion is one of the most central and pervasive aspects of human experience.This paper is mainly concentrated on happiness metaphorical cognition in English and Chinese.

  9. The largest table in Chinese restaurant processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate the expectation of the size of the largest table in an(α,θ)-Chinese restaurant process by using and developing an idea originated in the work by Shepp,which discusses random permutation.

  10. Is Chinese as a Subject Important?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In January, six universities in Shanghai held independent admission tests to select students from more than 10,000 appli- cants. At four of the universities, Chinese was not a test subject or science students

  11. Constraint-based Word Segmentation for Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Bo, Li

    2014-01-01

    and pragmatic content of the text is essentially required. While this parallelism is easy for competent human language user, computer-based methods tend to be separated into phases with little or no interaction. Accepting this as a fact, means that CWSP introduces a playground for a plethora of different ad......Written Chinese text has no separators between words in the same way as European languages use space characters, and this creates the Chinese Word Segmentation Problem, CWSP: given a text in Chinese, divide it in a correct way into segments corresponding to words. Good solutions are in demand...... for virtually any nontrivial computational processing of Chinese text, ranging from spellchecking over internet search to deep analysis. Isolating the single words is usually the first phase in the analysis of a text, but as for many other language analysis tasks, to do that perfectly, an insight in syntactic...

  12. Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course: References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is a collection of reference materials to be used with the Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course textbooks. This collection consists of information on romanization systems, indexes for reading and writing characters, and other tables for quick reference. (NCR)

  13. Sadness Metaphorical Cognition in English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭巧懿; 张楠

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive function of metaphor enables people to conceptualize human experience.And emotion is one of the most central and pervasive aspects of human experience.This paper mainly analyzes sadness metaphorical cognition in English and Chinese.

  14. Cultural expectations of thinness in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, F; Lam, S; Sze, S

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined the ideal woman's figure among Chinese people in Hong Kong over the past three decades by analyzing the data from the Miss Hong Kong Beauty Pageant from 1975-2000. Results indicate that Miss Hong Kong Pageant winners and Miss Photogenic winners have always been taller and thinner than average women in Hong Kong. The data also suggest that a curvaceous body shape with a narrow waist set against full hips appears to be an important component of feminine beauty among the Chinese. This ideal matches closely to what has been depicted in classical Chinese literature and challenges the commonly held belief that Chinese feminine beauty standards value plumpness. PMID:16864394

  15. Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕

    2007-01-01

    Festivals are precious cultural heritage of different countries,so differentfestivals can reflect different cultures. This article discusses cultural differences in Chinese and western festivals, aiming to promote cross-culture communication.

  16. Chinese Bedding Technology Standard under Drafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    National Home Textile Standardization Technology Committee(NHTSTC)set up its Bedding Branch Committee. This will promote the work of Chinese bedding technology standardization and a symbol that China step up to meet the

  17. Chinese Road Safety and Driver Behavior Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the Chinese road safety situation, including current safety problems, and then move on to discuss safety research including driver behavior, freeway operational safety, and infrastructure development.

  18. Chinese Market for Fibres and Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a summary of Chinese market of optical fibres and cables based on the development of the optical communications industry. Analysis shows that the market will keep growing for sometime in the future.

  19. Space Environment Deteation of Chinese Meteorological Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; WANG Shijin; ZHU Guangwu; LIANG Jinbao

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the space environment detection of Chinese geosynchronous and sun-synchronous meteorological satellites and gives a short perspective of space environment observations on board meteorological satellites.

  20. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  1. The Research of Chinese Text Proofreading Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Generally, text proofreading consists of two procedures, finding the wrongly used words and then presenting the correct forms. At present, most of the Chinese text proofreading focuses on finding the wrongly used words, but pays less attention to correcting these errors. In this paper, the Chinese text features are interpreted first and then a Chinese text proofreading method and its algorithm are introduced. In this algorithm, text features, including text statistical feature and language structure feature, are properly used. Here, correcting errors goes on at the same time with finding errors. Experimental results show that this method has a performance of detecting 75% of wrongly used Chinese words and correcting about 60% of them with the first candidates.

  2. Chinese Meter in Translating English Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温荣芬

    2009-01-01

    <正>Translation is not easy and poetry translation is troublesome,while meter poetry translation is the most difficult. This paper will focus on the meter in translating English poetry into Chinese. From the review of translation history to

  3. Informed consent practices of Chinese nurse researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Douglas P; Honghong Wang; Pang, Samantha

    2010-03-01

    Nursing research in China is at an early stage of development and little is known about the practices of Chinese nurse researchers. This interview study carried out at a university in central China explores the informed consent practices of Chinese nurse researchers and the cultural considerations of using a western technique. Nine semistructured interviews were conducted in English with assistance and simultaneous translation from a Chinese nurse with research experience. The interviews were analyzed by one western and two Chinese researchers and major themes were identified. All participants endorsed informed consent as ethically required. Differences were noted between some of the informed consent practices typically recommended in the USA and those identified in this study, such as: recruitment using local and government officials, recruiting directly from medical records without special permission, family consultation in consent and consent control, and not revealing randomization to intervention groups receiving different treatments. PMID:20185442

  4. The Taboos in Chinese and English Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱慧

    2015-01-01

    Applying linguistic study as the theoretical base, this paper analyzes the taboos in Chinese and English culture. By exemplification and comparison, it unfolds how to make an efficient commutation with others and reduce misunderstanding in the age of globalization.

  5. Chop Suey as Imagined Authentic Chinese Food: The Culinary Identity of Chinese Restaurants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Liu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available At least until the 1960s, chop suey was synonymous with Chinese food in the United States, where most Chinese restaurants were called chop suey houses. By uncovering the history of chop suey, this article analyzes the development of Chinese cuisine in the U.S. as an example of transnational cultural exchange. The authenticity and culinary identity of Chinese food in America often rested on its real or imagined Chinese roots while its popularity depended on how well Chinese restaurant proprietors adapted the flavors, ingredients, and cooking methods of Chinese cuisine to the tastes and markets of local American communities. The dynamic interaction between Chinese food and American customers functioned as a complex cultural negotiation. While Chinese restaurants helped shape the American diet, Chinese food was at the same time being shaped and transformed by American popular taste. By appealing to a wide range of American diners, chop suey eventually evolved into a popular American ethnic food and a central component in the culinary identity of Chinese restaurants. Chop suey generated numerous jobs for Chinese immigrants and established a culinary bond between Chinese food and American customers. Also, as an imagined authentic Chinese dish, it represented a type of affordable exoticism in the eyes of American consumers, meeting not only American tastes but also their social expectations of Chinese culture.

