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Sample records for chinese materia medica

  1. Chinese Marine Materia Medica

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica), Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy). A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, colle...

  2. [Management of Chinese materia medica market based on information asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Nuo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Yong-Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Liu, Jin-Xin

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical market is a typical market with information asymmetry, and which can lead to "lemons" problem. In all developed countries, firms must receive regulatory approval to market a pharmaceutical product. Such administrative department including SFDA, EMA, FDA and so on. Chinese materia medica is a special part of pharmaceutical market in China. The management of Chinese materia medica is a special challenge in China. PMID:24791511

  3. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively. PMID:24429032

  4. Industry Development and Health of Chinese Materia Medica and Natural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    2010-01-01

    @@ In order to push forward the research and development of innovative drugs, to re-exploit large species, and to invent healthy product, Tianjin Pharmaceutical Association, Tianjin Plant Association, and Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines sponsored the meeting “Circum-Bohai Industry Development and Health of Chinese Materia Medica and Natural Products”. It will be held during May 28-30, 2010. Some famous experts will be invited to make speeches and to communicate with participants.

  5. Status and Trends of GAP Base Construction of Chinese Materia Medica in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ping; LAI Xiao-ping; XU Hong-hua; DU Qin; WANG Jian-gang; YING Ge; LIAO Hui-jun; DAI Lei; SHAO Yan-hua

    2012-01-01

    It is one of the key points for modernization and internationalization of traditional Chinese medicines to construct the Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) base of Chinese materia medica (CMM).GAP helps to minimize contamination and improve the quality of CMM during the plantation and the production of Chinese crude drugs.In this article,the status and development of CMM production bases of GAP in Guangdong Province,China,are presented.The suggestions upon the problems during the development of GAP for Chinese crude drugs are also provided.

  6. Traditional Chinese materia medica: a retrospect and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lu Bay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available For thousands of years, traditional medicine and remedies have been practed and used in the fight against disease in China. They have proved to be valuable and the distillate of vast historical experience based on field-tested human experiments, long-term observations and clinical trials. The Chinese people belive that traditional medicine is consistent with theirown culture. Endowed with a unique theoretical system and provided outstanding clinical results, traditional Chinese medicine continues to play an important role in helping the Chinese nation flourish. The recent study of traditional medicinal plants in Chine has given us confidence that what was recorded in ancient medical literature through empirical observations is indeed still coindicent with the concepts of modern chemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The task of revealing what is valid and efficacious should be retained, and what is mythic and invalid should be discarded in traditional Chinese medicine may require scientific research lasting for several generations. Therfore, multidisciplinary cooperation and international collaboration in this field would be essential. Systematic coordination of work in traditional medicine by word organizations, national governments, private foundations and individual scientists is a requisite as well.

  7. Effects of Chinese materia medica combined chemotherapy on the survivals of stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕仙梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Chinese materia medica (CMM) combined chemotherapy on the recurrence,metastasis,and the disease free survival(DFS) of stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ colorectal cancer (CC) patients after radical treatment. Methods 366 inpatients and outpatients with stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ colorectal

  8. PAT: From Western solid dosage forms to Chinese materia medica preparations using NIR-CI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luwei; Xu, Manfei; Wu, Zhisheng; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging technology that combines traditional near-infrared spectroscopy with chemical imaging. Therefore, NIR-CI can extract spectral information from pharmaceutical products and simultaneously visualize the spatial distribution of chemical components. The rapid and non-destructive features of NIR-CI make it an attractive process analytical technology (PAT) for identifying and monitoring critical control parameters during the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. This review mainly focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of NIR-CI in each unit operation during the manufacturing processes, from the Western solid dosage forms to the Chinese materia medica preparations. Finally, future applications of chemical imaging in the pharmaceutical industry are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25877484

  9. [Investigation on pattern of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on famous-region drug and bioassay--the work reference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2011-05-01

    Selection and standardization of the work reference are the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis. as an example, the manufacture process of the famous-region drugs extraction was explained from the aspects of original identification, routine examination, component analysis and bioassay. The common technologies were extracted, and the selection and standardization procedures of the work reference for the bioassay of Chinese materia medica were drawn up, so as to provide technical support for constructing a new mode and method of the quality control of Chinese materia medica based on the famous-region drugs and bioassay. PMID:21842660

  10. [Rapid assessment of critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (II): strategy of NIR assignment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yan-Ling; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Zhou, Lu-Wei; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    The present paper firstly reviewed the research progress and main methods of NIR spectral assignment coupled with our research results. Principal component analysis was focused on characteristic signal extraction to reflect spectral differences. Partial least squares method was concerned with variable selection to discover characteristic absorption band. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy was mainly adopted for spectral assignment. Autocorrelation peaks were obtained from spectral changes, which were disturbed by external factors, such as concentration, temperature and pressure. Density functional theory was used to calculate energy from substance structure to establish the relationship between molecular energy and spectra change. Based on the above reviewed method, taking a NIR spectral assignment of chlorogenic acid as example, a reliable spectral assignment for critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (CMM) was established using deuterium technology and spectral variable selection. The result demonstrated the assignment consistency according to spectral features of different concentrations of chlorogenic acid and variable selection region of online NIR model in extract process. Although spectral assignment was initial using an active pharmaceutical ingredient, it is meaningful to look forward to the futurity of the complex components in CMM. Therefore, it provided methodology for NIR spectral assignment of critical quality attributes in CMM. PMID:25532332

  11. [Research on Zhang's collated edition of Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li

    2010-05-01

    Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica) collated by Zhang Ji, and printed by Zhang's Yisheng Tang in Chengdu in 1932 was the first collated edition. Its original edition was not Jing shi zheng lei bei ji ben cao (Classified Materia Medica from Historical Classics for Emergency) of the Song Dynasty, but was Xiu shi zhi nan (Instruction for Drug Processing) and Lei gong pao zhi yao xing jie (Explanation on Master Lei's Properties of Drugs Processing) of the Qing Dynasty. The contents of this collated edition was far from Lei gong pao zhi lun with many mistakes, and was not the best edition to study Lei gong pao zhi lun. PMID:21029711

  12. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  13. [Investigation on pattern and methods of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on dao-di herbs and bioassay - bioassay for Coptis chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2011-05-01

    Establishment of bioassay methods is the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis Franch. as an example, the establishment process and application of the bioassay methods (including bio-potency and bio-activity fingerprint) were explained from the aspects of methodology, principle of selection, experimental design, method confirmation and data analysis. The common technologies were extracted and formed with the above aspects, so as to provide technical support for constructing pattern and method of the quality control for Chinese materia medica based on the dao-di herbs and bioassay. PMID:21800546

  14. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian

    2015-12-01

    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine. PMID:27245045

  15. 古代中药掺伪考%Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晋; 王德群

    2013-01-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages,it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China.The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties,fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty,and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty.By statistics,there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period.The main varieties were precious drugs,animal drugs and artifacts.Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating,dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively.Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis ; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt,Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine,and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey.However,the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist,resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants.Besides,rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.%通过梳理历代主流本草发现,中药掺伪古已有之.南北朝时期以造作为主,唐代始见伪充,明清以后掺伪现象泛滥.据统计,民国以前本草著作记载的掺伪品种达76味,主要集中在贵重药、动物药和人工制品.常用掺伪手法有造作、伪充2种方式.其中涉及造作的中药有11味,而以假乱真的伪充品种高达68味.掺伪现象泛滥,迫使藿香药用部位改变,盐附子、酒制当归和蜜炙黄芪等炮制品的出现均可能与之有关.中药掺伪的根本原因是医药分家,医不识药,而商家职业操守淡漠;

  16. Ameliorating effects of traditional Chinese medicine preparation, Chinese materia medica and active compounds on ischemia/reperfusion-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances and neuron damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Fan, Jingyu; Han, Jingyan

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic stroke and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced by thrombolytic therapy are conditions with high mortality and serious long-term physical and cognitive disabilities. They have a major impact on global public health. These disorders are associated with multiple insults to the cerebral microcirculation, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, leukocyte adhesion and infiltration, brain blood barrier (BBB) disruption, and capillary hypoperfusion, ultimately resulting in tissue edema, hemorrhage, brain injury and delayed neuron damage. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in China, Korea, Japan and other Asian countries for treatment of a wide range of diseases. In China, the usage of compound TCM preparation to treat cerebrovascular diseases dates back to the Han Dynasty. Even thousands of years earlier, the medical formulary recorded many classical prescriptions for treating cerebral I/R-related diseases. This review summarizes current information and underlying mechanisms regarding the ameliorating effects of compound TCM preparation, Chinese materia medica, and active components on I/R-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances, brain injury and neuron damage. PMID:26579420

  17. Ameliorating effects of traditional Chinese medicine preparation, Chinese materia medica and active compounds on ischemia/reperfusion-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances and neuron damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury induced by thrombolytic therapy are conditions with high mortality and serious long-term physical and cognitive disabilities. They have a major impact on global public health. These disorders are associated with multiple insults to the cerebral microcirculation, including reactive oxygen species (ROS overproduction, leukocyte adhesion and infiltration, brain blood barrier (BBB disruption, and capillary hypoperfusion, ultimately resulting in tissue edema, hemorrhage, brain injury and delayed neuron damage. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used in China, Korea, Japan and other Asian countries for treatment of a wide range of diseases. In China, the usage of compound TCM preparation to treat cerebrovascular diseases dates back to the Han Dynasty. Even thousands of years earlier, the medical formulary recorded many classical prescriptions for treating cerebral I/R-related diseases. This review summarizes current information and underlying mechanisms regarding the ameliorating effects of compound TCM preparation, Chinese materia medica, and active components on I/R-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances, brain injury and neuron damage.

  18. Practice and thought of MOOC for Chinese materia medica%中药学MOOC课程的制作实践与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘四军; 刘步平; 吴庆光

    2015-01-01

    目的:大规模开放在线课程(Massive Open Online Course,MOOC)近年来受到国际教育界的高度关注,对高等教育正在产生着广泛而深远的影响。以传统医学的基础学科中药学作为切入点,对中药学MOOC制作进行实践与探索。方法通过中药学授课老师团队的研讨,在对整个中药学知识点进行梳理、模块化、单元化的基础上,组建MOOC拍摄团队,对课程进行视频制作、发表、互动以及管理,并总结了制作过程中遇到的问题。结果在团队合作的基础上,开发了中药学MOOC课程,从而改进互动方式和课程,使教学更有效。结论MOOC可能是未来教育资源建设的聚焦点,制作优质的MOOC资源是首当其冲的问题。%Objective Massive open online course (MOOC) has received close attention in the international educational world in recent years, and has brought about wide and far-reaching influence on higher education. This paper explored and practiced production of MOOC by taking Chinese materia medica as an entry point. Methods Research was conducted by Chinese materia medica teaching team to find out knowledge points for teaching in different modules and units. Shooting team was also organized for video producing, issuing, interaction and management. Problems in the course of production were summarized. Results Online course of Chinese materia medica might contribute to interactive mode of teaching and result in more effective teaching. Conclusion MOOC can be the focus of the future construction of educational resources. Production of high-quality MOOC resources is the most important issue to be considered.

  19. [Revision to origin of northern Artemisia argyi in Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao gangmu)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qiu, Le

    2014-12-01

    The origin of northern Artemisia argyi recorded in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu) is Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county, While there is only Fudao(Chinese characters) instead of Fudao(Chinese characters). Whether indeed Fudao(Chinese characters) is Fudao(Chinese characters)? By reviewing the genuine evolution of A. argyi, doing textual research on Fudao(Chinese characters) and combing with field survey data of national census of Chinese Materia Medica resources, this paper concluded that the word Fudao(Chinese characters) firstly emerged in Figure Canon of Chinese Materia Medica(Bencao tujing) of Susong in Song dynasty and was applied in later generations, but the implication was not clear, then emerged both Tangyin and Fudao(Chinese characters) in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu). The place Fudao(Chinese characters) is one of the graves of Bianque, that existed from Shang and Zhou dynasty and never changed until now, the A. argyi of Tangyin was famous from the grave of Bianque in Fudao(Chinese characters), which could infer that Lishizhen considered Fudao (Chinese characters) was Fudao(Chinese characters) indeed, and the origin of northern A. argyi was Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county. PMID:25898599

  20. [Influence of compendium of Materia Medica on the materia medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chae-Kun

    2012-08-31

    In this paper, I investigated the influence of Compendium of Materia Medica (CM) on Records for Rural Life of Chosun Gentlemen (RRC), and refuted Miki Sakae's opinion, CM did not have much impact on the Materia Medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty. When Li Shizhen published CM, it resulted in a shift of mainstream of Materia Medica in Eastern Asia from Classified Emergency Materia Medica to CM and a new categorizing system of Materia Medica by CM led to the division of Materia Medica into medicine and natural history. It is obvious that doctors of the Chosun Dynasty also adopted the latest achievements of Materia Medica by CM, but so far there have been few studies to clarify this. Seo yugu was a scholar of the Realist School of Confucianism during the late period of the Chosun Dynasty, and RRC is his representative work. RRC is a massive encyclopedia of natural history that covers vast areas of science from agriculture, floriculture, writing and drawing, architecture, diet, and medicine, among others which absorbed the achievements of CM, the best Materia Medica book at that time. Miki Sakae also highly regarded the encyclopedic knowledge of RRC, but devalued the results of Materia Medica. He only described a part of RRC's Materia Medica, nurturing volume, on the view of life nurturing and mentioned that it had been strongly influenced by China. According to this study, a large portion of RRC, especially regarding Materia Medica, depends on CM. Seo yugu had accepted the categorizing system and new medicinal information of CM, at the same time he modified the categorizing system of CM practically by the subject of each volume of RRC. We can find many quotations of CM except the nurturing volume, but other books, Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, Materia Medica for Relief of Famines are also quoted. Furthermore, Seo yugu emphasized the differences of natural environments between Chosun and China, and specified the editing criteria, "to be useful in

  1. An improved association-mining research for exploring Chinese herbal property theory: based on data of the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-jian; Xue, Chun-miao; Zhang, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research. PMID:24063783

  2. Different Effects of Mahuang Decoction and Maxing Shigan Decoction on Animal Temperature Tropism and Correlation to Differences of Cold and Hot Nature of Chinese Materia Medica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia-bo; ZHAO Yan-ling; ZHANG Xue-ru; ZHOU Can-ping; LIU Ta-si; ZHAO Hai-ping; REN Yong-shen; XIAO Xiao-he

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish an objective method for evaluating the intrinsic characteristics between cold and hot nature of Chinese materia medica(CMM)through the different effects of Mahuang decoction(MHD)and Maxing Shigan decoction(MSD)on animal temperature tropism.Methods The equipment with cold/hot pads was used to investigate the variety ofthe temperature tropism between two groups of mice treated by MHD and MSD,respectively.Meanwhile,the activities ofadenosine triphosphatase(ATPase),superoxide dismutase,succinate dehydrogenase,and malondialdehyde were measured.Results After treated by MHD,the macroscopic behavioral index of remaining rate on warm pad(40 ℃)of mice decreasedsignificantly(P < 0.05),suggesting the enhancement of cold tropism,meanwhile,the internal indices of ATPase activity and oxygen consuming volume increased significantly(P < 0.05),suggesting the enhancement of energy metabolism.On theother hand,the above-mentioned indices in MSD group changed on the inverse way.Conclusion The relative drug natureof MHD and MSD revealed in this study is consistent with the theoretical prognostication or definition.It indicates that theinternal cold and hot nature of CMM could be reflected in ethological way on the changes of animal temperature tropismwhich might be internally regulated by body energy metabolism.

  3. Stability and Accuracy Assessment of Identification of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica Using DNA Barcoding: A Case Study on Flos Lonicerae Japonicae

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    Dianyun Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding is a novel molecular identification method that aids in identifying traditional Chinese materia medica using traditional identification techniques. However, further study is needed to assess the stability and accuracy of DNA barcoding. Flos Lonicerae Japonicae, a typical medicinal flower, is widely used in China, Korea, and other Southeast Asian countries. However, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and its closely related species have been misused and traded at varying for a wide range of prices. Therefore, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae must be accurately identified. In this study, the ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sequence assembly was performed using CodonCode Aligner V 3.5.4. The intra- versus inter-specific variations were assessed using six metrics and “barcoding gaps.” Species identification was conducted using BLAST1 and neighbor-joining (NJ trees. Results reveal that ITS2 and psbA-trnH exhibited an average intraspecific divergence of 0.001 and 0, respectively, as well as an average inter-specific divergence of 0.0331 and 0.0161. The identification efficiency of ITS2 and psbA-trnH evaluated using BLAST1 was 100%. Flos Lonicerae Japonicae was formed into one clade through the NJ trees. Therefore, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae can be stably and accurately identified through the ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions, respectively.

  4. 以专业为先导在《中药学》教学中实施多元化考核方式的探讨%Study on Diversified Evaluation Mode of Chinese Materia Medica in Different Specialities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立萍; 任艳玲; 李然

    2013-01-01

    To promote the innovate of diversified examining mode of Chinese Materia Medica education,this article summarizes the reform of exam mode in School of Chinese medicine and Pharmacy and then describes the implementation process and significance in the usage of the exam pattern of diversity in different specialties.It will provide a meaningful reference for the reform of education.%该文梳理了国内各中医药院校考核方式改革的概况和发展趋势,介绍了多元化考核方式在中医学专业和中药学专业《中药学》教学过程中的具体实施方法和意义,旨在为《中药学》考核方式改革提供借鉴.

  5. 自乳化释药系统在难溶性中药制剂中的应用%Self-emulsifying delivery systems and its application on preparations of poorly soluble Chinese materia medica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶珍珍; 张建; 崔升淼

    2012-01-01

    自乳化释药系统可以提高难溶性药物的溶出度和生物利用度,在中药方面的应用具有良好的发展前景.文章综述自乳化释药系统的定义、特点、体内外质量评价指标、在难溶性中药制剂中的应用以及存在问题与对策.%The dissolution and the bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs can be improved by the utilization of serf-emulsifying delivery systems (SEDDS), so SEDDS has a promising application in the field of Chinese medicine. The definition, characterization, indexes in vivo and in vitro evaluations, application to preparations of poorly soluble Chinese materia medica, problems and countermeasures are reviewed.

  6. Chinese Marine Materia Medica. By Huashi Guan and Shuguang Wang. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, China Ocean Press, and Chemical Industry Press: Shanghai, Beijing, China, 2009; Hardback, 7064 pp; ¥ 2920; ISBN 978-7-5323-9958-1/R•2707; ISBN 978-7-5323-9973-4/R•2708; ISBN 978-7-1220-6012-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica, Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy. A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, collected over thousands of years, has provided an important foundation for modern research in the area of marine drugs. Thanks to these records and references, the research and development of modern Chinese marine drugs continue to evolve and mature. Since the middle of the 20th century, special attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicine, resulting in a significant increase in the number of newly discovered marine herbs. Comprehensive surveys in the past have also created a wealth of data on the pharmacology, chemistry, biology and ecology of marine medicinal bioresources. After thousands of years of research, historical references to traditional marine herbs are scattered throughout ancient books, local chronicles, medical books, or monographs on medicinal herbs. Unfortunately, there is no systematic way to collate or scientifically verify these references. Furthermore, during the last century, scientists around the world have accumulated large quantities of information on marine natural products, but these are also scattered throughout academic books and journals.

  7. 设计性实验在中药化学实验教学中的应用%Application of design experiment in experimental of chemistry of Chinese materia medica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 陈卫琳

    2012-01-01

      设计性实验在中药化学实验教学中的应用过程:教师给定范围—学生查阅文献命题—设计实验方案—教师辅助指导—学生独立操作—分析结果—得出结论。整个过程以学生为主,教师为辅%  Application of design experiment in experimental of chemistry of Chinese materia medica. The students are in a given range, they read some literature-assign a topic, design the experimental program, the teacher counselling guidance, the students independent operation, analyze the results, arrive at a conclusion. The whole process to students is given priority to, supplemented by the teacher.

  8. The relation between Greek and Islamic materia medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gammal, S Y

    1997-01-01

    Many studies have been made on the exact data of the introduction of Greek sciences to the Arabic culture. During the 8th and 9th centuries A.D. a big progress was done in the Arab-Islamic sciences, when the Caliphs of the Omayad and Abbasid dynasties invited many scientists, researchers and translators for translation of all sciences into Arabic. The Arabs paid special attention to the Greek natural sciences such as botany and pharmacy. Greek materia medica was a major common basis for Arab-Islamic medicine and pharmacy which in turn paved the way to the modern pharmaceutical therapy. PMID:12575695

  9. Progress of Experimental Study on Treatment of Psoriasis by Chinese Medicinal Monomer and Single or Compound Recipe in Chinese Materia Medica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common,chronic,recurrent inflammatory skin disorder whose etiology is still unknown.It is believed that a multiple-gene inheritance is involved and it also involves various factors such as immunity,inflammation,cell proliferation,apoptosis,neural media,etc.Since cytokines are key mediators in inflammation,a number of Chinese medicines(CMs)have been reported to have certain antagonist effects on pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-a(TNF-α),platelet active factor(PAF)and interleukin-8(IL-8).Some researches on CMs have made significant breakthroughs in psoriasis by intervening with cytokines.Abnormalities with keratinocyte proliferation and apoptosis are considered to be present in patients with psoriasis and a number of studies show that the mechanism of CMs on psoriasis may be through the inhibition of the keratinocyte proliferation and induction of apoptosis.Other studies also show that the inhibition of fibroblast-secreted cytokines could regulate keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation and reduce the level of Calcitonin gene-related peptide(CGRP)in plasma and in lesions so as to slow down the process of inflammation and proliferation in psoriasis.The most commonly used models for psoriasis are the scaled tails or the vaginal epithelium of mice in China.They were used to observe the histopathological changes after the model mice were treated with CMs with the inhibition on the mitosis of vaginal epithelium or promotion of granular layer in rat tail taken as the indices of clinical efficacy.A variety of signs occur in psoriasis patients with TCM blood-stasis syndrome type and the effect of CMs in activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis on psoriasis suggested that the mechanism of CMs may be partially correlated to hemorrheology and microcirculation.Along with the continuous development of the biosciences,some TCM theories for psoriasis have been confirmed by laboratory studies.However,the exploration into

  10. 中药肝毒性与四气、五味及归经的相关性%Correlations between Hepatotoxicity and Four Properties,Five Tastes, Meridian Entry of Chinese Materia Medica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禄保平; 贾睿

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the correlations between hepatotoxicity and four properties;five tastes,meridian entry of Chinese materia medica. Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity were regarded as the research objects, which were collected from published reports and monographs. The property theory of Chinese materia medica were referred to . The regularities of four properties, five tastes, arid meridian entry of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity, and the correlations between hepatotoxicity and property theory of Chinese materia medica were analyzed. ①The differences in terms of four properties of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity or general Chinese herbs were obvious(P <0. 05) , and the order from high to low was cold, warm, neutral, cool and hot, which was similar between two kinds of Chinese herbs. There was no correlation between hepatotoxicity and four properties; ②The difference in terms of five tastes of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity was obvious ( P < 0. 05) , and the order from high to low was bitter, acrid, sweet, sour, astringent, salty and bland. The difference in terms of five tastes of of general Chinese herbs was also obvious (P <0. 05) , and the order from high to low was bitter, sweet, acrid, salty, astringent, sour and bland. There existed some correlation between hepatotoxicity and five tastes ( P < 0. 05, rp = 0. 137 ) ;③The differences in terms of meridian entry of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity or general Chinese herbs were obvious(P <0. 05) , and the order from high to low was liver, lung,stomach, spleen, kidney, heart, large intestine, bladder, gallbladder, small intestine, pericardium and triple energizer meridian, which was similar between two kinds of Chinese herbs. There was no correlation between hepatotoxicity and meridian entry. The differences in terms of four properties, five tastes and meridian entry of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity are obvious. Comparied with general Chinese herbs, there is no correlation between hepatotoxicity and

  11. Study on the Determination Method of Oxytetracycline Added Illegally in Veterinary Chinese Materia Medica Powders by HPLC%HPLC法测定中兽药散剂中非法添加土霉素的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树纲; 金录胜; 王登临; 杲寿善; 张宏; 于清伟; 张蕾; 史梓萱

    2011-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱法检测清肺散、白头翁散、止痢散等中兽药散剂中非法添加土霉素的方法。用十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶色谱柱,以0.05 mol/L草酸铵溶液-二甲基甲酰胺-0.2 mol/L磷酸氢二铵(75∶20∶5)(用氨试液调pH值至8.0±0.2)为流动相,检测波长280 nm,流速1.0mL/min,进样量20μL,柱温35℃。结果显示,土霉素的线性范围为100~300μg/mL,线性方程为Y=4.90×10 X-2.39×103(,r=0.999 6,n=5),本方法的回收率为80.68%~119.23%,RSD为0.66%~1.85%。结果表明,本方法准确、可靠,适用于中兽药散剂中非法添加土霉素的检测。%An HPLC method was established for effective detection on oxytetracycline added illegally in veterinary Chinese materia medica powders as Qingfei San,Baitouweng San and Zhili San,etc.A reverse-phase C18 column was used,the mobile phase was 0.05 mol/L ammonium oxalate solution-DMF-0.2 mol/L ammonium dibasic phosphate(75∶ 20∶ 5)(adjusted the pH value with ammoniac solution to 8.0±0.2),the determination wave length was 280 nm,the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the column worked at 35 ℃.The result demonstrated that the linearity range of oxytetracycline was 100~300 μg/mL,the linear equation is Y=4.90×10 X-2.39×103(r=0.999 6,n=5),the recovery was 80.68%~119.23%,RSD was 0.66%~1.85%.It indicated that this method was accurate,reliable,and suitable in the determination of oxytetracycline added illegally in veterinary Chinese materia medica powders.

  12. Research of Bioavailability of Chinese Materia Medica Preparation%中药制剂生物利用度研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳玲; 王锦玉; 杨德斌; 董美虹; 仝燕

    2013-01-01

    生物利用度是药物安全性及有效性的重要评价指标.通过检索万方、中国知网及OVI等数据库,对国内外近10年来150余篇相关资料进行全面的分析、整理和综述.从药物和生物两方面阐述了生物利用度的影响因素,包括剂型、理化性质、制剂工艺、胃肠道生理环境、给药时间及途径等.基于此从前体药物设计、胃内滞留释药系统、环糊精包合技术、固体分散技术、共研磨技术、纳米技术等制剂技术方面探讨改善中药制剂生物利用度的研究方法,以期为中药的现代化研究提供有意义的参考.%Bioavailability was important evaluation index of safety and effectiveness of drugs. Consult data library such as Wan Fang, CNKI, OVI and so on, comprehensive analyzed and reviewed more than 150 related data recent 10 years from domestic and abroad. Summarized the influencing factors of bioavailability from two aspects of medicine and biology, consist of the form of drugs, physicochemical property, the preparation technology, physiological environment of gastrointestinal, the delivery time and way and so on. Some new research ideas like the pro-drug strategy, the gastro-retentive drug delivery system, cyclodextrin closure technology, solid dispersion technique, co-grinding technology, nano-technology etc. for improving bioavailability of traditional chinese medicine ( TCM ) preparations were discussed in order to provide reference for the research on modernization of TCM preparations.

  13. Analysis on current situation of compound Chinese materia medica patent entried into China%进入中国的复方中药专利现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许钧钧; 张辉; 唐力英; 吴宏伟

    2012-01-01

    为了解国外申请人在我国天然药物尤其是复方药物的专利布局特点,采用国家知识产权局自主开发的专利检索与服务系统(Patent Search and Service System of SIPO)的中国专利文摘数据库(CNABS),对1985-2012年5月的不同国家地区来源的专利申请进行检索,以国际专利分类表中涉及植物、藻类、苔藓、真菌等涵盖中药的分类号为检索目标,采用人工及软件辅助分析的方法对检索结果,尤其是中药复方专利进行多角度的分析(包括申请人、治疗领域、重点专利技术),以期掌握中药复方专利申请中的发展态势,并籍此分析国外复方专利技术的布局状况与技术发展路径,为国内专利制度下中药复方产业的长足发展提供参考.%In order to learn about the patent layout features of natural drugs, especially compound Chinese materia medica (CMM) patents in China applied by foreign applicants, the patent applications from the different countries during 1985-May, 2012 were searched and analyzed based on Patent Search and Service System of SIPO. The searches are targeted at the classification numbers of CMM, such as plant, algae, moss, fungi, in the international patent classification. The search results, particularly multi-angle analysis on compound CMM patents, including applicants, therapeutic field, and important patent technology, were analyzed by manpower and assistant software. The results could help us to know more about the development trend in the application of compound CMM patents on which the foreign situation and technology development path of patent medicine will be analyzed so as to provide a strategic value for the rapid development of CMM enterprises in China under the domestic patent system.

  14. Studies on De Materia Medica of Dioscorides in the Islamic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Yildirim, Rifat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedanius Dioscorides was a Roman army surgeon in the first century A.D. His great work called De Materia Medica is widely accepted as the foremost pharmaceutical source of antiquity. Dioscorides was the originator of materia medica (pharmacology, and he took advantage of his extensive travels to study plants. Dioscorides was considered a major authority on simple drugs for sixteen centuries. De Materia Medica served as a corner stone for both western and eastern pharmaceutical and herbal writing, and was translated into Syriac, Arabic, and Persian, as well as Latin. The particular characteristic of medical therapy in the Medieval Period was the extensive employment of drugs of all kinds. For this reason, Dioscorides’ De Materia Medicawas not only studied closely, but it also became a text book that Turk-Islamic scientists frequently referred to in their writings.Pedanius Dioscórides fue médico cirujano en el ejército romano en el siglo I d.C. Su gran obra llamada De Materia Medica es conocida como la principal fuente de farmacopea de la antigüedad. Dioscórides fue el inventor de la materia medica, y aprovechó sus extensos viajes para dedicarse al estudio de las plantas. Dioscórides fue considerado una eminencia en el tema de las drogas de origen natural a lo largo de dieciséis siglos. De Materia Medica sirvió como piedra angular para los textos farmacéuticos y herbarios tanto en occidente como en oriente y fue traducida al siríaco, árabe y persa, además de al latín. La particular característica de la terapia médica en la época medieval fue el uso extensivo de todo tipo de drogas. Por esta razón, además de estudiarse minuciosamente, De Materia Medica de Dioscórides se convirtió también en un libro de texto al que frecuentemente hacían referencia los científicos turco-islámicos en sus escrituras.

  15. 防制胚泡着床障碍中药的筛选及药效研究%Screen and Pharmacodynamic Action of Chinese Materia Medica for Prevention and Cure Embryo Implantation Dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东升; 张世栋; 荔霞; 董书伟; 李世宏; 严作廷

    2012-01-01

    为了筛选防制胚泡着床障碍中药,本试验利用皮下注射米非司酮所致的小鼠胚泡着床障碍模型,以妊娠率、着床胚泡数、雌激素和孕激素及其比值为指标,将丹参、黄芪、川芎、黄芩、白术、菟丝子、桑寄生、续断、党参、当归等中药组成复方进行筛选和药效评价.筛选试验结果表明,方3组妊娠率显著高于方1组、菟丝子组和续断组(P<0.05),也高于方2组和对照组,说明方3有利于小鼠胚泡的着床.方3的药效试验表明,保胎组妊娠率极显著高于对照组和高剂量组(P<0.01),显著高于低剂量组(P<0.05).保胎组孕酮水平、孕酮和雌二醇比值极显著高于高、低剂量组、对照组和正常组(P<0.01),孕酮和雌二醇比值显著高于中剂量组(P<0.05),而保胎组、低剂量组和正常组雌二醇水平显著低于高剂量组和对照组(P<0.05),中剂量组孕酮水平显著高于对照组(P<0.05).这表明方3能提高小鼠的孕酮水平及孕酮和雌二醇比值,有利于小鼠胚泡着床.%To screen Chinese materia medica for prevention and cure embryo implantation dysfunction, mouse model with embryo implantation dysfunction was established by injected subcutaneously with mifepristone. Complex prescription composed of such Chinese materia medica as Salvia miltiorrhiza, Radix astragali, Szechwan lovage rhizome, Radix scutellariae, Rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae , Semen cuscutae, Herba taxilli , Radix dipsaci, Radix codonopsis, Radix angelicae sinensis and some of them were evaluated in the model, pregnancy rate (PR), number of embryo implantation, progestin (P4), estradiol (E2) and ratio of progestin to estradiol (P4/E2) were the main index. The results of the screen test showed that PR was significantly higher in prescription 3 group than that in prescription 1 group, Semen cuscutae group and Radix dipsaci group (P<0. 05) , and was higher than those in the prescription 2 group and control group

  16. [Discussion on sources of texts of Meng Sheng's Herbology of dietotherapy cited in Jinling edition of Compendium of materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Z

    2000-07-01

    Most of the citations of Meng Sheng's Herbology of Dietotherapy in Compendium of Materia Medica are originated from the Daguan Herbology and Zhenghe Herbology. When comparing these sources of citations in Compendium of Materia Medica with the texts in Daguan and Zhenghe, it can be found that there are differences, In Compendium of Materia Medica, it is indicated that these sources marked "Meng Sheng's Herbology of Dietotherapy" are actually derived from other sources, while citations from other sources are marked "Meng Sheng's Herbology of Dietotherapy" which are not found in Classified Herbology (Zhenglei ben cao). This might be due to the editions of Daguan and Zhenghe Li Shizhen applied are different. PMID:11624691

  17. [Research on the origins and development of the verse "eighteen antagonism" in Chinese material medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Bian, Ya-Li; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen-Xue

    2013-03-01

    The verse "eighteen antagonism" of Chinese materia medica is a kind of describing of drug nature concerning the incompatibility of drugs in compound prescription. Through organizing the medical books in different historical periods, it is found that the drugs in this verse basically coming from TAO Hong-jing's ben cao jing ji zhu (Variorum of Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica), while the style of verse mostly appeared during the Song-Jin-Yuan period was made. The formed verse was explained and supplemented further in the Ming Dynasty, the basis of which appeared in the Song-Jin-Yuan Dynasty, resulting in the increase of the number of antagonistic drugs and lengthy verse. The origin of the verse seen in Ru men shi qin (Confucians' Duties to Their Parents) and those in other books was not identical and was the most popular one after the Qing Dynasty, becoming the most popularly known even today. PMID:24135473

  18. The Integration of Chinese Material Medica into the Chinese Health Care Delivery System, an Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Haixia; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Hainan; Yan, Ming; Liu, Xinmin

    2016-02-01

    Integration of Traditional Chinese medicine, including Chinese materia medica (CMM), into the national healthcare delivery system, is now an essential national policy in China and is increasing rapidly. This case study summarizes the profile of integration of CMM in China, describing markets, industries, management mechanisms, education, research and development, human resources and international cooperation related to Traditional Chinese medicine, and CMM in particular. It provides a basis for policies for integrating TM into national healthcare systems to save costs and improve the general health of the population. By the end of 2014, the overall sale value of CMM exceeded $US120bn, representing 31% of the total pharmaceutical industry markets in China. More than 200 CMM formulated drugs and 1100 prepared CMM are now on the national 'Essential Drug List' and the financial budget for CMM from the Chinese government in 2014 was approximately $US4.66bn, almost double that of 2011, indicating an increasing and long-term commitment to integrated medicine in China. PMID:26728426

  19. [The Seongho () School's Study of the Ancient Learning () and Its Influence on the Debate about Materia Medica in the Late Joseon Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-San

    2015-08-01

    This study will determine the ways in which the ancient learning (gu xue, ) scholarship of the Seongho School, and its interest in the materia medica (ben cao xue, ) were related during the late Joseon period. The Seongho School centered its studies mainly on classical Chinese texts of the Han (206 BC-AD 220) and pre-Han (?-221 BC) (xian-qin lianghan, ) periods rather than those of the Tang and Song dynasties (618-1279). gu xue scholarship emerged during the Ming dynasty era (1368 -1644) as an alternative to the scholarly trends of the Song dynasty, which were dependent on Zhu Xi's (, 1130-1200) Neo-Confucianism and its interpretation of Han and pre-Han classical Chinese texts. This scholarly trend influenced Korean and Japanese literature, philosophy, and even medicine from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. Focusing on Korean scholarship, we find a great deal of research regarding the influence of gu xue on Korean classical Chinese literature and Confucian philosophy in the late Joseon period; however, no study has examined how this style of scholarship influenced the field of medicine during the same period. This study will investigate how the intellectuals of the Seongho School, who did the most to develop gu xue among Joseon intellectuals, were influenced by this style of scholarship in their study of the materia medica. Jeong Yak-yong (1762-1836), the representative intellectual of the Seongho School, did not focus on complicated metaphysical medical theories, such as the Yin-Yang and Five Elements theory (yin yang wu xing shui, ) or the Five Movements and Six Atmospheres theory (wu yun liu qi shui, ). Instead, his interests lay in the exact diagnoses of diseases and meticulous herbal prescriptions which formed an essential part of the Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Disease (Shang han lun, ) written by Zhang Zhungjing (, 150-219) in the Han dynasty. The Treatise was compatible with the scholarly purpose of gu xue in that they both

  20. Optimal design principle and method of inhaled composite particles for complex system of Chinese materia medica%面向中药复杂体系的吸入给药复合粒子优化设计原理与方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭立玮; 付廷明; 李玲娟

    2011-01-01

    鉴于中医药复杂巨系统求解过程在数学上的不可描述性,借鉴国内外先进的计算机化学与粉体材料科学理念与方法,以由水溶性和脂溶性两类物质组成的复方丹参制剂处方为模型药物,采集有效部位物料体系的物理化学特征参数(有关化学成分的熵、焓、表面能、电性等)、相关复合工艺特征参数(操作温度、搅拌速度、包覆时间等)及目的产物复合粒子性能特征参数(微结构参数与生物药剂学性能)等数据,建立中药复合粒子设计与制备工艺小型数据库,应用中药学、计算机化学、物理化学等跨学科交叉研究“中药粒子复合技术”的规律,探索中药复合粒子制备工艺微、纳米尺度有序组合机制,尝试以现代物理化学手段调控中药多元组分微结构及性能.为中药复方体系实现“表征参数检测一工艺过程参数筛选一目的产物性能优化”提供一种全新的研究模式.%Seeing that the complex giant system solving process of traditional Chinese medicine in mathematics is not descriptive and drawing on the advanced concepts of modern computer chemistry and materials science, Compound Danshen prescription consisting of both water-and fat-soluble substances was selected as a drug model to collect the physicochemical characteristic parameters of the effective part of material system (the chemical composition of the entropy, enthalpy, surface energy, and electricity, etc.), complex process-related characteristic parameters (operating temperature, stirring speed, and coating time, etc.), compound performance characteristic parameters of the product particle (micro-structural parameters and properties of biological agents), and other data, so as to establish a small database for the design and preparation of composite particles technology, study the regularity of "Chinese particle composite technology" by cross applying the knowledge of Chinese materia medica (CMM

  1. [Classes of crude drugs and its distribution of producing area in the attached illustrations in Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Peng, H S

    2016-03-01

    Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica) is the earliest extant atlas book of materia medica in China, with 933 attached drawings. Among them, the largest portion, amounting to 670, are herbaceous plants, mostly commonly used, with definite marks of the origin producing areas, distributed across 149 administrative divisions(prefectures and counties) of the Song Dynasty, most of them in Northern area which were distributed denser than those in Southern area. The densest ones were located in Southern Shanxi, Eastern Sichuan and Eastern Anhui. In the attached drawings, the frequency of highest occurrence appeared in this Classic are three prefectures, Chuzhou, Shizhou and Guangzhou. PMID:27255195

  2. Teaching Method of Chinese Materia Medica Based on the Combination of Stage-progressive Learning with Problem-based Learning%“层次递进教学法”与“解决问题学习法”结合的《中药学》教学模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志毅; 崔瑛; 王君明; 贾玉梅

    2011-01-01

    探索《中药学》新时期教学方法的优化与变革.通过教学实践和引进国外先进教学方法,在《中药学》教学中建立层次递进教学法(SPL)与解决问题学习法(PBL)教学相结合的SPL-PBL新型教学法,提出了应用于《中药学》教学的设计和实施方法,以便为从事中药教育的同仁提供参考.%In the present paper, the authors explored the optimization and reform in teaching methods of Chinese Materia Medico. The authors combined stage-progressive learning (SPL) with problem-based learning (PBL) and established a new SPL-PBL teaching method based on years of teaching practice. The authors also pointed out the specific design and example in the SPL-PBL teaching of Chinese Materia Medico. The present paper will provide methodological guidance and ideas for reference for the teaching of Chinese Materia Medico.

