Full Text Available Yasuyo Hijikata1, Takashi Kano2, Lu Xi31Toyodo Hijikata Clinic, Osaka, Japan; 2Kano Clinic, Osaka city, Osaka, Japan; 3Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute, Si-chuan Province, ChinaObjective: Intractable anemia, such as aplastic anemia or that presumably associated with chronic herpes virus infections, sometimes require bone marrow transplant. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of intractable anemia. Method: Placenta Hominis (PH, steam boiled and roasted, and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue has been used in China for hundreds of years to treat anemia. After consent was obtained, we prescribed these two materials for a 74-year-old female with aplastic anemia and a 26-year-old male with presumably a virus-induced anemia. Concomitant conventional therapy was continued in both patients as prescribed by their respective attending physicians. Conclusion: Conventional therapy with steroid hormones, immunosuppressive drugs, platelet and erythrocyte transfusions were not effective in these patients. In addition, both patients suffered from serious side effects. In two patients, ingestion of Placenta Hominis and Cervi Cornus Colla with TCM prescriptions increased the platelet and enhanced the hemoglobin concentration in several months of therapy accompanied by a dramatic improvement in quality of life. The addition to conventional therapy of PH and Cervi Cornus Colla, the latter of which is very easy to obtain, may be one of the potentially advantageous choices in case of otherwise intractable anemia.Keywords: placenta, antler glue, Cervi Cornus Colla, anemia, aplastic anemia
ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ
Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the
Zhou, Menglan; Wang, Peng; Chen, Sharon; Du, Bin; Du, Jinlong; Wang, Fengdan; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Yingchun
Background Mycoplasma hominis, a well known cause of neonatal infection, has been reported as a pathogen in urogenital infections in adults; however, central nervous system (CNS) infections are rare. We report here the first case of M. hominis meningitis in China, post neurosurgical treatment for an intracerebral haemorrhage in a 71-year-old male. Case presentation We describe a 71-year-old man who developed M. hominis meningitis after neurosurgical treatment and was successfully treated with...
Zhou, Menglan; Wang, Peng; Chen, Sharon; Du, Bin; Du, Jinlong; Wang, Fengdan; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Yingchun
Mycoplasma hominis, a well known cause of neonatal infection, has been reported as a pathogen in urogenital infections in adults; however, central nervous system (CNS) infections are rare. We report here the first case of M. hominis meningitis in China, post neurosurgical treatment for an intracerebral haemorrhage in a 71-year-old male. We describe a 71-year-old man who developed M. hominis meningitis after neurosurgical treatment and was successfully treated with combined azithromycin and minocycline therapy of 2 weeks duration, despite delayed treatment because the Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) yielded no visible organisms. The diagnosis required 16S rDNA sequencing analysis of the cultured isolate from CSF. Literature review of M. hominis CNS infections yielded 19 cases (13 instances of brain abscess, 3 of meningitis, 1 spinal cord abscess and 1 subdural empyema each). Delay in diagnosis and initial treatment failure was evident in all cases. With appropriate microbiological testing, antibiotic therapy (ranging from 5 days to 12 weeks) and often, multiple surgical interventions, almost all the patients improved immediately. Both our patient findings and the literature review, highlighted the pathogenic potential of M. hominis together with the challenges prompted by rare infectious diseases in particular for developing countries laboratories with limited diagnostic resources.
Flat wart on the effectiveness of TCM treatment. Outpatients will be by the "People's Republic of China Chinese medicine industry standards, TCM diagnosis of dermatological diseases efficacy standards, Chen Hou State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1994-06-28 approved, 1995-01-01 implementation". Randomly divided into two groups. Treatment and control groups. Treatment groups treated with Chinese herbs. The control group were treated with WM. Since the preparation of the unification formula ointment, cuboiling method. Chinese herbal medicine preparation by my hospital room Producer. 5 g pre pack, after treatment for 30 days, clinical observation. The group of Chinese medicine is better than western medicine (86.7% vs 71.7% , P < 0.05). Chinese medicine has some effect flat wart.
Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei
With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Zhao, Hui; Feng, Yu; Mao, Mingsan
Objective: Explore the application characteristics of proprietary Chinese medicine prescriptions containing toxic herbs in pharmacopoeia. Methods: In this paper, according to the clinical application of pharmacopoeia proprietary Chinese medicine is divided into table agent, Qushu agent, diarrhea agent, heat agent, Wen Li agent, cough and asthma agents, resuscitation agent, Gutian agent, Fuzheng agent, Anshen agent, hemostatic agent, The traditional Chinese medicine prescription and the clinical application of the Chinese herbal medicine containing the toxic Chinese medicine were analyzed and sorted out., Summed up the compatibility of toxic herbs and application characteristics. Results: Toxic Chinese herbal medicine in the cure of traditional Chinese medicine to play a long-standing role, through the overall thinking, dialectical thinking, and thinking of toxic Chinese medicine in the analysis of Chinese medicine that , toxic Chinese medicine in the application of proprietary Chinese medicine can not lack. Conclusion: Pharmacopoeia included proprietary Chinese medicine not only in the clinical treatment of good, but also the application of its toxic traditional Chinese medicine and its understanding of the enrichment of the toxic characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine and treatment-related disease pathology between the points of contact for patients with clinical applications Based on and theoretical guidance of Chinese medicine .
Zen, X X; Yuan, Y; Liu, Y; Wu, T X; Han, S
Hyperthyroidism is a disease in which excessive amounts of thyroid hormones circulate in the blood. Patients, among other things suffer from tachycardia, warm moist skin and raised body temperature. The treatment of hyperthyroidism includes symptom relief and therapy with antithyroid medications, radioiodine and thyroidectomy. Medicinal herbs are used alone or in combination with antithyroid agents to treat hyperthyroidism in China and some other countries. To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines for treating hyperthyroidism. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Database. Randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of Chinese herbal medicines alone with Chinese herbal medicines combined with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine or both. Three authors interviewed authors of all potentially relevant studies by telephone to verify randomisation procedures. One author entered data into a data extraction form and another author verified the results of this procedure. Thirteen relevant trials with 1770 participants were included. All of them were of low quality. Fifty-two studies still need to be assessed because the original authors could not be interviewed. None of these trials analysed mortality, health related quality of life, economic outcomes or compliance. Compared to antithyroid drugs alone the results showed that Chinese herbal medicines combined with antithyroid drugs may offer benefits in lowering relapse rates, reducing the incidence of adverse effects, relieving symptoms, improving thyroid antibody status and thyroid function. Two trials investigated Chinese herbal medicine versus radioiodine and reported improvements in anxiety, tachycardia and heat intolerance. However, thyroid function - with the exception of restored thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) - was not significantly altered. The results suggest that traditional Chinese herbal medicines added to other routine
Yang, Bo; Xie, Yun; Guo, Maojuan; Rosner, Mitchell H; Yang, Hongtao; Ronco, Claudio
Chinese herbal medicine has been practiced for the prevention, treatment, and cure of diseases for thousands of years. Herbal medicine involves the use of natural compounds, which have relatively complex active ingredients with varying degrees of side effects. Some of these herbal medicines are known to cause nephrotoxicity, which can be overlooked by physicians and patients due to the belief that herbal medications are innocuous. Some of the nephrotoxic components from herbs are aristolochic acids and other plant alkaloids. In addition, anthraquinones, flavonoids, and glycosides from herbs also are known to cause kidney toxicity. The kidney manifestations of nephrotoxicity associated with herbal medicine include acute kidney injury, CKD, nephrolithiasis, rhabdomyolysis, Fanconi syndrome, and urothelial carcinoma. Several factors contribute to the nephrotoxicity of herbal medicines, including the intrinsic toxicity of herbs, incorrect processing or storage, adulteration, contamination by heavy metals, incorrect dosing, and interactions between herbal medicines and medications. The exact incidence of kidney injury due to nephrotoxic herbal medicine is not known. However, clinicians should consider herbal medicine use in patients with unexplained AKI or progressive CKD. In addition, exposure to herbal medicine containing aristolochic acid may increase risk for future uroepithelial cancers, and patients require appropriate postexposure screening. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Wang, Jingli; Zhou, Chaofan
The adverse reactions caused by Chinese herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are reported increased in recent years, among which the acute liver injury caused by Chinese herbal medicine accounts for 21.5% of total liver injuries. Despite the misuse of traditional Chinese medicine not in accordance with differentiation of symptoms and signs, the adverse reaction of Chinese herbal medicine itself can't be little to these adverse events. The paper summarizes the most common categories of traditional Chinese medicine resulting in liver injury, the mechanism, pathological characteristics, clinical symptom of liver injury, the reasons of the reaction and how to prevent. The research aims to enhance the clinical physician recognition of liver injury caused by Chinese herbal medicine, in order to ensure the safe and rational usage of traditional Chinese medicine.
Chen, Lu; Zhao, Bin-xing; Xiao, Hong-tao; Tong, Rong-sheng; Gao, Chun-ming
Chinese medicine is a historic cultural legacy of China. It has made a significant contribution to medicine and healthcare for generations. The development of Chinese herbal medicine analysis is emphasized by the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. This study has carried out the experimental analysis of ten kinds of Chinese herbal powder including Fritillaria powder, etc., based on the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) method. First, a photoacoustic spectroscopy system was designed and constructed, especially a highly sensitive solid photoacoustic cell was established. Second, the experimental setup was verified through the characteristic emission spectrum of the light source, obtained by using carbon as a sample in the photoacoustic cell. Finally, as the photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis of Fritillaria, etc., was completed, the specificity of the Chinese herb medicine analysis was verified. This study shows that the PAS can provide a valid, highly sensitive analytical method for the specificity of Chinese herb medicine without preparing and damaging samples.
"Microcosmic syndrome", "treatment based on syndrome differentiation", and "combination of disease identification and syndrome differentiation" generally refer to a mode: following the syndrome if with no disease identified, following the disease if with no syndrome type differentiated. For example, Chinese medical treatment of hypertension, high blood lipids, increased transaminase, and so on candirectly use Chinese recipes, but no longer with syndrome differentiation. Clinical application of Chinese patent medicine can also obtain favorable clinical. Western doctors need not follow syndrome differentiation. The invention of artemisinin was screened from more than 40 000 kinds of compounds and herbs, but with no reference of any traditional Chinese medical theory. A lot of folk remedy and empirical recipes have obtained effective efficacy but unnecessarily with profound Chinese medical theories. Various evidences showed that disease can also be cured without syndrome differentiation. I held that it might be associated with the same mechanism of Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Any disease can be cured or alleviated by Chinese medicine is a result from its modern pharmacological effect, which is achieved by improving etiologies, and pathogeneses. I was inspired by whether we can directly use traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological effects to treat symptomatic disease. So I raised an idea of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by Western medicine, i.e., we find and use Chinese herbs with relatively effective modern pharmacological effect to treat diseases targeting at patients' clinical symptoms and signs, as well as various positive laboratory results (collectively called as microscopic dialectical indicators). More Western doctors would use it to treat disease due to omission of complicated and mysterious syndrome differentiation. This will promote extensive application and expansion of Chi- nese medicine and pharmacy, enlarge the team of
Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili
Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...
Ye Ling; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Mo Shangwu
Modernization of traditional Chinese medicine necessitates many new or advanced methods. Among these methods, isotopes are considered to be a convenient, fast and feasible method. The recent advance of isotope's application to traditional Chinese medicine is reviewed. In addition, their present status, problems and prospect are discussed. (authors)
Fan, Xin-sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Hua, Hao-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Shang, Er-xin; Guo, Jian-ming
The incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines is related to the clinical medication safety, so has attracted wide attentions from the public. With the deepening of studies on the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines represented by 18 incompatible herbs, the incompatibility of theory traditional Chinese medicines has raised to new heights. From the origin of incompatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicines, relationship of herbs, harms of incompatible herbs and principle of prevention to toxic effects of specific incompatible medicines, the innovation and development of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory was explored. Structurally, the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines refers to the opposition of two herbs based on seven emotions and clinical experience. The combination of incompatible herbs may lead to human harms, especially latent harm and inefficacy of intervention medicines. The avoidance of the combination of incompatible herbs and the consideration of both symptoms and drug efficacy are the basic method to prevent adverse reactions. The recent studies have revealed five characteristics of incompatible herbs. Toxicity potentiation, toxication, efficacy reduction and inefficacy are the four manifestations of the incompatible relations. The material changes can reflect the effects of toxicity potentiation and toxication of opposite herbs. The accumulation of toxicity and metabolic changes are the basis for latent harms. The antagonistic effect of main efficacies and the coexistence of positive and negative effects are the distinctive part of the incompatibility. The connotation of incompatible herbs plays an important role in the innovation of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory.
Kong, Ling Yi; Tan, Ren Xiang
The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared by Professor Youyou Tu, focused worldwide attention on artemisinin, a natural product antimalarial drug inspired by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first Nobel Prize in natural sciences presented to a Chinese scientist for her impactful research work in China in collaboration with other Chinese scientists. We are delighted to provide the background and implications of the discovery of artemisinin, along with our personal viewpoints toward the affordability of modern medicines from natural products.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has significant advantages in treating gynaecological disorders. The paper has provided a brief introduction on the current progress of treating some gynaecological disorders including endometriosis, infertility, dysmenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, ...
Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Li, Xinxue; Yang, Guoyan; Liu, Jian Ping
Chinese herbal medicine is frequently used for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate its efficacy.This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in the year 2011. To assess the beneficial effects and harms of Chinese herbal medicine for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. On 14 May 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), AMED (January 1985 to May 2012) and in October 2012, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1979 to October 2012), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI) (1979 to October 2012), and VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1989 to October 2012). We searched for unpublished literature in the Chinese Conference Papers Database, and Chinese Dissertation Database (from inception to October 2012). There were no language or publication restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine (with a minimum of four weeks treatment duration) for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions. Trials of herbal medicine plus a conventional drug versus the drug alone were also included. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Forty-nine randomised trials involving 3639 participants were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Thirty-eight different herbal medicines were tested in these trials, including four single herbs (extracts from a single herb), eight traditional Chinese patent medicines, and 26 self concocted Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. The trials reported on global symptom improvement (including improvement in numbness or pain) and changes in nerve conduction
Full Text Available The precision medicine is more precise individualized medicine, based on the patient’s genes or physiological to formulate the specific treatment plan, for the realization of individualized treatment of various diseases to provide valuable information.But with the progress of modern science and technology, modern medicine dependence on medical instruments are too serious, traditional ways are gradually forgotten.If the machine depends on the instrument test results too serious which don’t combined with the actual diagnosis, the cause of misdiagnosis, so we should pay attention to the overall analysis of diseases and systematic diagnosis and examination, use of the overall treatment concept traced back to find the cause of Traditional Chinese Medicine, finally decide to select a best treatment plan.We should use the dialectical attitude to look at the precise medical. Not blindly requirements according to the road of precision medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine to go, to shine in himself field, form of self characteristic of Traditional Chinese Medicine.Can learn some of the advantages of accurate concept, the good and rejecting the bad, hope the Traditional Chinese Medicine in the modern environment more walk more far.
Wang, Jigang; Wong, Yin-Kwan; Liao, Fulong
The field of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) represents a vast and largely untapped resource for modern medicine. Exemplified by the success of the antimalarial artemisinin, the recent years have seen a rapid increase in the understanding and application of TCM-derived herbs and formulations for evidence-based therapy. In this review, we summarise and discuss the developmental history, clinical background and molecular basis of an action for several representative TCM-derived medicines, including artemisinin, arsenic trioxide, berberine and Salvia miltiorrhiza or Danshen. Through this, we highlight important examples of how TCM-derived medicines have already contributed to modern medicine, and discuss potential avenues for further research.
Li, Lingjuan; Hong, Hong; Xu, Xuesong; Guo, Liwei
Separating technique of Chinese medicine is not only a key technique in the field of Chinese medicine' s research and development, but also a significant step in the modernization of Chinese medicinal preparation. Computer chemistry can build model and look for the regulations from Chinese medicine system which is full of complicated data. This paper analyzed the applicability, key technology, basic mode and common algorithm of computer chemistry applied in the separation of Chinese medicine, introduced the mathematic mode and the setting methods of Extraction kinetics, investigated several problems which based on traditional Chinese medicine membrane procession, and forecasted the application prospect.
... Resources CME/CEU and Online Lectures Online Continuing Education Series Distinguished Lecture Series Integrated Medicine Research Lecture ... TCM, it is important to separate questions about traditional theories and ... of modern science-based medicine and health promotion practices. The ...
Tan, Fang; Chen, Yalin; Tan, Xiaolei; Ma, Yunyun; Peng, Yong
Medicinal diets have a history of more than 2000 years. Locally referred to as yaoshan (Chinese: ), a medicinal diet is understood in China as a dietary product that combines herbs and food with the purpose of preventing and treating diseases or improving health under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory. Medicinal diets are used in Chinese people's daily life and in specialized restaurants. Hundreds of Chinese materia medica (CMM) are used in medicinal diets; however, a comprehensive evaluation of medicinal diets is lacking. This is an exploratory study that aims to identify the CMM that are most frequently used in medicinal diets and to provide an updated view of the current situation of medicinal diets in China. A field study of 1221 people in 32 Chinese provinces was conducted over a period of approximately 6 months and included various types of interviews as well as a written questionnaire. Two approaches were used to analyse the data collected in the survey: (1) estimating the frequency of CMM consumed in daily diets; and (2) collecting CMM used in medicinal diet restaurants. Complementary information on the selected CMM was obtained from relevant databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, CNKI, and Web of Science. Ten CMM were reported as commonly used by more than 50% of the participants. Among these 10 species, most medicinally used parts were seeds and fruits. Pharmacological data from the literature revealed that these species are associated with a wide spectrum of biological properties, including antitumour (80%), antioxidant (50%), anti-diabetic (40%), antilipemic (40%), anti-aging (40%), antimicrobial (40%) and cardioprotective (40%) activities. Our survey shows that most medicinal diet restaurants are located in the eastern part of China, with the greatest numbers being found in Beijing and Guangzhou. Only Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Chrysanthemi Flos and Longan Arillus were frequently consumed both in daily
Full Text Available The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation of CM has offered the path of least resistance, it has also lead to unworkable simplifications and methodological failures. The paper thus argues for a renewed access to the tradition’s primary sources in order to ally the distinctive features and methods of traditional practice with biomedicine, as an alternative to an outright integration into biomedical practice.
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women hence Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been chosen by many clinicians and patients as alternative treatment for PCOS. The present study was to explore the effects of CHM in alleviating hyperandrogenism of PCOS ...
Liao, Su-Fen; Yan, Su-Rong; Guo, Wei-Jia; Luo, Ji; Sun, Jing; Dong, Fang; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang
Multi-component traditional Chinese medicines are an innovative research mode for traditional Chinese medicines. Currently, there are many design methods for developing multi-component traditional Chinese medicines, but their common feature is the lack of effective connection of the traditional Chinese medicine theory. In this paper, the authors discussed the multi-component traditional Chinese medicine design methods based on medicinal property combination modes, provided the combination methods with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine for the prescription combinations, and proved its feasibly with hypertension cases.
Li, Mengyan; Bai, Ming; Miao, Mingsan
Chinese traditional medicine plays an important role in the clinical treatment of traditional Chinese medicine topical drugs in recent years with the increasing types of disease treatment is also not much extended, this paper reviews the application of clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine in recent years in different conditions, to provide reference for related research.
Jong Yeol Kim
Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.
Kim, Jong Yeol; Pham, Duong Duc; Koh, Byung Hee
Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora. PMID:21949669
Chen, Rong; Dong, Juan; Cui, Xin; Wang, Wei; Yasmeen, Afshan; Deng, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao; Tang, Zhuo
Chinese patent medicines (CPM) are highly processed and easy to use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The market for CPM in China alone is tens of billions US dollars annually and some of the CPM are also used as dietary supplements for health augmentation in the western countries. But concerns continue to be raised about the legality, safety and efficacy of many popular CPM. Here we report a pioneer work of applying molecular biotechnology to the identification of CPM, particularly well refined oral liquids and injections. What's more, this PCR based method can also be developed to an easy to use and cost-effective visual chip by taking advantage of G-quadruplex based Hybridization Chain Reaction. This study demonstrates that DNA identification of specific Medicinal materials is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed CPM and will assist in monitoring their quality and legality.
Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-biao; Xiao, Pei-gen; Guo, Ping; Liang, Zhi-tao; Hung, Fanny; Wong, Lai-lai; Brand, Eric; Liu, Jing
Chinese medicinal authentication is fundamental for the standardization and globalization of Chinese medicine. The discipline of authentication addresses difficult issues that have remained unresolved for thousands of years, and is essential for preserving safety. Chinese medicinal authentication has both scientific and traditional cultural connotations; the use of scientific methods to elucidate traditional experience-based differentiation carries the legacy of Chinese medicine forward, and offers immediate practical significance and long-term scientific value. In this paper, a path of inheritance and innovation is explored through the scientific exposition of Chinese medicinal authentication, featuring a review of specialized publications, the establishment of a Chinese medicine specimen center and Chinese medicinal image databases, the expansion of authentication technologies, and the formation of a cultural project dedicated to the Compedium of Materia Medica.
William CS CHO
Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly utilized by cancer patients in developed countries. Among the various forms of complementary and alternative medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine is one of the few that has a well constructed theoretical framework and established treatment approaches for diseases including cancer. Recent research has revealed growing evidence suggesting that Traditional Chinese Medicine is effective in the supportive care of cancer patients during and after major conventional cancer treatments. This paper succinctly summarizes some published clinical evidence and meta-analyses which support the usage of various Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment strategies including Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture and Qigong in supportive cancer care.
At least 24 Chinese-English dictionaries of Chinese Medicine have been published in China during the recent 24 years (1984-2003). This thesis comments on "A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine" by Wiseman, agreeing on its establishing principles, sources and formation methods of the English system of Chinese medical terminology, and pointing out the defect. The author holds that study on the origin and development of TCM terms, standardization of Chinese medical terms in different layers, i.e. Chinese medical in classic, in commonly used modern TCM terms, and integrative medical texts, are prerequisites to the standardization of English translation of Chinese medical terms.
Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.
Li, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Fan, Dong-He; Zhang, Meng-Jie; Bai, Xue; Yang, Wen-Hua; Qi, Shu-Ya; Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Xue, Chun-Miao; Mao, Liu-Ying; Cao, Jun-Ling
Chinese medicine prescriptions are a type of medical documents written by doctors after they understand the patients' conditions for syndrome differentiation. Chinese medicine prescriptions are also the basis for pharmacy personnel to dispense medicines and guide patients to use drugs. It has the legal, technical and economic significances. Chinese medicine prescriptions contain such information of names, quantity and usage. Whether the names of drugs in Chinese medicine prescriptions are standardized or not is directly related to the safety and efficacy of the drugs. At present, nonstandard clinical prescriptions are frequently seen. With "Chinese medicine prescription", "names of drug in Chinese medicine prescription" and "standards of Chinese medicine prescription" as key words, the author searched CNKI, Wanfang and other databases, and consulted nearly 100 literatures, so as to summarize current names of drugs in traditional Chinese medicine prescription, analyze the reasons, and give suggestions, in the expectation of standardizing the names of drugs used in traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Graham, David T
This review article describes the regulation of proprietary Chinese medicines for the Australian market, which may permit many medicines used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to have a simplified process of market access provided that certain criteria for acceptable public safety are met. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xie, Qi; Cui, Meng; Wu, Zhen-Dou; Zhao, Hong
With the rapid development of information science, the ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine is combining with it rapidly, and forming a new discipline: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Informatics. TCM information digitalization is the process of digital processing, which uses modern information technology to obtain, process, store, and analyze TCM-related data, information, and knowledge. It gathers research, application development, and service in an integrated whole. This article systematically analyzes the key research issues of TCM informatics (e.g., on data resources, data standard, data system construction). Also, the methodology and technology of TCM information digitalization research are thoroughly discussed. The starting point of the research on traditional Chinese medical information digitalization was in question. The research from the current study research was drawn from collected information that was stored, transferred, and utilized. This process helped to place an emphasis on the topic, as well as extending its research areas. In addition, an innovative TCM information virtual study center was set up to support a great deal of fundamental work.
Gong, Zi-peng; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Rui-jie; Yang, Qing; Zhu, Xiao-xin
In recent years, more and more research shows that the pharmacokinetic parameter of traditional Chinese medicine can be affected by the disease states. It's possible that drug metabolic enzymes, transporters, cell membrane permeability and the change of microbes group could be interfered with physiological and pathological changes, which enables the pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicine in the body to be altered, including the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and then the pharmacokinetic parameters of traditional chinese medicine are altered. It's found that investigating the pharmacokinetic of traditional Chinese medicine in the pathological state is more useful than that of in normal state because the great part of traditional Chinese medicine is mainly used to treat disease. This article reflects the latest research on the pharmacokinetic of traditional Chinese medicine in the disease state such as diabete, cerebral ischemia, liver injury, inflammatory disease, nervous system disorders and fever in order to provide certain reference for clinicians designing reasonable administration dose.
Qi, Yao-dong; Gao, Shi-man; Liu, Hai-tao; Li, Xi-wen; Wei, Jian-he; Zhang, Ben-gang; Sun, Xiao-bo; Xiao, Pei-gen
The quality of Chinese medicinal materials relates greatly to the clinical curative effect and security. In order to ensure the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal materials, a systematic and operable traceability system needs to be established. It can realize the whole process of quality and safety management of Chinese medicinal materials "from production to consumption" through recording and inquiring information and recalling defective products, which is an important direction for the future development of traditional Chinese medicine. But it is still at the exploration and trial stage. In this paper, a framework of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and safety traceability system was established on the basis of the domestic and international experience about the construction of food and agricultural products traceability systems. The relationship between traceability system of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and GAP, GMP, GSP was analyzed, and the possible problems and the corresponding solutions were discussed.
Liang Jianping; Li Xuehu; Lu Xihong; Tao Lei; Wang Shuyang
The application of nuclear irradiation in the field of traditional Chinese medicine has received much attention. In this paper we reviewed the application of nuclear radiation on the cultivation, breeding and disinfection of traditional Chinese medicine, and pointed out that the combination of radiation-induced mutagenesis and biological technology would promise broad prospects for increasing the cellular mutation rate and speeding up the genetic improvement of traditional Chinese medicine. (authors)
Zhao, Hui; Mao, Mingsan
Schisandra is the dried and ripe fruit of Chinese magnoliavine, which has the functions of protecting the liver and gallbladder, lowering blood sugar, antibacterial and antiaging. Schisandra contains biological activity is very high. As a commonly used blind Chinese herbal medicine, Schisandra often appear in the treatment of vertigo, palpitations, insomnia in the proprietary Chinese medicine, play a nourishing liver and kidney, nourishing the nerves and so on. Chinese Pharmacopoeia contains a total of 102 kinds of Chinese medicine containing Schisandra, according to the dosage form will contain Schisandra proprietary Chinese medicine is divided into pills, tablets, granules and other 8 categories, according to the compatibility of Schisandra application, will contain Schisandra proprietary Chinese medicine functional Class 9. In this paper, the main clinical application of proprietary Chinese medicines containing Schisandra chinensis was analyzed by analyzing the classification and functional treatment of Chinese medicinal constituents containing Schisandra in pharmacopoeia, and then providing the basis for the analysis of Schisandra in proprietary Chinese medicine and The study is conducted to give guidance.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment of liver diseases is derived from the regulation of liver function including storing blood and governing the free flow of qi, in which functional systems such as modern digestion, endocrine, and the gut-liver axis are involved, and is established on modern hepatic physiology, pathology, and etiology. To objectively reveal the characteristics and advantages of modern TCM treatment of liver diseases, we analyzed the clinical and research situation of TCM therapy for liver diseases in the last decade and collected major achievements that have been applied in clinical treatment of diseases, published in core journals, and confirmed by major scientific research programs. The results showed TCM combined with antiviral therapy can improve the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B. TCM can help HBV carriers prevent disease progression. Integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapy for acute-on-chronic liver failure can block the deterioration induced by endotoxin. TCM has been widely applied in protecting the liver through nonspecific anti-inflammation, alleviating hepatic fibrosis, and preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver. TCM plays an important role in treating some currently untreatable liver diseases. Therefore, it is our common responsibility to inherit and develop effective principle-method-recipe-medicines and create a better medical care system.
Liu, Changhua; Gu, Man
With the development of the knowledge economy, knowledge has become one of the most important resources for social progress and economic development. Some countries have proposed measures for the protection of their own traditional knowledge. Traditional Chinese medicine belongs to the category of intangible cultural heritage because it is an important part of Chinese cultural heritage. Today the value of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine has been widely recognized by the domestic and international public. This paper discusses the definition of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and its protection, and evaluates research on its classification. We review the present status of the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and tentatively put forward some possible ideas and methods for the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine. Our goal is to find a way to strengthen the vitality of traditional Chinese medicine and consolidate its foundation. We believe that if we could establish a suitable sui generis(sui generis is a Latin term meaning "of its own kind" and is often used in discussions about protecting the rights of indigenous peoples. Here we use it to emphasize the fact that protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine cannot be achieved through existing legal means of protection alone due to its unique characteristics) system for traditional knowledge, a more favorable environment for the preservation and development of traditional Chinese medicine will ultimately be created.
Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Yang, Wan-Zhen; Mo, Ge; Zhou, Li; Jiang, Jing-Yi; Lv, Chao-Geng; Wang, Sheng; Zhou, Tao; Yang, Ye; Guo, Lan-Ping
The traditional sulfur fumigation processing method has been widely used in the initial processing and storage of traditional Chinese medicinal materials due to its economy, efficiency, convenience, high operability and effect on mold and insect prevention. However, excessive sulfur fumigation of traditional Chinese medicinal materials would lead to the changes in chemical compositions, and even endanger human health. This study showed that traditional Chinese medicinal materials were sulfur fumigated directly after being harvested for quick drying, or fumigated after being weted in the storage process for preventing mold and insects. We found that the sulfur dioxide limits for traditional Chinese medicinal materials were stricter than those for foods. Based on the existing limit standards, we obtained the data of sulfur dioxide residues for 35 types of traditional Chinese medicinal materials in a total of 862 batches. According to the limit standard in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (150， 400 mg·kg⁻¹), the average over-standard rate of sulfur dioxide was as high as 52.43%, but it was reduced to 29.47% if calculated based on the limit for vegetable additive standard (500 mg·kg⁻¹). Sulfur fumigation issue shall be considered correctly: sulfur dioxide is a type of low toxic substance and less dangerous than aflatoxin and other highly toxic substances, and a small amount of residue would not increase the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. However, sulfur fumigation might change the content of chemical substances and affect the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Furthermore, the exposure hazards of toxic substances are comprehensively correlated with exposure cycle, exposure frequency, and application method. In conclusion, it is suggested to strengthen the studies on the limit standard of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, formulate practical and feasible limit standard for sulfur dioxide residues in traditional Chinese
Huang, Lu-Qi; Su, Gang-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Guo, Lan-Ping; Li, Meng; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian
To build a well-off society in an all-round way, eliminate poverty, improve people's livelihood and improve the level of social and economic development in poverty-stricken areas is the frontier issues of the government and science and technology workers at all levels. Chinese herbal medicine is the strategic resource of the people's livelihood, Chinese herbal medicine cultivation is an important part of China's rural poor population income. As most of the production of Chinese herbal medicine by the biological characteristics of their own and the interaction of natural ecological environment factors, showing a strong regional character.the Ministry of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the State Council Poverty Alleviation Office and other five departments jointly issued the "China Herbal Industry Poverty Alleviation Action Plan (2017-2020)", according to local conditions of guidance and planning of Chinese herbal medicine production practice, promote Chinese herbal medicine industry poverty alleviation related work In this paper, based on the relevant data of poverty-stricken areas, this paper divides the areas with priority to the poverty alleviation conditions of Chinese herbal medicine industry, and analyzes and catalogs the list of Chinese herbal medicines grown in poverty-stricken areas at the macro level. The results show that there are at least 10% of the poor counties in the counties where the poverty-stricken counties and the concentrated areas are concentrated in the poverty-stricken areas. There is already a good base of Chinese herbal medicine industry, which is the key priority area for poverty alleviation of Chinese herbal medicine industry. Poverty-stricken counties, with a certain degree of development of Chinese medicine industry poverty alleviation conditions, the need to strengthen the relevant work to expand the foundation and capacity of Chinese herbal medicine industry poverty alleviation; 37% of poor counties to develop Chinese medicine
The moderation-integrated-balance presupposition (MIBP) of Chinese medicine compound was first proposed in this paper based on the review of function characteristics and action principles of Chinese medicine compound. Furthermore, the pharmacological problems of traditional Chinese drug research were discussed in details. The results were of important value in accelerating the transformation of traditional Chinese medicine compound, and constructing the new drug innovation and review system for traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Gu, Peiqin; Chen, Huajun
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is gaining increasing attention with the emergence of integrative medicine and personalized medicine, characterized by pattern differentiation on individual variance and treatments based on natural herbal synergism. Investigating the effectiveness and safety of the potential mechanisms of TCM and the combination principles of drug therapies will bridge the cultural gap with Western medicine and improve the development of integrative medicine. Dealing with rapidly growing amounts of biomedical data and their heterogeneous nature are two important tasks among modern biomedical communities. Bioinformatics, as an emerging interdisciplinary field of computer science and biology, has become a useful tool for easing the data deluge pressure by automating the computation processes with informatics methods. Using these methods to retrieve, store and analyze the biomedical data can effectively reveal the associated knowledge hidden in the data, and thus promote the discovery of integrated information. Recently, these techniques of bioinformatics have been used for facilitating the interactional effects of both Western medicine and TCM. The analysis of TCM data using computational technologies provides biological evidence for the basic understanding of TCM mechanisms, safety and efficacy of TCM treatments. At the same time, the carrier and targets associated with TCM remedies can inspire the rethinking of modern drug development. This review summarizes the significant achievements of applying bioinformatics techniques to many aspects of the research in TCM, such as analysis of TCM-related '-omics' data and techniques for analyzing biological processes and pharmaceutical mechanisms of TCM, which have shown certain potential of bringing new thoughts to both sides. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong
To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Shi, Yi
To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically.......To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically....
The concentration of serum salvianolic acid Group C was significantly higher than Group B, indicating that acupuncture might improve the absorption of salvianolic acid B from the extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge in the Chinese medicine formula. Combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs significantly ...
Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) are of significant importance for human health care in China and have a profound cultural and philosophical background described in the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theories. The main objective of TCM is to maintain or restore the balance of the body as a whole
Liu, Baoyan; Zhang, Yanhong; Hu, Jingqing; He, Liyun; Zhou, Xuezhong
The gradual development of Chinese medicine is based on constant accumulation and summary of experience in clinical practice, but without the benefit of undergoing the experimental medicine stage. Although Chinese medicine has formed a systematic and unique theory system through thousands of years, with the development of evidence-based medicine, the bondage of the research methods of experience medicine to Chinese medicine is appearing. The rapid transition and transformation from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine have become important content in the development of Chinese medicine. According to the features of Chinese medicine, we propose the research idea of "taking two ways simultaneously," which is the study both in the ideal condition and in the real world. Analyzing and constructing the theoretical basis and methodology of clinical research in the real world, and building the stage for research technique is key to the effective clinical research of Chinese medicine. Only by gradually maturing and completing the clinical research methods of the real world could we realize "taking two ways simultaneously" and complementing each other, continuously produce scientific and reliable evidence of Chinese medicine, as well as transform and develop Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine.
In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting–activating model (Yin-Yang), and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents). The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally—and perhaps historically—related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of disease. PMID
In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting-activating model (Yin-Yang), and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents). The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally-and perhaps historically-related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of disease.
Long, Xingchao; Huang, Luqi; Jiang, Erguo; Zhou, Yonghong; Xu, Yanfeng; Zheng, Shuhua; Ning, Xiaoling; Liu, Hongwei; Chen, Lin
To analyze costs of the traditional Chinese medicine industry focusing on production costs. Data of 50 planted Chinese herbal medicines and 50 wild Chinese herbal medicines were summarized and analyzed to see the changes of price of Chinese herbal medicines. The derivative problems of limited price were analyzed by crude drug, quality of Chinese medicine and sustainable utilization of resource. The price of Chinese medicine shall be adapted to sustainable development of market economy.
Nie, Qing; Liu, Yan; Chen, Jing
The essential traditional Chinese medicines (ETCM) are the characteristics of our National Essential Medicine List (NEML) and we should give full play to its unique advantage. The essential medicines of ETCM are specific, but also have dual characters, namely efficacy and ADRs. Although ADRs cannot be avoided, we can make efforts to control some conditions to minimize the possibility of ADRs. It is significant to give suggestions to reduce ADRs of ETCM under the ETCM system by analyzing the possibility of ADRs during ETCM selection, production distribution and use. This research focuses on ETCM, and the conclusion is also applicable to common traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.
Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Ping; Chen, Chip-Ping; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong
Traditional Chinese medicines have been widely investigated for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) because none of the current therapies-either the cholinesterase inhibitors or antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors-has profound effects on halting the progression of AD. In recent years, scientists have isolated many active compounds from herbs, which can alleviate dementia and neurodegenerative syndrome with fewer side effects than conventional drugs and, thus, are regarded as promising drug candidates for AD therapy. In this review, we summarize the latest research progress on six herbs for AD therapy-Huperzia serrata, Amaryllidaceae family, Ginkgo biloba, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Polygala tenuifolia, and Salvia officinalis-and focus on the analysis of their active components and possible mechanisms of pharmacological actions on AD. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Qiu, R Z
This essay discusses the ethics of traditional Chinese medicine. After a brief remark on the history of traditional Chinese medical ethics, the author outlines the Confucian ethics which formed the cultural context in which traditional Chinese medicine was evolving and constituted the core of its ethics. Then he argued that how Chinese physicians applied the principles of Confucian ethics in medicine and prescribed the attitude a physician should take to himself, to patients and to his colleagues. In the last part of the essay he discusses the characteristics of traditional Chinese medical ethics.
Guo, Yi; Li, Gui Lan
As an important component of traditional medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is widely spread and applied in more than 100 countries across the world. The standardization of TCM is very important for the international application of Chinese medicine. In this paper, we have explained and analyzed the standardization situations of TCM in China with the purpose of providing reference for standardization and international development of TCM. PMID:27110268
Full Text Available As an important component of traditional medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is widely spread and applied in more than 100 countries across the world. The standardization of TCM is very important for the international application of Chinese medicine. In this paper, we have explained and analyzed the standardization situations of TCM in China with the purpose of providing reference for standardization and international development of TCM.
Que, Ling; Chi, Xiu-Lian; Zang, Chun-Xin; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Min; Yang, Guang; Jin, An-Qi
Ex-situ conservation is an important means to protect biological genetic resources. Resource protection has received more and more attention with the continuous improvement of the comprehensive utilization of traditional Chinese medicine resources. In this paper, the research and compilation of the species list of ex-situ cultivated medicinal plants in 12 Chinese Academy of Sciences botanic gardens and 19 specialized medicinal botanic gardens in China were carried out. Based on the Species 2000(2017) and other classification databases, species diversity of medicinal plants ex-situ cultivated in these botanical gardens were analyzed. The study found that there were 16 351 higher plant species in our country, belonging to 276 families and 1 936 genera. Of these, 6 949 specieswere medicinal plants, accounting for 50.4% of the total medicinal plants. There were 1 280 medicinal plants were in threatened status, accounting for 19.6% of all threatened species in the Chinese Biodiversity Red List, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 59.5%. And 3 988 medicinal plants were Chinese endemic species, accounting for 22.5% of all Chinese endemic species, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 53.3%. This article has reference significance for the management and protection of medicinal plant resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Luo, Xiao-Jian; Liu, Hui; Liang, Hong-Bo; Xiong, Lei; Rao, Xiao-Yong; Xie, Yin; He, Yan
Glass transition theory is an important theory in polymer science, which is used to characterize the physical properties. It refers to the transition of amorphous polymer from the glassy state to the rubber state due to heating or the transition from rubber state to glassy state due to cooling. In this paper, the glassy state and glass transition of food and the similar relationship between the composition of Chinese medicine extract powder and food ingredients were described; the determination method for glass transition temperature (Tg) of Chinese medicine extract powder was established and its main influencing factors were analyzed. Meanwhile, the problems in drying process, granulation process and Chinese medicine extract powder and solid preparation storage were analyzed and investigated based on Tg, and then the control strategy was put forward to provide guidance for the research and production of Chinese medicine solid preparation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Tian, Sai-Sai; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Wei-Dong
With the completion of the human genome project, people have gradually recognized that the functions of the biological system are fulfilled through network-type interaction between genes, proteins and small molecules, while complex diseases are caused by the imbalance of biological processes due to a number of gene expression disorders. These have contributed to the rise of the concept of the "multi-target" drug discovery. Treatment and diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine are based on holism and syndrome differentiation. At the molecular level, traditional Chinese medicine is characterized by multi-component and multi-target prescriptions, which is expected to provide a reference for the development of multi-target drugs. This paper reviews the application of network biology in traditional Chinese medicine in six aspects, in expectation to provide a reference to the modernized study of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Yeh, Mei-Ling; Chiu, Wei-Ling; Wang, Yu-Jen; Lo, Chyi
This study aimed to investigate the use of traditional Chinese medicine and complementary and alternative medicine in stroke patients in Taiwan. Chinese herbal medicine, massage, acupuncture, natural products, and exercise were widely used among stroke patients. Integrating safe and effective traditional Chinese medicine and complementary and alternative medicine into conventional therapies is suggested.
Jarrell, Juliet T; Gao, Li; Cohen, David S; Huang, Xudong
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition that currently has no known cure. The principles of the expanding field of network medicine (NM) have recently been applied to AD research. The main principle of NM proposes that diseases are much more complicated than one mutation in one gene, and incorporate different genes, connections between genes, and pathways that may include multiple diseases to create full scale disease networks. AD research findings as a result of the application of NM principles have suggested that functional network connectivity, myelination, myeloid cells, and genes and pathways may play an integral role in AD progression, and may be integral to the search for a cure. Different aspects of the AD pathology could be potential targets for drug therapy to slow down or stop the disease from advancing, but more research is needed to reach definitive conclusions. Additionally, the holistic approaches of network pharmacology in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research may be viable options for the AD treatment, and may lead to an effective cure for AD in the future.
Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Ge; Chen, Ke-ji; Lu, Ai-ping
The development of an effective classification method for human health conditions is essential for precise diagnosis and delivery of tailored therapy to individuals. Contemporary classification of disease systems has properties that limit its information content and usability. Chinese medicine pattern classification has been incorporated with disease classification, and this integrated classification method became more precise because of the increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms. However, we are still facing the complexity of diseases and patterns in the classification of health conditions. With continuing advances in omics methodologies and instrumentation, we are proposing a new classification approach: molecular module classification, which is applying molecular modules to classifying human health status. The initiative would be precisely defining the health status, providing accurate diagnoses, optimizing the therapeutics and improving new drug discovery strategy. Therefore, there would be no current disease diagnosis, no disease pattern classification, and in the future, a new medicine based on this classification, molecular module medicine, could redefine health statuses and reshape the clinical practice.
Huang, Sheng-Kang; Ho, Yu-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Shiun
Allergic rhinitis has long been a worldwide health problem with a global growth trend. The use of traditional Chinese medicines alone or integrated Chinese-Western medicines for its treatment is quite common in Taiwan. Respiratory diseases account for the majority of outpatient traditional Chinese medicine treatment, while allergic rhinitis accounts for the majority of respiratory diseases. We hereby conduct a comparative analysis between traditional Chinese medicine treatments and western medicine treatments for allergic rhinitis in Taiwan. The results of the analysis on the prescription difference of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine treatments would be helpful to clinical guide and health policy decision making of ethnopharmacological therapy. Patients diagnosed as allergic rhinitis with diagnostic code 470-478 (ICD-9-CM) were selected as subjects from 2009-2010 National Health Insurance Research Database based on the claim data from the nationwide National Health Insurance in Taiwan. This retrospective study used Chi-Square test to test the effects of gender and age on visit of traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine, and integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatments. A total of 45,804 patients diagnosed as allergic rhinitis with ICD-9-CM 470-478 were identified from 2009-2010 NHIRD. There were 36,874 subjects for western medicine treatment alone, 5829 subjects for traditional Chinese medicine treatment alone, and 3101 subjects for integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatment. Female patients were more than male in three treatments. 0-9 years children had the highest visit frequency in western medicine and integrated Chinese-Western medicine groups, while 10-19 years young-age rank the highest in traditional Chinese medicine group. The Chi-square test of independence showed that the effects of gender and age on visit of three treatments were significant. The prescription drugs of western medicine treatment alone were almost for
Zhang, Jun-Hua; Fan, Guan-Wei; Zhang, Han; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Yi; Liu, Li-Mei; Li, Chuan; Gao, Yue; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Bo-Li
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription is the main therapies for disease prevention and treatment in Chinese medicine. Following the guidance of the theory of TCM and developing drug by composing prescriptions of TCM materials and pieces, it is a traditional application mode of TCM, and still widely used in clinic. TCM prescription has theoretical advantages and rich clinical application experience in dealing with multi-factor complex diseases, but scientific research is relatively weak. The lack of scientific cognition of the effective substances and mechanism of Chinese medicine leads to insufficient understanding of the efficacy regularity, which affects the stability of effect and hinders the improvement of quality of Chinese medicinal products. Component-based Chinese medicine (CCM) is an innovation based on inheritance, which breaks through the tradition of experience-based prescription and realize the transformation of compatibility from herbal pieces to components. CCM is an important achievement during the research process of modernization of Chinese medicine. Under the support of three national "973" projects, in order to reveal the scientific connotation of the prescription compatibility theory and develop innovative Chinese drugs, we have launched theoretical innovation and technological innovation around the "two relatively clear", and opened up the research field of CCM. CCM is an innovation based on inheritance, breaking through the tradition of experience based prescription, and realizing the transformation from compatibility of herbal pieces to component compatibility, which is an important achievement of the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. In the past more than 10 years, with the deepening of research and the expansion of application, the theory and methods of CCM and efficacy-oriented compatibility have been continuously improved. The value of CCM is not only in developing new drug, more important is to build a
Sun, Da-zhi; Li, Shao-dan; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yin; Mei, Rong; Yang, Ming-hui
To explore advantages of Chinese medicine (CM) by analyzing differences in the origin of philosophy for human health between CM and Western medicine (WM). Methodologically, a distinctive feature of CM is its systems theory, which is also the difference between CM and WM. Since the birth of CM, it has taken the human body as a whole from the key concepts of "qi, blood, yin-yang, viscera (Zang-Fu), and meridian and channel", rather than a single cell or a particular organ. WM evolves from the Western philosophic way of thinking and merely uses natural sciences as the foundation. The development of WM is based on human structures, or anatomy, and therefore, research of WM is also based on the way of thinking of decomposing the whole human body into several independent parts, which is the impetus of promoting the development of WM. The core of CM includes the holistic view and the dialectical view. Chinese herbal medicines contain various components and treat a disease from multiple targets and links. Therefore, Chinese herbal medicines treat a diseased state by regulating and mobilizing the whole body rather than just regulating a single factor, since the diseased state is not only a problem in a local part of the body but a local reflection of imbalance of the whole body.
Ooi, G L
Traditional Chinese medicine as it persists in several East and Southeast Asian countries, has undergone major changes. Such changes have reinforced the trading aspects of traditional Chinese medical practice with relatively little advantage for the medical care component. This paper examines the nature of changes in contemporary ethnic Chinese medical practice in Malaysia and Singapore with the aim of understanding their implications for the persistence of this medical tradition.
Zhang, Shaomin; Zeng, Xianghui; Xu, Xiaohong
The concentration of extracellular neurotransmitters can be dynamically measured by in vivo microdialysis. This technique can apply to quantitatively evaluating the beneficial effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In the present study, the protective effects of Puerarin (Pur) on cerebral...
Sun, Xiao; Guo, Li-ping; Shang, Hong-cai; Ren, Ming; Lei, Xiang
To learn about the economic studies on traditional Chinese medicines in domestic literatures, in order to analyze the current economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines and explore the existing problems. Efforts were made to search CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database and CBM by computer and include all literatures about economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines published on professional domestic journals in the systematic assessment and quality evaluation. Finally, 50 articles were included in the study, and the systematic assessment and quality evaluation were made for them in terms of titles, year, authors' identity, expense source, disease type, study perspective, study design type, study target, study target source, time limit, cost calculation, effect indicator, analytical technique and sensitivity analysis. The finally quality score was 0.74, which is very low. The results of the study showed insufficient studies on economics of traditional Chinese medicines, short study duration and simple evaluation methods, which will be solved through unremitting efforts in the future.
Department, 3Department of Vascular Surgery, The Teaching Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine,. Chengdu, Sichuan ... Background: The rate of gastrointestinal adenomatous polyps, often regarded as precancerous lesions, developing ..... Ling-Bai-Zhu on promoting apoptosis of transplanted.