  6. Chop Suey as Imagined Authentic Chinese Food: The Culinary Identity of Chinese Restaurants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Liu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    At least until the 1960s, chop suey was synonymous with Chinese food in the United States, where most Chinese restaurants were called chop suey houses. By uncovering the history of chop suey, this article analyzes the development of Chinese cuisine in the U.S. as an example of transnational cultural exchange. The authenticity and culinary identity of Chinese food in America often rested on its real or imagined Chinese roots while its popularity depended on how well Chinese restaurant proprietors adapted the flavors, ingredients, and cooking methods of Chinese cuisine to the tastes and markets of local American communities. The dynamic interaction between Chinese food and American customers functioned as a complex cultural negotiation. While Chinese restaurants helped shape the American diet, Chinese food was at the same time being shaped and transformed by American popular taste. By appealing to a wide range of American diners, chop suey eventually evolved into a popular American ethnic food and a central component in the culinary identity of Chinese restaurants. Chop suey generated numerous jobs for Chinese immigrants and established a culinary bond between Chinese food and American customers. Also, as an imagined authentic Chinese dish, it represented a type of affordable exoticism in the eyes of American consumers, meeting not only American tastes but also their social expectations of Chinese culture.

  7. Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs The journal started publication monthly since January 1970, is an academic and technical journal sponsored by Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research. The journal which has a long history over 40 years offers the columns of research papers, brief reports, reviews, dissertation, and special treatises to report the recent achievements of the basic study, production, quality

  8. On Vocabulary Acquisition by Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔莉; 南二丽

    2006-01-01

    It is admitted that vocabulary acquisition, as the smallest unit in English leaning, is the most basic, decisive yet difficult part. Yet vocabulary acquisition has always obsessed and fascinated Chinese learners of English. This paper mainly presents a discussion of English vocabulary acquisition by Chinese learners in the respect of vocabulary size and correct use. Through the analysis of the problems existing in the present vocabulary learning and teaching, author also presents some learning strategies to expand vocabulary size.

  9. Student aid policy of Chinese higher education

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Student aid policy of Chinese higher education was made in the form of free higher education before 1989. It changed into the form of direct assisting and rewarding students afterwards with the cost sharing policy into operation in China. This paper analyses four main questions of Chinese student aid policy. Firstly, it explores the background in which the policy is formulated and identifies the policy development stages. Secondly, human capital theory and modernization theory are applied...

  10. comparison of english and chinese advertisement slogan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦

    2011-01-01

    advertisements in cross-culture communication come from different cultural background.the english and chinese advertisement slogan is a lively and distinctive field.differences of advertising slogan are becoming more important in the context of economic globalization.this paper,from the comparison of chinese and english advertisement slogan,language used in slogans,translation of slogan,mainly from the points of view of cross-culture to analysis the differences of tow language ads slogan.

  11. On Chinese Loan Words from English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yun; Deng, Tianbai

    2009-01-01

    In the recent twenty years, with China's reform and opening policy to the outside world, there is a sharp increase in English loan words in Chinese. On the one hand, it demonstrates that China's soft power has been booming up. But on the other hand, some language pollution in the meanwhile is caused by non-standard use of loan words in Chinese.…

  12. On Chinese and Western Wine Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying-han

    2015-01-01

    Wine plays a big role in people’s social life both in China and in the West. Based on the perspective of cross culture, the paper gives a detailed analysis of the disparities of Chinese and western wine culture, and points out the factors for the forming of Chinese and western wine culture. It can be concluded that culture is the key to the understanding of wine phenomenon.

  13. Chinese traditional medicine for induction of ovulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖碧莲

    2003-01-01

    This is a review paper of some effective recipes of Chinese traditional medicine usedin ovulation induction and treatment of gynecological diseases. Some clinical results bygynecologists using Chinese traditional medicine in combination with western medicineand results from research on traditional medicine with modern technology are presented.A list of frequently used traditional medicine for ovulation induction are selected from the famous Compendium of Materica Medica(本草纲目)by Li Shi-zhen(李时珍).

  14. Protectionism and industry localization in Chinese provinces (?)

    OpenAIRE

    Batisse, Cecile; Poncet, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of regional specialization between 1992 and 1997 using a panel covering 33 industries across 25 Chinese regions, paying particular attention to the role of regional protectionism. This study is motivated by a double paradox concerning the Chinese economy over the reforms. First some authors evidence reduced regional specialization despite the promotion of liberalization away from the introverted development strategy of the pre-reform period. Moreover, ...

  15. Finnish food brand in Chinese market

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Guanyu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is the Finnish food brand in Chinese market. The whole thesis will be divided into five chapters. The study area focuses on the Finnish food brand in Chinese market, elaborates the Finnish food brand in China, its possibility, predominance, problems, position and process. This thesis will based on analysis of different companies’ cases, combine international marketing, international operation theoretical with the real cases; to elaborate the possibility of F...

  16. Chinese Foundry Industry Tour-Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Shanxi Province is one of the important birthplaces of the Chinese nation and has the famous names of the "Cradle of ancient Chinese civilization" and the "Hometown of the foundry industry". To report on the foundry industry development of Shanxi province, journalists of Foundry Journal Agency came to Shanxi from 14-22 of August 2009. We visited cities of Taiyuan, Wutai, Xiangfen,Linfen and Hukou, and interviewed the local foundry people.