  3. [Study on carving workers of Chong xiu zheng he jing shi zheng lei bei yong ben cao (Revised Prepared Materia Medica Classified under Syndromes in Zhenghe Period) published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2012-11-01

    The ancient carving workers have made a great contribution to the xylographic printing art in ancient China, so the studies on them are significant for a survey of ancient Chinese printing history, and for the identification of ancient Chinese books edition. Zheng lei ben cao published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum) in the Jin and Yuan dynasties, which is the earliest extant edition of Zhenghe version system of Zheng lei ben cao and has important literature value. Thirty carving workers were involved in its printing process. On the whole, these workers had a relatively high technique and completed a remarkably fine work. In addition to lettering, 28 persons of them also made a total of 536 pages with 900 exquisite engraving illustrations on Chinese materia medica included in this book. Because of the high levels on carving, this precious book has been the representative of Pingshui edition, which has a great reputation but has very few works now. PMID:23363847

  4. Term Selecting Research on "Pharmaceutical Zoology and Botany" for the Revision of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Subject Headings%《中国中医药学主题词表》药用动植物学类主题词修订选词研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲; 刘静; 刘丽红; 董燕; 贾李蓉; 高博; 李海燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study term selecting principles and methods of subject terms in the class of"Pharmaceutical Zoology and Botany"for the new edition of TCM Materia Medica Subject Headings;To provide references for the revision.Methods Based on the compiling principles, word frequency of subject headings in TCM database were used as references. MeSH was referred to establish detail rules and regulations for revision of TB class.Results In TB class, 226 subject headings were planned to delete, such as "Apocynum Linn", "Piper betle Linn", "cetacean" and"dolphins";42 subject headings were planned to add, such as "Kalimerisindica", "Actinidiaceae" and "Squamata".Conclusion This revision formulated individual revision principles, proposed solutions for common problems, and basically completed adding and deleting of TB class and frame adjustment.%目的 研究《中国中医药学主题词表》药用动植物学类(TB类)主题词选词原则与方法,为其修订提供依据.方法 基于主题词表总体编制原则,以中国中医药数据库主题词标引词频为依据,参考医学主题词表(MeSH),确立TB类主题词修订细则.结果 本次修订拟删除罗布麻属、蒌叶胡椒、鲸目、海豚等226个主题词,拟增加马兰、猕猴桃科、有鳞目等42个主题词.结论 此次修订制定了药用动植物与中药类主题词结合考量等个性化修订原则,对常见问题提出了解决方案,基本完成原TB类主题词的增删及框架的调整.

  5. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way. PMID:25208840

  6. Analysis to inadvisable combination of Chinese material medica recordered in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 edition and 2010 edition%中国药典2005版与2010版一部收载不宜同用中药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春玲; 王晓燕; 李梅

    2011-01-01

    To investigate and analyze inadvisable combination of Chinese materia medica recorded in China Pharmacopeia 2005 edition and 2010 edition, and to provide convenience for physicians and pharmacists in clinical practice.%总结中国药典2005年版与2010年版一部不宜同用中药品种,并进行分析。为医生和药师方便查询该类药品临床使用注意事项提供方便。

  7. 《神农本草经》对痹病的认识和治疗经验%Experience of treatment and understanding of impediment disease in Shen nong ben cao ring (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁红昌; 王振瑞

    2015-01-01

    《神农本草经》是研究古代痹病史不可忽视的重要史料,书中所载365种药物中,与痹病相关的药物达75种,其中“湿痹”“寒湿痹”“风寒湿痹”“风痹”“风湿痹”“寒痹”涉及药物51种;“喉痹”“周痹”“血痹”涉及药物16种;“肉痹”“胃痹”“疝瘕痹”“消渴内痹”“痿痹”“偏痹”涉及药物8种.系统分析这些药物的性味、功效等相关知识,进而探寻当时医家对于痹病的整体认识和治疗经验,不仅可以丰富痹病的史学研究,而且可以为当代临床医生认识、治疗与“痹”相关的病症提供借鉴和参考.%As a book with significant historical materials for the research of impediment disease not to be ignored,Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) contains,among its 365 kinds of materia medica,75 kinds of medicines related to impediment disease.Among the latter ones,51 are related to" damp impediment"," cold-damp impediment","wind-cold-damp impediment","wind impediment","wind-damp impediment",and" cold impediment"; 16 are related to "laryngeal impediment","general impediment",and "blood impediment" ; 8 are related to "muscular impediment","stomach impediment","hernia-conglomeration impediment","internal consumptive-thirst impediment","wilting impediment",and "hemiplegic impediment".To systematically analyze the properties,tastes,and effects of these medicines and its related knowledge,and then further explore the overall recognition and their treating experience of the physicians at that period would not only enrich the historical research on impediment disease,but also offer much help and reference to the understanding and treatment of impediment for contemporary clinicians.

  8. 《神农本草经》木香考%Textual research on Costus root (Aucklandia lappa Decne) in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光燕; 王德群; 方士英; 徐茂红

    2014-01-01

    Aucklandia lappa Decne was first recorded in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic ofMateria Medica).Through the textual research of herbal literature,it was found that the costus root in the Sheng nong ben cao jing perhaps was not the plant of Aucklandia lappa Decne of Compositae,but the eaglewood or Lignum Aquilasria Resinatum based on the comprehensive judgment of shape,taste,nature,and function etc.In the Sheng nong ben cao jing,it only includes costus root without the title of eaglewood,and Tao Hongjing recorded both herbs together in his Ming yi bie lu (Supplementary Records of Celebrated Physicians),which became a foreshadow of misunderstanding of the later generations.Beginning from the Tang ben cao (Materia Medica of the Tang Dynasty),the costus root was considered as the plant of Auckiandia lappa Decne from the Compostae with its profound influence until now.%中药木香最早记载于《神农本草经》.通过考察多种本草文献,发现《神农本草经》中的木香可能不是现代菊科木香类植物,而是沉香,因为从形态、气味、功效等方面综合判断,沉香与《本神农草经》中的木香相吻合.《神农本草经》中只有“木香”,而无“沉香”,陶弘景将“木香”与“沉香”一并记载于《名医别录》中,为后人的误识埋下了伏笔.自《唐本草》始认为“木香”主要为菊科的木香类草本植物,这种认识一直影响至今.马兜铃科藤本青木香在《唐本草》和《本草图经》等本草著作的“木香”条中均有记载,但不做“木香”药用的主流.

  9. [Contention on the theory of processing techniques of Chinese materia medica in the Ming-Qing period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Jia, Tianzhu

    2015-03-01

    On the basis of the golden stage of development of processing techniques of medicinals in the Song dynasty, the theory and techniques of processing in the Ming-Qing dynasties developed and accomplished further. The knowledge of some physicians on the processing of common medicinal, such as Radix rehmannia and Radixophiopogonis, was questioned, with new idea of processing methods put forward and argued against those insisting traditional ones, marking the progress of the art of processing. By reviewing the contention of technical theory of medicinal processing in the Ming-Qing period, useful references can be provided for the inheritance and development of the traditional art of processing medicinals. PMID:26420409

  10. Latest Progress in Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Four journals including Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (CTHD), Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM), Drugs & Clinic (DC), and Drug Evaluation Research (DER) are edited and published by Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines. CTHD was first published in 1970 and has been playing a great role for Chinese materia medica (CMM), especially in its present modernization. CTHD has successively won several honors in recent years, such as the 2nd State

  11. [A study of association rules in three-dimensional property-taste-effect data of Chinese herbal medicines based on Apriori algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui; Lin, Qian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xin; Liu, Sen-Mao; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Xiu-Lan

    2011-07-01

    The theory of four properties (Qi) and five tastes (Wei) is the core of the property theory of Chinese materia medica. It is known that Qi and Wei are associated with the pharmacological effects (Xiao) of herbs. This study took records of all 365 Chinese herbs in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica (Shennong Ben Cao Jing) as the data resource and established a three-dimensional data cube, in the purpose of finding out and analyzing the frequent patterns and valued association rules of Qi, Wei and Xiao based on Apriori algorithm. The results of this study may give rise to innovative ideas and methods in research of traditional Chinese materia medica. PMID:21749832

  12. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  13. [Chinese Medicine in Overall Modern Scientific Technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuan-sheng; Zeng Yong

    2015-10-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) develops with the survival, reproduction, growth, and progressing of the Chinese nation. Scientific technologies not only promote continual progressing of human societies, but also provide new ideas and methods for the development of CM. In recent years, great changes have taken place in CM complying with developing modern scientific technologies, mainly manifested in the depth of CM theories at molecular levels, the combination of syndrome differentiation and disease identification, continuous innovation and development of clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, diversified dosages of Chinese materia medica, the academic tendency of education patterns, occupational refinement, diversified medical practice modes, and so on. PMID:26677664

  14. Digital Materia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Marcus; Richey, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Med tankar från pedagogen Montessori och filosoferna Platon och Baudrillard har detta arbete behandlat frågor om datorn och dess betydelse för en grafiker. Frågeställningen formulerades efter hand och lydde tillslut: ”Hur kan materia te sig i digital form?” Forskningen resulterade i en hypotes för hur digital materia skulle födas i datorn: genom att blanda två uppsättningar av data, såsom två genuppsättningar tillsammans skapar en ny organism. Under produktionen utvecklades därmed en metod fö...

  15. Textual Research on Names of Species of Pteridophyta in A Supplement to Compendium of Materia Medica%《本草纲目拾遗》蕨类植物名实考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁宏明; 刘守金

    2013-01-01

    Nine species of Pteridophyta were recorded in A Supplement to Compendium of Materia Medicaby Zhao Xuemin in the Qing Dynasty. The textual research on the names of the nine species of Pteridophy-ta showed that Cuiyucao is Cuiyuncao ( Selaginella uncinata ) , Jingouji is Jinmaogouji ( Cibotium barometz) , Piwencao is Jinjijue (Phymatopsis hastata) , Yubiejinxing is Baoshilian (Lepidogrammitis drymoglossoides) , Fengweijinxingcao is Yuewawei (Lepisorus obscure-venulosus ) , Duyeyizhiqiang is Pingerxiaocao (Ophioglossum vulgatum), Wugongping is Huaiyeping (Salvinia natans), Caoshican is Jiangnanxingjue (Microsorum fortunei) , and Jinjidulicao is Cuiyuncao (Selaginella uncinata).%清代赵学敏所著收集9种蕨类药物,经考证其原植物分别为:翠羽草为翠云草Selaginella uncinata、金狗脊为金毛狗脊Cibotium barometz、辟瘟草为金鸡蕨Phymatopsis hastata、鱼鳖金星为抱石莲Lepidogrammitis drymoglossodes、凤尾金星草为粤瓦韦Lepisorus obscure-venulosus、独叶一枝枪为瓶尔小草Ophioglossum vulgatum、蜈蚣萍为槐叶萍Salvinia natans、草石蚕为江南星蕨Microsorum fortunei,金鸡独立草与翠云草是同一物,即翠云草Selaginella uncinata.

  16. Root canal medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Wadachi, Reiko; Suda, Hideaki; Yeng, Thai; Parashos, Peter

    2009-02-01

    The ultimate goals of endodontic treatment are complete removal of bacteria, their byproducts and pulpal remnants from infected root canals and the complete seal of disinfected root canals. Intracanal medicaments have been thought an essential step in killing the bacteria in root canals; however, in modern endodontics, shaping and cleaning may be assuming greater importance than intracanal medicaments as a means of disinfecting root canals. Until recently, formocresol and its relatives were frequently used as intracanal medicaments, but it was pointed out that such bactericidal chemicals dressed in the canal distributed to the whole body from the root apex and so might induce various harmful effects including allergies. Furthermore, as these medicaments are potent carcinogenic agents, there is no indication for these chemicals in modern endodontic treatment. Today, biocompatibility and stability are essential properties for intracanal medicaments. The more modern meaning of intracanal dressing is for a blockade against coronal leakage from the gap between filling materials and cavity wall. Calcium hydroxide has been determined as suitable for use as an intracanal medicament as it is stable for long periods, harmless to the body, and bactericidal in a limited area. It also induces hard tissue formation and is effective for stopping inflammatory exudates. Single-visit endodontics, where intracanal medicaments are not used, is generally not now contraindicated and various reports have shown that the clinical outcomes between single- and multiple- visit endodontics are similar. There is no reason to counsel against single-visit endodontics: however, if multiple-visit endodontics is chosen, calcium hydroxide is recommended to be used as an intracanal medicament. PMID:19323305

  17. Exploration of 3D Printer Models in Teaching Identification of Chinese Meteria Medica%《中药鉴定学》性状教学引入3D 纸模型构建技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车苏容; 苏碧丽; 魏政熙; 文琛; 曾松

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of Chinese meteria medica is an important part in teaching the course of Identification of Chinese Meteria Medica.It needs the real materials to display during teaching which would easily be damaged or rotten , and some of them are very ex-pensive.The development of 3D technology which owns the advantages of high quality with reasonable price and visual display can be a potential teaching method to change the traditional teaching way .%《中药鉴定学》性状教学的是直观形态教学为主的学科,教学用药材样本易变质受损,部分药材价格昂贵。3D纸模型技术的发展,物美价廉、表现力强,具有诸多优势,成为一个潜力具大的教学手段,引入本学科的教学将对传统教学模式带来改变。

  18. [Inheritance and innovation of traditional Chinese medicinal authentication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-biao; Xiao, Pei-gen; Guo, Ping; Liang, Zhi-tao; Hung, Fanny; Wong, Lai-lai; Brand, Eric; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Chinese medicinal authentication is fundamental for the standardization and globalization of Chinese medicine. The discipline of authentication addresses difficult issues that have remained unresolved for thousands of years, and is essential for preserving safety. Chinese medicinal authentication has both scientific and traditional cultural connotations; the use of scientific methods to elucidate traditional experience-based differentiation carries the legacy of Chinese medicine forward, and offers immediate practical significance and long-term scientific value. In this paper, a path of inheritance and innovation is explored through the scientific exposition of Chinese medicinal authentication, featuring a review of specialized publications, the establishment of a Chinese medicine specimen center and Chinese medicinal image databases, the expansion of authentication technologies, and the formation of a cultural project dedicated to the Compedium of Materia Medica. PMID:26978977

  19. Application of DNA Molecular Markers in Chinese Medicinal Materia Identification and its Development Trends%DNA分子标记在中药鉴定中的应用及发展趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力; 徐永莉; 张月云; 赵成坚

    2009-01-01

    目的 对DNA分子遗传标记技术在中药材鉴定领域的应用作一综述.方法 通过查阅20世纪90年代以来发表的文献进行归纳分析.结果 DNA分子遗传标记技术具有微量、快速、特异性强、准确可靠、对样本要求较低的特点;使用较多的方法 主要有RAPD、ISSR、ITS标记以及rRNA基因序列分析技术.同时,DNA分子标记技术也存在着使用局限、对实验硬件和从业人员的技术要求高、成本较高、技术复杂度高、对不同部位入药的药材仍然难以区分以及无法用于成药、复方、提取液鉴定等弱点.结论 DNA分子遗传标记作为中药材鉴定的方法 还有待发展和完善.%Objective The paper summarizes the researches of application of DNA molecular markers in Chinese medicinal mate-ria. Methods Induction and analysis were used by referring to literature released since 1990s . Results DNA Marker Technologies have characteristics of trace,rapid,peculiarity, accuracy and credibility, lower requirements for the sample. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) , inter - simple sequence repeat (ISSR) , interial transcribed spaoers (ITS) and rRNA gene sequencing technology are often used. However, DNA Marker Technologies have some disadvantages that employees are required special skills,the cost is high and the technique is complicated,while it is difficult to distinguish different parts of Chinese medicinal materia used medicinally and identify patent medicine, Chinese medicine complex prescription and the extract of Chinese medicinal materia. Conclusion The methods of Chinese medicinal materia identification by DNA molecular markers need to develop and improve.

  20. Study on the irradiation decontamination of traditional Chinese medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) are natural products prepared from plants, minerals and animals, it is easy for contamination by microorganisms to occur; thus causing problems in complying with the requirements laid down for passing microbial limit tests. We selected some kinds of TCMs, including unprocessed materia medica, traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPMs) and chemical constituents for irradiation by 60Co gamma ray and investigating the results in terms of microbiology, chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. We found no evidence of changes in most of the tested items, which indicates that the irradiation method could be employed for decontamination of TCMs. However, some chemical constituents of unprocessed materia medica, such as gentiopicrin in Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside in Radix Polygoni Multiflori, decomposed when these crude materials were irradiated with dose of 5kGy. Further study revealed that although the medicinal were altered by irradiation, the monomers of some of these chemical constituents were not affected. In addition to investigation of the items described above, the doses of irradiation were selected experimentally to ensure that, after irradiation, the TCMs passed the microbial limit tests described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The lowest possible doses were used in order to avoid any impairment of the quality and clinical efficacy of the effective ingredients of the TCMs. (author)

  1. Retigabine (ASTA Medica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatope, M O

    2001-01-01

    ASTA Medica is developing retigabine, a carbamic acid ethyl ester and a selective potassium channel opener, for the treatment of complex partial seizures. Phase II trials have commenced [249117], and a multicenter placebo-controlled dosage-finding study has begun in Europe and Australia [392702]. Retigabine is also undergoing phase II testing in Germany, Switzerland, Russia and the US for the potential treatment of epilepsy [323383]. Phase II trials have shown >50% reduction in seizure frequency in 12 of 35 patients with refractory epilepsy [373379]. Phase I clinical trials for epilepsy were successfully completed in Germany in 1995 [180371]. Single and multiple dose trials demonstrated the tolerability and favorable pharmacokinetic behavior of the compound [264306]. The compound showed good compatibility and exhibits an antisense anticonvulsive effect in various preclinical epilepsy models [250565,299344]. Side effects of mild to moderate tiredness, fatigue and nausea were observed [276123]. The spectrum of activity of retigabine resembles that of valproate, but its potency is greater and toxicity is reduced [373379]. The mechanism of action of retigabine is probably multifactorial. Research has shown that retigabine acts as a selective K+ channel opener in neuronal cells and this can be expected to contribute to its anticonvulsant effect [273670]. In addition it demonstrates potentiation of GABA transmission and possibly also weak modulation of sodium and calcium channels [299344]. Retigabine also has neuroprotective activity with potential for the treatment of stroke and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and multiple sclerosis [249381]. In February 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted product launch could be as early as 2002 for epilepsy in the US [357788]. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers predicted that the first major launch date of the drug would be 2003, and the year of peak sales to be 2011 [319225]. PMID:16034707

  2. Oral self-emulsifying drug delivery system and its application to preparations of Chinese materia medica%口服自乳化释药系统及其在中药制剂中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱一鑫; 唐景玲; 孙进; 张天虹; 何仲贵

    2006-01-01

    自乳化释药系统是提高强疏水性药物溶出的有效载体系统之一.中药作为国之瑰宝,在防病治病方面有其独特的优势.随着组合化学和高内涵筛选技术的进步,将会发现越来越多的新药.然而诸多中药或化合物因其强疏水性及较低的口服生物利用度,而使其在临床上的应用受到限制,以自乳化释药系统作为该类药物的载体,将会给这一类药物带来巨大的市场潜能.现系统地综述口服自乳化释药系统的研究内容及最新进展.

  3. Exploration of the Curriculum Evaluation Reform of Chinese Materia Medica of Thailand Students%泰国留学生中药学课程考核评价改革之探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海颖; 朱国福; 杨柏灿; 潘颖宜; 金素安; 袁颖; 何世民; 张贵彪; 王又闻

    2016-01-01

    中药学是中医专业泰国留学生的专业基础课,既往中药学的教学大多仍采用传统的教学模式,采用课堂教学为主,最终一次考试定成绩,使学生学习压力较大,往往成绩不理想,影响了后续课程的学习.我们采用建立综合考评体系及改进教学模式的方法,使得教学方式上由以教师的教为主向以学生的学为主发生转变,为泰国留学生学习能力、思维能力和科研能力的培养积极创造条件.通过这种方式,学生的平均成绩有所提高,本期泰国留学生112名,经过综合体系评定学习成绩,中药学的平均成绩由79.28上升为84.21,不及格率由14.53%下降为3.6%,有了较大的改善.

  4. Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals%中药材规范化生产(GAP)10年:成果、问题与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭兰萍; 张燕; 朱寿东; 王桂华; 王秀; 张小波; 陈美兰; 何雅莉; 韩邦兴

    2014-01-01

    该文旨在总结中药材GAP实施过程中取得的成果,在分析其存在问题的基础上,就中药材GAP的进一步推行提出建议.作者认为中药材GAP推行10年取得了很大成果,包括①颁布了中药材GAP认证的一系列管理办法;②中药材规模化面积不断扩大;③农民及企业规范化种植中药材的意识增强;④形成了一批中药材GAP基地;⑤中药材栽培理论和方法不断完善;⑥培养了一大批中药材GAP生产及认证的专家和学者.GAP生产中存在的问题主要包括:①对GAP及其认证的认识和理解亟需深化;②GAP认证基地布局不够合理;③地缘经济及小农经济耕作是中药材规范化和规模化生产的瓶颈;④比较效益偏低限制了GAP的发展;⑤优良品种选育基础空白;⑥栽培技术不成熟导致生产过程风险较大;⑦土壤微生态恶化及连作障碍制约了中药材GAP基地的可持续发展.为进一步促进中药材GAP健康有序发展,作者提出以下建议:①改变生产模式,全面推动中药材GAP生产;②建立健全中药材标准体系,推行中药材优质优价;③充分考虑地缘经济文化,大力推行中药材定向培育;④强化基础研究和成果转化推广,为中药材生产提供技术保障;⑤深化对GAP的理解,大力推行生态种植和精细农业克服连作障碍.作者认为,虽然仍面临大量管理和技术问题,但中药材GAP早已深入人心,并展现出巨大的前景.未来时日,随着人们对GAP认识理解的不断加深,以及科技的巨大进步,GAP生产将会不断与精准农业、生态农业等现代农业理论、方法及技术融合,并展现出更大的潜力和更广阔的前景.

  5. Materia musical y recorridos

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Alrededor de la noción de materia musical, habitualmente se arremolinan las más variadas concepciones que incluyen generalmente no sólo lo sonoro sino también los silencios, gestualidades e intenciones. Por lo tanto, y sin pretender desmalezar esa enorme riqueza de aproximaciones, se podría concebir la materia musical como un repertorio de materiales, más allá de su combinatoria posterior o de un modo de empleo determinado que pueda implicar tanto reglas de exclusión como de pertinencia.

  6. Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.

  7. Research progress of microemulsion technique in modern Chinese medical preparations%微乳技术在现代中药制剂中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 马卓

    2012-01-01

    本文综述了近年来微乳技术在中药口服制剂、注射剂、经皮吸收制剂等方面的研究概况.结果表明微乳技术在中药制剂领域有较好的应用前景.利用微乳载药系统的优势,开发中药微乳新制剂,可望解决中药剂型存在的某些问题.%This paper reviews the summary on the study of the microemulsion technique in traditional Chinese medical o- ral preparation, injections, transdermal prearation in recently years. It is found that the microemulsion technique has a good prospect in the field of Chinese materia medica preparation. Making use of the advantage of the microemulsion delivery system to develop the Chinese materia medica microemulsion new dosage forms can be expected to solve some problems of traditional Chinese medical preparations. .

  8. Materia strana romanzo scientifico

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez Cadenas, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    Nel Laboratorio europeo per la fisica delle particelle, il CERN di Ginevra, sta per vedere la luce uno dei più grandi progressi scientifici di tutti i tempi: la scoperta di un nuovo stato della materia, il cosiddetto "plasma di quark". La direttrice del CERN, Helena Le Guin, teme però che insieme al plasma si stiano formando grumi letali di materia strana, in grado di scatenare una reazione a catena che potrebbe distruggere l'intero pianeta. Mentre Helena cerca disperatamente di far fronte alla crisi, a Ginevra arrivano Irene de Ávila, una giovane e promettente fisica teorica, e il maggiore Héctor Espinosa, un militare americano assegnato alla sede dell'ONU per lavorare a un progetto ultrasegreto legato alla non proliferazione delle armi nucleari: inizia così un'appassionante vicenda in cui convergono rivalità scientifiche, peripezie personali e rischiose operazioni di spionaggio che porteranno i protagonisti fino in Iran.

  9. Vaidyajivanam: Contributions of Lolimbaraja to Ayurvedic Materia Medica– A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nishteswar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lolimbaraja was the author of Vaidyajivanam popularly known as Lolimbarajeeyam. The author has composed the entire text in a poetic style. This work may be considered as a best piece of Ayurvedic literature consisting of single and simple herbal recipes for common ailments. Though herbal formulations dominated the therapeutics, the author also quoted certain Rasayogas consisting of metals and minerals. In total 37 single drug recipes were documented. The materia medica discussed by Lolimbaraja consists of 153 drugs (130 Herbal drugs, 3 Animal products and 20 Metals and Minerals. The period of Lolimbarajeeyam appears to be belonging to 16th – 17th century. A critical analysis of formulations mentioned in the text clearly indicate that the author consulted many a works of Ayurveda and compiled the most useful recipes which are indicated for the management of the common ailments.

  10. From rustics to savants: indigenous materia medica in eighteenth-century Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Miruna

    2011-09-01

    This essay explores how indigenous knowledge about plant and animal remedies was gathered, classified, tested, and circulated across wide networks of exchange for natural knowledge between Europe and the Americas. There has been much recent interest in the "bioprospecting" of local natural resources-medical and otherwise-by Europeans in the early modern world and the strategies employed by European travellers, missionaries, or naturalists have been well documented. By contrast, less is known about the role played by indigenous and Creole intermediaries in this process. And yet, the transmission of knowledge between indigenous communities and the European cabinet was neither transparent nor natural, and often involved epistemological, linguistic, and religious obstacles. Drawing on printed and manuscript collections of indigenous remedies, written in colonial Mexico between the sixteenth and the eighteenth centuries, I focus on how local intermediaries, like creoles scholars, sought to overcome such obstacles by observing indigenous uses of remedies, by studying indigenous languages and by producing natural histories and pharmacopoeias in indigenous languages. Ultimately, behind the Creole participation in the transmission of indigenous remedies, one can point to political and cultural interests and to inclusive definitions of knowledge, which cut across oppositions between science and superstition, cabinet and field, centre and periphery. PMID:21802632

  11. An overview on adverse drug reactions to traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kelvin; Zhang, Hongwei; Lin, Zhi-Xiu

    2015-10-01

    The safe use of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and products in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice conventionally relies on correct pharmacognostic identification, good agricultural and manufacturing practices based on pharmacopoeia standards and rational/correct CMM combinations with TCM-guided clinical prescribing. These experience-based principles may not absolutely ensure safety without careful toxicological investigations when compared with development of new pharmaceutical drugs. Clinically observed toxicity reports remain as guidance for gathering toxicological evidence, though essential as pharmacovigilance, but are considered as late events for ensuring safety. The overview focuses on the following factors: global development of TCM that has affected conventional healthcare; examples of key toxic substances in CMM; reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) consequential to taking CMM and TCM products; and proposals on rational approaches to integrate the knowledge of biomedical science and the principles of TCM practice for detecting early ADRs if both TCM products and orthodox drugs are involved. It is envisaged that good control of the quality and standards of CMM and proprietary Chinese medicines can certainly reduce the incidence of ADRs in TCM practice when these medications are used. PMID:25619530

  12. Challenges in Research and Development of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This review is briefly to recall the history of research and development (R&D) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and to discuss the challenges of Chinese traditional and herbal medicines (CTHM) facing the modern science and technology. The R&D of CTHM is thought to be an important pathway for new drug discovery. Since1949, about 140 approved new drugs have been developed, among which about 80 originated directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. CTHM has gained interest from the international medical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical institutions as a valuable source of potential medicines. For the modernization of CMM and innovative research of CTHM, there are following challenges to be faced: (1) to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacological properties, action mechanism, and active chemical constituents; (2) to develop new methodologies for the quality and safety of CTHM; (3) to apply new "-omics" techniques to accelerate drug discoveries developed from CTHM; and (4) to apply international practices including good agricultural practice, good manufacturing practice, good laboratory practice, and good clinical practice in the R&D of CTHM.

  13. Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majd Ahmad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured in DMEM (Gibco,supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum,peniciline-streptomycin,L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days.In addition cancer cell line were treated by half-ripe and ripe Citrus Medica fruit juice and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT. The Citrus Medica fruit juice was subsequenthy evaluated in terms of antimutagenicity and anticancer properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames Test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100 .Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth.The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to carcinogen substance (Sodium Azide. During MTT, human astrocytoma cell line revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01. In Ames Test the fruit juice prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of half-ripe Citrus Medica was 71.7% and ripe Citrus Medica was 34.4% in antimutagenicity test and this value in anticancer test was 83.3% and 50% in half-ripe Citrus Medica and ripe Citrus Medica respectively.This is the first study that have revealed antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice and the effects were higher in half-ripe Citrus Medica in comparison to the riprned one.

  14. The improve effect of Yiqihuoxue Chinese materia medica for the ethology of mouse with diabetes mellitus encephalopathy induced by streptozotocin%益气活血中药对链脲佐菌素致糖尿病脑病小鼠行为学的改善作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路军章; 刘毅

    2005-01-01

    目的观察益气活血中药对链脲佐菌素(STZ)致糖尿病脑病小鼠行为学的改善作用.方法用1%STZ腹腔注射法建立糖尿病性脑病小鼠模型.将50只小鼠随机分为正常对照组、模型对照组、中药大、中、小剂量组,分别进行避暗反应及Morris水迷宫行为测试,观察其学习记忆能力.结果益气活血中药对STZ致糖尿病小鼠无明显降糖作用,但可明显改善一般行为表现及精神状态,减少进入暗箱被电击的次数,延长潜伏期,缩短Morris水迷宫的游出时间及游出距离,改善小鼠的学习记忆能力.结论益气活血中药对STZ致糖尿病脑病小鼠的行为学有改善作用

  15. 应用大鼠肝微粒体筛选对细胞色素P4502D6有抑制作用的中药%Screening of Chinese materia medica possessed inhibitory effect on cytochrome P4502D6 in liver microsomes of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于卫江; 黄丽军; 朱大岭

    2007-01-01

    目的 从17种中药(单体、提取物和注射液)中快速筛选出对细胞色素P4502D6(CYP2D6)亚型有抑制作用的中药,建立高通量筛选对CYP2D6有抑制作用中药的技术平台.方法 取大鼠空白肝微粒体,分别加入17种中药,HPLC法测定大鼠肝微粒体中CYP2D6的探针药物右美沙芬(DM)的代谢率,通过代谢率降低的现象初步筛选出能抑制肝微粒体中CYP2D6代谢的药物.结果 槲皮素、黄芩苷、厚朴提取物、清开灵注射液、盐酸川芎嗪注射液可明显降低DM的代谢率(P<0.01).结论 初步筛选出槲皮素、黄芩苷、厚朴提取物、清开灵注射液、盐酸川芎嗪注射液这5种中药可抑制肝微粒体CYP2D6酶活性.此方法可作为高通量筛选对CYP2D6活性有抑制作用中药的技术平台.

  16. 《中药学》和《中华人民共和国药典》中对某些药材来源的表述差异比较%Differences of sources of some medical materials described in the Chinese Materia Medica and Pharmacopeia of People's republic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许斌; 陈建议; 夏卫东

    2008-01-01

    目的 科学、规范、准确的表述中药的来源,使新版教材更趋完善.方法 对照2005年版(一部)的质量标准.比较23种药材的科、种及药用部位的差异.结果 4种药材存在科差异,8种药材存在种差异,11种药材存在药用部位的差异.结论 六版教材对某些药品来源的阐述与有较大差异,再版时希望药物的来源方面能力求与同时期的一致,以保证中药质量,确保用药安全.

  17. Quality of reporting of trial abstracts needs to be improved: using the CONSORT for abstracts to assess the four leading Chinese medical journals of traditional Chinese medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wenming

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to language limitations, the abstract of journal article may be the only way for people of non-Chinese speaking countries to know about trials in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, little is known about the reporting quality of these trial abstracts. Our study is to assess the reporting quality of abstracts of randomized controlled trials (RCT published in four leading Chinese medical journals of TCM, and to identify any differences in reporting between the Chinese and English version of the same abstract publication. Method Two reviewers hand-searched the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, the Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, the China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica and the Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion for all abstracts of RCTs published between 2006 and 2007. Two reviewers independently assessed the reporting quality of the Chinese and English version of all eligible abstracts based on a modified version of the CONSORT for reporting randomised trials in journal and conference abstracts (CONSORT for abstracts. Results We identified a total of 345 RCTs of TCM with both a Chinese and English abstract. More than half of Chinese abstracts reported details of the trial participants (68%; 234/345, control group intervention (52%; 179/345, the number of participants randomized (73%; 253/345 and benefits when interpreting the trial results (55%; 190/345. Reporting of methodological quality or key features of trial design and trial results were poor; only 2% (7/345 included details of the trial design, 3% (11/345 defined the primary outcome, 5% (17/345 described the methods of random sequence generation, and only 4% (13/345 reported the number of participants analyzed. No abstracts provided details on allocation concealment and trial registration. The percentage agreement in reporting (between the Chinese and English version of the same abstract ranged from 84% to 100% across

  18. Published papers about Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge as a Chinese medicinal material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xu Cuihong, Shu Zhiming, Wang Yan, Miao Fang, Zhou ke. The accumulation rule of the main medicinal components in different organs of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. f. alba. Lishizhen Medicine and Materia Medica Research, 2010, 21(09): 2129-2132. Email: miaofangmf@ 163,com

  19. The journey,gain,and thought from engaging in the research of Chinese herbal medicines in China,Japan,and United States%The journey, gain, and thought from engaging in the research of Chinese herbal medicines in China, Japan, and United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYan-ze; DENG Zhu-ping

    2011-01-01

    Since early 80s of last century,Chinese herbal medicines focused on the isolation and structural identification of active/chemical compounds have being investigated,started the journey from Henan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.After one year (1985~ 1986) advanced study in Prof.Jingxi Xie's laboratory in the Institute of Materia Medica,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences in Beijing,further studies in Prof.Takuo Okuda's laboratory,Okayama University,Japan as a guest researcher from 1988 to 1992 opened a fresh and amazing gate of tannin chemistry.Near 10 years'investigation of tannins and related polyphenols from Chinese herbal medicines,supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China and other grants,some typical herbs containing tannins and related polyphenols as major active components have been in-depth studied,such as Loropetalum chinense,Epilobium angustifolium,Rhodmyrtus tomentosa,Lythrum salicaria,Epilobium pyrricholophum,Rodgersia podoph ylla,Punica granatum,Euphorbia humifusa,and Cornus of ficinalis etc.Hundreds of diversified tannins and related polyphenols have been isolated including monomer,dimmer,trimer of ellagitannins and C-glycosidic tannins etc.