Yang Dongqing; En Lihua; Deng Wenmin
6-8 kGy γ-ray irradiation dosage treatment can reduce the bacteria, mildew effectively from 105 CFU/g to 102 CFU/g and eliminate the parasite in 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine, enhance their quality of sanitation observably. In the other hand, irradiation doesn't influence the medicinal component and therapy effect. Storage study has improved that the 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine treated by γ-ray irradiation can be preserved over one year in the room temperature with high quality of sanitation and steady medicinal component. (authors)
Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Yao, Dong-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin
Both chemical drugs and traditional Chinese medicines have the problem of low bioavailability. However, as traditional Chinese medicines are a multi-component complex, their dosage forms are required to be designed in line with their characteristics, in order to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines. Traditional Chinese medicines are mostly prepared into pill, powder, paste, elixir and decoction, but with such drawbacks as high administration dose and poor efficacy. With the process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicines, new-type preparations have be developed and made outstanding achievements. However, they fail to make an organic integration between traditional Chinese medicine theories and modern preparation theories. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines are required to be taken into account during the development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the article, multi-component preparation technology was adopted to establish a multi-component drug release system of traditional Chinese medicines on the basis of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has a comprehensive and thorough understanding of biological rhythm. Biological rhythm is an inherent connotation of “harmony between human and nature”, one of the thoughts in TCM. TCM discusses emphatically circadian rhythm, syzygial rhythm and seasonal rhythm, and particularly circadian and seasonal rhythms. Theories of Yin Yang and Five Elements are the principles and methods, with which TCM understands biological rhythms. Based on theories in TCM, biological rhythm in essence is a continuous variation of the human body state synchronized with natural rhythms, and theories of Yin Yang and Five Elements are both language tools to describe this continuous variation and theoretical tools for its investigation and application. The understandings of biological rhythm in TCM can be applied to etiology, health care, disease control and treatment. Many understandings in TCM have been confirmed by modern research and clinical reports, but there are still some pending issues. TCM is distinguished for its holistic viewpoint on biological rhythms.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has a 3000 years' history of human use. A literature survey addressing traditional evidence from human studies was done, with key result that top 10 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos, Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae were prioritized for highest potential benefit to dementia intervention, related to the highest frequency of use in 236 formulae collected from 29 ancient Pharmacopoeias, ancient formula books, or historical archives on ancient renowned TCM doctors, over the past 10 centuries. Based on the history of use, there was strong clinical support that Radix polygalae is memory improving. Pharmacological investigation also indicated that all the five ingredients mentioned above can elicit memory-improving effects in vivo and in vitro via multiple mechanisms of action, covering estrogen-like, cholinergic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neurogenetic, and anti-Aβ activities. Furthermore, 11 active principles were identified, including sinapic acid, tenuifolin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide, coniferyl ferulate and 11-angeloylsenkyunolide F, and catalpol. It can be concluded that TCM has a potential for complementary and alternative role in treating senile dementia. The scientific evidence is being continuously mined to back up the traditional medical wisdom.
Qunli Wu; Xiaochun Liang
Food therapy of traditional Chinese medicine aims to maintain balanced nutrition through diet. Medical diet therapy, however, is to achieve the balance of Yin and Yang through the combination of nutrition and medicine. Either “food therapy” or “medical diet therapy” aims to keep health, prevent disease, remove illness and slow aging. In recent years, both food therapy and medical diet therapy have been increasingly applied in clinical nutrition therapy. In terms of traditional Chinese food th...
Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Liu, Hsu-Jan; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liu, Jui-Chen; Chen, Ping-Kun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang
A stroke often results in post-stroke dementia, a rapid decline in memory and intelligence causing dysfunctions in daily life. The Chinese medicine doctor uses 4 examinations of inspection, listening, smelling, and feeling to determine the Chinese medicine pattern (CMP). Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the CMP in patients with post-stroke dementia. A total of 101 stroke patients were examined, consistent with the DSM IV diagnostic criteria of the American Psychi...
Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.
Full Text Available Afatinib (Gilotrif™ is widely used to treat patients with mutant activating epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR- dependent lung adenocarcinoma; however, it has various adverse side effects. Here, we report a patient with afatinib-induced paronychia. After Chinese medicine treatment with the well-known anticancer Chinese herbs, Jen-Ren-Hwo-Minq-Saan, and decoction of Ban-Zhi-Lian (Scutellaria barbata with Bai-Hua-She-She-Cao (Hedyotis diffusa Willd, patient’s condition was significantly improved. This shows that these Chinese medicines can not only be used in cancer treatment but also be used in the afatinib-induced paronychia.
Yan, Ru; Yang, Ying; Chen, Yijia
The modernization and internationalization of Chinese medicines (CMs) are hampered by increasing concerns on the safety and the efficacy. Pharmacokinetic (PK) study is indispensable to establish concentration-activity/toxicity relationship and facilitate target identification and new drug discovery from CMs. To cope with tremendous challenges rooted from chemical complexity of CMs, the classic PK strategies have evolved rapidly from PK study focusing on marker/main drug components to PK-PD correlation study adopting metabolomics approaches to characterize associations between disposition of global drug-related components and host metabolic network shifts. However, the majority of PK studies of CMs have adopted the approaches tailored for western medicines and focused on the systemic exposures of drug-related components, most of which were found to be too low to account for the holistic benefits of CMs. With an area under concentration-time curve- or activity-weighted approach, integral PK attempts to understand the PK-PD relevance with the integrated PK profile of multiple co-existing structural analogs (prototyes/metabolites). Cellular PK-PD complements traditional PK-PD when drug targets localize inside the cells, instead of at the surface of cell membrane or extracellular space. Considering the validated clinical benefits of CMs, reverse pharmacology-based reverse PK strategy was proposed to facilitate target identification and new drug discovery. Recently, gut microbiota have demonstrated multifaceted roles in drug efficacy/toxicity. In traditional oral intake, the presystemic interactions of CMs with gut microbiota seem inevitable, which can contribute to the holistic benefits of CMs through biotransforming CMs components, acting as the peripheral target, and regulating host drug disposition. Hence, we propose a global PK-PD approach which includes the presystemic interaction of CMs with gut microbiota and combines omics with physiologically based
Feng, Xue; Fang, Sai-Nan; Gao, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jian-Ping; Chen, Wei
To provide the basis for the future research on the nephrotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicine through systematic and comprehensive summary of all the Chinese herbal medicines which may lead to nephrotoxicity. Foreign resources included PubMed and Cochrane library， and domestic research resources was China Food and Drug Administration(CDFA) Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center database. The databases were searched from establishment to January 1， 2017. There was no limitation on research type. 28 English studies were found， including 97 Chinese herbs or prescriptions with the risk of nephrotoxicity. The following six Chinese herbal medicines with the risk of nephrotoxicity had a large number of studies： aristolochic acid(5 studies)， Tripterygium wilfordii(4 studies)， Erycibe obtusifolia(2 studies)， Rheum palmatum(2 studies)， Ephedra sinica(2 studies)， and Atractylodes lances(2 studies). The remaining 91 Chinese medicines were reported with risk of nephrotoxicity in only 1 study respectively. CDFA reported 16 Chinese herbal medicines with the risk of nephrotoxicity， including Ganmaoqing Pian(capsule)， Zhenju Jiangya Pian， T. wilfordii preparation， Vc-Yinqiao Pian， Chuanhuning injection， Shuanghuanglian injection， Qingkailing injection， Lianbizhi injection， herbal decoction containing Aristolochiae Radix， Guanxin Suhe Wan， Shugan Liqi Wan， Ershiwuwei Songshi Wan， herbal decoction containing Aristolochia Fangchi， herbal granules containing root of Kaempfer Dutchmanspipe， Ganmaotong(tablets)， and Longdan Xiegan Wan. Currently， in addition to aristolochic acids， the most reported Chinese herbal medicine with the risk of nephrotoxicity is T. wilfordii preparation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Objective: This study investigated the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and prednisone onCD4+FoxP3+ T cells (Tregs) and Th17 cells in the MRL/lpr mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods: MRL/lpr mice were treated with herbal medicine (yin-nourishing and heat-clearing therapy), prednisone, and a ...
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Although both genetic and environmental factors are implicated in the development of Parkinson's disease, the cause of the disease is still unclear. So far conventional treatments to Parkinson's are symptomatic relief and focused mainly on motor symptoms. Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat many conditions in China, Korea, Japan, and many Southeast Asian countries for 1000 years. During past a few decades, Chinese herbal medicine has gained wider and increasing acceptance within both public and medical profession due to its effectiveness on many conditions in western countries. In this chapter, mechanisms of action of many Chinese herbal compounds/extracts and Chinese herb formulas on the models of Parkinson's were reviewed. Further, reports of effectiveness of Chinese herb formulas on patients with Parkinson's were summarized. It was shown that both Chinese herbal compounds/extracts and herb formulas have either specific target mechanisms of action or multitargets mechanisms of action, as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiapoptosis agents. Clinical studies showed that Chinese herb formulas as an adjunct improved both motor and nonmotor symptoms, and reduced dose of dopaminergic drugs and occurrence of dyskinesia. The evidence from the studies suggests that Chinese herb medicine has potential, acting as neuroprotective to slow down the progression of Parkinson's, and it is able to simultaneously treat both motor and nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's. More studies are needed to explore the new compounds/extracts derived from Chinese herbs, in particular, their mechanisms of action. It is hopeful that new drugs developed from Chinese herb compounds/extracts and Chinese herb formulas will lead to better and complimentary therapy to PD. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ren, Jian-Xun; Liu, Jian-Xun
Modern and international studies on new traditional Chinese medicines are the main trend of the development of traditional Chinese medicines at present. In Australia, new traditional Chinese medicines refer to complementary medicines, which are mainly registered and launched as listed medicines. The application documents of registered (listed) medicines in Australia mainly cover detailed description of active pharmaceutical ingredients, pharmacological and toxicological studies, dosage form and adverse effects. Each part has detailed specifications and instructions, which helps ensure that applicants could accurately understand the requirements in application for registering (listing) medicines, and provides very important reference to the studies and development of new traditional Chinese medicines in China.
Yang, Xue-Mei; Lin, Duan-Yi; Lai, Xin-Mei; Chen, Mei-Mei; Huang, Lu-Qi
In order to provide theoretical clues and data support for the use of Chinese medicine clinical drug, experimental study of Chinese materia medica and development of new resources of Chinese materia medica, the four properties as the core, the relationships of property, flavor, channel tropism and toxicity in nature data of Chinese materia medica were analyzed. The spearman rank correlation method was employed to analyze 8 356 Chinese drugs with characteristic of four properties from " Chinese Herbal Medicine" based on data level coding. It was discovered that four properties showed significant positive correlations with tastes of "pungent and sweet" , channels of "spleen" , "stomach" , "kidney" and "toxicity" , but also showed significant negative correlations with tastes of "bitter" and "light" and six channels such as "large intestine" , "heart", "bladder" , "gallbladder" , "small intestine" and "lung" (in descending order of correlation ) (P <0. 01). It was indicated that the more hot the Chinese medicine nature, the more possible it contained "toxicity" , tastes of "pungent" and "sweet" , and the more possible it was belong to channels of "spleen" , "stomach" and "kidney". As well, the more cold the Chinese medicine nature, the more possible it contained tastes of "bitter" and "light", and the more possible it was belong to six channels such as "large intestine", etc.
Zhu, Xiaoshu; Liew, Yuklan; Liu, Zhao Lan
Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) usage is expected to increase as women suffering from menopausal symptoms are seeking alternative therapy due to concerns from the adverse effects (AEs) associated with hormone therapy (HT). Scientific evidence for their effectiveness and safety is needed. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Search methods We searched the Gynaecology and Fertility Group’s Specialised Register of controlled trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO (from inception to March 2015). Others included Current Control Trials, Citation Indexes, conference abstracts in the ISI Web of Knowledge, LILACS database, PubMed, OpenSIGLE database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI, 1999 to 2015). Other resources included reference lists of articles as well as direct contact with authors. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effectiveness of CHM with placebo, HT, pharmaceutical drugs, acupuncture, or another CHM formula in women over 18 years of age, and suffering from menopausal symptoms. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed 864 studies for eligibility. Data extractions were performed by them with disagreements resolved through group discussion and clarification of data or direct contact with the study authors. Data analyses were performed in accordance with Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Main results We included 22 RCTs (2902 women). Participants were from different ethnic backgrounds with the majority of Chinese origin. When CHM was compared with placebo (eight RCTs), there was little or no evidence of a difference between the groups for the following pooled outcomes: hot flushes per day (MD 0.00, 95% CI −0.88 to 0.89; 2 trials, 199 women; moderate quality evidence); hot flushes per day assessed by an overall hot
Zhu, Weili; Zhang, Yinan; Huang, Yingjie; Lu, Lin
This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent relapse to chronic drug dependence. Alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gouteng) appear to have positive effects on methamphetamine and ketamine addiction. Both Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) and Radix Pueraiae (Gegen) have beneficial inhibitory effects on alcohol intake. Sinomenine has been shown to have preventive and curative effects on opioid dependence. l-Stepholidine, an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia (Rulan), attenuated the acquisition, maintenance, and reacquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and antagonized the heroin-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines may be used to complement current treatments for drug addiction, including withdrawal and relapse. As the molecular mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese herbal medicines are elucidated, further advances in their use for the treatment of drug addiction are promising. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People’s Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using “microarray” and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine.
Sha, Sha; Liu, Weiqun; Cheng, Lushan; Ge, Jinjin
This article reviewed the literatures in this area over the past 5 years according to three parts: simple traditional Chinese medicine external application, combination of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine, combination of traditional Chinese medicine and physical therapy, and came to several effective prescriptions.
Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Dan; Kang, Li-Ping; He, Ya-Li; Wang, Sheng; Zhou, Liang-Yun
Pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicine has attracted widespread attention at home and abroad. This paper analyzed the pollution present situation and existing problems of pesticide residue for Chinese herbal medicines, explicited the analytical methods of pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines. Meanwhile, the commonly used pesticide residue degradation and application in Chinese herbal medicines were discussed. Moreover, on the basis of analysis of pesticide residue standards, this paper proposed the necessity and urgency of the limit standard of pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines, and provided a scientific references for deepening research and developing safe, green medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Guo, Xiao-xin; Pang, Yu
The adverse reaction monitoring is important in warning the risks of traditional Chinese medicines at an early stage, finding potential quality problems and ensuring the safe clinical medication. In the study, efforts were made to investigate the risk signal mining techniques in line with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines, particularly the complexity in component, processing, compatibility, preparation and clinical medication, find early risk signals of traditional Chinese medicines and establish a traditional Chinese medicine safety evaluation system based on adverse reaction risk signals, in order to improve the target studies on traditional Chinese medicine safety, effective and timely control risks and solve the existing frequent safety issue in traditional Chinese medicines.
The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Gao, Wu-Lin; Dai, Guo-Hua
To analyze the prescription and medication rules of Chinese medicines in the treatment of palpitations in the Chinese journal full text database(CNKI) by using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance system, and provide a reference for further research and development of modern traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs) in treatment of palpitations. In order to give better guidance for clinical mediation, prescriptions used for treatment of palpitations in CNKI were collected, and then were input to the TCM inheritance support system for establishing a Chinese medicine prescription database for palpitations. The software's revised mutual information, complex system entropy clustering and other data mining methods were adopted to analyze the prescriptions according to the frequencies of herbs, "four natures", "five flavors" and "meridians" of the high-frequency medicines in the database, identify the core herbs and application characteristics, and analyze the prescription rules and medication experience. Totally, 545 prescriptions used for palpitation were included in this study and involved 247 Chinese herbs. The analysis results showed that the herbs in prescriptions for palpitation mostly had the warm property, and the herbs in heart and spleen meridian accounted for a larger proportion, indicating that the treatment was mainly to nourish heart and strengthen spleen. The top 11 herbs in usage frequency were consistent with the high-frequency medicines in medication patterns of common herbal pairs; therefore, we considered that these 11 herbs were the core herbs; the core herbal combination included Cassia Twig, Licorice, fossil fragments, Ostreae decoction, and evolved into 9 new prescriptions for treating palpitation. Our results objectively presented the prescription and medication rules for treating palpitation and provided extremely effective guidance for the clinical therapy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL. A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p<0.05 in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views.
Full Text Available Objectives : The Purpose of this study is to investigate and report the effectiveness of Hominis Placenta using Pharmacopuncture treatment for trigger finger. Methods : 3 Patients are admitted at Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation, Bu-Chun Jaseng Oriental Medicine Hospital, diagnosed as Trigger finger and treated with Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture. Each cases are measured and assessed by Quinnell's classification of triggering and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale scores. Results : 3 Patients of trigger finger have a different kind of cause and fingers lesion they have, but nodules are not significantly found up, so we could classify all of 3 patients to diffuse type. After treatment of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture, spontaneous pain and tenderness, grades of triggering are decreased significantly. We would expect that Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture has a effect on degenerative diseases of diffuse type's tendon sheath. Conclusions : Trigger finger is generally divided into two stages, inflammatory and degenerative stage, and when degenerative stage, Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture appears to be effective.
Huang, Chien-Da; Liao, Kuo-Chen; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Tseng, Hsu-Min; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Lii, Shu-Chung; Kuo, Han-Pin; Yeh, San-Jou; Lee, Shih-Tseng
Western medicine is an evidence-based science, whereas Chinese medicine is more of a healing art. To date, there has been no research that has examined whether students of Western and Chinese medicine differentially engage in, or benefit from, educational activities for narrative medicine. This study fills a gap in current literature with the aim of evaluating and comparing Western and Chinese Medicine students' perceptions of narrative medicine as an approach to learning empathy and professionalism. An initial 10-item questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale was developed to assess fifth-year Western medical (MS) and traditional Chinese medical (TCMS) students' perceptions of a 4-activity narrative medicine program during a 13-week internal medicine clerkship. Exploratory factor analysis was undertaken. The response rate was 88.6% (412/465), including 270 (65.5%) MSs and 142 (34.5%) TCMSs, with a large reliability (Cronbach alpha = 0.934). Three factors were extracted from 9 items: personal attitude, self-development/reflection, and emotional benefit, more favorable in terms of enhancement of self-development/reflection. The perceptions of narrative medicine by scores between the two groups were significantly higher in TCMSs than MSs in all 9-item questionnaire and 3 extracted factors. Given the different learning cultures of medical education in which these student groups engage, this suggests that undertaking a course in Chinese medicine might enhance one's acceptance to, and benefit from, a medical humanities course. Alternatively, Chinese medicine programmes might attract more humanities-focused students.
Dong Mo; Bao Guangliang
Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients was labeled with triteium by using exchange of new synthesized tritiated water or exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. The active ingredients was Genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid .The radiochemical purity of the three labeled compounds were more than 95% after TLC and HPLC purification. The specific activities of tritium labeled-genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid were 5.97, 3.24 and 470 GBq/g, respectively. The results indicated that the unstable Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients could be labeled with tritium by the methods of exchange of new synthesized tritiated water and exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. (authors)
Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Huamin; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun
Metabolomics provides an opportunity to develop the systematic analysis of the metabolites and has been applied to discovering biomarkers and perturbed pathways which can clarify the action mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). TCM is a comprehensive system of medical practice that has been used to diagnose, treat and prevent illnesses more than 3000 years. Metabolomics represents a powerful approach that provides a dynamic picture of the phenotype of biosystems through the study of endogenous metabolites, and its methods resemble those of TCM. Recently, metabolomics tools have been used for facilitating interactional effects of both Western medicine and TCM. We describe a protocol for investigating how metabolomics can be used to open up 'dialogue' between Chinese and Western medicine, and facilitate lead compound discovery and development from TCM. Metabolomics will bridge the cultural gap between TCM and Western medicine and improve development of integrative medicine, and maximally benefiting the human. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hou, Feixia; Wen, Longlian; Peng, Cheng; Guo, Jinlin
Seahorse documented in Chinese pharmacopeia possess important medicinal efficacy and are used as an ingredient in traditional Chinese medicines. The growing international trade threatens the species. DNA barcoding holds a great application potentiality in wildlife conservation and might prevent the illegal trade of threatened species. The COI gene was used to identify seahorse, and nine Hippocampus species were found in the three large traditional Chinese medicines markets of China. All inter-specific genetic variations were larger than 2%. Mean genetic distances between species were 17-fold larger than those within the species. Phylogenetic tree showed that each species clustered in the appropriate branch. All results demonstrated that COI-based barcoding technique could be used to identify seahorse species and played a major role in monitoring the seahorse trade.
Guo, Hong-Ling; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang
To establish a characterization system of traditional Chinese medicinal properties in line with modern scientific cognition regularity, in order to reveal properties of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian and relations of effects of medicinal properties. By collecting data about traditional Chinese medicinal properties recorded in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2005 Edition), literature and data about pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines recorded in the Chinese Materia Medica, by using the method of association rules, the authors dug pharmacological effect rules corresponds to relevant medicinal property combinations, with the medicinal property combination of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian as the target. It was found that either obvious different pharmacological effects or identical pharmacological characteristics existed in traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian. With the aim to explore the correlations between traditional Chinese medicine medicinal properties and pharmacological effects, the authors linked the traditional Chinese medicine theory with modern research achievements, in order to provide the ideas and methods for interpreting mechanisms of medicinal properties.
Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng
As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. W...
Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li
This paper briefly analyzes the bottlenecks and major technical requirements for pharmaceutical industry of Chinese medicine, providing current status of pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine. The innovation directions and strategies of the pharmaceutical engineering for manufacturing Chinese medicine are proposed along with the framework of their core technology. As a consequence, the development of the third-generation pharmaceutical technology for Chinese medicine, featured as "precision, digital and intelligent", is recommended. The prospects of the pharmaceutical technology are also forecasted.
Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Yang, Guang
The supply of Chinese patent medicine is influenced by the price of raw materials (Chinese herbal medicines) and the stock of resources. On the one hand, raw material prices show cyclical volatility or even irreversible soaring, making the price of Chinese patent medicine is not stable or even the highest cost of hanging upside down. On the other hand, due to lack of resources or disable some of the proprietary Chinese medicine was forced to stop production. Based on the micro-service architecture and Redis cluster deployment Based on the micro-service architecture and Redis cluster deployment, the supply security monitoring and analysis system for Chinese patent medicines in national essential medicines has realized the dynamic monitoring and intelligence warning of herbs and Chinese patent medicine by connecting and integrating the database of Chinese medicine resources, the dynamic monitoring system of traditional Chinese medicine resources and the basic medicine database of Chinese patent medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Zhao, Zhongzhen
China and India have a long history in the therapeutic application of botanical drugs in traditional medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are considered as two of the most ancient systems of medicine, with history of more than two millennia. Medicinal plants are the principal medicinal materials used in both these systems. This review discusses about the histories of Ayurveda and TCM, the common medicinal plants species, the drug processing strategies used, and the current statuses of these traditional systems of medicine (TSM). Through the views presented in this article, we aim to provide a new perspective to herbal drug researchers for expanding and improving the utilization of botanical drugs and their therapeutic applications. A bibliographic investigation of Chinese and Indian pharmacopoeias, monographs and official websites was performed. Furthermore, information was obtained from scientific databases on ethnobotany and ethno medicines. The review of Ayurveda and TCM ethno medicine indicates that both these systems have many medicinal materials in common. The studies carried out by the authors for comparison of plants from same genus from both these TSM's have been discussed to further bring focus to the utilization of "qualitatively" similar species which can be utilized and substituted for endangered or economically valued species. The overview of ancient literature and scientific findings for drugs in both these systems suggests that, the botanical drugs used in common and their processing methods can be explored further for extensive utilization in traditional medicine. This review describes the histories, common medicinal plant species, their processing methods and therapeutic applications in Ayurveda and TCM. The insights provided through this article may be used by herbal drug researchers and pharmacologists for further exploration of botanical drugs from these two traditional systems of medicine. Copyright © 2016. Published by
Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Kardi, Karima; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz
The use of folk medicine has been widely embraced in many developed countries under the name of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) and is now becoming the mainstream in the UK and the rest of Europe, as well as in North America and Australia. Diversity, easy accessibility, broad continuity, relatively low cost, base levels of technological inputs, fewer side effects, and growing economic importance are some of the positive features of folk medicine. In this framework, a critical need exists to introduce the practice of folk medicine into public healthcare if the goal of reformed access to healthcare facilities is to be achieved. The amount of information available to public health practitioners about traditional medicine concepts and the utilization of that information are inadequate and pose many problems for the delivery of primary healthcare globally. Different societies have evolved various forms of indigenous perceptions that are captured under the broad concept of folk medicine, e.g., Persian, Chinese, Grecian, and African folk medicines, which explain the lack of universally accepted definitions of terms. Thus, the exchange of information on the diverse forms of folk medicine needs to be facilitated. Various concepts of Wind are found in books on traditional medicine, and many of those go beyond the boundaries established in old manuscripts and are not easily understood. This study intends to provide information, context, and guidance for the collection of all important information on the different concepts of Wind and for their simplification. This new vision for understanding earlier Chinese medicine will benefit public health specialists, traditional and complementary medicine practitioners, and those who are interested in historical medicine by providing a theoretical basis for the traditional medicines and the acupuncture that is used to eliminate Wind in order to treat various diseases.
Full Text Available The use of folk medicine has been widely embraced in many developed countries under the name of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM and is now becoming the mainstream in the UK and the rest of Europe, as well as in North America and Australia. Diversity, easy accessibility, broad continuity, relatively low cost, base levels of technological inputs, fewer side effects, and growing economic importance are some of the positive features of folk medicine. In this framework, a critical need exists to introduce the practice of folk medicine into public healthcare if the goal of reformed access to healthcare facilities is to be achieved. The amount of information available to public health practitioners about traditional medicine concepts and the utilization of that information are inadequate and pose many problems for the delivery of primary healthcare globally. Different societies have evolved various forms of indigenous perceptions that are captured under the broad concept of folk medicine, e.g., Persian, Chinese, Grecian, and African folk medicines, which explain the lack of universally accepted definitions of terms. Thus, the exchange of information on the diverse forms of folk medicine needs to be facilitated. Various concepts of Wind are found in books on traditional medicine, and many of those go beyond the boundaries established in old manuscripts and are not easily understood. This study intends to provide information, context, and guidance for the collection of all important information on the different concepts of Wind and for their simplification. This new vision for understanding earlier Chinese medicine will benefit public health specialists, traditional and complementary medicine practitioners, and those who are interested in historical medicine by providing a theoretical basis for the traditional medicines and the acupuncture that is used to eliminate Wind in order to treat various diseases.
Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie
Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research.
White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane
There is a paucity of research into the perceptions of elderly Australian ethnic minorities towards public health services related to quality use of medicines. Among the six fastest growing ethnic groups in Australia, the Mandarin-speaking Chinese and Vietnamese constitute the largest elderly populations with poor English skills. This paper investigates the relationships of elderly Chinese and Vietnamese migrants with medicines, general practitioners and pharmacists, and how these relationships influence their awareness and attitudes of the home medicines review (HMR) program. Two semi-structured focus groups were held with a total of 17 HMR-eligible patients who have never received a HMR, one with Chinese and one with Vietnamese respondents, each in the respective community language. Confusion about medications and an intention to have a HMR were pronounced among all participants although none of them had heard of the program before participating in the focus groups. Respondents reported difficulties locating a pharmacist who spoke their native language, which contributed to an increased unmet need for medicine information. The Chinese group additionally complained about a lack of support from their general practitioners in relation to their medicine concerns and was adamant that they would prefer to have a HMR without the involvement of their general practitioner. Our results indicate a distinct HMR need but not use among elderly Chinese and Vietnamese eligible patients with poor English skills. Home medicines review service use and perceived medication problems are likely to improve with an increasing availability of bilingual and culturally sensitive health care providers.
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a traditional Chinese medicine, Jing Tong Yu Shu (JTYS) on endometriosis in a rat surgical model. Methods: Endometriosis was induced in 40 female rats. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: three JTYS groups given different doses of the drug, and a saline group. After four ...
Liu, Jie; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Fan, Hui-ting; Lin, Hong-sheng
Cancer treatment with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history. Heritage provides general conditions for the innovation and development of TCM in oncology. This article reviews the development of TCM in oncology, interprets the position and function of TCM for cancer prevention and treatment, summarizes the innovations of TCM in oncology over nearly fifty years, and suggests the development direction.
Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal polyps and chronic gastritis: A case report. ... Background: The rate of gastrointestinal adenomatous polyps, often regarded as precancerous lesions, developing into cancer is 40 – 70 %. Endoscopic resection has been the preferred method ...
Sun, M.; Wijk, R. van; Wijk, E. van; Wang, M.; Wietmarschen, H. van; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der
In Chinese medicine, raw herbal materials are used in processed and unprocessed forms aiming to meet the different requirements of clinical practice. To assure the chemical quality and therapeutic properties of the herbs, fast and integrated systematic assays are required. So far, such assays have
Jan 19, 2012 ... 1Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan 030032, China. 2Modern ... Two-month-old piglets were fed with 1, 1.5 and 2% immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs together with ..... saponins that are capable of activating immune system.
Background: The aims of this study are to evaluate and summarize the scientific production in the field of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: A systematic bibliometric search was performed based on the PubMed database covering relative publications between January 1, ...
Background and Objective: Bamboo salt, Calcined oyster, Drynaria fortunei, Indigo naturalis and Rehmannia glutinosa have been the main ingredients of many formulations in Chinese medicine for the treatment of toothache. This study evaluated the effect of a new desensitizing gel on dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Materials ...
Background: Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) must be processed before being prescribed to patients. During the processing, some CHMs became brown and as such 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) generated. Increasing attention is being paid to the safety and effectiveness of HMF. Methods: This paper summarized ...
Huan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029, China. *For correspondence: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel: (+86) 10-6428-6307; Fax: (+86) 10-6422-0858 ... pharmacopoeia, accounting for 57.14 % (32/56). The top three factors influencing dose ... herbal combination, property of Chinese herbs, quality of medicinal, have a strong ...
Full Text Available In present study I used the data from CHM-DATA, the interactive database of 1127 Chinese herbal medicines with 78 medicinal functions (attributes. The relational network for medicinal functions of Chinese herbal medicines was constructed using my earlier data and methods. Results of network analysis showed that the network is a scale-free complex network at the significance level of alpha=0.01. It was demonstrated that Clear away heat, Detoxification, Remove lung-heat or nourish lung, Promote secretion of saliva or body, Relieve pain, Regulate or enhance energy flow (Qi, Nourish or warm spleen / stomach / Qi, and Dispel endogenous wind, are the most influential medicinal functions. Seven main modules, corresponding links and module functions were identified and three of them were (Clear away heat, Detoxification, Relieve pain, Regulate or enhance energy flow (Qi, (Loosen the bowels, Moisten dryness, Tonify blood, Nourish essential fluid (Yin, Inhibit or break energy flow (Qi, and (Relieve external syndrome, Induce perspiration, Relieve muscular spasm, Expose exthanthema or promote eruption. PCA of 78 medicinal functions demonstrated that the medicinal functions 1-50 accounted for 79% of the total variance. There were not absolutely significant components and medicinal functions. The 78 components from PCA were substantially 78 independent and comprehensive medicinal functions. Major medicinal functions for every component can be simply determined by their importance and contribution coefficients in the component. New medicinal definition for some the most important principal components were given. Category characteristics of medicinal functions were described. At a certain level, for example, the medicinal functions -Consolidate or warm kidney, -Whet the appetite or reinforce stomach, Cool blood, -Regulate or enhance energy flow (Qi, -Nourish or warm spleen / stomach / Qi, Clear away heat, Detoxification, and Dispel endogenous cold, are the
Xiaofeng Zhang; Jianguo Ma; Junfa Qin; Lun Xiao
Elements in two kinds of 30 traditional Chinese medicines were analyzed by PIXE method, and the data were treated by multivariate statistical methods. The results show that these two kinds of traditional Chinese medicines are almost separable according to their elemental contents. The results are congruous with the traditional Chinese medicine practice. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs
Xin, Jie; Zhang, Rong-chao; Wang, Lei
Due to its incomparable advantages, the application of transcriptome sequencing in the study of traditional Chinese medicine attracts more and more attention of researchers, which greatly promote the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the applications of transcriptome sequencing in traditional Chinese medicine were summarized by reviewing recent related papers. PMID:28900463
Zhao, Ming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Sheng; Su, Shu-Lan; Wu, Qi-Nan; Tang, Yu-Ping; Zeng, Jian-Guo
The global antimicrobial resistance has been a big challenge to the human health for years. It has to make balance between the safety of animal products and the use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry. Any methods that can minimize or even phase out the use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry should be encouraged. We herein describe the research strategies for feed additives and veterinary medicines from the side products of Chinese medicine resources industrialization. Killing two birds with one stone-besides the major purposes, the rational utilization of non-medicinal parts and wastes of industrialization of Chinese herbal medicines is also achieved under the proposed strategies. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Dobos, Gustav; Tao, Iven
The basic concept of integrative medicine (IM) is that by combining mainstream (biomedicine) with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), synergistic therapeutic effects can be attained. When the methods of mind/body medicine (MBM) are added to this combination, as in Western countries, a new concept emerges that drastically changes the approach toward illness.It is interesting to note that the joining of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in the early days of the Peoples' Republic of China preceded the Western model of IM by almost 50 years. Several elements that make up the key components of IM as practiced today in the West were already present in the Chinese version of IM, and Chinese medicine has played and continues to play an important role in advancing IM. However, one of the major differences between the Chinese and the Western models of IM today, besides MBM and some other treatment options, is that Western integrative medicine (WIM) strictly requires its CAM methods to be supported by scientific evidence.The therapeutic methods of IM and their applications are many and varied. However, they are most frequently employed to treat chronic medical conditions, e.g., bronchial asthma, rheumatic disease, chronic inflammatory bowel disorder and chronic pain. Other fields in which IM may be applied are internal medicine (inflammatory bowel diseases and cardiovascular diseases), musculoskeletal disorders, oncology (chemotherapy-induced side effects), obstetrics and gynecology (dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, infertility and menopausal complaints), pediatrics, geriatrics, neurology (migraine and chronic headache), and psychiatry (anxiety and depression).The concept of WIM is discussed here in detail by reviewing its scope and implications for the practice of medicine and focusing on the role of Chinese medicine in WIM.
Li, Guofu; Zhao, Haoru; Yang, Jin
In order to prove safety and efficacy, herbal medicines must undergo the rigorous scientific researches such as pharmacokinetic and bioavailability, before they are put on the market in the foreign countries. Botanical Drug Products promulgated by the US FDA could guide industry sponsors to develop herbal drugs, which was also an important reference for investigating Chinese herbal medicines. This paper reviews and discusses novel approaches for how to assess systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic of Chinese herbal medicines, which were in line with FDA guidance. This mainly focus on identifying pharmacokinetic markers of botanical products, integral pharmacokinetic study of multiple components, Biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system, and population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study in herb-drug interaction.
Yu, Bei-Bei; Gong, Xiu-Lin
With the current trend of globalization, unprecedented opportunities and enormous changes have emerged for the global development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, many old and new challenges and problems still remain, including partial or limited comprehension of acupuncture, oriental medicine and TCM, the existence of non-standardized institutes of TCM and acupuncture training schools, unqualified TCM practitioners, and problems concerning Chinese herbal medicine and inexperience in conducting TCM business. These problems will doubtlessly impede the further development of TCM worldwide in the foreseeable future. It is also clear that the globalization of TCM will require a large scale systematic project and constitute an arduous historical task. This paper aims to consolidate 6 strategic development modes to reinforce and facilitate the process of TCM globalization through a detailed analysis of both the present status and existing problems concerning the development of TCM in the United States.
Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi
Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes.
Full Text Available Chinese medicine syndrome (CMS, “ZHENG” in Chinese is an understanding of the regularity of disease occurrence and development as well as a certain stage of a comprehensive response of patients with body condition. However, because of the complexity of CMS and the limitation of present investigation method, the research for deciphering the scientific basis and systematic features of CMS is difficult to go further. Metabolomics enables mapping of early biochemical changes in disease and hence provides an opportunity to develop predictive biomarkers. Moreover, its method and design resemble those of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM which focuses on human disease via the integrity of close relationship between body and syndromes. In the systemic context, metabolomics has a convergence with TCM syndrome; therefore it could provide useful tools for exploring essence of CMS disease, facilitating personalized TCM, and will help to in-depth understand CMS. The integration of the metabolomics and CMS aspects will give promise to bridge the gap between Chinese and Western medicine and help catch the traditional features of CMS. In this paper, particular attention will be paid to the past successes in applications of robust metabolomic approaches to contribute to low-molecular-weight metabolites (biomarkers discovery in CMS research and development.
Wu, Hao; Zhong, Rong-Ling; Xia, Zhi; Huang, Hou-Cai; Zhong, Qing-Xiang; Feng, Liang; Song, Jie; Jia, Xiao-Bin
In recent years, the proportion of traditional Chinese medicine in scientific research and its clinical use increased gradually. The research result also becomes more and more valuable, but in the process of using traditional Chinese medicine, it also needs to pay more attention. With the gradual deepening of the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine, some traditional Chinese medicines have also been found to have the potential toxicity, with the exception of some traditional toxicity Chinese medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine in the growth, processing, processing, transportation and other aspects of pollution or deterioration will also cause the side effects to the body. Clinical practice should be based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine to guide rational drug use and follow the symptomatic medication, the principle of proper compatibility. The constitution of the patients are different, except for a few varieties of traditional Chinese medicines are natural herbs with hepatotoxicity, liver toxicity of most of the traditional Chinese medicine has idiosyncratic features. The liver plays an important role in drug metabolism. It is easy to be damaged by drugs. Therefore, the study of traditional Chinese medicine potential liver toxicity and its toxic components has become one of the basic areas of traditional Chinese medicine research. Based on the review of the literatures, this paper summarizes the clinical classification of liver toxicity, the pathogenesis of target cell injury, and systematically summarizes the mechanism of liver toxicity and toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine. This paper provided ideas for the study of potential liver toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine and protection for clinical safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a kind of chronic general immunological disease with primary clinical characteristic being joint synovitis, and no specific treatment has been found at present. In China, its morbidity is in an increasing trend, and also shows a trend of getting younger. RA is complicated in symptoms and chronic disease course, leading to joint ankylosis, deformity and even disability, which seriously threaten patients' psychological and physical health as well as the quality of life (QOL. RA, which belongs to “ Bi” symdrome, is termed as “arthroncus of knee” or “severe and migratory arthralgia” in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, for which TCM focuses on expelling wind to remove cold, tonifying qi to activate blood and dispelling dampness to smooth collaterals while the western medicines mainly based on the principles of anti-inflammation, analgesia and inhibiting autoimmune response. However, both Chinese and western medicines have certain advantages in treating RA. Therefore, this study primarily reviewed the advances of Chinese and western medicines in RA treatment in the hope of providing theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of RA.
Wei, Zhenzhen; Feng, Suxiang; Fang, Xiaoyan; Miao, Mingsan
Purposes: To sum up the characteristics of Chinese medicine with Sophora Japonica and provide reference for the research, development and utilization of the Chinese medicine of Sophora japonica in the future. Methods: The author sums up the forms, functions, indications, usage, dosage and contraindications of the proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora Japonica in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the Ministerial standards. In addition, we will inquire about the clinical application of proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora japonica in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Results: The proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora Japonica was widely used in the treatment of various diseases in clinic, but it was taken orally and without any external use of Chinese patent medicine. Moreover, in most of the proprietary Chinese medicine, Sophora japonica was used as a supplement; In addition, the causes of adverse reactions were not analyzed, and the safety of the drugs needed to be further analyzed. Conclusions: To make clear the role of Sophora japonica in proprietary Chinese medicine, we can develop the Chinese medicine new dosage forms of Sophora japonica; The Chinese medicine is made up of a variety of single herbs, some are toxic drugs, when an adverse reaction occurs, We should analyze the specific causes and avoid the occurrence of adverse reactions. In addition, Sophora japonica is a traditional herbal medicine and food in China; we can expand the application in other areas and explore the pharmacological and toxicological pathology.
Full Text Available The clinical efficacy and safety of proprietary Chinese medicine has become a more prevailing public health concern. The China Food and Drug Administration has pushed drug companies to conduct post-marketing reappraisal for proprietary Chinese medicine to provide additional evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of these medicine. In this paper, we propose a reappraisal protocol called “precise proprietary Chinese medicine” to precisely i define the therapeutic aim; ii design the protocol; iii control the quality of proprietary Chinese medicine; iv implement the protocol in the trial; v study the mechanism-of-action of the proprietary Chinese medicine and vi describe the indications of the proprietary Chinese medicine. We hope that these steps facilitate the post-marketing reappraisal of proprietary Chinese medicine.
Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua
Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs. PMID:27656240
Chang, Leanne; Basnyat, Iccha
In this article we examine how elderly Chinese Singaporean women navigated between biomedicine and traditional Chinese medicine in their practices of maintaining well-being. We interviewed 36 elderly women to understand their negotiation of medical choices in the interplay of structure, culture, and personal agency. Our findings show that participants made situational decisions under structural and cultural influences, such as family members' changing expectations and interpretations of medical practices, institutional preferences for biomedicine, and the patients' negotiating position between biomedicine and traditional Chinese medicine. Participants demonstrated their capacity to enact agency through their examination of the effects and side effects of each medical system and through their integrative use of different medical treatments, depending on the purpose. Through our findings, we unveil contextual meanings of health among elderly women and the unique coexistence of traditional and modern medical practices within the context of Singapore. © The Author(s) 2014.
This book aims to identify, understand and qualify barriers to the patient-centred knowledge sharing (KS) in interprofessional practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Western Medicine (WM) healthcare professionals in Chinese hospitals. This collaboration is particularly crucial and unique to China since, contrary to Western practice, these two types of professionals actually work together complimentary in the same hospital. This study adopted a Grounded Theory approach as the overarching methodology to guide the analysis of the data collected in a single case-study design. A public hospital in central China was selected as the case-study site, at which 49 informants were interviewed by using semi-structured and evolving interview scripts. The research findings point to five categories of KS barriers: contextual influences, hospital management, philosophical divergence, Chinese healthcare education and interprofessional training. Further conceptualising the research findings, it is identifie...
He, Ping; Li, Feng-Jie; Li, Lian-da; Li, Yi-Kui
Safety issues of traditional Chinese medicine injections has been heated debate. There are two diametrically opposed views: it should be used reasonable and developed healthily or be forbidden to use. Some people have many misunderstandings and prejudices about the safety of traditional Chinese medicine injections. Compared with western medicine,traditional Chinese medicine has its own particularity. Traditional Chinese medicine has complex components. Its research and clinical application is different from western medicine. Adverse reactions of traditional Chinese medicine injections are related to many factors,such as a large number of irrational use,blind use of traditional Chinese medicine injections and western medicine injections,counterfeit and substandard drugs,incorrect methods of intravenous infusion,toxicity of supplementary materials,drug ingredients. Developing traditional Chinese medicine injection is the need for curing sickness to save patients. The purposeful, targeted, organized and planned systematic research of traditional Chinese medicine injections should be strengthened,especially the safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Strengthen supervision and control of rational drug use.Strengthen the examination and approval,supervision and management of all aspects to ensure the safety of patients. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Wu, Wenxun; Yin, Detao; Yang, Weimin; Kan, Quancheng; Liu, Zhangsuo; Ren, Xiaoyan; Zhai, Chenguang; Zhang, Shengjun
A thyroid nodule is a discrete lesion within the thyroid gland that might be palpable and is ultrasonographically distinct from the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Thyroid nodules are more common as age increases and occur more frequently in women. Benign thyroid nodules often cause pressure symptoms and cosmetic complaints. In China and many other countries, doctors use Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) to treat thyroid nodules. To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules in adults. Review authors searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP information (a Chinese database), WANFANG Data (a Chinese database), the Chinese Conference Papers Database and the Chinese Dissertation Database (all searched up to April 2013). Randomised controlled trials comparing CHM or CHM plus levothyroxine versus levothyroxine, placebo or no treatment in adults with benign thyroid nodules. Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias and evaluated overall study quality according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation), with differences resolved by consensus. We included one randomised trial involving 152 participants with a randomisation ratio of 2:1 (CHM vs no treatment). The trial applied adequate sequence generation; however, allocation concealment was unclear. Duration of treatment was three months, and follow-up six months. Our a priori defined outcomes of interest (i.e. nodule volume reduction ≥ 50%; pressure symptoms, cosmetic complaints or both; health-related quality of life; all-cause mortality; cancer occurrence; changes in number and size of thyroid nodules; changes in thyroid volume; and socioeconomic effects) were not investigated in the included study. Thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and tri
Dai, Cheng-En; Li, Hai-Long; He, Xiao-Ping; Zheng, Fen-Fen; Zhu, Hua-Liu; Liu, Liang-Feng; Du, Wei
The pharmacological activity of active ingredients from Chinese medicine depends greatly on the microecological environment of probiotics in the human body. After effective ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines are metabolized or biotransformed by probiotics, their metabolites can increase pharmacological activity, and can be absorbed more easily to improve the bioavailability. Therefore, the combination of Chinese medicines with probiotics is the innovation point in R&D of functional food and Chinese medicines, and also a new thinking for the modernization of Chinese medicine.This review summarizes and analyses the research progress on metabolism effects of gut microbiota on Chinese medicines components, the regulating effect of effective ingredients from Chinese medicine on intestinal probiotics, the application status of probiotics in traditional Chinese medicines, and the main problems and prospects in the research and development of Chinese medicines products with probiotic, aiming to provide theoretical guidance and practical value for the fermentation engineering of Chinese herbal medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Xiao, Shui-Ming; Bai, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-Yan
Gene is the base of in vivo metabolism and effectiveness for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), and the gene expression, regulation and modification are used as the research directions to perform the TCM multi-component, multi-link and multi-target in vivo metabolism studies, which will improve the research on TCM metabolic proecess, effect target and molecular mechanism. Humans are superorganisms with 1% genes inherited from parents and 99% genes from various parts of the human body, mainly coming from the microorganisms in intestinal flora. These indicate that genetically inherited human genome and "second genome" could affect the TCM in vivo metabolism from inheritance and "environmental" aspects respectively. In the present paper, typical case study was used to discuss related TCM in vivo metabolic genomics research, mainly including TCM genomics research and gut metagenomics research, as well as the personalized medicine evoked from the individual difference of above genomics (metagenomics). Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Li, Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Meng; Zhang, Tian; Yang, Guang
Seeds and seedlings are the material basis of traditional Chinese medicine materials production, and the construction of traditional Chinese medicine materials seed and seedling breeding bases is beneficial to the production of high-quality traditional Chinese medicine materials. The construction of traditional Chinese medicine materials seed and seedling breeding bases is one of the major topics of Chinese medica resources census pilot. Targets, tasks of traditional Chinese medicine materials seed and seedling breeding bases based on Chinese medica resources census pilot were expounded.Construction progress including hardware construction, germplasm conservation and breeding, procedures and standardsestablishment, social servicesare presented. Development counter measures were proposed for the next step: perfect the standard and system, maintain and strengthen the breeding function, strengthen the cultivation of multi-level talents, explore market development model, joint efforts to deepen services and development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Zhang, Wei; Sun, Qinglei; Liu, Jianhua
Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) have been widely used for healing of different health problems for thousands of years. They have been used as therapeutic, complementary and alternative medicines. TCMs usually consist of dozens to hundreds of various compounds, which are extracted from raw...... herbal sources by aqueous or alcoholic solvents. Therefore, it is difficult to correlate the pharmaceutical effect to a specific lead compound in the TCMs. A detailed analysis of various components in TCMs has been a great challenge for modern analytical techniques in recent decades. In this chapter...
Zou Zhaohui; Zhao Junqi; Deng Gangqiao; Wang Qian; Li Wenge; Peng Ling; Luo Zhiping
One batch of Jinsuo pills, a kind of Chinese herbal medicine, treated by standardized irradiation process but failed to meet the sanitation requirement. Radiation resistant microbe was separated from the pills sample and the Gram stain showed positive, the colony of the microbe is milky white and concentric circle shape. It is observed as one of bacillus by microscope, its D 10 values in physiological saline and filter paper are 6.75 and 7.18 kGy, respectively. (authors)
Liu, Dan; Jia, Xiaobin; Yu, Danhong
On the road of the modern Chinese medicine developing internationally, there is a key issues that setting up a reasonable, accurate and be quantified quality evaluation system which is comply with the basic theory of Chinese medicine. Based on the overall understanding of the role of traditional Chinese medicine components, author suggested that the idea of "structural components" theory should be embedded into the system and thought the Chinese medicine play a multi-target, multi-channel pharmacodynamic effects founded on the specific microcosmic structural relationship between the components and the components within the group. At present, the way of Chinese pharmacopoeia checking the quality of Chinese medicine is mainly depends on controlling the single or multiple targets of ingredients. In fact, this way is out of the overall effectiveness of the Chinese medicine, so we can not thoroughly controlling the quality of Chinese medicine from the essence of the Chinese medicine. Secondly, it's only macro-structural quantity that the Chinese pharmacopoeia just controlling the less effective ingredients, this is not enough to reflect the internal microstructure of the integrity and systematic. In other words, this cannot reflect the structural components of the Chinese medicine (the essence of traditional Chinese medicine). In view of above mentioned reasons, the author propose the new idea on the quality control in the medicine that quantify the ratio structural relationship in component and the ingredients of the components, set the optimal controlling proportion between the components and ingredients. At the same time, author thought we should conduct the depth study in the micro-quantified the multi-component and multi-ingredient, in the process of studying the material basis of Chinese medicine. Therefore, it could establish a more rational basis for the Chinese medicine quality controlling system.