  17. Choice Criteria of Cosmetics among Chinese Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Becoming familiar with consumers’ choice criteria towards a certain kind of product can help marketers tailor more efficient market strategies. Cosmetics play a very important part in the lives of women. Plautus asserted, “A woman without paint is like food without salt”. In recent years, the Chinese cosmetic market has flourished. The aim of this dissertation is to understand the choice criteria of cosmetics in the context of the Chinese market. Country-of-origin, brand image and quality are...

  18. Price Discovery in the Chinese Gold Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Muzhao; Li, Youwei; Wang, Jianxin; Yang, Yung Chiang

    2016-01-01

    This study conducts price discovery analysis in the Chinese gold market. Our result indicates that the price discovery in Chinese gold market occurs predominantly in the futures market. The result is robust to the different measures of price discovery, namely information share, component share, and information leadership share. Partitioning the daily trades into three trading sessions, we find that the dominance of the futures market occurs in all trading sessions. We further investigate the ...

  19. Marketing Chinese plasma products in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Dongchuan

    2011-01-01

    The case company of this study is Shanghai Xin-xing Medicine Co. Ltd., the subsidiary of China General Technology Group in Shanghai City of China. The company manufactures plasma products. This study gives information about the company, their products and the outlook of marketing Chinese plasma products in Finland. The goal of the study is to clarify the method of marketing Chinese plasma products in Finland. For that purpose one survey-questionnaire was sent to 20 main hospitals in diffe...

  20. My Understanding on Chinese Business Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guy Wittich

    2011-01-01

    @@ I have been living and working in China for 24 years, which was not a short time for me to learn Chinese business culture and learn how to adapt to this culture. Owing to my work, I have led and arranged the Dutch business delegations to visit China for many times.And I also had to deal with the relationship with their Chinese partners.

  1. Chinese monetary policy and the dollar peg

    OpenAIRE

    Volz, Ulrich; Reade, J. James

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent Chinese monetary policy is constrained by the dollar peg. To this end, we use a cointegration framework to examine whether Chinese interest rates are driven by the Fed’s policy. In a second step, we estimate a monetary model for China, in which we include also other monetary policy tools besides the central bank interest rate, namely reserve requirement ratios and open market operations. Our results suggest China has been relatively successful in isolati...

  2. Chinese Adolescents' Influence on Family Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shushi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate Chinese adolescents' influence on family decision making regarding on the effect of children's characteristics including academic performance, product knowledge and financial saving. The concept of value alignment is initially introduced to the family decision making since it greatly concerns on the Chinese culture. It is assumed that China's only children would have more influence on the decision making of high-end electronic goods when they align ...

  3. World Phenomenon of the Chinese Economic Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Dobroczyński

    2005-01-01

    From the end of the seventies Chinese economic achievements attracted the whole world's unflagging attention. The sources of the long-lasting development success are many while the specific conditions of modern Chinese uniqueness should be searched even in many thousand of years of shaping a different civilization. Thus, to some degree it concerns also separate elements of the current strategic and tactical concepts, and especially the dynamic economic growth philosophy on the market terms-wi...

  4. Chinese Officials Lighten Up Under Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangXueying

    2005-01-01

    Chinese officials are displaying a far more human public persona these days than their traditionally severe demeanor, a change welcomed by the people. Formerly stern and rigid, they are now animated and unafraid to express enthusiasm in public. Chinese civil servants no longer blend into a solid gray wall of officialdom, one indistinguishable from the other by virtue of the dry-as-dust officialese they speak.

  5. Chinese Medicine: A Cognitive and Epistemological Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Kavoussi

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementa...

  6. Reform Brings Better Life to Chinese People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    THE past 20 years since China launched its economic reform have seen thefastest growth ever in the Chinese people’s living standard. According to ananalysis by the State Statistics Bureau based on a comprehensive evaluationof the overall living standard, urban residents in China have reached 90 percent ofthe index required by a well-off life, while rural residents have reached 81.5percent of the index. The evaluation shows that Chinese residents have achieved 80

  7. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy.......Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy....

  8. Chinese Studies Librarianship in North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen T. Wei

    2004-01-01

    Although American libraries had begun collecting Chinese language materials in the 19th century, notably the United States Library of Congress in 1869, Yale in 1878, Harvard in 1879, and Berkeley in 1896, East Asian studies librarianship in North America, including China studies librarianship, was not fully developed until the 1960s. There was no formal organization that represented the interest of Chinese studies librarians because there were few of them and most of them were China scholars rather than trained librarians. More than 100 years later, the number of Chinese studies librarians in North America has increased considerably,primarily in response to the demand in the field of China studies and more recently to the needs of immigrant population and the general public who has an interest in China.This paper traces the history and growth of Chinese studies librarianship in North America, documents the development of the professional organization that represents Chinese studies librarians, and examines the training programs that prepare them for their jobs. It also attempts to propose an international exchange forum aiming to bring together Chinese studies librarians in North America and librarians in China in sharing their experience and expertise to achieve the ultimate goal of serving the users.

  9. ENGLISH LITERATURE TEACHING IN CHINESE CLASSROOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ignorance of English literature hinders Chinese studentsfrom improving their English reading and writing abilities.Aneffective solution is to introduce a little English literature toChinese students in their English class.Three tactics ofintroduction of English literature—fragmented quotations,comparison and guided reading—are recommended andillustrated in details in this article.Though most Chinese students spend as long as eight yearson English study,few of them get to see English literature.It isabsurd that of the hundreds of articles in English textbooks forChinese students(who do not major in English)available,notone is a passage of English literary works,and none of themintroduce English writers or recommend English poets.Resultedly,Chinese students know very little about Englishliterature and their knowledge of English culture and traditionsis also limited.This hinders them from improving their readingand writing abilities.Trying for years to introduce a little English literature toChinese students in my English class,I find the effect has beenunexpectedly inspiring,not only making my lectures morevivid,but also enriching my students’English knowledge andarousing their enthusiasm for further study of Englishliterautre.My methods are as follows.