  20. Creato un nuovo stato della materia

    CERN Document Server

    Valsecchi, M C

    2004-01-01

    "Nei laboratori di tutto il mondo nascono continuamente nuovi materiali plastici, leghe di metallo, molecole progettate e assemblate atomo per atomo. I ricercatori dell'Istituto nazionale di fisica nucleare hanno fatto un passo in piu': manipolando i costituenti fondamentali dei nuclei atomici, hanno creato una nuova forma di materia, radicalmente diversa da quella che noi conosciamo" (1 page)

  1. Analysis of characters of bitter flavor in Chinese medicinal%苦味药材性状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪玉佳; 王鹏; 李佳; 张永清; 滕佳林; 王振国

    2012-01-01

    Bitter flavor(taste) is an important part of the theory of Chinese herbal property. Different material composition not only aflect the medicinal characters,but also affect the the properties and flavors of Chinese materia medica. Total 1 728 Chinese medicinal which cold or heat property were described definitely in Herbal Medicine were selected. The relationship between bitter flavor and the characters was studied by using mathematical statistical methods. The results showed that the bitter flavor was effected by texture,flavor,taste,external color. The more crisp,bitter and astringent the Chinese medicinal is,the more bitter it is. The more sweet,salty,spicy and white the Chinese medicinal is,the less bitter it is.%苦味是中药药性理论的重要组成部分.不同的物质组成影响着药材性状,也影响着药材性味.选取《中华本草》所载1 728种寒热药性明确的中药,运用数学统计方法,研究了中药苦味与药材性状的关系,认为药材质地、气味、味道、外观颜色共同影响着中药苦味.药材性状质脆、味苦或味涩越多的中药,药材性味越偏向苦味;药材性状气香、味甘、味咸、味辛和白色越多的中药,药材性味越远离苦味.

  2. 浅谈中药三七及其有效成分对血液系统的药理活性研究概况%Introduction to Chinese Traditional Medicine Notoginseng and the Pharmacological Activity of the Research of the Effective Components of the Blood System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐家翠

    2015-01-01

    Notoginseng is recorded in the texts of the motherland medicine, it is a kind of commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. Li shizhen called it as the "voice". Years of clinical application of fully conifrmed that Chinese medicine notoginseng medicinal value, however, its medicinal development is far from its own value. Analysis and summarize the "compendium of materia medica", "Chinese medicine dictionary aspects of the relevant information, in this paper, the traditional Chinese medicine notoginseng and their pharmacological activities of effective components of the blood system, this paper hopes to strengthen the research and development and utilization of panax notoginseng.%三七是祖国医学典籍中记载的一种传统常用中药,被李时珍誉称为“金不换”。多年的临床应用充分证实了中药三七的药用价值,然而,其药用开发远未达到其自身价值水平。分析和总结《本草纲目》、《中药大辞典》等多方面有关资料,本文对中药三七及其有效成分对血液系统的药理活性加以论述,期望以此可加强对三七的研究以及开发利用。

  3. Combustión turbulenta de materia nuclear en materia extraña

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetich, H.

    La simulación numérica de supernovas tipo II muestra que los mecanismos físicos convencionales no son suficientes como para producir la explosión. La detonación de materia nuclear en materia extraña es un mecanismo físico capaz de proveer la energía faltante en las simulaciones. En esta comunicación se muestra que la turbulencia en el corazón compacto de una supernova, después del primer choque, es capaz de transformar una combustión lenta en una detonación. Se concluye que, si la materia extraña existe, todas las ``estrellas de neutrones'' son, en realidad, ``estrellas extrañas''.

  4. 民国中西药学汇通代表作《汉药新觉》考略%Textual research on the Han yao xin jue (New Recognition of Chinese Medicines), a representative book of amalgamation of Chinese and western pharmacy in the Republican period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仁寿

    2013-01-01

    郭若定《汉药新觉》为民国时期中西药学汇通的代表作,其上集曾被民国时期北平杂志《明日医药》连载,并刊有单行本.续集内容由其家属收藏,全书完整本于2010年由上海科学技术文献出版社出版,载药208种,以单味中药为主,并收部分复方药及西药.该书中西药学汇通思想,体现在3个方面:中西药物,兼收并蓄;衷中参西,继承创新;中西合参,旨在汇通.%Guo Ruo-ding's Han yao xin jue (New Recognition of Chinese Medicines) was the representative work of amalgamating Chinese and western pharmacy of the Republican period.Its first volume was published in Medicine Tomorrow in Peiping in installments,also with offprints; while the second volume was collected by his relatives.The whole book was published by the Shanghai Press of Science and Technology,carrying 208 kinds of Chinese materia medica mainly with individual drug descriptions,some compound prescriptions,and some western medicines.The amalgamating idea was expressed in three points:collection of both Chinese and western drugs; inheritance and creation with new idea of amalgamating Chinese and western medical systems; mutual consultation of Chinese and western medicine aiming at their amalgamation.

  5. Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Majd Ahmad; Falahian Fathollah; Mehrabian Sedigheh; Hashemi Mehrdad; Ardeshiry Lajimi Abdolreza; Entezari Maliheh

    2009-01-01

    Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured i...

  6. La realidad como materia novelable: Alejo Carpentier

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Arias Careaga

    2007-01-01

    Desde que en 1897 Benito Pérez Galdós defendiera como materia prima legítima de la literatura «la vida misma, de donde el artista saca las ficciones que nos instruyen y embelesan» (Pérez Galdós, 1990: 159), el realismo como instrumento de indagación y análisis de la sociedad no ha dejado de crecer y expandirse. Realismo crítico, como este de Galdós, que implica una ampliación del concepto chato de «realidad», incluyendo en ella «recuerdos, sueños, imaginación, locura, símbolos» para contribui...

  7. Ancient Records and Modern Research on the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-ming; Liang, Feng-xia

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications. PMID:25815039

  8. Ancient Records and Modern Research on the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-ming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM. This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications.

  9. La realidad como materia novelable: Alejo Carpentier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Arias Careaga

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde que en 1897 Benito Pérez Galdós defendiera como materia prima legítima de la literatura «la vida misma, de donde el artista saca las ficciones que nos instruyen y embelesan» (Pérez Galdós, 1990: 159, el realismo como instrumento de indagación y análisis de la sociedad no ha dejado de crecer y expandirse. Realismo crítico, como este de Galdós, que implica una ampliación del concepto chato de «realidad», incluyendo en ella «recuerdos, sueños, imaginación, locura, símbolos» para contribuir a la formación de un «realismo total» (Rodríguez Puértolas, 2000, II: 93, al que se une también la asimilación de enseñanzas esenciales como la que representa la narrativa de Cervantes: La novelística de Galdós hunde sus raíces en el mejor Cervantes, como puede verse en su peculiar sentido del humor y de la ironía, en la concepción perspectivista de la realidad y en tantas otras cosas, algunas de ellas en verdad fundamentales. Así el concepto de la Naturaleza y sus relaciones dialécticas con el ser humano; así el Amor como elemento vital y animador del orden cósmico, muy alejado del idealismo vulgar romántico (Ibid., 93.

  10. Materia y Pobreza = Matter and Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Muñoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acumulación material es uno de los signos más identificables de la pobreza. El pobre vive apegado a la tierra, esa es su única posesión y a partir de ella construirá sus refugios, sus habitaciones, sus utensilios. Las construcciones de arcilla, de barro, moldeadas con gran abundancia de materia  se encuentran en los poblados primitivos, pero cualquier situación marcada por la extrema pobreza lo estará también por las acumulaciones de material. Resulta inimaginable una situación de pobreza que no implique la acumulación de materia y esto es particularmente evidente en las sociedades desarrolladas, donde un mendigo es reconocible por su montaña de ropas, calzado o enseres de todo tipo.Resulta, sin embargo, significativo que en los discursos de los ideólogos de la modernidad, la identificación de ésta con el advenimiento de una sociedad sin clases venga acompañada de una apelación a la pobreza, una nueva pobreza fría y sobria, propia de una habitación humana abierta y transparente, casi desnuda, e igualitaria para todos los hombres sin distinción de clases sociales. Así, la pobreza moderna estaría ligada al material, a los nuevos materiales, pero no es una condición impuesta, sino elegida, o al menos aceptada como inevitable por el nuevo hombre.La convivencia entre una pobreza de la acumulación material y una pobreza de ascetismo y renuncia es un hecho tanto en los discursos como en las obras de las vanguardias del siglo XX. La acumulación de materia informe y trabajada manualmente tiene lugar al mismo tiempo que la exhibición de la desnudez y la frialdad de los materiales producidos por la industria.  Y en ambos casos, se apela a la pobreza como última referencia para las obras que tratan de ser una expresión fiel de las aspiraciones de su época.Palabras clavemateria, pobreza, material, acumulación, modernidad, sociedadAbstractAccumulation of matter is one of the most recognizable signs of poverty. The poor

  11. Anàlisi de la utilització de medicaments en població pediàtrica i adulta utilització de medicaments en condicions no aprovades /

    OpenAIRE

    Danés Carreras, Immaculada; Vallano Ferraz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Els estudis d'utilització de medicaments permeten identificar els patrons d'ús dels medicaments en diferents poblacions, ja siguin adults o nens. Un aspecte és l'anàlisi de l'ús de medicaments en condicions diferents a les autoritzades a la fitxa tècnica. Aquesta tesi és una anàlisi de diferents aspectes de l'ús de medicaments en condicions no aprovades després que es publiqués el Reial Decret 1015/2009 del 19 de juny pel qual es regula la disponibilitat de medicaments en diferents situacions...

  12. Anàlisi de la utilització de medicaments en població pediàtrica i adulta. utilització de medicaments en condicions no aprovades

    OpenAIRE

    Danés Carreras, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    Els estudis d'utilització de medicaments permeten identificar els patrons d'ús dels medicaments en diferents poblacions, ja siguin adults o nens. Un aspecte és l’anàlisi de l’ús de medicaments en condicions diferents a les autoritzades a la fitxa tècnica. Aquesta tesi és una anàlisi de diferents aspectes de l’ús de medicaments en condicions no aprovades després que es publiqués el Reial Decret 1015/2009 del 19 de juny pel qual es regula la disponibilitat de medicaments en diferents situacions...

  13. [Popular knowledge about medicaments in 19th century periodicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabas, Iwona

    2004-01-01

    Polish periodicals published since the beginning of 19th century contained household knowledge which was of great importance to peasants. In the second half of 19th century the number of articles related to prevention, treatment as well as life hygiene (including nutrition guidance) enlarged significantly. The term "household medicine box# was very often used in periodicals as titles of both: sections dedicated to hygiene or medicine as well as for articles describing medicaments intended to be kept in the boxes. Articles referenced law regulations stated in "law for pharmacists and pharmacies# from 1844. The availability of medical handbooks widened with the end of the century and this fact may have caused the changes in profiles of numerous medical sections in popular periodicals. However the changes did not affect publications related to contents of medical boxes. PMID:17152882

  14. LaMedica - Eine multimediale online Lehr- und Lernplattform [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stracke, Sylvia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] The project LaMedica ( has as its aim the development of a multimedia teaching and learning platform, the compilation of contents for medicine and the implementation of these in the teaching process. An on-line author environment was created which supports a variety of didactic approaches: systematic and networked communication of knowledge, case-based learning, the creation of lectures and learning sequence checks. The teaching contents can be edited and illustrated, and are aimed in particular at students, doctors in continuing education and specialists. An on-line media databank supports the re-use and the exchange of contents on the basis of a content management system through the use of the Learning Objects Metadata standards (LOM. Funding is provided by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (FKZ NM054A. [german] Das Projekt LaMedica ( hat zum Ziel, eine multimediale Lehr- und Lernplattform zu entwickeln, Inhalte für die Medizin zu erstellen und diese in die Lehre zu implementieren. Es wurde eine on-line Autorenumgebung geschaffen, die sehr unterschiedliche didaktische Ansätze unterstützt: systematische und vernetzte Wissensvermittlung, fallbasiertes Lernen, Erstellung von Vorlesungen und Lernerfolgskontrolle. Die Lehrinhalte können zielgruppenspezifisch aufbereitet und dargestellt werden und richten sich insbesondere an Studenten, Ärzte in der Weiterbildung und Fachärzte. Eine on-line Medien-Datenbank unterstützt die Wiederverwendung und den Austausch von Inhalten auf der Basis eines Content-Management-Systems durch Verwendung des Learning Objects Metadata Standards (LOM. Die Förderung erfolgt durch das BMBF (FKZ NM054A.

  15. A ten-year audit of traditional Chinese medicine and other natural product research published in the Chinese Medical Journal (2000-2009)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard A. Collins

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical research encompasses a wide variety of disciplines. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and natural product research have made great contributions to preventing and treating illness. The number and content of original research reports evaluating TCM and natural products have not previously been described. Information in this area will identify areas of relative strength and weakness in terms of knowledge gaps with respect to clinical conditions and natural product remedies.Methods Original research reports (i.e. original articles, brief reports, and research letters) published in the Chinese Medical Journal (CMJ) from January 2000 to December 2009 evaluating TCM and other natural products were reviewed.The United Kingdom Clinical Research Collaboration (UK-CRC) Health Research Classification System was used to analyze the type of health research conducted. Further analysis on the major illnesses addressed and the major herbal components utilized was conducted.Results One hundred and seventeen original research reports involving TCM or other natural products were identified,comprising 3.82% of the CMJ output in the period covered by this study. Of the different materia medica described in these reports, 74.4% were derived exclusively from plant material, 10.3% from animals, 3.4% from fungi, 1.7% from minerals, and 10.3% were of mixed (plant / animal / fungal / mineral) composition. Twelve herbs were investigated exclusively or were constituents of 66/87 (75.9%) of the plant-based materia medica investigated. Panax ginseng was the most commonly investigated herb or constituent (14/87, 16.1%), followed by Astragalus membranaceus (9/87, 10.3%),Coptis chinensis/Berberis spp. (7/87, 8.0%) and Rheum spp. (7/87, 8.0%). Four UK-CRC health categories accounted for the majority of TCM and other natural product research (cancer, 20.9%; cardiovascular, 19.2%; oral/gastrointestinal,9.8%; and inflammatory/immune, 9.0%). The most common research activity was

  16. Ciencia con Euclid: Materia y Energía Oscura

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Garrido, Antonio; Díaz Sánchez, Anastasio; Jódar Ferrández, Ester; TOLEDO MOREO, Rafael; Villo Pérez, Isidro; Garrigós Guerrero, Francisco Javier; Martínez Álvarez, José Javier; Toledo Moreo, Francisco Javier; Ferrández Vicente, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Recientemente se aprobó la construcción del satélite espacial Euclid, que se encargará de indagar en dos de los grandes misterios actuales de la Ciencia: la materia oscura y la energía oscura. La UPCT participa tanto a nivel tecnológico como científico en esta misión espacial cuyo lanzamiento está previsto para el año 2019. Las primeras evidencias de la existencia de la materia oscura datan de 1932. Se presupone su existencia ya que, entre otras cosas, la distribución de velocidades de las es...

  17. The effects of dyadic combinations of endodontic medicaments on microbial growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, W K

    1990-01-01

    In recent years dyadic combinations of endodontic medicaments have been used increasingly in clinical pediatric dentistry with little regard to the possibility of pharmacological antagonism of the components. In this investigation, a microbial growth inhibition assay was used to determine changes in antimicrobial activity in dyadic mixtures of endodontic medicaments. The combinations assayed were Ledermix (corticosteroid-antibiotic) and Calyxl (calcium hydroxide), Ledermix and Kri (iodoform), Kri and Calyxl, and formocresol and eugenol. All these compounds have antibacterial activity when used individually. In the dyadic combinations assayed, results showed that adding calcium hydroxide to another antibiotic preparation has deleterious effects on growth inhibition, and combining any two antimicrobial medicaments produces no additive or synergistic effects. It is concluded that it may be clinically advantageous to use endodontic medicaments in the dyadic combinations shown in this investigation. PMID:2128893

  18. Pediatric liquid medicaments – Are they cariogenic? An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, K. L. Girish; Doddamani, Geeta Maruti; Naik, L. R. Kumaraswamy; Jagadeesh, K. N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Young and chronically sick children receive a variety of oral liquid medications on a routine and regular basis. These pharmaceutical preparations are cariogenic and acidogenic in nature. Hence, the present study was taken up to determine the cariogenic potential of the commonly prescribed pediatric liquid medicaments. Materials and Methods: Eight commonly used pediatric liquid medicaments (PLM) were selected and their endogenous pH was measured using a pH electrode meter. The sugar cont...

  19. 白花丹的药学研究与临床应用概述%Materia Medica Research and Clinical Application of Plumbago Zeylanica L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵铁建; 方卓

    2006-01-01

    白花丹为多民族药材,民间应用广泛.现代对其的研究主要有以下四方面:1、生药学与成分研究,其主要药用成份为白花丹醌.2、药理学研究.主要集中在以下几方面:毒性实验、抗菌作用、抗炎与致炎作用、抗肝损伤及肝纤维化、抗肿瘤作用及其他作用.3、单方、验方的应用.有报道用于治疗跌打损伤肿痛、皮肤瘙痒症、注射疼痛及炎症、液体外渗、毒蛇咬伤、风湿骨痛、妊娠早期堕胎.4、组方、复方的应用.有报道用于治疗慢性乙型肝炎、晚期鼻咽癌、疮疡及软组织损伤、眼结膜病、骨关节疾病、男性勃起障碍.

  20. Extraction, Modelling and Purification of Flavonoids from Citrus Medica Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parvathi Nandan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet extraction technique is widely employed for the extraction and separation of chemical constituents in the medicinal plants. Citrus medica L commonly called as Citron belongs to family Rutaceae, is a slow-growing shrub. It is mainly cultivated for the production of edible fruits which are sour in taste like lime and lemon and the main content of a citron fruit is the thick rind, which is very adherent to the segments. From the phytochemical analysis the peel extract is rich source of phenols, flavonoids and alkaloids. The objective of present work is to develop a modelling equation for quercetin, rutin and kaempferol and the crude extract obtained by soxhlet extraction was further purified by solvent-solvent extraction and Column chromatography. Extraction was carried out by 80% methanol as a solvent Soxhlet extractor. Soxhlet extraction with methanol was carried out with varying time intervals, to evaluate modelling equation. The proposed modelling equation was Es = 0.0849(t + 7.0286 for Quercetin and Es = 0.0912(t + 25.971 for rutin, and Es = 0.0267(t + 7.3714 for Kaempferol. High yield was obtained for 180min of Soxhlet extraction with 80% methanol. Yield of quercetin, rutin and kaempferol after solvent-solvent extraction and column chromatography was 22.6µg/ml, 43.7µg/ml and 10.8µg/ml respectively. The proposed model showed good agreement with the experimental data.

  1. PH of endodontic medicaments used in pediatric dentistry: effects of dyadic combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M; Seow, W K

    1990-01-01

    The optimum pH of an endodontic medicament is close as possible to that of body fluids, i.e., around 7.2 as higher and lower pH's are likely to cause cellular necrosis of tissues in direct contact with the medicament. This study investigated the pH of various endodontic medicaments commonly used in pediatric dentistry, both singly and in the various combinations available for clinical use. The results showed that the pH ranged from a low of 2.90 +/- 0.02 for iodoform paste (Kri) to a high of 12.45 +/- 0.02 for calcium hydroxide (Calyxl). Eugenol showed a pH of 4.34 +/- 0.05, formocresol 2.79 +/- 0.02, and a commercially-available antibiotic-corticosteroid paste (Ledermix) 8.13 +/- 0.01. Addition of up to 50 percent (v/v) of Ledermix or 25 percent Kri respectively did not affect the pH of Calyxl significantly. Although the addition of up to 75 percent Kri to Ledermix caused a fall in pH, the changes are probably not significant clinically. Furthermore, the addition of 50 percent eugenol to formocresol increased its pH significantly. The optimum pH of an endodontic medicament is as close as possible to that of body fluids, i.e., around 7.2. Higher and lower pH's are likely to cause cellular necrosis of tissues in direct contact with the medicament. However with the exception of calcium hydroxide there has been very little information available on the pH of endodontic medicaments commonly used in pediatric dentistry. Medicaments such as formocresol, eugenol and iodoform pastes have been extensively used for endodontic therapy yet very little attention has been given to their pH values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2129105

  2. Study of contact dermatitis due to topical medicaments and cosmetics by patch testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vij Amit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contact dermatitis is the most common immunological disorder encountered by the dermatologist and it arises when a person develops delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction to a substance coming in contact with his skin. The patch test is at present a helpful test for demonstrating contact type of allergy that identifies the cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Aim: To study the common topical medicaments and cosmetics capable of producing contact dermatitis and value of patch testing in these situations. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients suspected of having contact sensitivity to topical medicaments and common cosmetics were subjected to patch testing with the finished commercial product being used by the patient and the antigens of the Indian Standard Series and Cosmetic series kit. Results: Positivity with patch test of 96.65% was observed in patients with contact dermatitis to topical medicaments, whereas 85% of the patients with cosmetic dermatitis were tested positive. Among the cases with contact dermatitis to topical medicaments, Neomycin was tested positive in more number of patients and among the patients with cosmetic dermatitis; Kum-Kum powder and Fairness cream were tested positive in more number of patients. Conclusion: It is well known that topical medicaments are known to produce contact dermatitis; the cosmetics that are claimed to be very safe by their manufacturers do not stay much behind in doing so.

  3. The effect of carvacrol on Enterococcus faecalis as an intracanal medicament-Invitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifian M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Researches have shown that bacteria play the main role in development of pulpal and periapical diseases. Chemo-mechanical cleaning of infected root-canal system can not remove all of the microorganisms. Thus interappointment medicaments are necessary to aid this goal. Calcium hydroxide is one of the most useful medicaments in root canal therapy, but this medicament can not eliminated all of the bacteria in root canal system. Carvacrol is an edible plant extract that has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. If this extract is effective against endodontic bacteria, it can be used as an root canal medicament. "nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, Initially, MIC and MBC of carvacrol detected with Macro broth dilution method and determined as 0.3% and 0.6%, respectively. After that, 30 single root and single canal extracted human teeth were used in this study. The number of specimens determined in a pilot study on 4 extracted teeth. After preparation to apical size # 30 with hand and rotary instruments, teeth were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups. After culturing Enterococcus faecalis in prepared canals, we used emulsion of 0.6% carvacrol and calcium hydroxide in two A and B experimental groups for 7 days as the intracanal medicament. Microbial samples obtained before and after experiment. Then, canals with negative culture selected to obtain dentinal shaving to culture. Data obtained from microbiological samples analyzed with kruskal-wallis and Bonferroni tests. "nResults: Results of this study showed that emulsion of 0.6% carvacrol has no significant difference with calcium hydroxide in elimination enterococcus faecalis after 7 days dressing (p>0.05. "nConclusion: Carvacrol can be used as an intrappointment intracanal medicament.

  4. Materia extraña en el universo

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    A Pérez Martínez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La hipótesis de la materia de quarks extraña constituye una de las especulaciones más excitantes de la Física del siglo XX. Si dicha hipótesis fuese correcta, la materia de quarks constituiría el estado más fundamental de la materia, conformaría el nucleo de objetos compactos como las estrellas de neutrones y podría formar objetos aun más exóticos como las estrellas de quarks. Debido al régimen de alta densidad y baja temperatura al que se encuentran sometidas estas estrellas es posible que la interacción atractiva de los quarks, a través del intercambio de gluones, favorezca la aparición de una fase superconductora de color, modificando significativamente la ecuación de estado del sistema. En este trabajo se pretende dar un panorama general de esta tematica, teniendo en cuenta, además, la influencia de campos magnéticos intensos en las estrellas de quarksThe strange quark matter hypothesis is one of the most exciting speculations of the XX Century Physics. If this hypothesis is correct, the ground state of the matter would be the strange matter, which could form the core of compact objects like neutron stars or even more exotic objects like quarks stars. Due to the high-density and low-temperature regime in these stars, the interaction between quarks through gluon exchange could favor the appearance of a color superconducting state, significantl modifying the equation of state of the system. In this paper we present a general overview of this subject, taking also into account the effect of strong magnetic field in the quark stars

  5. Identification of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus from Foshou (Citrus medica) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    In China, Foshou (Buddha’s hand), C. medica var. sarcodactylus Swing, is commonly cultured and valued for its fragrance and used medicinally as a stomach, stimulant, expectorant and tonic. Since 1999, we noted that Foshou succumbs to Huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow shoot disease with incidence up to 4...

  6. Pintura, una materia interdisciplinar. Metodologías docentes

    OpenAIRE

    Cantalozella i Planas, Joaquim; Negre, Marta, 1973-

    2009-01-01

    El grado de Bellas Artes permite revisar las asignaturas vinculadas a los talleres de creación y mejorar las metodologías docentes. Pintura pasará a compartir espacio con las materias de Dibujo, Escultura y más adelante Imagen. Así pues, lo que se impone es un aprendizaje basado en la interdisciplinariedad que puede llegar a proporcionar una mayor flexibilidad del conocimiento. El artículo presenta una serie de reflexiones sobre la docencia en los talleres de Pintura, de los dos primeros curs...

  7. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Cuminum Cyminum as an Intracanal Medicament Compared to Chlorhexidine Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Gholami, Ahmad; Ghahramani, Yasamin; Ghareghan, Razieh; Ghareghan, Marzieh; Kazemi, Aboozar; Iraji, Aida; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were i) to define the chemical constituents of Cuminum cyminum (cumin) essential oil, ii) to compare the antimicrobial activity of this oil to that of chlorhexidine (CHX) and co-trimoxazole on planktonic and biofilm forms of bacteria isolated from the teeth with persistent endodontic infection and iii) to compare the cytotoxicity of these medicaments on L929 fibroblasts. Methods and Materials: Three groups of microorganisms [aerobic bacterial mixture, anaerobic bacterial mixture and Enterococcus faecalis (E .faecalis)] were isolated from the teeth with persistent apical periodontitis. Zone of inhibition (ZOI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) and time-kill tests were performed to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the medicaments. Further, a cytocompatibility analysis of the medicaments was performed on L929 fibroblasts. The results obtained from disc diffusion test and mean cell viability values of the experimental medicaments were analyzed using two-way and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Seventeen constituents were recognized in cumin oil (predominantly cumin aldehyde and γ-terpinene). Co-trimoxazole showed the greatest ZOI followed by cumin and CHX. The smallest MIC and MBC belonged to co-trimoxazole followed by cumin and CHX for all groups of bacteria except for E. faecalis for which the MBC of cumin was smaller than co-trimoxazole. The results of time-kill assay revealed that all medicaments totally inhibited the bacterial growth in all groups after 24 h. CHX was the most cytotoxic solution while there were no significant differences between the cytocompatibility of different concentrations of cumin essential oil and co-trimoxazole. Conclusion: Cumin exhibited a strong antimicrobial efficiency against the microbial flora of the teeth with failed endodontic treatments and it was biocompatible for L929 mouse

  8. Therapeutic uses of animal biles in traditional Chinese medicine: an ethnopharmacological, biophysical chemical and medicinal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David Q-H; Carey, Martin C

    2014-08-01

    Forty-four different animal biles obtained from both invertebrates and vertebrates (including human bile) have been used for centuries for a host of maladies in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) beginning with dog, ox and common carp biles approximately in the Zhou dynasty (c. 1046-256 BCE). Overall, different animal biles were prescribed principally for the treatment of liver, biliary, skin (including burns), gynecological and heart diseases, as well as diseases of the eyes, ears, nose, mouth and throat. We present an informed opinion of the clinical efficacy of the medicinal uses of the different animal biles based on their presently known principal chemical components which are mostly steroidal detergent-like molecules and the membrane lipids such as unesterified cholesterol and mixed phosphatidylcholines and sometimes sphingomyelin, as well as containing lipopigments derived from heme principally bilirubin glucuronides. All of the available information on the ethnopharmacological uses of biles in TCM were collated from the rich collection of ancient Chinese books on materia medica held in libraries in China and United States and the composition of various animal biles was based on rigorous separatory and advanced chemical identification techniques published since the mid-20(th) century collected via library (Harvard's Countway Library) and electronic searches (PubMed and Google Scholar). Our analysis of ethnomedical data and information on biliary chemistry shows that specific bile salts, as well as the common bile pigment bilirubin and its glucuronides plus the minor components of bile such as vitamins A, D, E, K, as well as melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) are salutary in improving liver function, dissolving gallstones, inhibiting bacterial and viral multiplication, promoting cardiac chronotropsim, as well as exhibiting anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-oxidant, sedative, anti-convulsive, anti-allergic, anti-congestive, anti-diabetic and anti

  9. Modelo Interactuante entre Energ ́ Oscura y Materia Oscura

    OpenAIRE

    De ARcia Solís, Roberto Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El modelo Materia Oscura Fría con Constante Cosmo ógica o “Lambda Cold Dark Matter” (ΛCDM por sus siglas en inglés) es llamado el modelo estándar de la cosmología ya que describe de manera general como está formado el Universo, su dinámica a grandes escalas de distancia (del orden de cientos de Megaparsecs) y es capaz de explicar fenómenos que hasta hace algunos años eran un misterio. El modelo considera que del contenido total del Universo, ∼ 5 % está compuesto por partícu...

  10. El electrón en la materia condensada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojo, Juan Manuel

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.Se lleva a cabo una discusión sobre las características de los estados de los electrones en la materia condensada. Se analizan tres propiedades importantes de dichos estados: 1 el canje entre electrones, responsable del magnetismo, con énfasis en sistemas de interés actual como aglomerados pequeños y materiales amorfos; 2 el apareamiento entre electrones con una nota sobre la superconductividad a alta temperatura y 3 el túnel de electrones, mostrándose algunos ejemplos recientes de la aplicación del túnel al estudio a escala atómica de fenómenos de superficie.

  11. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of intracanal medicaments in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars-an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial efficacy of formocresol, 2% gluteraldehyde and iodine-potassium iodide was assessed by obtaining cultures at consecutive appointments in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars. Formocresol and 2% gluteraldehyde were more effective as intracanal medicaments and caused significant reduction in the counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, thereby supporting the need for placing intracanal medicaments with antibacterial properties, in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars.

  12. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn.) and its use in food system

    OpenAIRE

    Rojanakorn, T.; Lerkchaiyaphum, K.; Nantachai, K.; Tangwongchai, R.

    2006-01-01

    Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD). Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the m...

  13. An Update on the Management of Endodontic Biofilms Using Root Canal Irrigants and Medicaments

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Soltani, Mohammad Karim; Shalavi, Sousan

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biofilm is defined as a sessile multicellular microbial community characterized by cells that are firmly attached to a surface and enmeshed in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilms play a very important role in pulp and periradicular pathosis. The aim of this article was to review the role of endodontic biofilms and the effects of root canal irrigants, medicaments as well as lasers on biofilms A Medline search was performed on the English articles pu...

  14. Physicochemical Properties and Fungitoxicity of the Essential Oil of Citrus medica L. against Groundnut Storage Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    ESSIEN, Emmanuel Peter; ESSIEN, Joseph Peter; Ita, Basil Nse

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal effect of the essential oil of Citrus medica L. on storage fungi of Arachis hypogea L. stored for 6 months was evaluated using the disc diffusion agar method. The oil exhibited a wide spectrum of fungitoxicity, inhibiting all 14 fungus species tested. Thus, the oil can be exploited as a fumigant against storage fungi for the preservation of stored legume seeds due to its wide range of activity, non-phytotoxicity, and long-term persistence of fungitoxicity.

  15. Tinjauan higiene dan Sanitasi Dalam Penyelenggaraan Makanan Di Instalasi Gizi RSU Artha Medica Binjai Tahun 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Agustria

    2010-01-01

    Hospital as one of health institution has a duty that support in medical patient healing and recovering by institutional food service healthy and hygiene food. Because of that, it needs to managed the healthy food and fulfill the condition of standard sanitation for hygiene food. The purpose for this research was for hygiene evaluation and food processing sanitation at Nutrition Instalation of Artha Medica Hospital Binjai in completing hygiene quality standard and managed sanitation food...

  16. Yeast α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Gynura medica Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura medica leaf extract contains significant amounts of flavonols and phenolic acids and exhibits powerful hypoglycemic activity against diabetic rats in vivo. However, the hypoglycemic active constituents that exist in the plant have not been fully elaborated. The purpose of this study is to isolate and elaborate the hypoglycemic activity compounds against inhibition the yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. Seven phenolic compounds including five flavonols and two phenolic acids were isolated from the leaf of G. medica. Their structures were identified by the extensive NMR and mass spectral analyses as: kaempferol (1, quercetin (2, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (4, rutin (5, chlorogenic acid (6 and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (7. All of the compounds except 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from G. medica. Compounds 1–7 were also assayed for their hypoglycemic activity against yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. All of the compounds except 1 and 6 showed good yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 1.67 mg/mL, 1.46 mg/mL, 0.38 mg/mL, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.53 mg/mL, respectively.

  17. Consumer’s intentions to shop medicaments on-line: A survey from Czech Republic market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Svorc

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to identify what are the main determinants of the consumer’s intentions to shop medicaments online in Czech Republic; grounded mainly on theoretical models such as Technology Acceptance Model this research specifically aims to identify whether there are relations between these intentions and perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived risk, past experience, consumer trust and consumer social norms. Second goal is to identify whether there are differences in intentions to buy medicaments online among the main demographic groups based on age, gender, income and education in Czech Republic. The questionnaire survey method was used. Data collected were analysed using correlation and regression analysis to determine the significance of the relationship between the respective variables. Demographic group’s differences were analysed using t-test and analysis of variance. The results showed that the significant relations exist between consumer’s intention to shop medicaments online and all examined variables in Czech Republic. Multiple regression analysis of the model has shown that only perceived risk and perceived usefulness are the significant predictors for intention. There are no significant differences among the demographic groups based on age, gender, income and education.

  18. Candida materiae sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from rotting wood in the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Anne C; Cadete, Raquel M; Gomes, Fátima C O; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2009-08-01

    Three strains of a novel yeast species, Candida materiae sp. nov., were isolated from rotting wood in an Atlantic rain forest site in Brazil. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rDNA showed that this species belonged to the Spathaspora clade and was related to Candida jeffriesii and Spathaspora passalidarum. Unlike C. jeffriesii and S. passalidarum, C. materiae sp. nov. did not ferment xylose. The type strain of C. materiae sp. nov. is UFMG-07-C15.1BT (=CBS 10975T=CBMAI 956T). PMID:19605715

  19. Effect of calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic paste as intracanal medicaments on the incidence of inter-appointment flare-up in diabetic patients: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Swathi Pai; A R Vivekananda Pai; Thomas, Manuel S; Vishal Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the effect of antibacterial intracanal medicaments on inter-appointment flare-up in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty diabetic patients requiring root canal treatment were assigned into groups I, II, and III. In group I, no intracanal medicament was placed. In groups II and III, calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic pastes were placed as intracanal medicaments, respectively. Patients were instructed to record their pain on days 1, 2, 3, 7, and ...

  20. Effects of Chinese herbs on multiple ion channels in isolated ventricular myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; MA Ke-juan; WU Xiang-feng; SUN Qi; ZHANG Yi-hui; PU Jie-lin

    2007-01-01

    Background Shensong Yangxin (SSYX) is one of the compound recipe of Chinese materia medica. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of SSYX on sodium current (INa), L-type calcium current (ICa,L), transient outward potassium current (Ito), delayed rectifier current (IK), and inward rectifier potassium currents (IK1) in isolated ventricular myocytes.Methods Whole cell patch-clamp technique was used to study ion channel currents in enzymatically isolated guinea pig or rat ventricular myocytes.Results SSYX decreased peak INa by (44.84±7.65)% from 27.21±5.35 to 14.88±2.75 pA/pF (n=5, P<0.05). The medicine significantly inhibited the ICa,L. At concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 g/100 mi, the peak ICa,L was reduced by(19.22±1.10)%, (44.82±6.50)% and (50.69±5.64)%, respectively (n=5, all P<0.05). SSYX lifted the Ⅰ-Ⅴ curve of both INa and ICa,L without changing the threshold, peak and reversal potentials. At the concentration of 0.5%, the drug blocked the transient component of Ito by 50.60% at membrane voltage of 60 mV and negatively shifted the inactive curve and delayed the recovery from channel inactivation. The tail current density of IK was decreased by (30.77±1.11)% (n=5,P<0.05) at membrane voltage of 50 mV after exposure to the medicine and the time-dependent activity of IK was also inhibited. Similar to the effect on IK, the SSYX inhibited IK1 by 33.10% at the test potential of -100 mV with little effect on reversal potential and the rectification property.Conclusions The experiments revealed that SSYX could block multiple ion channels such as INa ICa,L, Ik, Ito and IK1,which may change the action potential duration and contribute to some of its antiarrhythmic effects.