Ma, Li; Chen, Shuangjie; Yang, Yongguang
To analyze the bacteriostatic effect of Chinese traditional herbal medicines on E. coli, total 35 different preparations (decoction, volatile oil and distillate) of Chinese traditional herbal medicines were tested using plate culture method. The results showed that 18 preparations of traditional Chinese herbal medicines have different inhibition effect on E. coli in vitro. The results also revealed that different process and combination affect the bacteriostatic effect and different medicines...
Yu, Wenjun; Ma, Mingyue; Chen, Xuemei; Min, Jiayu; Li, Lingru; Zheng, Yanfei; Li, Yingshuai; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qi
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Japanese-Chinese medicine, and Korean Sasang constitutional medicine have common origins. However, the constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea differ because of the influence of geographical culture, social environment, national practices, and other factors. This paper aimed to compare the constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea in terms of theoretical origin, constitutional classification, constitution and pathogenesis, clinical applications and basic studies that were conducted. The constitutional theories of the three countries are all derived from the Canon of Internal Medicine or Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases of Ancient China. However, the three countries have different constitutional classifications and criteria. Medical sciences in the three countries focus on the clinical applications of constitutional theory. They all agree that different pathogenic laws that guide the treatment of diseases govern different constitutions; thus, patients with different constitutions are treated differently. The three countries also differ in terms of drug formulations and medication. Japanese medicine is prescribed only based on constitution. Korean medicine is based on treatment, in which drugs cannot be mixed. TCM synthesize the treatment model of constitution differentiation, disease differentiation and syndrome differentiation with the treatment thought of treating disease according to three categories of etiologic factors, which reflect the constitution as the characteristic of individual precision treatment. In conclusion, constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea have the same theoretical origin, but differ in constitutional classification, clinical application of constitutional theory on the treatment of diseases, drug formulations and medication.
Yan, Zhang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Ji-Yong; Wang, Wen-Quan
To find out the present situation and the development trend special fertilizer of the traditional Chinese medicina plants. By consulting a great deal of literatures on special fertilizer and fertilization on traditional Chinese medicine herbs, and based on the scientific research and manufacture experience of the author, and the theoretic actuality of the researches on the fertilization of traditional Chinese medicine herbs, the present study of the special fertilizer inside and outside of our country was analyzed. The view points of developing special fertilizer for Chinese traditional medicine were put forward, and the development trend of special fertilizer for traditional Chinese medicine herbs was forecasted.
Yang, Yi; Tian, Kan; Tian, Hong
Based on the in-depth analysis of the current situation of the exogenous pollution of Chinese medicine resources, this research mainly discusses the intrinsic link and practical significance between the development of circular economy in Chinese medicine resources and the control of the problem of the exogenous pollution from the perspective of circular economy, and proposes some suggestions to develop the recycling economy of Chinese medicine resources from the establishment of legal system, mechanism of development, production norms, industry standards and regulatory system of the recycling of Chinese medicine resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Wang, B.; Shi, S.; Li, B.; Wang, G.
Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) are natural products prepared from plants, minerals and animals, it is easy for contamination by microorganisms to occur; thus causing problems in complying with the requirements laid down for passing microbial limit tests. We selected some kinds of TCMs, including unprocessed materia medica, traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPMs) and chemical constituents for irradiation by 60 Co gamma ray and investigating the results in terms of microbiology, chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. We found no evidence of changes in most of the tested items, which indicates that the irradiation method could be employed for decontamination of TCMs. However, some chemical constituents of unprocessed materia medica, such as gentiopicrin in Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside in Radix Polygoni Multiflori, decomposed when these crude materials were irradiated with dose of 5kGy. Further study revealed that although the medicinal were altered by irradiation, the monomers of some of these chemical constituents were not affected. In addition to investigation of the items described above, the doses of irradiation were selected experimentally to ensure that, after irradiation, the TCMs passed the microbial limit tests described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The lowest possible doses were used in order to avoid any impairment of the quality and clinical efficacy of the effective ingredients of the TCMs. (author)
Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, which is related to many cardiac and cerebral vascular diseases, especially stroke. It can therefore increase cardiovascular mortality and all-cause death. The current treatments of AF remain to be western drugs and radiofrequency ablation which are limited by the tolerance of patients, adverse side effects, and high recurrence rate, especially for the elderly. On the contrary, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM with long history of use involves various treatment methods, including Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs or bioactive ingredients, Chinese patent medicines, acupuncture, Qigong, and Tai Chi Chuan. With more and more researches reported, the active roles of TCM in AF management have been discovered. Then it is likely that TCM would be effective preventive means and valuable additional remedy for AF. The potential mechanisms further found by numerous experimental studies showed the distinct characteristics of TCM. Some CHMs or bioactive ingredients are atrial-selective, while others are multichannel and multifunctional. Therefore, in this review we summarized the treatment strategies reported in TCM, with the purpose of providing novel ideas and directions for AF management.
Wang, C.F.; Jenq Yann Yang; Ming-Jenq Duo; Chang, E.E.
The concentration of certain toxic and essential elements in various raw materials of Chinese herbs and 'scientific Chinese medicine' were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Correlation of these elements as they exist in the raw materials and in the prescription of medicine were investigated and the approximate intake of elements by patients were estimated. Values of elements determined both by AAS and INAA presented excellent agreement. The ranges of elemental concentrations were found to vary from 10 4 to 10 -1 mg/kg in different kinds of herbs. All herbs exhibit extraordinary enrichment capabilities from the environment for elements such as Mn, Zn, Ca, K, Mg, Cd, Cu, Pb and As. Higher contents of Cd, Pb and As in herbs may be attributed to the uptake of these elements from polluted soil due to industrial and anthropogenic activities. It was found that commercial scientific Chinese medicine, SCDBT, contains more elemental concentrations than that of herbs used in the prescription, which may indicate that possible contamination could be caused by unknown ingredients added in the process. A much higher toxic elemental content, such as Pb, Cd and As, has been found in CFH and the daily intake of these elements by the patient will exceed the PTDI values. (author)
Wieland, Susan; Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Cheng, Ker; Berman, Brian M.
Abstract Background The Cochrane Collaboration, an international not-for-profit organization that prepares and maintains systematic reviews of randomized trials of health care therapies, has produced reviews summarizing much of the evidence on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Our objective was to review the evidence base according to Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods In order to detect reviews focusing on TCM, we searched the titles and abstracts of all reviews in Issue 4, 2008 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each review, we extracted data on the number of trials included and the total number of participants. We provided an indication of the strength of the review findings by assessing the reviewers' abstract conclusions statement. We supplemented our assessment of the abstract conclusions statements with a listing of the comparisons and outcomes showing statistically significant meta-analyses results. Results We identified 70 Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM, primarily acupuncture (n = 26) and Chinese herbal medicine (n = 42), and 1 each of moxibustion and t'ai chi. Nineteen (19) of 26 acupuncture reviews and 22/42 herbal medicine reviews concluded that there was not enough good quality trial evidence to make any conclusion about the efficacy of the evaluated treatment, while the remaining 7 acupuncture and 20 herbal medicine reviews and each of the moxibustion and t'ai chi reviews indicated a suggestion of benefit, which was qualified by a caveat about the poor quality and quantity of studies. Most reviews included many distinct interventions, controls, outcomes, and populations, and a large number of different comparisons were made, each with a distinct forest plot. Conclusions Most Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM are inconclusive, due specifically to the poor methodology and heterogeneity of the studies reviewed. Some systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence of Chinese medicine's benefits to certain patient populations
Yang, Nan; Chen, Juan; Hou, Xue-Feng; Song, Jie; Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiao-Bin
Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history in clinical application, and been proved to be safe and effective. In recent years, the toxicity and side-effects caused by the western medicine have been attracted much attention. As a result, increasing people have shifted their attention to traditional Chinese medicine. Nonetheless, due to the natural origin of traditional Chinese medicine and the lack of basic knowledge about them, many people mistakenly consider the absolute safety of traditional Chinese medicine, except for well-known toxic ones, such as arsenic. However, according to the clinical practices and recent studies, great importance shall be attached to the toxicity of non-toxic traditional Chinese medicine, in particular the hepatotoxicity. Relevant studies indicated that the toxicity of non-toxic traditional Chinese medicine is closely correlated with individual gene polymorphism and constitution. By discussing the causes and mechanisms of the hepatotoxicity induced by non-toxic traditional Chinese medicine in clinical practices, we wrote this article with the aim to provide new ideas for individualized clinical therapy of traditional Chinese medicine and give guidance for rational and safe use of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Zhao, Yufeng; Liu, Bo; He, Liyun; Bai, Wenjing; Yu, Xueyun; Cao, Xinyu; Luo, Lin; Rong, Peijing; Zhao, Yuxue; Li, Guozheng; Liu, Baoyan
Traditional Chinese patent medicines are widely used to treat stroke because it has good efficacy in the clinical environment. However, because of the lack of knowledge on traditional Chinese patent medicines, many Western physicians, who are accountable for the majority of clinical prescriptions for such medicine, are confused with the use of traditional Chinese patent medicines. Therefore, the aid-decision method is critical and necessary to help Western physicians rationally use traditional Chinese patent medicines. In this paper, Manifold Ranking is employed to develop the aid-decision model of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment. First, 115 stroke patients from three hospitals are recruited in the cross-sectional survey. Simultaneously, traditional Chinese physicians determine the traditional Chinese patent medicines appropriate for each patient. Second, particular indicators are explored to characterize the population feature of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment. Moreover, these particular indicators can be easily obtained byWestern physicians and are feasible for widespread clinical application in the future. Third, the aid-decision model of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment is constructed based on Manifold Ranking. Experimental results reveal that traditional Chinese patent medicines can be differentiated. Moreover, the proposed model can obtain high accuracy of aid decision.
Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian
The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry.
Full Text Available Due to increasing safety concerns regarding human consumption of fish products, an increasing number of medicinal chemicals are prohibited from use in aquaculture. As a result, Chinese herbal medicines are being increasingly used, coining the use of the term “green medicine.” Research shows that Chinese herbal medicines have many beneficial effects on fish, including growth promotion, enhancement of disease resistance, and improvement in meat quality. Many effective ingredients have been discovered in Chinese herbal medicines, which function to promote feed intake, improve meat flavor, and increase digestive enzyme activity. They also regulate and participate in processes that improve the specific and non-specific immunity of fish; however, the composition of Chinese herbal medicines is very complex and it is often difficult to identify the effective ingredients. This article reviews the latest research and application progress in Chinese herbal medicines regarding growth and feed utilization, immunity and disease resistance, and the meat quality of cultured fish. It also discusses research on the chemical constituents of classical Chinese medicinal herbs and problems with the application of Chinese herbal medicines in fish culture. This article concludes by proposing that future studies on Chinese herbal medicines should focus on how to cheaply refine and extract the effective ingredients in classical Chinese medicinal herbs, as well as how to use them efficiently in aquaculture.
Ye, Hui; Shi, Zong-Ming; Chen, Yao; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Xue-Zhi
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment requires the development of more effective therapies, mainly owing to the challenges posed by the bacterial resistance to antibiotics. In China, critically high infection and antibiotic resistance rates have limited the application of classic H. pylori eradication therapies. Consequently, researchers are attempting to find new solutions by drawing from traditional medicine. This article reviews basic scientific and clinical progress in the use of integrated Chinese and Western medicine (IM) to treat H. pylori; describes the conflicting results between in vivo and in vitro studies in this regard; discusses the observed clinical effects of IM, with emphasis on traditional patent medicines; and proposes a role for IM in both the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori, including the use of tongue manifestation as an early diagnostic method and capitalizing on IM's direct and indirect methods for enhancing antibiotic effect.
Friis-Møller, Alice; Christensen, J J; Fussing, V
with this microorganism seem to be rare, the fact that 37 of 46 strains characterized in this study have been found in Copenhagen indicates that under-reporting may occur. A. hominis is phenotypically relatively homogeneous but can be difficult to differentiate from other Actinobacillus species unless extensive...... biochemical testing is performed. Mannose-positive strains of A. hominis are especially difficult to differentiate from A. equuli. Attempts to identify A. hominis by automatic identification systems may lead to misidentifications. Ribotyping and DNA-DNA hybridization data show that A. hominis is a homogeneous...
Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Meng; Wang, Hui; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi
In literature, there are many information on the distribution of Chinese herbal medicine. Limited by the technical methods, the origin of Chinese herbal medicine or distribution of information in ancient literature were described roughly. It is one of the main objectives of the national census of Chinese medicine resources, which is the background information of the types and distribution of Chinese medicine resources in the region. According to the national Chinese medicine resource census technical specifications and pilot work experience, census team with "3S" technology, computer network technology, digital camera technology and other modern technology methods, can effectively collect the location information of traditional Chinese medicine resources. Detailed and specific location information, such as regional differences in resource endowment and similarity, biological characteristics and spatial distribution, the Chinese medicine resource census data access to the accuracy and objectivity evaluation work, provide technical support and data support. With the support of spatial information technology, based on location information, statistical summary and sharing of multi-source census data can be realized. The integration of traditional Chinese medicine resources and related basic data can be a spatial integration, aggregation and management of massive data, which can help for the scientific rules data mining of traditional Chinese medicine resources from the overall level and fully reveal its scientific connotation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Chen, Lih-Chi; Wang, Bi-Ru; Chen, I-Chin; Shao, Chun-Hui
To assess the patterns of use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used by women in Taiwan to treat menopausal symptoms. A retrospective review of the records of women who received CHM therapies for menopausal symptoms at the Traditional Medicine Center, Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, between January 2003 and December 2006. The average number of therapies per prescription, dosage, and duration of the prescription were recorded. The most commonly prescribed herbs and formulae were also recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The records of 3432 women who were administered a total of 19370 CHMs to treat symptoms of the menopause were reviewed. The average number of drugs per prescription was 5.64. Most of the prescriptions (97.1%) were prescribed to be taken 3 times a day. The most commonly prescribed Chinese herb was Leonurus heterophyllus. Jia-Wey-Shiau-Yau-San was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. CHM is commonly used in Taiwan for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. The efficacy and safety of CHM drugs used for the management of menopausal symptoms require further study. Copyright 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yong-Yan; Wang, Zhong
The modernization research on Fangji is not only an important approach to the improvement on the clinical effects of Chinese medicine, but also a representative field on the inheritance and innovation of Chinese medicine in this new historical period. For the rule of the combintions in Fangji, we proposed a hypothesis of "the holistic harmonious pharmacological effect", which is defined as the different efficacies of different combinations in Fangji deriving from the harmoniousness on the diversity of pharmacological effects like antagonism, complementarity, regulation, etc. In our paper, by analyzing the different pharmacological mechanisms in the differential genes and pathways for the additive effect on the combinations of gardenoside and baicalin as well as the synergy effect on the combinations of gardenoside and cholic acid, we introduced a developed analytical technique for the principle of comprehensive pharmacological effects, pointed out the encountered dilemma in the researches on the combinations in Fangji and at last proposed three transformations to the further researches in this fields. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Zhong, Yifei; Menon, Madhav C; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; He, John Cijiang
Because current treatment options for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited, many patients seek out alternative therapies such as traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is a lack of evidence from large clinical trials to support the use of traditional medicines in patients with CKD. Many active components of traditional medicine formulas are undetermined and their toxicities are unknown. Therefore, there is a need for research to identify active compounds from traditional medicines and understand the mechanisms of action of these compounds, as well as their potential toxicity, and subsequently perform well-designed, randomized, controlled, clinical trials to study the efficacy and safety of their use in patients with CKD. Significant progress has been made in this field within the last several years. Many active compounds have been identified by applying sophisticated techniques such as mass spectrometry, and more mechanistic studies of these compounds have been performed using both in vitro and in vivo models. In addition, several well-designed, large, randomized, clinical trials have recently been published. We summarize these recent advances in the field of traditional medicines as they apply to CKD. In addition, current barriers for further research are also discussed. Due to the ongoing research in this field, we believe that stronger evidence to support the use of traditional medicines for CKD will emerge in the near future. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Liu, Dan; Yu, Dan-Hong; Jia, Xiao-Bin
Traditional Chinese medicines have a long history, with a large quantity of efficient traditional Chinese medicines and prescriptions. However, the vast majority of pharmaceutical dose forms remain common preparations, with very few efficient, long-lasting and low-dose preparations. The sustain-release preparation allows sustained drug release in a longer period of time, maintains blood drug concentration, reduces the toxic effect and medication frequency, and improves medication compliance. Unlike monomer drugs, the material base of traditional Chinese medicine and compounds is multi-component, instead of single or several active monomers. Therefore, under the guidance of the Chinese medicine theories, modern multi-component sustained-release preparations were developed for oral traditional Chinese medicines, with the aim of finally improving the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines.
Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, β-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.
Li, S P; Yang, F Q; Tsim, Karl W K
Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease. As the rarity and upstanding curative effects of natural Cordyceps, several mycelial strains have been isolated from natural Cordyceps and manufactured in large quantities by fermentation technology, and they are commonly sold as health food products in Asia. In addition, some substitutes such as Cordyceps militaris also have been used and adulterants also confused the market. Therefore, quality control of C. sinensis and its products is very important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Herein, markers and analytical methods for quality control of Cordyceps were reviewed and discussed.
Acupuncture in Chinese medicine has been a treasure in Chinese traditional medicine for thousands of years. It is opposite to many basic theories in modern medicine in dynasties. Different from the cross compatibility and interactions among medical medicines, acupuncture in Chinese medicine has its own consolidation and inherent philosophical ideas. In view of this, how to discuss the philosophical ideas and its development of acupuncture in Chinese medicine becomes of great importance. It is crucial to clearly answer the three theoretical propositions in the development of acupuncture in Chinese medicine. Firstly, the differences in acupuncture should be identified between the ancient time and the modern time. The issues focus on the origin of Huangdi Neijing ( Yellow Emperor's Internal Medicine ) and its philosophical divergence. Secondly, the origin of acupuncture should be identified, whether it is from China or India. Thirdly, the differences in acupuncture should be identified between China and the west, focusing on the explanation and rectification of the interrelationship between the acupuncture in Chinese medicine and the western acupuncture. Hence, the basic features are discussed on the reality of acupuncture in Chinese medicine as well as its diversity. Finally, the proposition is extended on how to holistically grasp the philosophical foundation of acupuncture in Chinese medicine and its future trend.
Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel
Abstract Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest forms of medicine in the world. There has been a growing interest in TCM in Canada in terms of consumers and also among the research community. To cater for this interest, the Canadian Institute of Chinese Medicinal Research (CICMR) was established in 2004. Since its formation, CICMR has been organizing annual meetings. In 2008, the CICMR meeting, jointly organized with the Ontario Ginseng Innovation Research Centre, was held from October 16th to 19th, in London, Ontario, Canada. The meeting saw a number of participants and speakers from many countries who discussed TCM in a Canadian perspective. The talks and presentations focused on TCM practices in Asia and Canada; analytical techniques for unravelling the science behind TCM; basic and clinical research findings in the areas of cancer and cardiovascular diseases; safety and quality control issues; the regulatory and educational framework of TCM in Canada; and the latest findings in agricultural, chemical, and pharmacological research on ginseng from all over the world. The meeting successfully provided a platform for constructive discussions on TCM practices and research and education in Canada and the world.
Wang, Yu-Guang; Jin, Rui; Kong, Xiang-Wen; Zhang, Bing
The efficacy and safety of application of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) during the pregnancy is a hotspot among scholars. However, the traditional pregnancy contraindication content has certain historical limitations, and cannot meet the needs of the current pregnant women for rational drug use. We need to refine and interpret it with modern medical science. In this paper, we summarized the ancient and modern knowledge about pregnancy contradiction and tried to establish a grading safety system, based on the actual clinical practices and thte medication grading concept of western medicines. Specifically speaking, in this paper, we compared the connotations of forbidden/contradiction and cautious use, and focused on the safe herbs that included in the prescriptions for dietary therapy. Meanwhile, in this paper, we summarized the core content of the famous theories of ″You Gu Wu Yun (pregnancy disease)″ and ″Shuai Qi Da Ban Er Zhi (therapy during pregnancy)″, and studied the dangerous and unknown risk of TCMs during pregnancy. At last, a five-grade safety system of TCMs applied on the pregnant women was established, including forbidden, contraindicated, cautious, uncertain and available medicines. We classified medicines with the embryotoxicity (e.g. teratogenic, mutagenic, ageneisa), the traditional toxicity (e.g. abortion), the fierce herbal property (e.g. removing blood stasis, promoting Qi circulation) and reliable edible medicinal herbs. We also place an ″uncertain″ category based on objective reality. Meanwhile, 33 sample TCMs were preliminarily determined. This paper proposed the preference and ideas for the rational herbal use in pregnancy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great international interest. Recently, a new era for modernisation of TCM was launched with the successful completion of the Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era (GP-TCM) project, the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) coordination action on TCM research. This 3.5-year project that involved inputs from over 200 scientists resulted in the production of 20 editorials and in-depth reviews on different aspects of TCM that were published in a special issue of Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2012; volume 140, issue 3). In this narrative review, we aim to summarise the findings of the FP7 GP-TCM project and highlight the relevance of TCM to modern medicine within a historical and international context. Advances in TCM research since the 1950s can be characterised into three phases: Phase I (1950s-1970s) was fundamental for developing TCM higher education, research and hospital networks in China; Phase II (1980s-2000s) was critical for developing legal, economic and scientific foundations and international networks for TCM; and Phase III (2011 onwards) is concentrating on consolidating the scientific basis and clinical practice of TCM through interdisciplinary, interregional and intersectoral collaborations. Taking into account the quality and safety requirements newly imposed by a globalised market, we especially highlight the scientific evidence behind TCM, update the most important milestones and pitfalls, and propose integrity, integration and innovation as key principles for further modernisation of TCM. These principles will serve as foundations for further research and development of TCM, and for its future integration into tomorrow’s medicine. PMID:23763836
He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan
The purpose of post-marketing Chinese medicine re-evaluation is to identify Chinese medicine clinical indications, while designing scientific and rational of Chinese medicine symptoms items are important to the result of symptoms re-evaluation. This study give screening of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang re-evaluation as example that reference to principle dyslipidemia clinical research, academic dissertations, Xuezhikang directions, clinical expert practice experience etc. while standardization those symptom names and screening 41 dyslipidemia common symptoms. Furthermore, this paper discuss about the accoerdance and announcements when screening symptoms item, so as to providing a research thread to manufacture PRO chart for post-marketing medicine re-evaluation.
Li, Zhen-hao; Qian, Zhong-zhi; Cheng, Yi-yu
The evolution of the quality control concepts of medical products within the global context and the development of the quality control technology of Chinese medicine are briefly described. Aimed at the bottlenecks in the regulation and quality control of Chinese medicine, using Big Data technology to address the significant challenges in Chinese medicine industry is proposed. For quality standard refinements and internationalization of Chinese medicine, a technological innovation strategy encompassing its methodology, and the R&D direction of the subsequent core technology are also presented.
Liu, Jinxin; Liu, Xinxin; Gao, Lu; Wei, Yingqin; Meng, Fanyun; Wang, Yongyan
This paper describes the digital earth technology and its core technology-"3S" integration technology. The advance and promotion of the "3S" technology provide more favorable means and technical support for Chinese medicine resources survey, evaluation and appropriate zoning. Grid is a mature and popular technology that can connect all kinds of information resources. The author sums up the application of digital earth technology in the research of traditional Chinese medicine resources in recent years, and proposes the new method and technical route of investigation in traditional Chinese medicine resources, traditional Chinese medicine zoning and suitability assessment by combining the digital earth technology and grid.
Lu, Tu-Lin; Shan, Xin; Li, Lin; Mao, Chun-Qin; Ji, De; Yin, Fang-Zhou; Lang, Yong-Ying
Infestation, moldy and other phenomenon in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines is a problem that faced in the production of Chinese traditional medicine. The low productivity of traditional processing methods can not guarantee the quality of Chinese herbal medicines. Sulfur fumigation is the first choice of grassroots to process the Chinese herbal medicine with its low cost and easy operation. Sulfur fumigation can solve some problems in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines, but modern pharmacological studies show that long-term use of Chinese traditional medicine which is fumigated by sulfur can cause some serious harm to human liver, kidney and other organs. This paper conducts a review about the application history of sulfur fumigation, its influence to the quality of Chinese herbal medicines as well as domestic and foreign limits to sulfur quantity, and a brief introduction of the status of modern processing technologies in the processing of food and some Chinese herbal medicines, the problems ex- isting in the Chinese herbal medicines processing, which can provide a reference basis for the further research, development and application of investigating alternative technologies of sulfur fumigation.
Singh, Amrinder; Zhao, Kaicun
Insomnia is a condition with sleep problems and many people suffered from it. Chronic insomnia can last for long time and it will severely affect people's health and the quality of life. In conventional medicine, the most commonly used the medicine is benzodiazepine. It is effective but also has significant side effects. Patients try to use some kinds of alternative medicines. Chinese medicinal herbs and formulas have been used in the treatment of insomnia for more than 2000 years in China. In recent decades, Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in the Western countries. Many clinical studies including randomized controlled clinical trials and research on pharmacological action mechanisms of the herbs for treatment of insomnia have been conducted. It is very important and very helpful to review the published research papers to gather the available information for a critical analysis. This chapter evaluated the data from both of clinical studies and pharmacological researches on the therapeutic formulas and on some key herbs used in the treatment of insomnia. Clinical studies showed a very wide spectrum of herbs that were used in clinical treatment of insomnia. This was due to different syndrome patterns happened with insomnia. This brought complexity and difficulties to identify which are the essential key herbs or formulas. It was found Suanzaoren decoction (Ziziphus spinose decoction ) is the most frequently used formula for the treatment of insomnia. Based on the clinical data, several herbs were identified as most frequently used sedative and hypnotic herbs in Chinese herbal medicine including Suanzaoren (Ziziphus spinose ), Fuling (Poria cocos ), and Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis ). The underlying pharmacological action mechanisms discovered in the studies on some key herbs used in the treatment of insomnia were evaluated. The major pharmacological action mechanisms shared by most of the sedative herbs are to act through the neurotransmitter gamma
Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Li, Meng; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi
Based on the data collected by the census team in the national census information management system, the spatial autocorrelation analysis method was used to analyze the similarity of the richness of Chinese herbal medicine resources in the investigated counties. The results showed that the species richness in the investigated counties appeared a tendency to focus on the distribution of the characteristics. Among them, the areas with sparse resources are concentrated in most areas of the north of the Yangtze River, northwest and most areas of Tibet. The areas with abundant resources are concentrated in the areas south of the Yangtze River. The results showed that there were significant differences in the abundance of traditional Chinese medicine resources between regions. The results showed that there were significant differences in the abundance of traditional Chinese medicine resources between regions. Due to the large differences in the land area between the county and the richness of the types of traditional Chinese medicine resources, it is proposed to increase the land area of the traditional Chinese medicine resource census when allocating the fourth national census of Chinese medicine resources by the "factor method", and the richness of traditional Chinese medicine and other indicators, in order to give full play to the efficiency of transfer payment system. Based on the county area and the rich variety of traditional Chinese medicine resources, combined with the national drug resources census pilot work carried out, it is recommended to focus on attention and support in the national medicine resources census work, personnel team, funding, summary of results on the western and southern provinces. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Watsuji, Tadashi; Shinohara, Shoji; Arita, Seizaburo
The primary prevention of disease related to the lifestyle is an essential theme in medical research. Preventing before it arises is the important concept in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Since TCM, which emphasizes individual physical condition in medical treatment, has recently attracted considerable attention globally, objective diagnostic methods in TCM have been investigated in this work. Firstly, the fuzzy theory was applied to develop a tongue diagnosis supporting system based on the tongue diagnosis in TCM. Secondly, the usefulness of TCM health questionnaire was examined to identify individual physical condition. Our results suggest that the TCM health questionnaire is useful in the construction of a health supporting system based on TCM.
Ni, J. S.; Jin, W.; Zhao, B. N.; Zhang, X. L.; Wang, C.; Li, S. J.; Zhang, F. X.; Peng, G. D.
The wrist-pulse is a kind of signals, from which a lot of physiological and pathological status of patients are deduced according to traditional Chinese medicine theories. This paper designs a new optic fiber wrist-pulse sensor that based on a group of FBGs. Sensitivity of the optic fiber wrist-pulse measurement system reaches 0.05% FS and the range reaches 50kPa. Frequency response is from 0 Hz to 5 kHz. A group of typical pulse signal is given out in the paper to compare different status of patient. It will improve quantification of pulse diagnosis greatly.
Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan
In recent years, Delphi method has been widely applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical research. This article analyzed the present application situation of Delphi method in TCM clinical research, and discussed some problems presented in the choice of evaluation method, classification of observation indexes and selection of survey items. On the basis of present application of Delphi method, the author analyzed the method on questionnaire making, selection of experts, evaluation of observation indexes and selection of survey items. Furthermore, the author summarized the steps of application of Delphi method in TCM clinical research.
Tang, Haitao; Huang, Wenlong; Ma, Jimei; Liu, Li
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is currently the best-preserved and most influential traditional medical system with the largest number of users worldwide. In recent years, the trend of TCM adoption has increased greatly, but the process of TCM internationalization has suffered from a series of setbacks for both internal and external reasons. Thus, the process of TCM internationalization faces formidable challenges, although it also has favourable opportunities. Using SWOT analysis, this paper investigates the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for TCM. These findings can serve as references for TCM enterprises with global ambitions.
Smith Caroline A
Full Text Available Abstract Chinese medicine has been used to treat a variety of cancer-related conditions. This study aims to examine the prevalence and patterns of Chinese medicine usage by cancer patients. We reviewed articles written in English and found only the Chinese medicine usage from the studies on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Seventy four (74 out of 81 articles reported rates of CAM usage ranging from 2.6 to 100%. Acupuncture was reported in 71 out of 81 studies. Other less commonly reported modalities included Qigong (n = 17, Chinese herbal medicine (n = 11, Taichi (n = 10, acupressure (n = 6, moxibustion (n = 2, Chinese dietary therapy (n = 1, Chinese massage (n = 1, cupping (n = 1 and other Chinese medicine modalities (n = 19. This review also found important limitations of the English language articles on CAM usage in cancer patients. Our results show that Chinese medicine, in particular Chinese herbal medicine, is commonly used by cancer patients. Further research is warranted to include studies not written in English.
Liu, Yu-Qian; Zhan, Shu-Yu; Ruan, Yu-Er; Zuo, Zhi-Yan; Ji, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Shuai-Jie; Ding, Bao-Yue
Chinese medicinal formulae are the important means of clinical treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. It is urgent to use modern advanced scientific and technological means to reveal the complicated mechanism of Chinese medicinal formulae because they have the function characteristics of multiple components, multiple targets and integrated regulation. The systematic and comprehensive research model of proteomic is in line with the function characteristics of Chinese medicinal formulae, and proteomic has been widely used in the study of pharmacological mechanism of Chinese medicinal formulae. The recent applications of proteomic in pharmacological study of Chinese medicinal formulae in anti-cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, anti-liver disease, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-rheumatoid arthritis and other diseases were reviewed in this paper, and then the future development direction of proteomic in pharmacological study of Chinese medicinal formulae was put forward. This review is to provide the ideas and method for proteomic research on function mechanism of Chinese medicinal formulae. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li
A perspective analysis on the technological innovation in pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine unveils a vision on "Future Factory" of Chinese medicine industry in mind. The strategy as well as the technical roadmap of "Chinese medicine industry 4.0" is proposed, with the projection of related core technology system. It is clarified that the technical development path of Chinese medicine industry from digital manufacture to intelligent manufacture. On the basis of precisely defining technical terms such as process control, on-line detection and process quality monitoring for Chinese medicine manufacture, the technical concepts and characteristics of intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture as well as digital pharmaceutical manufacture are elaborated. Promoting wide applications of digital manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine is strongly recommended. Through completely informationized manufacturing processes and multi-discipline cluster innovation, intelligent manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine should be developed, which would provide a new driving force for Chinese medicine industry in technology upgrade, product quality enhancement and efficiency improvement. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Butler, Lee; Pilkington, Karen
Background. Alternative approaches for managing depression are often sought and herbal mixtures are widely used in China. The aim of this paper was to provide an overall picture of the current evidence by analysing published systematic reviews and presenting a supplementary systematic review of trials in Western databases. Methods. Searches were conducted using AMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and trial registers. Results were screened and selected trials were evaluated by two reviewers working independently. Systematic reviews were identified and assessed using key criteria. Results. Five systematic reviews were located addressing the Chinese literature, adjunctive use of Chinese herbs, and the formulae Chaihu-Shugan-San, Xiao Yao San, and Free and Easy Wanderer Plus. The supplementary review located 8 trials, 3 of which were not included in previous reviews. Positive results were reported: no significant differences from medication, greater effect than medication or placebo, reduced adverse event rates when combined or compared with antidepressants. However, limitations in methodology and reporting were revealed. Conclusions. Despite promising results, particularly for Xiao Yao San and its modifications, the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in depression could not be fully substantiated based on current evidence. Further well-designed, well-reported trials that reflect practice may be worth pursuing.
Wang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Li-ming; Han, Mei; Zhang, Ke-qing; Jiang, Jiao-jiao
To evaluation the clinical effect of combination of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine on Bell's palsy. 83 patients with Bell's palsy were randomly divided into two groups (trail group 54 cases and control group 29 cases). Patients in two groups were treated with medicine, acupuncture, physiotherapy, while patients in the trail group were treated with massage and functional exercise as the same time. The results of both groups were evaluated according to Portmann's Simple Scale. The score before treatment of trail group was 2.907 +/- 1.794, while control group was 2.931 +/- 2.034. And the score after treatment of trail group was 18.593 +/- 1.743, while control group was 9.862 +/- 3.091. Score of the function of facial muscles obtained from trail group was distinctly higher than that was from the control group (P Bell's palsy with combination of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine. The improvement of facial muscles' motive function pre- and post-treatment and quantitative evaluation of curative effect can be objectively obtained by evaluation of facial muscles' function.
He, Fu-Yuan; Zhou, Yi-Qun; Deng, Kai-Wen; Deng, Jun-Lin; Shi, Ji-Lian; Liu, Wen-Long; Yang, Yan-Tao; Tang, Yu; Liu, Zhi-Gang
The paper aimed to elucidate the specific impact of supramolecular chemistry on the Chinese medicine theories (CMT) in their modernization, after had summarized up the research status of supramolecular chemistry and analyzed the possible supramolecular forms of Chinese medicine (CM), as well as considered the problems in modernization of CM theories. On comparison of the classical chemistry that delt with chemical bonds among atoms, the supramolecular chemistry was rather concerned with varietes of weak noncovalent bonds intermolecules, and reflected the macro-apparent chemical properties of each molecules, and was the most appropriate chemical theories to explain the CMT and microcosmic materials. The molecules in the human body and Chinese material medica (CMM) formed supramolecules by way of self-assembly, self-organization, self-recognition and self-replication, with themselves or with complexation, composition, chelation, inclusion, neutralization etc. Meridian and Zang-fu viscera in CMT might be a space channel structure continuously consisted of unique molecules cavity that was imprinted with the supramolecularly template inside and outside of cells, through which the molecules in CMM interacted with the meridian and Zang-fu viscera. When small molecules in human body imprinted with macromolecules in meridian and Zang-fu viscera, in other words, they migrated along within imprinting channels of meridian and Zang-fu viscera on behavior of "Qi chromatography" impulsed by the heart beat, finally showed up on macroscopic the anisotropy of tissue and organ, as described namely as visceral manifestation in Chinese medical science. When small molecules in CMM interacted with imprinting channel on meridian and Zang-fu viscera, the natural properties and efficacy regularities of CMM was reflected on macroscopic. Therefore, the special representation forms of basic CMT is based on the macroscopic expression of "Qi chromatography" abided by imprinting effect
Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Boli
With the advent of big data era, our thinking, technology and methodology are being transformed. Data-intensive scientific discovery based on big data, named "The Fourth Paradigm," has become a new paradigm of scientific research. Along with the development and application of the Internet information technology in the field of healthcare, individual health records, clinical data of diagnosis and treatment, and genomic data have been accumulated dramatically, which generates big data in medical field for clinical research and assessment. With the support of big data, the defects and weakness may be overcome in the methodology of the conventional clinical evaluation based on sampling. Our research target shifts from the "causality inference" to "correlativity analysis." This not only facilitates the evaluation of individualized treatment, disease prediction, prevention and prognosis, but also is suitable for the practice of preventive healthcare and symptom pattern differentiation for treatment in terms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and for the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. To conduct clinical studies involved in big data in TCM domain, top level design is needed and should be performed orderly. The fundamental construction and innovation studies should be strengthened in the sections of data platform creation, data analysis technology and big-data professionals fostering and training.
Yee, Shen-Kuan; Chu, Swee-Seng; Xu, Yi-Min; Choo, Peck-Lin
In Singapore, there has been a growing public interest in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which plays an important role in the healthcare system. With effect from 1 September 1999, the control on Chinese Proprietary Medicines (CPM) was implemented in three phases over a span of 3 years. Under the CPM regulatory framework, CPM importers, wholesalers, manufacturers and re-packers must be licensed and CPM products assessed and listed by the health authority before they are allowed for sale. Product assessment is based on the criteria of safety and quality which include limits of toxic heavy metals and microbial contents. During the 3-year CPM listing exercise, irregularities were detected, including intrinsic toxicity, adulteration, substitution, contamination, misidentification, non-traditional and/or inappropriate usage, incorrect preparation, inappropriate labelling, exaggerated claims and/or advertising. The full implementation of CPM control by September 2001 saw the listing of 7943 CPM products and brought about an improvement in the quality and safety of CPM in Singapore as well as the removal of sub-standard, fake/imitation and adulterated products. The standards of practices by local CPM dealers have also been raised. These improvements have, in turn, increased the level of public confidence in CPM products in Singapore.
Anderson, Belinda J; Kligler, Benjamin; Cohen, Hillel W; Marantz, Paul R
Research literacy and the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) are important initiatives in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), which requires cultural change within educational institutions for successful implementation. To determine the self-assessed research and EBM perspectives of Chinese medicine Masters degree students at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, New York campus (PCOM-NY). A survey with 17 close-ended questions and one open-ended question was administered through Survey Monkey to students at PCOM-NY. The survey was sent to 420 Masters students and 176 (41.9%) responded. Students in all four years of the Masters degree indicated a generally high degree of interest in, and support for the value of research. However, increasing years (one to four years) in the program was associated with lower interest in post-graduation research participation and entering the doctoral program, and the fourth year students reported low levels of interest in having greater research content and training in their Masters degree programs. Students who responded to the open-ended question (23% of respondents) expressed enthusiasm for research and concerns about the relevance of research in Chinese medicine. Consistent with findings in similar studies at CAM colleges, interest in research, and EBM of the PCOM-NY Masters students appeared to decline with increasing years in the program. Concerns around paradigm and epistemological issues associated with research and EBM among Chinese medicine students and practitioners warrants further investigation, and may be an important challenge for integrative medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Rui; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Tian, Wei-Lan; Hou, Ji-Ru; Jin, Shi-Yuan; Wang, Yong-Yan
In this study, the origin and causes of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder were reviewed, and a comprehensive analysis was made for the time background of modern traditional Chinese medicine formula granules and the future development trend, in order to provide reference for application and promotion of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules. By reference to ancient medical books of previous dynasties, a system review was conducted for infancy, formation, maturity and transition of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder, and a comprehensive analysis was made for the six factors of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder's maturity in the Song Dynasty. Efforts were made to collect domestic and foreign research literatures of modern formula granules, understand the detailed development, and conduct an objective analysis of the current clinical application of modern formula granules. According to the comparative analysis for the application characteristics of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder and modern formula granules, ①the popularity of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder in the Song Dynasty has six factors: soaring numbers of medical students and medical practitioners, high medical expenses due to huge army, rapid population growth, frequent epidemics and increasing diseases, and insufficient finances of central and local governments. ②On the basis of clinical application characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules, traditional Chinese medicine formula granules contain extracted and concentrated effective components, which guarantee the curative effect, meet modern people's demands for "quick, simple and convenience" traditional Chinese medicine decoctions, show a relatively high cost performance; however, formula granules are restricted by their varieties and lack unified quality control standards, and single-extract formula granules have not synergy and attenuation effects of combined traditional
Li, Yan-Nian; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Wan, Na; Li, Yuan-Hui; Li, Hui-Ting; Yang, Ming
The compressibility of tablets is the essential operating unit during the preparation of traditional Chinese medicine tablets, as well as a complicated process. Therefore, it is of great significance to comprehensively study the influencing factors on the formation process. This paper aimed to review the evaluation methods for the tablet forming quality and highlight the effects of material powder properties, excipients and preparation technology on the quality of traditional Chinese medicine tablets on the basis of relevant literatures. Furthermore, the common problems in tablet forming process are also analyzed to provide useful references for the development of tablet forming quality of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Zhao, Li; Chan, Kelvin
This paper describes the methods and theories of patient-reported outcomes, in particular to the health-related quality of life recently applied in Chinese medicine research. It begins with an investigation of the reasons for a patient-reported outcomes measure for Chinese medicine and the development of a new health-related quality of life instrument based on Chinese culture and Chinese medicine. Discussions on the importance and application of patient-reported outcomes as well as the relationship between quality of life and Chinese medicine are at the focus of this paper. Through a description of the Chinese Quality of Life Instrument and its development, the present work demonstrates an evidence-based approach using patient-reported outcomes or health-related quality of life measures to evaluate treatment efficacy of Chinese medicine, and thereby build a bridge for the integration of Chinese medicine into mainstream health care.
Tianjin, as the earliest city to open up, the exchange of Chinese and Western cultures also started earlier. Therefore, today's emergency medicine system with integrated features of Chinese and Western medicine is formed. Professor Wang Jinda, who works in Tianjin First Center Hospital, makes the theory of "treating bronchitis and treating diseases" and "three methods of three syndromes" for the treatment of severe diseases such as sepsis. The surgical aspect is the treatment of acute abdomen with the combination of Chinese and Western medicine which is proposed by Academician Wu Xianzhong who worked in Tianjin Nankai Hospital. In the aspect of acupuncture and moxibustion, Professor Guo Yi, who works in Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, provides the twelve Jing points blood-letting therapy for cerebral diseases such as stroke. Professor Liu Xinqiao from the First Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine also conducts in-depth studies on brain protection after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). He proposes the importance of traditional Chinese medicine in addition to mild hypothermia and neuroprotective agents. The author summarized these achievements, in light of which looked forward to the future and proposed the concept of establishing a multi-specialist collaboration and an emergency center with obvious characteristics of integrated Chinese and Western medicine, which would pave the way for the development of integrated Chinese and Western medicine first aid.
Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Qu, Xian-You; Li, Meng; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi
After the end of the national and local medicine resources census work, a large number of Chinese medicine resources and distribution of data will be summarized. The species richness between the regions is a valid indicator for objective reflection of inter-regional resources of Chinese medicine. Due to the large difference in the size of the county area, the assessment of the intercropping of the resources of the traditional Chinese medicine by the county as a statistical unit will lead to the deviation of the regional abundance statistics. Based on the rule grid or grid statistical methods, the size of the statistical unit due to different can be reduced, the differences in the richness of traditional Chinese medicine resources are caused. Taking Chongqing as an example, based on the existing survey data, the difference of richness of traditional Chinese medicine resources under different grid scale were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the 30 km grid could be selected and the richness of Chinese medicine resources in Chongqing could reflect the objective situation of intercropping resources richness in traditional Chinese medicine better. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Su, Chun-Xiang; Wang, Li-Qiong; Grant, Suzanne J; Liu, Jian-Ping
To assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of cancer-related fatigue. We systematically searched seven electronic databases and two trial registries for randomized clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicine for cancer-related fatigue. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included trials using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were synthesized using RevMan 5.2 software. A total of 10 trials involving 751 participants with cancer-related fatigue were identified and the methodological quality of the included trials was generally poor. Chinese herbal medicine used alone or in combination with chemotherapy or supportive care showed significant relief in cancer-related fatigue compared to placebo, chemotherapy or supportive care based on single trials. Chinese herbal medicine plus chemotherapy or supportive care was superior to chemotherapy or supportive care in improving quality of life. Data from one trial demonstrated Chinese herbal medicine exerted a greater beneficial effect on relieving anxiety but no difference in alleviating depression. Seven trials reported adverse events and no severe adverse effects were found in Chinese herbal medicine groups. The findings from limited number of trials suggest that Chinese herbal medicine seems to be effective and safe in the treatment of cancer-related fatigue. However, the current evidence is insufficient to draw a confirmative conclusion due to the poor methodological quality of included trials. Thus, conducting rigorously designed trials on potential Chinese herbal medicine is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cheng, Xu-Dong; Feng, Liang; Gu, Jun-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Jia, Xiao-Bin
Chinese medicine prescriptions are the wisdom outcomes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical treatment determinations which based on differentiation of symptoms and signs. Chinese medicine prescriptions are also the basis of secondary exploitation of TCM. The study on prescription helps to understand the material basis of its efficacy, pharmacological mechanism, which is an important guarantee for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Currently, there is not yet dissertation n the method and technology system of basic research on the prescription of Chinese medicine. This paper focuses on how to build an effective system of prescription research technology. Based on "component structure" theory, a technology system contained four-step method that "prescription analysis, the material basis screening, the material basis of analysis and optimization and verify" was proposed. The technology system analyzes the material basis of the three levels such as Chinese medicine pieces, constituents and the compounds which could respect the overall efficacy of Chinese medicine. Ideas of prescription optimization, remodeling are introduced into the system. The technology system is the combination of the existing research and associates with new techniques and methods, which used for explore the research thought suitable for material basis research and prescription remodeling. The system provides a reference for the secondary development of traditional Chinese medicine, and industrial upgrading.
Mai, Lan-Yin; Li, Yi-Xuan; Chen, Yong; Xie, Zhen; Li, Jie; Zhong, Ming-Yu
The compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) formulae containing enormous information, is a complex component system. Applications of mathematical statistics methods on the compatibility researches of traditional Chinese medicines formulae have great significance for promoting the modernization of traditional Chinese medicines and improving clinical efficacies and optimizations of formulae. As a tool for quantitative analysis, data inference and exploring inherent rules of substances, the mathematical statistics method can be used to reveal the working mechanisms of the compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines formulae in qualitatively and quantitatively. By reviewing studies based on the applications of mathematical statistics methods, this paper were summarized from perspective of dosages optimization, efficacies and changes of chemical components as well as the rules of incompatibility and contraindication of formulae, will provide the references for further studying and revealing the working mechanisms and the connotations of traditional Chinese medicines.
Wang, Peng-cheng; Zhao, Shan; Wang, Qiu-hong; Kuang, Hai-xue
In recent years, the discovery and studies on aquaporin have made us have a more in-depth understanding about the physiological and pathological processes of water metabolism. Over years, however, there has been no quantitative study on the target sites of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines at the molecular level. In that case, aquaporin was found to been a new target molecule to explain the efficacy exertion of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines. By studying aquaporin, researchers can understand the implicit meaning of the diuretic effect of traditional Chinese medicines and conduct quantitative studies on the diuretic effect. So far, many scholars have conducted a series of studies in the traditional Chinese medicine field by using the findings on aquaporin and made certain advances. This article provides a summary about the efficacy exertion of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines through target molecule aquaporin.
Zhang, Cheng-Bin; Li, En-Chang
Three features of ethics review in Chinese medicine (CM) and integrative medicine (IM) were put forward in this paper. It is consistent with the principles of ethical review in Western medicine; it has to be compliant with the laws of CM and IM; emphasis should be laid on the review of clinical practice facts and experience. Three problems were pointed out. The characteristics of CM and IM are not distinctive enough, operation procedures need to be refined and effectiveness remains to be improved. Based on the mentioned above, seven measures were proposed to improve the level and quality of ethics review in CM and IM, including better brand awareness, considerable tolerance, treatment based on disease differentiation and syndrome differentiation, scientific review and toxicity and side effects of CM, perfection of the ethics review system, reasonable procedures of ethics review and more specialized ethics review workers.
Over the past 4 decades Chinese medicine (CM) has come increasingly into the spotlight in the United States as the clinical effectiveness of CM has been not only empirically well-tested over a long period of time but also proven by recent scientific research. It has proven cost effectiveness, safety, and is authorized for natural and holistic approaches. In consideration, CM is one of the underutilized health care professions in the United States with a promising future. However, CM faces many challenges in its education and system, its niche in the health care system as an independent profession, legal and ethical issues. This paper discusses the confronting issues in the United States: present education, standards of CM education with shifting first professional degree level, new delivery systems of CM education. Development of new research models, training of evidence-based practice, and implementation of integrative medicine into CM education also are the key issues in the current CM profession. This paper also discusses opportunities for the CM profession going beyond the current status, especially with a focus on fusion medicine.