  10. The integration of Chinese and European renewable energy markets: The role of Chinese foreign direct investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the renewable energy (RE) sectors, foreign direct investments are becoming an important mean of regional integration between China and Europe, as a result of the combined effect of Europe–China dialog on energy issues; Chinese energy policy; and Chinese Go Global policy. Using a firm level data set from the Chinese Ministry of Commerce, we perform an analysis on location choice by Chinese RE firms from 2004 to 2013, within Europe. We depict a map of “where to where” (home province vs. host country) and “who to where” (firm level characteristics vs. host country), to find out how characteristics of home and host regions affecting the integration of Chinese and European RE markets. Main results are the following. Investment pairs in RE sectors reflect a duality: firms tend to seek countries with similar institutional environment, compared with their origin regions. Countries with weak and immature institutions are attractive for immature and inexperienced Chinese firms. Main features of Chinese investors are the following: private, non-listed firms, entering through greenfield, focusing on sales. Market-seeking investors tend to enter countries with both well-developed institutional environment and industry development base. R&D-oriented investments are more likely to flow to countries with well-developed institutional environment. -- Highlights: •A map of Where to Where of Chinese investments in Europe is depicted. •Characteristics of home and host regions affect Chinese integration in Europe. •Investment pairs in renewable energy sectors reflect a duality. •Chinese firms localize in EU countries with similar institutional environment. •Through a Who to Where analysis, key features of Chinese investors are outlined

  11. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts , sponsored by the Documentation andInformation Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Networkof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanicsand Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is one of the series of science andtechnology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,with the name of Chinese Science and Technology Document Catalogues: Optics andApplied Optics. It changed into a bimonthly publication with the name of Chinese Opticsand Applied Optics Abstracts in 1987. In combination with the Chinese Optics Documen-

  12. Design of a Cloud Service for Learning Chinese Pronunciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsueh-Ting Chu; Wei-Shan Tsai; Shao-Yu Lee

    2014-01-01

    With the fast growing of cloud computing infrastructure, learning from cloud services has become more and more convenient for people worldwide. In order to integrate the cloud computing technology and different e-learning platforms including variant mobile apps, Windows and web-based applications, we develop our Chinese learning system “analytic Chinese helper”with a service-oriented architecture (SOA). Based on the new architecture we designed and developed a cloud service for the e-learning of Chinese language on the Internet as a convenient resource for foreign students, especially in the reading of Chinese texts. There are two Chinese phonetic systems:Pinyin and Zhuyin. Pinyin is the official Romanization of Chinese characters, and Zhuyin incorporates additional Bopomofo symbols which transcribe precise sounds of Chinese characters. The proposed analytic Chinese helper provides real-time annotations with Pinyin or Zhuyin symbols, and thereby the annotated articles can be used as e-learning objects in learning Chinese.

  13. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts , sponsored by the Documentation andInformation Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Networkof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanicsand Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is one of the series of science andtechnology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,with the name of Chinese Science and Technology Document Catalogues: Optics andApplied Optics. It changed into a bimonthly publication with the name of Chinese Opticsand Applied Optics Abstracts in 1987. In combination with the Chinese Optics

  14. Chinese culture and dental behaviour: some observations from Wellington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W

    2009-03-01

    Chinese migrants bring their Chinese culture and Chinese beliefs to New Zealand. The acculturation process can be long and may affect their access to dental services. Analysis of recent research suggests a pattern whereby the greater the acculturation, the greater the use of dental services. Four aspects of Chinese culture are highlighted: wrong perception of the cause of caries as 'Qi'; intention to seek self-treatment; a preference for keeping teeth against dentists' advice; and complex attitudes towards New Zealand dentists. These issues require dentists to be culturally aware when dealing with Chinese patients. Because existing models fail to capture the complexities of Chinese culture, a dynamic model is proposed to help dental practitioners to understand Chinese migrants' dental behaviours. Chinese culture also has implications for researchers who want to carry out research with the Chinese community. PMID:19418680

  15. Design and development of an ancient Chinese document recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liangrui; Xiu, Pingping; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2003-12-01

    The digitization of ancient Chinese documents presents new challenges to OCR (Optical Character Recognition) research field due to the large character set of ancient Chinese characters, variant font types, and versatile document layout styles, as these documents are historical reflections to the thousands of years of Chinese civilization. After analyzing the general characteristics of ancient Chinese documents, we present a solution for recognition of ancient Chinese documents with regular font-types and layout-styles. Based on the previous work on multilingual OCR in TH-OCR system, we focus on the design and development of two key technologies which include character recognition and page segmentation. Experimental results show that the developed character recognition kernel of 19,635 Chinese characters outperforms our original traditional Chinese recognition kernel; Benchmarked test on printed ancient Chinese books proves that the proposed system is effective for regular ancient Chinese documents.

  16. Learning across Borders--Chinese Migrant Literature and Intercultural Chinese Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongyang

    2014-01-01

    Chinese migrants have been a rich source of influential international literature, represented by key works such as "Eat a Bowl of Tea" by Louis Chu in 1961 and "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan in 1989. Cultural differences and conflicts, stereotypes and other complex issues regarding the diasporic lives of the Chinese sojourners…

  17. Chinese Australians' Chineseness and Their Mathematics Achievement: The Role of Habitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Guanglun Michael

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale international comparative studies and cross-ethnic studies have revealed that Chinese students, living either in China or overseas, consistently outperform their counterparts in mathematics. Empirical research has discussed psychological, educational, and cultural reasons behind Chinese students' better mathematics performance.…

  18. The Ties That Bind. The Chinese American Family in Transnational Chinese Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Q.