  1. Materia y energía oscuras, ¿qué son?

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Caldera-Cabral; Ureña-López, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Uno de los problemas m´as importantes de la cosmolog´ #305;a actual es el determinar la naturaleza de la materia oscura y la energ´ #305;a oscura. Presentaremos un resumen de las evidencias observacionales de la existencia de la materia oscura, y se revisar´an algunos de los posibles candidatos propuestos en la literatura. De igual manera, describiremos modelos din´amicos de energ´ #305;a oscura como Quintessence y Phantom.

  2. Desarrollo de la materia Proyectos. Grado de Comunicación Audiovisual. Universitat de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo Delgado, Marina; Yepes i Baldó, Montserrat; Burset Burillo, Sílvia; García Asensio, Ma. Ángeles; González Argüello, Ma. Vicenta (María Vicenta); Sánchez, Lydia; Berger, Rita

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar la propuesta de desarrollo de la materia Proyectos del Grado de Comunicación Audiovisual de la Universidad de Barcelona, que incluye las asignaturas Proyectos I y Proyectos II. Ambas asignaturas son especialmente idóneas para trabajar las competencias transversales del grado, dado que el objetivo de la materia a la que pertenecen es integrar las competencias adquiridas en el conjunto de asignaturas cursadas por los alumnos hasta este momento, poni...

  3. La legislación más relevante en materia de adicciones

    OpenAIRE

    Cobas Cobiella, María Elena

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo, exponer sucintamente, y acotada cronológicamente, la legislación más destacada en materia de adicción, con especial referencia al alcoholismo, tabaquismo y drogas. Igualmente se expondrán aquellos elementos comunes y principios que identifica la legislación estatal, y las legislacio­nes autonómicas en la materia.

  4. Identification of Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) medicae based on a specific genomic sequence unveiled by M13-PCR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Ana Catarina; Alves, Paula I L; Tenreiro, Tania; Ferreira, Eugénio M; Tenreiro, Rogério; Fareleira, Paula; Crespo, M Teresa Barreto

    2009-12-01

    A collection of nodule isolates from Medicago polymorpha obtained from southern and central Portugal was evaluated by M13-PCR fingerprinting and hierarchical cluster analysis. Several genomic clusters were obtained which, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected representatives, were shown to be associated with particular taxonomic groups of rhizobia and other soil bacteria. The method provided a clear separation between rhizobia and co-isolated non-symbiotic soil contaminants. Ten M13-PCR groups were assigned to Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) medicae and included all isolates responsible for the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules upon re-inoculation of M. polymorpha test-plants. In addition, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR fingerprinting indicated a high genomic heterogeneity within the major M13- PCR clusters of S. medicae isolates. Based on nucleotide sequence data of an M13-PCR amplicon of ca. 1500 bp, observed only in S. medicae isolates and spanning locus Smed_3707 to Smed_3709 from the pSMED01 plasmid sequence of S. medicae WSM419 genome's sequence, a pair of PCR primers was designed and used for direct PCR amplification of a 1399-bp sequence within this fragment. Additional in silico and in vitro experiments, as well as phylogenetic analysis, confirmed the specificity of this primer combination and therefore the reliability of this approach in the prompt identification of S. medicae isolates and their distinction from other soil bacteria. PMID:20112226

  5. Review of the Journal Acta Informatica Medica During Eight Year Period: 2008-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acta Informatica Medica is official journal of the Academy for Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2014 Acta Inform Med is published bimonthly). Aim: To evaluate journal “Acta Informatica Medica” in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2008-2015 (included 36 issues of journal). Results: A total of 83 (average 13,8 articles per journal) articles were published in Acta Informatica Medica during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015 (68,6%) (by analyzing last eight years, 310 (67,3%) were original). During 2015, 27,7% of articles were related to the applied of Health informatics in field of clinical medicine, 63,8% preclinical medicine and 8,5% to public health. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,84. Most often the time required for decision on acceptance of article in 2015 is between 50 and 60 days. Articles came from 16 countries. According to scimagojr.com for 2014, Acta Informatica Medica has SCImago Journal Rank 0,166, while Cites / Doc. (2 years) parameter (widely used as impact index) is 0,70. According to GoogleScholar, h5 index is 11 and h5 median is 19. We analyzed the Acta Informatica Medica by “Publish or Perish” software - H index was 14, g index was 19 and e-index was 10.39. Conclusion: Year after year the highest number of original articles are published. Although the period of revision of articles is acceptable, the period up to two months is certainly not long, the goal is to reduce this period. Although the magazine in mentioned field found its place, although it is indexed in numerous bases, including: PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, etc. The main goal for next year is that the magazine becomes part of the Web of Science. Imperative is further internationalization of the magazine. PMID:27147796

  6. Medical Business Ethics in the XXI century; Deontologia medica del siglo XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya Pueyo, V.

    2009-07-01

    Since ancient times the medical professional practice included moral rules in order to assure a correct approach of capital problems. These rules evolve and are now gathered in the Deontological Codes watching the Constitution and other higher Laws. There has been an increase of interest for none strictly clinical matter since the appearance of the term Bioethics. The book Deontologia medica en el siglo XXI tackles problems of first interest in the present times, thru statistics and analysis, trying to help the medical doctors that have to take ethic decisions. (Author)

  7. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn. and its use in food system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojanakorn, T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD. Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the mathematics models, the condition of pH 2, 100ºC and 105 min was found to be the optimum conditions for pectin extraction from Citrus medica Linn. Mathematical and experimental results were verified. The use of extracted pectin as a gelling agent in pineapple jam revealed no significant difference in gel consistency compared to that of commercial pectin grade 150 (p>0.05. However, the commercial pectin had a higher liking score on the spreadability, texture and overall liking. As a stabilizer in chocolate pasteurised milk, 0.2% of the extracted pectin was required to prevent precipitation of chocolate powder with the similar viscosity obtained from 0.06% κ-carageenan

  8. In vitro effect of intracanal medicaments on strict anaerobes by means of the broth dilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSA Odila Pereira da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of bacterial susceptibility to intracanal medicaments is a necessity. Nevertheless, few studies utilize the proper methodology to carry out that evaluation with anaerobes. In this study, the steps of a broth dilution method, carried out in microplates (microdilution and tubes (macrodilution, to test the effect of traditional intracanal medicaments on anaerobic bacteria are described. The results are presented as values of minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC. Standardized inocula of the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (ATCC 33563, Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 25586 and Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 13124, in reinforced Clostridium medium (RCM and supplemented Brucella broth, were submitted to different concentrations of calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine digluconate, camphorated paramonochlorophenol and formocresol solutions. The drugs were diluted in the same culture broths, in microplates and tubes, and were then incubated in anaerobiosis jars at 37ºC for 48 or 96 hours. The determination of MICs was carried out through visual and spectrophotometric readings, and the determination of MBCs, through the plating of aliquots on RCM-blood agar. For that kind of study, the macromethod with spectrophotometric reading should be the natural choice. MICs and MBCs obtained with the macromethod were compatible with the known clinical performance of the studied medications, and the values varied according to the bacteria and culture media employed. RCM was the most effective medium and C. perfringens, the most resistant microorganism.

  9. La pericia medico-legal en materia penal juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Salazar Murillo

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available La reforma recién ocurrida en materia penal juvenil en Costa Rica reconoce al menor su personalidad jur{idica, le hace justicia, le otorga responsabilidad por sus acciones, para lo cual se ha diseñado un Sistema Penal Juvenil de fin pedagógico, educativo y formativo delmenor infractor y por ello puede ser objeto de peritación médicolegal, pericias físicas sobre su cuerpo y exámenes psicosociales. Interesa en la pericia f{isica establecer laedad del menor, especialmente en un país de alta inmigración indocumentada comoel nuestro donde diferencias de tan solo un mes pueden producir la aplicación o no de la Ley. Toda pericia debe respeta el pudor, evitar la revictimización y ser realizada por peritos forenses deseablemente. Es de interés también la constatación de la capacidad de culpabilidad, el grado de desarrollo y responsabiliadad de dirigir sus acciones e ilustrar al Juez y a las partes aacerca de las eventuales sanciones a imponer.The new reformation made in the Costa Rican Juvenile Law recognizes the legal personality of the minor, it makes him justice and gives him more responsability for his actions .For all these it has been design a Juvenile Law System with pedagogic, educative and formative ends for the minor transgressor , therefore it can be the object of medico-legal expertize, physical aspects like his body, his tests and psicoanalisis. The porpouse of physical expertize is to establish the age of the minor specially in a high undocumented migration country like ours, where differences of only a months can produce the aplication or not of the law. All the expertizes must respect the dignity, avoid the victimazation once again and be done by forensic experts by their own will. It is also important in medico-legal expertize the constation of capacity of guiltiness, the degree of development and responsability to direct their actions , and ilustrate to the judge and the parties, about the eventuals sanctions to impone.

  10. La materia administrativa y su gestión en el reinado de Fernando VII

    OpenAIRE

    Barrero García, Ana María

    1983-01-01

    La organización de los asuntos de Estado en función de la materia sobre la que versaban fue el punto de arranque de las reformas llevadas a cabo en la Administración en el siglo XVIII . La materia administrativa aparecía diferenciada en cuatro causas: Justicia, Policía, Hacienda y Guerra, de las cuales, las de Justicia, Hacienda y Guerra encontraron cauce en sus respectivas Secretarías de Estado, pero no así la causa de Policía, cuyos asuntos fueron objeto de la atención ...

  11. Diagramas de energía, fuerza y materia = Diagrams of energy, force and matter

    OpenAIRE

    Josep Maria Montaner

    2013-01-01

    ResumenEn este ensayo se va a tratar sobre arquitectura a partir de la definición de forma como “estructura esencial e interna, como construcción del espacio y de la materia”. Para ello, podemos establecer, como punto de partida, que el proceso de la arquitectura va de la energía, las fuerzas y la materia hacia la forma. Por tanto, teorizar sobre la forma en arquitectura nos lleva a reflexionar sobre tres fenómenos previos a su configuración: la energía, las fuerzas y la materia. Para seguir ...

  12. De la geosfera a la biosfera: circulación de materia en la naturaleza

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Ana Paula L.

    2011-01-01

    Con este experimento, para alumnos de la educación secundaria, se pretende estimular el gusto por la ciencia experimental. De una manera lúdica, vamos a intentar ejemplificar el movimiento de la materia en la naturaleza e ilustrar las consecuencias que los desequilibrios en los ciclos biogeoquímicos pueden tener para los seres vivos.

  13. Acerca de una obra de materia religiosa en poder de moriscos valencianos

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro Bello, María Isabel

    1984-01-01

    En el número anterior de esta revista se incluye un interesante artículo de M.= José Hermosilla titulado «Dos obras de materia religiosa en poder de moriscos valencianos»~. El texto designado con la sigla 11 se presta a algunas observaciones respecto a sus fuentes y a la identificación de su autor.

  14. Classification of Chinese herbs based on the cluster analysis of delayed luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jingxiang; Yang, Meina; Fu, Jialei; Zhao, Xiaolei; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Liu, Yanli; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Fan, Hua; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-03-01

    Traditional Chinese material medica are an important component of the Chinese pharmacopeia. According to the traditional Chinese medicinal concept, Chinese herbal medicines are classified into different categories based on their therapeutic effects, however, the bioactive principles cannot be solely explained by chemical analysis. The aim of this study is to classify different Chinese herbs based on their therapeutic effects by using delayed luminescence (DL). The DL of 56 Chinese herbs was measured using an ultra-sensitive luminescence detection system. The different DL parameters were used to classify Chinese herbs according to a hierarchical cluster analysis. The samples were divided into two groups based on their DL kinetic parameters. Interestingly, the DL classification results were quite consistent with classification according to the Chinese medicinal concepts of 'cold' and 'heat' properties. In this paper, we show for the first time that by using DL technology, it is possible to classify Chinese herbs according to the Chinese medicinal concept and it may even be possible to predict their therapeutic properties. PMID:26240033

  15. [Deciphering the argots of the names of materia medica and its dosage in the Yi lin kou pu liu zhi mi shu (A Secret Medical Book of Six Therapies in Rhymes of Medical Professionals)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Lin, Shiyi; Liu, Shijue

    2014-11-01

    Yi lin kou pu liu zhi mi shu (A Secret Medical Book of Six Therapies in Rhymes of Medical Professionals) was additionally compiled, supplemented and annotated by Zhou Sheng, a famous doctor of the Qing Dynasty, based on Yi lin kou pu (Rhymes of Medical Professionals) which was composed by Lu Qi. The book contains four volumes in total, dealing mainly with the miscellaneous diseases of internal medicine, as well as external medicine, gynecology, and pediatrics etc. The syndrome differentiation and treatment, prescriptions and medications in this book has its own characteristic with rather high academic value and practical significance. There were 20 drug names were deciphered by the argots, for instance, "you che" was the argot of golden thread, and "wu yue (May)" was the argot of medicinal evodia fruit, etc. In addition, the argots were often used to decipher numerals and quantifiers, for example, "su, qi, zi, qi, man" referring to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 respectively, and "huo, pu, xiang, feng, lai" referring to 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 respectively, and "qing","zhong","xi" referring to qian, liang and fen respectively. Hence, deciphering of these argots could help to understand and apply these prescriptions correctly. PMID:25620357

  16. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs. PMID:25761857

  17. Complete genome sequence of the Medicago microsymbiont Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) medicae strain WSM419

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Wayne [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); O' Hara, Graham [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Ardley, Julie [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Nandesena, Kemanthi [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Brau, Lambert [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Tiwari, Ravi [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Kiss, Hajnalka [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gollagher, Margaret [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Yates, Ron [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Dilworth, Michael [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Howieson, John [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia

    2010-01-01

    Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) medicae is an effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a diverse range of annual Medicago (medic) species. Strain WSM419 is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod isolated from a M. murex root nodule collected in Sardinia, Italy in 1981. WSM419 was manufactured commercially in Australia as an inoculant for annual medics during 1985 to 1993 due to its nitrogen fixation, saprophytic competence and acid tolerance properties. Here we describe the basic features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first report of a complete genome sequence for a microsymbiont of the group of annual medic species adapted to acid soils. We reveal that its genome size is 6,817,576 bp encoding 6,518 protein-coding genes and 81 RNA only encoding genes. The genome contains a chromosome of size 3,781,904 bp and 3 plasmids of size 1,570,951 bp, 1,245,408 bp and 219,313 bp. The smallest plasmid is a feature unique to this medic microsymbiont.

  18. Condensación de Bose-Einstein. El quinto estado de la materia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Peñaloza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una introducción al fenómeno sorprendente de condensación de la materia a temperaturas cercanas al cero absoluto. Este fenómeno está basado en los fundamentos cuánticos de la materia. Sus principales descubridores teóricos fueron S.Bose y A. Einstein. Se inicia con un poco de historia, para luego analizar el comportamiento físico del problema. Posteriormente se abordan algunos aspectos relevantes de sus aplicaciones tecnológicas, apartir de los resultados de investigación de los grupos enbezados por Eric Cornell (NIST, Carl Wieman (Universidad de Colorado y Wolfgang Ketterle (MIT.

  19. Orientaciones y bibliografía seleccionada en materia de residuos

    OpenAIRE

    Chicharro Fernández, Elena; Galve Martín, Amelia

    1995-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es la presentación y valoración de bibliografía sobre residuos, especialmente tóxicos y peligrosos, seleccionada en diferentes ámbitos temáticos. Para ello se ha consultado información de las bases de datos de organismos locales, regionales, nacionales e internacionales con competencias y responsabilidad en materia de residuos.

  20. Aspectos del procedimiento de evaluación de impacto ambiental neuquino en materia agraria

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Diego Ramiro

    2015-01-01

    El procedimiento de evaluación de impacto ambiental neuquino tuvo un notorio desarrollo en los últimos años. Merced a la ultima reforma constitucional, se institucionalizó la Licencia Ambiental, el Estudio, y la idea de planeamiento, como instituto fundamental para el desarrollo sustentable. El artículo resume el procedimiento de evaluación, su vínculo con el procedimiento administrativo general, y las previsiones específicas en materia agraria.

  1. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils. PMID:25586575

  2. Implement on GAP of Chinese Material Medica and Promote the Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine%实施中药材GAP推进中药现代化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鸿华

    2001-01-01

    本文综述了中药材GAP的提出和制定过程,阐述了实施中药材GAP是中药现代化、国际化的需要及配套政策和措施,提供了全国实施中药材GAP的简况,并提出了实施GAP的建议.

  3. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  4. Diagramas de energía, fuerza y materia = Diagrams of energy, force and matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Maria Montaner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn este ensayo se va a tratar sobre arquitectura a partir de la definición de forma como “estructura esencial e interna, como construcción del espacio y de la materia”. Para ello, podemos establecer, como punto de partida, que el proceso de la arquitectura va de la energía, las fuerzas y la materia hacia la forma. Por tanto, teorizar sobre la forma en arquitectura nos lleva a reflexionar sobre tres fenómenos previos a su configuración: la energía, las fuerzas y la materia. Para seguir estos procesos físicos es útil remitirse al pensamiento postestructuralista de Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari, especialmente a su texto Mil Mesetas. Capitalismo y esquizofrenia (1980 y a conceptos como “rizoma” y “agenciamiento” y, sobre todo, utilizar la herramienta interpretativa y creativa del “diagrama”.Palabras claveenergía, fuerza, materia, forma, Deleuze, GuattariAbstractThis essay will deal on architecture from the defi nition of form as "critical and internal structure  as construction of space and matter." For that, we can establish, as a starting point, that the process of architecture goes from energy, forces and matter to form. Thus, theorizing about form in architecture leads us to refl ect on three prior phenomena to its confi guration: energy, forces and matter. To follow these physical processes is useful to refer the poststructuralist thought´s Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, especially his text A Thousand Plateaus. Capitalism and Schizophrenia (1980 and concepts such as "rhizome" and "assemblage" and, above all, to use the creative and interpretative tool of "diagramme".Key wordsenergy, force, matter, form, Deleuze, Guattari

  5. [Diagnosis and integrative evaluation on soil fertility of three Chinese medicinal materials in GAP plots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaomei; Huang, Haibo; Zhan, Ruoting; Xu, Honghua; Liao, Guanrong

    2002-03-01

    The fertility of soil was diagnosed and integratively evaluated by modified Nemoro Index with eight indexes, i.e. pH, organic matter, total N, P, K and available N, P, K on three national Chinese medicinal materials GAP (Good Agricultural Practice) experimental plots of Pogostemon cablin, Citrus medica and Morinda officinalis in Guangdong. The results showed that the pH, organic matter and other major nutrient contents were low and imbalance. There are lots of nutritive disturbance factors. The level of soil integrative fertility in any of the plots was poor. PMID:12583155

  6. LA MATERIA DE MÚSICA EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE ALUMNOS DE SECUNDARIA CON TDAH

    OpenAIRE

    Violero-López, Ana Pilar

    2013-01-01

    El presente estudio, propone la materia de música en Educación Secundaria como alternativa terapéutica para ayudar a los alumnos con TDAH a afrontar este trastorno. El trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), afecta entorno al 3-7% de la población infantil, en su mayoría varones. A pesar de que este porcentaje se encuentra por debajo de otros trastornos infantiles, los expertos calculan que por cada aula hay un alumno afectado con TDAH. Aunque durante la adolesce...

  7. Indices de Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia. Autores y materias (Años 1993-1997.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koro Mariezkurrena

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuando con la práctica iniciada hace 25 años de ir publicando cada quinquenio los índices de Munibe por autores y materias, a fin de facilitar la consulta de la revista, presentamos aquí el sexto conjunto. En los mismos incluimos los trabajos publicados tanto en los números ordinarios de la revista, como en los suplementos. Tal como se viene haciendo desde que la revista se dividió en dos, Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia y Munibe (Ciencias Naturales, estos índices se refieren a Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia.

  8. Development of automatic sample exchange and transfer system in iMATERIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IBARAKI Materials Design Diffractometer (iMATERIA) is a high-throughput powder diffractometer, and has a vacuum chamber in order to reduce a background from the air scattering. Each sample is typically measured in several minutes by used 1 MW pulsed proton beams, and must be placed in the vacuum chamber before being measured. The process of re-establishing the vacuum would become a bottleneck when samples are exchanged. To reduce exchange time, we developed an manufactured an automatic sample changer than can handle a large number of samples through the vacuum chamber. (author)

  9. Aprendizaje estratégico en la universidad. Una materia para aprender a aprender

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo GARGALLO LÓPEZ; Campos Aparicio, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Diseñamos una asignatura de libre elección de cuatro créditos, denominada “Estrategias de aprendizaje y técnicas de estudio para estudiantes universitarios”. En este trabajo se valoran sus efectos sobre las estrategias de aprendizaje, los enfoques de aprendizaje y el rendimiento académico de estudiantes universitarios. Se usó para ello un diseño preexperimental con pretest y postest, tomándose medidas antes de comenzar la docencia de la materia y después de finalizarla. Los alumnos fueron ent...

  10. Informática: materia esencial en la educación obligatoria del siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Riesco Albizu, Miguel; Díaz Fondón, María Ángeles; Álvarez Gutiérrez, Dario; López Pérez, Benjamín; Cernuda del Río, Agustín; Juan Fuente, Aquilino Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Es innegable la importancia que ha alcanzado la informática en la sociedad y ya es imprescindible para entender y tener éxito en el mundo actual. Sin embargo, en el currículo educativo de primaria y secundaria esta importancia no se ve reflejada, y la informática aparece como asignatura complementaria orientada a usuarios. Creemos que ha llegado el momento de que, al igual que en otros países avanzados, la informática dé el paso a materia troncal. Con la reciente reforma de la LOMCE ...

  11. La Informática como materia fundamental en un sistema educativo del siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Riesco Albizu, Miguel; Fondón, Marián; Álvarez, Darío; López, Benjamín; Cernuda, Agustín; Juan, Aquilino

    2014-01-01

    Es innegable la importancia que ha alcanzado la informática en la sociedad, y ya es imprescindible para entender y tener éxito en el mundo actual. Sin embargo, en el currículo educativo de primaria y secundaria esta importancia no se ve reflejada, y la informática aparece como asignatura complementaria orientada a usuarios. Creemos que ha llegado el momento de que, al igual que en otros países avanzados, la informática dé el paso a materia troncal. Con la reciente r...

  12. NaoXinTong Inhibits the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy in db/db Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mengyang Liu; Quan Pan; Yuanli Chen; Xiaoxiao Yang; Buchang Zhao; Lifu Jia; Yan Zhu; Jihong Han; Xiaoju Li; Yajun Duan

    2015-01-01

    Buchang NaoXinTong capsule (NXT) is a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from 16 Chinese traditional medical herbs and widely used for treatment of patients with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases in China. Formation of microaneurysms plays an important role in the development of diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we investigated if  NXT can protect diabetic mice against the development of diabetic retinopathy. The db/db mice (~6 weeks old), a diabetic animal mod...

  13. Clinical and radiographical evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate, biodentine and propolis as pulpotomy medicaments in primary teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh, Kumar; Richa, Khanna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine and Propolis as pulpotomy medicaments in primary dentition, both clinically and radiographically. Materials and Methods A total of 75 healthy 3 to 10 yr old children each having at least one carious primary molar tooth were selected. Random assignment of the pulpotomy medicaments was done as follows: Group I, MTA; Group II, Biodentine; Group III, Propolis. All the pulpotomized teeth were evaluated at 3, 6, and 9 mon clinically and radiographically, based on the scoring criteria system. Results The clinical success rates were found to be similar among the three groups at 3 and 6 mon where as a significant decrease in success rate was observed in Group III (84%) compared to both Group I (100%) and Group II (100%) at 9 mon. Radiographic success rates over a period of 9 mon in Groups I, II, and III were 92, 80, and 72%, respectively. Conclusions Teeth treated with MTA and Biodentine showed more favorable clinical and radiographic success as compared to Propolis at 9 mon follow-up. PMID:26587413

  14. Chinese astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Standing in the observatory in Beijing, Christopher Cullen discusses the nature and sophistication of Chinese astronomy in the medieval period. The political as well as the intellectual interest in astronomy is outlined.

  15. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  16. Materias primas vs materia gris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Aldemar Gómez Sierra

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Los alimentos y los combustibles, en la última década, sobre pasaron el límite de la demanda; la causa no es sólo la evolución demográfica, ni el cambio climático, también es el efecto de las emergentes y poderosas economías asiáticas, especialmente la China, que está aumentando la exigencia energética y consume más y mejores alimentos; 500 millones de ciudadanos chinos están en capacidad de requerirlos y de viajar por el mundo como turistas.

  17. Concepto y trascendencia del derecho de aprovechamiento en materia de aguas (Propiedad y Aprovechamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Guerra Daneri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La disciplina de las aguas se encuentra estructurada jurídicamente, sólo en base a dos derechos: el de propiedad y el de aprovechamiento. La caracterización que posee el agua como cosa, impide que puedan ejercerse otros derechos sobre ella.El punto de partida para explicar este fenómeno, radica en que el agua responde a dos hechos técnicos que ofician como fuente material o factor de calificación jurídica: el principio de territorialidad y la unidad del ciclo hidrológico. Estos dan motivo a su comportamiento universal y en ellos se asienta su disciplina, más allá de la regulación particular que cada derecho positivo quiera desarrollar, imponiendo una política en la materia.  En síntesis, el agua es un bien cuyas particularidades determinan que en definitiva, el derecho de propiedad sea desplazado en su trascendencia patrimonial por otro derecho que ocupa su lugar en jerarquía e individualidad: el derecho de aprovechamiento. Sin embargo y a pesar de los sólidos fundamentos que lo sustentan, la identidad de este derecho parece todavía opacada por los reflejos de una propiedad, que en materia de aguas, es inoperante.       

  18. de distribución de materia orgánica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rafael de las Cuevas Milán

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de las investigaciones que se llevan a cabo en el Centro de Mecanización Agropecuaria (CEMA, sobre el estudio de los procesos tecnológicos mecanizados para el abastecimiento de materia orgánica a frutales, se realizó un estudio cuyo objetivo es determinar los costos energéticos del sistema mecanizado de distribución de materia orgánica. Se modeló analíticamente el proceso tecnológico mediante un sistema automatizado, que permite determinar los gastos horarios (MJ/h y por área trabajada (MJ/ha, contemplando la energía secuestrada en materiales de construcción, fabricación, transporte, combustibles, lubricantes, reparación/mantenimientos y en mano de obra. Los resultados brindaron que los menores costos por unidad de área se obtuvieron para la variante tradicional hasta 0,9 km, (667,49 MJ/ha, siendo energéticamente más ventajosa la utilización de un coeficiente de serviciaje de 0,8, desde 0,9 hasta 5 km, con un valor promedio de 810,38 MJ/ha.

  19. Comunicación y aprendizaje de la ciencia en estudiantes Sordos: la materia y sus transformaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Martínez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Esta investigación pretende contribuir al conocimiento de la enseñanza de las ciencias con alumnado Sordo, concretamente, sobre fenómenos relacionados con la transformación de la materia. Se han analizado las percepciones de profesores e intérpretes educativos sobre la enseñanza de las ciencias al colectivo de estudiantes Sordos, los modelos que utilizan para explicar la materia y sus transformaciones y los patrones de interacción de su discurso en el aula. Por último, se valora la implementa...

  20. Las competencias para el ejercicio profesional mediador : estudio de la actualidad formativa catalana en materia de mediación

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Ortuño, Emilia Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    OBJETIVO GENERAL El objetivo general de la investigación es el de conocer la actualidad formativa en materia de mediación en España, particularmente en Cataluña y estudiar su composición, diversidad, estructura y proyección desde las perspectivas de expertos en la materia y entidades docentes. Seguidamente medir el impacto que ejerce la diversidad en la oferta formativa en mediación sobre la valoración y percepción de las competencias precisas para el ejercicio profesional en los mediador...

  1. Estrategias de tratamiento según las características de la materia prima y del producto

    OpenAIRE

    Flotats Ripoll, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Los residuos y subproductos orgánicos de los diferentes procesos de producción y consumo son un recurso valioso, como fuente de energía renovable, como fuente de materia orgánica para suelos, como fuente de nutrientes y como materia prima para la producción de sustratos orgánicos. En general, son la tipología de residuos que se produce en mayor cantidad en cualquier país industrial, y su gestión inadecuada presenta graves problemas de contaminación, desde contaminación de aguas co...

  2. Los límites de la protección social en materia de jubilación

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Romo, Noelia

    2010-01-01

    El texto aborda las percepciones sobre las opciones y alternativas en materia de jubilación en España en un momento de difícil coyuntura económica mundial. A partir de numerosos datos cualitativos y cuantitativos se trata de responder a cuestiones fundamentales en relación a la protección social en materia de jubilación. Los aspectos fundamentales sobre los que versa el artículo son cuatro: la cobertura de las pensiones tratando especialmente la cuantía y los benefi ciarios, la...

  3. Hacia un modelo del aprovechamiento de las materias primas óseas en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Scheinsohn, Vivian Gabriela

    1994-01-01

    En este trabajo se propone un modelo para interpretar la historia del aprovechamiento de las materias primas óseas en Tierra del Fuego. Este modelo pretende ser un primer intento de aplicar conceptos relaciones con la Teoría de la Evolución al desarrollo de estas materias primas. Los datos que aquí se presentan, provenientes de algunos sitios fueguinos, no le otorgan valor explicativo al modelo, pero se señalan algunas vías posibles para su posterior ajuste y replanteo.

  4. Modelo para la certificación del coordinador en materia de seguridad y salud basado en sus competencias

    OpenAIRE

    Ros Serrano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    La figura del coordinador en materia de seguridad y salud en el sector de la construcción, aparecida en nuestra legislación a través de las trasposiciones de las Directivas Europeas, (en nuestro caso en el RD 1627/97 sobre disposiciones mínimas de seguridad y salud en las obras de construcción), se encuentra identificada, en cuanto a su posible contratación y actuación dentro de este sector, de forma diferente en distintos países de la Unión Europea. La coordinación en materia de seguridad y...

  5. Integración del inglés en materias de Anatomía

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo Jerez, Antonia; Altavilla, Cesare; Ausó Monreal, Eva; Belloch Ugarte, Vicente José; Campello Blasco, Laura; Esquiva Sobrino, Gema; Fernández Sánchez, Laura; García Velasco, José Víctor; Gutiérrez Flores, Emilio; Noailles, Agustina

    2015-01-01

    En el curso 2012-13 iniciamos un proyecto de trabajo en red para favorecer la integración del inglés en 5 materias de Ciencias de la Salud. Dado que el aprendizaje de esta segunda lengua es una competencia básica transversal e instrumental en los Grados de la Universidad de Alicante, en el presente estudio pretendemos valorar el nivel de adquisición simultánea en lengua inglesa y española de nuevos términos anatómicos, así como el nivel de conocimientos genéricos de comprensión lectora y escr...

  6. Una perspectiva internacional sobre la formación en materia de seguridad y salud en el trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Félix Martín Daza

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene el propósito de explorar algunos de los retos más importantes de la formación en la seguridad y salud en el trabajo de los diferentes grupos interesados, así como para presentar los lineamientos de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo en esta materia.

  7. Comparative Study between the "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia" by Gloria Escamilla and the "Library of Congress Subject Heading" List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Fernando

    This study shows to what extent Gloria Escamilla's "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia," the only published Mexican subject heading list, is equivalent to the Library of Congress subject headings (LCSH). A LCSH heading sample is obtained from OCLC's Online Union Catalog. Using the EPIC search from OCLC, 1947 bibliographic records were obtained,…

  8. Las diligencias preliminares en materia de propiedad intelectual tras la reforma operada por la Ley 21/2014

    OpenAIRE

    Montesinos García, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Se analiza en este artículo la reforma operada en materia de diligencias preliminares en el ámbito de la propiedad inteletual por la ley 21/2014 por la que se modifica el texto refundido de lay de propiedad intelectual y la ley de enjuiciamiento civil.

  9. Bepaling van cadmium en lood in dierlijk materiaal met grafietoven atoomabsorptie spectrometrie in vergelijking met differentiele puls heroplossingsvoltametrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, T.C.; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th.

    1991-01-01

    Doel van het onderzoek was het toepasbaar maken van de ontsluiting van dierlijk materiaal met salpeterzuur in een magnetronoven gevolgd door detectie met grafietoven atoomabsorptie spectrometrie (GFAAS). Om het gestelde doel te bereiken zijn verassings- en atomisatiecurven opgenomen van cadmium en l

  10. Proposta per a la governança de risc de la falsificació de medicaments amb una eina de diagnosi basada en lògica difusa

    OpenAIRE

    Bargalló i Alabart, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    La falsificació de medicaments és un problema inherent a la mateixa existència dels medicaments. Existeixen estudis de l'OMS que indiquen que en alguns països en vies de desenvolupament, entre el deu i el trenta per cent de les medicines que es venen poden ser falses, mentre que no arriba a l'u per cent en els països occidentals. Però darrerament s'ha detectat un augment significatiu d'incidents de falsificació de medicaments en els països desenvolupats, la qual indica que el model clàssic ...

  11. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  12. First-order Derivative Spectrophotometry for the Determination of Vitamin C in Medicament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of vitamin C(Vc) is proposed in this article. After the reaction with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent at ambient temperature, Vc solution was scanned at 750-1100 nm, and its first-order derivative spectrum were obtained from the original spectrum. The values of derivative selected at 995 nm were used for determination. It was proved that Vc could quickly react with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent within 5 min and the product was quite stable for a long time. The conditions required for this method is not very complicated, its precision and accuracy are similar to those of the iodometric titration described in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and the limit of detection is 0.312μg/mL. The determination of the results of vitamin C tablet, pill, and injection demonstrates that this method has wide pharmaceutical applications.

  13. Ethnic Differences And Motivation Based On Maslow’s Theory At a MedicaL University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmohni Kaur Sidhu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motivation in Malaysia is to a largeextent influenced by the value system amongst allMalaysians. Being able to motivate employees is one ofthe important keys to the success of the organization.In this paper, an attempt was made to look into theneeds of employees in organizations and in particular,the needs based on Maslow’s theory on motivation. Subjects and Methods: Employees which consisted ofboth academic and administrative employees of theInternational Medical University (IMU were surveyedusing a standard questionnaire. The aim of this studywas to compare which levels of Maslow’s hierarchy ofneeds theory had been fulfilled and which needs wereyet to be fulfilled in the different ethnic groups at IMU. Results: Amongst the males, the Chinese and Indianethnic groups placed most emphasis on the esteem needsand on self-actualization needs. The Malay males gaveimportance to Safety needs. Amongst the female ethnicgroups, all three groups placed most importance on theesteem needs and self-actualization needs. The Chinesefemales scored the lowest for the Basic needs comparedto the Malay and Indian females. The Indian femalesscored the lowest for Social needs.Conclusion: Organisations should play an importantrole in the motivation of employees. Human resourcedevelopment is an integral part in the development ofits employees.

  14. Avances en materia de regulación mercantil y civil del comercio electrónico en México y los aspectos fiscales del establecimiento permanente

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ma. Antonieta Martin Granados

    2002-01-01

    A pesar de que en México se han realizado adiciones a la legislación en materia civil y mercantil relacionadas con el uso de medios electrónicos como instrumentos para realizar actos jurídicos, éstas resultan insuficientes, pues nada se ha hecho en materia procesal, penal y laboral, entre otras. En este trabajo se presentan, en materia fiscal, algunas consideraciones acerca del concepto de establecimiento permanente tanto en la legislación mexicana como en el Convenio Modelo (CM) de la Organi...

  15. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  16. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  18. Effectiveness of N-acetyl cysteine, 2% chlorhexidine, and their combination as intracanal medicaments on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayakumar Palaniswamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacies of 2% chlorhexidine (CHX, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC and assess their synergistic or antagonist action as intracanal medicament. Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion test was performed with 2% CHX, NAC, and their combination against E. faecalis planktonic cells. The diameters of the zones of bacterial inhibition were measured and recorded for each solution. The assay was further extended to 2 weeks old E. faecalis dentinal biofilm. Sixteen freshly extracted teeth were vertically sectioned into two halves resulting in a total of 32 samples. The samples were inoculated with bacterial suspension and incubated at 37°C for 2 weeks for biofilm formation. The samples were then divided into four experimental groups with 8 samples in each group. The samples were gently washed in saline and placed in culture wells containing the test solutions, i.e., 2% CHX, NAC, a combination of 2% CHX and NAC in 1:1 ratio, and a control group containing saline. The biofilm formed on the root canal surface were removed with a sterile scalpel and inoculated on blood agar plates to check for the formation of E. faecalis colonies. Statistical Analysis: For agar diffusion test, data were analyzed statistically using one-way analysis of variance and then by post-hoc Scheffe′s test to compare the antimicrobial efficacy between the groups. Statistical analysis was not done for the cultures obtained from the biofilm as there was no growth in all the three test groups except the control group, i.e., saline. Results: In agar diffusion test, among the three groups tested, 2% CHX and NAC showed almost equal zones of inhibition whereas maximum inhibition was shown by a combination of NAC and 2% CHX suggesting a synergistic action. The results obtained were highly significant (P < 0.001 for the combination of medicament when compared to individual test group. In culture analysis, which was done for the biofilm

  19. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  20. The use of traditional and novel techniques to determine the hardness and indentation properties of immature radicular dentin treated with antibiotic medicaments followed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Yassen, Ghaeth H.; Al-Angari, Sarah S.; Platt, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of intracanal antibiotic medicaments followed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the indentation properties and hardness of radicular dentin using a BioDent reference point indenter and a traditional microhardness technique, respectively. Materials and Methods: Specimens with intact root canal dentin surfaces and polished radicular dentin specimens were obtained from immature human premolars. Each type of specimen was randomly a...