Fang Xingwang; Wu Jilan
The feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) by γ-irradiation has been systematically evaluated by the biological, toxicological and physicochemical tests on irradiated hundreds of TCMs. Those TCMs investigated in general show no significant biological or toxicological changes after irradiation, yet physicochemical changes are detectable in some irradiated TCMs, and water in TCMs enhances the effects. Those results obtained from radiolysis of some major effective components of TCMs in aqueous or ethanolic solutions reveal that the site selection of radiolytically generated radicals follows the example of simple compounds with same function groups. Wholesomeness and chemical clearance present a bright future to sterilizing TCMs by γ irradiation, however, some important measures and steps should be adopted: (1) The producers must strictly execute manufacturing procedure to reduce microbiological contamination thus lower the applied dose for sterilization which is recommended to be controlled under 5, 7 or 10 kGy for dry herb, 7 kGy for herbal medicine and 5 kGy for some special herbal medicine; (2) Herb to be sterilized by γ-irradiation should exist in possible dry state; (3) Powder TCMs is recommended to mix with honey forming bolus, which can minimize the decomposition of herb
Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Elizebeth, Antoinet Ramola; Yen, Ting-lin; Sheu, Joen-rong
Stroke is an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide but effective therapeutic strategy for the prevention of brain injury in patients with cerebral ischemia is lacking. Although tissue plasminogen activator has been used to treat stroke patients, this therapeutic strategy is confronted with ill side effects and is limited to patients within 3 h of a stroke. Due to the complexity of the events and the disappointing results from single agent trials, the combination of thrombolytic therapy and effective neural protection therapy may be an alternative strategy for patients with cerebral ischemia. Chinese medicine (CM) is the most widely practiced form of herbalism worldwide, as it is a sophisticated system of medical theory and practice that is specifically different from Western medicine. Most traditional therapeutic formulations consist of a combination of several drugs. The combination of multiple drugs is thought to maximize therapeutic efficacy by facilitating synergistic actions and preventing possible adverse effects while at the same time marking at multiple targets. CM has been labeled in ancient medicine systems as a treatment for various diseases associated with stroke. This review summarizes various CMs, bioactive compounds and their effects on cerebral ischemia.
Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Hong-Xia; Xu, Ying; Lin, Na
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds, which have a similarity in structure with human endogenous estrogen 17-β-estradiol. Structural likeness enables phytoestrogens to interact with estrogen receptors, not simply mimicking the effects of human steroidal estrogen but also exhibiting similar and divergent actions. The global literature relating to phytoestrogen in recent years was systematically summarized in this paper. Chemical compositions of phytoestrogens were mainly flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, terpenoids, steroids, etc., with a character of prevention and treatment of perimenopausal syndrome, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, metabolic diseases, cancer, regulation of brain function and other pharmacological effects. The mechanisms of action mainly included classical estrogen receptor pathway, epigenetic effect, activation of 5'-adenosyl-phospho-activated protein kinase, inhibition of kinase, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, regulation of apoptosis-related proteins, inhibition of nuclear factor κB signaling pathway and so on. According to their efficacy classification, phytoestrogens were mainly distributed in the tonifying medicines, blood-activating and stasis-resolving medicines and heat-clearing medicines. The classical prescriptions with estrogen activity included tonifying formula, Qi-regulating formula and harmonizing formula, etc. This review was aimed at providing a certain reference for the further study of phytoestrogens by researchers and clinicians. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Liao, Yueh-Hsiang; Li, Chia-Ing; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Li, Tsai-Chung
Traditional Chinese medicine is one of the popular alternative treatments for cancer, mainly enhancing host immune response and reducing adverse effect of chemotherapy. This study first explored traditional Chinese medicine treatment effect on long-term survival of lung cancer patients. This study evaluated whether traditional Chinese medicine combined with conventional cancer treatment improved overall survival of lung cancer patients. We had conducted a retrospective cohort study on 111,564 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients in 2000-2009 from National Health Insurance Program database. A total of 23,803 (21.31%) patients used traditional Chinese medicine for lung cancer care. Eligible participants were followed up until 2011 with a mean follow-up period of 1.96 years (standard deviation 2.55) for non-TCM users and 3.04 years (2.85) for traditional Chinese medicine users. Patients with traditional Chinese medicine utilization were significantly more likely to have a 32% decreased risk of death [hazard ratio = 0.62; 95% confidence interval = 0.61-0.63], compared with patients without traditional Chinese medicine utilization after multivariate adjustment. We also observed a similar significant reduction risk across various subgroups of chronic lung diseases. Qing Zao Jiu Fei Tang was the most effective traditional Chinese medicine agent for mortality reduction both in the entire lung cancer (0.81; 0.72-0.91) and matched populations (0.86; 0.78-0.95). This study demonstrated adjunctive therapy with traditional Chinese medicine may improve overall survival of lung cancer patients. This study also suggested traditional Chinese medicine may be used as an adjunctive therapy for cancer treatment. These observational findings need being validated by future randomized controlled trials to rule out the possibility of effect due to holistic care.
Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview on the regulations of Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs in various countries and regions. Harmonization of CMM monographs would provide standards for the quality control of CMM products and play an important role in the modernization and globalization of Chinese medicine. A harmonized regulatory system would improve the quality of CMMs thereby ensuring the safety of the products and assisting Chinese medicine practitioners in their practice. The fast growing demand worldwide for traditional medicines calls for harmonized monographic standards to safeguard the safety and quality of CMM products.
Zhang, Hong; Ni, Wandong; Li, Jing; Jiang, Youlin; Liu, Kunjing; Ma, Zhaohui
Standardization of electronic medical record, so as to enable resource-sharing and information exchange among medical institutions has become inevitable in view of the ever increasing medical information. The current research is an effort towards the standardization of basic dataset of electronic medical records in traditional Chinese medicine. In this work, an outpatient clinical information model and an inpatient clinical information model are created to adequately depict the diagnosis processes and treatment procedures of traditional Chinese medicine. To be backward compatible with the existing dataset standard created for western medicine, the new standard shall be a superset of the existing standard. Thus, the two models are checked against the existing standard in conjunction with 170,000 medical record cases. If a case cannot be covered by the existing standard due to the particularity of Chinese medicine, then either an existing data element is expanded with some Chinese medicine contents or a new data element is created. Some dataset subsets are also created to group and record Chinese medicine special diagnoses and treatments such as acupuncture. The outcome of this research is a proposal of standardized traditional Chinese medicine medical records datasets. The proposal has been verified successfully in three medical institutions with hundreds of thousands of medical records. A new dataset standard for traditional Chinese medicine is proposed in this paper. The proposed standard, covering traditional Chinese medicine as well as western medicine, is expected to be soon approved by the authority. A widespread adoption of this proposal will enable traditional Chinese medicine hospitals and institutions to easily exchange information and share resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Xie, Zhu-fan; Liu, Gan-zhong; Lu, Wei-bo
Mr. Wiseman believes that Western medical terms chosen as equivalents of Chinese medical terms should be the words known to all speakers and not requiring any specialist knowledge or instrumentation to understand or identify, and strictly technical Western medical terms should be avoided regardless of their conceptual conformity to the Chinese terms. According to such criteria, many inappropriate Western medical terms are selected as English equivalents by the authors of the Dictionary, and on the other hand, many ready-made appropriate Western medical terms are replaced by loan English terms with the Chinese style of word formation. The experience obtained by translating Western medical terms into Chinese when Western medicine was first introduced to China should be helpful for developing English equivalents at present. However, the authors of the Dictionary adhere to their own opinions and reject others' experience. The English terms thus created do not reflect the genuine meaning of the Chinese terms, but make the English glossary in chaos. The so-called true face of traditional Chinese revealed by such terms is merely the Chinese custom of word formation and metaphoric rhetoric. In other words, traditional Chinese medicine is not regarded as a system of medicine but merely some Oriental folklore.
Liu, Huan; Xie, Yanming
The clinical literature evaluation of the post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine is a comprehensive evaluation by the comprehensive gain, analysis of the drug, literature of drug efficacy, safety, economy, based on the literature evidence and is part of the evaluation of evidence-based medicine. The literature evaluation in the post-marketing Chinese medicine clinical evaluation is in the foundation and the key position. Through the literature evaluation, it can fully grasp the information, grasp listed drug variety of traditional Chinese medicines second development orientation, make clear further clinical indications, perfect the medicines, etc. This paper discusses the main steps and emphasis of the clinical literature evaluation. Emphasizing security literature evaluation should attach importance to the security of a comprehensive collection drug information. Safety assessment should notice traditional Chinese medicine validity evaluation in improving syndrome, improveing the living quality of patients with special advantage. The economics literature evaluation should pay attention to reliability, sensitivity and practicability of the conclusion.
Full Text Available In the recent years, a wide range of metabonomic technologies are widely used in the modern research of traditional chinese medicine (TCM. At present, the most prevailing methods for TCM research are mainly nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. With these techniques, metabonomics will help to understand syndromes, efficacy and toxicity of TCM. However, every analytical technique has its advantages and drawbacks, and there exist some obstacles of its applications on TCM. So, we discuss metabonomics in TCM and analyze some problems of its applications to study TCM in recent years. We believe that with the further development of metabonomic analytical technology, especially multianalysed techniques, metabonomics will greatly promote TCM research and be beneficial to the modernization of TCM.
Zhao, Hongyan; Song, Feng; Liu, Shujing; Chen, Guiyang; Wei, Chen; Liu, Yanling; Liu, Jiadong
By measuring the fluorescence spectra of Chinese medicine (CM) Angelica water solutions with different concentrations from 0.025 to 2.5 mg/mL, results showed that the fluorescence intensity was proportional to the concentration. Through fluorescence spectra of Angelica solution under different pH values, results indicated coumarin compounds were the active ingredients of Angelica. We also observed fluorescence quenching of the Angelica solution in the presence of spherical silver nanoparticles with radius of 12 nm. Keeping a certain value for the volume of the silver nanoparticles, the fluorescence intensity at 402 nm was linearly proportional to the Angelica in the range of 1-3 mg/mL.
Ji, Qing; Luo, Yun-quan; Wang, Wen-hai; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qi; Su, Shi-bing
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, also known as TCM ZHENG or TCM pattern, is an integral and essential part of TCM theory that helps to guide the design of individualized treatments. A TCM syndrome, in essence, is a characteristic profile of all clinical manifestations in one patient that can be readily identified by a TCM practitioner. In this article, the authors reviewed the presentations of TCM syndromes in seven common malignancies (liver, lung, gastric, breast, colorectal, pancreatic and esophageal cancers), the objectivity and the standardization of TCM syndrome differentiation, the evaluation of TCM syndrome modeling in cancer research, and syndrome differentiation-guided TCM treatment of cancers. A better understanding of TCM syndrome theory, as well as its potential biological basis, may contribute greatly to the clinical TCM diagnosis and the treatment of cancer.
Huang, Yipeng; Wu, Zhenwei; Su, Rihui; Ruan, Guihua; Du, Fuyou; Li, Gongke
Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) are promising approach for the treatment of various diseases which have attracted increasing attention all over the world. Chemometrics in quality control of TCHMs are great useful tools that harnessing mathematics, statistics and other methods to acquire information maximally from the data obtained from various analytical approaches. This feature article focuses on the recent studies which evaluating the pharmacological efficacy and quality of TCHMs by determining, identifying and discriminating the bioactive or marker components in different samples with the help of chemometric techniques. In this work, the application of chemometric techniques in the classification of TCHMs based on their efficacy and usage was introduced. The recent advances of chemometrics applied in the chemical analysis of TCHMs were reviewed in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wong, Melody Yee-Man; So, Pui-Kin; Yao, Zhong-Ping
Analysis of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) plays important roles in quality control of TCMs and understanding their pharmacological effects. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique of choice for analysis of TCMs due to its superiority in speed, sensitivity and specificity. However, conventional MS analysis of TCMs typically requires extensive sample pretreatment and chromatographic separation, which could be time-consuming and laborious, prior to the analysis. The expanding usage of TCMs worldwide demands development of rapid, cost-effective and reliable methods for analysis of TCMs. In recent years, new sample preparation and ionization techniques have been developed to enable direct analysis of TCMs by MS, significantly reducing the analysis time and cost. In this review, various MS-based techniques, mainly including ambient ionization-MS and MALDI-MS based techniques, applied for direct analysis of TCMs are summarized and their applicability and future prospects are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicines have been widely investigated for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD because none of the current therapies—either the cholinesterase inhibitors or antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors—has profound effects on halting the progression of AD. In recent years, scientists have isolated many active compounds from herbs, which can alleviate dementia and neurodegenerative syndrome with fewer side effects than conventional drugs and, thus, are regarded as promising drug candidates for AD therapy. In this review, we summarize the latest research progress on six herbs for AD therapy—Huperzia serrata, Amaryllidaceae family, Ginkgo biloba, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Polygala tenuifolia, and Salvia officinalis—and focus on the analysis of their active components and possible mechanisms of pharmacological actions on AD.
Sun Aizhen; Guo Ruixin; Zhou Jieyan; Wang Dongfeng; Wang Huifang
The rat model poisoned by lead acetate was treated with either EDTA or a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the ability of 'relieving toxin and strengthening spleen'. In EDTA group, lead contents in blood fell to normal; the other parameters apparently improved but did not return to normal(p 0.05). But in TCM group, all the parameters returned to normal (p > 0.05) and the contents of essential trace elements in urine did not obviously change (p < 0.05). The curative effect of TCM is therefore better than that of EDTA. The mechanism probably lies in following points: (1) TCM can expedite excretion of lead in feces and decrease the lead accumulation in liver; (2) FEP returns to normal, showing that the lead expelling effect of TCM is relatively complete; (3) TCM does not disturb the interior equilibrium of essential trace elements while expelling lead
Full Text Available The so-called functional somatic syndromes comprise a group of disorders that are primarily symptom-based, multisystemic in presentation and probably involve alterations in mind-brain-body interactions. The emerging neurobiological models of allostasis/allostatic load and of the emotional motor system show striking similarities with concepts used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to understand the functional somatic disorders and their underlying pathogenesis. These models incorporate a macroscopic perspective, accounting for the toll of acute and chronic traumas, physical and emotional stressors and the complex interactions between the mind, brain and body. The convergence of these biomedical models with the ancient paradigm of TCM may provide a new insight into scientifically verifiable diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for these common disorders.
Zhang, Sheng-Sheng; Zhou, Tao
The progress and existent problems of Chinese medicine (CM) gastroenterology since the National Eleventh Five-Year Plan were discussed in this article in terms of theory innovation, formulation of clinical pathway and diagnosis-treatment consensus, efficacy assessment, formulation of efficacy assessment scale, advantage diseases, and exploration of the syndrome standardization, progress in science research, academic exchange, and the construction of study platform, and so on. Meanwhile, the development of CM gastroenterology was prospected in the following five aspects: to enhance the theory inheritance and innovation, the construction of discipline standardization; to establish scientific clinical efficacy assessment methods and the standard system; to expend treatment technologies and feature therapies; and to clarify the modern scientific connotation of CM theory and treatment.
Zhang, Ning; Xu, Bin; Mou, Chunyan; Yang, Wenli; Wei, Jianwen; Lu, Liang; Zhu, Junjie; Du, Jingchun; Wu, Xiaokun; Ye, Lanting; Fu, Zhiyan; Lu, Yang; Lin, Jianghai; Sun, Zizi; Su, Jing; Dong, Meiling; Xu, Anlong
A cDNA library of male Chinese seahorse (Hippocampus kuda Bleeker) was constructed to investigate the molecular profile of seahorse as one of the most famous traditional Chinese medicine materials, and to reveal immunological and physiological mechanisms of seahorse as one of the most primitive vertebrates at molecular level. A total of 3372 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) consisting of 1911 unique genes (345 clusters and 1566 singletons) were examined in the present study. Identification of the genes related to immune system, paternal brooding and physiological regulation provides not only valuable insights into the molecular mechanism of immune system in teleost fish but also plausible explanations for pharmacological activities of Chinese seahorse. Furthermore, the occurrence of high prevalent C-type lectins suggested that a lectin-complement pathway might exert a more dominant function in the innate immune system of teleost than mammal. Carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) without a collagen-like region in the lectins of seahorse was likely an ancient characteristic of lectins similar to invertebrates.
Jin, Rui; Zhao, Kui-Jun; Guo, Gui-Ming; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yu-Guang; Xue, Chun-Miao; Yang, Yi-Heng; Wang, Li-Xia; Li, Guo-Hui; Tang, Jin-Fa; Nie, Li-Xing; Zhang, Xiang-Lin; Zhao, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Yi; Yan, Can; Yuan, Suo-Zhong; Sun, Lu-Lu; Feng, Xing-Zhong; Yan, Dan
With the growth of number of Chinese patent medicines and clinical use, the rational use of Chinese medicine is becoming more and more serious. Due to the complexity of Chinese medicine theory and the uncertainty of clinical application, the prescription review of Chinese patent medicine always relied on experience in their respective, leading to the uncontrolled of clinical rational use. According to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and characteristics of the unique clinical therapeutics, based on the practice experience and expertise comments, our paper formed the expert consensus on the prescription review of Chinese traditional patent medicine for promoting the rational use of drugs in Beijing. The objective, methods and key points of prescription review of Chinese patent medicine, were included in this expert consensus, in order to regulate the behavior of prescription and promote rational drug use. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Simpson, Peggy Burrows
To explore beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine related to the breast cancer experience of Hong Kong Chinese women and their families. Interpretive phenomenology. Hong Kong, China. A purposive sample of 20 Hong Kong Chinese women diagnosed with breast cancer at various stages of the illness trajectory and at least one other family member. A semistructured, three-hour interview was translated, transcribed, and back-translated. Many women and their family members believed that diet was responsible for their cancer and recurrence. They integrated their cultural beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine to manage illness symptoms and prevent recurrence. Families were anxious and confused about conflicting messages from various sources about dietary practices to promote their health and prevent recurrence. Food and diet alternatives should be discussed with the understanding that beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine are embedded in culture and that many Chinese women and their families seek a combination of Eastern Chinese medicine and Western medicine strategies to manage the illness trajectory. Many Chinese families have different beliefs about food and diet and the role that food plays in managing the cancer experience. Often, Chinese people will not seek clarification if they do not understand information. If information does not fit with their predominant belief systems, families may not implement it, nor will they discuss a situation if they think the conversation will result in a relationship of conflict with healthcare providers.
Qi, Ya-Ru; Li, Yuan-Hui; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yue, Peng-Fei; Wang, Xue-Cheng; Xiong, Yao-Kun; Yang, Ming
The dry quality of traditional Chinese medicine pills is the hot spot of pills research, because their quality has a crucial effect on the efficacy and development of dosage forms. Through literature research and statistical analysis, we would review the current problems on the drying of traditional Chinese medicine pills in this paper, and surrounding the evaluation system for traditional Chinese medicine pills, analyze the characteristics of common drying equipment and processes as well as their effect on quality of pills, discuss the problems in drying equipment and process as well as quality, and put forward the corresponding strategies, hoping to provide new ideas and new methods for the quality improvement of traditional Chinese medicine pills and quality standards. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Friis-Møller, Alice; Christensen, J J; Fussing, V
Clinical findings in 36 immunosuppressed patients with lower respiratory tract infection or bacteremia with Actinobacillus hominis are described. Animal contact was only recorded for three patients; nine patients died despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Although infections with this micr......Clinical findings in 36 immunosuppressed patients with lower respiratory tract infection or bacteremia with Actinobacillus hominis are described. Animal contact was only recorded for three patients; nine patients died despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Although infections...
Fu, Yingkun; Xie, Yanming
In recent years, as the Chinese government and people pay more attention on the post-marketing research of Chinese Medicine, part of traditional Chinese medicine breed has or is about to begin after the listing of post-marketing evaluation study. In the post-marketing evaluation design, sample size calculation plays a decisive role. It not only ensures the accuracy and reliability of post-marketing evaluation. but also assures that the intended trials will have a desired power for correctly detecting a clinically meaningful difference of different medicine under study if such a difference truly exists. Up to now, there is no systemic method of sample size calculation in view of the traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, according to the basic method of sample size calculation and the characteristic of the traditional Chinese medicine clinical evaluation, the sample size calculation methods of the Chinese medicine efficacy and safety are discussed respectively. We hope the paper would be beneficial to medical researchers, and pharmaceutical scientists who are engaged in the areas of Chinese medicine research.
Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress induces inflammation to several tissues/organs leading to cell death and long-term injury. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and autophagic regulatory functions has been widely used as preventive or therapeutic strategy in modern medicine. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been widely reported to contribute to cigarette smoke–induced lung inflammation, hepatotoxicity, or sympathetic activation–induced liver inflammation, lipopolysaccharide-induced renal inflammation, and substance P–mediated neurogenic hyperactive bladder based on clinical findings. In this review, we introduce several evidences for TCM treatment including Monascus adlay (MA produced by inoculating adlay (Cois lachrymal-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf with Monascus purpureus on lung injury, Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn. of Euphorbiaceae family on hepatotoxin-induced liver inflammation, Virgate Wormwood Decoction (茵陳蒿湯 Yīn Chén Hāo tāng and its active component genipin on sympathetic activation–induced liver inflammation, and green tea extract and its active components, catechins, or a modified TCM formula Five Stranguries Powder (五淋散 Wǔ Lín Sǎn plus Crataegi Fructus (山楂 Shān Zhā on hyperactive bladder. The pathophysiologic and molecular mechanisms of TCM on ameliorating inflammatory diseases are discussed in the review.
Fung, Hong Wang
Dissociative symptoms and disorders have been reported in many different cultures. If pathological dissociation is naturally occurring and related to adverse experiences, such phenomena should have been witnessed and portrayed before the modern age. To investigate whether this is the case, the author made use of the rich ancient Chinese medicine literature and looked for descriptions of pathological dissociation in medical documents written by ancient Chinese medical practitioners. In this paper, the author presents six cases selected from the ancient Chinese medicine literature. The phenomenon of pathological dissociation is observed in these cases. This is the first report of case descriptions of pathological dissociation documented in Chinese cultures before 1900.
The massive waves of Chinese migrants arriving in California and Lima in the second half of the nineteenth century played a crucial role in expanding Chinese medicine in both settings. From the late 1860s on, herbalists expanded their healing system beyond their ethnic community, transforming Chinese medicine into one of the healing practices most widely adopted by the local population. This article uses a comparative approach to examine the diverging trajectories of Chinese healers in Peru and the USA, as well as the social and political factors that determined how this foreign medical knowledge adapted to its new environments.
Utilization Pattern and Drug Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Western Medicine, and Integrated Chinese-Western Medicine Treatments for Allergic Rhinitis Under the National Health Insurance Program in Taiwan.
Huang, Sheng-Kang; Lai, Chih-Sung; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Ho, Yu-Ling
Patients in Taiwan with allergic rhinitis seek not only Western medicine treatment but also Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment or integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatment. Various studies have conducted pairwise comparison on Traditional Chinese Medicine, Western medicine, and integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatments. However, none conducted simultaneous analysis of the three treatments. This study analyzed patients with allergic rhinitis receiving the three treatments to identify differences in demographic characteristic and medical use and thereby to determine drug use patterns of different treatments. The National Health Insurance Research Database was the data source, and included patients were those diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 470-478). Chi-square test and Tukey studentized range (honest significant difference) test were conducted to investigate the differences among the three treatments. Visit frequency for allergic rhinitis treatment was higher in female than male patients, regardless of treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine, Western medicine, or integrated Chinese-Western medicine. Persons aged 0-19 years ranked the highest in proportion of visits for allergic rhinitis. Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment had more medical items per person-time and daily drug cost per person-time and had the lowest total expenditure per person-time. In contrast, Western medicine had the lowest daily drug cost per person-time and the highest total expenditure per person-time. The total expenditure per person-time, daily drug cost per person-time, and medical items per person-time of integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatment lay between those seen with Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western medicine treatments. Although only 6.82 % of patients with allergic rhinitis chose integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatment, the visit frequency per person-year of
Liu, Bao-Cheng; Ji, Guang
Incorporating "-omics" studies with environmental interactions could help elucidate the biological mechanisms responsible for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) patterns. Based on the authors' own experiences, this review outlines a model of an ideal combination of "-omics" biomarkers, environmental factors, and TCM pattern classifications; provides a narrative review of the relevant genetic and TCM studies; and lists several successful integrative examples. Two integration tools are briefly introduced. The first is the integration of modern devices into objective diagnostic methods of TCM patterning, which would improve current clinical decision-making and practice. The second is the use of biobanks and data platforms, which could broadly support biological and medical research. Such efforts will transform current medical management and accelerate the progression of precision medicine.
Gu, Hao; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang
Medicinal properties are the basic attribute of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), while the medicinal property theory is the core theoretical foundation of TCM formula combination. In this particle, authors studied the characteristics of pharmacological effects of property combination of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along meridians, with the aim to introduce the medicinal property combination regularity into the design and optimization process of compound TCMs, and bring the medicinal property theory into full play in guiding the formula combination. In this paper, TCMs distributing along "the lung meridian" was taken for example. The medicinal property combinations of TCMs distributing along "the lung meridian" recorded in Pharmacopeia (2010) was collected and processed. Besides, Chinese journal full-text database (CNKI) was used to collect all of pharmacological study literatures concerning the above TCMs that have been published since 1980. The pharmacological information was also supplemented by reference to Science of Chinese Materia Medica and Clinical Science of Chinese Materia Medica. TCMs distributing along the lung meridian with different properties and tastes showed significant differences in pharmacological effects. For example, mild-sweet-lung medicines could lower blood sugar levels, decrease anoxia and enhance immunity; Mild-bitter-lung medicines showed anti-bacterial, anti-hypertension, anti-oxidation effects; Hot-sweet-lung medicines showed antibechic and anti-bacterial effects. And Hot-bitter-lung medicines showed phlegm eliminating and anti-inflammatory effects. Meanwhile, TCMs distributing along the lung meridian had similar pharmacological characteristics, such as anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects, which is consistent with lung's feature in susceptibility to exogenous pathogenic factors. In this study, authors discovered pharmacological characteristics of different TCMs distributing along the lung meridian, which
Mercer Stewart W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite Hong Kong government's official commitment to the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM over the last ten years, there appears to have been limited progress in public sector initiated career development and postgraduate training (PGT for public university trained TCM practitioners. Instead, the private TCM sector is expected to play a major role in nurturing the next generation of TCM practitioners. In the present study we evaluated TCM graduates' perspectives on their career prospects and their views regarding PGT. Method Three focus group discussions with 19 local TCM graduates who had worked full time in a clinical setting for fewer than 5 years. Results Graduates were generally uncertain about how to develop their career pathways in Hong Kong with few postgraduate development opportunities; because of this some were planning to leave the profession altogether. Despite their expressed needs, they were dissatisfied with the current quality of local PGT and suggested various ways for improvement including supervised practice-based learning, competency-based training, and accreditation of training with trainee involvement in design and evaluation. In addition they identified educational needs beyond TCM, in particular a better understanding of western medicine and team working so that primary care provision might be more integrated in the future. Conclusion TCM graduates in Hong Kong feel let down by the lack of public PGT opportunities which is hindering career development. To develop a new generation of TCM practitioners with the capacity to provide quality and comprehensive care, a stronger role for the government, including sufficient public funding, in promoting TCM graduates' careers and training development is suggested. Recent British and Australian experiences in prevocational western medicine training reform may serve as a source of references when relevant program for TCM graduates is planned in
Greef, J. van der; Wietmarschen, H. van; Schroën, J.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Xu, G.
Innovative systems approaches to develop medicine and health care are emerging from the integration of Chinese and Western medicine strategies, philosophies and practices. The two medical systems are highly complementary as the reductionist aspects of Western medicine are favourable in acute disease
Xiao, L.; Qin, J.F.
The essential trace elements in 30 traditional Chinese medicines, (24 tonics and 6 nontonics) were determined by proton-induced X-ray emission. The authors' previous suggestion that traditional Chinese medicines may be classified by the order of magnitude of their essential trace elements, thus indicating their pharmacological effects, is not justified. The pharmacological effect of a trace element or its essentiality may be dependent on some ligand that can be chelated with it. A nonlinear mapping algorithm, however, shows that the 30 traditional Chinese medicines are nearly separated into two groups, indicating their tonic or nontonic pharmacological effects
Yao, Yao; Chen, Ting; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei
Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat a wide variety of neurological disorders including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. However, its mechanism behind the effectiveness remains unclear. Recently, molecular imaging technology has been applied for this purpose, since it can assess the cellular or molecular function in a living subject by using specific imaging probes and/or radioactive tracers, which enable efficient analysis and monitoring the therapeutic response repetitively. This chapter reviews the in vivo functional and metabolic changes after administration of Chinese herbal medicine in various neurological disorders and provides perspectives on the future evaluations of therapeutic response of Chinese herbal medicine. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yu, Ming; Cao, Qi-chen; Su, Yu-xi; Sui, Xin; Yang, Hong-jun; Huang, Lu-qi; Wang, Wen-ping
Malignant tumor is one of the main causes for death in the world at present as well as a major disease seriously harming human health and life and restricting the social and economic development. There are many kinds of reports about traditional Chinese medicine patent prescriptions, empirical prescriptions and self-made prescriptions treating cancer, and prescription rules were often analyzed based on medication frequency. Such methods were applicable for discovering dominant experience but hard to have an innovative discovery and knowledge. In this paper, based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, the software integration of mutual information improvement method, complex system entropy clustering and unsupervised entropy-level clustering data mining methods was adopted to analyze the rules of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions for cancer. Totally 114 prescriptions were selected, the frequency of herbs in prescription was determined, and 85 core combinations and 13 new prescriptions were indentified. The traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, as a valuable traditional Chinese medicine research-supporting tool, can be used to record, manage, inquire and analyze prescription data.
Jiang, Junjie; Xie, Yanming
The usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine are determined by rigorous evaluation which include four clinical trail stages: I, II, III. But the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine are lacked re-evaluation after marketing. And this lead to unchanging or fixed of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine instead of different quantity based on different situations in individual patients. The situation of Chinese patent medicine used in clinical application is far away from the idea of the "Treatment based on syndrome differentiation" in traditional Chinese medicine and personalized therapy. Human population pharmacokinetics provides data support to the personalized therapy in clinical application, and achieved the postmarking reevaluating of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine. This paper briefly introduced the present situation, significance and the application of human population pharmacokinetics about re-evaluation of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine after marketing.
Zu, Xian-Peng; Lin, Zhang; Xie, Hai-Sheng; Yang, Niao; Liu, Xin-Ru; Zhang, Wei-Dong
A large number and wide varieties of microorganisms colonize in the human gastrointestinal tract. They construct an intestinal microecological system in the intestinal environment. The intestinal symbiotic flora regulates a series of life actions, including digestion and absorption of nutrient, immune response, biological antagonism, and is closely associated with the occurrence and development of many diseases. Therefore, it is greatly essential for the host's health status to maintain the equilibrium of intestinal microecological environment. After effective compositions of traditional Chinese medicines are metabolized or biotransformed by human intestinal bacteria, their metabolites can be absorbed more easily, and can even decrease or increase toxicity and then exhibit significant different biological effects. Meanwhile, traditional Chinese medicines can also regulate the composition of the intestinal flora and protect the function of intestinal mucosal barrier to restore the homeostasis of intestinal microecology. The relevant literatures in recent 15 years about the interactive relationship between traditional Chinese medicines and gut microbiota have been collected in this review, in order to study the classification of gut microflora, the relationship between intestinal dysbacteriosis and diseases, the important roles of gut microflora in intestinal bacterial metabolism in effective ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and bioactivities, as well as the modulation effects of Chinese medicine on intestinal dysbacteriosis. In addition, it also makes a future prospect for the research strategies to study the mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicines based on multi-omics techniques. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM in treatment of perimenopausal depression (PD in China. Methods: To identify randomized controlled trials, an electronic search has been conducted through databases as follows: PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Chinese Biological Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and WanFang Digital Periodicals Database. Methodological quality was evaluated by Cochrane Collaboration's tool which is able to assess the risk of bias in Review Manager Software. What's more, meta-analysis was performed by using Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5.2 software, (Nordic Cochrane Centre, Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, and Denmark. Dichotomous data were analyzed by using relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI. Continuous variables were analyzed using weighted mean differences (WMDs and 95% CI. Subgroup analysis was performed by the type of medicine which was used in the experimental group. Results: This meta-analysis includes 11 randomized control trials with 818 patients. Compared to the control group (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: [1.03, 1.26], P = 0.009 and WMD: −2.09, 95% CI: [ −3.58, −0.18], the experimental group had a significant higher clinical efficacy rate and relatively lower Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D score. For clinical efficacy rate, the results varied depending on the detail treatment measures of the experimental group. In the experimental group with TCHM, no significant difference was observed (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: [0.97, 1.33], while in the experimental group combined with western medicine, a significant difference in the clinical efficacy rate between the experimental group and control group showed up (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: [1.01, 1.32], P = 0.04. For the HAM-D score, subgroup analyses revealed that the
Tina L. Rochelle
Full Text Available The UK Chinese are known for their underutilisation of western healthcare services. Reasons for this underutilisation are complex. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB is a widely used model of social cognition, which in the present study is being applied to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM utilisation and satisfaction with TCM services. Two hundred and seventy-two UK Chinese aged between 15 and 91 years (M=46.55; SD = 18.53 enrolled in the study. TCM utilisation was associated with gender, age, cultural attachment, and subjective norms. TCM users were more likely to be female and older and have a strong attachment to Chinese culture, and be influenced by the views of important others. Findings highlight the potential of the TPB in exploring TCM utilisation, whilst also throwing light on other factors influential in the use of TCM and satisfaction with TCM service provision among Chinese in the UK.
Zhang, Xia; Xie, Yan-Ming; Li, Guang-Xi; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Yuan-Chen; Tang, Jing-Jing; Yao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Meng
This paper systematically studies relevant literatures at home and abroad in recent years. China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) was used to collect the literatures for acute pharyngitis treated with traditional Chinese medicine from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2016, and the bibliometric method was employed for statistical analysis. A total of 493 papers were preliminarily selected. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, 182 eligible articles were selected. According to the evaluation and analysis of the literatures, the Guidelines for Clinical Research of New Drugs is currently used as the common standards for the diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngitis; Chinese patent medicines are the main traditional Chinese medicine for treating this disease; Decoctions for treatment of this disease include Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Scutellariae Radix, Platycodonis Radix, Forsythiae Fructus, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Scrophdlariae Radix, Isatidis Radix, and Ophiopogonis Radix; The bloodletting puncture is the common external therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine have their own characteristics in the treatment of this disease. Western medicine for the treatment of acute pharyngitis are mainly antiviral, antibiotic and glucocorticoid drugs, whose disadvantages are toxicity, side effects, drug resistance and double infections. Traditional Chinese medicine doctors have rich experiences in the treatment of the disease, which is characterized by treatment determination based on syndrome differentiation, safe and reliable medication, significant curative effect, low drug resistance, and wide varieties of traditional Chinese medicine forms, convenient portability and taking, low price, and low toxic and side effects. It is an arduous and significant task to explore traditional Chinese medicine, and study and develop new-type effective drugs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available A stroke often results in post-stroke dementia, a rapid decline in memory and intelligence causing dysfunctions in daily life. The Chinese medicine doctor uses 4 examinations of inspection, listening, smelling, and feeling to determine the Chinese medicine pattern (CMP. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the CMP in patients with post-stroke dementia. A total of 101 stroke patients were examined, consistent with the DSM IV diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, as well as the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association International pour Ia Recherche et I’Enseignement en Neurosciences vascular dementia diagnostic criteria of post-stroke dementia. Results: 100 patients (99.0% were KEDP (kidney essence deficiency pattern, shèn jīng kuī xū zhèng, 腎精虧虛證, 83 patients were AHLYP (ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang pattern, gān yáng shàng kàng zhèng, 肝陽上亢證, 83 patients were QBDP (qi-blood deficiency pattern, qì xuè kuī xū zhèng, 氣血虧虛證, 81 patients were SBOCP (static blood obstructing the collaterals pattern, yū xuè zǔ luò zhèng, 瘀血阻絡證, 72 patients were BSTRP (bowels stagnation turbidity retention pattern, fǔ zhì zhuó liú zhèng, 腑滯濁留證, 50 patients were FHIEP (fire heat interior excess pattern, huǒ rè nèi sheng zhèng, 火熱內盛證, and 39 participants (38.6% were PTOOP (phlegm turbidity obstructing the orifices pattern, tán zhuó zǔ qiào zhèng, 痰濁阻竅證; one to 31 patients have at least 2 CMPs simultaneously. In conclusion, the most CMP is KEDP CMP in the post-stroke dementia patients, and one patient may have one or at least 2 CMPs simultaneously.
Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Liu, Hsu-Jan; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liu, Jui-Chen; Chen, Ping-Kun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang
A stroke often results in post-stroke dementia, a rapid decline in memory and intelligence causing dysfunctions in daily life. The Chinese medicine doctor uses 4 examinations of inspection, listening, smelling, and feeling to determine the Chinese medicine pattern (CMP). Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the CMP in patients with post-stroke dementia. A total of 101 stroke patients were examined, consistent with the DSM IV diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, as well as the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association International pour Ia Recherche et I'Enseignement en Neurosciences vascular dementia diagnostic criteria of post-stroke dementia. 100 patients (99.0%) were KEDP (kidney essence deficiency pattern, shèn jīng kuī xū zhèng, ), 83 patients were AHLYP (ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang pattern, gān yáng shàng kàng zhèng, ), 83 patients were QBDP (qi-blood deficiency pattern, qì xuè kuī xū zhèng, ), 81 patients were SBOCP (static blood obstructing the collaterals pattern, yū xuè zǔ luò zhèng, ), 72 patients were BSTRP (bowels stagnation turbidity retention pattern, fǔ zhì zhuó liú zhèng, ), 50 patients were FHIEP (fire heat interior excess pattern, huǒ rè nèi sheng zhèng, ), and 39 participants (38.6%) were PTOOP (phlegm turbidity obstructing the orifices pattern, tán zhuó zǔ qiào zhèng, ); one to 31 patients have at least 2 CMPs simultaneously. In conclusion, the most CMP is KEDP CMP in the post-stroke dementia patients, and one patient may have one or at least 2 CMPs simultaneously.
Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Ge, Xiao-Guang; Jin, Yan; Shi, Ting-Ting; Wang, Hui; Li, Meng; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi
With the development of computer and image processing technology, image recognition technology has been applied to the national medicine resources census work at all stages.Among them: ①In the preparatory work, in order to establish a unified library of traditional Chinese medicine resources, using text recognition technology based on paper materials, be the assistant in the digitalization of various categories related to Chinese medicine resources; to determine the representative area and plots of the survey from each census team, based on the satellite remote sensing image and vegetation map and other basic data, using remote sensing image classification and other technical methods to assist in determining the key investigation area. ②In the process of field investigation, to obtain the planting area of Chinese herbal medicine was accurately, we use the decision tree model, spectral feature and object-oriented method were used to assist the regional identification and area estimation of Chinese medicinal materials.③In the process of finishing in the industry, in order to be able to relatively accurately determine the type of Chinese medicine resources in the region, based on the individual photos of the plant, the specimens and the name of the use of image recognition techniques, to assist the statistical summary of the types of traditional Chinese medicine resources. ④In the application of the results of transformation, based on the pharmaceutical resources and individual samples of medicinal herbs, the development of Chinese medicine resources to identify APP and authentic herbs 3D display system, assisted the identification of Chinese medicine resources and herbs identification characteristics. The introduction of image recognition technology in the census of Chinese medicine resources, assisting census personnel to carry out related work, not only can reduce the workload of the artificial, improve work efficiency, but also improve the census results
Wen, Ji; Xie, Xi-Sheng; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Mao, Nan; Zhang, Cheng-Long; Xie, Lin-Shen; Cheng, Yuan; Zhang, Zi-Yuan; Fan, Jun-Ming
To determine the impact of Traditional Chinese Medicine on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 225 CKD patients in an outpatient department were recruited for this study, among whom 170 received regular Western and Chinese medicine treatments (control group) and 55 received treatments guided by the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine (experimental group). The effectiveness of the treatments was determined through a pre-post comparison. Significant pre-intervention differences in age (P control group. No significant differences between the groups were found in changes of uric acid (P = 0.475), urine protein (P = 0.058), urine red cells (P = 0.577), and urine white cells (P = 0.01). A greater level of increase in estimated glomerular filtration rate was found in the experimental group compared with the control (P theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine can improve renal function through influencing glomerular filtration rate. The effect is more prominent than the regular treatment regime.
Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT.
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the research was to investigate the antiviral and immunoregulatory effects of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, Panax notoginseng saponins, notoginsenoside R1, and anemoside B4 saponins commonly found in Chinese herbal medicines.
Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR injury is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, which accounts for approximately 450,000 deaths a year in the United States alone. Chinese herbal medicine, especially combined herbal formulations, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial infarction for hundreds of years. While the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we highlight recent studies which are focused on elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms using extracted compounds, single herbs, or herbal formulations in experimental settings. These studies represent recent efforts to bridge the gap between the enigma of ancient Chinese herbal medicine and the concepts of modern cell and molecular biology in the treatment of myocardial infarction.
In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...
In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...
Wang, Feng-Qin; Chen, Cen; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing
Thrombotic diseases in different forms become a great threat to human health. Such anti-platelet aggregation drugs as aspirin and clopidogrel are common drugs in clinic. However, along with the appearance of resistance and side effects of western anti-platelet aggregation drugs, anti-platelet aggregation traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis have gradually become an important study orientation. Platelet is one of major participant in thrombosis, and plays an important role as a bioactive material in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, mainly involving two aspects--the evaluation for the anti-platelet aggregation activity of traditional Chinese medicines and the screening of their active components. This paper summarized the applications of platelets in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, so as to provide basis for further studies.
Translated as 'Shunshi Liaofa' in Mandarin, homeopathy received considerable attention from local physicians, thanks to Dr Heribert Schmidt who shared his views on the similarities between this western medical therapy and Chinese medicine during his visit to Hong Kong in 1954. Considered widely as non-scientific and superstitious, Chinese medicine was pushed to the periphery during the 1950s. On the contrary, adopted by western advanced countries, homeopathy was generally regarded as scientific and reliable. Schmidt's acknowledgement of the scientific roots of Chinese medicine excited many traditional therapists. The purpose of this paper is to trace the history of how homeopathy was introduced to Hong Kong and discuss its relationship with scientification of Chinese medicine. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Du, Xiao-Xi; Song, Hai-Bo; Ren, Jing-Tian; Yang, Le; Guo, Xiao-Xin; Pang, Yu
Post-marketing evaluation is a process which evaluate the risks and benefits of drug clinical application comprehensively and systematically, scientific and systematic results of post-marketing evaluation not only can provide data support for clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine, but also can be a reliable basis for the supervision department to develop risk control measures. With the increasing demands for treatment and prevention of disease, traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used, and security issues are also exposed. How to find risk signal of traditional Chinese medicine in the early stages, carry out targeted evaluation work and control risk timely have become challenges in the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry.
Zhang et al. 2953. Tropical ... Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a traditional Chinese medicine, Jing Tong Yu Shu (JTYS) on endometriosis in a ..... Flower A, Liu JP, Chen S, Lewith G, Little P. Chinese ... Mol Hum Reprod 2000; 6: 269-275. 18.
Zhang, Ding-kun; Yang, Ming; Han, Xue; Lin, Jun-zhi; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he
The stable and controllable quality of decoction pieces is an important factor to ensure the efficacy of clinical medicine. Considering the dilemma that the existing standardization of processing mode cannot effectively eliminate the variability of quality raw ingredients, and ensure the stability between different batches, we first propose a new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies that coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics. In order to explain this thinking, an individual study case about different grades aconite is provided. We hope this strategy could better serve for clinical medicine, and promote the inheritance and innovation of Chinese medicine processing skills and theories.
Sun, Xin; Faunce, Thomas Alured
Medicines are becoming a major component of health expenditure in China. Selection of effective and cost-effective medicines represents an important effort to improve medicines use. A guideline on cost-effectiveness studies has been available in China. This guideline, however, fails to be a practical tool to prepare and critically appraise economic evidence. This article discusses, in the Chinese context, the approach to integrating economic component into the medicines selection, and elaborates the methods of producing economic evidence, including conducing economic reviews and primary economic studies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.
@@ Respected leaders, distinguished guests, venerable seniors and comrades, Today, the Meeting Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of Chairman MAO Ze-dong's Important Instructions on Western Medicine Doctors Learning Traditional Chinese Medicine was inaugurated by the Chinese Association of Integrative Medicine, and it is also an important occasion to review the past and look forward to the future.
Jiang, Dan; Coscione, Alberto; Li, Lily; Zeng, Bai-Yun
Male infertility normally refers a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female partner after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. Male infertility in recent years has been attracting increasing interest from public due to the evidence in decline in semen quality. There are many factors contributing to the male infertility including abnormal spermatogenesis; reproductive tract anomalies or obstruction; inadequate sexual and ejaculatory functions; and impaired sperm motility, imbalance in hormone levels, and immune system dysfunction. Although conventional treatments such as medication, surgical operation, and advanced techniques have helped many male with infertility cause pregnancy in their female partners, effectiveness is not satisfactory and associated with adverse effects. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used to improve male infertility in China for a very long time and has now been increasingly popular in Western countries for treating infertility. In this chapter we summarized recent development in basic research and clinical studies of CHM in treating male infertility. It has showed that CHM improved sperm motility and quality, increased sperm count and rebalanced inadequate hormone levels, and adjusted immune functions leading to the increased number of fertility. Further, CHM in combination with conventional therapies improved efficacy of conventional treatments. More studies are needed to indentify the new drugs from CHM and ensure safety, efficacy, and consistency of CHM. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Accumulating epidemiological and clinical evidence shows that inflammation is an important risk factor for various human diseases. Thus, suppressing chronic inflammation has the potential to delay, prevent, and control various chronic diseases, including cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, joint, skin, pulmonary, blood, lymph, liver, pancreatic, and intestinal diseases. Various natural products from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM have been shown to safely suppress proinflammatory pathways and control inflammation-associated disease. In vivo and/or in vitro studies have demonstrated that anti-inflammatory effects of TCM occur by inhibition of the expression of master transcription factors (for example, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, pro-inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, chemokines (for example, chemokine (C-C motif ligand (CCL-24, intercellular adhesion molecule expression and pro-inflammatory mediators (for example, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2. However, a handful of review articles have focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of TCM and explore their possible mechanisms of action. In this review, we summarize recent research attempting to identify the anti-inflammatory constituents of TCM and their molecular targets that may create new opportunities for innovation in modern pharmacology.
Fan, Xin-rong; Tang, Nong; Ji, Yun-xi; Zhang, Yao-zhong; Jiang, Li; Huang, Gui-hua; Xie, Sheng; Li, Liu-mei; Song, Chun-hui; Ling, Jiang-hong
The essence of endogenous turbidity in Chinese medicine (CM) is different from cream, fat, phlegm, retention, damp, toxicity, and stasis. Along with the development of modern scientific technologies and biology, researches on the essence of endogenous turbidity should keep pace with the time. Its material bases should be defined and new connotation endowed at the microscopic level. The essence of turbidity lies in abnormal functions of zang-fu organs. Sugar, fat, protein, and other nutrient substances cannot be properly decomposed, but into semi-finished products or intermediate metabolites. They are inactive and cannot participate in normal material syntheses and decomposition. They cannot be transformed to energy metabolism, but also cannot be synthesized as executive functioning of active proteins. If they cannot be degraded by autophagy-lysosome or ubiquitin-prosome into glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, and other basic nutrients to be used again, they will accumulate inside the human body and become endogenous turbidity. Therefore, endogenous turbidity is different from final metabolites such as urea, carbon dioxide, etc., which can transform vital qi. How to improve the function of zang-fu organs, enhance its degradation by autophagy-lysosome or ubiquitin-prosome is of great significance in normal operating of zang-fu organs and preventing the emergence and progress of related diseases.
Flower, Andrew; Witt, Claudia; Liu, Jian Ping; Ulrich-Merzenich, Gudrun; Yu, He; Lewith, George
ETHNOGRAPHIC RELEVANCE: Clinical trials investigating Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) have been frequently criticised for their lack of scientific rigour. As part of the GP-TCM project a team of experienced clinical researchers and CHM practitioners have developed clinical trial guidelines for CHM that combine an appreciation for traditional methods of practice with detailed and practical advice on research methodology. This paper presents an executive summary of this work. It introduces the practice of CHM and the key considerations that need to be addressed whilst researching this traditional medical system. These guidelines emphasise the importance of identifying best practice, and then developing and applying appropriate and rigorous research methodologies to investigate CHM as a whole system. It is hoped that this will encourage a thoughtful and meticulous process of investigation that will clarify the contribution that CHM can make to our future healthcare. Innovative new approaches are considered including the application of the new "omic" technologies and systems biology as a way of enhancing our understanding of traditional practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
If visual inspection of corpses was central to the development of anatomy in modern Europe, one may ask which of the senses was important for the emergence of the predominant currents of scholarly medical knowledge and practice in third- and second-century B.C.E. China? This article argues that it was tactile perception prompted by a tactile exploration of living bodies. The evidence, derived from a close reading of the Mawangdui medical manuscripts, the 105th chapter of the Records of the Historian, and selected passages from the Huang Di's Inner Canon, points to three important trends: first, the tactile exploration of the extremities led to a rich vocabulary of compound words for pain as localized in specific body parts; second, the tactile exploration of the mai gave rise to an even richer vocabulary on qualities of touch in pulse diagnostics; and third, the tactile exploration of the abdomen led to the assessment of the quality of the internal viscera with words that generally were used for describing the tactile quality of skin and flesh. This finding may appear surprising in the light of later developments during the dynastic history of Chinese medicine where tactile exploration of abdomen and extremities would appear unseemly. The author suggests that extensive tactile explorations of the body were possible before Confucius' teachings became a predominant aspect of state ideology.