    2014-01-01

    The primary research question raised in the thesis is how have films been able to construct the identity of ethnic Chinese in the United States? This question is addressed through three sub-questions. First, why is the family narrative so characteristic of films about Chinese Americans in transnatio

  19. Non-Chinese Researchers Conducting Research in Chinese Cultures: Critical Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Kokila Roy; King, Mark Edward

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses some fundamental methodological and ethical issues confronting non-Chinese researchers undertaking research in Hong Kong Chinese society. Among other things, it considers problems pertaining to data collection, the challenges of data interpretation, and the implication that this has for research. Whilst the issues are by no…

  20. An Analysis of the Impact of Traditional Chinese Culture on Chinese Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2006-01-01

    The educational tradition of China has developed from traditional Chinese culture. Without an understanding of the cultural impact on traditional education, it is impossible to comprehend the educational tradition of China and to change its traditional educational ideas. There are fine traditions and feudal remains in Chinese culture which ought…

  1. Looking Chinese and Learning Chinese as a Heritage Language: The Role of Habitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Guanglun Michael

    2016-01-01

    The identity-language link has been widely recognised. In Heritage Language research, the complex entanglement between Chinese ethnic identity and Chinese Heritage Language has gained increasing attention in recent decades. Both social psychological and poststructural schools have offered meaningful insights into this field, but have also received…

  2. Traditional Chinese Values and Attitudes of Chinese University Students toward People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Nan Zhang; Xiao, Fei

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore relationships between traditional Chinese values and attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities. A total of 534 college students in China participated in the study. Two instruments that measure Chinese values and attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities were used. Results indicated…

  3. Chinese-English and English-Chinese Dictionaries in the Library of Congress. An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert, Comp.

    An annotated bibliography of the Library of Congress' Chinese-English holdings on all subjects, as well as certain polyglot and multilingual dictionaries with English and Chinese entries. Included are general, encyclopaedic and comprehensive dictionaries; vocabularies; word lists; syllabaries; lists of place names, personal names, nomenclature,…

  4. Enhancing Overseas Chinese Graduate Employability: The Case of Chinese Graduates with Finnish Academic Qualifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance overseas Chinese graduate employability by taking Finnish-educated Chinese students/graduates as an example. In so doing, it understands that graduate employability development is a joint effort of multiple stakeholders including students, graduates, academics, program coordinators, employers, and policymakers.…

  5. Semantic Radical Knowledge and Word Recognition in Chinese for Chinese as Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoxiang; Kim, Young-Suk

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the relation of knowledge of semantic radicals to students' language proficiency and word reading for adult Chinese-as-a-foreign language students. Ninety-seven college students rated their proficiency in speaking, listening, reading, and writing in Chinese, and were administered measures of receptive and…

  6. The influence of modern Chinese architectural landscape landscape painting aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永伟

    2016-01-01

    the modern architecture to the spread of Chinese localization were style of architecture, this article is based on the research on localization urban landscape to explore traditional Chinese landscape painting aesthetics and the cognitive way of Chinese garden aesthetics art, through the Chinese traditional aesthetics to explore the modern people and the nature harmonious living environment, the traditional aesthetic concept of “landscape” for the development of Chinese modern city landscape, qian xuesen proposed the concept of “landscape city” and the development, purpose is to find the environment concept of Chinese national culture characteristics.

  7. The Influence of Chinese Civilizationon Europe, c. 1000-1400

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Bringing together Chinese and Western materials, this article makesa general survey of the spread of Chinese civilization to Europe in themedieval period and the consequent influences. It mainly retrieves thewestward dissemination of Chinese scientific thoughts, the introductionof Chinese agricultural and transport techniques, and the developmentof Chinese inventions such as papermaking and print, silk and porcelain,stirrup and gunpowder in Europe, and even the impacts of Chinesesilk craftsmen and fine arts on Europe. It concludes that Europeansingested valuable nutrition from Chinese civilization from the 11th to14th centuries, laying the foundation for the fundamental changes withgroundbreaking significance in Europe.

  8. The significance and the trend of the Chinese wedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦笛

    2014-01-01

    With the development of society and the demand of new situation,more and more young people show great interests in the solemn and classical Chinese wedding. But the traditional Chinese wedding is not their first choice. Because of the feature of the age, weddings present different characteristics. That is to say, the unique character of Chinese wedding is the development trend of modern weddings. But the Chinese wedding customs and the significance of every custom are important elements in innovation that we can’t lose. This passage focuses on the significance of the chinese wedding and the development trend of modern Chinese weddings.

  9. Thermal hydraulic R and D of Chinese advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese government sponsors a program of research, development, and demonstration related to advanced reactors, both small modular reactors and larger systems. These advanced reactors encompass innovative reactor concepts, such as CAP1400 - Chinese large advanced passive pressurized water reactor, Hualong one - Chinese large advanced active and passive pressurized water reactor, ACP100 - Chinese small modular reactor, SCWR- R and D of super critical water-cooled reactor in China, CLEAR - Chinese lead-cooled fast reactor, TMSR - Chinese Thorium molten-salt reactor. The thermal hydraulic R and D of those reactors are summarised. (J.P.N.)

  10. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences.

  11. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences. PMID:26371449

  12. Interculutral Polish-Chinese QQing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Gajek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Working in tandem with the use of information and communication technologies is well-known and frequently used as a method of supporting learning of foreign languages in authentic communication. It is based on a constructivist approach to teaching. In the reported case study Polish and Chinese students discussed in English preprepared topics. The work shows the potential of e-learning at the micro level, as the language and intercultural task is implemented into an academic course without modification of the objectives and learning outcomes of the course. Evaluation carried out at the end of the project indicates that both groups perceived the task as a significant linguistic, cultural and personal experience. They stressed the importance of sharing “culture for culture” as the partner culture was new for most of them. The ability to talk and respond to information which was often strange, from the point of view of their own culture, allowed for learning intercultural competence ̔in action’.

  13. Mental Health of Chinese Peacekeepers in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-yang Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: As part of UN peacekeeping operations in Liberia, China has sent a dozen of batches of peacekeeping force to Liberia for medical, engineering and transporting purposes from 2003 to 2012. This study aimed to explore the mental health of Chinese peacekeepers under the influence of stressful and traumatic events in Liberia. Methods: A total of 440 Chinese peacekeepers were selected by cluster sampling and surveyed by Chinese Military Mental Health Scale (CMMHS before, during and after peacekeeping deployment. Results: The total CMMHS score (48.90 ± 21.15, depression factor (7.25 ± 3.43, interpersonal sensitivity (4.20 ± 2.15 of Chinese peacekeepers were significantly higher than the Chinese military norm (23.04 ± 14.70, 2.47 ± 2.46, 3.95 ± 2.97 respectively (p<0.01. The total score and anxiety, somatization factor score of the transporting group were significantly higher than those of the medical group (P <0.05; All CMMHS factors in the transporting group and the medical group were higher than those of the engineering group (p<0.01. CMMHS factors score of the peacekeepers positively correlated with the age, military service duration, years of eudcation and military rank (r = 0.107 ~ 0.523, p<0.05; stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that years of eudcation was the main influence factor for peacekeepers' mental health (t = 2.288 ~ 4.358, p<0.05 ~ 0.01. Conclusions: The mental health status of Chinese peacekeepers was worse than average Chinese servicemen. Peacekeepers of different mission groups had different degree of mental damage, and the years of education was the main influence factor for peacekeepers' mental health, whereas age, military service duration as well as military rank were the secondary influence factors.