  1. Evaluation of calcium ion, hydroxyl ion release and pH levels in various calcium hydroxide based intracanal medicaments: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Punit Fulzele; Sudhindra Baliga; Nilima Thosar; Debaprya Pradhan

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Evaluation of calcium ion and hydroxyl ion release and pH levels in various calcium hydroxide based intracanal medicaments. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate calcium and hydroxyl ion release and pH levels of calcium hydroxide based products, namely, RC Cal, Metapex, calcium hydroxide with distilled water, along with the new gutta-percha points with calcium hydroxide. Materials and Methods: The materials were inserted in polyethylene tubes and immersed in deionized wat...

  2. Određivanje sastava hlapljivih tvari i flavonoida u kori citrona (Citrus medica L. var. Corsican), za procjenu kakvoće likera

    OpenAIRE

    Venturini, Nicolas; Barboni, Toussaint; Curk, Franck; Costa, Jean; Paolini, Julien

    2014-01-01

    U radu je ispitan sastav hlapljivih tvari i flavonoida u kori citrona (Citrus medica L. var. Corsican) uzgojenog na Korzici, različitog stupnja zrelosti izračunatog pomoću sume aktivnih temperatura. Razlike u stupnju razvoja plodova kvantitativno su određene plinskom kromatografijom, plinskom kromatografijom u kombinaciji s masenom spektrometrijom, te tekućinskom kromatografijom praćenom tandemskom masenom spektrometrijom. Identificirano je 30 hlapljivih komponenata eteričnog ulja dobivenog i...

  3. El ensayo Ars Medica de John Locke, y la influencia de sus ideas médicas sobre la filosofía empirista

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez González, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    John Locke’s essay Ars medica of 1669, is presented, analyzed and translated into Spanish. This essay shows the medical problems that prompted Locke´s philosophy and provides essential clues to understanding the motives, aims and characteristics of the empiricist`s theory of knowledge. Ideas originated in medicine that profoundly influenced subsequent Locke`s works were: 1) Trust in the perfectibility of science and elucidation of the role that philosophical thinking could play. 2) Rejection ...

  4. 佛手花抗氧化活性研究%Study on Antioxidative Activities of Flower of Cit rus medica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新周; 郝志云; 杨子仙; 朱以常; 董毅; 林惠昆

    2014-01-01

    In order to further comprehensive utilization of flower of Citrus medica ,the scavenging activities of DPPH free radical and hydroxyl radical were determined ,and they were compared with quercetin ,kaempferol , caffeic acid ,rutin ,gallic acid and p-coumaric acid .The results showed that the scavenging activities of DPPH free radical was p-coumaric acid< extract from flower of Citrus medica< vanillic acid< rutin< caffeic acidmedicamedica had good antioxidant ac-tivity and could be a good natural antioxidant .%为进一步综合利用佛手花,该研究测定了其对DPPH自由基和羟自由基的清除能力,并与对照槲皮素、山奈酚、咖啡酸、芦丁、没食子酸和对香豆酸进行比较。结果表明:各物质清除DPPH自由基的能力为:对香豆酸<佛手花提取物<香草酸<芦丁<咖啡酸<没食子酸。清除羟自由基的能力为:芦丁<咖啡酸<佛手花提取物<山奈酚<槲皮素。说明佛手花提取物具有很好的抗氧化活性,是一种良好的天然抗氧化剂。

  5. La materia de Bretaña y los modelos historiográficos: el caso de la General estoria

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Redondo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Análisis de las circunstancias que propician la penetración de la materia de Bretaña en la Península Ibérica; su desarrollo se ajusta antes a las compilaciones historiográficas que a las obras de ficción, sostenida su verosimilitud por el valor que se otorga a la materia de la Antigüedad en la segunda mitad del siglo xiii. Este proceso se verifica en la General estoria, una crónica universal en la que se vierten los primeros núcleos de la Historia regum Britanniae de Geoffreoy of Monmouth, de...

  6. LAS RELACIONES ENTRE LOS TRIBUNALES INTERNACIONALES Y LOS TRIBUNALES NACIONALES EN MATERIA DE DERECHOS HUMANOS: EXPERIENCIAS EN LATINOAMÉRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor P. Sagüés

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza la relación entre los tribunales nacionales e internacionales o supranacionales con competencia jurisdiccional vinculante en materia de derechos humanos, considerando la existencia de tres posiciones en la materia: la posición conflictual de la declaración de inejecutabilidad, la posición del seguimiento nacional y la del margen de apreciación.The author analyzes the relationship between national and international or supranational courts with binding jurisdiction over matters of human rights, reviewing three positions in this subject: the conflict perspective of declaration of non-executability, the position of national follow-up, and the doctrine of margin of appreciation.

  7. En defensa de la Historia como materia educativa / In defense of History as educational material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Prats2

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El origen de la historiografía moderna es inseparable de su uso público. La Historia es una disciplina que, entre otras funciones sociales y educativas, ha contribuido a conformar la visión sobre la identidad social y política de las naciones. Pero tiene otras posibilidades más profundas, que es la formación de ciudadanos con una conciencia de pertenencia a un mundo amplio y multicultural y con espíritu crítico que le permita ejercer su derechos y deberes ciudadanos con plena conciencia. Desde su origen como materia escolar a la actualidad ha experimentado una importante transformación. Abstract: The origin of modern historiography is inseparable from public use. History is a discipline that, among other educational and social functions, has helped to shape the vision of social and political identity of nations. But there are other ways deeper, which is the formation of citizens with a sense of belonging to the world wide, multicultural and critical spirit to exercise its rights and civic duties conscientiously. From its origin as a school subject has now undergone a major transformation.

  8. La materia dei sogni Sbirciatina su un mondo di cose soffici (lettore compreso)

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Dall’aria che respiriamo ai cibi di cui ci nutriamo, dai vestiti che indossiamo ai detersivi con cui li laviamo, dai colori con cui dipingiamo agli schermi su cui li guardiamo, la nostra realtà quotidiana brulica di cose troppo piccole per essere viste, ma pur sempre enormi rispetto ai mattoni di cui è fatto il mondo, gli atomi e le molecole. Oltre ad essere alla radice di molte tecnologie di oggi e di domani, questi piccoli personaggi, ingredienti primari di quelli che gli scienziati chiamano "materiali soffici", "sistemi sovramolecolari", o " fluidi complessi", ci permettono anche di esplorare i segreti con cui la materia si organizza spontaneamente, perché anche la Vita altro non è se non l’apoteosi di questa incredibile "Terra di Mezzo", a metà strada tra le molecole e l’Uomo. Sfruttando l’esperienza scientifica accumulata dall’autore nel corso di molti anni, questo libro si propone di guidare il lettore attraverso un lungo, ma non troppo faticoso viaggio nel mondo delle nanoparticelle, dei...

  9. Una perspectiva internacional sobre la formación en materia de seguridad y salud en el trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Martín Daza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene el propósito de explorar algunos de los retos más importantes de la formación en la seguridad y salud en el trabajo de los diferentes grupos interesados, así como para presentar los lineamientos de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo en esta materia.

  10. Determinación de carbono orgánico en materias primas cerámicas en presencia de siderita, FeCO3

    OpenAIRE

    Gazulla Barreda, María Fernanda; Gómez, Carmen M.; Rodrigo Carbonell, María Dolores; Orduña, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    La materia orgánica es una de las impurezas presentes en las materias primas utilizadas en la fabricación de pavimentos y revestimientos cerámicos. Durante el proceso de cocción, el carbono orgánico (Corgánico) puede producir la aparición de un núcleo negro conocido como “corazón negro”, que puede causar defectos en el producto final. Las materias primas cerámicas contienen Corgánico a nivel de mg·kg-1 (procedente de la materia orgánica) y carbono inorgánico (Cinorgánico) a nivel de porce...

  11. A medicação prescrita na internação hospitalar: o conhecimento do cliente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Guidorizzi Zanetti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Erros no processo de administração de medicamentos são preocupações de enfermeiros e a sua ocorrência pode ser minimizada com a orientação do cliente quanto à terapia medicamentosa. Este estudo descritivo, teve como objetivo identificar o grau de informação de clientes hospitalizados, acerca dos medicamentos que lhes são prescritos. A metodologia utilizada foi a exploratória-descritiva. Foram entrevistados 76 clientes adultos, hospitalizados, entre 18 a 60 anos, sendo 69,7% do sexo feminino. Destacou-se dentre outros, que 28% não apresentavam conhecimento acerca do nome do primeiro medicamento prescrito e 55% não souberam referir a dosagem. Detectou-se um número razoável de clientes que desconheciam a medicação prescrita ou tinham conhecimento incorreto. Faz-se necessário a conscientização dos profissionais de enfermagem quanto à importância da orientação ao cliente acerca dos medicamentos durante a internação.

  12. Clinical and radiographic comparison of various medicaments used for pulpotomy in primary molars: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Prachi; Pandit, I. K.; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monica; Goel, Richa; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of ferric sulfate, glutaraldehyde, and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as pulpotomy medicaments in primary molars. Materials and Methods: This was a perspective randomized clinical trial. A total of 90 molars from 42 children aged 4–8 years were selected for pulpotomy procedure. Teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups of 30 teeth each. Teeth in Group I were intended to be treated with ferric sulfate, Group II were intended to be treated with buffered glutaraldehyde and Group III with MTA. All the molars were evaluated clinically at 24 h and both clinically and radio graphically at 1, 3, and 6 months. The observations were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: After 1 month, there was no clinical finding observed in all the three groups. At 3 months postoperative evaluation, 13.3% of teeth in Group I and 12.5% of teeth in Group II had mobility. At 6 months interval, pain and sinus formation each was noted in 9.1% of primary teeth in Group I while periodontal ligament widening was reported in 66.7% of teeth in Group I and 85.7% of teeth in Group II. Conclusion: MTA exhibited overall best results as pulpotomy agent for primary molars followed by 15.5% ferric sulfate, whereas 2% buffered glutaraldehyde was found to be least effective as a pulpotomy agent. PMID:27403046

  13. Essential oil composition of Citrus medica L. Cv. Diamante (Diamante citron) determined after using different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Bartolo; Fazio, Alessia; Dugo, Paola; Costa, Rosaria; Mondello, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatile and the oxygenated heterocyclic fraction of citron (Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante (Diamante citron)). The fruits selected for the extraction were of three types: green citron of little size, green citron of big size, and yellow citron after 1 month from the harvest. The essential oils were extracted using three different methods. The nine samples of oil thus obtained were analyzed by high resolution GC (HRGC)-flame ionization detection (FID), HRGC-MS, and RP-HPLC. They differ only in the quantitative composition, while the qualitative profile was the same. The volatile fraction of every sample of oil is characterized by a high content of limonene, gamma-terpinene, and monoterpene aldehydes and a lower content of alpha- and beta-pinene and myrcene, sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic aldehydes. Enantioselective (Es)-GC analysis of the extracts allowed the determination of the enantiomeric distribution of five terpenoid compounds; a prevalence of four dextrorotatory isomers was observed. Oxypeucedanin was the main component of the oxygenated heterocyclic fraction in the extracts of green fruits, while citropten was the major oxygenated compound in the oil obtained from yellow citron. PMID:19051190

  14. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    General Asian Journal ofAndrology (AJA) is the official publication of the Asian Society of Andrology sponsored by the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Journal has been included in 11 international indexing systems, including BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CAB Health, Chemical Abstracts, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, Index Medicus, MEDLINE, PASCAL, Research Alert, and SCI Expanded. The Impact Factor is 1.064 and ranks third among the international andrology journals.

  15. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    1 General Asian Journal of Andrology (AJA) is the official publication of the Asian Society of Andrology sponsored by the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Journal has been included in 11 international indexing systems, including BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CAB Health, Chemical Abstracts, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, Index Medicus, MEDLINE, PASCAL, Research Alert, and SCI Expanded. The Impact Factor is 0.827 and ranks third among the international andrology journals.

  16. The Advances in Research on the Pharmacological Effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunting Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructus Ligustri Lucidi is a well-known invigorator in Chinese materia medica with hepatoprotective effect, anticancer activity, antioxidant activity, and so on. And oleanolic acids are the major pharmacologically active components in Fructus Ligustri Lucidi. So it has great value in medical health, and may be developed to a complementary and alternative medicine through further research. In this paper, the advances in research on pharmacological effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi were summarized by reviewing the recent related literature.

  17. FOUR MEDICAL CASES TREATED WITH MASSIVE MOXIBUSTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨毅红; 周爽; 李霞

    2003-01-01

    @@ LI Shi-zhen, a great physician and natural-ist in the Ming Dynasty, says in his famousmedical book Ben Cao Gang Mu ( Compendiumof Materia Medica,),"moxibus-tion therapy may dredge meridians to cure manykinds of diseases including some severe lingeringdisorders". Moxibustion is an important compo-nent of traditional Chinese medicine. The authorof the present paper adopted moxibustion thera-py to treat some refractory diseases and achievedsatisfactory results.

  18. Amphiphilic graft copolymer based on poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) with low molecular weight polyethylenimine for efficient gene delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Duan XP; Xiao JS; Yin Q; Zhang ZW; Mao SR; Li YP

    2012-01-01

    Xiaopin Duan,1,2 Jisheng Xiao,2 Qi Yin,2 Zhiwen Zhang,2 Shirui Mao,1 Yaping Li21School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 2Center of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, ChinaBackground and methods: A new amphiphilic comb-shaped copolymer (SP) was synthesized by conjugating poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) with low molecular weight polyethyleneimine for gene delivery. Fourier transform infrared spectrum, 1H nuclea...

  19. Self-assembled lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery: preparation and functional evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu LY; Zhou CP; Xia XJ; Liu YL

    2016-01-01

    Liyao Liu, Cuiping Zhou, Xuejun Xia, Yuling Liu State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Delivery Technology and Novel Formulations, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Here, we investigated the formation and functional properties of self-assembled lecithin/chitosan nanoparti...

  20. PISA: números, estandarización de la conducta y la alquimia de las materias escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Popkewitz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la red de prácticas que confieren inteligibilidad a la organización del conocimiento de las materias escolares que hace PISA. El programa PISA es tratado como un acontecimiento histórico. Su estudio consiste en hacer visible los principios que ordenan y clasifican los objetos “vistos” y que actúan sobre el “conocimiento práctico” de las materias escolares. La política de PISA, a mi juicio, son los principios que rigen lo que los chicos deberían conocer, cómo ese conocimiento se hace posible, y el estudio de la inclusión y exclusión incorporadas en estas prácticas. La primera parte analiza históricamente la transformación de los números en “hechos”, una presunción que posibilita las comparaciones de PISA. En la segunda parte, dirige la atención a los principios de las materias escolares que ordenan y clasifican los “hechos” de las mediciones de PISA.

  1. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  2. Soluciones concluidas en el MERCOSUR en materia de jurisdicción internacional: Análisis de los protocolos de Buenos Aires sobre jurisdicción internacional en materia contractual y de San Luis en materia de resp. civil emergente de accidentes de tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tellechea Bergman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Precisiones.  La jurisdicción en las relaciones privadas internacionales en el MERCOSUR. Necesidad de una regulación común a todos los estados parte. Protocolo de Buenos Aires sobre jurisdicción internacional en materia contractual. Protocolo de San Luis sobre responsabilidad civil emergente de accidentes de tránsito

  3. [History of incompability among medicinals of "Glycyrrhiza antagonistic to Sargassum, Euphorbia Pekinensis, Kansui, and Genkwa" and its modern recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenxue; Bian, Yali; Fan, Xinsheng

    2015-05-01

    The allegation of "Glycyrrhiza antagonistic to Sargassum, Euphorbia Pekinensis, Kansui, and Genkwa", being one of the hypotheses of "18 antagonisms" in TCM pharmacology, is referring to the antagonistic action among the Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhiza and Radix Euphorbiae Kansui, Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Flos Genkwa, and Sargassum when compounded together in a single recipe. By reviewing its history concerted with modern knowledge, it can be found that the theory of "seven emotions" was originated from Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica; while the Variorum of the Classic of Materia Medica firstly and definitely records that Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae is forbidden to be used with Radix Kansui, Flos Genkwa, Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Sargassum together in a single formula. It was summarized into a Chinese poetic sentence as above-mentioned later. In the works of later ages, including Chinese Pharmacopoeia, A Great Dictionary of Chinese Materia Medica, and China's Herbology, etc., all enhance the understanding of the prohibited combination of Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae and its incompatible herbs. Nevertheless, there are discrepancies between the results of modern experimental and clinical studies on this problem, which, needless to say, should be resolved by further investigations. PMID:26420521

  4. REMOCION DE LA MATERIA ORGANICA Y TOXICIDAD EN AGUAS RESIDUALES HOSPITALARIAS APLICANDO OZONO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANA GRISALES PENAGOS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las aguas residuales hospitalarias se consideran como una de las principales fuentes de contaminantes emergentes, resultado de las diferentes actividades que allí se realizan y la excreción de las sustancias por los pacientes. Estudios han demostrado que estos componentes no son fácilmente removidos por medio de procesos de tratamiento convencionales como las plantas de tratamiento que emplean procesos biológicos. En este sentido el propósito de este trabajo consistió en evaluar la degradación de la materia orgánica presente en aguas hospitalarias reales aplicando ozono en diferentes condiciones de pH (3,0, 6,7, 10. Para esto se analizaron los valores de la UV254, la relación de biodegradabilidad DQO/DBO5 y el color (VIS436. Adicional a esto, se realizó un ensayo de toxicidad aguda, utilizando bulbos de cebolla común (Allium cepa L. Los resultados mostraron que con una dosis aplicada de ozono de 187 mgO3/h y valores de pH=10 la biodegradabilidad se aumento en un 70% y la toxicidad aguda se redujo en 62%, mientras que para valores de pH =3,0, se favoreció la remoción de la UV254 y el color. La aplicación de ozono demostró ser una alternativa viable para tratar efluentes hospitalarios como pretratamiento de un proceso biológico.

  5. Concepto de “materia laboral” Vigencia material de la ley Nº 18.572

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Garmendia Arigón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo 7º de la Ley de Abreviación de los Procesos Laborales (Nº 18.572, del 13 de setiembre de 2009 define el “Ámbito de aplicación” utilizando la siguiente fórmula: “Con excepción de lo establecido en normas que prevean procedimientos especiales, en materia laboral el proceso se regirá por lo previsto en esta ley”.Es de hacer notar que el artículo 7º tiene una ubicación incorrecta dentro de la estructura general de la ley 18.572, pues aparece dentro del “Capítulo IV”, intitulado “Proceso laboral ordinario”, cuando, en realidad, su contenido no refiere solamente a esta última estructura procesal, sino a todas las disposiciones procesales consagradas en la ley. (…El análisis que se desarrolla a continuación está centrado, precisamente, en dicha expresión y, en particular, en la vinculación que existe entre el artículo 7º y el artículo 2º de la ley 18.5724, con el propósito de desentrañar si la aplicabilidad de las estructuras procesales que se consagraron en dicha ley queda sólo restringida a las Sedes laborales o si, por el contrario, corresponde entender  que las mismas también deben ser aplicadas por tribunales no pertenecientes a la jurisdicción laboral.

  6. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  7. Litigación internacional en materia de patentes en Brasil: Análisis de la competencia judicial internacional y del arbitraje en materia de infracción y nulidad de patentes

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves Paluma Rocha, Thiago

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN: El foco principal de la investigación y de la tesis consiste en el análisis de los litigios internacionales en materia de patentes en Brasil. Actualmente, Brasil es la séptima economía del mundo, con el producto interno bruto (PIB) de aproximadamente U$2.200 millones . El creciente desarrollo comercial brasileño exige normas jurídicas eficientes que auxilien ese proceso de crecimiento de la economía del país, y que no se ponga como un coste a más a las relaciones comerciales. El sist...

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Propolis, Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine, Calcium Hydroxide and Curcuma Longa Extract as Intracanal Medicament Against E.faecalis– An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rashmi; Asrani, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The increase of potential side effects and safety concerns of conventional medicaments have led to the recent popularity of herbal alternative medications. The herbal products are known for its high antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of Propolis, Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine gel, Curcuma Longa and Calcium Hydroxide for elimination of E.faecalis bacteria in extracted teeth samples. Materials and Methods Ninety extracted single rooted intact teeth were taken for the study. Decoronation, removal of apices and chemomechanical preparation was done for all samples. These sterilized samples were then contaminated with pure culture of E.faecalis under laminar flow. The samples were incubated for a period of 21 days. The infected samples were assigned to 5 groups: Group I- Propolis; Group II- Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine gel; Group III- Calcium hydroxide; Group IV- Curcuma Longa; and control group- Saline. Efficacy of newer intracanal medicaments against E.faecalis were carried out in the samples at the end of 1, 2 & 5 days for each group with the help of colorimeter. Student paired t-test, ANOVA and multiple tukey test were used for statistical analysis. Results The value of optical density was statistically significant in all groups when compared to that of control group. Group I (Propolis) produced better antimicrobial efficacy followed by Chlorhexidine Metronidazole combination, Curcuma Longa and Calcium hydroxide. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Propolis showed better antimicrobial properties against E.faecalis than other medicaments. PMID:26673857

  9. Effects of combined dietary supplementation with fenofibrate and Schisandrae Fructus pulp on lipid and glucose levels and liver function in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu PL; Pan SY; Zhou SF; Zhang Y.; Wang XY; Sun N; Chu ZS; Yu ZL; Ko KM

    2015-01-01

    Pei-Li Zhu,1 Si-Yuan Pan,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2 Yi Zhang,1 Xiao-Yan Wang,1 Nan Sun,1 Zhu-Sheng Chu,1 Zhi-Ling Yu,3 Kam-Ming Ko41Department of Pharmacology, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 4D...

  10. Assertive or antiquated: ProMedica vows to appeal loss against FTC as questions loom over whether mergers lead to efficiencies or clout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joe

    2011-12-12

    ProMedica vows to fight the feds over the acquisition of St. Luke's Hospital. Here is what they have to say. "The cost of healthcare is a real problem for all Americans, and the commission seeks to address this national problem by using all the tools Congress gave to us, and by devoting significant resources so that competition will enable market participants to deliver on the promises of cost-containment and continued excellence and innovation," says the FTC's Jon Leibowitz. PMID:22299225

  11. Analisis Komponen Kimia Minyak Atsiri Kulit Buah Jeruk Pepaya (Citrus Medica L var. Proper) dengan GC-MS dan Uji Antioksidan Menggunakan Metode DPPH

    OpenAIRE

    Marsius, Sutrisno

    2015-01-01

    Had been analysis of chemical components essential oil kulit buah jeruk pepaya (C. Medica L var Proper) with Stahl distillation and GC-MS analysis. The dominant constituents of the essential oil such as D-Limonene (66,33%), 1,4-Cycloheksadiena (16,87%), Nerol (3,07%), β-Myrcene (1,94%), 2-β-Pinene (1,13%), α-Pinene (1,07%), 1,3,7-Octatriene (1,03%). Furthermore , the essential oil of kulit buah jeruk pepaya was determined antiokxidant activitesfound by the methode of radicals DPPH. IC50 value...

  12. Analisis Komponen Kimia Minyak Atsiri Kulit Jeruk Telur Buaya (Citrus medica L.) Secara GC-MS dan Uji Antioksidan Dengan Metode DPPH

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Grignard Natanael

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils of the rind of jeruk telur buaya (Citrus medica L) has been isolated with hydrodestillation method using Stahl. It hydrodestilled for ± 4-5 hours to produce essential oil 0.3064% (w/w). The chemical components of essential oil of rind of jeruk telur buaya were analyzed by GC-MS showed there are 14 compounds in which the main components are 1-limonene (70,46%). Antioxidant activity test has been done with DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazil) method with IC50 values 873.39 mg/L.

  13. La cláusula general de competencia de los entes territoriales en materia económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Zárate

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Si la autonomía territorial con que cuentan los entes locales para la “gestión de sus intereses” permite fundar, vía una cláusula general de competencia, las iniciativas económicas locales, esta fórmula aparece sujeta a los límites constitucionales y legales sobre las modalidades de intervención local, como lo sugiere el respeto de las normas nacionales en materia de competencia económica.

  14. Estudio de las herramientas de comunicación ascendente en materia de seguridad y salud en el trabajo.

    OpenAIRE

    López Santiago, Aida

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene el objeto de analizar la participación, consulta e información relacionada con la prevención de riesgos laborales desde los niveles jerárquicos más bajos hacia los más altos, es decir, la comunicación vertical ascendente en materia preventiva dentro del ámbito de la empresa. La promoción de este tipo de comunicación dentro de la empresa permite conocer las opiniones de los afectados acerca del funcionamiento de la misma y canalizar sus iniciativas, facilita la ret...

  15. Comparación de disolventes para la extracción de materias grasas en hígado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carril González-Barros, S. T.

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of different organic solvents for extraction the fat of pork and veal liver were compared. Soxhlet extraction for 8 hours with n-Hexane: dichloromethane (1:1 was selected. Cv% was 1.9%.

    Se compara la eficacia de extracción de la materia grasa con diferentes disolventes en hígado de cerdo y de ternera. Los resultados más satisfactorios se obtuvieron utilizando un soxhlet con una mezcla de hexano: diclorometano (50:50 durante 8 horas. Se obtuvo un Cv% de 1.9%.

  16. Análisis cognitivo de situaciones problema con sistemas de ecuaciones algebraicas en el contexto del balance de materia

    OpenAIRE

    Elia Trejo Trejo; Patricia Camarena Gallardo

    2011-01-01

    En este artículo se informa una investigación en la que se realiza un análisis cognitivo a un grupo de enfoque, donde los estudiantes de una carrera técnica universitaria abordan los sistemas de ecuaciones algebraicas lineales en el contexto del balance de materia en situaciones problema de mezclas químicas. El análisis cognitivo del grupo de enfoque se fundamenta en las teorías de los Campos Conceptuales y en la Matemática en el Contexto de las Ciencias. Para el análisis se atienden, en part...

  17. Caracterización de la materia orgánica en suelos y sedimentos de ambientes estuarinos

    OpenAIRE

    Santín Nuño, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Los ambientes estuarinos, transicionales entre el medio acuático y terrestre, presentan unas características propias e irrepetibles además de cumplir un elevado número de funciones ecológicas y ambientales. Entre estas se puede destacar la de sus suelos y sedimentos como sumideros de carbono atmosférico. La elevada productividad de sus comunidades vegetales, en conjunción con condiciones geoquímicas que favorecen la lenta descomposición de la materia orgánica, hace que estos suelos y sediment...

  18. Análisis comparado en materia de obligaciones entre el derecho romano y el derecho moderno

    OpenAIRE

    Luz María Martínez R. de C.; Flor María ávila H de P.

    2008-01-01

    Se realiza un estudio dogmático de los conceptos antiguo y moderno de la "obligación", con especial referencia al Derecho romano, así como a las fuentes y clasificación de las mismas. Del mismo modo, se analiza la influencia del derecho romano en el Código civil venezolano, en materia de obligaciones. En este sentido, la definición romana ha predominado en el Derecho Moderno, incluso en la actualidad se puede afirmar que ha permanecido incólume dentro sus concepciones fundamentales. El método...

  19. Principio de legalidad estricta en materia penal: breve historia y desvíos : El caso del terrorismo

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Duhalde, Ramiro

    2015-01-01

    Es menester recorrer con algún cuidado los antecedentes del principio de estricta legalidad en materia de represión penal por su indudable valor como garantía frente al poder punitivo estatal. Recordando su progreso desde la mera legalidad conquistada por la lucha popular en la República Romana, aunque la analogía no desaparecerá hasta que los postulados del Iluminismo y de la Revolución Francesa y su Declaración de 1789 impongan en gran parte del mundo la estricta legalidad. La magistral ...

  20. Buenas pr??cticas en el desarrollo de trabajo colaborativo en materias TIC aplicadas a la educaci??n

    OpenAIRE

    Guti??rrez Esteban, Prudencia; R. Yuste Tosina; S. Cubo Delgado; M. Lucero Fustes

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta cuatro experiencias docentes de Buenas Pr??cticas en el uso de las Tecnolog??as de la Informaci??n y la Comunicaci??n en la Ense??anza Universitaria, en el ??mbito educativo, desarrolladas en materias impartidas durante el curso 2009/2010 en la Facultad de Educaci??n de la Universidad de Extremadura, centradas en el trabajo colaborativo y aut??nomo del alumnado como metodolog??a, la innovaci??n docente como filosof??a, el uso de las TIC aplicadas a...

  1. La cláusula general de competencia de los entes territoriales en materia económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Rafael Zárate Pérez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Si la autonomía territorial con que cuentan los entes locales para la “gestión de sus intereses” permite fundar, vía una cláusula general de competencia, las iniciativas económicas locales, esta fórmula aparece sujeta a los límites constitucionales y legales sobre las modalidades de intervención local, como lo sugiere el respeto de las normas nacionales en materia de competencia económica.

  2. La integración del Reglamento Europeo en materia sucesoria en el Derecho interregional español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS GARAU JUANEDA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Article 38 of the European Regulation on succession matters alow the non-application of this Regulation to internal conflicts of laws. This paper specifies in which cases we are dealing with an internal conflict of laws and why we must understand that Spain use this possibility. El artículo 38 del reglamento Europeo en materia sucesoria permite excluir de su aplicación los conflictos internos. En este trabajo se precisa en qué casos estamos ante un conflicto interno y por qué debemos entender que España se acoge a esta posibilidad

  3. Influencia de los tratamientos mecánicos y térmicos en materias primas que contienen pirofilita

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Soto, Pedro José; Jiménez de Haro, María del Carmen; Pascual Cosp, José; Pérez Rodríguez, José Luis; Raigón Pichardo, M.

    2000-01-01

    [ES] En el presente trabajo se exponen y discuten resultados obtenidos en el estudio de la influencia de tratamientos térmicos, tratamientos mecánicos por molienda en seco, y su combinación, en materias primas que contienen pirofilita. En primer lugar, se estudia la influencia del tratamiento térmico en lo que respecta al desarrollo y evolución de las fases cristalinas (mullita y cristobalita) a partir de pirofilita deshidroxilada. Estos resultados se toman como base para analizar lo...

  4. Propuesta de evaluación del aprendizaje en materias científico-técnicas

    OpenAIRE

    El Hamdouni Jenoui, R.; Jiménez Perálvarez, J.; Irigaray Fernández, C; Chacón Montero, J.

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende mostrar un sistema de evaluación que se lleva acabo en materias científico-técnicas donde el contenido práctico es considerable. Se pretende considerar los distintos instrumentos y formas de evaluación del aprendizaje de los estudiantes. El objetivo principal de este trabajo pretende entender que examinar y calificar no son actos de menor importancia, sino que suponen una gran influencia en todo el proceso y pueden o no, ayudar y animar a los estudiantes en su pri...

  5. CARACTERIZACIÓN ESTRUCTURAL DE LA MATERIA ORGÁNICA DE TRES SUELOS PROVENIENTES DEL MUNICIPIO DE AQUITANIA BOYACÁ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen S. Mosquera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La materia orgánica del suelo puede variar considerablemente en su estructura, composición y conformación, de acuerdo con el origen y la edad de los materiales que la constituyen. En la presente investigación se procedió a caracterizar, mediante el empleo de la espectroscopia infrarroja y la resonancia magnética nuclear en estado sólido, dos suelos inceptisoles (I01 y I02 y un histosol (H03 destinados al cultivo de cebolla larga, en el municipio de Aquitania-Boyacá, Colombia, a dos profundidades: 0 - 10 y 40 - 50 cm. Según los espectros infrarrojos, se detectó la presencia de grupos OH (debida posiblemente a fenoles, ácidos carboxílicos o alcoholes, grupos aromáticos y alifáticos. Los espectros de 13C-RMN en estado sólido con CPMAS evidenciaron el siguiente orden respecto a la cantidad de carbonos que conforman la materia orgánica del suelo: H03-0 = 100 y H03 -40 = 88, I02-0 = 23 y I02-40 = 0, y finalmente I01-0 = 17 y I01-40 = 12, confirmándose la disminución de carbonos en la materia orgánica a través del perfil del suelo, y además se estableció que el carbón resonante en la región delta = 108-50 ppm de los espectros (N – y O-alquilos y acetales dominó en toda la MOS obtenida; le siguió el carbón aromático (delta = 168-108 ppm para los suelos I01-0 y H03-40, y el carbón alifático (delta = 0-50 ppm para los suelos I01-40, I02-0 y H03-0. Finalmente, el carbónC=O( delta= 220-162 ppm fue el menos dominante en la materia orgánica del suelo en todos los tres suelos caracterizados.

  6. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  7. [Textual research on the literature sources, its related names and medicinal part of Lonicera japonica Thunb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhou, Yang; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The "jin yin hua" (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) used in the clinic nowadays is the flower of honeysuckle, excluding its stem, leave, branch, vine or the whole plant. In the early time, the name of "ren dong" (honeysuckle) or "ren dong teng" (Caulis lonicerae) didn't refer exclusively to the flower of honeysuckle. A few early literature, such as Xin xiu ben cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) recorded briefly the flower, yet only mentions its time of blossom and shape without mentioning the medicinal use of its flower, nor the title of "jin yin hua", as the identification for this plant. Therefore, it cannot be regarded as the primary source of "jin yin hua". This research points out that the first appearance of the name of "jin yin hua" should be in Su shen liang fang (Su-Shen's Effective Prescriptions) of the Song Dynasty, and the first usage of the flower "jin yin hua" as a single drug was in Wai ke jing yao (Essence of External Diseases) of the Song Dynasty. Thus, the conclusion that "jin yin hua" is first seen in Xin xiu ben cao or lv chan yan ben cao (Mountainous Materia Medica) quoted in the ninth edition of teaching material of Traditional Chinese Pharmacology, and Chinese Materia Medica are all wrong and should be corrected accordingly. PMID:24060026

  8. Interações farmacológicas entre medicações clínicas e psiquiátricas Drug interactions among clinical and psychiatric drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Marcolin; Maria da Graça Cantarelli; Manoel Garcia Junior

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO/JUSTIFICATIVA: Estudos apontam as reações adversas graves (ADR) como uma das seis causas de morte em pacientes hospitalizados nos EUA, sendo que das ADR, a mais freqüente inclui as Interações Medicamentosas (IM). MÉTODOS: foram cruzadas 20 medicações mais utilizadas em andares clínicos do Hospital Universitário São Lucas da PUCRS com 14 medicações mais utilizadas no Ambulatório de Depressão do HSL-PUCRS; pesquisou-se no Medline e Lilacs a partir de 1990. RESULTADOS: foram encontrad...

  9. UNAPAL -Abanico 75: nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca en el fruto para fines agroindustriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diosdado Baena García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones de zapallo, con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, se seleccionaron dos híbridos y dos líneas de zapallo, por su alto contenido de materia seca en fruto y producción por planta. Con los genotipos seleccionados se formaron siete poblaciones híbridas, que se estabilizaron genéticamente mediante cruzamientos fraternales y se evaluaron en diferentes ambientes del Valle del Cauca. Se seleccionó la población 1, que presentó una producción por planta entre 29 - 32 kg; peso promedio del fruto entre 5 -6 kg.; 4 -5 frutos por planta; 24 -26% de materia seca en el fruto; formato globular acostillado de color externo verde intenso y color de pulpa amarillo intenso a naranja (12 a 15 abanico de Roche. Esta población fue registrada en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA con el nombre de UNAPAL-Abanico-75.

  10. Unapal-Dorado, nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca para consumo en fresco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Alirio Vallejo C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0; S1 x S1; S2 x S2 se seleccionaron 11 familias promisorias teniendo en cuenta el contenido de materia seca, producción por planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco. Se realizaron dos ciclos de recombinación genética y selección ínter e intrapoblacional. Se escogieron cuatro familias las cuales fueron evaluadas en un ensayo de rendimiento en el Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (Ceunp. La familia de mejor desempeño se evaluó comparativamente con otras seis, incluyendo el testigo comercial Unapal Bolo Verde, en pruebas regionales, en tres localidades del Valle del Cauca, durante dos semestres consecutivos (2008 B- 2009A. Por su excelente comportamiento en producción (15 kg/planta, contenido de materia seca (> 16%, 3.5 kg/fruto y 5 frutos/planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco, esta familia originó la nueva variedad de zapallo, conocida con el nombre comercial Unapal-Dorado.

  11. Unapal-Dorado, nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca para consumo en fresco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0; S1 x S1; S2 x S2 se seleccionaron 11 familias promisorias teniendo en cuenta el contenido de materia seca, producción por planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco. Se realizaron dos ciclos de recombinación genética y selección ínter e intrapoblacional. Se escogieron cuatro familias las cuales fueron evaluadas en un ensayo de rendimiento en el Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (Ceunp. La familia de mejor desempeño se evaluó comparativamente con otras seis, incluyendo el testigo comercial Unapal Bolo Verde, en pruebas regionales, en tres localidades del Valle del Cauca, durante dos semestres consecutivos (2008 B- 2009A. Por su excelente comportamiento en producción (15 kg/planta, contenido de materia seca (> 16%, 3.5 kg/fruto y 5 frutos/planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco, esta familia originó la nueva variedad de zapallo, conocida con el nombre comercial Unapal-Dorado.