Feng, Yinglu; Yin, Zifei; Zhang, Daniel; Srivastava, Arun; Ling, Chen
The success of gene and cell therapy in clinic during the past two decades as well as our expanding ability to manipulate these biomaterials are leading to new therapeutic options for a wide range of inherited and acquired diseases. Combining conventional therapies with this emerging field is a promising strategy to treat those previously-thought untreatable diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has evolved for thousands of years in China and still plays an important role in human health. As part of the active ingredients of TCM, proteins and peptides have attracted long-term enthusiasm of researchers. More recently, they have been utilized in gene and cell therapy, resulting in promising novel strategies to treat both cancer and non-cancer diseases. This manuscript presents a critical review on this field, accompanied with perspectives on the challenges and new directions for future research in this emerging frontier. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is a commonly occurring gastrointestinal disorder. An increase in the annual incidence of AP has been observed, and it causes acute hospitalization and high mortality. The diagnosis and treatment guidelines for AP recommend conservative medical treatments focused on reducing pancreatic secretion and secondary injury, as a primary therapeutic approach. Unfortunately, the existing treatment options have limited impact on the incidence and severity of AP due to the complex and multifaceted pathological process of this disease. In recent decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs have been used as efficient therapeutic agents to attenuate AP in Asian countries. Despite early cell culture, animal models, and clinical trials, CHMs are capable of interacting with numerous molecular targets participating in the pathogenesis of AP; however, comprehensive, up-to-date communication in this field is not yet available. This review focuses on the pharmacological activities of CHMs against AP in vitro and in vivo and the underlying mechanisms. A computational prediction of few selected and promising plant-derived molecules (emodin, baicalin, resveratrol, curcumin, ligustrazine, and honokiol to target numerous proteins or networks involved in AP was initially established based on a network pharmacology simulation. Moreover, we also summarized some potential toxic natural products for pancreas in order to more safe and reasonable medication. These breakthrough findings may have important implications for innovative drug research and the future development of treatments for AP.
Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Sheng-Teng
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease that can affect a few patients with hyperthyroidism. In this case report, we demonstrated that Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) was effective for the patient with hyperthyroidism induced by Graves' disease. The patient also remained in the euthyroid state for several years after the treatment. SUBJECT AND SETTING: A 33-year-old woman had palpitations, fatigability, and weight loss and was diagnosed as having Graves' disease. Urticaria and itching skin appeared after she took an antithyroid drug. Therefore, she sought treatment with TCM. After regular therapy with Jia Wei Xiao Yao San in addition to Xia Ku Cao, Bei Mu, and oyster shell, her symptoms subsided and the thyroid function level returned to normal range with 3 years' treatment. She still remained in the euthyroid state for 3 years after discontinuing the TCM treatment up to the present. Neither complications nor side-effects were noted during the TCM treatment. This case demonstrates that TCM is an effective and alternative option for hyperthyroidism induced by Graves' disease, especially for patients who have an allergic reaction caused by thioamides.
Shuo Gu; Jianfeng Pei
With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regula...
Huang, Huilian; Liu, Min; Chen, Pei
Traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases for thousands of years in China. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) is a relatively new technique offering new possibilities. This paper reviews recent developments in UHPLC in the separation and identification, fingerprinting, quantification, and metabolism of traditional Chinese medicine. Recently, the combination of UHPLC with MS has improved the efficiency of the analysis of these materials. PMID:25045170
Maw-Shiou Jong; Shinn-Jang Hwang; Yu-Chun Chen; Tzeng-Ji Chen; Fun-Jou Chen; Fang-Pey Chen
Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of use and prescriptive patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in treating constipation by analyzing the claims data of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan. Methods: The computerized claims dataset of the TCM office visits and the corresponding prescription files in 2004 compiled by the NHI Research Institute in Taiwan were l...
Liu, J P; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H
Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy.......Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy....
An AES method has been proposed for micro elements analysis in Chinese herbal medicine and the pretreatments of samples are discussed in detail. The method is proved accurate by analyzing peach leaves with the level of the national standard substance and by comparing results using different methods: the data obtained are accurate and reliable and the method can be used for determination 10 kinds of micro elements in Chinese herbal medicine
Wan-Ying Wu; Wen-Zhi Yang; Jin-Jun Hou; De-An Guo
Globalization of traditional Chinese medicines started around 1996, which was initiated by the Chinese government. However, substantial progress was only achieved in recent years including the adoption of TCM quality monographs in the western pharmacopoeias (United States Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia) and registration in main stream drug regulatory agencies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). So far, several TCM herbal quality monogra...
Full Text Available Mycoplasma hominis is commonly involved in genitourinary tract infections. We report a 59-year-old man who developed a M. hominis-associated mediastinitis following acute tonsillar infection.
Fung, Foon Yin; Linn, Yeh Ching
Evidence-based medicine (EBM), by integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research, has in recent years been established as the standard of modern medical practice for greater treatment efficacy and safety. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on the other hand, evolved as a system of medical practice from ancient China more than 2000 years ago based on empirical knowledge as well as theories and concepts which are yet to be mapped by scientific equivalents. Despite the expanding TCM usage and the recognition of its therapeutic benefits worldwide, the lack of robust evidence from the EBM perspective is hindering acceptance of TCM by the Western medicine community and its integration into mainstream healthcare. For TCM to become an integral component of the healthcare system so that its benefits can be rationally harnessed in the best interests of patients, it is essential for TCM to demonstrate its efficacy and safety by high-level evidence in accordance with EBM, though much debate remains on the validity and feasibility of applying the EBM model on this traditional practice. This review aims to discuss the current status of research in TCM, explore the evidences available on its efficacy and safety, and highlight the issues and challenges faced in applying EBM to TCM. PMID:25949261
Zhan, Jinliang; Lu, Pei
Since the quality of traditional Chinese medicine products are affected by raw material, machining and many other factors, it is difficult for traditional Chinese medicine production process especially the extracting process to ensure the steady and homogeneous quality. At the same time, there exist some quality control blind spots due to lacking on-line quality detection means. But if infrared spectrum analysis technology was used in traditional Chinese medicine production process on the basis of off-line analysis to real-time detect the quality of semi-manufactured goods and to be assisted by advanced automatic control technique, the steady and homogeneous quality can be obtained. It can be seen that the on-line detection of extracting process plays an important role in the development of Chinese patent medicines industry. In this paper, the design and implement of a traditional Chinese medicine extracting process monitoring experiment system which is based on PROFIBUS-DP field bus, OPC, and Internet technology is introduced. The system integrates intelligence node which gathering data, superior sub-system which achieving figure configuration and remote supervisory, during the process of traditional Chinese medicine production, monitors the temperature parameter, pressure parameter, quality parameter etc. And it can be controlled by the remote nodes in the VPN (Visual Private Network). Experiment and application do have proved that the system can reach the anticipation effect fully, and with the merits of operational stability, real-time, reliable, convenient and simple manipulation and so on.
Zhu, Jiayi; Shen, Lan; Lin, Xiao; Hong, Yanlong; Feng, Yi
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic, fatal neurodegenerative disease which leads to progressive muscle atrophy and paralysis. In order to summarize the characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine compounds and their preparations in the prevention and treatment of ALS through analyzing the mechanism, action site, and symptoms according to effective clinical research. We searched ALS, motor neuron disease, chemical drugs, herbal medicine, Chinese medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and various combinations of these terms in databases including the PudMed, Springer, Ovid, Google, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases. It was found that the chemical drugs almost had not sufficient evidence to show their effectiveness in the treatment of ALS, except RILUZOLE. According to the characteristics of clinical symptoms of ALS, Chinese medicine practitioners believe that this disease belongs to the category of "atrophic disease". In clinical research, many Chinese herbal formulas had good clinical efficacies in the treatment of ALS with multiple targets, multiple links, and few side effects. And four kinds of dialectical treatment had been developed based on Clinical data analysis and the use of dialectical therapy: Benefiting the kidney; Declaring the lungs; Enhancing the Qi; and Dredging the meridian. In this review, we provide an overview of chemical drugs and Traditional Chinese Medicine compound and its preparations in therapy of ALS as well as how they may contribute to the ALS pathogenesis, thereby offering some clues for further studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Hu, Yan-Zhen; Wei, Jun-Ying; Tang, Shi-Huan; Yang, Hong-Jun
Gardeniae Fructus, which is widely used in health foods and clinical medicines, is a type of edible food and medicine. Dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions provides good materials for prescription analysis and the R&D of traditional Chinese medicines. The composition regularity of formulae containing Gardeniae Fructus in dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions was analyzed on the basis of the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system(TCMISS), in order to provide reference for clinical application and the R&D of new drugs. TCMISS was applied to establish a database of prescriptions containing Gardeniae Fructus. The software's frequency statistics and association rules and other date mining technologies were adopted to analyze commonly used drugs, combination rules and core combined formulae containing Gardeniae Fructus. Totally 3 523 prescriptions were included in this study and involved 1 725 Chinese herbs. With a support degree of 352(10%) and confidence coefficient of 90%, 57 most commonly used drug combinations were screened. Drugs adopted in core combinations were relatively concentrated and selected according to definite composition methods. They were used to mainly treat 18 diseases. Gardeniae Fructus have often been combined with herbs for heat-clearing and detoxification, expelling pathogenic wind, relieving exterior syndrome, invigorating the circulation of blood and gas and promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis to mainly treat jaundice, typhoid, headache and other syndromes. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Liu, Shuo; Tian, Guihua; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Aiming; Li, Min; Sun, Yang; Liu, Baoshan; Xing, Yanwei; Shang, Hongcai
Importance: The incidence of Bradyarrhythmias is high among the population. However, at early stages of the disease, it cannot always get enough attention and is lack of safe and effective therapies, until it is serious enough to resort to pacemaker implantation. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a long history of treating Bradyarrhythmia, with a lot of formulas being widely used in clinical practice. While the effectiveness and the underlying mechanisms of these formulas have not yet been clearly identified. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of some common TCM formulas in treating patients with Bradyarrhythmia and to summarize the current evidence as to their mechanisms. Data Sources: Relevant studies were identified by searching for papers published from January 2000 to August 2017 in Pubmed; EMBASE; the Cochrane Library (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials); the China National Knowledge Internet; and the China biology medicine, Wanfang, and VIP databases. The following medical subject heading (MeSH) terms were included for Pubmed search and adapted for other databases as needed-"Medicine, Chinese Traditional," "Bradycardia." Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials investigating treatment outcomes in Bradyarrhythmia patients with one of the six TCM formulas (Shenxian-shengmai oral liquid, Shensong Yangxin capsule, XinBao pill, Mahuang-Fuzi-Xixin decoction, Zhigancao decoction and Shengmai injection). Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two independent reviewers performed the data extraction and assessed study quality. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence index (CI) using random-effects and fixed-effects model. Results: A total of 121 clinical trials with 11138 patients were included. Of the six TCM formulas, SXSM (RR:1.33, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.39, P < 0.00001), SSYX (RR:1.52, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.66, P < 0.00001), XB can be more effective than common treatment (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.26, P < 0.00001), as
This article focuses the category status of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States where it has been mistakenly classifified as a dietary supplement. According to Yellow Emperor Canon of Internal Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing), clinical treatment in broad sense is to apply certain poisonous medicines to fight against pathogeneses, by which all medicines have certain toxicity and side effect. From ancient times to modern society, all, or at least most, practitioners have used herbal medicine to treat patients' medical conditions. The educational curriculums in Chinese medicine (CM) comprise the courses of herbal medicine (herbology) and herbal formulae. The objective of these courses is to teach students to use herbal medicine or formulae to treat disease as materia medica. In contrast, dietary supplements are preparations intended to provide nutrients that are missing or are not consumed in suffificient quantity in a person's diet. In contrast, Chinese herbs can be toxic, which have been proven through laboratory research. Both clinical practice and research have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine is a special type of natural materia medica, not a dietary supplement.
Lee, Elisabeth H. L.; Winter, Heinrich L. J.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Metzemaekers, Joannes D. M.; Arends, Jan P.
Meningitis in adults due to infection with Mycoplasma hominis is rarely reported. Here, we document the third case of M. hominis meningitis in an adult individual, developed upon neurosurgery following a subarachnoid haemorrhage. Our findings are noteworthy, because the presence of M. hominis in
In the late Qing Dynasty, following the appearance of the Chinese medicinal materials industry trade association of Kunming, the "master agreement" as a professional regulation, also implemented, marking the beginning of the contractualization and institutionalization of apprentice education in Yunnan. The contents and implementation of the "master agreement" was organized by the Chinese medicinal materials industry trade association of Kunming and its craft union. The apprentice education in Kunming traditional Chinese medicinal industry has the following characteristics: expanding the source of talent; adepting at agricultural production of the accorded apprentice; conforming to the conditions of human manipulation of Chinese traditional medicine; being in line with the characteristics and rules of Chinese medicine skills taught by oral narration and tacit understanding; unity of the medical and pharmaceutical professionals; and non-governmental organization. Apprentice training had trained a number of medical talents, and promoted the transformation of manual workshop to industrialization in Kunming. Apprentice education had catalyzed the establishment of specialized shops selling patent medicines exclusively to separated from those running both crude drugs and patent medicines, to form a set of effective teaching system, thus exerting profound influence on later generations.
Herman van Wietmarschen
Full Text Available Western science has been strong in measuring details of biological systems such as gene expression levels and metabolite concentrations, and has generally followed a bottom up approach with regard to explaining biological phenomena. Chinese medicine in contrast has evolved as a top down approach in which body and mind is seen as a whole, a phenomenological approach based on the organization and dynamics of symptom patterns. Western and Chinese perspectives are developing towards a ‘middle out’ approach. Chinese medicine diagnosis, we will argue, allows bridging the gap between biologists and psychologists and offers new opportunities for the development of health monitoring tools and health promotion strategies.
Chang, Leanne; Lim, Jing Ci Jill
In Singapore, the institutional preference for biomedicine and the cultural importance of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have created tensions between the two medical systems and erected barriers to a more collaborative health-care system. This study foregrounds TCM physicians' voice to reveal ideological struggles and power imbalances that underlie the interprofessional tensions and accompanying marginalization of TCM. Through in-depth interviews with 22 TCM physicians in Singapore, this study reveals the incongruences in ideological underpinnings between biomedicine and TCM, reflected in their different worldviews and epistemological approaches to knowledge formation and evaluation. Power differentials between the two medical systems are manifest in TCM physicians' inferior position in relation to their biomedical peers, the patients' internalization of biomedical standards to question the TCM profession and their own interest in seeking TCM treatments, and the state's limited support for TCM research, subsidies, and service provision in hospital settings. The results suggest that more open dialogue about the dichotomous framings of biomedicine and TCM is key to disrupting the mutual reinforcement of ideology and power, as well as to creating increased mutual understanding between the two medical systems.
Jacobsen, Iben Søgaard; Boesen, Thomas; Mygind, Tina
disequilibrium and distance between the segregating sites, by the homoplasy ratio (H ratio), and by compatibility matrices. The gap gene showed well-supported evidence for high levels of recombination, whereas recombination was less frequent and not significant within the other genes. The analysis revealed......B-hitL, excinuclease ABC subunit A (uvrA) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap) genes. The level of variability of these M. hominis genes was low compared with the housekeeping genes from Helicobacter pylori and Neisseria meningitidis, but only few M. hominis isolates had identical sequences in all genes...... intergenic and intragenic recombination in M. hominis and this may explain the high intraspecies variability. The results obtained in the present study may be of importance for future population studies of Mycoplasma species....
Brand, E. Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen
Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes (“seeds”) as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis, and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research. Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine. In this article, prominent historical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine are chronologically reviewed, and indications found in ancient Chinese literature that may relate to cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ9-THC are investigated. PMID:28344554
Ho, Z C
Huang Di Nei Jing, the first systematic Chinese medical book, was compiled from the observations of imperial herbal doctors in the Qin and Han periods (221 BC - 220 AD). From this classic traditional source may be derived the concept of a balanced and complete diet and probably the world's first dietary guidelines. Basic to the tradition are han, re, wen and bu foods, respectively 'cold', 'hot', 'neutral', 'strengthening'. Basic to Chinese cuisine are jan and tsai- 'cereal' (the rice staple and main meal) and 'dishes' to accompany the rice. Chinese traditional medicine, as in Huang Di Nei Jing, considers the nourishment of body and mind. It also emphasises that herbal medicine and food have the same origin. Diet was essential to the prevention of disease which a glossary of Chinese terms is given at the end of the paper in the Chinese tradition, was superior to treatment.
Zhang, Tian; Li, Jun-de; Cheng, Meng; Li, Ying; Lin, Zhong-Bin; Shen, Yi-Hua; Huang, Lu-Qi
The dynamic monitoring data of traditional Chinese medicine resources is one of the important tasks of the dynamic monitoring system of Chinese medicine resources,the system has formed a periodic monitoring data reporting mechanism. Data authenticity and accuracy are the basis for the sustainable and healthy development of Chinese medicine resources dynamic monitoring,information technology is an effective means to improve the efficiency of data reporting, reporting quality. Data production based on dynamic monitoring is of great significance for grasp the trend of change and development of Chinese medicine resources. In order to achieve the real-time control of changes to the national Chinese medicine resources, we build the Chinese medicine resources dynamic monitoring system. In order to solve the problems in practice, we have upgraded the fill system by using the data of GIS. In order to achieve the multidimensional, improve safety, practicality and standardization of the data, which laid a foundation for subsequent processing of data. The system can collect the information of the cultivation of Chinese herbal medicines,production and sales of daily reporting data, provide the Chinese herbal medicine market,fast growing industry environment such as positioning center. In this paper, the design and implementation of the system are expounded.According to the business requirements, we designed 12 forms, 98 collection indicators to meet the needs of dynamic monitoring of traditional Chinese medicine resources. This paper will introduce the development content, design and implementation, main function characteristics and application effect of the national Chinese medicine resources fill System. To explain the role that GIS technology plays in the system and how to realize the cultivation of Chinese herbal medicines, production and sales of daily reporting data, provide the Chinese herbal medicine market,fast growing industry environment such as positioning center
Guo, Hui; Miao, Yanyan; Miao, mingsan
Dried Rehmanniae Radix has sweet taste, and its drug property is cold.It acts on heart, liver and kidney.It has the effect of clearing heat and cooling blood, nourishing yin and promoting fluid production.The active constituents of dried Rehmanniae Radix are mainly iridoid glycosides, polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and so on.This article sorted and analyzed the application forms, efficacy, applicable symptomsh and the frequency of the use of single traditional Chinese medicine in the Chinese patent medicines containing dried Rehmanniae Radix in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia of 2015. This method provides a train of thought for the further study of the pharmacological constituents of dried Rehmanniae Radix, and supplements the pharmacodynamics of Chinese herbal medicine of dried Rehmanniae Radix. It also provides ideas for the improvement of dried Rehmanniae Radix prescription and the new usage of its old prescription.
Dalinda Isabel Sánchez-Vidaña
Full Text Available Natural products represent one of the most important reservoirs of structural and chemical diversity for the generation of leads in the drug development process. A growing number of researchers have shown interest in the development of drugs based on Chinese herbs. In this review, the use and potential of omic technologies as powerful tools in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine are discussed. The analytical combination from each omic approach is crucial for understanding the working mechanisms of cells, tissues, organs, and organisms as well as the mechanisms of disease. Gradually, omic approaches have been introduced in every stage of the drug development process to generate high-quality Chinese medicine-based drugs. Finally, the future picture of the use of omic technologies is a promising tool and arena for further improvement in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine.
Xiao, Fenglai; Yan, Bo; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Dong
In traditional Chinese medicine, botanical remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. This review aimed to summarize the botanicals that have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat epilepsy. We searched Chinese online databases to determine the botanicals used for epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine and identified articles using a preset search syntax and inclusion criteria of each botanical in the PubMed database to explore their potential mechanisms. Twenty-three botanicals were identified to treat epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. The pharmacological mechanisms of each botanical related to antiepileptic activity, which were mainly examined in animal models, were reviewed. We discuss the use and current trends of botanical treatments in China and highlight the limitations of botanical epilepsy treatments. A substantial number of these types of botanicals would be good candidates for the development of novel AEDs. More rigorous clinical trials of botanicals in traditional Chinese medicine for epilepsy treatment are encouraged in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liao, Xing; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Chang, Yan-Peng
There is a new research model named 'registry study/patient registry' in Western medicine, which could be referred to by Chinese medicine researchers, such as active safety surveillance. This article will introduce registry study from different aspects as the developing history, features, and application in order to inform Chinese medicine researchers of future studies.
Chiang, Hui-Chu; Chang, Hen-Hong; Huang, Po-Yu; Hsu, Mutsu
Qi deficiency (QD), one of the most common disorders in Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is relevant to many disorders in obstetrics and gynecology. This study aimed to identify the common processes and criteria for diagnosing QD among contemporary proficient TCM practitioners. Steps of decision tree analysis and modified Delphi method were merged together into four-round postal questionnaires to collect qualitative and quantitative data. Open-ended questions and content analysis were used to explore the proficient TCM practitioners' cognitive activities used for diagnosis. The statements obtained from the qualitative responses were used to develop the items for subsequent questionnaires. Based on the TCM practitioners' responses, the diagnostic processes and criteria for making diagnosis were generated. Twenty-eight out of the 30 participants completed all four questionnaires from June 2007 to January 2010. The 11 diagnostic procedures identified in the returned first round of questionnaires were used as the alternatives to select and rank for all the steps to diagnose QD. After three more rounds of postal surveys, an algorithm with a five-stage diagnostic process as well as sets of decision criteria were identified. Although the priorities of procedures and descriptions of reasoning were varied, the content revealed the major themes in the model. The criteria to differentiate signs and symptoms (S/S) included five principles for correlating S/S with QD, and 17 S/S should be differentiated carefully. The results demonstrate that the TCM practitioners precisely diagnosed QD using a number of specific procedures and criteria that could be used as a reference to understand women complaining of S/S that could be similar to QD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hong, Ming; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor Yue [School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Tsao, Sai-Wah [Department of Anatomy, Li KaShing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Feng, Yibin, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)
In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products.
Hong, Ming; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor Yue; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Feng, Yibin
In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products
Wang, Houwei; Dou, Yanling; Tian, Jingzhen; Li, Feng; Wang, Shijun; Wang, Zhenguo
To research on the substantial foundation of the medical speciality of Chinese traditional medicines from immunogenicity. Control antigen with hot nature was prepared from the mixture of the aqueous extracts of three Chinese traditional medicines with three typical hot nature of Alpinia officinarum, Cinnamomum cassia and Curculigo orchioides, while that with cold nature prepared with Rheum palmatum, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Coptis chinensis, and polyclonal antibody was prepared by immunizing rabbit with control antigen. Dot blotting was performed between the polyclonal antibody of control antigen and the aqueous extracts of nine Chinese traditional medicines on a piece of PVDF membrane, and the blotting signals were analyzed by the software of Quantity One. Blotting signals with hot control antigen of nine Chinese traditional medicines in descending were Zingiber officinale, Aconitum carmichaeli, Eucommia ulmoides, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Lonicera japonica, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Coptis chinensis, Rheum palmatum and Phellodendron chinense, which degree of similarity to control antigen in peak value were 57.33%, 43.56 %, 34.16%, 30.2%, 28.81%, 26.53%, 21.68%, 17.62% and 14.85%, respectively. Blotting signals with cold control antigen were Rheum palmatum, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Coptis chinensis, Phellodendron chinense, Zingiber officinale, Lonicera japonica, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Eucommia ulmoides and Aconitum carmichaeli in descending, of which degree of similarity to cold control antigen in peak value were 55.22%, 54.23%, 46.72%, 34.08%, 30.3%, 24.48%, 24.33%, 20.35% and 15.17%, respectively. Results of cluster analysis with Wistar's method showed that nine medicines were classified into two groups, one group included Phellodendron chinense, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Coptis chinensis, Rheum palmatum, another was Zingiber officinale, Aconitum carmichaeli, Eucommia ulmoides, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Lonicera japonica. Blotting signals of nine medicines
Full Text Available With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regulatory function of herbal medicine in the treatment of inflammation at network level. Finally, a computational workflow for the network-based TCM study, derived from our previous successful applications, was proposed.
Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng
With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regulatory function of herbal medicine in the treatment of inflammation at network level. Finally, a computational workflow for the network-based TCM study, derived from our previous successful applications, was proposed.
Lin, Annie Xianghong; Chan, Ging; Hu, Yuanjia; Ouyang, Defang; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Shi, Luwen; Hu, Hao
Through reviewing the current international market for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), this paper identified the internationalization challenges for TCM, including unclear therapeutic material basis and mechanism, difficulty of quality control, low preparation level, registration/policy barriers, and shortage of intellectual property. To deal with these challenges, suggestions were given including: (1) product innovation of TCM (study the TCM by using the methods and means of western medicine; innovate the basic theory of TCM; develop TCM health product); (2) standard innovation of TCM; (3) building big data platform of Chinese medicine (big data platform of TCM preparation; big data platform on the quality of TCM).
Tejedor-García, Noelia; García-Pastor, Coral; Benito-Martínez, Selma; de Lucio-Cazaña, Francisco Javier
The growing use of purchase online via Internet retailers favours the access to potentially toxic natural products. It also contributes to the quick dissemination of the claims made by the retailers on efficacy and safety, these claims being not always based upon reliable information. Here, we have conducted an online search to find Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine and we have analysed them for the quality of product information and the potential health risks. i) Online search in Google España to find Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine in which we analysed both the claims regarding possible health benefits and adequate safe use indications ii) Identification of potentially toxic herbs in the websites iii) Quantification of Chinese herbal medicines withdrawn by the Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS). 1) Only one third of the 30 Spanish-language retail websites found which sell Chinese herbal medicine observe the law, given that the other websites include illegal Western disease claims as marketing tools, 2) Five websites provide some safety information, 3) Two websites offer potentially toxic herbs and 4) Chinese herbal medicine adulterated with sibutramine, silfenafil or their analogues make a considerable percentage of the total products withdrawn by the AEMPS. Online health seekers should be warned about misinformation on retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine and directed to a Spanish government Web site for guidance in safely navigating the Internet for buying Chinese herbal medicine. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Hainan
To analyze reasons for disapproval of registration application of new traditional Chinese medicines in recent years and discuss potential problems occurring in R&D and registration administration of new traditional Chinese medicines in China. All applications of new traditional Chinese medicines for registrations that had been disapproved by Center for Drug Evaluation of State Food Drug Administration from 2006 to 2008 were searched in data bank. Specific reasons for disapproval of each variety were inquired and sorted out. The statistics involved the proportion of each type (kind) disapproval reasons in all disapprovals in order to analyze which were the main reasons. The results were analyzed to find out potential problems occurring in R&D and registration administration of new traditional Chinese medicines in China. There were totally 247 disapproved registration applications for new traditional Chinese medicines. Among them, there were 218 applications for clinical trials and 29 applications for launch in the market There were 9 categories (29 types) of reasons for the applications for clinical trials applications, mainly including such problems as R&D proposal, non-clinical effectiveness and non-clinical safety; while there were 5 categories (9 types) of reasons for the applications for launch in the market, with clinical effectiveness as the main reason. There were many kinds of reasons for the disapproval registration applications of new traditional Chinese medicines in recent years in China, mainly including such problems as effectiveness, safety and proposal basis. This reflects problems occurring in R&D and registration administration of new traditional Chinese medicines in China to some extent.
Wong, Wendy; Lam, L K Cindy; Li, Rita; Ho, Sze Hon; Fai, Leung Kwok; Li, Zhao
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays an important role in the primary care system in many places, but research evidence on its effectiveness is largely lacking. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness between TCM and Western medicine (WM) consultations in primary care. To evaluate whether medical consultations could improve the quality of life and health condition of patients in primary care and to find out whether there was any difference in the effectiveness bewteen TCM and WM. This was a prospective, longitudinal study on 290 patients of one TCM public and 841 patients of two WM general outpatient clinics (GOPC) in Hong Kong when they consulted for an episodic illness. All patients attending a TCM GOPC in TWH, and the two WM GOPC (TWH and ALC), who fullfilled the inclusion criteria were invited to participate. Each patient answered a structured questionnaire on the presenting complaint, socio-demography, chronic morbidity and service utilization, the Chinese Quality of Life instrument (ChQOL) and the SF-36V2 Health Survey immediately before and two weeks after the doctor consultation. The Global Rating on change Scale (GRS) was also administered in the week 2 assessment. The primary outcomes were changes in the ChQOL and SF-36V2 HRQOL scores. Secondary outcomes included the GRS score. The significance of the change within individual were tested by paired t-tests. The differences in change in scores between WM and TCM were tested by independent sample-t-tests or chi-square, as appropriate. Multivariate regresions were used to determine the independent effect of type of medicine on the change in HRQOL scores. Mean ChQOL and SF-36V2 scores of subjects improved significantly two weeks after TCM or WM consultations in all domains except for the Physical form domain of ChQOL. The greatest improvements were found in the SF-36V2 physical-health related domains. 78% TCM clinics and 71% of subjects WM clinics reported an improvement in GRS. The
Wei, Zhenzhen; Fang, Xiaoyan; Miao, Mingsan
With the rapid increase of cancer patients, chemotherapy is the main method for the clinical treatment of cancer, but also in the treatment of the adverse reactions--bone marrow suppression is often a serious infection caused by patients after chemotherapy and the important cause of mortality. Chinese medicine has obvious advantages in the prevention and treatment of bone marrow depression after chemotherapy. According to tumor bone marrow suppression after chemotherapy of etiology and pathogenesis of traditional Chinese medicine and China national knowledge internet nearly 10 years of traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and control of the status of clinical and laboratory research of tumor bone marrow suppression, the author analyzed and summarized its characteristics, so as to provide the basis for treating bone marrow suppression of drug research and development, and promote small adverse reactions of the development and utilization of natural medicine and its preparations.
Xu, Li-fa; Li, He-xia; Xu, Peng-fei; Xu, Hai-feng; Li, Chao-pin
to investigate the species and breeding density of acaroid mites in stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials in Anhui province. samples of stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials were collected from 30 herb stores and storehouses in 17 Anhui cities, where the breeding acaroids mites were detected. 20 species of acaroids mites were found in 33 samples, belonging to 15 genus, 5 families of the acaridae respectively, among which T. putrescentiae, A. farinae, C. lactis, and C. berlesei are predominant species. stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials in Anhui areas suffer from serious acaroid mites pollution. Therefore, proactive measures should be taken to control acaroid mites from breeding in an effort to reduce the harm on medicinal materials. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Cheng, Long; Shen, Zhu-fang; Sun, Gui-bo; Sun, Xiao-bo
The high and continuing soaring incidence of diabetes may become a huge obstacle to China's development. The antidiabetic drug development is one way to solve the problem. Animal model is a powerful tool for drug development. This paper compares and analyzes the three kinds of animal models for antidiabetic drug development in replicating principle, methods and characteristic, then summarized the application in the research of traditional Chinese medicine. At the same time, the analysis of the market, application and clinical advantages of hypoglycemic medicine from traditional Chinese medicine, is given in this paper, based on the literature analysis. From the point of the clinic advantage embodiment and new drug development, this paper will provide advisory and assistance support for the anti-diabetic fighting with traditional Chinese medicine.
Although insufficiently studied, schools of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) provide substantial insight into the transformation of medicine in the United States. Scholars have suggested that the increasing acceptance of CAM is due to its alignment with biomedical models of professionalization, education, research, and practice. At West Coast University, students of acupuncture and Oriental medicine learn to straddle both Western and Eastern medical worlds through an increasingly science-oriented curriculum and the inculcation of professional values associated with West Coast University's emphasis upon integration with Western medicine as a means of achieving professional status and legitimacy vis-à-vis the dominant biomedical paradigm. The implications of integration with biomedicine for the identity of Chinese medicine are discussed: from the perspective of critical medical anthropology, integration reproduces biomedical hegemony; paving the way toward co-optation of Chinese medicine, the subordination of its practitioners, and, ultimately, the constraint of medical pluralism in the United States.
This paper explores the dynamics of cultural interactions between early modern China and Europe initiated by the Jesuits and other Catholic missionaries through a case study of Wang Honghan, a seventeenth-century Chinese Catholic who systematically sought to integrate European learning introduced by the missionaries with pre-modern Chinese medicine. Focusing on the ways in which Wang combined his Western and Chinese sources to develop and articulate his views on xin (mind and heart), this paper argues that Wang arrived at a peculiar hybrid between scholastic psychology and Chinese medicine, not so much through a course of haphazard misunderstanding as through his conscious and patterned use and abuse of his Western sources, which was motivated most possibly by a wish to define a theoretical position that most suited his social roles as a Catholic convert and a Chinese medical doctor. Thus, rather than seeing Wang as an epitome of"transmission failure," this paper offers it as a showcase for the tremendous dynamism and creativity occurring at this East-West "contact zone as representatives of both cultures sought to appropriate and transform the symbolic and textual resources of the other side.
Xinke, Zhao; Yingdong, Li; Mingxia, Feng; Kai, Liu; Kaibing, Chen; Yuqing, Lu; Shaobo, Sun; Peng, Song; Bin, Liu
Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat hypertension in China and East Asia since centuries. In this study, we conduct an overview of systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of primary hypertension to 1) summarize the conclusions of these reviews, 2) evaluate the methodological quality of these reviews, and 3) rate the confidence in the effect on each outcome. We comprehensively searched six databases to retrieve systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension from inception to December 31, 2015. We used AMSTAR to evaluate the methodological quality of included reviews, and we classified the quality of evidence for each outcome in included reviews using the GRADE approach. A total of 12 systematic reviews with 31 outcomes were included, among which 11 systematic reviews focus on the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicine combined with conventional medicine or simple Chinese herbal medicine versus simple conventional medicine. Among the 11 items of AMSTAR, the lowest quality was "providing a priori design" item, none review conformed to this item, the next was "stating the conflict of interest" item, only three reviews conformed to this item. Five reviews scored less than seven in AMSTAR, which means that the overall methodological quality was fairly poor. For GRADE, of the 31 outcomes, the quality of evidence was high in none (0 %), moderate in three (10 %), low in 19 (61 %), and very low in nine (29 %). Of the five downgrading factors, risk of bias (100 %) was the most common downgrading factor in the included reviews, followed by imprecision (42 %), inconsistency (39 %), publication bias (39 %), and indirectness (0 %). The methodological quality of systematic reviews about Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension is fairly poor, and the quality of evidence level is low. Physicians should be cautious when applying the interventions in these reviews for primary hypertension patients in
Pharmacokinetics study is one of main components of pharmaceuticals development. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Veregen as the first botanical drug in 2006. This article introduced FDA's requirement on pharmacokinetics study of botanical drug and pharmacokinetics studies of Veregen, summarized current requirement and status quo of pharmacokinetics study on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and natural medicine in China, and discussed about pharmacokinetics study strategy for TCM and natural medicine.
Ji Chen; Bertrand Loyeung; Chris Zaslawski; Fan-rong Liang; Wei-hong Li
OBJECTIVE:To analyze and compare the curriculum and delivery of a Chinese and Australian university-level Chinese medicine program. METHODS:A review of PubMed and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure for relevant educational papers was undertaken. Online and paper documents available at the University of Technology Sydney (UTS) and the Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (CDUTCM) were read and analyzed. In addition, in-depth interviews with academics from the two universities were conducted during 2014 to 2015. RESULTS:ThetwoChinese medicine programs share the common goal of providing health services to the local community, but differ in some aspects when the curricula are compared. Areas such as student profi le, curriculum structure, teaching approaches and education quality assurance were found to be different. The UTSprogramadopts a “fl ipped learning” approach with the use of educational technology aiming at improving learning outcomes. On the other hand, the CDUTCM has better clinical facilities and specialist physician resources. CONCLUSION: A better understanding of the different curricula and approaches to Chinese medicine education wil facilitate student learning and educational outcomes.
Koh, H L; Woo, S O
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is gaining popularity as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. Reports of efficacy of TCM are increasing in numbers. TCM includes both crude Chinese medicinal materials (plants, animal parts and minerals) and Chinese proprietary medicine (CPM) [final dosage forms]. Despite the belief that CPM and herbal remedies are of natural origin, unlike Western medicine, and are hence safe and without many adverse effects, there have been numerous reports of adverse effects associated with herbal remedies. Factors affecting the safety of herbal medicines include intrinsic toxicity, adulteration, substitution, contamination, misidentification, lack of standardisation, incorrect preparation and/or dosage and inappropriate labelling and/or advertising. Hence, new regulations on the control of CPM were enforced in Singapore with effect from 1 September 1999. These include licensing and labelling requirements, as well as control of microbial contamination. This article also reviews reports of excessive toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in CPM in Singapore between 1990 and 1997. The names, uses, toxic heavy metal or drug detected and the year of detection are tabulated. Information on the brand or manufacturer's name are provided whenever available. The public and healthcare professionals should be better informed of the basic concept of TCM and its usefulness, as well as the potential adverse effects associated with its use. Greater control over the safety and quality of CPM could be achieved through good manufacturing practice, regulatory control, research, education, reporting usage of Chinese medicine (as in drug history) as well as reporting of adverse events.
Zhao, Yan; Qu, Hui-Hua; Wang, Qing-Guo
Study on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines is one of the key issues for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Having introduced the monoclonal antibody technology into the study on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines, the author prepared the immunoaffinity chromatography column by using monoclonal antibodies in active components of traditional Chinese medicines, so as to selectively knock out the component from herbs or traditional Chinese medicine compounds, while preserving all of the other components and keeping their amount and ratio unchanged. A comparative study on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was made to explicitly reveal the correlation between the component and the main purpose of traditional Chinese medicines and compounds. The analysis on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines by using specific knockout technology with monoclonal antibodies is a new method for study pharmacodynamic material basis in line with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines. Its results can not only help study material basis from a new perspective, but also help find the modern scientific significance in single herb or among compounds of traditional Chinese medicines.
Boesen, Thomas; Fedosova, Natalya U.; Kjeldgaard, Morten
The variable adherence-associated (Vaa) adhesin of the opportunistic human pathogen Mycoplasma hominis is a surface-exposed, membrane-associated protein involved in the attachment of the bacterium to host cells. The molecular masses of recombinant 1 and 2 cassette forms of the protein determined...
Wildenbeest, Joanne G.; Said, Ines; Jaeger, Bregje; van Hest, Reinier M.; van de Beek, Diederik; Pajkrt, Dasja
Mycoplasma hominis is a commensal organism in the genitourinary tract that can cause life-threatening CNS infections in neonates after intrauterine infection or through vertical transmission during birth. We present a case of an 11-day-old neonate presenting with fever and supporting laboratory
Ränik, Valeria, 1964-
Sisu: Homo homini ; "Tegelikult on täiuslik kõik..." ; Mõned kõned ; "Vihmadest lekib lagi..." ; "Sündisid siia, et maksta maksu..." ; "Mingis kohas, mingil ajal..." ; "Emajõgi, Amme jõgi..." ; Kaktus ; Eraelamus ; "Minevikule vesi peale..."
Zhou, Kunyan; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Liangzhi; Wu, Taixiang; Lim, Chi Eung Danforn
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive endocrinology abnormalities, and affects 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age. Western medicines, such as oral contraceptives, insulin sensitizers and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD), have been used to treat PCOS. Recently, many studies have been published that consider Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an alternative treatment for women with PCOS. To assess the efficacy and safety of CHM for subfertile women with PCOS. We searched sources, including the following databases, from inception to 9 June 2016: the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), PsycINFO, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, Wanfang and trial registries. In addition, we searched the reference lists of included trials and contacted experts in the field to locate trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that considered the use of CHM for the treatment of subfertile women with PCOS. Two review authors independently screened appropriate trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias in included studies and extracted data. We contacted primary study authors for additional information. We conducted meta-analyses. We used the odds ratios (ORs) to report dichotomous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. We included five RCTs with 414 participants. The comparisons in the included trials were as follows: CHM versus clomiphene, CHM plus clomiphene versus clomiphene (with or without ethinyloestradiol cyproterone acetate (CEA)), CHM plus follicle aspiration plus ovulation induction versus follicle aspiration plus ovulation induction alone, and CHM plus laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) versus LOD alone. The overall quality of the
Schnyer, Rosa N; Conboy, Lisa A; Jacobson, Eric; McKnight, Patrick; Goddard, Thomas; Moscatelli, Francesca; Legedza, Anna T R; Kerr, Catherine; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Wayne, Peter M
The diagnostic framework and clinical reasoning process in Chinese medicine emphasizes the contextual and qualitative nature of a patient's illness. Chinese medicine assessment data may help interpret clinical outcomes. As part of a study aimed at assessing the validity and improving the inter-rater reliability of the Chinese diagnostic process, a structured assessment instrument was developed for use in clinical trials of acupuncture and other Chinese medical therapies. To foster collaboration and maximize resources and information, an interdisciplinary advisory team was assembled. Under the guidance of two group process facilitators, and in order to establish whether the assessment instrument was consistent with accepted Chinese medicine diagnostic categories (face validity) and included the full range of each concept's meaning (content validity), a panel of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) expert clinicians was convened and their responses were organized using the Delphi process, an iterative, anonymous, idea-generating and consensus-building process. An aggregate rating measure was obtained by taking the mean of mean ratings for each question across all 10 experts. Over three rounds, the overall rating increased from 7.4 (SD = 1.3) in Round 1 to 9.1 (SD = 0.5) in Round 3. The level of agreement among clinicians was measured by a decrease in SD. The final instrument TEAMSI-TCM (Traditional East Asian Medicine Structured Interview, TCM version) uses the pattern differentiation model characteristic of TCM. This modular, dynamic version was specifically designed to assess women, with a focus on gynecologic conditions; with modifications it can be adapted for use with other populations and conditions. TEAMSI-TCM is a prescriptive instrument that guides clinicians to use the proper indicators, combine them in a systematic manner, and generate conclusions. In conjunction with treatment manualization and training it may serve to increase inter-rater reliability and
Ning, Zhangchi; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhao, Siyu; Liu, Baoqin; Xu, Xuegong; Liu, Yuanyan
The curative effects of traditional Chinese medicines are principally based on the synergic effect of their multi-targeting, multi-ingredient preparations, in contrast to modern pharmacology and drug development that often focus on a single chemical entity. Therefore, the method employing a few markers or pharmacologically active constituents to assess the quality and authenticity of the complex preparations has a number of severe challenges. Metabonomics can provide an effective platform for complex sample analysis. It is also reported to be applied to the quality analysis of the traditional Chinese medicine. Metabonomics enables comprehensive assessment of complex traditional Chinese medicines or herbal remedies and sample classification of diverse biological statuses, origins, or qualities in samples, by means of chemometrics. Identification, processing, and pharmaceutical preparation are the main procedures in the large-scale production of Chinese medicinal preparations. Through complete scans, plants metabonomics addresses some of the shortfalls of single analyses and presents a considerable potential to become a sharp tool for traditional Chinese medicine quality assessment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS.
Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Linda
Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS.
Lin, Tingting; He, Yan; Xiao, Xiong; Yuan, Liang; Rao, Xiaoyong; Luo, Xiaojian
Study on the moisture sorption process characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine extract powder, to establish a mathematical model, provide a new method for in-depth study for moisture sorption behavior of traditional Chinese medicine extract powder and a reference for determine the production cycle, and predict product stability. Analyzed moisture absorption process of traditional Chinese medicine extract powder by utilized the law of conservation of mass and Fick's first law to establish the double exponential absorption model, fitted the moisture absorption data and compared with other commonly used five kinds of model to estimate the double-exponential absorption model. The statistical analysis showed that the coefficient of determination (R2) of double exponential model, Weibull distribution model and first order kinetics model were large, but the residues sum of squares (RSS) and AIC values were small. Synthesized the practical application meaning, we consided that the double exponential model was more suitable for simulating the process of Chinese medicine extract powder moisture absorption. The double exponential is suitable for characterization the process of traditional Chinese medicine extract moisture absorption.
Zhang, Kun; Niu, Liang-Chen; Yuan, Fu-Jie; Liu, Shen-Peng
Traditional Chinese medicine is widely used in the treatment of fractures, osteoporosis, other bone related diseases for thousands of years. There are many animal experiments and clinical trials demonstrating that the traditional Chinese medicine such as epimedium, Drynaria and other traditional Chinese medicine can stimulate bone regeneration and inhibit bone resorption, accelerating the fracture healing. In recent years many cell experiments have shown that these herbal ingredients up-regulated the expression of intracellular osteogenic transcription factors and osteogenic related genes, and then induced osteoblastic differentiation and stimulated the proliferation of osteoblasts, bone nodule formation and matrix mineralization. Meanwhile these herbal ingredients up-regulated the expression of intracellular osteoclastic transcription factors and osteoclast related genes, inhibited osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption of osteoclasts. In addition, intracellular signaling pathways regulated these herbal ingredients by might be involved in the above effects. We can have a conclusion that the genes expression regulated by transcription factors in pre-osteoblast and pre-osteoclast and these signaling pathways are the major molecular mechanisms and research hotspots of traditional Chinese medicine in promoting fracture healing. Based on these molecular mechanisms to review, this review provides not only the foundation for the study of traditional Chinese medicine in promoting fracture healing, but also the basis for clinical treatment of fracture. Copyright© 2017 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.
Jin, Yong-Xiang; Wu, Peng; Mao, Yi-Fan; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Jia-Feng; Chen, Wen-Liang; Liu, Zhong; Shi, Xiao-Lin
Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in the elderly population. Several studies have suggested that Chinese herbal medicine has antiosteoporotic activities that might be beneficial for osteoporosis. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in osteoporosis patients. We comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials (until December 2016) that compared Chinese herbal medicine with Western medicine in adults with osteoporosis and reported bone mineral densities (BMDs). A total of 10 randomized controlled trials were included. The pooled results suggested that the increased spine BMD was lower but not significant in the Chinese herbal medicine group than in the Western drug group (standard mean difference [SMD] = -0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.62 to 0.39, p > 0.05). In the subgroup analysis, in postmenopausal women, Chinese herbal medicine also showed a insignificantly higher increment in BMD than the control group (SMD = 0.22, 95% CI: -0.00 to 0.43, p = 0.05). For different treatment durations, subgroups over 6 mo (SMD = 0.09, 95% CI: -0.24 to 0.41, p > 0.05) and less than 6 mo (SMD = -0.25, 95% CI: -1.14 to 0.64, p > 0.05) showed comparable BMDs between the 2 therapies. Our study demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine alone did not significantly increase lumbar spine BMD. Further studies with better adherence to the intervention are needed to confirm the results of this meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Peng; Li, Xi-Wen; Dong, Lin-Lin; Chen, Shi-Lin
The issues including excessive pesticide residues and heavy metal contamination have become the bottle-neck in the development of Chinese herbal medicines. Compared with traditional chemical pesticides, biological pesticides, especially botanical pesticides, are more safe and environment-friendly, which were beneficial to the quality improvement Chinese medicinal materials. Though there exists a weak basic research and it is hard for promotion and regulation, the policy of good and the desire for botanical pesticides will accelerate its development, and replace traditional chemical pesticides gradually. This paper reviews the current situation of botanical pesticides, and gives some pertinence suggestions according to the existing problems and challenges. Research on botanical pesticides will become the key point to solve the problem of excessive pesticides residues and heavy metal contamination, and promote the healthy development of Chinese materia medica. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Liu, Cuiqing; Huang, Yu
Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of death worldwide. The potentially serious adverse effects of therapeutic drugs lead to growing awareness of the role of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in many countries especially in China from antiquity; however, the mechanisms by which herbal medicine acts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases are far from clear. In this review, we briefly describe the characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine by comparing with western medicine. Then we summarize the formulae and herbs/natural products applied in the clinic and animal studies being sorted according to the specific cardiovascular diseases. Most importantly, we elaborate the existing investigations into mechanisms by which herbal compounds act at the cellular levels, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and immune cells. Future research should focus on well-designed clinic trial, in-depth mechanic study, investigations on side effects of herbs and drug interactions. Studies on developing new agents with effectiveness and safety from traditional Chinese medicine is a promising way for prevention and treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases.