  14. On Translation Skills of Chinese Food Naming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵贝西

    2015-01-01

    Chinese food culture is an important part of Chinese historical culture, which is famous for its variety and abundance. As China has intensified its communication with the rest of the world, more and more foreign tourists would like to visit China and they enjoy Chinese food a lot. Meanwhile, foreign tourists also want to know more about the literal as wel as the inner meaning of names of the food, and also how and with what raw materials the Chinese food are cooked. So, the accurate translation of Chinese food into English is a key to the spread of Chinese food culture. To translate Chinese food into English is not only the linguistic transference but also the transference at the cultural level. The author summarizes common translating methods and put forward some new translating methods from the perspective of skopos theory.%饮食文化是中国悠久历史文化的重要组成部分,外国朋友在品尝中国美食的同时,也想了解每道菜的含义,使用原料,烹饪方法等.因此,中式菜肴的准确英译在传播中华文化上起着重要的作用.英译中式菜肴,不仅仅是语言层次上的转换,更重要的是在文化上的进一步转换.笔者总结出常见的翻译方法并结合翻译目的论提出了翻译中的一些问题以及翻译方法.

  15. Reading depends on writing, in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li Hai; Spinks, John A; Eden, Guinevere F; Perfetti, Charles A; Siok, Wai Ting

    2005-06-14

    Language development entails four fundamental and interactive abilities: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Over the past four decades, a large body of evidence has indicated that reading acquisition is strongly associated with a child's listening skills, particularly the child's sensitivity to phonological structures of spoken language. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that the close relationship between reading and listening is manifested universally across languages and that behavioral remediation using strategies addressing phonological awareness alleviates reading difficulties in dyslexics. The prevailing view of the central role of phonological awareness in reading development is largely based on studies using Western (alphabetic) languages, which are based on phonology. The Chinese language provides a unique medium for testing this notion, because logographic characters in Chinese are based on meaning rather than phonology. Here we show that the ability to read Chinese is strongly related to a child's writing skills and that the relationship between phonological awareness and Chinese reading is much weaker than that in reports regarding alphabetic languages. We propose that the role of logograph writing in reading development is mediated by two possibly interacting mechanisms. The first is orthographic awareness, which facilitates the development of coherent, effective links among visual symbols, phonology, and semantics; the second involves the establishment of motor programs that lead to the formation of long-term motor memories of Chinese characters. These findings yield a unique insight into how cognitive systems responsible for reading development and reading disability interact, and they challenge the prominent phonological awareness view.

  16. Diversification and Sustainable Development in Chinese Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Funing; Zhu Jing

    2004-01-01

    Feeding a growing population exceeding 1 billion is a big challenge to the Chinese government and has partly led to the self-sufficient policy in grain production and supply for decades. However, the efforts to push grain production everywhere have resulted in not only deterioration of the environment but also stagnation or even reduction in farmers'income as production costs continue to increase.This situation might be worsening after China's accession to the WTO that provides market access for bulk commodity imports. A sustainable development in Chinese agriculture depends on diversification, or structural adjustment, that allows Chinese farmers to fully utilize their comparative advantage in production of labor-intensive goods.Past experience has shown that diversification has contributed more than a half of the growth in Chinese agriculture during the reform period and reduced stresses on the environment at the same time. It is likely to contribute even more to Chinese agriculture in the future and in a sustainable manner.

  17. Chinese kangs and building energy consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YuGuo; ZHUANG Zhi; LIU JiaPing

    2009-01-01

    Chinese kangs are an integrated system for cooking, sleeping and heating in rural Northern China with more than 2000 years history. In 2004 there were 67 million Chinese kangs used by 44 million rural families or 174 million people. Chinese kangs store surplus heat from stove during cooking and releases it later for both home heating and localized bed heating. Such a widely used heating system has been rarely studied. Understanding kangs is important for developing new effective home heating systems for better energy efficiency and improving indoor air quality in Northern China. In this paper,we review and present some preliminary results from our field measurement and mathematical modeling, and discuss the development of Chinese kangs as related to future energy consumption in rural homes, and building energy consumption in China in general. We suggest that transition and new technologies for rural home heating in Northern China, i.e. the future of Chinese kangs, should be considered as the top priority in managing future building energy consumption in China.

  18. Chinese character recognition :history ,status and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Ruwei; LIU Chenglin; XIAO Baihua

    2007-01-01

    Chinese character recognition (CCR) is an important branch of pattern recognition.It was considered as an extremely difficult problem due to the very large number of categories,complicated structures,similarity between characters,and the variability of fonts or writing styles.Because of its unique technical challenges and great social needs,the last four decades witnessed the intensive research in this field and a rapid increase of successful applications.However,higher recognition performance is continuously needed to improve the existing applications and to exploit new applications.This paper first provides an overview of Chinese character recognition and the properties of Chinese characters.Some important methods and successful results in the history of Chinese character recognition are then summarized.As for classification methods,this article pays special attention to the syntactic-semantic approach for online Chinese character recognition,as well as the metasynthesis approach for discipline crossing.Finally,the remaining problems and the possible solutions are discussed.