  12. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  13. Chinese varkens in Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W.L.; Huiskes, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    In China zijn in totaal 300 miljoen varkens van meer dan 100 rassen. Ze worden voor verschillende soorten productie gebruikt. Sommige Chinese rassen zijn in Frankrijk, Nederland en U.S.A. geomporteerd. De vraag is of Chinese varkens nuttig kunnen zijnvoor de varkensproductie in Nederland en zo ja welke Chinese varkens

  14. Sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic and opioid medicament use and its co-occurrence with tobacco smoking and alcohol risk drinking in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulbricht Sabina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic and opioid medicament (SO use and its relation to tobacco smoking and alcohol risk drinking is largely unknown. Prevalence data for SO intake and its co-occurrence with tobacco smoking and alcohol risk drinking considering age are presented. Methods Random general population sample of individuals aged 20–79 drawn from a mixed rural and urban area in Germany (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP. All medicament intake during the past 7 days prior to the interview was assessed according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification as part of an interview conducted in a health examination center. Results Among men, 3.0%, and among women 5.0% took SO. The proportion of SO users was higher (odds ratio 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.1–3.4 whereas the proportions of current cigarette smokers and alcohol risk drinkers without SO use were lower among individuals aged 60–79 compared to those aged 20–39. The proportion of individuals with smoking, alcohol risk drinking or SO use was also lower among those aged 60–79 compared to the 20–39 year olds. Conclusion Although proportions of SO users in older adult age are higher than in younger adult age there are less subjects with any of the 3 substance use behaviors at older adult age compared to age 20–39.

  15. Removal efficiency of calcium hydroxide intracanal medicament with RinsEndo system in comparison with passive ultrasonic irrigation, an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbass Ali Khademi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different techniques have been introduced to improve removing the calcium hydroxide intra-canal dressing. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI and RinsEndo system in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canal system. Materials and Methods: Access cavities were prepared in 50 single-rooted anterior teeth. Cleaning and shaping were done using the Flexmaster rotary system up to size no. 30, 6%. The canals were filled with injectable calcium hydroxide (calcipex. After 7 days, the calcium hydroxide were retrieved using RinsEndo system in Group 1 (n = 20, with PUI system in Group 2 (n = 20. In positive control group (n = 5, no irrigation was performed. In negative control group (n = 5, root canals were not filled with any medicament. Following the removal of the calcium hydroxide with these two systems, teeth were split buccolingually into two sections and every third of the root canals was evaluated under stereomicroscope (×30 to analyze the residual medicament in each segment. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (P < 0.05. Results: There was no significant difference in the removal of calcium hydroxide between RinsEndo and PUI at cervical (P = 0.67, middle (P = 0.51 and apical (P = 0.75 part of the root canals. Conclusion: None of the irrigation techniques was able to completely remove calcium hydroxide from the root canal system.

  16. Lupus induced by medicaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a 55 years old female patient who consulted by fever syndrome, artralgias and the presence of high tittles positives antinuclear antibodies. She had arterial hypertension in treatment with captopril. We suspected the clinical diagnoses of drug-induced lupus; the withdraw of captopril was associated with the remission of the clinical and laboratory manifestations

  17. Eliminación biológica de amonio y materia orgánica en la potabilización de aguas

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Rodriguez, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    El proceso de potabilización de aguas comprende, operaciones de separación de materias por preoxidación, coagulación, sedimentación, filtraciones rápida y lenta, adsorción en carbón activo y desinfección final15,4. En este trabajo se propone la inclusión de una etapa de nitrificación para aguas, con un contenido en amonio moderadamente alto, que la incapacita para su potabilización, caso frecuente en las aguas disponibles de zonas de cultivos agrícolas intensivos. Las materias ...

  18. Importancia de las asignaturas y materias del currículum en la formación de los profesionales de enfermería

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Cañaveras, Rosa María; Juan Herrero, Joaquín de

    1994-01-01

    La relevancia de los contenidos del currículum ha sido objeto de estudio en Medicina, sin embargo no hay datos publicados referentes a las asignaturas y materias en la carrera de Enfermería. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el grado de importancia relativa que un buen número de asignaturas y materias de los actuales curricula de Enfermería, tienen en la formación de dichos profesionales. Este objetivo adquiere mayor relevancia dada la progresiva puesta en marcha de los nuevos planes ...

  19. La integración de la música en las materias científicas de 3º de ESO

    OpenAIRE

    Roca-Montoya, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación es el resultado de un estudio realizado dentro del Trabajo Fin de Máster para la formación del profesorado impartido en la Universidad Internacional de la Rioja (UNIR), y pretende demostrar la conexión e importancia que tiene la materia de Música con otras materias del currículum de 3º de la ESO eminentemente científicas: Matemáticas, Física y Dibujo Técnico. Por lo general, a lo largo de la historia se ha otorgado una menor responsabilidad o trascendencia a los contenidos ...

  20. Retención de materia orgánica particulada gruesa en una quebrada de montaña tropical. bogota, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    RODRÍGUEZ-BARRIOS, JAVIER; OSPINA, RODULFO

    2012-01-01

    Se determinó el porcentaje de retención de tres fracciones de materia orgánica particulada gruesa (MOPG) y el efecto de la magnitud del caudal sobre la retención de la materia orgánica particulada (MOP), durante un período de cinco meses en tressectores de una quebrada tropical de montaña ubicada en los Cerros Orientales de Bogotá - Colombia. La condición tropical del sistema, mostró un patrón de caudal constante aunque pudo diferenciarse un período de alta y baja descarga. Los resultados mos...

  1. Ilícito penal e ilícito administrativo en materia de tráfico y seguridad vial

    OpenAIRE

    Alastuey Dobón, Carmen; Escuchuri Aisa, Estrella

    2011-01-01

    Dado que la seguridad vial es objeto de protección tanto por parte del Derecho administrativo sancionador como por parte del Derecho penal, confluyen en la regulación de la materia ambos sectores del ordenamiento jurídico. El objeto del presente trabajo es llevar a cabo una aproximación a la forma en que se han delimitado por la doctrina y la jurisprudencia los ilícitos penales y administrativos en materia de tráfico y seguridad vial, así como exponer ciertas disfunciones que s...

  2. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  3. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...... note some differences and similarities. The most remarkable differences are: -Chinese has rhotic sounds (pinyin ch, zh, sh, r) but Danish does not -Chinese has affricates (c z ch zh tɕ j) but Danish does not What Danish shares with Chinese is the contrast between aspirated and plain consonants: pa...

  4. La acción del Estado colombiano en materia de derechos humanos: un camino en construcción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Herrera Kit

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento se constituye en un avance de investigación cuyo enfoque está guiado por el interés de indagar sobre la función que desempeñan los derechos humanos en el Estado colombiano. De esta forma, a partir de la revisión del proceso de positivización e internacionalización de los derechos humanos y las dificultades que éste experimenta en la esfera internacional, el documento avanza en analizar algunos de los elementos que caracterizan la respuesta del Estado colombiano en la materia a partir de la Constitución de 1991.

  5. Ceremonia inaugural de la Cuarta Reunión de Ministros en materia de Seguridad Pública de las Américas

    OpenAIRE

    Organización de Estados Americanos (OEA)

    2013-01-01

    En el presente documento se reproduce el discurso del Secretario General de la OEA, José Miguel Insulza, en la ceremonia inaugural de la cuarta Reunión de ministros en materia de seguridad pública de la Américas, 21 de noviembre de 2013, Medellín, República de Colombia.

  6. Parámetros de Transferencia de Materia en el Secado de Frutas Mass Transfer Parameters in Fruit Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião R Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un modelo analítico para obtención de parámetros de transferencia de materia en el secado de frutas. El modelo considera la disminución del radio de las frutas durante el proceso de secado. Con el modelo matemático se predice simultánemente el coeficiente externo de transferencia de materia k m y la difusividad de agua en los frutos D AB. Para probar el modelo se obtuvo en forma expermental datos de masa de agua M A en la fruta versus el tiempo de secado t, además del radio inicial R0 y el radio al final del proceso Rf. Los valores obtenidos de D AB y k m son del mismo orden de magnitud de los calculados por un método numérico de la literatura. La metodología desarrollada, considerando disminución de volumen, puede ser empleada para evaluar parámetros de secado con exactitud razonable para cálculos en ingeniería.An analytical model was developed to determine mass transfer parameters during fruit drying. The model considers radius shrinkage during the drying process. With the mathematical model the external mass transfer coefficient k m and the water diffusivity D AB can be simultaneously evaluated. To test the model, experimental data of water mass M A versus drying time t, and the initial radius R0 and the radius at the end of the process Rf were determined. The values obtained for D AB and k m were of the same order of magnitude as those calculated by a numerical method from the literature. The proposed methodology, that considers volume shrinkage, can be used to estimate drying parameters with acceptable accuracy for engineering calculations.

  7. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  8. CONTRIBUTION CHIMIQUE A LA DEFINITION DE LA QUALITE : EXEMPLES DES SPIRITUEUX DE MYRTE (MYRTUS COMMUNIS L.) ET DE CEDRAT (CITRUS MEDICA L.) DE CORSE

    OpenAIRE

    Venturini, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Ce travail de thèse, développé en partenariat avec la Société Mavela et l'INRA de Corse, est axé autour de l'étude de deux plantes traditionnellement utilisées en Corse pour la préparation de spiritueux (liqueur et eau de vie) : le myrte commun (Myrtus communis L.) et le cédrat (Citrus medica L). Le mémoire de thèse se décline en deux parties principales : * Une partie fondamentale visant à établir une méthodologie d'analyse des spiritueux par chromatographie liquide couplée à la spectrométri...

  9. Avaliação de ações ecologicamente sustentáveis no processo de medicação

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia de Oliveira Furukawa; Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm Cunha; Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves Pedreira

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivo: analisar ações sustentáveis do ponto de vista ambiental no processo de medicação, desde o recebimento da prescrição pela farmácia até o descarte de resíduos pela enfermagem. Método: estudo antes e depois realizado por meio da metodologia Lean Seis Sigma. A amostra constitui-se da quantidade e tipo de resíduos resultantes dos serviços de farmácia e de enfermagem de uma unidade clínica médico-cirúrgica. Resultados: após intervenção, obteve-se na farmácia uma redução de 74,8%...

  10. Productividad en materia seca y captura de carbono en un sistema silvopastoril y un sistema tradicional en cinco fincas ganaderas de piedemonte en el departamento de Casanare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Cárdenas Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue comparar, en cuanto a productividad en materia seca y captura de carbono, entre un sistema silvopastoril y un sistema tradicional en cinco fincas ganaderas de piedemonte del departamento de Casanare. En el lote experimental de cada finca se sembró una mezcla de cuatro especies de pastos, de los cuales Brachiaria brizantha fue la especie que tuvo un desarrollo exitoso en las cinco fincas, y con la cual se analizó su productividad en materia seca y captura de carbono. A los cinco meses después de la renovación de pastos en los lotes experimentales se obtuvo una productividad en materia seca entre 6,3 y 14,9 tMS/ha, y en captura de carbono entre 2,7 y 6,4 tCOT/ha; mientras que en los lotes tradicionales estuvo entre 4 y 5 tMS/ha, y en captura de carbono entre 1,7 y 2,9 tCOT/ha. A los 20 meses en los lotes experimentales se obtuvo una productividad en materia seca entre 12 y 13,7 tMS/ha, y en captura de carbono entre 4,1 y 4,5 tCOT/ha; mientras que en los lotes tradicionales estuvo entre 4,4 y 6,5 tMS/ha, y en captura de carbono entre 1,4 y 2,1 tCOT/ha. Esto indica que la renovación de praderas con pastos adecuados y el pastoreo de rotación favorecen la producción en materia seca y la captura de carbono.

  11. A pré-medicação com midazolam antes de secção cesariana não tem efeitos adversos no neonato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Can Senel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Como todos os pacientes cirúrgicos, pacientes obstétricas também sentem estresse e ansieda de operatórios. Isso pode ser prevenido se forem passadas à paciente informações detalhadas sobre sua operação e se forem administrados medicamentos farmacológicos pré-operatórios. Devido aos efeitos depressivos dos sedativos nos neonatos, os medicamentos farmacológicos são omitidos, especialmente em pacientes obstétricas. A literatura contém poucos estudos concernentes ao uso de midazolam no pré-operatório em pacientes de secção cesariana (C/S. Nosso objetivo nesse estudo foi ajudar nossas pacientes passando por cirurgia C/S. Um grupo agendado para C/S eletiva recebeu midazolam 0,025 mg kg−1 por via intraveno sa; o outro grupo recebeu salina. A ansiedade materna foi avaliada com o uso dos escores da Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS (Escala de Ansiedade e Informação Pré-operatória de Amsterdam, e os neonatos foram avaliados por Apgar e pelo instrumento Neonatal Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS (Escore Neurológico e de Capacidade Adaptativa do Neonato. Em conclusão, os pacientes pré-medicados com midazolam 0,025 mg kg−1 medicação tiveram escores de ansiedade significativamente baixos, sem qualquer efeito adverso nos neonatos. Portanto, midazolam pode, com segurança, ser utilizado como agente de pré-medicação na cirurgia C/S.

  12. Puerarin transport across a Calu-3 cell monolayer – an in vitro model of nasal mucosa permeability and the influence of paeoniflorin and menthol

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Lin Zhang, Shou-Ying Du, Yang Lu, Chang Liu, Zhi-Hao Tian, Chang Yang, Hui-Chao Wu, Zhen Wang School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Chaoyang District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nasal administration is a high-potential delivery system, particularly because it can provide a pathway from the nose to the brain. The objective of this research is to characterize puerarin transport across a Calu-3 cell monolayer used as a model of t...

  13. Compound antimalarial ethosomal cataplasm: preparation, evaluation, and mechanism of penetration enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Shen S; Liu SZ; Zhang YS; Du MB; Liang AH; Song LH; Ye ZG

    2015-01-01

    Shuo Shen, Shu-Zhi Liu, Yu-Shi Zhang, Mao-Bo Du, Ai-Hua Liang, Li-Hua Song, Zu-Guang Ye Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Malaria is still a serious public health problem in some parts of the world. The problems of recurrence and drug resistance are increasingly more serious. Thus, it is necessary to develop a novel antimalarial agent. The objectives of this study were to construct a novel ...

  14. Funcionamento intelectual em pacientes pediátricos com epilepsia: comparação de crianças controladas com medicação, não controladas com medicação e controladas com cirurgia Intellectual functioning in pediatric patients with epilepsy: a comparison of medically controlled, medically uncontrolled and surgically controlled children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Souza-Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o quociente intelectual (QI em três grupos de crianças com epilepsia: 1 controlados com medicação, 2 não controlados com medicação e 3 controlados com cirurgia. MÉTODOS: Noventa e oito pacientes pediátricos, com idades entre 6 e 12 anos, foram selecionados de dezembro de 2007 a julho de 2008. A Escala de Inteligência Wechsler para Crianças - terceira edição (WISC-III foi utilizada para a avaliação neuropsicológica dos pacientes. Os resultados foram relacionados com a síndrome epiléptica, a etiologia da epilepsia, o tratamento medicamentoso, a idade do paciente no início da epilepsia e a duração da epilepsia. RESULTADOS: Os escores da WISC foram significativamente melhores no grupo controlado com medicação quando comparados aos do grupo não controlado com medicação. O grupo controlado com medicação obteve um desempenho significativamente melhor na maioria dos subtestes da WISC quando comparado ao grupo não controlado com medicação: vocabulário, aritmética, compreensão, memória de dígitos, completar figuras, arranjo de figuras e cubos. Um número significativamente maior de pacientes com epilepsia idiopática e uso de monoterapia foi observado no grupo controlado com medicação quando comparado ao grupo não controlado. O grupo controlado com cirurgia não apresentou diferença significativa no desempenho do QI quando comparado ao grupo controlado com medicação. CONCLUSÕES: As crianças com um bom controle de crises tiveram um melhor desempenho no QI geral, verbal e de execução quando comparadas às crianças com epilepsia refratária. Esses resultados podem ser influenciados por fatores clínicos como o uso de monoterapia, o tipo de droga antiepiléptica utilizada, a síndrome epiléptica e a etiologia da epilepsia. A cirurgia de epilepsia pode causar um impacto positivo no desempenho cognitivo das crianças que ficaram livres de crises após o procedimento cirúrgico.OBJECTIVE: To

  15. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  16. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  17. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  18. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  19. On Developing Business Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei

    1996-01-01

    Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…

  20. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  1. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket, and the play...

  2. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  3. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  4. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  5. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  6. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  7. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  8. Análisis comparado en materia de obligaciones entre el derecho romano y el derecho moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Martínez R. de C.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio dogmático de los conceptos antiguo y moderno de la "obligación", con especial referencia al Derecho romano, así como a las fuentes y clasificación de las mismas. Del mismo modo, se analiza la influencia del derecho romano en el Código civil venezolano, en materia de obligaciones. En este sentido, la definición romana ha predominado en el Derecho Moderno, incluso en la actualidad se puede afirmar que ha permanecido incólume dentro sus concepciones fundamentales. El método utilizado es el descriptivo y documental. Se concluye que las definiciones de las obligaciones en el Derecho Moderno se limitan a reproducir los principios inspiradores romanos y que nuestro Código civil recibió una fuerte influencia del Proyecto Franco-Italiano de las Obligaciones, en el cual se desarrolló el concepto y los efectos de determinadas figuras productoras de obligaciones.

  9. Producción de etanol a partir de diferentes materias primas. Un análisis comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Otero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los indicadores de eficiencia de la producción de etanol a partir de diferentes fuentes de carbono en uso actual o perspectivo en la industria alcoholera. Los rendimientos de producción de etanol por hectárea de tierra sembrada y por tonelada de cosecha se discuten para maíz, caña, remolacha azucarera y yuca (Manihot utilísima, resultando que en términos de rendimiento en litros/t de materia prima, el maíz supera al resto de los productos analizados en más del doble, alcanzando 400l/t. Un resultado similar arroja el rendimiento expresado en l/ha. El maíz alcanza un lugar intermedio en cuanto a costo, siendo muy similar a la remolacha azucarera y 6 veces más caro que el alcohol de caña. Cuando el análisis se llevó a litros por tonelada de producto, el maíz resultó ser la mejor selección.

  10. OXIDACIÓN DE MATERIA ORGÁNICA PERSISTENTE EN AGUAS RESIDUALES INDUSTRIALES MEDIANTE TRATAMIENTOS ELECTROQUÍMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Linares-Hernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue implementar un sistema electroquímico, mediante tratamientos de electrocoagulación, empleando electrodos de hierro y oxidación anódica directa (OAD, empleando electrodos de diamante dopados con boro (DDB, para tratar aguas residuales provenientes de una planta de tratamiento que recibe las descargas de 144 empresas de diferentes giros, de la zona industrial Toluca-Lerma, México. Los resultados de estos tratamientos, indicaron una remoción del 99% de la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO, 99% de color y 97% de turbidez, en un tiempo de 2 h. En el sistema acoplado, la electrocoagulación removió las partículas coloidales y suspendidas y la OAD, permitió la degradación de materia orgánica persistente. Se determinó la cantidad de lodos generados en el sistema y se caracterizaron por microscopia electrónica de barrido y análisis elemental. Se concluye que los métodos electroquímicos resultan ser aplicables y eficientes en la degradación compuestos que no son fácilmente biodegradables.

  11. CHIRAL FIELD IDEAS FOR A THEORY OF MATTER IDEAS DE CAMPO QUIRAL PARA UNA TEORÍA DE LA MATERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Torres-Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a chiral approach is used for developing a unified theory of electromagnetic and gravity fields. The photons which satisfy Maxwell's equations for an electromagnetic wave are taken as the basic physical components. The goal of the theory is to unify the phenomena of relativistic invariance, wave mechanics and pair creation with Maxwell's equation to obtain an electromagnetic field theory of matter. With this theory some aspects of GPS (Global Positioning Systems systems are discussed.En este trabajo, para el desarrollo de una teoría unificada de campos electromagnéticos y gravitacionales se usa un método quiral. Los fotones que satisfacen las ecuaciones de Maxwell, para una onda electromagnética se consideran como componentes físicos básicos. El objetivo de esta teoría es unificar el fenómeno de la invarianza relativística, mecánica de onda y la creación del par electrón positrón, con las ecuaciones de Maxwell, para obtener una teoría de la materia totalmente electromagnética. Considerando esta teoría se discuten algunos aspectos de los sistemas GPS (Global Positioning Systems.

  12. Success factors of Chinese restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Aakala, Liwen Heli

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the thesis fall into three aspects: 1) understanding Chinese entrepreneurship through some major aspects; such as, the characteristics of Chinese entrepreneur and successful skills needed; 2) scanning the Chinese culture that is associated with their entrepreneurial success in restaurant business as well as understanding the Finnish culture that affects Chinese restaurants’ presence in Finland; 3) acquainting with the competitive strategies that those Chinese restaurants emp...

  13. Materia prima para la manufactura. Su abastecimiento en Castelló a través de las actas del justicia (1416-1450)

    OpenAIRE

    Aparici Martí, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    A través de las actas del justicia de Castelló, y a falta de documentación notarial, podemos esbozar la circulación de materias primas para abastecer una incipiente manufactura que tendrá, en la producción de cueros y tejidos, sus principales vectores económicos en la primera mitad del siglo XV.

  14. The Contrast of Chinese and English in the Translation of Chinese Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Li

    2009-01-01

    Chinese poetry is the soul of Chinese literature and Chinese culture. A good translation of a Chinese verse can promote the prevalence of Chinese culture. In the translation of Chinese poetry, translators should not only keep the characteristics of Chinese poems, but also embody the English characteristics. This article analyzed some versions of translation and proposed factors affecting the translation of Chinese poetry.

  15. Lista de encabezamientos de materia de la Biblioteca del Congreso de los Estados Unidos: características generales Library of Congress subject headings: general characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Salta

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe los aspectos históricos y las bases sobre las que se constituyeron los Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH. Se presentan los diferentes formatos en que se manifiestan así como las formas que adoptan sus encabezamientos de materia, sus diversas subdivisiones y su estructura sindética. Se contemplan, además, el orden de cita de los encabezamientos de materia así como una descripción de Bilindex, lista bilingüe de encabezamientos de materia en español equivalentes a los encabezamientos en inglés de los LCSH.The article describes the historical aspects and principles of the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH. It shows their several formats and features adopted by their subject headings, its several subdivisions and syndetic structure. It also provides the citation order of subject headings and a Bilindex description, a list of bilingual Spanish-English subject headings equivalent to LCSH.

  16. Interações farmacológicas entre medicações clínicas e psiquiátricas Drug interactions among clinical and psychiatric drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Marcolin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO/JUSTIFICATIVA: Estudos apontam as reações adversas graves (ADR como uma das seis causas de morte em pacientes hospitalizados nos EUA, sendo que das ADR, a mais freqüente inclui as Interações Medicamentosas (IM. MÉTODOS: foram cruzadas 20 medicações mais utilizadas em andares clínicos do Hospital Universitário São Lucas da PUCRS com 14 medicações mais utilizadas no Ambulatório de Depressão do HSL-PUCRS; pesquisou-se no Medline e Lilacs a partir de 1990. RESULTADOS: foram encontradas diversas IM com muitas das medicações estudadas, envolvendo freqüentemente o Sistema Citocromo P450. CONCLUSÕES: conclui-se que a atualização sobre as medicações utilizadas em nossa prática clínica vai muito além dos efeitos esperados e efeitos colaterais mais freqüentes.BACKGROUND/JUSTIFICATION: Studies point up the serious adverse reactions (ADR as one of the six main causes of death of hospitalized patients in the United States. The most frequent ADR include the drug interaction. METHODS: twenty most used medications were compared, in a certain period of time, at the clinical sector of São Lucas Universitary Hospital of PUC-RS, to the fourteen most used ones at the Ambulatório de Depressão (ADe of the same hospital. The research gathered information published since 1990 in Medline and Lilacs. RESULTS: several drug interactions were found among many of the studied medications, often involving the Cytochrome P450 System. CONCLUSION: the update of the medication on clinic use goes further than the expected results or the most frequent collateral effects.

  17. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  18. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  19. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  20. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  1. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  2. Traditional Chinese biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed. PMID:19888561

  3. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  4. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  5. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  6. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-01-01

    China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will d...

  7. Country Review: Chinese Taipei

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    2008-01-01

    This report, prepared by the Secretariat of the OECD was the basis for a peer review examination of Chinese Taipei at the OECD’s Global Forum on Competition on 9 February, 2006. Competition law in Chinese Taipei has been an important element of the program of economic reforms that moved the economy from centrally directed emphasis on manufacturing and exports to a market-driven emphasis on services and high technology. The competition law follows mainstream practice about restrictive agreemen...

  8. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  9. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  10. Chemical composition and bioactivity of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, Federica; Tundis, Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; de Cindio, Bruno; Loizzo, Monica R; Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo A; Menabeni, Roberta; Bettini, Ruggero; Menichini, Francesco

    2011-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante peel obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction techniques was determined by GC/MS analysis. Forty-six components were fully characterised. Limonene and γ-terpinene were the major components of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and cold-pressing (CP), while citropten was the major constituent in the oil obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities were evaluated. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation exerted the highest inhibitory activity against BChE (IC₅₀ value of 154.6 µg mL⁻¹) and AChE (IC₅₀ value of 171.3 µg mL⁻¹. Interestingly, the oil obtained by cold-pressing exhibited a selective inhibitory activity against AChE. The essential oils have also been evaluated for the inhibition of NO production in LPS induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The oil obtained by hydrodistillation exerted a significant inhibition of NO production with an IC₅₀ value of 17 µg mL⁻¹ (IC₅₀ of positive control 53 µg mL⁻¹). PMID:21337254

  11. Secretory Cavity Development and Its Relationship with the Accumulation of Essential Oil in Fruits of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She-Jian Liang; Hong Wu; Xuan Lun; Dong-Wen Lu

    2006-01-01

    The developmental types of secretory cavities in Citrus remain controversial. The relationship between secretory cavity development and the accumulation of essential oil in fruits of Citrus species is also unknown. In order to develop better insights into these problems, histological, histochemical, and cytochemical methods were used to investigate secretory cavity development and the accumulation of essential oil at different developmental stages of fruits of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle.The results indicate that the secretory cavity of the variety seemed to originate from an epidermal cell and a subepidermal cell. These two cells underwent successive divisions, resulting in the formation of two parts: (i) a conical cap; and (ii) a globular gland. The formation of the lumen was schizolysigenous. Regular changes in the size of vacuoles and the accumulation of essential oil were revealed during the process of secretory cavity development. In addition, when fruits were a light yellow or golden color, the structure of secretory cavities was well developed and the content of essential oil in a single fruit reached a maximum. It would be most appropriate to collect the fruit as a medicinal material at this time.

  12. Evaluation of calcium ion, hydroxyl ion release and pH levels in various calcium hydroxide based intracanal medicaments: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punit Fulzele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Evaluation of calcium ion and hydroxyl ion release and pH levels in various calcium hydroxide based intracanal medicaments. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate calcium and hydroxyl ion release and pH levels of calcium hydroxide based products, namely, RC Cal, Metapex, calcium hydroxide with distilled water, along with the new gutta-percha points with calcium hydroxide. Materials and Methods: The materials were inserted in polyethylene tubes and immersed in deionized water. The pH variation, Ca ++ and OH− release were monitored periodically for 1 week. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey′s post hoc tests with PASW Statistics version 18 software to compare the statistical difference. Results: After 1 week, calcium hydroxide with distilled water and RC Cal raised the pH to 12.7 and 11.8, respectively, while a small change was observed for Metapex, calcium hydroxide gutta-percha points. The calcium released after 1 week was 15.36 mg/dL from RC Cal, followed by 13.04, 1.296, 3.064 mg/dL from calcium hydroxide with sterile water, Metapex and calcium hydroxide gutta-percha points, respectively. Conclusions: Calcium hydroxide with sterile water and RC Cal pastes liberate significantly more calcium and hydroxyl ions and raise the pH higher than Metapex and calcium hydroxidegutta-percha points.

  13. Chinese boxes: "Typhoon" and Conrad's history of the Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D.

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the novel "Typhoon," by Joseph Conrad, as a story about Chinamen coolies and seamen onboard a steamer transporting Chinese laborers. It argues that the Chinese boxes of the coolies represent several versions of the history of the Chinese and that the coolies are also representatives of a civilization with ideas and institutions, a law and order of nature. It also describes the images of Chinese life and their association to sociality, cooperation, nourishment, simplicity, ...

  14. Teaching Chinese Negotiating Style through Examination of Key Chinese Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Dan

    This study examined different shades of meaning that a single word may have in Chinese in an effort to better understand the relationship between language and culture. An understanding of the exact meaning of Chinese words and expressions can greatly assist non-Chinese in understanding both the language and the society as a whole. A total of 102…

  15. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  16. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  17. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  18. Supporting Chinese Speaking Skills Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Ursula; Shi, Lijing

    2013-01-01

    Chinese is considered a difficult language to learn by most Western learners, yet recently more and more people are learning Chinese, and increasingly teaching is delivered online. Due to the nature of Chinese and the complexity of online learning, research has not yet produced sufficient information on students' and teachers' interaction during…

  19. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  20. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  1. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  2. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  3. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us that......Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...

  4. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  5. El ensayo Ars Medica de John Locke, y la influencia de sus ideas médicas sobre la filosofía empirista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez González, Miguel Ángel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available John Locke’s essay Ars medica of 1669, is presented, analyzed and translated into Spanish. This essay shows the medical problems that prompted Locke´s philosophy and provides essential clues to understanding the motives, aims and characteristics of the empiricist`s theory of knowledge. Ideas originated in medicine that profoundly influenced subsequent Locke`s works were: 1 Trust in the perfectibility of science and elucidation of the role that philosophical thinking could play. 2 Rejection of knowledge deduced from principles, hypotheses or maxims. 3 Reliance on a «plain historical method» for the production of knowledge, which tried to register facts descriptively, while abandoning the study of ultimate causes. 4 Use of a three-part classification of the sciences that enthrones semiotics, medical science par excellence, and defines it as a mere knowledge of the signs of things, that is not intended to discern either essences or substances. Locke, in his epistemology, applies to all scientific knowledge the medical theory of the signs of illnesses. He envisions all possible science as a mere descriptive knowledge of signs; and thinks that knowledge is probabilistic, analogous and pragmatic.Se presenta, analiza y traduce por primera vez al castellano, el ensayo Ars Medica escrito por John Locke en 1669. Este ensayo muestra los problemas médicos que dieron origen al conjunto de la filosofía de Locke; y ofrece claves esenciales para comprender los motivos, las metas y los rasgos de la teoría del conocimiento empirista. Ideas originariamente médicas que tuvieron una repercusión directa en la obra posterior de Locke fueron: 1 Confianza en la perfectibilidad de la ciencia y elucidación del papel que la reflexión filosófica podía desempeñar en ello. 2 Rechazo del conocimiento deducido de principios, hipótesis o máximas. 3 El método «histórico simple» para edificar el conocimiento; que intentaba registrar los hechos descriptivamente

  6. Midazolam oral como medicação pré-anestésica em blefaroplastias Oral sedation with midazolam in blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Dantas Rodrigues Gonçalves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e a segurança do emprego oral de midazolam (15 mg como medicação pré-anestésica em pacientes submetidos a blefaroplastias. MÉTODOS: Foi desenvolvido um ensaio clínico prospectivo, duplo cego, randomizado, controlado com 42 pacientes, risco ASA I e II, divididos em três grupos de 14 pacientes: grupo M (midazolam 15 mg, grupo P (placebo e grupo SM (sem medicação. Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto ao grau de sedação e dor intraoperatórias e variação entre os períodos pré e transoperatórios da ansiedade, pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica, frequência respiratória e pulso. RESULTADOS: A análise de variância unifatorial com teste de Tukey mostrou que a administração de midazolam ocasionou uma redução significativa da pressão arterial sistólica e da frequência respiratória no período transoperatório em relação aos pacientes que utilizaram placebo ou não fizeram uso de medicamento. Esses efeitos foram discretos e acompanhados de diminuição na percepção da dor, discreta sedação e redução da ansiedade. CONCLUSÃO: A sedação via oral com midazolam em pacientes submetidos a cirurgias palpebrais demonstrou ser eficiente de fácil aplicação e com mínimos efeitos sistêmicos.PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and usefulness of the use of oral sedation with midazolam (15 mg in patients submitted to blepharoplasty. METHODS: Randomized double-blind prospective study of 42 patients (surgical risk ASA I and II divided into three groups of 14 patients each: Group M (midazolam 15 mg, group P (placebo and group SM (no medication. All patients were evaluated according to the degree of sedation and pain during surgery and the variation of anxiety between the preoperative and intraoperative period, arterial pressure (systolic-SAP and diastolic-DAP, respiratory frequency (RF and pulsation. RESULTS: Unifatorial variance analysis with Tukey test demonstrated that the use of midazolam

  7. Vitalismo - Materia - Affermazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Braidotti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper (transcription of a lesson given in Bologna on October 21, 2014 is centred in the discussion of the recent book of Braidotti, The Posthuman. It touches the issues of digital 'second life', genetically modified food, advanced prosthetics, robotics and reproductive technologies as facets of our globally linked and technologically mediated societies. From the discussion of the model of Humanism, passing through the question “are women human?”, she poses several questions about the meaning of our specie, also examining several forms of violence and injus-­‐‑ tice of current societies.

  8. A acetamida de pirrolidona como medicação auxiliar no tratamento da paralisia cerebral Pyrrolidone acetamide as an auxiliary drug in the treatment of cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Salete Pinheiro Chagas Ribeiro

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinte crianças, com diagnóstico de paralisia cerebral (PC e sob tratamento clássico, fisioterápico e pedagógico, receberam piracetam (acetamida de pirrolidona como medicação auxiliar. O objetivo foi melhorar os problemas de espasticidade, apredizagem, neurolabilidade, visando a um rendimento melhor do tratamento global da PC. O grupo medicado foi comparado com um grupo controle de 20 crianças que só eram objeto do tratamento habitual. A comparação mostrou resultados favoráveis no grupo medicado. A droga foi administrada na dose de 80 mg/kg/dia durante 10 semanas. Os critérios de avaliação dos resultados foram psicológicos, clínico, fisioterápico e pedagógico. A droga foi administrada em nova forma de apresentação: solução, para uso oral, a 6%.Twenty children, with the diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP and under classical, physiotherapeutical and pedagogical, treatment, received piracetam (pyrrolidine acetamide as an auxiliary drug. The goal was to better spasticity, learning and nervous instability problems aiming at better results of over-all treatment of CP. The group that received the drug has been compared to a control group of 20 children treated by the customary treatment only. The comparison showed favourable results for the medicated group. The drug was administered in the dose of 80 mg/kg/day during 10 weeks. The criteria for evaluation have been psychological, clinical, physiotherapeutical and pedagogical. The drug has been given in a new form of presentation: 6% solution for oral use.

  9. Avaliação de ações ecologicamente sustentáveis no processo de medicação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Oliveira Furukawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: analisar ações sustentáveis do ponto de vista ambiental no processo de medicação, desde o recebimento da prescrição pela farmácia até o descarte de resíduos pela enfermagem. Método: estudo antes e depois realizado por meio da metodologia Lean Seis Sigma. A amostra constitui-se da quantidade e tipo de resíduos resultantes dos serviços de farmácia e de enfermagem de uma unidade clínica médico-cirúrgica. Resultados: após intervenção, obteve-se na farmácia uma redução de 74,8% dos resíduos químicos, infectantes e perfurocortantes, com aumento de 33,3% dos comuns recicláveis e de 20% de comuns não recicláveis. Na enfermagem houve uma redução de 22,5% dos resíduos químicos, infectantes e perfurocortantes, um aumento de 22,9% dos comuns recicláveis e um aumento de 20% dos comuns não recicláveis. Conclusão: é possível a prática de ações sustentáveis no hospital, contribuindo para a otimização de recursos e geração de resíduos, com benefícios à instituição, ao meio ambiente e à saúde da população.

  10. IPP (INNOVACIÓN EN PRODUCTOS Y PROCESOS PARA EL SECTOR DE LAS MATERIAS PRIMAS MINERALES Y ENERGÉTICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORREA ESPINAL ALEXANDER

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo proscrita los resultados del proyecto ce Investigación IPP (Innovación ce Procesos y Productos que plantea un análisis profundo y sistémico de las cadenas productivas, basado en el estudio de la productividad y los procesos. Este proyecto se trabajo en 4 fases: Inteligencia, Experimentación. Innovación y Apropiación tecnológica. Estas etapas están dirigidas al mejoramiento continuo ce los procesos, de los productos ce la organización y de las interacciones entre los actores de la cadena productiva de las materias primas minerales y energéticas. En la fase de inteligencia, se estudiaron las características, las ecesidades. el mercado y el entorno de la cadena productiva que son el resultado del aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales y del ambiente En la segunda fase, se caracterizó la formulación, diseño c implantación ce prototipos de procesos y productos que emulen el comportamiento del proceso en un sistema real y sean amigables con el medio ambiente. Teniendo en cuenta las dos primeras fases, la tercera se caracterizó por la formulación y el diseño ce nuevos procesos y productos que mejoren la eficiencia y la productividad. En la última fase del proyecto, se planteó el servicio de apropiación tecnológica que busca transferir innovación y conocimiento de punta a la cadena. Finalmente el resultado ce IPP es la propuesta de un centro de innovación y tecnología en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, que garantizará la apropiación y adecuación de las soluciones a las cadenas productivas, siendo una innovación para el sector de la minería, los materiales y la energía, y teniendo como principios, productos y procesos amigables con el ambiente.