Full Text Available Objective : This study has been designed and performed to identify the effects of Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture which is usually used in reducing sleep pattern disturbances. Methods : The study subjects studied included 48 patients who were admitted in hospital located in Pusan, and they were classified into 2 groups : 25 patients in the experimental group who injected Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture and 23 patients in the control group who were treated by acupuncture. The both group injected on GB20, GB12 and HT7 for 5 days without medicine. The sleep pattern disturbance score was measured by using 15 questions according to Korean Sleep Scale A(Oh, Jin Joo. Song, Mi Soon. Kim, Shin Mi. 1998. Results & conclusions : The sleep pattern disturbance score of the experimental group who injected Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture was significantly lower than that of the control group. (t= 7.00 p= .00 These results provided that Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture of GB20, GB12 and HT7 was effective for relieving sleep pattern disturbances, it is need more sample's number and more treatmentt's duration.
Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Methods: Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granu...
Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine, the herbs that regulate blood play a vital role. Here, nine herbs including Typhae Pollen, Notoginseng Root, Common Bletilla Tuber, India Madder Root and Rhizome, Chinese Arborvitae Twig, Lignum Dalbergiae Oderiferae, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Corydalis Tuber, and Motherwort Herb were selected and reviewed for their recent studies on anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular effects. Besides, the analytical methods developed to qualify or quantify the active compounds of the herbs are also summarized.
Deng Chung-Yeh; Tai Chen-Jei; Daly Maria; Chien Li-Yin
Abstract Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors l...
Zhiming eLi; Zhiming eLi; Huinuan eLin; Long eGu; Jingwen eGao; Chi-Meng eTzeng; Chi-Meng eTzeng; Chi-Meng eTzeng
Cistanche species, known as Rou Cong-Rong in Chinese, are an endangered wild species and are mainly distributed in the arid lands and warm deserts of northwestern China. Within Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Herba Cistanche is applied as a tonic and/or in a formula for chronic renal disease, impotence, female infertility, morbid leucorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia and senile constipation. The chemical constituents of Herba Cistanche mainly consist of volatile oils, non-volatile phenylethano...
Li, Zhiming; Lin, Huinuan; Gu, Long; Gao, Jingwen; Tzeng, Chi-Meng
Cistanche species, known as Rou Cong-Rong in Chinese, are an endangered wild species and are mainly distributed in the arid lands and warm deserts of northwestern China. Within Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Herba Cistanche is applied as a tonic and/or in a formula for chronic renal disease, impotence, female infertility, morbid leucorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia, and senile constipation. The chemical constituents of Herba Cistanche mainly consist of volatile oils, non-volatile phenylethan...
Furuta, Etsuko; Ishihara, Sachiko; Okumura, Ryou; Iinuma, Yuuto
'Kanpo (Chinese method)' is a kind of traditional Chinese medical science, and 'Kanpo-yaku (Chinese medicines)' is the drugs on the basis of this medical science. The raw materials for Chinese medicines mainly use ingredients derived from nature, such as herbs, parts of living animal body, and ores, and these are collectively referred to as crude drugs. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis, this study performed the qualitative and quantitative analysis of metal elements contained in the Chinese medicines and crude drugs that were obtained from five routes of four countries. It divided totally 119 samples to each purchase root, and summarized the quantitative analytical results with a focus on Cr, Co, As, Sb, and Hg, and found variations in the contents between the natures of the samples. A large amount of As was detected in two samples of 'Oriental bezoar' and 'Liushen pill,' which were purchased from China under doctors' prescriptions. As a result of the analysis of 47 plant samples purchased from Vietnam as the raw materials for Chinese medicines, a higher percentage of Hg was found compared with other samples. This fact suggests that Chinese medicines using medical herbs derived from plants are liable to contains not a little Hg. Large variations in the content of each sample suggest that the contents are dependent on the country of origin, as well as types and parts of plants. As for the samples purchased in Japan, the detected percentages of five target elements were the smallest. (A.O.)
Ma, Rui; Huang, Li-li; Xia, Wen-wei; Zhu, Cai-lian; Ye, Dong-xia
To assess the efficacy of compound Chinese traditional medicine(CTM), which composed of gallic acid, magnolol and polysaccharide of Blettila striata, against the infected root canal bacterial biofilm. Actinomyces viscosus (Av), Enterococcus faecalis (Ef), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) were composed to form biofilm, then confocal laser scan microscope (CLSM) was used to observe and study the bacterial activity. SAS6.12 software package was used for statistical analysis. The biofilm thickness reduced after treatment by both CTM and ZnO (P>0.05),while there was a significant decrease of the percentage of vital bacterias after treatment by CTM (Pcompound Chinese traditional medicine is effective on biofilm control, so that it would be an effective disinfecting drug for root canal sealers. Supported by Research Fund of Bureau of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Shanghai Municipality (Grant No.2008L008A).
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria.
Dou, Xiao-bing; Wo, Xing-de; Fan, Chun-lei
Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is the No.1 risk factor for patients with atherosclerosis (AS) and is directly related to the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease. Therefore, prevention and treatment of AS is of great importance and of practical significance in controlling the incidence and mortality of CAD. With its peculiar syndrome-dependent therapy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated abundant practical experiences in this field and good clinical effects have been achieved. Chinese herbal medicine, with its particularly unique advantages and high potentials yet to be tapped, displays its huge strength in HLP prevention and treatment. The progress of studies concerning prevention and treatment of HLP by Chinese herbal medicines, in the form of monomers or compound recipes, is reviewed in this paper.
Chen, Kuan Chen; Lu, Richard; Iqbal, Usman; Hsu, Ko-Ching; Chen, Bi-Li; Nguyen, Phung-Anh; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Huang, Chih-Wei; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack; Jian, Wen-Shan; Tsai, Shin-Han
Drug-drug interactions have long been an active research area in clinical medicine. In Taiwan, however, the widespread use of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) presents additional complexity to the topic. Therefore, it is important to see the interaction between traditional Chinese and western medicine. (1) To create a comprehensive database of multi-herb/western drug interactions indexed according to the ways in which physicians actually practice and (2) to measure this database's impact on the detection of adverse effects between traditional Chinese medicine compounds and western medicines. First, a multi-herb/western medicine drug interactions database was created by separating each TCM compound into its constituent herbs. Each individual herb was then checked against an existing single-herb/western drug interactions database. The data source comes from the National Health Insurance research database, which spans the years 1998-2011. This study estimated the interaction prevalence rate and further separated the rates according to patient characteristics, distribution by county, and hospital accreditation levels. Finally, this new database was integrated into a computer order entry module of the electronic medical records system of a regional teaching hospital. The effects it had were measured for two months. The most commonly interacting Chinese herbs were Ephedrae Herba and Angelicae Sinensis Radix/Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. Ephedrae Herba contains active ingredients similar to in ephedrine. 15 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine compounds contain Ephedrae Herba. Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix contain ingredients similar to coumarin, a blood thinner. 9 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine compounds contained Angelicae Sinensis Radix/Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. In the period from 1998 to 2011, the prevalence of herb-drug interactions related to Ephedrae Herba was 0.18%. The most commonly prescribed traditional Chinese compounds were
Zhang, Zhilin; Wang, Jialu; Sun, Weimin; Yan, Qi
The purpose of the fiber micro-drop analyzing technique is to measure the characteristics of liquids using optical methods. The fiber fingerprint drop trace (FFDT) is a curve of light intensity vs. time. This curve indicates the forming, growing and dripping processes of the liquid drops. A pair of fibers was used to monitor the dripping process. The FFDTs are acquired and analyzed by a computer. Different liquid samples of many kinds of preparation of Chinese traditional medicines were tested by using the fiber micro-drop sensor in the experiments. The FFDTs of preparation of Chinese traditional medicines with different concentrations were analyzed in different ways. Considering the characters of the FFDTs, a novel method is proposed to measure the different preparation of Chinese traditional medicines and its concentration based on the corresponding relationship of FFDTs and the physical and chemical parameters of the liquids.
Chen Qiyong; Chang Chunyan; Xiao Yabing; Wu Ruoxin
In order to put forward new method and basis to remove pesticide residues in Chinese herbs, the influence factors such as irradiation doses and water content of electron beam irradiation on degradation efficiency of carbamate and organophosphorous pesticides in ginseng are investigated. Additionally, the irradiation degradation of two pesticides treated with the same dose in several traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Baifuling is also studied. The irradiation can effectively degrade these pesticide residues in herbal medicines; the efficiency of lower doses are inferior to higher doses. The degradation rate rises when dose increases, and varies among 4 ∼ 10 kGy in different Chinese herbal medicines. The degradation efficiency of organophosphorous pesticides is better than those of carbamate pesticides. (authors)
Tang, Lilin; Zhang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Haiyan; Chen, Zilin
A capillary-electrophoresis-based method for the screening of tyrosinase inhibitors in traditional Chinese medicines was developed. The method integrated electrophoretically mediated microanalysis with sandwich mode injection, partial filling, and rapid polarity switching techniques, and carried out on-column enzyme reaction and the separation of substrate and product. The conditions were optimized including the background electrolyte, mixing voltage, and the incubation time. Finally, the screening of nine standard natural compounds of traditional Chinese medicines was carried out. The inhibitors can be directly identified from the reduced peak area of the product compared to that obtained without any inhibitor. Chlorogenic acid (100 μM) showed inhibitory activity with the inhibitory percentage of 19.8%, while the other compounds showed no inhibitory activity. This method has great application potential in drug discovery from traditional Chinese medicines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Liang, Lan; He, Qing; Chen, Zhenqiang; Zhu, Siqi
Since the spectral imaging technology emerged, it has gained a lot of application achievements in the military field, precision agriculture and biomedical science. When the fluorescence spectrum imaging first applied to the detection of the feature resource of Chinese herbal medicine, the characteristics of holistic and ambiguity made it a new approach to the traditional Chinese medicine testing. In this paper, we applied this method to study the Chinese medicine north and south isatis root granules by comparing their fluorescence spectra. Using cluster analysis, the results showed that the north and south Banlangen can not be divided by ascription. And these indicate that there is a large difference in the quality of Banlangen granules on the market, and fluorescence spectrum imaging method can be used in monitoring the quality of radix isatidis granules.
Lin, Jing; Chen, Lanting; Qiu, Xuemin; Zhang, Na; Guo, Qiting; Wang, Yan; Wang, Mingyan; Gober, Hans-Jürgen; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common and generally harmless, but persistent infections can bring health problems like cancer and genital warts. For the uninfected group, HPV vaccines provide safe and effective protection, but they're type-restricted and expensive. For those infected, so far there have been a handful of treatments for HPV-associated benign or malignant diseases, traditional Chinese medicine being one of them. This systematic review focuses on the application of traditional Chinese medicine in HPV infection and related diseases on the basis of clinical findings. Moreover it covers compositions and mechanisms based on in vitro laboratory methods and animal models. Traditional Chinese medicine improves clinical index in the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts; the mechanisms behind the effectiveness might be the regulation of cell apoptosis, viral gene transcription and translation, cell signal transduction pathways, and immune function.
Brand, Eric; Leon, Christine; Nesbitt, Mark; Guo, Ping; Huang, Ran; Chen, Hubiao; Liang, Li; Zhao, Zhongzhen
Many Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs) have changed over centuries of use, particularly in terms of their botanical identity and processing methods. In some cases, these changes have important implications for safety and efficacy in modern clinical practice. As most previous research has focused on clarifying the evolution of CMMs by analyzing traditional Chinese materia medica ("bencao") literature, assessments of historical collections are needed to validate these conclusions with material evidence. Historical collections of Chinese medicines reveal the market materials in circulation at a given moment in time, and represent an underexploited resource for analyzing the evolution of Chinese herbal medicines. This study compares specimens from a rare collection of CMMs from the 1920s with contemporary market materials; by highlighting examples of changes in botanical identity and processing that remain relevant for safe clinical practice in the modern era, this work aims to stimulate further research into previously unexplored historical collections of Chinese medicines. 620 specimens of CMMs that were collected from Chinese pharmacies in the Malay peninsula in the 1920s were examined macroscopically and compared with current pharmacopoeia specifications and authentic contemporary samples. These historical specimens, which are stored in the UK in the Economic Botany Collections (EBC) of Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, were morphologically examined, photographed, and compared to authentic CMMs stored at the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Chinese Medicines Center at Hong Kong Baptist University, as well as authentic herbarium-vouchered specimens from the Leon Collection (LC) at the Kew EBC. Case studies were selected to illustrate examples of historical changes in botanical identity, used plant parts, and processing methods. This investigation confirmed that confusion due to shared common names and regional variations in the botanical identity of certain CMMs has been a
Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Yan-Ping; Lin, Li-Kai; Shang, Hong-Cai; Wang, Yong-Yan
As an important representative of modern Chinese medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injzection has become an indispensable part of the Chinese medicine industry. However, its development is now restricted by the bottleneck of insufficient core competitiveness, low-level research and production, even injection quality and the safe use are not guaranteed. Thus, it is urgent to reevaluate post-marketing TCM injection generally and to make secondary development. Under current circumstances, taking major brands which have good clinical and market foundation, as well as research value, as the main subject of cultivation and evaluation is an important approach to innovative development of TCM injection industry. Unlike oral proprietary Chinese medicine, the cultivatation of major brands of TCM injection needs higher technical support, quality standards and more timely feedback. Therefore, a post-market integral evaluation system adaptive to TCM injection is required. This article discussed some key points on the construction of a post-market integral evaluation system of TCM injection in three levels： optimizing evaluation methods, building synergistic innovation platforms which combine the medical research institutions and pharmaceutical enterprises, and finally constructing the integral evaluation system. A "five to one" structure has been proposed to enhance TCM injection effectiveness, safety and adaptability on the whole, which are from the following aspects： mechanism research, clinical evidence validation, literature information mining, sustainable development of resources and industrialization operation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Wang, Hong-Jin; Li, Jing-Jing; Ke, Hui; Xu, Xiao-Yu
Since the discovery of neural stem cells(NSCs) in embryonic and adult mammalian central nervous systems, new approaches for proliferation and differentiation of NSCs have been put forward. One of the approaches to promote the clinical application of NSCs is to search effective methods to regulate the proliferation and differentiation. This problem is urgently to be solved in the medical field. Previous studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine could promote the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs by regulating the relevant signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. Domestic and foreign literatures for regulating the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in recent 10 years and the reports for their target and signaling pathways were analyzed in this paper. Traditional Chinese medicine could regulate the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs through signaling pathways of Notch, PI3K/Akt, Wnt/β-catenin and GFs. However, studies about NSCs and traditional Chinese medicine should be further deepened; the mechanism of multiple targets and the comprehensive regulation function of traditional Chinese medicine should be clarified. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Meng, Hui; Peng, Nan; Yu, Mingwei; Sun, Xu; Ma, Yunfei; Yang, Guowang; Wang, Xiaomin
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is featured with the biological properties of strong aggressive behaviors, rapid disease progression, high risk of recurrence and metastasis, and low disease free survival. Patients with this tumor are insensitive to the endocrine therapy and target treatment for HER-2; therefore, chemotherapy is often used as routine treatment in clinical. Because of the fact that a considerable number of patients seek for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment after operation and chemotherapy and (or) radiotherapy, it is thus need to evaluate the correlation between Chinese herbal medicine treatment and prognosis. This is a multicenter, prospective cohort study started in March 2016 in Beijing. A simple of 220 participants diagnosed with TNBC were recruited from nine hospitals and are followed up every 3 to 6 months till March 2020. Detailed information of participants includes personal information, history of cancer, quality of life, symptoms of traditional Chinese medicine and fatigue status is taken face-to-face at baseline. The study has received ethical approval from the Research Ethical Committee of Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated to Capital Medical University (No.2016BL-014-01). Articles summarizing the primary results and ancillary analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-OOC-16008246.
Meng, Hui; Peng, Nan; Yu, Mingwei; Sun, Xu; Ma, Yunfei; Yang, Guowang; Wang, Xiaomin
Abstract Introduction: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is featured with the biological properties of strong aggressive behaviors, rapid disease progression, high risk of recurrence and metastasis, and low disease free survival. Patients with this tumor are insensitive to the endocrine therapy and target treatment for HER-2; therefore, chemotherapy is often used as routine treatment in clinical. Because of the fact that a considerable number of patients seek for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment after operation and chemotherapy and (or) radiotherapy, it is thus need to evaluate the correlation between Chinese herbal medicine treatment and prognosis. Methods and analysis: This is a multicenter, prospective cohort study started in March 2016 in Beijing. A simple of 220 participants diagnosed with TNBC were recruited from nine hospitals and are followed up every 3 to 6 months till March 2020. Detailed information of participants includes personal information, history of cancer, quality of life, symptoms of traditional Chinese medicine and fatigue status is taken face-to-face at baseline. Ethics and dissemination: The study has received ethical approval from the Research Ethical Committee of Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated to Capital Medical University (No.2016BL-014-01). Articles summarizing the primary results and ancillary analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-OOC-16008246. PMID:29095272
Qin, Kun-Ming; Wang, Bin; Chen, Lin-Wei; Zhang, Mao-Sen; Yang, Guang-Ming; Shu, Ya-Chun; Cai, Bao-Chang
Metabonomics is a new method to study on the metabolic network and the relationship between body and environment, which conforms to the way of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research. In the study process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, effectively conjunction with metabonomics method will facilitate the integration of TCM with modern biological science and technology, and promote the modernization of TCM. This paper introduce the application of metabonomics in the research of toxicity mechanism of TCM, compatibility mechanism of TCM formula, pharmacology effect of TCM and processing mechanism of TCM. This paper summarize the problems in the TCM metabonomics research and prospect its bright future.
Gao, Fen; Ren, Xiao-xia; Wang, Meng-liang; Qin, Xue-mei
In recent years, root rot diseases of Chinese herbal medicine have been posing grave threat to the development of the traditional Chinese medicine industry. This article presents a review on the occurring situation of the root rot disease, including the occurrence of the disease, the diversity of the pathogens, the regional difference in dominant pathogens,and the complexity of symptoms and a survey of the progress in bio-control of the disease using antagonistic microorganisms. The paper also discusses the existing problems and future prospects in the research.
Conclusion: The results support the view that herbs represent a rich source of anti-lipase compounds. The screening of the methanolic extracts of 37 Chinese medicinal plants in vitro led to the identification of several extracts with potential activity against PPL, in particular, P. vulgaris and R. palmatum. We also found that several monomeric chemicals in these herbs exhibited good or moderate activity against PPL. To the best of our knowledge, these traditional Chinese herbal medicines or phytochemicals have not been previously screened for their lipase inhibitory activity.
Liu, J P; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili
About 350 million people are chronically infected carriers of hepatitis B virus and are at a higher risk of serious illness and death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Chinese medicinal herbs have been used widely for more than 2000 years to treat chronic liver disease.......About 350 million people are chronically infected carriers of hepatitis B virus and are at a higher risk of serious illness and death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Chinese medicinal herbs have been used widely for more than 2000 years to treat chronic liver disease....
Kim, Hyunah; Hughes, Peter J; Hawes, Emily M
This study was performed to review studies carried out in Korea reporting toxic reactions to traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) as a result of heavy metal contamination. PubMed (1966-August 2013) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1965-August 2013) were searched using the medical subject heading terms of "Medicine, Chinese Traditional," "Medicine, Korean Traditional," "Medicine, Traditional," "Metals, Heavy," and "Drug Contamination". For Korean literature, Korea Med (http://www.koreamed.org), the Korean Medical Database (http://kmbase.medric.or.kr), National Discovery for Science Leaders (www.ndsl.kr), Research Information Sharing Service (http://www.riss.kr), and Google Scholar were searched using the terms "Chinese medicine," "Korean medicine," "herbal medicine," and "metallic contamination" in Korean. Bibliographies of case reports and case series, identified using secondary resources, were also utilized. Only literature describing cases or studies performed in Korea were included. Case reports identified clear issues with heavy metal, particularly lead, contamination of TCMs utilized in Korea. No international standardization guidelines for processing, manufacturing and marketing of herbal products exist. Unacceptably high levels of toxic metals can be present in TCM preparations. Health care providers and patients should be educated on the potential risks associated with TCMs. International advocacy for stricter standardization procedures for production of TCMs is warranted.
Trinh, Kien; Cui, Xuejun; Wang, Yong-Jun
Systematic review. To assess the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines in treating chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms. Chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms is a common condition. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. We electronically searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AMED (up to 2009), the Chinese Biomedical Database and related herbal medicine databases in Japan and South Korea (up to 2007). We also contacted content experts and hand searched a number of journals published in China.We included randomized controlled trials with adults with a clinical diagnosis of cervical degenerative disc disease, cervical radiculopathy, or myelopathy supported by appropriate radiologic findings. The interventions were Chinese herbal medicines. The primary outcome was pain relief, measured with a visual analogue scale, numerical scale, or other validated tool. All 4 included studies were in Chinese; 2 of which were unpublished. Effect sizes were not clinically relevant and there was low quality evidence for all outcomes due to study limitations and sparse data (single studies). Two trials (680 participants) found that Compound Qishe Tablets relieved pain better in the short-term than either placebo or Jingfukang; one trial (60 participants) found than an oral herbal formula of Huangqi relieved pain better than Mobicox or Methycobal, and another trial (360 participants) showed that a topical herbal medicine, Compound Extractum Nucis Vomicae, relieved pain better than Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel. There is low quality evidence that an oral herbal medication, Compound Qishe Tablet, reduced pain more than placebo or Jingfukang and a topical herbal medicine, Compound Extractum Nucis Vomicae, reduced pain more than Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel. Further research is very likely to change both the effect size and our confidence in the results.
Refractory nephrotic syndrome (RNS) is an immune-related kidney disease with poor clinical outcomes. Standard treatments include corticosteroids as the initial therapy and other immunosuppressants as second-line options. A substantial proportion of patients with RNS are resistant to or dependent on immunosuppressive drugs and often experience unremitting edema and proteinuria, cycles of remission and relapse, and/or serious adverse events due to long-term immunosuppression. Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history of treating complicated kidney diseases and holds great potential for providing effective treatments for RNS. This review describes the Chinese medical theories relating to the pathogenesis of RNS and discusses the strategies and treatment options using Chinese herbal medicine. Available preclinical and clinical evidence strongly supports the integration of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine for improving the outcome of RNS. Herbal medicine such as Astragalus membranaceus, Stephania tetrandra S. Moore, and Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F can serve as the alternative therapy when patients fail to respond to immunosuppression or as the complementary therapy to improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce side effects of immunosuppressive agents. Wuzhi capsules (Schisandra sphenanthera extract) with tacrolimus and tetrandrine with corticosteroids are two herb-drug combinations that have shown great promise and warrant further studies. PMID:29507594
Full Text Available As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM, the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research.
Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng
As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilised complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of Chinese herbal medicine, misconceptions about synergy, methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengthen and weakness of these models in the context of Chinese herbal medicine and summarise the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations.
Full Text Available Globalization of traditional Chinese medicines started around 1996, which was initiated by the Chinese government. However, substantial progress was only achieved in recent years including the adoption of TCM quality monographs in the western pharmacopoeias (United States Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia and registration in main stream drug regulatory agencies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA. So far, several TCM herbal quality monographs were adopted by the United States Pharmacopoeia including Chinese Salvia, Ganoderma lucidum and Panax notoginseng, etc. Over 45 TCM quality monographs were recorded in the European Pharmacopoeia with 20 more in progress. After the successful registration of the first TCM product named Diao Xin Xue Kang as traditional medicine via the Medicines Evaluation Board of the Netherlands, several other TCM herbal products are in the registration process in several European member states. So far, there has been still not any TCM product authorized as a drug by the FDA regardless of a few TCM products in phase III or phase II clinical trials. This review summarizes the progress made in the globalization of traditional Chinese medicines in recent years and future issues in this regard.
Tian, Jing-Zhuo; Liang, Ai-Hua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Bo-Li
Aristolochic acids (AAs) widely exist in such plants as Aristolochia and Asarum. The renal toxicity of AAs as well as its carcinogenicity to urinary system have been widely known. In 2003 and 2004, China prohibited the use of Aristolochiae Radix, Aristolochiae Manshuriensis Caulis and Aristolochiae Fangchi Radix, and required administering other AAs-containing medicines in accordance with the regulations for prescription drugs. In this paper, we retrieved literatures on the content determination of AAs in recent 10 years in China. It suggested that the AAs content is lower in Asarum herb, especially in its roots and rhizomes, and most of which do not show detectable amount of AA-I. Some of traditional Chinese medicines show fairly small amount of detectable AA-I. The AAs content in Aristolochia herb (including Fructus Aristolochiae, kaempfer dutchmanspipe root) is relatively high; however, there are fewer literatures for studying the content determination of AAs in Chinese patent medicines. There were many factors affecting AAs content, including the parts used, origins, processing methods, extraction process. It suggested that we should pay attention to the toxicity of Chinese medicines containing AAs and use these decoction pieces and traditional Chinese medicines cautiously. In addition, basic studies for the origins, processing methods and extraction process of Chinese patent medicines containing AAs, as well as supervision and detection of AAs content in traditional Chinese medicinal materials, decoction pieces and Chinese patent medicines shall be strengthened for reducing medication risk and guaranteeing clinical medication safety. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources.
Yu, Zhao-Yun; Zhang, Bao-de; Ning, Jun-ya; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Yuan, Wen-ying
Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunity cellular parasite, related to the infection of various animals and human beings and severely impairing agriculture and human health. Because of the complexity of T. gondii life cycle, its different biological characteristics, and multifarious pathogenesis, there are no specific treatment and preventive medicines at present. Chinese herbal medicine can balance "yin-yang" and regulate the immunity and its side-effect is slight. Now, it has been a hot topic of the research on effective and secure medicines in anti-toxoplasmosis. This paper summarizes and analyzes the curative effect and mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine, such as Scutellaria baicalensis, Inontus obliquus polysaccharide, Radix glycyrrhizae, pumpkin seeds, and Semen arecae.
Abstract. We have used reduced doses of Chinese herbs for estimation of urinary tract infections (UTIs) patients with stable impairment of renal function. A total of 33 adult female patients with moderately impaired renal function and symptomatic UTIs were included in this study. Urine cultures were carried out. Patients were ...
Haresh, K; Suresh, K; Khairul Anus, A; Saminathan, S
Isolates of Blastocystis hominis from infected immigrant workers from Indonesia, Bangladesh and infected individuals from Singapore and Malaysia were assessed for growth pattern and degree of resistance to different concentrations of metronidazole. Viability of the cells was assessed using eosin-brillian cresyl blue which stained viable cells green and nonviable cells red. The Bangladeshi and Singaporean isolates were nonviable even at the lowest concentration of 0.01 mg/ml, whereas 40% of the initial inoculum of parasites from the Indonesian isolate at day one were still viable in cultures with 1.0 mg/ml metronidazole. The study shows that isolates of B. hominis of different geographical origin have different levels of resistance to metronidazole. The search for more effective drugs to eliminate th parasite appears inevitable, especially since surviving parasites from metronidazole cultures show greater ability to multiply in subcultures than controls.
Chiu, Pei-Hsun; Hsieh, Hsin-Ying; Wang, Sun-Chong
Targeted cancer therapies, with specific molecular targets, ameliorate the side effect issue of radiation and chemotherapy and also point to the development of personalized medicine. Combination of drugs targeting multiple pathways of carcinogenesis is potentially more fruitful. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been tailoring herbal mixtures for individualized healthcare for two thousand years. A systematic study of the patterns of TCM formulas and herbs prescribed to cancers is valuabl...
Conclusion: Institutions from China still plays a major role in TCM-focused T2DM studies. The effect of TCM herbs on insulin resistance is the hot topic of the domain. Developing new TCM herbal medicine that regulates incretin effect is the domain frontier. Research on the Chinese medicines treatment of T2DM needs more high-quality evidence to support, and its mechanism requires further exploration.
ZH Zuo, TY Zhang, J Chu, Q Zhang, YX Guo, ZQ Shen and C He
Full Text Available Reproductive diseases have been a great threat in large animal herds. Before induction of western medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM that is based on the use of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage and other forms of therapy has been practiced in China for thousands of years. The foundational text of Chinese medicine dated back to 5th century to 3rd century BCE, humans in China began developing the TCM therapy by maintaining normal homeostasis and body functions. Traditional Chinese medicine prophylaxis is a very different strategy from that of the western medicine, targeting the balance of the diseased animals as compared to the single lesion. Traditional Chinese medicine was also applied to cure ruminant’s reproductive disorders such as infertility, abortion and retained placenta. With the increasing concerns of the antibiotic resistance and drug abuse happened, TCM has acquired re-recognition as compared to western medicines due to eco-friendly consumer-driven developments and less residue in food chains. More importantly, a growing number of active substances or extracts with the reliable efficacy are being identified, meanwhile, the quality control measures are satisfied in the large-scale production already. However, few TCM is recognized to be used internationally as the popular human medication. Even less TCM is prescribed legally to animal industry due to poor understanding TCM philosophy and lack of the right guidelines of the registration. This summary aims to elucidate the TCM application in the treatment of the reproductive disorder in large animals and offer alternative strategies for prophylaxis.
Trabelsi, Sonia; Ali, Ichraf Ben Haj; Khaled, Samira
Blastocystis hominis is an intestinal parasite known since long. It is cosmopolitan and lives in the colon. It is still the subject of controversy regarding its pathogenicity and possibly opportunistic character. We exhibit in this article the results obtained for 4 years on the epidemiological, clinical and biological character and opportunistic Blastocystis hominis, often overlooked in the examination of parasitological laboratories city. This is a retrospective study of 3257 stool examination (PSE), performed in the Mycology Laboratory of Parasitology of the Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis over a period of 4 years (January 2005-December 2008). Detection of Blastocystis hominis has been made by microscopic examination of samples by direct examination and concentration. Blastocystis was found in 7.27% of cases and 48.5% in men. Endolimax nanus is the parasite most frequently associated with Blastocystis (40.4% of cases). The port was symptomatic in 72.1% of cases, diarrhea is the symptom most often found (27.7%). There is a seasonal distribution; in fact, it is more frequently diagnosed in summer and autumn. The absence of gravity and the saprophytic nature of this infection do not lead to an indication for treatment even among profoundly immunosuppressed individuals. Only the persistence of clinical disorders associated with the detection of the parasite and in the absence of other micro-organisms and intestinal parasites justifies the treatement. Metronidazole is the molecule used conventionally.
Shi, Da-Hua; Liu, Yu-Wei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Gu, Zhi-Feng
Helicobacter pylori is a major causative factor in gastritis-like disorders, and urease plays a key role in Helicobacter pylori colonizing and persisting in the mucous layer of the human stomach. In China, a variety of Chinese medicinal herbs have been prescribed to attenuate or eradicate gastritis-like disorders. However, little is known about the urease inhibition of Chinese medicinal herbs. The present study was conducted to investigate the urease inhibition activities of the ethanol and water extracts of 15 Chinese medicinal herbs. The ethanol and water extracts derived from 15 medicinal herbs, traditionally used for the treatment of gastritis-like disorders in China, were tested for urease-inhibition activity using the phenol red method. Screened at 10 µg/mL, 14 ethanol extracts and 10 water extracts showed urease inhibition. The ethanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. (Magnoliaceae) and Cassia obtusifolia L. (Leguminosae) possessed inhibition rates higher than 50% with IC₅₀ values of 6.5 and 12.3 µg/mL, respectively. After fractionating successively, the petroleum ether fraction of the ethanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis showed the best activity with 90.8% urease inhibition at a concentration of 10 µg/mL. The bioautography of the petroleum ether fraction indicated the existence of the urease inhibitors in the herb. The present results indicated that some Chinese medicinal herbs might treat gastritis-like disorders via the inhibition of Helicobacter pylori urease and the further possibility for discovering useful novel urease inhibitors from the Chinese medicinal herbs.
Jamal, Salma; Scaria, Vinod
Background. Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a well established alternate system of medicine based on a broad range of herbal formulations and is practiced extensively in the region for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. In recent years, several reports describe in depth studies of the molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines on the biological activities including anti-bacterial activities. The availability of a well-curated dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and accurate in-silico cheminformatics models for data mining for antitubercular agents and computational filters to prioritize molecules has prompted us to search for potential hits from these datasets. Results. We used a consensus approach to predict molecules with potential antitubercular activities from a large dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines available in the public domain. We further prioritized 160 molecules based on five computational filters (SMARTSfilter) so as to avoid potentially undesirable molecules. We further examined the molecules for permeability across Mycobacterial cell wall and for potential activities against non-replicating and drug tolerant Mycobacteria. Additional in-depth literature surveys for the reported antitubercular activities of the molecular ingredients and their sources were considered for drawing support to prioritization. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that datasets of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines offer a new opportunity to mine for potential biological activities. In this report, we suggest a proof-of-concept methodology to prioritize molecules for further experimental assays using a variety of computational tools. We also additionally suggest that a subset of prioritized molecules could be used for evaluation for tuberculosis due to their additional effect against non-replicating tuberculosis as well as the additional hepato-protection offered by
Hong, Chuang-Ye; Wang, Fu-Mei
During the 100 years from 1850 to 1949, six English textbooks on internal medicine were translated into Chinese and published. Publication of these books was a response to the increased demand for Chinese textbooks after the opening of several Western-style hospitals and medical schools in China where the instruction was in Chinese. Throughout this period, textbooks translated from English were regarded as symbols of mainstream and authority within medical communities in China. There was a shift of translators from British and American medical missionaries to Chinese medical elites. Publishers also changed from missionary hospitals or missionary organizations to the Chinese Medical Association, which was led by ethnic Chinese. After the 1950s, translation activity continued in Taiwan, but it was halted in China until after the Cultural Revolution. This paper provides bibliographic information about these books. The transition of medical authority in China during this 100-year period is also reviewed through the successive publication of translated textbooks on internal medicine. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Lin Zhifang; Sun Guchou; Wang Wei
Leaf carbon isotope ratios and 13 kinds of mineral elements were measured on 36 species of common Chinese medicinal plants in a subtropical monsoon forest of Ding Hu Shan in Guangdong Province. The .delta.13C value were from -26.4 to -32.6%, indicating that all of the species belonged the photosynthetic C3 types. The relative lower value of δ13C was observed in the life form of shrubs. The contents of 7 elements (N, P, K, Ca, Na Mg, Si) were dependent upon the species, life form, medicinal function and medicinal part. Herb type medicine and the used medicinal part of leaves or whole plant showed higher levels of above elements than the others. Among the nine groups with different medicinal functions, it was found that more nitrogen was in the leaves of medicinal plants for hemophthisis, hypertension and stomachic troubles, more phosphorus and potassium were in the leaves for cancer and snake bite medicines, but more calcium and magnesium were in the leaves for curing rheumatics. Ferric, aluminium and manganese were the main composition of microelements in leaves. There were higher content of ferric in leaves for hemophthisis medicine, higher zinc in leaves for cold and hypertension medicine, and higher Cup in leaves of stomachic medicine. It was suggested that the pattern of mineral elements in leaves of Chinese medicinal plants reflected the different properties of absorption and accumulation. Some additional effect due to the high content of certain element might be associated with the main function of that medicine
Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Jie
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Moreover, angina pectoris is one of the most important types of CHD. Therefore, prevention and effective treatment of angina pectoris is of utmost importance in both China and western countries. However, undesirable effects of antianginal therapy do influence treatment adherence to a certain extent. Therefore, it's not surprising that, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including Chinese medicine (CM), are widely welcomed among patients with CHD, hoping that it might complement western medicine. In our previous studies, blood stasis syndrome (BSS) (Xueyu Zheng) was the main syndrome (Zheng-hou) of angina pectoris. Currently, China Food and Drug Administration authoritatively recommended more than 200 Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) as complementary or adjunctive therapies for symptom management and enhancing quality of life along with mainstream care on angina pectoris management in mainland China. This paper reviewed 4 kinds of most frequently-used CPMs by promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in the treatment of angina pectoris. It aims to evaluate the current evidence of CPMs in combination therapy for angina pectoris. This review indicated that CPMs as adjunctive treatment to routine antianginal therapy play an active role in reducing the incidence of primary endpoint events, decreasing anginal attack rate, and improving electrocardiogram. Additionally, CPMs have been proven relatively safe. Further rigorously designed clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the results.
Coutinho, Bernardo Diniz; Dulcetti, Pérola Goretti Sichero
After being developed in the East, based on Taoist cosmology, Chinese medicine has been practiced in the West based on scientific foundations and biomedical paradigms. Some traditional elements of this philosophy were abandoned, such as the theory of Yin and Yang, knowledge that is essential for understanding the health-disease process resulting from the circulation of the body's energy flow. This article studies the movement of the dual elements of Yin and Yang in Chinese medical teaching, seeking to understand how this line of thought developed and how it has contributed towards establishing a system of diagnosis and therapy. The methodology employed was to analyze literature on the subject, based on theoretical references to Taoist thought and traditional Chinese medicine.
Li, Lei; Liu, Jian-Xun; Ren, Jian-Xun; Guo, Hao; Lin, Cheng-Ren
Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is a common mechanism for some heart disease like cardiac X syndrome and no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI). With the development of medical imageology, CMD has received increased attention. Animal model of CMD is indispensable tool for the research of pathogenesis and treatment evaluation, therefor choose an appropriate animal model is the first issue to carry out CMD research. Experimental and clinical studies have shown unique effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in CMD therapy. Clarifying of the TCM therapeutic effect mechanisms and seeking an optimal solution of combination of traditional Chinese and western medicine will be the focus of future research. This paper reviewed the establishment and evaluation of CMD animal model, as well as the intervention study of TCM on CMD. The article aims to provide reference for the basic research of CMD and the TCM experimental study on CMD. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Sun Lizhe; Liu Hui; He Zhao; Wei Feng; Ma Xuanpeng
Objective: To observe the curative effect of interventional recanalization combined with chinese traditional medicine in treatment of fallopian tube obstruction. Methods: There were 200 cases in treatment group and 120 cases in control group. In the treatment group patients were given chinese herbal medicine after the intervention. In sixth month a follow up imaging was performed assessing the patency. The follow up also included the pregnancy rate 1 year later. Results: The patency rate was 83% in treatment group, and 81.5% in control group (P>0.05). Re-conjunction rate was 7.6% in the study group and 22% in control group (P<0.01). The pregnancy rate was 67% in study group and 42% in control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: With interventional recanalization combined with chinese traditional medicine, good curative effect obtained in treatment of fallopian tube obstructive infertility. Combined with Chinese traditional medicine, the post-procedure re-conjunction rate is decreased, especially in the case of short fallopian tube obstruction
Jiao, Qishu; Wang, Rufeng; Jiang, Yanyan; Liu, Bin
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), as a unique form of natural medicine, has been used in Chinese traditional therapeutic systems over two thousand years. Active components in Chinese herbal medicine are the material basis for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Research on drug-protein binding is one of the important contents in the study of early stage clinical pharmacokinetics of drugs. Plasma protein binding study has far-reaching influence on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs and helps to understand the basic rule of drug effects. It is important to study the binding characteristics of the active components in Chinese herbal medicine with plasma proteins for the medical science and modernization of TCM. This review summarizes the common analytical methods which are used to study the active herbal components-protein binding and gives the examples to illustrate their application. Rules and influence factors of the binding between different types of active herbal components and plasma proteins are summarized in the end. Finally, a suggestion on choosing the suitable technique for different types of active herbal components is provided, and the prospect of the drug-protein binding used in the area of TCM research is also discussed.
Li, Bei; Chen, Xiang-dong
In the situation of global completion, collaborative innovation is becoming increasingly important because its advantage in risk avoiding and innovation efficiency. In order to explore the model of collaborative innovation and its evolution in traditional Chinese medicine of China, the cooperation in traditional Chinese medicine patents of China from 1985 to 2013 has been analyzed by using the method of scientometrics and social network analysis. It is proved that, though the number of grated cooperative patents has increased sharply during the last thirty years, the degree of cooperation innovation in traditional Chinese medicine of China is still not high. Moreover, in spite of the individual subject' s leading role in the past domestic collaborative innovation in traditional Chinese medicine of China, the institutions have been more and more powerful and achieved great improvement. At last, core institutions, represented by universities have played an important role in the collaborative innovation of domestic institutions, because they are key links between many institutions and promote the transferring and diffusion of knowledge.
Kennedy, S.; Jin, X.; Yu, H.; Zhong, S.; Magill, P.; Vliet, T. van; Kistemaker, C.; Voors, C.; Pasman, W.
A proof-of-concept study to assess the safety and efficacy of a traditional Chinese medicine formula as treatment for primary dysmenorrhea showed no statistically significant benefit over placebo. However, some efficacy parameters suggested possible superiority of the active treatment and so a
Lee, Tiffany M. Y.; Guo, Li-guo; Shi, Hong-zhi; Li, Yong-zhi; Luo, Yue-jia; Sung, Connie Y. Y.; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Lee, Tatia M. C.
This fMRI study examined the neural correlates of the observed improvement in advantageous risk-taking behavior, as measured by the number of adjusted pumps in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), following a 60-day course of a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) recipe, specifically designed to regulate impulsiveness in order to modulate…
Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases for thousands of years in China. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) is a relatively new technique offering new possibilities in liquid chromatography. This paper reviews recen...
Chemometrics is a new branch of chemistry which is widely applied to various fields of analytical chemistry. Chemometrics can use theories and methods of mathematics, statistics, computer science and other related disciplines to optimize the chemical measurement process and maximize access to acquire chemical information and other information on material systems by analyzing chemical measurement data. In recent years, traditional Chinese medicine has attracted widespread attention. In the research of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been a key problem that how to interpret the relationship between various chemical components and its efficacy, which seriously restricts the modernization of Chinese medicine. As chemometrics brings the multivariate analysis methods into the chemical research, it has been applied as an effective research tool in the composition-activity relationship research of Chinese medicine. This article reviews the applications of chemometrics methods in the composition-activity relationship research in recent years. The applications of multivariate statistical analysis methods (such as regression analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, etc. ) and artificial neural network (such as back propagation artificial neural network, radical basis function neural network, support vector machine, etc. ) are summarized, including the brief fundamental principles, the research contents and the advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the existing main problems and prospects of its future researches are proposed.
Effects of traditional Chinese medicine on rats with Type II diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin: A urine metabonomic study. H Zhao, Z Li, G Tian, K Gao, Li Zhiyong, B Zhao, J Wang, L Luo, Q Pan, W Zhang, Z Wu, J Chen, W Wang ...
Chan, W. F.; Lin, C. W.
An HPLC undergraduate experiment on the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been developed. Two commonly used herbs ("glycyrrhizae radix" and "cinnamomi ramulus") are studied. Glycyrrhizin, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde are chosen as markers for the herbs. The dried herbs in their natural state and a TCM…
Zhang, Wen; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yu, Wen-Ya
Combining the world health organization's (WHO), the United States and the European union's relevant laws and guidelines on post-marketing drug surveillance to judge the status of post-marketing surveillance of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in China. We found that due to the late start of post-marketing surveillance of traditional Chinese medicine, the appropriate guidelines are yet to be developed. Hence, hospitals, enterprises and research institutions do not have a shared foundation from which to compare their research results. Therefore there is an urgent need to formulate such post-marketing surveillance guidelines. This paper has used as guidance various technical documents such as, "procedures to formulate national standards" and "testing methods of management in formulating traditional Chinese medicine standards" and has combined these to produce a version of post-marketing surveillance particular to Chinese medicine in China. How to formulate these guidelines is discussed and procedures and methods to formulate technical specifications are introduced. These provide a reference for future technical specifications and will assist in the development of TCM.
Shi, Cheng; Gong, Qing-Yue; Zhou, Jinhai
This paper introduces the characteristics and complexity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) data, considers that modern big data processing technology has brought new opportunities for the research of TCM, and gives some ideas and methods to apply big data technology in TCM.
Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule(WWKG) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation for the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). We examined the pathologic change and the effects of Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule (WWKG) on the expression of EGFR (epiderminal growth factor receptors) and NF-kB (nuclear transcription ...
LI, Xiu; CHEN, Mengxuan; SONG, Xiaoli
Combining current situations of Chinese herbal medicine planting industry in Shandong, in line with existing problems of Chinese herbal medicine planting industry, this paper analyzed development prospect of tourist commodity industry in Shandong Province, and came up with actual selection and recommendations for integrated development of Chinese herbal medicine planting and tourist commodities.
Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed to assess the current clinical evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for AMS. Methods. Seven electronic databases were searched until January 2013. We included randomized clinical trials testing Chinese herbal medicine against placebo, no drugs, Western drugs, or a combination of routine treatment drugs against routine treatment drugs. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Results. Nine randomized trials were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as low. Two trials compared prescriptions of Chinese formula used alone with Western drugs. A meta-analysis showed a beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −2.23 [−3.98, −0.49], P=0.01. Only one trial compared prescriptions of Chinese formula used alone with no drugs. A meta-analysis showed a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −6.00 [−6.45, −5.55], P<0.00001. Four trials compared Chinese formula used alone with placebo. A meta-analysis also showed a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −1.10 [−1.64, −0.55], P<0.0001. Two trials compared the combination of Chinese formula plus routine treatment drugs with routine treatment drugs. A meta-analysis showed a beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −5.99 [−11.11, −0.86], P=0.02. Conclusions. No firm conclusion on the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for AMS can be made. More rigorous high-quality trials are required to generate a high level of evidence and to confirm the results.
Bangsgaard, Regitze; Holst, Bengt; Krogh, Erik
ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis......ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis...
Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan
Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin.
Xiao, Shi-Hui; Luo, Liang; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Zhou, Yu-Ming; Liu, Hong-Ming; Huang, Zhen-Fei
Sepsis is a clinically critical disease. However, it is still controversial whether the combined use of traditional Chinese medicine Xuebijing injections (XBJI) and western medicine can enhance curative efficacy and ensure safety compared with western medicine alone. Thus, this research consisted of a systematic review of the curative efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine XBJI combined with ulinastatin for treating sepsis in the Chinese population. A total of 8 databases were retrieved: 4 foreign databases, namely, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science; and 4 Chinese databases, namely, Sino Med, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, and Wangfang Data. The time span of retrieval began from the establishment of each database and ended on August 1, 2017. Published randomized controlled trials about the combined use of traditional Chinese medicine XBJI and western medicine were included, regardless of language. Stata12.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Finally, 16 papers involving 1335 cases were included. The result of meta-analysis showed that compared with the single use of ulinastatin, traditional Chinese medicine XBJI combined with ulinastatin could reduce the time of mechanical ventilation, shorten the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, improve the 28-day survival rate, and decrease the occurrence rate of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, case fatality rate, procalcitonin (PCT) content, APACKEII score, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level, and interleukin (IL)-6 level. On the basis of the common basic therapeutic regimen, the combined use of traditional Chinese medicine XBJI and ulinastatin was compared with the use of ulinastatin alone for treating sepsis in the Chinese population. It was found that the number of adverse events of combination therapy is not significantly increased, and its clinical safety is well within the permitted range. However, considering the limitations of this
Tan, Manrong; Yan, Dan; Qiu, Lingling; Chen, Longhu; Yan, Yan; Jin, Cheng; Li, Hanbing; Xiao, Xiaohe
For the quality management system of herbal medicines, intermediate and finished products it exists the " short board" effect of methodologies. Based on the concept of process control, new strategies and new methods of the production process quality control had been established with the consideration of the actual production of traditional Chinese medicine an the characteristics of Chinese medicine. Taking Banlangen granule as a practice example, which was effective and widespread application, character identification, determination of index components, chemical fingerprint and biometrics technology were sequentially used respectively to assess the quality of Banlangen herbal medicines, intermediate (water extraction and alcohol precipitation) and finished product. With the transfer rate of chemical information and biological potency as indicators, the effectiveness and transmission of the above different assessments and control methods had been researched. And ultimately, the process quality control methods of Banlangen granule, which were based on chemical composition analysis-biometric analysis, had been set up. It can not only validly solute the current status that there were many manufacturers varying quality of Banlangen granule, but also ensure and enhance its clinical efficacy. Furthermore it provided a foundation for the construction of the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine production process.
Zheng, Wen-ke; Liu, Zhi; Lei, Xiang; Tian, Ran; Zheng, Rui; Li, Nan; Ren, Jing-tian; Du, Xiao-xi; Shang, Hong-cai
The safety of Chinese patent medicine has become a focus of social. It is necessary to carry out work on post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine. However, there have no criterions to guide the related research, it is urgent to set up a model and method to guide the practice for related research. According to a series of clinical research, we put forward some views, which contained clear and definite the objective and content of clinical safety evaluation, the work flow should be determined, make a list of items for safety evaluation project, and put forward the three level classification of risk control. We set up a model of post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine. Based this model, the list of items can be used for ranking medicine risks, and then take steps for different risks, aims to lower the app:ds:risksrisk level. At last, the medicine can be managed by five steps in sequence. The five steps are, collect risk signal, risk recognition, risk assessment, risk management, and aftereffect assessment. We hope to provide new ideas for the future research.
Yang, Xian-Ying; Liu, Ai-Lin; Liu, Shu-Jing; Xu, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Lin-Fang
To screen for influenza virus neuraminidase inhibition and to provide a reference for the clinical treatment of influenza using traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). In this study, 421 crude extracts (solubilized with petroleum ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and aqueous solvents) were obtained from 113 TCM. The medicine extracts were then reacted with oseltamivir, using 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (MUNANA) as the substrate, to determine influenza virus neuraminidase activity using a standard fluorimetric assay. It was found that Chinese medicine extracts from Pyrola calliantha, Cynanchum wilfordii, Balanophora involucrata and Paeonia delavayi significantly inhibited neuraminidase activity at a concentration of 40 μg/mL. Dose-dependent inhibitory assays also revealed significant inhibition. The IC50 range of the TCM extracts for influenza virus neuraminidase was approximately 12.66-34.85 μg/mL, respectively. Some Chinese medicines have clear anti-influenza viral effects that may play an important role in the treatment of influenza through the inhibition of viral neuraminidase. The results of this study demonstrated that plant medicines can serve as a useful source of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors and further investigation into the pharmacologic activities of these extracts is warranted.