  19. Introducing Considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonya E.Pritzker; Ka-Kit Hui

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the document,Considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine, published in PDF form online in both Chinese and English. This 20-page document includes several sections describing why theConsiderations is necessary, the speciifcity of texts in Chinese medicine; the history of translation in Chinese medicine; who constitutes an ideal translator of Chinese medicine; what types of language exist in Chinese medicine; and speciifc issues in the translation of Chinese medicine, such as domestication versus foreignization, technical terminology, period-speciifc language, style, polysemy, and etymological translation. The final section offers a brief advisory for consumers, and concludes with a call to further discussion, and action, specifically in the development of international collaborative efforts towards the creation of more rigorous guidelines for the translation of Chinese medicine. The current article provides an overview of several of these sections, and includes links to the original document.

  20. Education in Revolution: Is Iran Duplicating the Chinese Cultural Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhe, Khosrow

    1982-01-01

    Compares Chinese and Iranian Cultural Revolutions via examination of similarities and differences between the two and draws lessons from the Chinese experience for Iran or any other developing nations which decides to politicize its education systems. (Author/AH)

  1. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Based on network analysis of hierarchical structural relations among Chinese characters, we develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters. We regard a more efficient learning method if one learns the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW) strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that takes into account both the weight of the nodes and the hierarchical structure of the network. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as...

  2. On Differences between Chinese and Western Marriage Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索微微

    2012-01-01

    As it is known,there exist many distinctions between Chinese and Western marriage customs.This paper is to discover the different customs between Chinese and Western marriage and analyze the reasons for the distinctions.

  3. Tolerance and Harmony: Chinese Culture and 2008 Olympics Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiJianping

    2004-01-01

    "People's Olympics", one of the slogans of 2008 Olympics Beijing, represents the core of Chinese culture -tolerance and harmony. In fact, the Olympics spirit"sports means peace" accords to values of Chinese nation.

  4. Textiles Intelligence Reports to Be Published in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Textiles Intelligence and the China National Textile and Apparel Council (CNTAC) have agreed to cooperate in making Chinese language editions of two of Textile Intelligence's business and market information publications available to the Chinese fibre, textile and clothing industries.

  5. Chinese Food and Cancer Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In cancer treatment, apart from studying the effectiveness of chemo or radiotherapy in killing cancer cells, studies should examine ways of reducing drug side effects on patients and ways of enhancing the bodies’ immune system at the same time. Our defence system not only includes immune response, there are also detoxifying enzymes, antioxidant mechanisms, the ability for DNA damage repair and regulation of the hormone metabolism. Harmful environmental oestrogens that enter the human body can cause an increase of 16-α-hydroxyestrone as a harmful estradiol metabolite, the ratio between 16-α-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestrone relates to the risk of breast cancer. It is suggested that choosing nutritional products (that decrease the amount of 16-α-hydroxyestrone to regulate the hormone metabolism can help with prevention of breast cancer. Increasing the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (Ω-3 benefits health. Unsaturated fatty acid omega-6 (Ω-6 appears to be easily oxidised which can lead to DNA damage and increase the occurrence of cancer. The most important aspect to this approach is to reduce the ratio between saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid Ω-6, which is harmful to health. Olive oil has a high content of Ω-3 that benefits health. Ω-3 fatty acid can also be obtained from some fish, green vegetables and nuts. Linoleic acid is the most important source of Ω-6 fatty acid. Linolenic acid is the most important source of Ω-3 fatty acid. Natural foods e.g., purslane, is rich in Ω-3; the mustard family vegetables can increase the activity of detoxifying enzymes. Chinese Kiwi fruit drink reduces the side effects of the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide, which is also a DNA damaging agent. Soybean, job’s tears, garlic, mushroom varieties and tea have anti-cancer effects. Properly used nutritional products may assist treatment and recovery. Good balanced nutrition is essential for cancer healing.

  6. Lexical-semantic Mapping between Chinese and English Controlled Vocabularies in the Domain of Chinese Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jiun Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study conducts a lexical-semantic mapping between the Chinese controlled vocabulary developed by the National Palace Museum (NPM-CV in Taiwan and an English controlled vocabulary, the Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT developed by the Getty Research Institute in the U.S. that is primarily based on Western art. The research question is: In mapping a Chinese controlled vocabulary in Chinese art to a Western-centered art thesaurus, what types of relationships can be identified and what are the issues in mapping? The study’s main findings reveal that only one-third of the NPM-CV terms can be mapped as “exact equivalence” to AAT terms and three-fifths of the NPMCV terms have hierarchical relationships (narrower to broader with some AAT terms. Clearly, using AAT alone to index Chinese art collections will lead to insufficient indexing specificity. The study then proposes solutions to improve Chinese-English semantic interoperability for multilingual knowledge organization systems in the domain of Chinese art. [Article content in Chinese

  7. The ABCs of Chinese Pop: Wang Leehom and the Marketing of a Global Chinese Celebrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How did singer Wang Leehom, a Chinese American raised in the suburbs of New York, end up becoming one of the industry heavyweights of Mandopop (Mandarin-language pop music? This essay uses Wang as a case study to investigate how discourses of race, market, and belonging are reworked in global contexts. Drawing on Sau-ling Wong’s theoretical insights on transnational processes of race, citizenship, and belonging, it argues that Wang capitalizes on a fluid dynamic of sameness and difference to appeal to a heterogeneous Chinese-speaking audience that stretches across China to Taiwan, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia, and the greater Chinese diaspora. Through an examination of the racial and national contexts that frame Wang’s participation in Mandopop, this essay analyzes the particular calibrations of Chineseness that emerge from the singer’s music and public image and the imperfect translation of identities such as Chinese American, Chinese diasporic, and Chinese across diverse linguistic and national communities.

  8. Intelligent Cloud Learning Model for Online Overseas Chinese Education

    OpenAIRE

    Yidong Chen; Zhehuang Huang; Xiaodong Shi

    2015-01-01

    With the development of Chinese economy, oversea Chinese education has been paid more and more attention. However, the overseas Chinese education resource is relatively lack because of historical reasons, which hindered further development . How to better share the Chinese education resources and provide intelligent personalized information service for overseas student is a key problem to be solved. In recent years, the rise of cloud computing provides us an opportunity to realize intelligen...