  11. Valorización de cascote cerámico como sustituto de materias primas para tejas de hormigón

    OpenAIRE

    Marín, Félix P.; Sánchez de Rojas, María Isabel; Rivera Lozano, Julián; Frías Rojas, Moisés

    2005-01-01

    [ES] El cascote es un material de desecho procedente de productos cerámicos o de la elaboración de los mismos que puede ser reciclado dentro del sector de la construcción, ya sea como árido o como adición del cemento con propiedades puzolánicas. El trabajo aborda la valorización de cascote, procedente de fábricas de tejas, ladrillos y elementos estructurales de arcilla cocida, para utilizarlo como sustitución parcial de dos tipos de materias primas, áridos y cemento, utilizadas para la ...

  12. Uso de un filtro anaeróbico sumergido en la remoción de materia orgánica de aguas residuales municipales. Resultados preliminares

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Ávila Soto; José Luís González Bucio; José Alfonso Canche Uuh; Graciano Calva Calva; Juan Carlos Avila Reveles; Norma Angélica Oropeza García; José Manuel Carrión Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    La eficiencia de Biorremediación de aguas residuales de tipo municipal por sistemas anaeróbicos depende, entre otros factores, de temperaturas entre 35-40 °C, lo cual representa un problema real para aplicar esta tecnología en lugares con climas cálidos y fríos como Chetumal, Quintana Roo. En este trabajo se evaluó el desempeño de un biorreactor de filtro anaeróbico sumergido (SAF) para la eliminación de la materia orgánica de las aguas residuales municipales de Chetumal durante los períodos ...

  13. Procedimiento para la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos asociados a la recuperación de materias primas en Cienfuegos, Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    David Javier Castro Rodríguez; Osmay Tejeda Sánchez; Omar Gutiérrez Benítez

    2016-01-01

    El reciclaje constituye una actividad priorizada en Cuba. El objetivo fue implementar un procedimiento para la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos asociados a los procesos operativos de la Empresa de Recuperación de Materias Primas de Cienfuegos. El procedimiento se construyó utilizando la propuesta del Instituto Andaluz de Tecnología para la gestión por procesos y los ocho pasos en la solución de problemas. Se combinaron herramientas de gestión bajo el principio de convergencia met...

  14. Propuesta de una materia de educación para el ocio en el contexto universitario del Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente

    OpenAIRE

    Viesca-Lobatón, Amalia

    2004-01-01

    El presente trabajo consiste en la propuesta de una materia de educación del ocio dirigida a estudiantes universitarios. Dicha propuesta esta construida para el caso de Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente, ITESO, la universidad de la Compañía de Jesús en Guadalajara, México. Está dividida en tres capítulos. El primero aborda la relación del ocio y la educación integral. A partir de la reforma curricular en el ITESO, se ponen en la mesa de discusión una serie de situaci...

  15. Escuela electoral y de gobernabilidad: espacio de reflexión política y alta formación en materia electoral, de democracia y gobernabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Virgilio Hurtado Cruz

    2012-01-01

    En el presente artículo se realiza una breve explicación sobre las razones que motivaron al Pleno del Jurado Nacional de Elecciones (JNE) de Perú a crear la Escuela Electoral y de Gobernabilidad (ESEG) como organismo encargado de brindar espacios de alta formación en materia electoral, de democracia y de gobernabilidad. En tal sentido se abordan sus principios, objetivos, programas, ubicación dentro de la estructura del JNE, así como las razones que explican el diseño de su org...

  16. Integración didáctica de las TIC en la materia "Técnicas e Instrumentos de Diagnóstico"

    OpenAIRE

    García Pérez, Rafael, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una innovación realizada en el marco de una materia del Plan de Estudios de Pedagogía, en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación de la Universidad de Sevilla. Particularmente, trata el proceso de organización didáctica y diseño de un sistema de Teleformación para la asignatura “Técnicas e Instrumentos de Diagnóstico”, emplazada en el tercer curso de la carrera. Dicho sistema se elabora como un nuevo medio de enseñanza que sirve para apoyar el trabajo de las...

  17. Descripción y análisis de las reescrituras y versiones de la materia cidiana al servicio de la mediación lectora

    OpenAIRE

    Daparte Jorge, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    La proliferación de una «literatura en segundo grado» (Genette) en los siglos XX y XXI es una prueba inequívoca del relieve que han adquirido factores del sistema literario distintos del producto, de manera singular el mercado, el consumidor y las interferencias con otros sistemas. Tomando como ejemplo la materia cidiana, en general, y el Cantar de Mio Cid, en particular, se aplican los instrumentos de análisis sobre la intertextualidad y la paratextualidad propuest...

  18. Perfil comparado de los alumnos que cursan la materia Estadística Aplicada a la Psicología : Cohortes 1999-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Neer, Rosa Haydée; Lopetegui, María Susana; Loiácono, Leticia; Oleastro, Raquel María

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo es el producto del análisis de los resultados obtenidos en cuestionarios administrados a los alumnos que cursan la asignatura de segundo año: Estadística Aplicada a la Psicología, en los años 1999 y 2009, respectivamente. La utilización de este cuestionario ha tenido, a lo largo de los años, un doble propósito. El primero pedagógico que incluyó a los alumnos que cursaban la materia, como participantes de una situación vivencial de respondientes a un cuestionario elaborado ...

  19. Referencias al aparato digestivo en los textos de materia médica impresos en España durante el Renacimiento y recuperados en bibliotecas digitales.

    OpenAIRE

    León Molina, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    La tesis pretende identificar referencias al aparato digestivo en textos de materia médica impresos en España durante el Renacimiento. Describe el marco histórico, incluyendo la medicina de la época. Partiendo de la bibliografía se identifican autores y textos impresos en los albores de la imprenta y se intenta recuperar en bibliotecas digitales. Se estima, a priori, que al menos el 75% de los textos identificados deberían poder ser recuperados en la Red Informática Mundial y que al menos el ...

  20. Las podas de olivo como materia prima para la producción de derivados de las hemicelulosas, pastas celulósicas y bioetanol

    OpenAIRE

    Requejo Silva, Ana

    2012-01-01

    La fabricación de papel implica dos etapas: obtención de pasta y formación de hojas. La obtención de pasta consiste en la transformación de las materias primas en fibras celulósicas aisladas en una suspensión acuosa diluida, mediante la separación de la lignina, que es el agente que, a modo de cemento, aglomera las fibras y fija su posición. En la formación de hojas de papel, la pasta, tratada convenientemente para desarrollar algunas propiedades características, se somete a op...

  1. Modelo de jerarquización de zonas prioritarias de recepción de subvenciones en materia de turismo rural en Andalucia

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Blancas Peral; Guerrero Casas, Flor María

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es establecer una jerarquía de actuación pública que determine las zonas prioritarias de recepción de subvenciones en materia de Turismo Rural en Andalucía. Para ello, presentamos un modelo de jerarquización zonal multicriterio que utiliza como procedimiento de ordenación el método PROMETHEE II. Una vez definidos los elementos del problema de decisión (objetivo global, criterios de decisión y alternativas) y determinados los pesos relativos otorgados por el ce...

  2. Recomendaciones para la mejora del subsistema científico-técnico español en materia de salud y seguridad en el trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Observatorio de Salud Laboral

    2005-01-01

    Convocado por el Observatorio de Salud Laboral, se celebró un Taller deexpertos con un doble objetivo: 1) Presentar y debatir el informe “Subsistemascientífico-técnicos de apoyo a las políticas de salud y seguridad en el trabajo.Estudio comparativo de diferentes países”, elaborado por el OSL y que se publicacomo anexo a este documento. 2) Realizar recomendaciones para la mejora delsubsistema científico-técnico español en materia de salud y seguridad en eltrabajo.Asisten al citado Taller de Ex...

  3. LA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL EN EL BACHILLERATO: EL CASO DE LOS DOCENTES QUE IMPARTEN LA MATERIA DE ECOLOGÍA, PUEBLA-TLAXCALA (MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Espejel Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los diferentes problemas que ocurren en el medio educativo han sido abordados desde diversos enfoques de análisis. Esta diversidad disciplinaria se deriva de la complejidad de situaciones estudiadas y es resultado de la dificultad en la definición de "lo educativo" como un campo metodológico y teórico (Bertely, 2004. Una de estas situaciones complejas es la Educación Ambiental (EA, que atañe a esta investigación. El objetivo de este artículo es conocer los alcances y las limitaciones de la práctica de la EA para promover y construir una conciencia ambiental entre alumnos del Bachillerato, así como, estimular iniciativas proambientales. La aproximación metodológica adoptada es la Etnografía Institucional (EI aplicada a la Educación Ambiental, la cual permitirá por un lado retratar la realidad lo más fidedigna posible, y por otro lado, adoptar este retrato a otras situaciones que ocurren en contextos institucionales similares. Entre los resultados encontramos que: (a los docentes no tienen el perfil deseable para enseñar el curso de Ecología y ellos no tienen los conocimientos ambientales básicos; (b el programa de estudios en la materia de Ecología ha sido creado de manera superficial y muy general; (c el curso de Ecología es nominal y (d la materia de Ecología es impartida en periodos de tiempo cortos y regida por una modalidad preferentemente teórica que práctica. En general, las limitaciones formativas de los docentes y las debilidades de los contenidos programáticos de la materia restringen abordar con interés y dimensionar la problemática ambiental. En consecuencia, se genera en el alumnado una formación sin actitudes y valores ambientales. El profesorado fracasa en su intención de lograr generar estudiantes con conciencia ambiental, propósito central de la materia de Ecología.

  4. Consecuencias ecológicas del enriquecimiento por materia orgánica procedente de la acuicultura y de vertidos de petróleo en ecosistemas costeros

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Lázaro, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis es estudiar el efecto del enriquecimiento por materia orgánica producida por el cultivo de peces en el mar y por los vertidos de petróleo en el medio marino. Este trabajo intenta explicar las consecuencias ecológicas de los impactos generados por este tipo de contaminación, y en diseñar de test de toxicidad para evaluar la contaminación en el sur de las costas europeas. Específicamente, en relación con el impacto de la acuicultura, los estudios de recuperación durant...

  5. EL MARCO JURÍDICO COMERCIAL EN MATERIA DE PROPIEDAD INTELECTUAL Y PATENTES: EL CASO DE LA INDUSTRIA FARMACÉUTICA MEXICANA

    OpenAIRE

    MIER URIBE, IXIQUIE MARGARITA

    2012-01-01

    En esta investigación se realiza un análisis económico del derecho en materia de propiedad intelectual, enfocado al impacto que tiene la utilización de patentes en la industria farmacéutica en términos de la participación de mercado que tienen las empresas de esta industria, la determinación de precios y la accesibilidad de la población a los medicamentos. Este análisis se realiza mediante la aplicación de la dinámica de sistemas desde una perspectiva cualitativa que nos permit...

  6. Cambios en crecimiento, producción y distribución de materia seca por efecto de promotores de brotación en durazno

    OpenAIRE

    Canales Sosa, Eloy

    2012-01-01

    Para ofrecer un mejor producto para inducir brotación en durazno, además de la necesidad de nuevos y más eficientes promotores de brotación, es importante documentar su efecto sobre la fisiología de la planta completa y la respuesta en crecimiento. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar la respuesta en el crecimiento y acumulación y partición de materia seca, así como la producción de fruto en plantas completas de durazno sometidas a aplicación de ...

  7. Caracterización de la materia particulada de la línea de aguas residuales de un sistema de humedales construidos

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano Morón, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Caracterización de la materia particulada de la línea de aguas residuales de un sistema de humedales construidos, mediante la valoración de la distribución de partículas, la demanda química de oxigeno, la demanada biológica de oxigeno, tanto en condiciones aeróbicas como anaeróbicas. Puesto en práctica en la planta experimental del laboratorio de ingenieria sanitaria y ambiental de la UPC.

  8. Influencia del estado físico de la materia orgánica en la eficiencia de humedales construidos de flujo subsuperficial

    OpenAIRE

    Corzo Hernández, Angelica

    2004-01-01

    Los humedales construidos de flujo subsuperficial son sistemas naturales que sirven para el tratamiento de aguas residuales. Sus componentes básicamente son un lecho de gravas, plantas emergentes y agua residual, la cual circula a través de la grava sin aflorar a la superfície; por otra parte, los contaminantes que trae el agua residual son degradados por una biopelícula adherida a la grava. La materia orgánica es uno de los principales contaminantes, por esta razón en este etudio se evalúa l...

  9. Desarrollo de metodología para la determinación de la digestibilidad de materias primas no convencionales en cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo Restrepo, Laura Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo pretendió, adaptar la metodología de stripping (masaje abdominal), para recolectar heces fecales de Cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus, y determinar la digestibilidad fecal aparente de combinaciones de cuatro materias primas no convencionales: caupí, bore, zapallo y yuca, en cuatro dietas, con un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, en la Granja Académica y Experimental El Cairo, de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Orinoquia, en Arauca (Arauca). Durante su ...

  10. Hacia un diseño dirigido por el alumno de materiales audiovisuales para el autoaprendizaje en la materia sistemas operativos

    OpenAIRE

    Therón-Sánchez, Roberto; Miguel Quintales, Luis Antonio; González Talaván, Guillermo; Gil González, Ana Belén

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto es involucrar al alumno en la generación de materiales audiovisuales para la materia Sistemas Operativos. La experiencia del equipo en esfuerzos previos de implantación de sistemas y metodologías que faciliten el autoaprendizaje a puesto de manifiesto la principal debilidad de los mismos: aunque estos han sido siempre elaborados teniendo en cuenta al alumno, siempre se tratado como un sujeto pasivo en el proceso de desarrollo de materiales, lo que supone...

  11. Retención y disponibilidad de fósforo asociado a la materia orgánica en un Typic Melanudands del departamento del Cauca, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Bravo; Juan Carlos Montoya; Juan Carlos Menjivar

    2013-01-01

    En el departamento del Cauca, Colombia, en un Typic Melanudands cultivado con café (Coffea arabica) y guamo (Inga spuria) como sombrío, se evaluó el efecto de la materia orgánica (M.O.) sobre la retención y disponibilidad de fósforo (P), mediante isotermas elaboradas a partir de la ecuación de Langmuir linealizada por Scatchard y empleando el método propuesto por Fox y Kamprath (1970). Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con 60 tratamientos, generados a partir de cinco dosis de P por s...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT AND CLINICAL RESEARCH OF THREATENED ABORTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-xia; XIE Gan-gong

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors review recent development of acupuncture treatment of threatened abortion from 1) clinical application of "Linggui Bafa"(灵龟八法Eight Methods of Intelligent Turtle), 2) body acupoints, and 3) acupuncture combined with Chinese materia medica, and clinical study from 1) effect of acupuncture on the blood flow of uterus, and 2) effect of acupuncture on plasma progesterone level. In addition, acupuncture therapy is also used to help women in gestation and can effectively raise the pregnant rate. "Linggui Bafa" is rather effective in preventing threatened abortion and should be studied further.

  13. Biodegradable mesoporous calcium–magnesium silicate-polybutylene succinate scaffolds for osseous tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang X; Zhang C; Xu W; Zhong B; Lin F; Zhang J; Wang Q; Ji J.; Wei J; Zhang Y

    2015-01-01

    Xinxin Zhang,1,2,* Chi Zhang,3,* Wei Xu,1,* Biao Zhong,3 Feng Lin,3 Jian Zhang,3 Quanxiang Wang,4 Jiajin Ji,4 Jie Wei,4 Yang Zhang1 1TongRen Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 4Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic ...

  14. AB27. Introduction to Asian Journal of Andrology

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Danqing

    2014-01-01

    Asian Journal of Andrology (AJA, http://www.asiaandro.com) is an international peer-reviewed open access journal. It is sponsored by the Shanghai Institute of MateriaMedica at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Its Editor-in-Chief is Prof Yi-Fei Wang who is an internationally well-known reproductive expert. Its recent SCI Impact factor is 2.140. It could become higher this year. AJA warmly welcome submissions in English from all of the world. With a focus on ne...

  15. HPLC Fingerprint and LC/MS/MS Identification of the Active Components in Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU,Ping; LIANG,Qiong-Lin; LUO,Guo-An; JIANG,Zhi-Hong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (丹参, RSM), an important Chinese Materia Medica, is widely used for cardiovascular diseases in China. Phenolic compounds[1] and diterpenoids[2] which are the major constituents of RSM have been reported to protect myocardium against ischemia-induced derangement, protect neural cells against injuries caused by anoxia,inhibit platelet aggregation, reduce hepatic fibrosis and depress the activities of HIV-1.[3] For the purposes of establishing quality standard of RSM and studying the relationship between the pharmacological activities and quantities of constituents, we conducted studies on HPLC fingerprint and LC-MS-MS identification of the active constituents of RSM.

  16. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  17. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  18. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  19. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  20. Chinese Lacquer Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengXiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the

  1. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming;

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  2. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  3. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  4. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Corbiere

    2013-01-01

    <正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in

  5. Cataloging Pirated Chinese Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sze-Tseng

    1971-01-01

    Various types of pirated Chinese books are given with specific examples. The basic steps followed for the proper identification of these books is described, and remedies suggested in case the original is discovered after the book has been cataloged according to the information given by the book pirate. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  6. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  7. Antipanic drugs and pulmonary function in panic disorder patients Medicação antipânico e função pulmonar em pacientes com transtorno de pânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies suggest an association between panic disorder (PD and impairment of lung function. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate lung function in 11 asymptomatic PD patients and to investigate antipanic drug effects on respiratory function. METHOD: Lung function was evaluated on two different occasions (with antipanic drugs and after drug washout. It was comprised of a spirometric evaluation and a bronchodilation test (salbutamol inhalation. Subjective Units of Disturbance Scale (SUDS was applied before and after each spirometric assessment. RESULTS: One patient showed mild obstructive airway impairment. Before bronchodilation test forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the forced vital capacity (FEF25-75 were significantly higher in patients on antipanic drugs than in those in the washout period. After salbutamol inhalation, only FEV1 was significantly higher in patients with antipanic drugs in comparison to the other group, whereas a significant increase in FEV1 and FEF25-75 after salbutamol inhalation was detected in patients without antipanic drugs. The subjective anxiety level was not different among PD patients in both test days. DISCUSSION: These results suggest a possible beneficial effect of the antipanic drug on lung function in PD patients.CONTEXTO: Estudos sugerem uma associação entre transtorno de pânico (TP e prejuízos na função pulmonar. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a função pulmonar em 11 pacientes com TP assintomáticos e investigar efeitos da medicação antipânico na função respiratória. MÉTODO: A função pulmonar foi avaliada em duas ocasiões diferentes (com medicação antipânico e após "washout". Consistiu de uma avaliação espirométrica e do teste de broncodilatação (inalação de salbutamol. Subjective Units of Disturbance Scale (SUDS foi aplicada antes e após cada teste espirométrico. RESULTADOS: Um paciente apresentou obstrução leve de vias aéreas. Antes

  8. Medicação antipânico e função pulmonar em pacientes com transtorno de pânico Antipanic drugs and pulmonary function in panic disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Estudos sugerem uma associação entre transtorno de pânico (TP e prejuízos na função pulmonar. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a função pulmonar em 11 pacientes com TP assintomáticos e investigar efeitos da medicação antipânico na função respiratória. MÉTODO: A função pulmonar foi avaliada em duas ocasiões diferentes (com medicação antipânico e após "washout". Consistiu de uma avaliação espirométrica e do teste de broncodilatação (inalação de salbutamol. Subjective Units of Disturbance Scale (SUDS foi aplicada antes e após cada teste espirométrico. RESULTADOS: Um paciente apresentou obstrução leve de vias aéreas. Antes do teste de broncodilatação, o volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 e o fluxo expiratório forçado entre 25% e 75% da capacidade vital forçada (FEF25-75 foram significativamente maiores em pacientes com medicação antipânico do que no período de "washout". Após a inalação de salbutamol, apenas o VEF1 foi significativamente maior em pacientes com medicação antipânico em comparação ao outro grupo, embora tenha sido detectado aumento significativo em VEF1 e FEF25-75 em pacientes sem medicação antipânico depois da inalação de salbutamol. O nível de ansiedade subjetiva não foi diferente entre os pacientes em ambos os dias de testes. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem uma possível ação benéfica da medicação antipânico na função pulmonar em pacientes com TP.BACKGROUND: Studies suggest an association between panic disorder (PD and impairment of lung function. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate lung function in 11 asymptomatic PD patients and to investigate antipanic drug effects on respiratory function. METHOD: Lung function was evaluated on two different occasions (with antipanic drugs and after drug washout. It was comprised of a spirometric evaluation and a bronchodilation test (salbutamol inhalation. Subjective Units of Disturbance Scale (SUDS was applied before and

  9. Caracterização dos idosos usuários de medicação residentes em instituição de longa permanência

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Os objetivos deste estudo foram caracterizar os idosos residentes em uma Instituição de Longa Permanência quanto ao uso de medicamentos e verificar a existência de polifarmácia. Trata-se de estudo descritivo e quantitativo, realizado por meio de dados de um banco originado da pesquisa Perfil de idosos residentes numa Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos (ILPIs): proposta de ação de enfermagem/saúde. Foram selecionados 39 idosos que faziam uso de medicação. Os achados evidenciaram pred...

  10. 论中国文化对酒的辩证认识%Dialectical Cognition of Wine in Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁瑞; 周聃; 郭旭

    2015-01-01

    酒在中国文化中的地位极为特殊,古人对酒充满了看似矛盾却辩证统一的认识。从其诞生之日起,酒这种美味的饮料就被人们赋予了原罪意识以警示后世。认识到酒在礼乐制度建构与医药上的积极作用的同时,也对酒的负面意义有着清醒的认知,对我们正确认识酒具有不可低估的意义。%Wine has a very special position in Chinese culture. Ancient Chinese cognition of wine is seemingly contradictory but actually dialec-tical unified. Since the birth of wine, it has been endowed with original sin by people. Accordingly, except the positive roles of wine in medica-tion and in the building of rites and music system, people should also be aware of the negative significance of wine.

  11. Exploration of Clinical Pharmacy Model for Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital%中医医院开展临床中药学工作初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓玲; 朱江; 陈丽华

    2014-01-01

    In this paper , the current status of the development of clinical pharmacy in our hospital ( as a type A of grade two hospital of traditional Chinese medicine ) , especially the clinical Chinese material medica was analyzed . The training pattern of clinical pharmacist of Chinese medicine and the development strategy were discussed . The standardization of working mode of pharmaceutical ward round was explored , such as the combination of ward round with doctor and without doctor . A valuable reference was provided for clinical work and for the improvement of pharmaceutical service of pharmacist .%分析我院(二级甲等中医医院)临床药学开展的现状,特别是临床中药学,讨论临床中药师的培养模式及发展策略,探索规范化药学查房的工作模式---随医查房和独自查房相结合,为提高药师的临床药学服务质量提供参考。

  12. UNAPAL –Abanico 75: nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca en el fruto para fines agroindustriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada Salazar Edgar Iván

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones de zapallo, con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, se seleccionaron dos híbridos y dos líneas de zapallo, por su alto contenido de materia seca en fruto y producción por planta. Con los genotipos seleccionados se formaron siete poblaciones híbridas, que se estabilizaron genéticamente mediante cruzamientos fraternales y se evaluaron en diferentes ambientes del Valle del Cauca. Se seleccionó la población 1, que presentó una producción por planta entre 29 - 32 kg; peso promedio del fruto entre 5 -6 kg.; 4 -5 frutos por planta; 24 -26% de materia seca en el fruto; formato globular acostillado de color externo verde intenso y color de pulpa amarillo intenso a naranja (12 a 15 abanico de Roche. Esta población fue registrada en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA con el nombre de UNAPAL-Abanico-75.

  13. Cribado de microorganismos y materias primas para intensificar la producción de enzimas celulasas en fermentación en estado sólido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualberto León-Revelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se llevó a cabo el cribado de hongos filamentosos y la evaluación de las principales materias primas del medio de cultivo para intensificar la producción de enzimas celulasas en Fermentación en Estado Sólido (FES. Entre los microorganismos estudiados, Aspergillus niger presenta la máxima expresión de enzimas celulasas extracelulares con fracción de halo de hidrólisis de 0,5 a las 24 horas. El estudio de concentración de inóculo y las materias primas mostró la mayor actividad, de 51,3 IU/gMs y productividad de 2,13 IU/gMs*h en el tiempo 24 horas, cuando se inocula una concentración de hifas de 28 g/kgMs, sulfato de amonio (0,14 % p/v y extracto de levadura (0,73 % p/v como fuente de nitrógeno inorgánico y orgánico, lactosa (5 g/L como fuente de carbono y afrecho cervecero como material lignocelulósico.

  14. Ahorro de agua y materia prima en los procesos de pelambre y curtido del cuero mediante precipitación y recirculación de aguas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA AGUDELO A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El principio del proceso de recuperación de cromo, consiste en precipitar el cromo contenido en el licor residual como hidróxido utilizando un álcali; este precipitado se separa por sedimentación y se disuelve nuevamente con ácido sulfúrico. De los resultados obtenidos, se observaron porcentajes de remoción superiores al 99%. Con la recirculación directa de aguas de pelambre fue posible obtener ahorros de agua del 64% y ahorros en materia prima del 32 %, además, con una adecuada selección del tamizador es posible recircular el agua un número máximo de tres veces, sin afectar la calidad del producto final. Así mismo, se comprobó la viabilidad de la recirculación directa de aguas de curtido, con ahorros de materia prima del 17%. Con medidas de este tipo, prácticas y fáciles de implementar, la industria del curtido del cuero podría disminuir considerablemente la contaminación, operar de una forma mas segura y con mayor eficiencia de producción.

  15. Una fuente potencial de conflictos jurídicos: la mala praxis en materia de incorporación de la normativa en el Mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pastori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Los comentarios que se desarrollan en este arÚculo, tienen por finalidad el planteo y análisis de la falta de certeza que existe en materia de vigencia de la normativa del Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR, como consecuencia, esencialmente, de la mala praxis de los Estados en cumplir con las disposiciones en materia de incorporación de la normativa MERCOSUR. Esta circunstancia, que por cierto no beneficia al proceso de integración en su conjunto, se traduce en la posibilidad cierta de conflictos entre Estados o particulares, por lo que creemos de interés el estudio del tema.Aclaramos que no constituye objeto de este trabajo ahondar en el hecho comprobado de la omisión de los Estados Parte de proceder a la incorporación de las normas y en la necesidad de que activen sus procedimientos internos,a estos efectos, sino el analizar las consecuencias jurídicas de las eventuales desviaciones, por parte de éstos, en la aplicación de las disposiciones vinculadas al procedimiento de incorporación de las normas MERCOSUR. A este último aspecto únicamente es al que nos referimos entonces con la expresión "mala praxis". 

  16. La doble función epistemológica de la noción crítica de materia en la filosofía kantiana

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui, Claudia

    1997-01-01

    La construcción kantiana del concepto de materia reviste una fundamental importancia no solo en la medida en que hace posible una fundamentación metafísica de la física newtoniana, sino también en cuanto pone en evidencia los límites que posee la psicología empírica para constituirse como ciencia. A fin de mostrar esta doble función epistemología que cumple la noción crítica de materia, se analizan en este trabajo las siguientes características que kant le atribuye: 1) la materia como represe...

  17. Analisis Homograf Aksara Cina pada Kamus Oxford Concise English- Chinese,Chinese-English

    OpenAIRE

    Nathania, Lenny

    2011-01-01

    Homograph characters exist in every language as well as in Chinese. The Chinese homograph characters are phenomena that often make misunderstood by learners in pronunciation and meaning interpretation. In this thesis with a title “Analisis Homograf Aksara Cina pada Kamus Oxford Concise English – Chinese, Chinese – English” (“Analysis Chinese Homophones characters in Oxford Concise English - Chinese, Chinese - English Dictionary”), focus on Chinese homograph characters from i...

  18. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Society of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology, Immunological Journal, Current Immunology, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology; Chinese Journal of

  19. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Socicty of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology,Immunological Journal,Current Immunology,Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology,Chinese Journal of

  20. Conocimiento previo y comprensión lectora en un texto de materia teológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez Anchía, Silvia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Estudio el libro Cristología, fe de Jesús, fe cristiana, de Francisco Avendaño Herrera (San José: UNED, 2002, para determinar cómo influyen los conocimientos previos del estudiantado (asociados con una perspectiva tradicionalista en su comprensión lectora del conocimiento nuevo que presenta el texto de Avendaño. Recolecté los datos mediante observación participante en las tutorías del curso de Cristología en que se utiliza el texto (programa de Teología a Distancia de la UNED y la UNA, ambas instituciones de educación superior de Costa Rica. Analizo los resultados con base en tres posibles formas de lectura: autoritaria, negociada y competente. Concluyo señalando un predominio de la lectura autoritaria y negociada, que puede explicarse por la función social de la religión en la construcción de la realidad de los sujetos, razón por la cual estos parecen resistirse a comprender un conocimiento nuevo que les genera incertidumbre en su visión de mundo en materia religiosa. Emito, finalmente, una serie de recomendaciones sobre cambios que, con base en los resultados de este estudio, podrían introducirse en una nueva edición del libro analizado.Abstract: I have studied Francisco Avendaño-Herrera’s book Cristología, fe de Jesús, fe cristiana («Christology, the faith of Jesus, the faith of Christendom» (San Jose: UNED, 2002 to determine how the students’ prior knowledge (associated with a traditionalistic outlook influences their reading comprehension of such new knowledge as could be acquired from Avendaño-Herrera’s book. I collected the data through observation while attending tutoring sessions at the Christology course where the text is used (under the distance education programme in theology of both, UNED and UNA, which are Costa Rican higher education institutions. I analysed the results based on the possibility to do an authoritarian, a negotiated, and a competent reading. In conclusion, may I point to a

  1. Unidad de Enseñanza Potencialmente Significativa (UEPS): Estados de agregación de la materia y cambios de estado. Estudio de caso en la Institución Educativa Rural Pedro Pablo Castrillón

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Cano, Carlos Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta una práctica docente para la enseñanza-aprendizaje de los estados de agregación de la materia y los cambios de estado, la cual está fundamentada en teorías como de aprendizaje significativo de David Ausubel, de los campos conceptuales de Gérard Vergnaud y la interaccionista social de Lev Vygotsky. Se presentan algunos de los factores problemáticos en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de los estados de agregación de la materia. Como estrategia metodológica se d...

  2. Análisis del uso de la ciencia recreativa en la enseñanza de materias científicas y técnicas en educación secundaria

    OpenAIRE

    Solbes Matarredona, J.; LOZANO, O.; García Molina, R.

    2009-01-01

    Numerosas investigaciones constatan la desmotivación y la falta de interés de los alumnos por el estudio de las materias científicas. Una causa potencial de dicho desinterés es la percepción que los estudiantes tienen de las asignaturas científicas como materias “aburridas”. Para ello, se analiza el uso de actividades de ciencia recreativa (ACR) en la E.S.O., en los libros de texto y se recogen las opiniones del profesorado al respecto. Por último, se analizan las consecuencias de esto en el ...

  3. Efecto de la materia orgánica in situ sobre la estabilidad estructural de suelos sembrados con caña de azúcar en el Valle del Cauca

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Artunduaga, Maria Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Se muestreó la capa arable de 3 suelos en 12 sitios de los municipios de Palmira, Candelaria y Cerrito con diferentes contenidos de materia orgánica, los cuales se encuentran sembrados con caña de azúcar y a los que se les incorpora cachaza y vinaza. Usando un diseño de parcelas divididas se analizaron las siguientes propiedades: textura, coeficiente de dispersión, limite líquido, limite plástico, índice de plasticidad, índice de erosión, estabilidad de agregados por método Yoder, materia org...

  4. Determinantes de los precios reales de las materias primas agrícolas. El papel de los inventarios y de los factores macroeconómicos (1960-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Luis N. Lanteri

    2012-01-01

    Resumen: En los últimos años, se ha observado un extraordinario incremento en los precios internacionales de las materias primas, como los combustibles fósiles (petróleo) y los productos agropecuarios. Este trabajo analiza el comportamiento de los precios reales de las principales materias primas agrícolas (trigo, maíz, soja y arroz), utilizando modelos de SVAR, con restricciones de corto plazo, y datos anuales que abarcan el período 1960-2010. Los resultados sugieren que los precios de estas...

  5. Obligaciones y responsabilidades en materia de repatriación: grado de adecuación de la normativa española a las previsiones del CTM (2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Palacio, Arántzazu

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo analiza la regulación del CTM (2006) en materia de repatriación, a través del estudio del largo proceso conducente a su adopción y a través del análisis de los Convenios OIT anteriores en esta materia. El CTM (2006) consagra el derecho de la gente del mar a ser repatriada sin coste para ella y dispone igualmente una obligación para los miembros relativa a la necesidad de que exijan garantías financieras a los armadores de buques que enarbolan su pabellón par...

  6. El acceso por materias en los catálogos en línea: índices y terminología de los usuarios en el catálogo CISNE (Universidad Complutense de Madrid)

    OpenAIRE

    Caro-Castro, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    [ES] El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estudiar las características de los enunciados de búsqueda empleados por los usuarios de una catálogo público de acceso en línea y comprobar su grado de coincidencia con los índices de encabezamientos de materia. Se ha realizado un análisis transaccional de 1925 enunciados utilizados en el campo materias en el catálogo CISNE de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Para cada enunciado válido se han considerado las siguientes variables: presenc...

  7. Diseño y evaluación de la producción de alcohol carburante a partir de materias primas lignocelulósicas = Design and evaluation of fuel alcohol production from lignocellulosic raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero Suárez, Julián Andrés

    2011-01-01

    La producción de etanol aún representa retos tecnológicos, principalmente debido a la complejidad implícita y costo de las materias primas y otros insumos. Sin embargo, este proceso ha sido implementado a diferentes escalas, incluyendo la comercial, a través de exenciones o subsidios con el fin de disminuir el costo de producción. En esta tesis, materias primas alternativas, como lo son los residuos agroindustriales, son discutidas considerando sus ventajas y desventajas. Igualmente, se resal...

  8. Retención de materia orgánica particulada gruesa en una quebrada de montaña tropical. Bogota, Colombia Retention of Coarse Particulate Organic Matter in a Stream Tropical Mountain. Bogotá, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    JAVIER RODRÍGUEZBARRIOS; RODULFO OSPINA

    2007-01-01

    Se determinó el porcentaje de retención de tres fracciones de materia orgánica particulada gruesa (MOPG) y el efecto de la magnitud del caudal sobre la retención de la materia orgánica particulada (MOP), durante un período de cinco meses en tres
    sectores de una quebrada tropical de montaña ubicada en los Cerros Orientales de Bogotá - Colombia. La condición tropical del sistema, mostró un patrón de caudal constante aunque pudo diferenciarse un período de alta y baja descarga. Los re...

  9. Chinese Experiences on Orthokeratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peiying; Guo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of myopia in Chinese children has been rising each year. Research has shown that orthokeratology is a good method for controlling the progression of myopia. In this article, we review the current prevalence of myopia, the development and management of orthokeratology, and the myopia control methods used in China. A physical and health survey release indicated that the ratio of poor vision in every range of ages is still high in China. During the past 17 years, Chinese doctors have developed a standard fitting procedure and medical management of orthokeratology patients. This article also reviews the clinical studies in China for Ortho-K lenses, such as myopia control, effects and safety, corneal change, and lens design and fitting. Finally, we review the development of the International Academy of Orthokeratology Asia in China. PMID:26704137

  10. Photovoltaic for the Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China produces and exports about half of the photovoltaic cells made in the world. About 1000 Chinese enterprises work in the photovoltaic sector and the offer grows too fast to allow some enterprises to cope with lower and lower production costs. Research activities are a key element for the reduction of production costs but small companies can not usually sustain sufficient research. Economists foresee a strong reorganization of the sector: some enterprises will cease their photovoltaic activities, others will face financial difficulties, others will merge to make bigger companies. To make the demand bigger Chinese authorities are taking steps to develop the photovoltaic home market. The installed capacity of photovoltaic plants in China is expected to be somewhere between 11 GWc and 18 GWc in 2015, figures to be compared with only 0.9 GWc in 2010. (A.C.)

  11. Chinese Investment in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    At the 12th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) held on September 8-11 in Xiamen, Fujian Province, government officials and entrepreneurs from all over the world canvassed Chinese entrepreneurs and investors to invest in their countries. Foreign countries and regions rented 16,000 square meters of exhibition space, an increase of more than 50 percent from last year. Among the 74 participating countries and regions, more than 50 held seminars about their invest- ment environments. Besides the Caribbean countries and underdeveloped African nations that are actively attracting investment, developed countries such as the Untied States, Germany, France, Italy and Sweden also showed extraordinary enthusiasm in trying to win over Chinese investors. Beijing Review interviewed Marinella Loddo, Director of the Industrial Cooperation Division of the Italian Institute for Foreign Trade which is also known as the Italian Trade Commission (ICE).