Ma, Lin-Lin; Ge, Miao; Wang, Hui-Qiang; Yin, Jin-Qiu; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Li, Yu-Huan
Influenza is still a serious threat to human health with significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses poses a great challenge to existing antiviral drugs. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) may be an alternative to overcome the challenge. Here, 10 oral proprietary Chinese medicines were selected to evaluate their anti-influenza activities. These drugs exhibit potent inhibitory effects against influenza A H1N1, influenza A H3N2, and influenza B virus. Importantly, they demonstrate potent antiviral activities against drug-resistant strains. In the study of mechanisms, we found that Xiaoqinglong mixture could increase antiviral interferon production by activating p38 MAPK, JNK/SAPK pathway, and relative nuclear transcription factors. Lastly, our studies also indicate that some of these medicines show inhibitory activities against EV71 and CVB strains. In conclusion, the 10 traditional Chinese medicines, as kind of compound combination medicines, show broad-spectrum antiviral activities, possibly also including inhibitory activities against strains resistant to available antiviral drugs.
Full Text Available Background. Chinese medicinal herbs may be useful for the treatment of hyperuricemia, but there has been no systematic assessment of their efficacy and safety. Objectives. To systematically assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Methods. Six electronic databases were searched from their inception to December 2015. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs were included. Cochrane criteria were applied to assess the risk of bias. Data analysis was performed using RevMan software version 5.2. Results. Eleven RCTs with 838 patients were included. There was no significant difference in serum uric acid between Chinese medicinal herbs and traditional Western medicine (SME: 0.19, 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.43; p=0.10. In terms of overall efficacy, the Chinese medicinal herbs were significantly superior to Western medicine (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.17; p=0.0007. The Chinese medicinal herbs were better than Western medicine in reducing the adverse reactions (RR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.62; p=0.001. And all these funnel plots showed unlikelihood of publishing bias. Conclusions. The results indicate that Chinese medicinal herbs may have greater overall efficacy with fewer adverse drug reactions, although the evidence is weak owing to the low methodological quality and the small number of the included trials.
Li, Mouduo; Qiao, Cuixia; Qin, Liping; Zhang, Junyong; Ling, Changquan
To investigate the application of Traditional Chinese Medicine Injections (TCMIs) for treatment of primary liver cancer (PLC). A literature review was conducted using PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library Controlled Clinical Trials Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Scientific Journal Database (CSJD) and China Biology Medicine (CBM). Online websites including journal websites and databases of ongoing trials, as well as some Traditional Chinese Medicine journals that are not indexed in the electronic databases were also searched. as adjunctive medication for the treatment of PLC could regulate patient immunity, reduce bone marrow suppression, relieve clinical symptoms, and improve quality of life, as well as control disease progression and prolong survival time. Within the limitations of this review, we conclude that application of TCMIs as adjunctive medication may provide benefits for patients with PLC. Further large, high-quality trials are warranted.
Fu, Shu-Fei; Cheng, Chung-Wah; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Linda Li-Dan; Kun, Wai; Lin, Jia; Zhang, Bo-Li; Wang, Yong-Yan; Shang, Hong-Cai; Bian, Zhao-Xiang
Case reports are valuable clinical evidence in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the general reporting quality is suboptimal. A working group comprising 20 members was set up to develop systematic recommendations on case report in Chinese medicine (CARC). The working group (CARC group) developed a primary checklist based on reviewing the general reporting quality of case reports in TCM and thorough internal discussion. Two-round consensus process had been carried out among clinical experts, evidence-based medicine methodologists, medical journal editors and clinical practitioners with designated questionnaire embedded with the primary checklist. In total, 118 participants from 17 provinces of China and Korea completed the questionnaires. Their feedback was analyzed and discussed by the CARC group. The checklist was amended accordingly, and the final version, comprising 16-item, is presented here. Under the framework of CARC recommendations, the reporting quality of case reports in TCM can be improved.
Full Text Available High altitude retinopathy(HARrefers to the body which can't adapt to the hypobaric hypoxia environment at high altitude leading to retinal diseases, which typically manifested as retinal hemorrhages, optic disc edema and cotton wool spots. With the development of high altitude medicine, HAR become a hot topic of eye research in recent years. New researches show a significantly higher incidence of HAR, and HAR has a close contact with acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral edema and high altitude pulmonary edema. A further study in pathogenesis and prevention measures of HAR will promote the prevention of altitude sickness. Traditional Chinese Medicine has achieved good effects in the prevention of altitude sickness, but the effect and mechanism of herbs on HAR has not been reported. Through read and summarize the relevant literatures and reports, the author will give an overview of the research advances on HAR's pathogenesis and application of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Full Text Available Like chemical drugs, research and development of herbal medicine also have a need to resolve enantiomers. To help illustrating the antiviral bioactivity of Isatidis Radix, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC was used for analytical and preparative separation of (R,S-goitrin, which was reported as the active ingredient of the herbal. Improved resolution was achieved on Chiralpak IC column, using acetonitrile as the organic modifier, representing a tenfold increase in speed, compared to the previous normal phase HPLC (NPLC method. The newly developed chromatographic method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, limit of detection (LOD, and limit of quantitation (LOQ. Scale-up purification of (R-goitrin and (S-goitrin was performed on a preparative column with >90% total recovery. The absolute stereochemical assignment of the purified isomers was determined through optical rotation study. This attempt explored SFC’s application in chiral research of traditional Chinese medicine.
Han, Shi-You; Hong, Zhi-You; Xie, Yu-Hua; Zhao, Yong; Xu, Xiao
Stroke is a condition with high morbidity and mortality, and 75% of stroke survivors lose their ability to work. Stroke is a burden to the family and society. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese herbal patent medicines in the treatment of patients after the acute phase of a stroke. We searched the following databases through August 2016: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (CNKI), China Science Periodical Database (CSPD), and China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc) for studies that evaluated Chinese herbal patent medicines for post stroke recovery. A random-effect model was used to pool therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal patent medicines on stroke recovery. Network meta-analysis was used to rank the treatment for each Chinese herbal patent medicine. In our meta-analysis, we evaluated 28 trials that included 2780 patients. Chinese herbal patent medicines were effective in promoting recovery after stroke (OR, 3.03; 95% CI: 2.53-3.64; P herbal patent medicines significantly improved neurological function defect scores when compared with the controls (standard mean difference [SMD], -0.89; 95% CI, -1.44 to -0.35; P = .001). Chinese herbal patent medicines significantly improved the Barthel index (SMD, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53-0.94; P herbal medicines most likely to improve stroke recovery when combined with acupuncture. Our research suggests that the Chinese herbal patent medicines were effective for stroke recovery. The most effective treatments for stroke recovery were MLC601, Shuxuetong, and BuchangNaoxintong. However, to clarify the specific effective ingredients of Chinese herbal medicines, a well-designed study is warranted.
In traditional medicine (TM, PHN is mostly due to incomplete heat and damp clearing in liver and spleen meridians, qi and toxic pathogens stagnation, accumulation of yin (blood stagnation in microcapillary, internal fire, and heat and obstruction of meridians. Acupuncture works based on the eradication of wind, clearing of heat, and destroying of damp by regulating qi and blood movement. In clinics, several methods of TM are used to relief PHN, such as simultaneous needling, surrounding needling, acupuncture, electro acupuncture, moxibustion, wet cupping or hijamat, and herbal medicine. In this review, we discussed all these methods and their role in reducing PHN and pain.
Zhang, Suxian; Wu, Hao; Liu, Jie; Gu, Huihui; Li, Xiujuan; Zhang, Tiansong
Treatment of pulmonary fibrosis by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated important experience. Our interest is in exploring the medication regularity of contemporary Chinese medical specialists treating pulmonary fibrosis. Through literature search, medical records from TCM experts who treat pulmonary fibrosis, which were published in Chinese and English medical journals, were selected for this study. As the object of study, a database was established after analysing the records. After data cleaning, the rules of medicine in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis in medical records of TCM were explored by using data mining technologies such as frequency analysis, association rule analysis, and link analysis. A total of 124 medical records from 60 doctors were selected in this study; 263 types of medicinals were used a total of 5,455 times; the herbs that were used more than 30 times can be grouped into 53 species and were used a total of 3,681 times. Using main medicinals cluster analysis, medicinals were divided into qi-tonifying, yin-tonifying, blood-activating, phlegm-resolving, cough-suppressing, panting-calming, and ten other major medicinal categories. According to the set conditions, a total of 62 drug compatibility rules have been obtained, involving mainly qi-tonifying, yin-tonifying, blood-activating, phlegm-resolving, qi-descending, and panting-calming medicinals, as well as other medicinals used in combination. The results of data mining are consistent with clinical practice and it is feasible to explore the medical rules applicable to the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis in medical records of TCM by data mining.
Chen, Fang-Pey; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Yu-Chun; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used in treating liver diseases in Asian countries. To conduct a large-scale pharmacoepidemiological study and evaluate the frequency and pattern of CHM prescriptions in treating chronic hepatitis. We obtained the database of traditional Chinese medicine outpatient claims from the national health insurance in Taiwan for the whole 2002. Patients with chronic hepatitis were identified by the corresponding diagnosis of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and association rule were applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM in treating chronic hepatitis. Among the 91,080 subjects treated by CHM for chronic hepatitis, the peak age was in the 40 s, followed by 30 s and 50 s. Male/female ratio was 2.07:1. Long-dan-xie-gan-tang and Saliva miltiorrhiza (Dan-shen) were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herbal drug, respectively. The most common two-drug prescription was Jia-wei-xia-yao-san plus Saliva miltiorrhiza, and the most common three-drug prescription was Jia-wei-xia-yao-san plus Saliva miltiorrhiza and Artemisia capillaries (Yin-chen-hao). This study showed the utilization pattern of Chinese herbal drugs or formulae in treating chronic hepatitis. Further researches and clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these Chinese herbs or its ingredients in treating chronic hepatitis.
Xin, Ping; Kuang, Hai-Xue; Li, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Ben-Mei; Bu, He; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Meng, Yong-Hai; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Qiu-Hong
There is no doubt that the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is effective, practical and scientific after it was used for thousands of years. However, the mechanisms of action of many TCM are still unclear because of their multi-component, multi-target and multi-level features, which hinder the modernization and internationalization of the TCM. Proteomics is to analyze the composition and activity of intracellular proteins which are changing dynamically from a holistic perspective. It is consistent with the holistic and dynamic views of the TCM and brings about the hope of clarifying the mechanism of action of the TCM. In recent years, great progress has been made in the application of proteomics to determine the mechanism of the TCM. This article introduced the core technologies of proteomics and systematically summarized the applications of proteomics in the study of the mechanism of the Chinese medicinal formulae, single Chinese medicine and monomeric compounds from the TCM to provide innovative ideas and methods for reference. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Gong, Xing-Chu; Chen, Teng; Qu, Hai-Bin
Quality by design (QbD) concept is an advanced pharmaceutical quality control concept. The application of QbD concept in the research and development of pharmaceutical processes of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) mainly contains five parts, including the definition of critical processes and their evaluation criteria, the determination of critical process parameters and critical material attributes, the establishment of quantitative models, the development of design space, as well as the application and continuous improvement of control strategy. In this work, recent research advances in QbD concept implementation methods in the secondary development of Chinese patent medicines were reviewed, and five promising fields of the implementation of QbD concept were pointed out, including the research and development of TCM new drugs and Chinese medicine granules for formulation, modeling of pharmaceutical processes, development of control strategy based on industrial big data, strengthening the research of process amplification rules, and the development of new pharmaceutical equipment.. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Wang, Ya-Qi; Jiao, Jiao-Jiao; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Zheng, Qin; Yang, Ming
"High quality, safety and effectiveness" are the primary principles for the pharmaceutical research and development process in China. The quality of products relies not only on the inspection method, but also on the design and development, process control and standardized management. The quality depends on the process control level. In this paper, the history and current development of quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations are reviewed systematically. Based on the development model of international drug quality control and the misunderstanding of quality control of TCM preparations, the reasons for impacting the homogeneity of TCM preparations are analyzed and summarized. According to TCM characteristics, efforts were made to control the diversity of TCM, make "unstable" TCM into "stable" Chinese patent medicines, put forward the concepts of "holistic view" and "QbD (quality by design)", so as to create the "holistic, modular, data, standardized" model as the core of TCM preparation quality process control model. Scientific studies shall conform to the actual production of TCM preparations, and be conducive to supporting advanced equipment and technology upgrade, thoroughly applying the scientific research achievements in Chinese patent medicines, and promoting the cluster application and transformation application of TCM pharmaceutical technology, so as to improve the quality and effectiveness of the TCM industry and realize the green development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Barlow, D J; Buriani, A; Ehrman, T; Bosisio, E; Eberini, I; Hylands, P J
The available databases that catalogue information on traditional Chinese medicines are reviewed in terms of their content and utility for in-silico research on Chinese herbal medicines, as too are the various protein database resources, and the software available for use in such studies. The software available for bioinformatics and 'omics studies of Chinese herbal medicines are summarised, and a critical evaluation given of the various in-silico methods applied in screening Chinese herbal medicines, including classification trees, neural networks, support vector machines, docking and inverse docking algorithms. Recommendations are made regarding any future in-silico studies of Chinese herbal medicines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chan, Kelvin; Shaw, Debbie; Simmonds, Monique S J; Leon, Christine J; Xu, Qihe; Lu, Aiping; Sutherland, Ian; Ignatova, Svetlana; Zhu, You-Ping; Verpoorte, Rob; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Duez, Pierre
Studies on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), like those of other systems of traditional medicine (TM), are very variable in their quality, content and focus, resulting in issues around their acceptability to the global scientific community. In an attempt to address these issues, an European Union funded FP7 consortium, composed of both Chinese and European scientists and named "Good practice in traditional Chinese medicine" (GP-TCM), has devised a series of guidelines and technical notes to facilitate good practice in collecting, assessing and publishing TCM literature as well as highlighting the scope of information that should be in future publications on TMs. This paper summarises these guidelines, together with what has been learned through GP-TCM collaborations, focusing on some common problems and proposing solutions. The recommendations also provide a template for the evaluation of other types of traditional medicine such as Ayurveda, Kampo and Unani. GP-TCM provided a means by which experts in different areas relating to TCM were able to collaborate in forming a literature review good practice panel which operated through e-mail exchanges, teleconferences and focused discussions at annual meetings. The panel involved coordinators and representatives of each GP-TCM work package (WP) with the latter managing the testing and refining of such guidelines within the context of their respective WPs and providing feedback. A Good Practice Handbook for Scientific Publications on TCM was drafted during the three years of the consortium, showing the value of such networks. A "deliverable - central questions - labour division" model had been established to guide the literature evaluation studies of each WP. The model investigated various scoring systems and their ability to provide consistent and reliable semi-quantitative assessments of the literature, notably in respect of the botanical ingredients involved and the scientific quality of the work described. This
Melchart, Dieter; Hager, Stefan; Dai, Jingzhang; Weidenhammer, Wolfgang
The use of drugs derived from plants is a cornerstone of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Yet, too little is known about risk and safety of Chinese medicinal drugs (CMD). Therefore, the TCM hospital Bad Kötzting has developed a quality control and complication screening programme in order to ensure a safe administration of TCM drugs to their patients. All Chinese medicinal drugs delivered to the hospital between September 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 entered the quality control program and were screened for microbial contamination, aflatoxin, pesticides and heavy metals. A routinely applied complication screening programme monitored liver enzymes in all patients. Case causality assessment by CIOMS scale and identification of admitted herbs were conducted. Additionally, side effects of patients were identified by a routinely performed web-based documentation system. In 5 of 23 investigated samples (21.7%) the initial testing showed microbial contamination (2), pesticide (2) and heavy metals (1). The drugs were tested for authenticity and adulterations, respectively. All 994 patients (mean age 52.6 years; 72.6% female) admitted were available for analysis. 448 (45.1%) of all patients reported having perceived at least one side effect of treatment. They experienced mainly gastrointestinal symptoms (13.6%), neurovegetative symptoms (10.8 %), temporary deteriorations of pain (8.8%), diarrhoea (5.9%), nausea (1.6%) and vomiting (0.5%). Further, 6 patients with a more than 2-fold elevation (compared to maximum normal value or elevated admission values) of ALT were found in the systematic laboratory control with a non-conclusive causality assessment for TCM-drugs. Approximate incidence rates and analysed drugs associated with liver damage revealed a low rate of liver injury. Patients should be informed of the gastrointestinal symptoms caused by and potential hepatotoxicity of TCM herbs. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Boesen, Thomas; Emmersen, Jeppe M. G.; Jensen, Lise T.
Mycoplasma hominis contains a variable adherence-associated (vaa) gene. To classify variants of the vaa genes, we examined 42 M. hominis isolated by PCR, DNA sequencing and immunoblotting. This uncovered the existence of five gene categories. Comparison of the gene types revealed a modular...
Defatted maize germ meal (DMG) is arbitrarily rated at a lower economic value than maize meal or hominy chop (HC). Five treatments with 15 steers each were fed different inclusion levels of DMG (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), replacing hominy chop during the fattening period. Slaughter data were collected for carcass ...
Wang, Yifei; Jin, Fujun; Wang, Qiaoli; Suo, Zucai
Abstract Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM) has been used in Chinese society for more than 5,000 years to treat diseases from inflammation to cancer. Here, we report the case of nine living AIDS patients in the age range of 51 to 67 who were treated with either a unique formula of TCM alone from 2001 to 2009 or the TCM from 2001 to 2006 and then switched to occasional antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly, the viral loads of eight patients were at undetectable levels on June 28, 2016, w...
Full Text Available Cancerous pain, hepatic ascites and intractable hiccups are common complications in patients with advanced liver cancer, but clinical symptomatic treatment cannot achieve satisfactory results. This article reviews the application of external therapy of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of common complications in patients with advanced liver cancer and analyzes the clinical effect and feasibility of common therapeutic methods used in treatment, such as plaster sticking therapy, tumor thermotherapy, interventional therapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine, and sonophoresis of traditional Chinese medicine.
Zhang, Wan; Li, Bolin; Sun, Jianhui; Wang, Zhikun; Zhang, Nana; Shi, Fang; Pei, Lin
To compare the differences in the clinical therapeutic effects on reflux esophagitis among the combined therapy of huazhuo jiedu jiangni decoction (the decoction for resolving the turbid, detoxification and reducing the pathologic upward qi in short) and acupuncture, omeprazole and Chinese herbal medicine. Ninety patients were randomized into 3 groups, 4 cases of them were dropped off. Finally, there were 29 cases in the combined therapy group with acupuncture and the decoction, 29 cases in the western medication group and 28 cases in the Chinese herbal medicine group in the statistical analysis. In the combined therapy group with acupuncture and the decoction, the decoction was prescribed recurrence rate. The therapeutic effects are better than the simple application of either Chinese herbal medicine or omeprazole. for oral administration. Additionally, acupuncture was applied to Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Zhongwan (CV 12), Ganshu (BL 18), Danshu (BL 19) and Taichong (LR 3). The decoction was applied one dose a day and acupuncture was once a day. In the western medication group, omeprazole capsules, 20 mg were prescribed for oral administration, twice a day. In the Chinese herbal medicine group, the decoction was simply applied. The treatment was 8 weeks in the 3 groups and the follow-up visit was 6 months. The score of reflux disorder questionnaire (RDQ) and the changes in esophageal mucosa under gastroscope were observed before and after treatment; the clinical therapeutic effects and recurrence rate were evaluated in the 3 groups. In 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, RDQ scores in the 3 groups were all reduced as compared with those before treatment (all P herbal medicine was lower than that in the western medication group ( P herbal medicine was lower than those in the western medication group and the Chinese herbal medicine group (both P herbal medicine group (all P <0.05). The combined therapy of huazhuo jiedu jiangni decoction and acupuncture achieve the
Xie, Zhu-fan; Liu, Gan-zhong; Lu, Wei-bo; Fang, Tingyu; Zhang, Qingrong; Wang, Tai; Wang, Kui
Comments were made on the word-for-word literal translation method used by Mr. Nigel Wiseman in A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine. He believes that only literal translation can reflect Chinese medical concepts accurately. The so-called "word-for-word" translation is actually "English-word-for-Chinese-character" translation. First, he made a list of Single Characters with English Equivalents, and then he replaced each character of Chinese medical terms with the assigned English equivalent. Many English terms thus produced are confusing. The defect of the word-for-word literal translation stems from the erroneous idea that the single character constitutes the basic element of meaning corresponding to the notion of "word" in English, and the meaning of a disyllabic or polysyllabic Chinese word is simply the addition of the meanings of the two or more characters. Another big mistake is the negligence of the polysemy of Chinese characters. One or two English equivalents can by no means cover all the various meanings of a polysemous character as a monosyllabic word. Various examples were cited from this dictionary to illustrate the mistakes.
Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun
This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as “much greater than” and “within the same order of magnitude”. Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment. - Highlights: • Clearer evaluation criterion instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN 13751. • Accuracy satisfied. • Large sample size provides outstanding representativeness. • Systematical evaluation on PSL method
Hu, S.M.; Mao, X.Y.; Feng, W.Y.; OY, H.; Wang, M.; Xu, D.D.; Zhang, F.; Chai, Z.F.
The present work was undertaken to study the effect of Chinese medicine on calcium absorption. Female Wistar rats, 3 months old, weighing 250-275 g, were randomly divided into ten groups of 5 rats each. The rats were individually housed in stainless steel metabolic cages in an environmentally controlled room (temperature, 20 degree C; relative humidity, 30%-60%; reversed light : dark cycle, 12:12 hr). Isotopic tracer technique was conducted to study the absorption of calcium acetate and calcium acetate + Chinese medicine in rats. The two calcium supplements were irradiated in a nuclear reactor for 4.95 d at neutron flux of φ=6.1 x 10 13 n/cm 2 ·s. Then they were prepared from concentrated 47 Ca solution (10 mg/ml) with cyclodextrin. The animals received oral doses of 25 mg calcium as calcium acetate or calcium acetate + Chinese medicine via an intragastric gavage. The animals were fasted overnight preceding and food was resumed 3 hrs after the gavage. Blood, heart, lung, liver, spleen, stomach, kidney, small intestine, large intestine and femur samples of the rats were taken upon sacrifice at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, 120, 168 hrs after dosing and assayed for 47 Ca. Urine and feces samples were collected separately after dosing and assayed for 47 Ca. The radioactivity of the samples was counted with a high pure Ge detector and a PC-based Ortec MCA. Its energy resolution was l.85 keV at 1332.5 keV and the relative detection efficiency was 30 %. The dead time was controlled within 10 % to reduce the count loss. Weighed 47 CaCO 3 was used as reference materials. A big distance between the samples and detector was kept to overcome the geometric effect caused by different shape and size of the samples. The gamma energy spectra were analyzed with a multipurpose gamma ray spectrum analysis software package. The parameters were evaluated by means of general linear model, using analysis of covariance with SAS 6.12 for Windows. The results showed that peroral 47 Ca was
Han, Qi; Li, Hong-Hai; Fan, Cui-Ping; Liu, Chun; Liang, Yong-Lin
Nausea is special in the symptoms, and is different from hiccups and vomiting. The main symptom is that the patients throw up the indigested food from the stomach regularly--if the patients have a dinner, they will throw out it in the next morning, or if the patients have a breakfast, they will throw out it at night. Nausea is common in clinic, and different physicians may use different treatment methods for it. This disease also cannot be treated efficiently and may happen repeatedly with the western medicine. In this study, the composition principles of prescriptions in past traditional Chinese medicine for nausea were analyzed and summarized by using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system(V2.5), hoping to provide guidance for clinical drug use and summarize the basic rules for treatment of nausea.The prescriptions for nausea in "the prescription of traditional Chinese medicine dictionary" were selected, and the information was entered into the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system(TCMISS) to build a database. Data mining methods such as frequency statistics, association rules, complex system entropy clustering were used to analyze and summarize the composition principles of these prescriptions. The herb frequencies of the prescriptions were finally determined; herbs with higher use frequencies were obtained; and the association rules between herbs were found. 19 commonly used herb pairs, 10 core combinations and 10 newly developed prescriptions were found. The basic pathogenesis of nausea in traditional Chinese medicine is the weakness and coldness of spleen and stomach, and the Qi adverseness of stomach. Generations of physicians' main therapeutic method for nausea is mainly to warm the middle and invigorate the spleen, lower Qi and regulate stomach. The commonly used herbs for nausea are ginger, ginseng, large head attractylodes, tuckahoe, licorice, and appropriately supplemented with the herbs of eliminating dampness and
Deng, Mei-Jun; Liu, Chun-Yan; Xie, Yu; Zhu, Jie-Bin; Xu, Zhen-Hua
To summarize the regularity of application of Lianquan (CV 23) in clinical practice in Chinese ancient times through analysis of ancient traditional Chinese medical (TCM) literature. A total of 60 books involving CV 23 from the 1 156 ancient TCM books listed in the fifth edition of Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine were collected by using CV 23 as the main keyword and "Sheben" "Benchi", and "Jieben" (the other names of CV 23 in TCM)as the supplementary keywords and analyzed systematically. A database was then constructed from the collected data, including the related types of disorders or symptoms, acupoint recipes, and methods of needling and moxibustion, contraindications, etc. A total of 196 articles related to the application of CV 23 from 60 ancient classical books were collected in accordance with the inclusive criteria. Among them, 155 articles are referred to the indications of CV 23, 35 to types of disorders such as asthma, cough, tongue swelling with difficulty in speaking, protracted tongue, acute contraction of tongue root, vomiting, spasm syndrome, stroke, aphtha, problems of mouth and teeth, throat problems, etc. of the internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and five-sense organs; 64 items are referred to the application of single CV 23, 91 to CV 23-included recipes containing 111 adjunct acupoints, and 78 to stimulation of CV 23 with acupuncture needle, moxibustion, pricking blood, and fire needle. Moreover, of the 111 adjunct acupoints, the most commonly used are Shaoshang (LU 11), Tiantu (CV 22), Hegu (LI 4), Yuye (EX-HN 13), Zhongchong (PC 9), etc. Lianquan (CV 23) is mainly used for glossopharyngeal problems chiefly by syndrome-meridian differentiation. The supplement of complementary acupoints or five-shu points in combination with CV 23 has a synergistic effect. Moxibustion (3 moxa- cones in general) is often employed, and the needling depth is usually about 7.5 mm. The common contraindication of CV 23 is severe tongue swelling.
Solos, Ioannis; Liang, Yuan; Yue, Guang-xin
The ancient teacher-disciple tradition is regarded as one of the most celebrated practices within the Chinese medicine world. Such traditions of secrecy, private wisdom and honor are deeply rooted in the theories of Confucianism. This paper only explores the surface of this ancient culture, by investigating relevant popular ancient texts and common Chinese proverbs, as well as utilizing personal experiences, in order to reflect on how the ancient Chinese perceived such practices within their own society and how secret teaching was passed on from teacher to student, including the revelation of secret formulas and their importance and how that tradition differs from our modern-day perspectives. Various rare manuscripts from the author's personal library are employed in order to provide relative examples of the importance of secret knowledge, and how these secrets applied in the traditional healing.
Roland, Maria Inês de França; Gianini, Reinaldo José
This essay is on the writings of sanitary doctor Geraldo Horácio de Paula Souza in Eugenia e Imigração (1928) and, after an official trip to the Orient, in Digressões sobre a medicina chinesa clássica (1942) and A sabedoria chinesa diante da ciência ocidental e a Escola Médica de Pequim (1943). The documents, analyzed according to the conceptual approach of Carlo Ginzburg, indicate a change in his view of the Chinese. Trained according to the Rockefeller Foundation's model of experimental medicine, Geraldo de Paula Souza was guided in his work by scientific rigor and record imagery. In his youth he was of the opinion that the Chinese civilization was stagnated, but this view changed after his visit, when he perceived the Chinese republic's capacity to modernize.
Chen, Xiuping; Pei, Lixia; Lu, Jinjian
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the ancient medicine popular in China and surrounding areas, has been recognized as a typical representative of complementary and alternative medicine. Over long period in clinical practice, especially the progress in basic research, data on the effectiveness and beneficial contribution of TCM herbs to public health and disease control have been accumulated while the quality of the evidence is generally poor. The most common clinical practice of TCM herbs is herb combination called formula which consists of several types of medicinal herbs or minerals, which is quite different from modern medicine. Definitely, tens of hundreds of compounds could be identified in even a small formula. With the regained enthusiasm on natural products based new drug R&D, the proposed multi-target drug discovery strategy, the booming of -omics technologies, and the implementation of ambitious plan of TCM modernization in China, attempts have been made to fill the gap between TCM herbs and modern drugs. However, are we heading to the right direction? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. This study was intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo capsule for hypertension. Search Strategy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, The PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database (CBM, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data started from the first of database to October 28, 2013. No language restriction was applied. We included randomized clinical trials testing Tongxinluo capsule against western medicine, Tongxinluo capsule versus placebo, and Tongxinluo capsule combined with western medicine versus western medicine. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. 25 trials with 1958 participants were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. The blood pressure (BP lowering effect of Tongxinluo capsule plus western medicine was significantly higher than that of western medicine (systolic blood pressure (SBP: −3.87, −5.32 to −2.41, P<0.00001; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP: −2.72, −4.19 to −1.24, P=0.0003. The BP also decreased significantly from baseline with Tongxinluo capsule than placebo (SBP: −9.40, −10.90 to −7.90, P<0.00001; and DBP: −11.80, −12.40 to −11.20, P<0.00001 or western medicine (SBP: −3.90, −4.93 to −2.87, P<0.00001; and DBP: −3.70, −3.83 to −3.57, P<0.00001. 12 trials reported adverse events without details. Conclusions. There is some but weak evidence about the effectiveness of TXL in treating patients with hypertension.
Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Lyu, Dong-Mei; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Meng; Guo, Lan-Ping; Peng, Hua-Sheng
At the beginning of the ancient "Silk Road", traditional Chinese medicine resources (TCM resources) have long been integrated into it, and it was once the "important part" of the ancient "Silk Road" in Chinese history, benefited from this, the political connections was strengthened, the economic and trade was developed, and Chinese medicine culture was spread. Before Qing Dynasty, people took out the "silk" and brought back "herbs" on the "Silk Road", which enriched China's medicinal resources. While in the later Qing Dynasty and the period of the Republic of China, more scientific and technological methods were brought back from abroad, and this in turn enriched the medical research methods. With more than 2 000 years' development, China's boundaries have changed countless times, therefore the word "Foreign" has different meanings in different historical periods. The import, development and utilization of foreign TCM resources is different in different historical periods, at present, with the continuous enhancement of China's comprehensiv national strength，especially the "Belt And Road" strategy, the communication and import of TCM resources with countries that participating in the "Belt and Road" initiativ became much easier. In order to actively respond to the "Belt and Road" initiative promote the development and utilization of foreign medicinal resources; serve people from the countries participating in the "Belt and Road" initiative we sorted out the foreign TCM resources from different periods in ancient and modern China, and based on this, we proposed the strategy of import of foreign TCM resources under the new situation, those are: "three levels, four steps, one support and one key". And "three levels" refers to intelligence collection level, field investigation level, scientific research level, "Four steps" refers to the original identification research, safety evaluation research, functional positioning research and medicinal properties research; "One
Julia A Devonish
Full Text Available Worldwide, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and its related management costs have increased over time. The latest predictions anticipate this trend to continue during the next few decades. As individuals with T2DM in the United States (US are burdened with escalating prescription drug expenses, the appeal and use of cost effective alternatives may also increase. Herbal supplements are an example of such an alternative, but are unregulated and mostly lacking scientific evidence of advertised claims. In general, plant based herbal preparations are often advertised as ‘natural’, ‘less-toxic’, ‘medicines’ and are widely available from public retailers throughout the country. Over half of the US adult population report the use of supplements. Eastern countries, and especially China, have a long history of the use of herbal preparations as traditional medicine to prevent and treat diabetes. Recently the US has experienced a growth in the number imports of herbal supplements and other Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM to the country as well as the most rapid population growth in individuals who identify themselves as Asian. To date, little is known about the prevalence TCM use in the management of T2DM either alone or in combination with prescription medicines in the US. Knowledge of possible implications to patient safety (e.g., interactions, adverse effects with concurrent use of both TCM and prescription medicines is also lacking. This review begins with summaries of the T2DM management strategies employed in traditional modern medicine (TMM and Chinese medicine (TCM. A review of literature follows where the most commonly used TCM herbal preparations and their ingredients are identified and found along with any published reports of their proposed mechanisms of action, efficacy, adverse effects, and contraindications. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or
Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the curative effect of Chinese medicine physiotherapy combined with tropicamide eye drops to treat pseudomyopia in children and adolescent. METHODS: We collected randomized controlled trials from CNKI, CBM, Wanfang database, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library in 2000-2015, and the improved Jadad scale was used to evaluate the methodology of the literature, and the data was extracted. The Review Manager 5.3 statistical software was used for meta analysis. RESULTS: A total of 5 articles were included in the analysis, with a total sample size of 836 cases. The curative effect of experimental group on pseudomyopia was better than that of control group, and the differences are statistically significant(Z=6.39, PCONCLUSION: Compared with topiramine eye drops alone, combined with traditional Chinese medicine therapy for treating pseudomyopia in children and adolescent is more effective, and is safe and reliable.
Zhang, Lianjun; Lu, Jin; Le, Kang; Fu, Tingming; Guo, Liwei
To investigate the effect of differents solution environments on the ceramic membrane microfiltration of model system of Chinese medicines. Taking binary system of soybean protein-berberine as the research object, flux, transmittance of berberine and traping rate of protein as indexes, different solution environment on membrane process were investigated. When the concentration of soybean protein was under 1 g x L(-1), the membrane flux was minimum with the traping of berberine decreased slightly as the concentration increased. When pH was 4, the flux was maximum with the traping rate of protein was 99%, and the transmittance of berberine reached above 60%. The efficiency of membrane separation can be improved by optimizing the solution environment of water-extraction of chinese medicines. The efficiency of membrane separation is the best when adjust the pH to the isoelectric point of proteins for the proteins as the main pollutant in aqueous solution.
Wang, Xin; Su, Xia; Yu, Jie; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan
The post-marketed reassessment is an important link to ensure the safety and effectiveness of traditional chinese medicine. It is also the expansion and stretch of new drug evaluation. Through the systematic, standard, rigorous post-marketed reassessment, the enterprise can full access to drugs after listing the efficacy and safety information, evaluate the interests and risk of the drug and provide the scientific basis for the drug use. It can also provide timely, scientific technology basis for government health decisions, the enterprise marketing decision and public health security. This paper mainly discussed the thought on clinical orientation of traditional chinese medicine in the post-marketed reassessment and how to reach the goal through systematic consideration and overall plan.
Zhang, Jinxia; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhen'e
In 1980, Wang Miqu proposed the concept of "The Psychology of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM Psychology)". In 1985, "The First National Symposium on Psychology of Traditional Chinese Medicine" was held, and the concept of TCM Psychology was put forward in the symposium, thus declaring the establishment of TCM Psychology, a new disciplinary branch. Since then, 12 national or international academic symposia of TCM Psychology were convened nationwide. Based on inheriting the original TCM, by means of exploring, sorting out and improving, and by combining and integrating with psychology and medical psychology, the theory of TCM Psychology was thus gradually innovated, and a systematic knowledge of TCM Psychology was set up and utilized in the clinical practice extensively.
Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy.
Yang, Guang; Wang, Nuo; Huang, Lu-Qi; Qiu, Hong-Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping
A dispute about the decreasing-price problem of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has recently arisen. This article analyzes the statistical data of 1995-2011 in China, the results showed that the main responsibility of expensive health care has no direct relationship with the drug price. The price index of TCM rose significantly slower than the medicine prices, the production margins of TCM affected by the material prices has been diminishing since 1995, continuous price reduction will further depress profits of the TCM industry. Considering the pros and cons of raw materials vary greatly in price, decreasing medicine price behavior will force enterprises to use inferior materials in order to maintain corporate profits. The results have the guiding meaning to medicine price management.
Daly, Maria; Tai, Chen-Jei; Deng, Chung-Yeh; Chien, Li-Yin
Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors likely to influence their use of TCM. Methods This study applied a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 207 white-collar foreign workers of a non-Asian background currently holding National Health Insurance cards who had lived in Taiwan for 4 months or more participated in this study. Results The prevalence of TCM use was 45%. The most frequently used therapies were traditional Chinese herbs/medicine and acupuncture. Factors indicating the likelihood of TCM usage were age 31–40 years, visit to an allopathic medical doctor in the last year, ability to read Chinese, having a friend or family member available to assist in the use of TCM, and access to information about TCM services available in Taiwan. Conclusion Utilization of TCM by people of a non-Asian background living in Taiwan appears to be most influenced by enabling factors including language ability, access to information, and informal reference persons. PMID:19144152
Daly, Maria; Tai, Chen-Jei; Deng, Chung-Yeh; Chien, Li-Yin
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors likely to influence their use of TCM. This study applied a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 207 white-collar foreign workers of a non-Asian background currently holding National Health Insurance cards who had lived in Taiwan for 4 months or more participated in this study. The prevalence of TCM use was 45%. The most frequently used therapies were traditional Chinese herbs/medicine and acupuncture. Factors indicating the likelihood of TCM usage were age 31-40 years, visit to an allopathic medical doctor in the last year, ability to read Chinese, having a friend or family member available to assist in the use of TCM, and access to information about TCM services available in Taiwan. Utilization of TCM by people of a non-Asian background living in Taiwan appears to be most influenced by enabling factors including language ability, access to information, and informal reference persons.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors likely to influence their use of TCM. Methods This study applied a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 207 white-collar foreign workers of a non-Asian background currently holding National Health Insurance cards who had lived in Taiwan for 4 months or more participated in this study. Results The prevalence of TCM use was 45%. The most frequently used therapies were traditional Chinese herbs/medicine and acupuncture. Factors indicating the likelihood of TCM usage were age 31–40 years, visit to an allopathic medical doctor in the last year, ability to read Chinese, having a friend or family member available to assist in the use of TCM, and access to information about TCM services available in Taiwan. Conclusion Utilization of TCM by people of a non-Asian background living in Taiwan appears to be most influenced by enabling factors including language ability, access to information, and informal reference persons.
Yu, Wen-Kang; Dong, Ling; Pei, Wen-Xuan; Sun, Zhi-Rong; Dai, Jun-Dong; Wang, Yun
The whole process quality control and management of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction pieces is a system engineering, involving the base environment, seeds and seedlings, harvesting, processing and other multiple steps, so the accurate identification of factors in TCM production process that may induce the quality risk, as well as reasonable quality control measures are very important. At present, the concept of quality risk is mainly concentrated in the aspects of management and regulations, etc. There is no comprehensive analysis on possible risks in the quality control process of TCM decoction pieces, or analysis summary of effective quality control schemes. A whole process quality control and management system for TCM decoction pieces based on TCM quality tree was proposed in this study. This system effectively combined the process analysis method of TCM quality tree with the quality risk management, and can help managers to make real-time decisions while realizing the whole process quality control of TCM. By providing personalized web interface, this system can realize user-oriented information feedback, and was convenient for users to predict, evaluate and control the quality of TCM. In the application process, the whole process quality control and management system of the TCM decoction pieces can identify the related quality factors such as base environment, cultivation and pieces processing, extend and modify the existing scientific workflow according to their own production conditions, and provide different enterprises with their own quality systems, to achieve the personalized service. As a new quality management model, this paper can provide reference for improving the quality of Chinese medicine production and quality standardization. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Cao, Yong; Xu, Xia; Zhang, Peiying
Viral myocarditis (VMC) is a common clinical condition; however, no specific treatment has been available from the perspective of modern western medicine, and typically only symptomatic treatment is provided in clinical settings. The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown certain advantages in treating VMC. Last few years have witnessed certain advances in the TCM-based research on the etiology and pathogenesis of VMC and its clinical management. This article reviews the clinical advances made in the TCM-based management of VMC in the last 5 years.
Marziani, Jessica A
The nontraditional therapies of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine and chiropractic care are adjunct treatments that can be used in conjunction with more conventional therapies to treat a variety of medical conditions. Nontraditional therapies do not need to be alternatives to Western medicine but, instead, can be used simultaneously. Exotic animal practitioners should have a basic understanding of nontraditional therapies for both client education and patient referral because they can enhance the quality of life, longevity, and positive outcomes for various cases across multiple taxa. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gu, Z; Lu, X
The most important influence of art of changes on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was reflected in the formation of the basic theory of TCM. Some innovations were achieved by using the theory of art of changes to research medicine in later ages. However, the specific therapies and the prognostication of diseases inferred by using the art of mathematics were mostly unreliable. Though the researches on the art of changes were helpful to the exploration of the cause and effect of TMC, yet, its practical significance should be evaluated properly.
Ma, Xueqin; Zheng, Chengjian; Hu, Changling; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Luping
Plants of the genus Desmodium (Fabaceae), such as Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. and Desmodium gyrans (L. f.) DC., have a long history of medical use in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat various ailments including rheumatism, pyrexia, dysentery, wounds, cough, malaria, hepatitis, hemoptysis, etc. In the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, most species have the effect of relieving internal heat or fever, neutralizing toxins, inhibiting pain, invigorating blood circulation, suppressing cough and alleviating dyspnea. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by analyzing secondary sources including Chinese Herbal Classics, and worldwide accepted scientific databases (Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, SciFinder) were scrutinized for the available information on the ethnopharmacological uses in Chinese medicine, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Desmodium species. The genus Desmodium is a large member of the Papilionaceae (Fabaceae) family. It contains about 350 plant species used for both feeding stuffs and herbal medicines, of which only about 30 species have been phytochemically or pharmacologically investigated. Desmodium plant extracts, as well as the active principles, have been experimentally studied for their anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, antinephrolithic, antibacterial, and nootropic activities in vitro or in vivo. And so far, a total of 212 compounds have been isolated from 15 Desmodium species and characterized mainly as flavonoids and alkaloids, followed by terpenoids, steroids, phenols, phenylpropanoids, glycosides and a number of volatile oils. The remaining unrevealed species are recorded chiefly in Asia and Africa being used in empirical treatment for various diseases. Desmodium species have long been used in TCM to treat various ailments. Available scientific references revealed that the traditional medical uses of some important Desmodium species in TCM have been evaluated by modern pharmacological
Full Text Available Retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury(RIRIis a common clinical disease, and the producing mechanism is still in research. Experimental and clinical research in recent years have showed that the mechanism of RIRI and oxygen free radicals, gene regulation, calcium overload, inflammatory cytokines and other factors are closely related. In this article, we summarized the current situation that the scholars at home and abroad study traditional Chinese medicine extract of prevention and treatment of RIRI.
Dan Li; Ling Shen; En-Li Deng
AIM:To evaluate the curative effect of Chinese medicine physiotherapy combined with tropicamide eye drops to treat pseudomyopia in children and adolescent. METHODS: We collected randomized controlled trials from CNKI, CBM, Wanfang database, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library in 2000-2015, and the improved Jadad scale was used to evaluate the methodology of the literature, and the data was extracted. The Review Manager 5.3 statistical software was used for meta analysis. RESULTS: A total of 5...
Chen, Xiu-ping; Tang, Zheng-hai; Shi, Zhe; Lu, Jin-jian; Su, Huan-xing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Yi-tao
Cancer, an abnormal cell proliferation resulted from multi-factors,has the highest morbidity and mortality among all the serious diseases. Considerable progress has been made in cancer biology in recent years. Tumor immunology, cancer stem cells (CSCs), autophagy, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have become hot topics of interests in this area. Detailed dissection of these biological processes will provide novel directions, targets, and strategies for the pharmacological evaluation, mechanism elucidation, and new drug development of traditional Chinese medicine.
Geng Chuanying; Xu Bo; Li Hongyan; Chen Zhihua; Xia Qisheng; Xu Mei; Liu Xuan; Xiang Qing; Liu Yufeng
Objective: To observe the effect of radiation treatment combined with Chinese medicinal monomers on the proliferation function, telomerase activity, expressions of apoptosis- and proliferation-related genes of Me180 cells. Methods: Me180 cells were cultured in the medium with oleanolic acid, curcumin and allicin. The survival rates of cells were detected by the methods of MTT, the telomerase activity by the method of telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and the apoptosis -and proliferation-related genes by the method of reverse transeriptase-PCR. Me180 cells were cultured in the medium with Chinese medicinal monomers, and exposed to X-ray irradiation and the survival rates were detected. Results: The results of MTY showed that survival rates of tumor cells exposed to X rays in combination with oleanolic acid, curcumin and allicin were decreased significantly(t=2.81, 4.16, and 3.42, P<0.05). Chinese medicinal monomers inhibited the telomerase activity of MelS0 cells and the inhibiting function changed with time. At 16 h, the telomerase activities of MelS0 cells administered with oleanolic acid and allicin were reduced markedly (t=5.11 and 5.29, P<0.05). After 48 h, the telomerase activities returned to the normal level. The gene expressions of p21 and p16 in Me180 cells treated with oleanolic acid were 2.43 and 2.78 times higher than the control, respectively, while those of cyclin D1 and CDK4 were 56% and 41% of the control, respectively. Conclusions: Chinese medicinal monomers could effectively kill tumor cells, inhibit the telomerase activity and the expression of proliferation-related genes, and enhance the radiosensitivity of tumor cells. (authors)
Chen, L C; Wang, B R; Chou, Y C; Tien, J H
Drug utilization studies are important for the optimization of drug therapy and have received a great attention in recent years. Most of the information on drug use patterns has been derived from studies in modern Western medicines; however, studies regarding the drug utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (CM) are few. The present study was the first clinical research to evaluate the drug utilization patterns of Chinese herbal medicines in a general hospital in Taiwan. Data were collected prospectively from the patients attending the Traditional Medicine Center of Taipei Veteran General Hospital under CM drug treatments. The study was carried out over a period of 1 year, from January 2002 to December 2002. Core drug use indicators, such as the average number of drugs per prescriptions, the dosing frequency of prescriptions, and the most common prescribed CM herbs and formulae were evaluated. The primary diagnosis and the CM drugs prescribed for were also revealed. All data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. A total of 10 737 patients, representing 52 255 CM drugs, were screened during the study period. Regarding the prescriptions, the average number of drugs per prescription was 4.87 and 37.21% of prescriptions were composed by five drugs. Most of prescriptions (91.38%) were prescribed for three times a day. The most often prescribed Chinese herb was Hong-Hwa (5.76%) and the most common Chinese herbal formula was Jia-Wey-Shiau-Yau-San (3.80%). The most frequent main diagnosis was insomnia (15.58%), followed by menopause (5.22%) and constipation (5.09%). The survey revealed the drug use pattern of CMs in a general hospital. The majority of CM prescriptions were composed by 3-6 drugs and often prescribed for three times a day. Generally, the rational drug uses of CM drugs were provided with respect to the various diagnoses. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chen, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Ru-Feng; Liu, Bin
A great number of naturally occurring oligosaccharides and oligosaccharide esters have been isolated from traditional Chinese medicinal plants, which are used widely in Asia and show prominent curative effects in the prevention and treatment of kinds of diseases. Numerous in vitro and in vivo experiments have revealed that oligosaccharides and their esters exhibited various activities, including antioxidant, antidepressant, cytotoxic, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, cerebr...
Dong, Li; Liu, Xin-Min; Wu, Li-Sha; Yang, Si-Jin; Wang, Qiong
Aerospace medicine has paid more and more attention to abnormal changes of physiological functions induced by weightlessness and studies on their prevention during space flight. In this paper, the effect of space weightlessness on cognitive functions was introduced. We tried to analyze the correlation between the cognitive function changes and relevant Chinese medical syndromes, thus providing a potential available way to prevent and treat weightlessness induced cognitive deficit during space flight.
Yang, Xiao-Chen; Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie
This article is to overview the literature of syndrome differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine on hypertension. According to the theory of disease in combination with syndrome, we concluded syndrome types of hypertension in four aspects, including national standards, industry standards, teaching standards and personal experience. Meanwhile, in order to provide new methods and approaches for normalized research, we integrated modern testing methods and statistical methods to analyze syndrome differentiation for the treatment of hypertension.
Liu, Qi; Zhang, Peihai; Pan, Junjie; Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Jixin; Li, Guangsen; Qin, Wei; You, Yaodong; Yu, Xujun; Sun, Jinbo; Dong, Minghao; Gong, Qiyong; Guo, Jun; Chang, Degui
Background. Pattern differentiation is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study aims to investigate the differences in cerebral activity in ED patients with different TCM patterns. Methods. 27 psychogenic ED patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled in this study. Each participant underwent an fMRI scan in resting state. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was used to detect the brain activity ...
Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Iqbal, Usman; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Lin, Shen-Hsien; Huang, Chih-Wei; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan
Medication errors such as potential inappropriate prescriptions would induce serious adverse drug events to patients. Information technology has the ability to prevent medication errors; however, the pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is not as clear as in western medicine. The aim of this study was to apply the appropriateness of prescription (AOP) model to identify potential inappropriate TCM prescriptions. We used the association rule of mining techniques to analyze 14.5 million prescriptions from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The disease and TCM (DTCM) and traditional Chinese medicine-traditional Chinese medicine (TCMM) associations are computed by their co-occurrence, and the associations' strength was measured as Q-values, which often referred to as interestingness or life values. By considering the number of Q-values, the AOP model was applied to identify the inappropriate prescriptions. Afterwards, three traditional Chinese physicians evaluated 1920 prescriptions and validated the detected outcomes from the AOP model. Out of 1920 prescriptions, 97.1% of positive predictive value and 19.5% of negative predictive value were shown by the system as compared with those by experts. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the negative predictive value could improve up to 27.5% when the model's threshold changed to 0.4. We successfully applied the AOP model to automatically identify potential inappropriate TCM prescriptions. This model could be a potential TCM clinical decision support system in order to improve drug safety and quality of care. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Researches on the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of the disease-syndrome combination approach in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine are becoming a hot spot in andrology, but many recent studies of this kind have failed to explain the connotation of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in andrology. Related existing problems include repeated researches into the same indexes of action mechanisms of different therapeutic principles of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Chinese herbal compound and special prescriptions, studies focusing on individual diseases but ignoring symptoms, immature syndrome models for studies of mechanisms, and too much attention to uncertain or immature target mechanisms. The stress should be placed on the action mechanisms of Chinese herbal compound and special prescriptions on male diseases and, what is more important, on the clarification of the essential principles of differentiation and treatment of TCM syndromes. In the recent years, proteomics, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics have shed some light upon researches into the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of the disease-syndrome combination approach in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in andrology. An insight into the TCM syndrome, a macroscopic inductive analysis, and a comprehension of such microcosmic aspects as the gene, protein, metabolism and metagenome may contribute to some breakthroughs and new ideas in the studies of disease-syndrome combination in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in andrology.
Zhao, Yan-qing; Teng, Jing; Yang, Hong-jun
To analyze the prescription and medication regularities of traditional Chinese medicines in the treatment of melancholia in the Chinese journal full text database (CNKI), Wanfang Data knowledge service platform, VIP, Chinese biomedical literature database (CBM) in based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support platform software, in order to provide reference for further mining traditional Chinese medicines for the treatment of melancholia and new drug development. The traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support platform software V2.0 was used to establish the prescription database of traditional Chinese medicines for treating melancholia. The software integrated data mining method was adopted to analyze four Qis, five flavors, meridian distribution, frequency statistics, syndrome distribution, composition regularity and new prescriptions. Totally 358 prescriptions for treating melancholia were analyzed to determine the frequency of prescription drugs, commonly used drug pairs and combinations and develop 22 new prescriptions. According to this study, prescriptions for treating depression collected in modern literature databases mainly have the effects in soothing liver and resolving melancholia, strengthening spleen and eliminating phlegm, activating and replenishing blood, regulating liver qi, tonifying spleen qi, clearing heat and purging heat, soothing the mind, nourishing yin and tonifying kidney, with neutral drug property and sweet or bitter flavor, and follow the melancholia treatment principle of "regulating qi and opening the mind, regulating qi and empathy".
Liu, Jian-Ping; Han, Mei; Li, Xin-Xue
Clinical trials on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) should be registered in a publicly accessible international trial register and report on all outcomes. We systematically assessed and evaluated TCM trials in registries with their subsequent publications.......Clinical trials on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) should be registered in a publicly accessible international trial register and report on all outcomes. We systematically assessed and evaluated TCM trials in registries with their subsequent publications....
LIU, JI-XIN; SUN, YAN-HONG; LI, CHAO-PIN
Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome ...
Xie, Yan-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Bin; Jiang, Jun-Jie; Chang, Yan-Peng; Zhang, Wen; Shen, Hao; Lu, Peng-Fei
Through consensus, establish a post-marketing scheme and the technical processes to evaluate Chinese medicine's immunotoxicity on a population, as well as its beneficial influences on the immune system. Provide regulations on the collection, storage and transportation of serum samples. This article applies to the post-marketing scientific evaluation of the immunotoxicity of parenterally administered, and for other ways of taking Chinese medicine.
Jian, Wen-Jia; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jin-Zhou; Ni, Jing-Nian
Chinese herbal medicine has been extensively used in the treatment of vascular dementia (VaD), but lacked systematic review on its efficacy and safety. So we conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine in treating VaD. CNKI, CBM, PubMed, and Wiley Online Library were retrieved for randomized trials (RCTs) on Chinese herbal medicine treating VaD patients. Randomized parallel control trials by taking Chinese herbal medicine as one treatment method and placebos/cholinesterase inhibitors/Memantine hydrochloride as the control were included. Quality rating and data extraction were performed. RevMan5.2.0 Software was used for meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference (SMD) at 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to indicate effect indicators of results. Seven RCTs met the inclusive criteria. Totally 677 VaD patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group. Descriptive analyses were performed in inclusive trials. The cognitive function was assessed in all trials. Results showed Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE) score was better in the Chinese herbal medicine group than in the placebo group, but with no significant difference when compared with the donepezil group (P > 0.05). Adverse reactions were mainly manifested as gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain in the Chinese herbal medicine group. But they occurred more in the donepezil group than in the Chinese herbal medicine group. The methodological quality of included trials was poor with less samples. Results of different trials were lack of consistency. Present evidence is not sufficient to prove or disapprove the role of Chinese herbal medicine in improving clinical symptoms and outcome indicators of VaD patients. Their clinical efficacy and safety need to be supported by more higher quality RCTs.
He, Fengyan; He, Yi; Zheng, Xiaowei; Wang, Ruizhong; Lu, Jing; Dai, Zhong; Ma, Shuangcheng
It has been uncovered that chemical dyes are illegally used in traditional Chinese medicines to brighten color and cover up inferiority, which threaten the safety of patients. In the present study, an HPTLC-MS method was developed for the effective screening of 11 chemical dyes (Sudan I, II, III, and IV; 808 Scarlet; Sudan Red 7B; malachite green; Basic Orange 2; auramine; Orange II; and erythrosine) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) raw materials and Chinese patent medicines. Firstly, unwashed HPTLC plates were chosen by comparing the background signals of the TLC plates used directly and prewashed with analytical grade and HPLC grade solvents. Twice developments were conducted to isolate chemical dyes of different polarity. Possible adulterants were preliminarily identified by comparing Rf values and in situ UV-Vis spectra with those of the references. Further confirmation was conducted by tandem MS analysis via an elution head-based TLC-MS interface. Sudan I and IV, 808 Scarlet, and Orange II were successfully detected in eight batches of TCM. The proposed method could be applied as a reliable technology for the screening of chemical dyes in TCM.
Xu, Bing; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Lin, Zhao-Zhou
The philosophy of quality by design (QbD) is now leading the changes in the drug manufacturing mode from the conventional test-based approach to the science and risk based approach focusing on the detailed research and understanding of the production process. Along with the constant deepening of the understanding of the manufacturing process, the design space will be determined, and the emphasis of quality control will be shifted from the quality standards to the design space. Therefore, the establishment of the design space is core step in the implementation of QbD, and it is of great importance to study the methods for building the design space. This essay proposes the concept of design space for the production process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations, gives a systematic introduction of the concept of the design space, analyzes the feasibility and significance to build the design space in the production process of traditional Chinese medicine preparations, and proposes study approaches on the basis of examples that comply with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine preparations, as well as future study orientations.
Full Text Available Huanli Xu,1 Xin Zhao,2 Xiaohui Liu,1 Pingxiang Xu,1 Keming Zhang,2 Xiukun Lin11Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, 2Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, 302 Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Defects in apoptosis are common phenomena in many types of cancer and are also a critical step in tumorigenesis. Targeting the apoptotic pathway has been considered an intriguing strategy for cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used in the People’s Republic of China for thousands of years, and many of the medicines have been confirmed to be effective in the treatment of a number of tumors. With increasing cancer rates worldwide, the antitumor effects of TCMs have attracted more and more attention globally. Many of the TCMs have been shown to have antitumor activity through multiple targets, and apoptosis pathway-related targets have been extensively studied and defined to be promising. This review focuses on several antitumor TCMs, especially those with clinical efficacy, based on their effects on the apoptotic signaling pathway. The problems with and prospects of development of TCMs as anticancer agents are also presented.Keywords: traditional Chinese medicine, antitumor effects, apoptotic pathway
Liu, Lei; Liu, Jian-Xun; Guo, Hao; Ren, Jian-Xun
Pericytesis a kind of widespread vascular mural cells embedded within the vascular basement membrane of blood microvessels, constituting the barrier of capillaries and tissue spaces together with endothelial cells. Pericytes communicate with microvascular endothelial cells through cell connections or paracrine signals, playing an important role in important physiological processes such as blood flow, vascular permeability and vascular formation. Pericytes dysfunction may participate in some microvascular dysfunction, and also mediate pathological repair process, therefore pericytes attracted more and more attention. Traditional Chinese medicine suggests that microvascular dysfunction belongs to the collaterals disease; Qi stagnation and blood stasis in collaterals result in function imbalance of internal organs. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown effects on pericytes in microvascular dysfunction, for example qi reinforcing blood-circulation activating medicines can reduce the damage of retinal pericytes in diabetic retinopathy. However, there are some limitations of research fields, inaccuracy of research techniques and methods, and lack of mechanism elaboration depth in the study of microvascular lesion pericytes. This paper reviewed the biological characteristics of pericytes and pericytes in microvascular dysfunction, as well as the intervention study of TCM on pericytes. The article aims to provide reference for the research of pericytes in microvascular dysfunction and the TCM study on pericytes. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Weng, Shu-Wen; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Liu, Chun-Kai; Chang, Ching-Mao
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used for patients with psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate TCM usage in patients with psoriasis. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals representing the 23 million enrollees randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We identified 28,510 patients newly diagnosed with psoriasis between 2000 and 2010. Among them, 20,084 (70.4%) patients were TCM users. Patients who were female, younger, white-collar workers and lived in urbanized area tended to be TCM users. The median interval between the initial diagnosis of psoriasis to the first TCM consultation was 12 months. More than half (N = 11,609; 57.8%) of the TCM users received only Chinese herbal medicine. Win-qing-yin and Bai-xian-pi were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb, respectively. The core prescription pattern comprised Mu-dan-pi, Wen-qing-yin, Zi-cao, Bai-xian-pi, and Di-fu-zi. Patients preferred TCM than Western medicine consultations when they had metabolic syndrome, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, alopecia areata, Crohn's disease, cancer, depression, fatty liver, chronic airway obstruction, sleep disorder, and allergic rhinitis. In conclusion, TCM use is popular among patients with psoriasis in Taiwan. Future clinical trials to investigate its efficacy are warranted. PMID:27822287
Full Text Available Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.
Yuan, Bin; Ren, Ying-Long; Ma, Li; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang
To discuss the rationality of the clinical replacement of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) bear bile with bile acid constituents, and analyze the difference between these constituents and bear bile in drug properties. Summarizing the drug properties of bear bile by reference to medical literatures for drug properties of TCM bear bile and Science of Traditional Chinese Medicine (China Press of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2007). Analyzing and summarizing the pharmacological effects of main bile acid constituents according to relevant literatures for studies on pharmacological effects of main bile acid constituents in CNKI database. Predicating the drug properties of these bile acid constituents by using the drug property predication model established by the study group according the pharmacological effects of main bile acid constituents in the paper, and compare the prediction results with the drug properties of bear bile. Bile acid constituents in bear bile were mostly cold in property, bitter in taste, and the combination of their drug properties could reflect the combined drug properties of bear bile. All of these bile acid constituents in bear bile could show part of effects of bear bile. Attention shall be given to regulate the medication scheme in clinical application according to actual conditions.
Full Text Available Chemical fingerprinting is currently a widely used tool that enables rapid and accurate quality evaluation of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. However, chemical fingerprints are not amenable to information storage, recognition, and retrieval, which limit their use in Chinese medicine traceability. In this study, samples of three kinds of Chinese medicines were randomly selected and chemical fingerprints were then constructed by using high performance liquid chromatography. Based on chemical data, the process of converting the TCM chemical fingerprint into two-dimensional code is presented; preprocess and filtering algorithm are also proposed aiming at standardizing the large amount of original raw data. In order to know which type of two-dimensional code (2D is suitable for storing data of chemical fingerprints, current popular types of 2D codes are analyzed and compared. Results show that QR Code is suitable for recording the TCM chemical fingerprint. The fingerprint information of TCM can be converted into data format that can be stored as 2D code for traceability and quality control.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has long been used for patients with psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate TCM usage in patients with psoriasis. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals representing the 23 million enrollees randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We identified 28,510 patients newly diagnosed with psoriasis between 2000 and 2010. Among them, 20,084 (70.4% patients were TCM users. Patients who were female, younger, white-collar workers and lived in urbanized area tended to be TCM users. The median interval between the initial diagnosis of psoriasis to the first TCM consultation was 12 months. More than half (N=11,609; 57.8% of the TCM users received only Chinese herbal medicine. Win-qing-yin and Bai-xian-pi were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb, respectively. The core prescription pattern comprised Mu-dan-pi, Wen-qing-yin, Zi-cao, Bai-xian-pi, and Di-fu-zi. Patients preferred TCM than Western medicine consultations when they had metabolic syndrome, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, alopecia areata, Crohn’s disease, cancer, depression, fatty liver, chronic airway obstruction, sleep disorder, and allergic rhinitis. In conclusion, TCM use is popular among patients with psoriasis in Taiwan. Future clinical trials to investigate its efficacy are warranted.
Zhang, Ding-kun; Wang, Jia-bo; Yang, Ming; Peng, Cheng; Xiao, Xiao-he
Good medicinal herbs, good drugs. Good evaluation method and indices are the prerequisite of good medicinal herbs. However, there exist numerous indices for quality evaluation and control in Chinese medicinal materials. However, most of these indices are non-interrelated each other, as well as having little relationship with efficiency and safety. The results of different evaluatior methods may not be consistent, even contradictory. Considering the complex material properties of Chinese medicinal materials, single method and index is difficult to objectively and comprehensively reflect the quality. Therefore, it is essential to explore the integrated evaluation methods. In this paper, oriented by the integrated evaluation strategies for traditional Chinese medicine quality, a new method called integrated quality index (IQI) by the integration of empirical evaluation, chemical evaluation, and biological evaluation was proposed. In addition, a study case of hypertoxic herb Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. was provided to explain this method in detail. The results suggested that in the view of specifications, the average weight of Jiangyou aconite was the greatest, followed by Weishan aconite, Butuo aconite, Hanzhong aconite, and Anxian aconite; from the point of chemical components, Jiangyou aconite had the characteristic with strong efficacy and weak toxicity, next was Hanzhong aconite, Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite; taking toxicity price as the index, Hanzhong aconite and Jiangyou aconite have the lower toxicity, while Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite have the relatively higher one. After the normalization and integration of evaluation results, we calculated the IQI value of Jiangyou aconite, Hanzhong aconite, Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite were 0.842 +/- 0.091, 0.597 +/- 0.047, 0.442 +/- 0.033, 0.454 +/- 0.038, 0.170 +/- 0.021, respectively. The quality of Jiangyou aconite is significantly better than the
Han, Xue-Jie; Liu, Meng-Yu; Lian, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Nan-Nan; Zhao, Jun
To evaluate the applicability and clinical applications of Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Internal Diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine, so as to provide the basis for the revision of the guidelines. This study was completed by the research and promotion base for traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) standard. The methods of applicability evaluation and application evaluation were used in the study. The questionnaires were filled out to evaluate applicability of the guideline, including doctor's familiarity with the guideline,the quality of the guideline, applicable conditions and clinical applications. The prospective case study analysis method was used to evaluate application of the guideline, including evaluation of clinical application compliance and application results(such as clinical effects, safety and economy). There were two parts in the guideline, which were TCM guideline and Western medicine guideline. The results of applicability evaluation showed that there were no obvious differences between TCM guideline and Western medicine guideline in doctor's familiarity with guideline(85.43%, 84.57%) and the use of the guideline(52.10%, 54.47%); the guidelines with good quality, and higher scores in the scope of application and the use of the term rationality(91.94%, 93.35%); the rationality scores of relevant contents in syndrome differentiation and treatment were more than 75%; the applicable conditions were better, and the safety score was the the highest. The comprehensive applicability evaluation showed that the proportion of the application of TCM guideline and Western medicine guideline were 77.73%, 75.46%, respectively. The results of application evaluation showed that there was high degree coincidence between the guideline with its clinical application; except for "other treatment" and "recuperation and prevention" in TCM, other items got high scores which were more than 90%; in the evaluation of application effects, safety of the guideline
@@Febrifugation (清热) (清热) ［qing re］ or Heat-Clearing Method (清法) ［qing fa］ One of the principal therapeutic methods by administering medicines cool or cold in nature to treat interior heat. Clearing heat and removing toxin (清热解毒)(清热解毒) ［qing re jie du］: a therapeutic method for acute infectious diseases and pyogenic inflammations caused by toxic heat. Clearing Qi heat (清气分热) (清气分热) ［qing qi fen re］: a therapeutic method of treating acute febrile disease at the Qi stage, also abbreviated as "clearing the Qi" (清气) (清气) ［qing qi］. Clearing Ying heat (清营分热) (清营分热) ［qing ying fen re］: a therapeutic method of treating acute febrile disease at the Ying stage, also abbreviated as "clearing the Ying" (清营) (清营) ［qing ying］. Clearing Heart fire (清心火) ［qing xin huo］: a method to treat exuberant Heart fire, also known as "clearing the Heart" (清心) ［qing xin］. Clearing Lung heat (清肺热) (清肺热) ［qing fei re］: a method to treat excessive heat in the Lung, also known as "clearing the Lung" (清肺) ［qing fei］.
Hagiya, Hideharu; Yoshida, Hisao; Yamamoto, Norihisa; Kimura, Keigo; Ueda, Akiko; Nishi, Isao; Akeda, Yukihiro; Tomono, Kazunori
We report the first case of Mycoplasma hominis periaortic abscess after heart-lung transplantation. The absence of sternal wound infection delayed the diagnosis, but the patient successfully recovered with debridement surgeries and long-term antibiotic therapy. Owing to the difficulty in detection and the intrinsic resistance to beta-lactams, M. hominis infections are prone to being misdiagnosed and undertreated. M. hominis should be suspected in cases where conventional microbiological identification and treatment approaches fail. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Yajing; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Tang, E; Hu, Yucai; Mao, Jingyuan
To evaluate the clinical effect and safety of western medicine plus Traditional Chinese medicine for sepsis with gastrointestinal dysfunction. We searched CNKI (January 1979 to June 2014), VIP (January 1989 to June 2014), CBM (1978 to 2014), Wan Fang DATA (January 1990 to June 2014), PubMed (1978 to June 2014), The Cochrane Library (Issue 5, 2014), Embase (1974 to June 2014), and other relevant databases and journals to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on western medicine plus Traditional Chinese medicine versus western medicine only for sepsis with gastrointestinal dysfunction. The methodological quality was assessed and the data was extracted according to the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook and related methods. Meta-analyses were performed by RevMan 5.1.0 software. Five eligible studies included 278 patients. The results of meta-analyses showed that western medicine plus Traditional Chinese medicine therapy can improve the APACHEII score, the peristaltic sound score and SIRS score, improve abdominal distension, decreased white blood cell count, reduce DAO in sepsis patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. 3 studies reported adverse reactions, there was no significant difference between two groups. Western medicine plus Traditional Chinese medicine can improve gastrointestinal dysfunction in sepsis.
Wang, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Liang-Duo; Ma, Qing; Xu, Dong; Tang, Shi-Huan; Luo, Zeng-Gang
In the clinical practice, Professor Jiang Liangduo, a national senior Chinese medicine doctor, has created the theory of "sanjiao meridian stasis" from the theory of meridian dialectics and from the overall state. In this paper, the traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine clinical characteristics of sanjiao meridian stasis theory which is often used by Professor Jiang Liangduo in the treatment of out-patient syndrome differentiation, were first studied and summarized to investigate its inherent regularity. First, the source of data and research methods were introduced, and then the Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System was used with the method of data mining to retrospectively analyze the disease characteristics of Chinese and Western medicine in 279 patients with sanjiao meridian stasis diagnosed by Professor Jiang in 2014. Then the following main conclusions were made after research: sanjiao meridian stasis was more common in women as well as young and middle-aged population. Often manifested by prolonged treatment course, red tongue with yellowishfur, with good correlation between modern Western medicine diagnosis and TCM differentiation syndrome. The symptoms of sanjiao meridian stasis syndrome are mostly of heat syndromes, and middle-aged patients are the most common patients with stasis and stasis of sanjiao. Related information of Western medicine diagnosis can help to diagnose the "sanjiao meridian stasis". Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Jong, Maw-Shiou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Chen, Fang-Pey
Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of use and prescriptive patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in treating constipation by analyzing the claims data of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan. The computerized claims dataset of the TCM office visits and the corresponding prescription files in 2004 compiled by the NHI Research Institute in Taiwan were linked and processed. Visit files with the single diagnostic coding of constipation (ICD-9-CM code 564.0) were extracted to analyze the frequency and pattern of corresponding CHM prescriptions. The association rule was applied to analyze the co-prescription of CHM in treating constipation. There were 152,564 subjects who visited TCM clinics only for constipation in Taiwan during 2004 and received a total of 387,268 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 20 and 29 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.5%). Female subjects used CHM for constipation more frequently than male subjects (female:male = 3.31:1). There was an average of 4.6 items of single Chinese herbs or formula in a single prescription for constipation. Ma-zi-renwan was the most commonly prescribed herbal formula, while Da-huang (Rheum palmatum) was the most commonly used single Chinese herb. According to the association rule, the most common prescribed pattern of 2-drug combination of CHM for treating constipation was Ban-xia-xie-xin-tang plus Ma-zi-ren-wan, while the 3-drug combination of CHM was Fang-feng-tong-sheng-san, Rheum palmatum and Ma-zi-ren-wan. This study showed the pattern of single Chinese herbs or herbal formulae used in treating constipation in Taiwan. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs in treating constipation. 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Fang-Pey; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16 134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29 801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female : male = 1.94 : 1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia. PMID:19339485
Yang, Wan-Zhen; Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Ji, Rui-Feng; Zhou, L I; Wang, Sheng; Li, Zhen-Hao; Ma, Zhong-Hua; Guo, Lan-Ping
Chinese Pharmacopoeia provides nine pesticide Maximum Residual Limits(MRLs) of traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs), The number of pesticides used in production are far more than those listed in pharmacopoeia. The lack of the standards make it's hard to reflect the real situation of pesticide residues in TCMs correctly. The paper is aimed to analyze the data of pesticide residues in TCMs from 7 089 items in 140 reports, and judging the exceedance rate of pesticides in TCMs using the MRLs of European pharmacopoeia，which is widely accepted in many countries. The results show that：①Pesticide residues in 18 kinds of TCMs are higher than MRLs，while in 137 kinds are below MRLs, such as Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Menthae Haplocalycis Herba and Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus. The average exceedance rate of all TCMs is 1.72%. The average exceedance rates of organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid are 2.26%, 1.51%, 0.37%，respectively. ②The average exceedance rate of pesticides is 2.00%, and the exceedance rate is more than 5%, accounting for 8.33%, the exceedance rate is between 1%-5%, accounting for 18.75%. the exceedance rate is between 0%-1%, accounting for 18.75%. The remaining 29 kinds of pesticides were not exceeded, accounting for 60.42%.Some reports like Greenpeace's organization exaggerated the pesticide residues in TCMs.But the pesticide residue question is still worthy of attention, so we proposed to amend the Chinese Pharmacopoeia pesticide residues standards, to increase the pesticide species of traditional Chinese medicine in production on the basis of retaining the existing types of pesticide residues, to strengthen the system research of pesticide residues in TCMs, providing a basis for making standard and promoting import and export trade in TCMs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Chinese herbal medicine (CHM has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16 134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29 801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%. In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female : male = 1.94 : 1. There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia.
Wang, Jing-Yu; Li, Ouyang; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Huang, Zhuo; Tu, Peng-Fei; Guo, Xu-Lin; Liu, Hu-Sheng
To make an attempt at the multi-element speciation in the Chinese medicinal herbs by determining the concentrations of 25 elements in different extraction solutions. Firstly, five Chinese medicinal herbs (Buddleja officinalis, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Myristica fragrans, Albizia judibrissin and Inula japonica) from the same region of China were treated to obtain water-soluble phase, lipid-soluble phase and non-soluble phase by water extraction, organic solvent extraction and acid digestion, respectively. Secondly, Phytolacca acinosa, a Chinese medicinal herb collected from 9 regions of China, was extracted by 0% EtOH, 50% EtOH, 75% EtOH, 95% EtOH, respectively, referring the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Finally, the concentrations of 25 elements, such as Be, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Tl, Pb and REEs, in the above three phases were determined by ICP-MS. Under the optimal conditions, all the 25 elements could be determined with detection limits ranged from 0.003 to 0.71 ng x g(-1). The average recoveries of the elements in P. acinosa were 88% approximately 119%, with the relative standard deviations 1.7% approximately 13.3%. It was observed that the determined 25 elements distributed in all the water-soluble, lipid-soluble and non-soluble phases, indicating that the inorganic species, organicspecies, as well as the protein bound species were coexisted in the herbs. Big differences of the element extraction rates could be found by using different ethanol solutions. With the aid of the obtained results, we may increase the extraction of necessary elements while decrease that of the toxic elements from the herbs by choosing a suitable solvent during the drug production.
Li Ying Wang
Full Text Available Objectives. This study was aimed to determine the therapeutic principle and identify Chinese Patent Medicine (CPM with corresponding indications for hypertension treatment. Methods. Three rounds of Delphi survey were mailed among 40 cardiovascular integrative medicine specialists. Items with agreement of more than 80% respondents were included in the consensus. Results. According to majority of the panelists, CPM is suitable for most hypertensive patients and should be used according to traditional Chinese medicine pattern classification. CPM could be used alone for grade 1 hypertension and could be used in combination with Western biomedicine (WM for both grade 2 and grade 3 hypertension. It is recommended that less than two CPMs are used simultaneously. For the treatment of grade 2 and 3 hypertension, CPM and WM should be taken separately. Recommended CPMs included Tianma Gouteng granule, Qiju Dihuang capsule, Jinkui Shenqi pill, Yinxingye tablet, Niuhuang Jiangya pill and Banxia Tianma pill. The indications of 4 CPMs were specified with symptoms related to TCM pattern classification by the experts. Conclusions. An expert consensus on CMP application was formed for the treatment of hypertension in the form of integrative medicine. A flow of IM hypertension management was proposed based on the results of the survey.
Full Text Available Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb. Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL. Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL, Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.
Shang, Hong-cai; Huang, Jin-ling; Han, Li-wei; Pei, Ling-peng; Guo, Lin; Lin, Na; Wang, Chang-en
In this article, the authors firstly summarized the number of applications submitted to and projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in the field of traditional Chinese medicine research in 2010. Then they described the district distribution, research direction layout and allotment of the approved projects in the three primary disciplines (traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese materia medica and integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine) and their 43 subdisciplines. The targeting suggestions for improvement were given respectively by concluding the reason of disapproved projects from the point of view of applicants and supporting institution, and by stating the common problems existing in the review process from the perspectives of fund managers and evaluation experts. Lastly, the major funding fields in the near future were predicted in the hope of providing guidance for applicants.
Liu, Yu-Qi; Liu, Meng-Yu; Li, Chun; Shi, Nan-Nan; Wang, Yue-Xi; Wang, Li-Ying; Zhao, Xue-Yao; Kou, Shuang; Han, Xue-Jie; Wang, Yan-Ping
This study is to assess the Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Diseases of Otolaryngology in Traditional Chinese Medicine in clinical application and provide evidence for further guideline revision. The assessment was divided into applicability assessment and practicability assessment. The applicability assessment based on questionnaire survey and the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners were asked to independently fill the Questionnaire for Applicability Assessment on the Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The practicability assessment was based on prospective case investigation and analysis method and the TCM practitioners-in-charge filled the Case Investigation Questionnaire for Practicability Assessment on the Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The data were analyzed in descriptive statistics. 151 questionnaires were investigated for applicability assessment and 1 016 patients were included for practicability assessment. The results showed that 88.74% of them were familiar with the guidelines and 45.70% used them. The guidelines quality and related items were similar in applicability assessment and practicability assessment, and scored highly as more than 85.00% except the "recuperating and prevention". The results suggested that the quality of Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Diseases of Otolaryngology in Traditional Chinese Medicine was high and could better guide the clinical practice. The "recuperating and prevention" part should be improved and the evidence data should be included in future guideline revision, so that the clinical utilization rate could be increased. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Zhou, Jue; Ouedraogo, Moustapha; Qu, Fan; Duez, Pierre
In the last decades, cases of poisoning due to herbal medicines have occurred in many countries; Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are occasionally involved. The experience gained from traditional use is efficient to detect immediate or near-immediate relationship between administration and toxic effects but is quite unlikely to detect medium- to long-term toxicities; thorough investigations of herbal medicines (toxicity assessments, active pharmacovigilance) appear then essential for their safe use. Genotoxicity is an especially insidious toxicity that may result in carcinoma development years after exposure; it can arise from multiple compounds, with or without metabolic activation. The present work reviews traditional CHMs and phytochemicals that have been shown to present a genotoxic hazard. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zhao, Dake; Shi, Yana; Zhu, Xinyan; Liu, Li; Ji, Pengzhang; Long, Chunlin; Shen, Yong; Kennelly, Edward J
Despite their well-known toxicity, Aconitum species are important traditional medicines worldwide. Aconitum carmichaelii , known in Chinese as (fuzi), is an officially recognized traditional Chinese medicine with characteristic analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, whose principal pharmacological ingredients are considered as aconitine-type diterpene alkaloids. Notwithstanding the long-recorded use of A. carmichaelii in traditional Chinese medicine, no single-entity aconitum alkaloid drug has been developed for clinical use. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to investigate the marker compounds that can be used to differentiate A. carmichaelii from seven other Aconitum species collected in Yunnan Province. Nontargeted principle component analysis scores plots found that all the tested Aconitum species clustered into three distinct groups, and A. carmichaelii was significantly different chemically than the other seven species. Furthermore, the primary and lateral roots of A. carmichaelii also showed significant differences. Using orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis analysis, eight marker compounds were identified, including 14-acetylkarakoline, aconitine, carmichaeline, fuziline, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, and talatisamine. Four of these aconitum alkaloids, fuziline, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, and neoline, showed significant analgesic activity in a dose-dependent manner compared to the negative and positive controls. However, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, and neoline exhibited significant acute toxicity activity, while fuziline showed no acute toxicity in mice, suggesting the relative safety of this alkaloid. This study provides a good example of how to differentiate an authentic medicinal plant from common adulterants using a metabolomics approach, and to identify compounds that may be developed into new drugs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available The objective of this case study was to investigate the effectiveness of Chinese medicine in treating Tourette's syndrome. Tourette's syndrome is a childhood- onset disorder that is characterized by sudden, involuntary movements or tics. The participant in this study was a 33-year-old male who had been diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome at the age of 9 years. His major complaints included facial tics, shoulder shrugging, and clearing the throat. Using a combination of acupuncture, herbs, Gua-Sha, and lifestyle changes once a week for 35 treatments, all the symptoms were reduced by 70%, as reported by the patient. In this case, the results indicated that Chinese medicine was able to minimize the symptoms of Tourette's syndrome. Further investigation is needed to support this argument. Tourette's syndrome, which was first described in 1885 by a French physician named Gilles de la Tourette, is characterized by facial tics, involuntary body movements from the head to the extremities, or vocal tics, and it usually has its onset in childhood. It is a neuropsychiatric disorder. The treatment for Tourette's syndrome is based on pharmacological treatment, behavior treatment, and deep brain stimulation. Unfortunately, none of these could completely control the symptoms; furthermore, antipsychiatric drugs might cause additional side effects, such as Parkinson symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, and metabolic disturbances. Finding acupuncture and oriental medicine literature on treatment of Tourette's syndrome was difficult, especially that written in English. Some research papers that have been translated into English indicated that Chinese herbs and acupuncture could reduce the tics significantly. For example, a study by Dr Pao-Hua Lin reported the significant effects of using acupuncture and oriental medicine in treating 1000 Tourette's syndrome cases. This case was treated to further investigate the principles of Dr Lin's study.
The Jesuits were great transmitters of Western science to East Asia in the 17th and 18th century. In 1636, a German Jesuit missionary Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1591-1666) published a book titled Zhuzhiqunzheng (Hundreds of Signs Testifying Divine Providence). The book was not Adam Schall's own writing, but it was the Chinese translation of De providentia numinis (1613) of Leonardus Lessius (1554-1623) who was also a Jesuit scholar. The book was a religious work which particularly aimed at converting the pagans to the Christianity by presenting them with hundreds of signs testifying the divine providence. One group of the signs is those manifested in the human body. The bodily signs in question include anatomical structures and physiological processes. It gives a brief survey of bodily structures with bones and muscles. The translator had much difficulties in explaining muscles for there was no corresponding concept in Chinese medicine. The theory of human physiology was a simplified version of medieval Galenism. Three kinds of pneuma were translated into three kinds of Qi respectively. 'Natural pneuma'was translated into 'Qi of the body nature', 'vital pneuma' into 'Qi of life and nourishing', 'psychic pneuma' into 'Qi of movement and consciousness'. The book of Schall von Bell and other books on Western science written in Chinese were also imported to Korea during the 17th and 18th century. Unlike China, Korea was very hostile to Christianity and no Jesuit could enter Korea. Only the books on Western science could be imported. The books, which were called Books on Western Learning, were circulated and read among the progressive Confucian literati. However, Western medicine thus introduced had little influence on the traditional medicine of East Asia. However, some intellectuals paid attention to the physiological theory, in particular the theory of brain centrism, which fueled a philosophical debate among Korean intellectuals of the time. The Korean Society for
Qi, Zhen; Tu, Li-Ping; Chen, Jing-Bo; Hu, Xiao-Juan; Xu, Jia-Tuo; Zhang, Zhi-Feng
Background and Goal . The application of digital image processing techniques and machine learning methods in tongue image classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely studied nowadays. However, it is difficult for the outcomes to generalize because of lack of color reproducibility and image standardization. Our study aims at the exploration of tongue colors classification with a standardized tongue image acquisition process and color correction. Methods . Three traditional Chinese medical experts are chosen to identify the selected tongue pictures taken by the TDA-1 tongue imaging device in TIFF format through ICC profile correction. Then we compare the mean value of L * a * b * of different tongue colors and evaluate the effect of the tongue color classification by machine learning methods. Results . The L * a * b * values of the five tongue colors are statistically different. Random forest method has a better performance than SVM in classification. SMOTE algorithm can increase classification accuracy by solving the imbalance of the varied color samples. Conclusions . At the premise of standardized tongue acquisition and color reproduction, preliminary objectification of tongue color classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is feasible.
Wu, Xu; Wang, Shengpeng; Lu, Junrong; Jing, Yong; Li, Mingxing; Cao, Jiliang; Bian, Baolin; Hu, Changjiang
Processing ( Paozhi ) represents a unique Chinese pharmaceutic technique to facilitate the use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) for a specific clinical need in the guidance of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. Traditionally, most CHMs require a proper processing to meet the needs of specific clinical syndromes before being prescribed by TCM practitioners. During processing, significant changes in chemical profiles occur, which inevitably influence the associated pharmacological properties of a CHM. However, although processing is formed in a long-term practice, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear for most CHMs. The deepening understanding of the mechanism of processing would provide scientific basis for standardization of processing. This review introduced the role of processing in TCM and several typical methods of processing. We also summarized the up-to-date efforts on the mechanistic study of CHM processing. The processing mechanisms mainly include the following aspects: (i) directly reducing contents of toxic constituents; (ii) structural transformation of constituents; (iii) improving solubility of constituents; (iv) physically changing the existing form of constituents; (v) and influence by excipients. These progress may give new insights into future researches.
Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming
The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche.
Wang, Shengpeng; Hu, Yangyang; Tan, Wen; Wu, Xu; Chen, Ruie; Cao, Jiliang; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao
Over the past decades, research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) mainly focused on developing potential candidates from Chinese medicinal herbs, while the wisdom of applying these traditional herbs has not been paid as much attention as it deserves. As is well-known, multi-herb therapy is one of the most important characteristics of TCM, but the modernization drive of this conventional wisdom has faced many obstacles due to its unimaginable complexity. Herb pairs, the most fundamental and the simplest form of multi-herb formulae, are a centralized representative of Chinese herbal compatibility. In light of their simplicity and the basic characteristics of complex formulae, herb pairs are of great importance in the studies of herb compatibility. A systematic search of herb pair related research was carried out using multiple online literature databases, books and monographs published in the past 20 years. A comprehensive introduction to the compatibility of TCM, the position of herb pairs in TCM and the progresses of several famous herb pairs were provided in this review. Furthermore, the clinical study and the future research trends of herb pairs were also discussed. Herb pairs have played, and may continue to play a key role in full investigation of general herb compatibility for their indispensable position in TCM. Much more research is needed for the standardization, safety evaluation, and mechanism exploration of herb pairs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Christiansen, Gunna; Andersen, H; Birkelund, Svend
DNAs from 14 strains of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from various habitats, including strain PG21, were analyzed for genomic heterogeneity. DNA-DNA filter hybridization values were from 51 to 91%. Restriction endonuclease digestion patterns, analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, revealed...... no identity or cluster formation between strains. Variation within M. hominis rRNA genes was analyzed by Southern hybridization of EcoRI-cleaved DNA hybridized with a cloned fragment of the rRNA gene from the mycoplasma strain PG50. Five of the M. hominis strains showed identical hybridization patterns....... These hybridization patterns were compared with those of 12 other mycoplasma species, which showed a much more complex band pattern. Cloned nonribosomal RNA gene fragments of M. hominis PG21 DNA were analyzed, and the fragments were used to demonstrate heterogeneity among the strains. A monoclonal antibody against...
Objective: To determine the prevalence and related clinical manifestation of B. hominis infection in patients referred for bacteriological ... with a worldwide distribution. However ... abdominal pain and peripheral blood eosinophilia. However ...
Cheng, Ting-Yi; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Huang, Nicole; Pu, Christy; Chou, Yu-Ju; Chou, Pesus
Numerous people with chronic conditions like to use traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment, or integrated treatment of TCM and Western medicine (WM). Our study explored the associations between multiple chronic conditions (MCC) and TCM use and the use of specific types of TCM therapy among adults in Taiwan. In addition, we explored the TCM use of adults with seven common types of chronic conditions. In our study, a national representative sample in 2005 was used. The Chronic Condition Indicator and the Clinical Classifications System created by the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality were used to define the number of chronic conditions of adults. Logistic regressions adjusted for demographic characteristics were used to analyze the associations. The frequency of TCM use among adults with different numbers of chronic conditions was quantified. TCM use for adults with ≥5 chronic conditions (odds ratio [OR] 1.86) was higher than TCM use for adults with 2-4 chronic conditions (OR 1.51) and TCM use for adults with one chronic condition (OR 1.48). The increase in the OR of the use of Chinese herbs and traumatology manipulative therapy according to the number of chronic conditions was not as substantial as that of acupuncture-moxibustion. The frequency of TCM use exhibited an increasing trend with the increase in the number of chronic conditions (pherbs use, traumatology manipulative therapy use, and, particularly, acupuncture-moxibustion use increased as the number of chronic conditions increased. We suggest that government policy makers emphasize administering integrated TCM and WM care to people with chronic conditions or MCC.
Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Ping
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an alternative medicine, focuses on the treatment of human disease via the integrity of the close relationship between body and syndrome analysis. It remains a form of primary care in most Asian countries and its characteristics showcase the great advantages of personalized medicine. Although this approach to disease diagnosis, prognosis and treatment has served the medical establishment well for thousands of years, it has serious shortcomings in the era of modern medicine that stem from its reliance on reductionist principles of experimentation and analysis. In this way, systems biology offers the potential to personalize medicine, facilitating the provision of the right care to the right patient at the right time. We expect that systems biology will have a major impact on future personalized therapeutic approaches which herald the future of medicine. Here we summarize current trends and critically review the potential limitations and future prospects of such treatments. Some characteristic examples are presented to highlight the application of this groundbreaking platform to personalized TCM as well as some of the necessary milestones for moving systems biology of a state-of-the-art nature into mainstream health care.
Chao, Jung; Dai, Yuntao; Verpoorte, Robert; Lam, Wing; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Pao, Li-Heng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Shilin
A long history of use and extensive documentation of the clinical practices of traditional Chinese medicine resulted in a considerable number of classical preparations, which are still widely used. This heritage of our ancestors provides a unique resource for drug discovery. Already, a number of important drugs have been developed from traditional medicines, which in fact form the core of Western pharmacotherapy. Therefore, this article discusses the differences in drug development between traditional medicine and Western medicine. Moreover, the article uses the discovery of artemisinin as an example that illustrates the "bedside-bench-bedside" approach to drug discovery to explain that the middle way for drug development is to take advantage of the best features of these two distinct systems and compensate for certain weaknesses in each. This article also summarizes evidence-based traditional medicines and discusses quality control and quality assessment, the crucial steps in botanical drug development. Herbgenomics may provide effective tools to clarify the molecular mechanism of traditional medicines in the botanical drug development. The totality-of-the-evidence approach used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for botanical products provides the directions on how to perform quality control from the field throughout the entire production process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. To simplify traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation and allow researchers to master syndrome differentiation for hypertension, this paper retrospectively studied the literature and analyzed syndrome elements corresponding to hypertension syndromes. Methods. Six databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data were searched from 1/January/2003 to 30/October/2013. We included all clinical literature testing hypertension syndromes and retrospectively studied the hypertension literature published from 2003 to 2013. Descriptive statistics calculated frequencies and percentages. Results. 13,272 patients with essential hypertension were included. Clinical features of hypertension could be attributed to 11 kinds of syndrome factors. Among them, seven syndrome factors were excess, while four syndrome factors were deficient. Syndrome targets were mainly in the liver and related to the kidney and spleen. There were 33 combination syndromes. Frequency of single-factor syndromes was 31.77% and frequency of two-factor syndromes was 62.26%. Conclusions. Excess syndrome factors of hypertension patients include yang hyperactivity, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, internal dampness, and internal fire. Deficient syndrome factors of hypertension patients are yin deficiency and yang deficiency. Yin deficiency with yang hyperactivity, phlegm-dampness retention, and deficiency of both yin and yang were the three most common syndromes in clinical combination.
Wei Xun; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Xiao Tiqiao; Chen Min; Liu Lixiang; Luo Yuyu; Du Guohao; Xu Hongjie
The microscopic morphology of plant cells and their ergastic substances is an important standard for the identification of Chinese traditional medicine. The authors have developed a new method, X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) based on the microfocus X-ray tube, to explore microstructures of Chinese herbal medicine. The results indicate that XPCI is capable of distinguishing the structures commonly used in the identification. Non-destructive detection and high sensibility are counted among the major advantages of XPCI. The possibility of future applications of XPCI in the field of medicine identification is discussed. (authors)
Xu, Hong-Ri; Wang, Cheng-Xiang; Wang, Lan; Zhou, Ping-An; Yin, Ren-Yi; Jiang, Liang-Duo; Wang, Hui-Fang
To observe the impact of tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines contained in Yiqi Qingwen Jiedu mixture on mRNA expression of lung inflammatory cytokines and pulmonary pathological injury of mice infected by influenza virus, in order to discuss the mechanism of tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines against pulmonary immune inflammatory injury of infected mice. In different time phases after mice were infected with influenza virus FM1, the RT-PCR method was adopted to observe the impact of tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines contained in Yiqi Qingwen Jiedu mixture on five inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ, and the changes in pulmonary pathological injury of mice with viral pneumonia after intervention with tonifying qi traditional Chinese medicines. (1) Tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines significantly reduced the mRNA expression of TNF-α at 1-5 d and IL-1 mRNA expression at 7 d, may increase IL-1 mRNA expression in mouse lung at 3 d, significantly reduced IL-6 mRNA expression in mouse lung and increased IL-10 mRNA expression at 3-7 d, and significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression at 1 d. (2) Tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines could significantly inhibited and repaired pulmonary immune inflammatory injury of mice infected by FM1, which was most remarkable at 3-7 d after the infection with influenza virus FM1. Tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines contained in Yiqi Qingwen Jiedu mixture could resist pulmonary immune inflammatory injury and repair inflammatory injury by regulating the mRNA expression of imbalance inflammatory cytokines of organisms infected with influenza virus.
Wang, Yu-guang; Shi, Xin-yuan; Jin, Rui; Li, Hong-yan; Kong, Xiang-wen; Qiao, Yan-jiang
Chinese patent orthopedic medicines feature complex components, mainly including desperate and toxic herbal pieces, narrow safety window, more clinical contraindications and frequent adverse drug reaction/events (ADR/ADE). To study the general safe medication regularity of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines, define key points in the medication education and ensure rational clinical medication, the authors took 80 types of commonly used Chinese patent orthopedic medicines as the study objects, collect 237 cases from 164 ADR/ADE documents through a system retrieval strategy, make a multidimensional literature analysis to determine the common risk factors for safe and rational medication of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines and establish an ADR/ADE prevention regularity. First, in the aspect of clinical symptoms, skin allergy is the most common ADR/ADE and closely related to the toxic ingredients, particularly accumulated liver or kidney damage caused by some drugs. Second, there are three time nodes in the ADR/ADE occurrence; The ADR/ADE occurred in 30 minutes is closely related to the idiosyncrasy; the ADR/ADE occurred between several months and half a year is related to the drug-induced liver and kidney damages; The most common ADR/ADE was observed within 7 days and predictable according to the pharmacological actions; Third, toxicity is an important factor in the occurrence of ADR/ADE of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines. Fourth, emphasis shall be given to the special medication factors, such as the combination with western medicines and Chinese herbal decoctions, overdose and long-course medication and self-medical therapy. In conclusion, the general ADR/ADE prevention regularity for Chinese patent orthopedic medicines was summarized to provide supports for clinicians in safe and rational medication and give the guidance for pharmacist in medication education.
Yu, Xin; Sun, Shuang; Guo, Yuyan; Liu, Yan; Yang, Dayu; Li, Guoyu; Lü, Shaowa
Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Rutaceae, CRP), commonly called as Chenpi () in Chinese, is most frequently used as a qi-regulating drug in thousands of Chinese medicine prescriptions. CRP is found mainly in major citrus-producing areas such as the Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, and Zhejiang Provinces of China. Since thousands of years in China, CRP has been used widely in clinical practice to treat nausea, vomiting, indigestion, anepithymia, diarrhea, cough, expectoration, and so on. Currently, CRP is listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. The present paper reviews the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control, and toxicology of CRP. Information on CRP was gathered from various sources including the books on traditional Chinese herbal medicine; scientific databases including Elsevier, PubMed, and ScienceDirect; Baidu Scholar; CNKI; and others and from different professional websites. Approximately 140 chemical compounds have been isolated and identified from CRP. Among them, volatile oils and flavonoids are generally considered as the main bioactive and characteristic ingredients. CRP possesses wide pharmacological effects such as having a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular, digestive, and respiratory systems, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties; and a protective effect on the liver and nerve. Moreover, hesperidin is chosen as an indicator in the quantitative determination of CRP, and the quantity of aflatoxin in CRP must not exceed the standard limit mentioned in the pharmacopoeia. In brief, CRP has a warming nature, and hence, it can be used in harmony with a lot of medicines. CRP not only exhibits its effects individually but also aids other medicines exhibit a better effect. CRP can be consumed with tea, food, alcohol, and medicine. Irrespective of the form it is being consumed, CRP not only shows a synergistic effect but also has strengths on its own. Modern pharmacological
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effects of combined therapy of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine on platelets, coagulative functions and inflammatory cytokines in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC. Methods: A total of 267 patients with UC were collected. 137 patients were treated with combined therapy of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine as experimental group and 130 patients were treated with only western medicine as controls. Platelet count, coagulation function indexes and inflammatory cytokines were measured before and 15 d after the treatment. Results: No significantly differences were found in all indexes before treatment between two groups. After different treatments, platelet count (PLT, platelet distribution width (PDW were significantly decreased in both groups, but mean platelet volumn (MPV were significantly increased than before treatment. PLT and PDW were significantly lower and MPV were significantly higher in experimental group than control group. Fibrinogen (Fib and D-dimer (DD decreased significantly after treatment. Fib and DD in experimental group were significantly lower than controls. No significantly differences were found in activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT and prothrobin time (PT. Tumor necrosisi factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-8 (IL-8 decreased significantly in both group after treatment. TNF-毩, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly lower in experimental group than controls. Conclusion: Combined therapy of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine can more effectively improve the cogulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation in patients with UC than only western medicine therapy.
Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Si-Bao; Dong, Hong-Guang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Ji-Cui; Long, Zhi-Xian; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming
Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery. PMID:21785622