  9. Chinese wind turbine companies’ competitive advantages -----under a national context

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yizhuo

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to explore the Chinese national environment’s influences on Chinese WTM companies, evaluate the leading Chinese WTM companies’ competitiveness under the industrial change and assess the future implication for the global WTM companies. As a result, it will give readers an understanding of the Chinese WTM industry’s rapid growth and its future implications.Based on PESTLE factors, the national environment has created opportunities for WTM companies: “one belt one road” policy,...

  10. Latest Progress in Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Four journals including Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (CTHD), Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM), Drugs & Clinic (DC), and Drug Evaluation Research (DER) are edited and published by Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines. CTHD was first published in 1970 and has been playing a great role for Chinese materia medica (CMM), especially in its present modernization. CTHD has successively won several honors in recent years, such as the 2nd State

  11. Comparative Analysis between Chinese and American Educational Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英帅

    2015-01-01

    <正>Cultivated by the Chinese educational system for many years,I have already formed a generally private idea about this complicated and enormous structure.First,please let me to introduce the different roles Chinese and American governments play in the educational systems.There is no doubt that Chinese government dominates the education allaround,from the inner side to external side.More often than not,Chinese headmasters are appointed by government officers;also,

  12. Hierarchical Classification of Chinese Documents Based on N-grams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We explore the techniques of utilizing N-gram informatio n tocategorize Chinese text documents hierarchically so that the classifier can shak e off the burden of large dictionaries and complex segmentation processing, and subsequently be domain and time independent. A hierarchical Chinese text classif ier is implemented. Experimental results show that hierarchically classifying Chinese text documents based N-grams can achieve satisfactory performance and outperforms the other traditional Chinese text classifiers.

  13. A Study of Performance Related Pay in Chinese Commercial Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Ruonan

    2013-01-01

    With rapid economic development, Chinese banking industry and the HR areas are both changed enormously. Chinese banking industry has increased more than 10 times since 2003 and the numbers of banks in China have grown from four hundred to twelve hundred in the past three decades. In the best period for development, Chinese commercial banks are also facing severe competition, especially in retaining experienced employees. “Pay” now is regarded as the most crucial factor by Chinese employees...

  14. Different Connotative Meanings of Animals in Chinese and English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊文霞

    2009-01-01

    Connotative meanings of animals in Chinese and in English are usually different. These differences are the result of various cultural backgrounds, especially the cognition models, in shaping and developing Chinese and English. This paper illustrates the different connotative meanings of animals on the basis of classifying animals into two general categories: the Chinese culturally-loaded ones and common ones both in Chinese and in English.

  15. Effective Components of Chinese Herbal Compound Decoction and Maillard Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹治云; 陈旭征; 张恩达; 杜建

    2009-01-01

    This paper intends to explore the color changes considered to be Maillard reaction during the process of Chinese herbal medicine.The Maillard reaction products(MRPs) are often in substantial proportions of Chinese herbal compound decoctions but their effects are often neglected.By considering the effects of MRPs in studies of effective components on Chinese herbal compounds,a new perspective is established in future researches of Chinese herbal compound decoctions.

  16. Automated Determination of Bone Age in a Modern Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shao-yan; Liu, Gang; Ma, Chen-Guo; Han, Yi-San; Shen, Xun-Zhang; XU, RUI-LONG; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objective. Large studies have previously been performed to set up a Chinese bone age reference, but it has been difficult to compare the maturation of Chinese children with populations elsewhere due to the potential variability between raters in different parts of the world. We re-analysed the radiographs from a large study of normal Chinese children using an automated bone age rating method to establish a Chinese bone age reference, and to compare the tempo of maturation in the...

  17. Learning to read in two languages : Chinese and English

    OpenAIRE

    Shum, Kar-man, Kathy; 沈嘉敏

    2015-01-01

    Can children’s early reading abilities in their first language (L1) predict later literacy development in a second language (L2)? The cross-language relationships between Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among87 elementary school children in Hong Kong were explored in a longitudinal study. Chinese word reading fluency, Chinese rapid digit naming, and Chinese rhyme awareness at age 7 (Grade 1), with age and nonverbal IQ taken into account, were significant concurrent and longitudinal predictors...

  18. An overview of Chinese agricultural and rural engagement in Tanzania:

    OpenAIRE

    Bräutigam, Deborah; Tang, Xiaoyang

    2012-01-01

    The recent expansion of Chinese economic engagement in Africa is often poorly documented and not well understood. This paper is the second in an IFPRI-sponsored effort to better understand Chinese engagement in Africa’s agricultural sector. A clearer picture of Chinese activities in agriculture is important as a foundation for Africans and their development partners to more fruitfully engage with an increasingly important actor. Chinese engagement in agriculture and rural development in Tan...

  19. Experimental study on downstep in Chinese intonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xianjun; YANG Yufang; L(U) Shinan

    2008-01-01

    Downstep in pitch contour of Chinese Putonghua is examined using subtly de-signed sentences by controlling tone combinations. The results show both automatic and non-automatic downstep phenomena exist in Chinese. In non-automatic downstep, low tones com-press downwards the pitch range of the following syllables, and the main influence of downstep is on topline. Low tone not only lower the topline behind it, but also raise the high tones before it, the effects are compatible with each other. In automatic downstep, the topline of pitch contour in intonational phrase is presented as a linear downtrend, but it differs among speakers due to the effect of personal stress practice. In comparison with downstep phenomenon in other tone or non-tone languages, the downstep ratio in Chinese is not constant, and the domain of downstep is not limited within the adjacent tones.

  20. The Genetic Deafness in Chinese Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuezhong; Ouyang Xiaomei; Denise Yan

    2006-01-01

    Deafness is an etiologically heterogeneous trait with many known genetic, environmental causes or a combination thereof. The identification of more than 120 independent genes for deafness has provided profound new insights into the pathophysiology of hearing. However, recent findings indicate that a large proportion of both syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of deafness in Chinese population are caused by a small number of mutations.This review is focused on syndromic and nonsyndromic deafness as well as on the latest information linking inherited mitochondrial pathologies to a variety of etiologies of sensorineural deafness in Chinese population. Better understanding of the genetic causes of deafness in Chinese population is important for accurate genetics counseling and early diagnosis for timely intervention and treatment options.