  12. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dutch-based information provider expands in China to tap new market There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them. "You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,

  13. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2011-01-01

    There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them."You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,Wolters Kluwer China CEO.

  14. Pollution Across Chinese Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Yap Co; Fanying Kong; Shuanglin Lin

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis using 1987-1995 data for Chinese provinces. A comparison of off-sample (1996-2004) predictions to actual emissions indicates that more stringent rules are still needed to fight industrial (waste water and dust) pollution. Auxiliary regressions show that conditional on income, northern provinces have lower industrial waste water pollution; non-coastal and provinces with smaller secondary industry shares have lower industrial (waste wa...

  15. Chinese institutional investors’ sentiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kling, Gerhard; Gao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    We use daily survey data on Chinese institutional investors’ forecasts to measure investors' sentiment. Our empirical model uncovers that share prices and investor sentiment do not have a long-run relation; however, in the short-run, the mood of investors follows a positive feedback process. Hence, institutional investors are optimistic when previous market returns were positive. Contrarily, negative returns trigger a decline in sentiment, which reacts more sensitively to negative than positi...

  16. Actually existing Chinese matriarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The essays in this volume present contemporary anthropological perspectives on Chinese kinship, its historical complexity and its modern metamorphoses. The collection draws particular attention to the reverberations of larger socio-cultural and politico-economic processes in the formation of sociality, intimate relations, family histories, reproductive strategies and gender relations – and vice-versa. Drawing on a wealth of ethnographic material from the late imperial period and from cont...

  17. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF CHINESE EXECUTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfang Fayol-Song

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Chinese nationals have increasingly been employed by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in China taking positions previously occupied by foreign expatriates from investor countries. The development of local managers has therefore become crucial in the field of human resource management because the success of these companies depends greatly upon the ability and competence of their executive management class. The present paper addresses the issue of how to devel...

  18. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  19. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  20. Current Chinese bryological literature (4)

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Yu, Jin

    2000-01-01

    According to our collections of literature, about 400 scientific papers dealing with Chinese bryophytes have been published in China and abroad during 1990’s. Among these, more than 50 % were published in different scientific journals in China and often written in Chinese with English abstract, which are not well known and assessable for foreign bryologists. Therefore, in addition to previous Chinese literature I-III (Cao et al. 1990, Li et Zhang 1993, 1994), we present the fourth part of Chi...

  1. [Marihuana and cannobinoids as medicaments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkaczyk, Marek; Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Biological activity of cannabinoids is caused by binding to two cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Psychoactive is not only tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but also: cannabidiol, cannabigerol or cannabichromen. Formerly, the usefulness of hemp was assessed in the relation to temporary appeasement of the symptoms of some ailments as nausea or vomiting. Present discoveries indicates that cannabis-based drugs has shown ability to alleviate of autoimmunological disorders such as: Multiple sclerosis (MS), Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or inflammatory bowel disease. Another studies indicates that cannabinoids play role in treatment of neurological disorders like Alzheimer disease or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or even can reduce spreading of tumor cells. Cannabinoids stand out high safety profile considering acute toxicity, it is low possibility of deadly overdosing and side-effects are comprise in range of tolerated side-effects of other medications. In some countries marinol and nabilone are used as anti vomiting and nausea drug. First cannabis-based drug containg naturally occurring cannabinoids is Sativex. Sativex is delivered in an mucosal spray for patients suffering from spasticity in MS, pain relevant with cancer and neuropathic pain of various origin. Despite the relatively low acute toxicity of cannabinoids they should be avoid in patients with psychotic disorders, pregnant or breastfeeding woman. Cannabinoids prolong a time of reaction and decrease power of concentration that's why driving any vehicles is forbidden. Cannabis side-effects varies and depend from several factors like administrated dose, rout of administration and present state of mind. After sudden break from long-lasting use, withdrawal symptoms can appear, although they entirely disappear after a week or two. PMID:23421098

  2. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  3. Efecto de la salinidad en la eï¬�ciencia en el uso del agua y la producción de materia seca en guayabo

    OpenAIRE

    Casierra, Fánor Casierra Posada; Dotor, Ing. Agr. Ph.D.; Bernardo A.; González M, Ing. Agr.; Leonardo A.

    2006-01-01

    En plantas de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. cvs. RS 980 y Cimpa 00916) se evaluó el efecto de la salinidad sobre el crecimiento, la producción de materia seca y la eï¬�cacia agronómica en el uso del agua. Las plantas se obtuvieron a partir de semilla, crecieron en un invernadero en materas (tres litros) y se expusieron a condiciones no salinas (ECe: 1.2 dS.m-1) o salinas mediante la adición de 20; 40; 60 y 80 mM de NaCl con base en suelo seco al aire (ECe:3.0, 5.4, 7.9 y 10.5 dS.m-1 respectivam...

  4. TRANSPORTE DE MATERIA ORGÁNICA A LO LARGO DE UN RÍO TROPICAL DE MONTAÑA EN LA SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Enrique TAMARIS TURIZO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En los ríos tropicales, la materia orgánica es la principal fuente de energía para las comunidades que allí habitan. Las principales proporciones de materia orgánica se encuentra la materia orgánica particulada gruesa (MOPG y  la materia orgánica particulada fina (MOPF. Por lo anterior, en este trabajo se evaluó el transporte de la MOPG,  la MOPF y su relación con algunas variables físicas y químicas en tres tramos de un gradiente altitudinal de los 50 msnm hasta los 1700 msnm durante un ciclo diario en el río Gaira (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Para lo cual se realizaron muestreos mensuales entre los meses de marzo a junio del 2008. Se detectaron diferencias significativas en la deriva de MOPG entre las estaciones, siendo la estación 2 (parte media durante el primer muestreo, la que registró los valores más altos reportados para todo el estudio (474 kg m-3 y la estación 3 mostró la menor biomasa derivante (0,26 kg m-3. La MOPF registró valores similares durante todos los muestreos (0,58 – 6,34 g m-3. Sin embargo, se detectaron diferencias significativas en los muestreos tres y cuatro. Con el aumento de las lluvias, descendió el transporte de  MOPG. Una relación inversa entre la velocidad del agua y el transporte de MOPG (rs = -0,70; n = 12; p < 0,05 se registró, mientras que la MOPF, presentó valores constantes. Los resultados de este trabajo coinciden parcialmente con lo registrado en la literatura, lo cual indica que las dinámicas de transporte de MO están relacionadas con las variaciones ambientales locales.Transport of Organic Matter Across a Tropical Mountain Stream of Sierra Nevada De Santa Marta (ColombiaIn tropical streams organic matter is the principal source of energy for the communities in the river. Main components of organic matter are coarseparticulate organic matter (CPOM and fine particulate organic matter (FPOM. Therefore, transport of CPOM and FPOM and its relationship with some physical and

  5. Procesos industriales de acondicionamiento de caolín para su utilización como materia prima en la síntesis de zeolita X

    OpenAIRE

    García Colina, Fernando

    1999-01-01

    [spa] La caolinita, constituyente principal del caolín, es una arcilla de fórmula 2SiO(2) Al(2).O(3).2H(2)O que da lugar a un producto de calcinación denominado metacaolinita, muy utilizado como materia prima en la síntesis de zeolitas de bajo contenido en SiO(2), como por ejemplo las zeolitas del grupo de la faujasita NaA, NaX y NaY (Breck, 1974). Aunque la producción de zeolita A para detergencia a partir de la metacaolinita ha sido ampliamente descrita en numerosas patentes y trabajos de i...

  6. Factores de conversión. Como calcular la cantidad de materia orgánica en una muestra analizada por dicromatometría.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel; Pinto Ganfornina, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    La materia orgánica de una muestra de suelo o sedimento se determina mediante una valoración por retroceso utilizando dicromato potásico como oxidante y una sal ferrosa como valorante. En este ejercicio se encuentra la relación entre el volumen añadido de agente oxidante (V) y los volúmenes de sal de Fe(II) consumidos en la valoración del exceso de dicromato (V1) y de un blanco de referencia (V2). Si se convierten los volúmenes V1 y V2 en volumen de dicromato, el factor de conversión correspo...

  7. Modelo de jerarquización de zonas prioritarias de recepción de subvenciones en materia de turismo rural en Andalucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Blancas Peral

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es establecer una jerarquía de actuación pública que determine las zonas prioritarias de recepción de subvenciones en materia de Turismo Rural en Andalucía. Para ello, presentamos un modelo de jerarquización zonal multicriterio que utiliza como procedimiento de ordenación el método PROMETHEE II. Una vez definidos los elementos del problema de decisión (objetivo global, criterios de decisión y alternativas y determinados los pesos relativos otorgados por el centro decisor (Consejería de Turismo, Comercio y Deportes para cada criterio mediante el método AHP, presentamos la jerarquía obtenida como resultado del modelo, realizando un análisis de la misma y extrayendo las principales conclusiones del estudio.

  8. Chinese Stratgagem And Chinese Business Negotiating Behaviour: An Introduction to Ji

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper aims to arrive at an understanding of Chinese business negotiating behaviour from a Chinese stratagem perspective. The Chinese concept li (stratagem) which has its roots in ancient Chinese military thought is introduced to fill the gap in scholarship. The author has proposed a "S-B Model" which interpretes the strategic patterns of Chinese business negotiating behaviour from The Thirty-Six Stratagems, an ancient Chinese stratagem treatise. The paper argues that Chinese stratagems ha...

  9. Achievement of Chinese Dream and Chinese Spirit of the Age Going out

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian; Kunming YAO

    2014-01-01

    Chinese dream is a spiritual power to achieve the Great Renaissance of the Chinese nation. In the process of Great Renaissance, we create the great spirit of Chinese nation. With the development of economy prosperity, China has become the second largest economic power in the world. The Chinese nation is undergoing the course of Great Renaissance of Chinese dream. The process of the evolution of Chinese dream is the cultivating process of Chinese spirit of the age. That is the evolution of Chi...

  10. Carácter jurisdiccional de las resoluciones de la Dirección General del Registro Electoral en materia de faltas electorales: especial referencia a la facultad de recabar datos personales protegidos por el secreto bancario o tributario en el marco de una investigación por faltas en materia de financiamiento de los partidos políticos

    OpenAIRE

    Ruy López González

    2016-01-01

    El artículo aborda el concepto y características distintivas de la función jurisdiccional del Estado. Con este marco teórico se analiza la función jurisdiccional del Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones en materia electoral y se esboza como tesis la delegación legislativa de competencias jurisdiccionales que operó a favor de la Dirección General del Registro Electoral y de Financiamiento de Partidos Políticos en el trámite y sanción de las faltas electorales tipificadas en el nuevo C...

  11. Frecuencia de Cryptosporidium spp en materia fecal de niños entre un mes y trece años en un hospital local colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela de Arango

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Cryptosporidium spp es un protozoario parásito intestinal intracelular que fue descrito como patógeno humano en 1976 y actualmente es reconocido como uno de los principales causantes de infección gastrointestinal y diarrea. El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar la frecuencia de esta parasitosis en los niños que consultan a un hospital local colombiano. Materiales y métodos: Se trata de un estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal hecho en el Hospital San Vicente de Arauca, Colombia, entre agosto y diciembre de 2003. Se incluyeron todos los niños que consultaron en el período mencionado al servicio de urgencias, se tomaron muestras de materia fecal para coloración con técnica de Ziehl-Neelsen modificado en busca de ooquistes del parásito, realizando diagnóstico diferencial micrométrico. Se consideró positivo cuando se evidenciaron más de 5 ooquistes por campo de 100 aumentos. El análisis estadístico se hizo en Epi Info 6.04. Resultados: En total se incluyeron 173 pacientes de los cuales 56.1% eran de sexo masculino, tenían edades comprendidas entre 1 mes y 12 años con un promedio de 2.65 años. La frecuencia de Cryptosporidium spp en materia fecal fue 46.8%, fue mayor a medida que aumentaba la edad y entre quienes asistían a guarderías; no se evidenció relación con ningún síntoma digestivo. Discusión: La frecuencia que se encontró en este estudio es alta, si se compara con lo determinado previamente en estudios locales y muestra la importancia de emprender estudios adicionales en el área.

  12. The limits of retirement social protection Los límites de la protección social en materia de jubilación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Morales Romo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of options and alternatives related to retirement in Spain during a global economic crisis. By dealing with qualitative and quantitative data we formulate answers to prior questions related to retirement social protection. We address four main topics: pension coverage, related mainly to the sum and benefi ciaries; age, by focusing on the moment of retirement; the need for an early retirement or the possibility of postponing the age of compulsory retirement; the fi nancing of the pensions system through public funds or private pension plans, and, fi nally, we raise questions on the future of retirement pensions. Last, we provide some clear conclusions about the questions raised. Keywords: Retirement. Social payments. Social protection. Pensions. Public policies. Welfare state. El texto aborda las percepciones sobre las opciones y alternativas en materia de jubilación en España en un momento de difícil coyuntura económica mundial. A partir de numerosos datos cualitativos y cuantitativos se trata de responder a cuestiones fundamentales en relación a la protección social en materia de jubilación. Los aspectos fundamentales sobre los que versa el artículo son cuatro: la cobertura de las pensiones tratando especialmente la cuantía y los benefi ciarios, la edad, centrándose en cuándo es adecuado jubilarse, la necesidad o conveniencia de las prejubilaciones o la posibilidad de postergar la edad de jubilación obligatoria, la fi nanciación del sistema de pensiones haciendo hincapié tanto en los fondos públicos como en los planes privados de pensiones y por último nos cuestionaremos sobre el futuro de las pensiones. Para fi nalizar realizaremos unas claras conclusiones sobre todas las cuestiones planteadas. Palabras claves: Jubilación. Prestaciones. Protección social. Pensiones. Políticas públicas. Estado de bienestar.

  13. Neuroanatomical markers of speaking Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. PMID:19530216

  14. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from

  15. The chinese health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese h...

  16. Why Do I Study Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Translator’s Note: The cross language year program-the Chinese Language Year in France and the French Language Year in China-initiated by Chinese and French leaders were held in 2011 and 2012 to promote cultural exchanges and further deepen the China-France comprehensive strategic partnership. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the CPAFFC and the

  17. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  18. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    to interpret their own educational histories and prior experiences, while at the same time making use of imaginaries of 'Western' education to redefine themselves as independent individuals in an increasingly globalised and individualised world. Through a case study of prospective pre-school teachers preparing...... to study abroad, the article shows how personal, professional and even national goals are closely interwoven. Students expect education abroad to be a personally transformative experience, but rather than defining their goals of individual freedom and creativity in opposition to the authoritarian political...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  19. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    As important providers of information, analysis of current events and debates, journalists are subject to high expectations regarding their professional values. Journalism is considered to be more than merely a career; it is construed as a profession that builds on personal commitment to serve...... society. This chapter is concerned with Chinese journalism students' self-perceptions and evaluations of journalistic performances in order to understand the professional values to which they adhere. The study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted in two periods in Spring 2011 and Fall...

  20. CHINESE COMMUNITY IN ECUADOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARIA JOSE CIFUENTES CERVANTES

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Republic Of Ecuador is located in the west coast of South America.It has a total area of 256.370 km2 and a population of approximately 14 million.Spanish is considered as the official language.The country is subdivided into 24 provinces with the capital city being Quito and the other major city being Guayaquil.Since the year 2000 US Dollar had been the official currency.Approximately 50,000 people from China live now in Ecuador.Although the Chinese community in Ecuador is not as large as those in Brazil and Peru, it has a strong economic and social weight in the country.

  1. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  2. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  3. Uso da medicação homeopática no tratamento da ceratoconjuntivite primaveril: resultados iniciais Treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis with homeopathic medicine: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Maciel de Sena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar os primeiros resultados do uso da Homeopatia entre os pacientes com conjuntivite primaveril, avaliados no Serviço de Córnea e Doenças Externas do Hospital São Geraldo. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos no presente estudo 13 pacientes apresentando ceratoconjuntivite primaveril, examinados no período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 1999. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 9,5 anos, sendo nove do sexo masculino e quatro do sexo feminino. Todos os pacientes já haviam feito uso de corticóide tópico antes da sua inclusão no estudo. Antes de iniciar o tratamento homeopático, todos os pacientes foram examinados por um dos autores, sendo acompanhados pelo mesmo médico, mensalmente até os seis meses e depois trimestralmente até completar um ano do tratamento homeopático. O tratamento homeopático foi realizado por meio de uma dose única, via oral, baseando-se na totalidade sintomática do paciente. RESULTADOS: A porcentagem de melhora dos sinais e sintomas, entre os pacientes, foi de: lacrimejamento e dor ocular 100%; secreção ocular 92%; sensação de corpo estranho 86%; prurido e fotofobia 84%; relatavam diminuição ou ausência do desconforto que a ceratoconjuntivite primaveril provocava nas suas atividades diárias 84%; nódulos de Trantas 62,5%; hiperemia conjuntival 61%; erosões epiteliais 58% e hipertrofia da papila tarsal 8%. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo sugere efeito benéfico da medicação homeopática no tratamento da ceratoconjuntivite primaveril, com melhora dos sinais e sintomas da doença. Sugere-se a realização de estudo duplo-cego, com maior número de casos, para a confirmação desses resultados.PURPOSE: To present a preliminary report of homeopathic medicine in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, at the Cornea service, of the São Geraldo Hospital. METHODS: Thirteen patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, examined from January 1998 to December 1999, were included in the present study

  4. 从合理用药角度探析中药“十八反”%Exploratory analysis on ‘eighteen incompatible medicaments’ of Chinese medicinal herbs from rational drug use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春晓; 张业; 李学林

    2012-01-01

    This paper discussed the traditional Chinese medicine 'eighteen incompatible medicaments' issues from the clinical origin, clinical different understanding, with rational drug use angle to think its development idea: Chinese medicine 'eighteen incompatible medicaments' research was the rational use of drugs in clinical pharmacy's category, should strengthen clinical safety research, in full proof of the safety of the drug, engaged in related the effectiveness research. To fully consider the source, processing method herbs, proportioning relations, preparations form, administration way, drug dose factors, try to unity and standardization, in order to make clear its coverage and concentration-response relations, and promote the improvement of the research results.%文章从中药“十八反”临床渊源、临床的不同认识去分析探讨“十八反”问题,从合理用药角度思考其发展思路:中药“十八反”研究是临床药学合理用药的研究范畴,应加强临床安全性研究,在充分证明药物的安全性后,进行相关的有效性研究.全面考虑药材基源、加工方法、配比关系、制剂形式、给药途径、给药剂量等因素,尽量统一规范,以明确其涵盖范围和量效关系,促进其研究结果的不断完善.

  5. The "Coop-Comp" Chinese Negotiation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    T. Fang

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the cultural roots of Chinese business negotiation strategy. The article argues that, Chinese culture, with its cooperative and competitive components, has bestowed upon Chinese negotiators a distinctive "coop-comp" negotiation strategy. The Chinese are culturally capable of negotiating both sincerely and deceptively at the international business negotiation table.

  6. Chinese migrants and forced labour in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Gao

    2004-01-01

    Based on a literature survey and on an analysis of current Chinese law on trafficking. Examines the development of Chinese businesses in Europe and shows how harsh immigration policies have led to an increase in human trafficking. Investigates forced labour among Chinese migrants and examines Chinese legislation to combat trafficking.

  7. Multicultural Awareness for the Classroom: The Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Felix Mario; And Others

    This guide provides the teacher of multiethnic students with information and teaching resources on Chinese. An historical overview of China and the Chinese experience in America is presented in English and Chinese. Several lesson plans and classroom activities reviewing Chinese geography, holidays, legends, and stories are presented. (APM)

  8. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  9. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  10. ARE THE SO-CALLED POISONOUS FOOD-COMBINATIONS REALLY POISONOUS?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin T CHENG

    2009-01-01

    @@ The idea that to eat certain two foods simultaneously is to get poisoned has been entertained by柄Chinese people for many years. There are about 184 pairs of the so-called poisonous food-combinations, and 180 of them are mentioned in Chinese Ancient Materia Medica, Ben-Tsao-Gung-Mu (本草纲目) or other books. (1a,2a) This belief was based upon some personal sketch, old-fashioned doctors' notes, stories and other false facts. Although these statements were originated without any experimental ground, yet many of the Chinese, even at present time, still believe them firmly. Whenever any poisoning outbreak occurs accidentally after having taken the so-called poisonous food-combination, they always attribute the cause of the poisoning to the two foods served simultaneously.

  11. Being Chinese or Being Different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    which way they use ‘Chinese-ness’, the participants are able to reflect on their experiences and manifest a willingness to adapt to another culture, in which their identity as CFL teachers are constructed. By the end of study, the combination of teaching culture of Chinese and Danish, in which......This study reports on a qualitative research that explores how three beginning native CFL teachers in a Danish university use ‘Chinese-ness’ and how these serve in explaining their own narratives, either through identifying with, or distancing themselves from. Early results show that no matter...

  12. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  13. Atopic disease in the Hong Kong Chinese.

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Y. M.; Mayberry, J F; Rhodes, J.; Newcombe, R G

    1982-01-01

    One hundred and sixty Chinese men and 96 women resident in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire about atopic disease and their responses were compared with replies from 500 Britons. Asthma and hayfever were less common in the Chinese and this could not be attributed to medical awareness as the results were similar in Chinese surgical patients and Chinese medical students. The role of heredity and environment may be assessed by studying Chinese people who have moved to Britain.

  14. The Analysis of the Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓慧

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of pragmatic studies, politeness has aroused great interest among Chinese scholars. Different cultures have different traditions and values, which bring out different understanding and application of politeness strategies. Great Chinese culture brings out the complicated Chinese politeness scale. A successful communication depends on politeness principle. Learning the Chinese politeness scale will make we know more about the Chinese culture. By researching this, we will perform better in communication.

  15. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Fung Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publicatio...

  16. 响应面法优化佛手总黄酮提取工艺%Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Extraction Technology of Total Flavonoids from Citrus medica var.sarcodactylis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉芬; 夏海涛

    2013-01-01

    Total flavonoids were extracted from bergamot(Citrus medica var.sarcodactylis) using alcohol as extractant.The extraction conditions including extraction temperature,extraction time and liquid to solid ratio were optimized by Box-Behnken response surface methodology on the base of single factor tests using the yield of total flavonoids as indicator.The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of total flavonoids from bergamot were as follows,volume fraction of extractant alcohol solution,60%; extraction temperature,69 ℃; extraction time,1.9 h; liquid to solid ratio Valcobol∶mbergamot=32∶l(mL/g)and extracting twice.The yield of total flavonoids from bergamot was 0.565 9% under the optimal extraction conditions.%以乙醇溶液为提取溶剂从佛手(Citrus medica var.sarcodactylis)中提取总黄酮,在单因素试验的基础上以佛手总黄酮提取率为指标,选择提取温度、提取时间和液料比3个因素进行Box-Behnken中心组合试验,优化佛手总黄酮的提取工艺条件.结果表明,优化的提取工艺条件为体积分数60%的乙醇溶液作提取溶剂、提取温度69℃、提取时间1.9 h、液料比V乙醇∶m佛手粉=32∶1(mL/g)、提取2次,该条件下佛手总黄酮提取率为0.565 9%.

  17. TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930433 A study on relationship between hy-pothyroidism and deficiency of kidney YANG.ZHA Lianglun(查良伦),et al.lnstit Integr TCM& West Med,Shanghai Med Univ,Shanghai,200040.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 1993;13(4):202—204.Thirty—two cases of hypothyroidism causedby various factors were treated for one year withChinese medicinal herbs preparation“Shen Lutablet”(SLT)to warm and reinforce the KidneyYang.34 normal persons were studied as a con-trol group.After treatment with SLT,the clini-cal symptoms of hypothyroidism were markedlyimproved.Average serum concentration of totalT3,T4 increased significantly from 67.06±4.81

  18. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Study on the Application of Mass Media and English Han cui xia (ShanDong BinZhou medical college ShanDong YanTai 264003)Read and Write Periodica,vol.9, No.5,16,2012(ISSN1672-1578,in,Chinese ) Abstract: Rapid technological development of mass media and Internt chances of improvement. This paper analyzes the present situation of adult teaching and learning of English and the application of mass media and Internet in it in the hope of changing the present situation and improving the effect in order for adult learners to benefit more from it.. Key words: mass media; Internet; adult education; teaching and learning of English

  19. Screening of most efficient medicament for controlling bacterial fruit blotch of grafted watermelon seedlings using seed soaking method%药物浸种处理防治西瓜嫁接苗细菌性果斑病试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何毅; 韦志扬; 李文信; 覃斯华; 黄金艳; 洪日新; 李天艳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选防治西瓜嫁接苗细菌性果斑病(BFB)的种子处理有效药剂,为防治BFB提供科学依据.[方法]先以17种药剂的200倍液对西瓜种子进行浸种处理,依据嫁接苗BFB的发病率初步筛选防治BFB的有效药剂;以初选有效药剂进行不同浓度、不同混合组合及不同浸种方法处理对嫁接苗BFB的防治效果试验.[结果]初试结果表明,2%春雷霉素处理西瓜嫁接苗BFB病株率较低,可用于下一步试验.复试结果表明,2%春雷霉素100、200、300、400、500倍液浸种处理有籽西瓜种子,嫁接后12d嫁接苗BFB发病率分别为1.0%、36.7%、94.3%、95.7%、98.1%;2%春雷霉素200倍+乐尤病、72%农用链霉素、72%农用硫酸链霉素800倍液浸种处理有籽西瓜种子,嫁接后12 d嫁接苗BFB发病率为1.0%~2.4%;2%春雷霉素100、200、300、400倍液处理西瓜干种子,嫁接后12 d有籽西瓜嫁接苗BFB发病率为0.5%~5.7%,无籽西瓜嫁接苗BFB发病率为8.1%~11.4%;2%春雷霉素400倍+乐无病、72%农用链霉素、72%农用硫酸链霉素1000倍液处理西瓜干种子,嫁接后12 d有籽西瓜嫁接苗BFB发病率为1.0%~2.0%,无籽西瓜嫁接苗BFB发病率为6.7%~9.5%.[结论]2%春雷霉素可作为防治西瓜嫁接苗BFB的首选特效药,推荐浓度为2%春雷霉素400倍或以2%春雷霉素400倍搭配其他杀菌剂使用.%[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to screen effective medicaments for controlling bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of grafted watermelon seedlings, and to provide scientific basis for BFB control. [Method]Seeds of watermelon were soaked in 200 times diluted solutions of 17 different kinds of medicaments, the effectiveness of different medicaments was screened preliminarily by observing rate of BFB incidence on grafted seedlings. Different concentrations and combinations were also used to screen the most effective medicament. [Result]The rate of BFB incidence on grafted watermelon seedlings, treated

  20. Predictors of beginning reading in Chinese and English: A 2-year longitudinal study of Chinese kindergartners

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, CSH; McBrideChang, C

    2005-01-01

    Ninety Chinese children were tested once at age 4 and again 22 months later on phonological-processing and other reading skills. Chinese phonological-processing skills alone modestly predicted Chinese character recognition, and English letter-name knowledge uniquely predicted reading of both Chinese and English 2 years later. Furthermore, concurrently measured phonological-processing skills in Chinese, but not English, accounted for unique variance in both English and Chinese word recognition...

  1. Chinese English” and Its Implication on C-E Translation of Chinese Specific Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Chen

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify Chinese English and explore its origin, focusing on the important role of Chinese English resulted in the translation of expressions of Chinese specific expressions. In view of the important role of Chinese English in cross-cultural communication, the paper proposes that the translators should take a justified attitude to “Chinese English” rather than avoid it as unnecessary or bad English and .the expressions with Chinese peculiarity should be particularly heed...

  2. Evaluación de mezclas formuladas de fertilizantes con dosis crecientes y aplicación de materia orgánica en el rendimiento de tabaco negro en un suelo arenoso bajo condiciones de invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Cóndor G

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo compara tres mezclas formuladas de fertilizantes —una mezcla tradicional; un fertilizante mineral 10-15-20; y un fertilizante orgánico-mineral 8-12-16 en dosis crecientes, con y sin aplicación de materia orgánica (humus de lombriz— en el cultivo de tabaco. El experimento se condujo en un suelo arenoso de irrigación utilizando 2 plántulas de tabaco negro por maceta. La fertilización al suelo para cada dosis de NPK en mg.kg-1/maceta fue: dosis baja (160-60-80, dosis media (320-120-160 y dosis alta (480-180-240. Se utilizó el diseño completo al azar con arreglo factorial, con tres repeticiones y conducido en macetas con 4 kg de suelo. La evaluación consistió en medir el rendimiento en peso fresco de la parte aérea y el peso seco total (parte aérea y radicular de las plantas. Fue posible observar que no existe superioridad en cuanto a la materia fresca y seca total producidas entre las mezclas formuladas utilizadas, con un promedio de 432,5g/maceta y 112,6g/ maceta, respectivamente. Se pudo tener así tres alternativas en la fertilización de tabaco. Sin embargo, con el uso del fertilizante orgánico-mineral se obtendría mayores beneficios en el suelo por el efecto residual que dejaría por contener en su composición un 25% de materia orgánica por cada 100 kg de fertilizante. Conforme aumentan las dosis de fertilización se incrementan también los rendimientos, notándose el efecto directo de los fertilizantes en el sustrato arenoso utilizado, sin salinidad que pueda haber afectado la asimilación de nutrientes. Además, se observó la baja fertilidad del sustrato al comparar el tratamiento adicional 0-0-0 con los demás tratamientos, lo que ha producido mas del 300% en cuanto a rendimiento. No existe efecto significativo en la interacción fertilizante vs. materia orgánica en la producción de materia fresca aérea y seca total, debido a que la dosis de materia orgánica fue baja (1%.

  3. Chinese Family: Some New Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    It is a familiar sight in many Chinese cities to witness a large team escorting a baby pram in public: mother, grandmothers, ayi (nan-ny), another ayi maybe, grandfathers quiet possible, and finally tither if you are lucky.

  4. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  5. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives.

  6. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  7. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  8. The Chinese Housing Provident Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Buttimer Jr; Anthony Yanxiang Gu; Tyler T. Yang

    2004-01-01

    The Chinese government has embarked upon an effort to reduce the number of tenants living in publicly owned housing. This is a significant challenge for any government, but may be especially so for a country where private homeownership is a new option. Out of concern that many of its citizens could not afford to purchase their housing units, the Chinese government created the Housing Provident Fund. This program, which is similar to housing fund programs in other countries such as Thailand an...

  9. Bulimia nervosa in the Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, U

    1993-12-01

    Typical DSM-III-R bulimia nervosa with self-induced vomiting was found in 2 women of Hong Kong Chinese origin and a Chinese man from Malaysia. All 3 cases had a family history of obesity. In 2 of the cases a period of weight gain and in the third case frank obesity preceded the onset of the eating disorder. Cultural transition seemed to play an important part in the onset and maintenance of the eating disorder. PMID:8293034

  10. The art of Chinese management?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlevogt, Kai-Alexander.

    1998-01-01

    An empirical study was undertaken (a) to examine the characteristics, influencing factors, and effectiveness of a distinctive Chinese management model adopted by the newly founded private enterprises in mainland China, as well as (b) to test the "fit" notion in contingency theory. The study was based on a random sample of 124 standardized personal interviews with CEOs of Chinese industrial and service companies in Beijing and Shanghai. The standardized questionnaire mainly con...

  11. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  12. Training in Chinese Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Zhejun

    2007-01-01

    The dissertation aims to review the currently predominant literature on the factors influencing the training in small business in the industrialized Western economies and to carry out empirical investigation on the determinants of training in Chinese small business and then analyze whether the Western-based literature is consistent with the practices of training in Chinese small firms. In addition, relevant problems with training in small business are presented and recommendations on how to r...

  13. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  14. Who Will Save Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Like a drama unfolding in a riveting suspense novel, the quadrennial global football gala is becoming more and more compelling as the climax approaches. Billions of people are glued to the tube watching the World Cup in Germany, and Chinese football fans are following the countdown with the rest of the world. According to a poll by China Central Television, the national broadcaster, World Cup games have attracted combined viewers of at least 10 billion. For Chinese football enthusiasts, however, the joy ...

  15. Uso de un filtro anaeróbico sumergido en la remoción de materia orgánica de aguas residuales municipales. Resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ávila Soto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia de Biorremediación de aguas residuales de tipo municipal por sistemas anaeróbicos depende, entre otros factores, de temperaturas entre 35-40 °C, lo cual representa un problema real para aplicar esta tecnología en lugares con climas cálidos y fríos como Chetumal, Quintana Roo. En este trabajo se evaluó el desempeño de un biorreactor de filtro anaeróbico sumergido (SAF para la eliminación de la materia orgánica de las aguas residuales municipales de Chetumal durante los períodos más fríos del año. El SAF, previamente estabilizada por 8 meses, fue alimentado de septiembre a diciembre con aguas residuales municipales de Chetumal. Se evaluaron los niveles de la demanda bioquímica de oxígeno, amoníaco y nitrato y se estimó la carga orgánica volumétrica. La variación de la temperatura ambiente afectó drásticamente la eficiencia de remoción del SAF. A menor temperatura menor eficiencia de remoción: a 36-37 ºC se eliminó más del 90% de la materia orgánica, pero a 20 oC fue removido menos del 20%. Además, para las mejores condiciones de remoción se requirió una importante adición de álcali al SAF. Los datos soportan bien el uso de biorreactores SAF en la biorremediación de aguas residuales municipales de Chetumal. Sin embargo, debe considerarse el costo de la adición de álcali y la temperatura de la estación del año en el proceso técnico global.

  16. Evaluación de familias de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata Duch. seleccionadas por mayor contenido de materia seca en el fruto y otras características agronómicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Enith Tobar Tosse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron cuatro familias de hermanos completos de zapallo, Cucurbita moschata Duch, provenientes de dos ciclos de estabilización genética mediante cruzamientos fraternales y seleccionadas por mayor contenido de materia seca (MS en el fruto y buenas características para consumo en fresco. La familia F7a sobresalió por su mayor contenido de materia MS en el fruto (15.86% ± 2.17 en comparación con el testigo comercial Unapal-Bolo Verde (10.68% ± 2.08, forma esférica levemente achatada, color externo amarillo claro, color de pulpa amarilla a salmón, espesor de pulpa de 3.71 ± 0.58 cm y peso promedio del fruto de 3.10 ± 0.73 kg, que la convierte en una alternativa para consumo en fresco.

  17. Evaluación de familias de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata Duch. seleccionadas por mayor contenido de materia seca en el fruto y otras características agronómicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baena García Diosdado

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron cuatro familias de hermanos completos de zapallo, Cucurbita moschata Duch, provenientes de dos ciclos de estabilización genética mediante cruzamientos fraternales y seleccionadas por mayor contenido de materia seca (MS en el fruto y buenas características para consumo en fresco. La familia F7a sobresalió por su mayor contenido de materia MS en el fruto (15.86% ± 2.17 en comparación con el testigo comercial Unapal-Bolo Verde (10.68% ± 2.08, forma esférica levemente achatada, color externo amarillo claro, color de pulpa amarilla a salmón, espesor de pulpa de 3.71 ± 0.58 cm y peso promedio del fruto de 3.10 ± 0.73 kg, que la convierte en una alternativa para consumo en fresco.

  18. Efecto del pH en la Degradación Fotocatalítica de Materia Orgánica Natural Effect of pH on the Photocatalytic Degradation of Natural Organic Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio H Valencia; Marín, Juan M.; Gloria M Restrepo

    2011-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el efecto del pH en la degradación fotocatalítica de materia orgánica natural del agua de un ecosistema léntico, empleando dióxido de titanio comercial en suspensión y un simulador solar UV. Para el seguimiento de la degradación y la caracterización de la materia orgánica natural se usó cromatografía de exclusión de tamaño, con un detector de carbón orgánico disuelto y un detector ultravioleta a una longitud de onda A=254 nm, y espectrofotometría UV-Vis. Se encontró que la cin...

  19. El convenio de la Unión Europea sobre competencia judicial, reconocimiento y ejecución de resoluciones en materia matrimonial: un ejercicio de preciosismo barroco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben B. Santos Belandro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El grupo de países europeos que se encuentra comprometido en el proceso de integración económica formuló hace ya tiempo, los criterios para determinar las bases de competencia a fi~ de resolver los litigios de derecho privado que pudieran surgir en dicho espacio geográfico. El documento elaborado fue el Convenio de Bruselas sobre competencia judicial y ejecución de las resoluciones en materia civil y mercantil del 27 de setiembre de 1968. Sin embargo, en dicho momento no fue posible regular las bases de competencia en los procedimientos civiles que se vinculaban conlos temas del divorcio, de la separación legal de los cónyuges y acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas conla nulidad del matrimonio (...Contenido: Ambito de aplicación. Bases de competencia directa. Verificación de la competenciay verificación de la admisibilidad. Litispendentia y acciones conexas. Reconocimiento y ejecución. Definiciones. Ejecución.Procedimiento de la ejecución. Ejecución parcial. Cláusulas de compatibilidad interconvencionales. Tribunal de Justicia de las Comunidades Europeas. Una visión general del Convenio

  20. Contaminación del Suelo por la Disposición Y Destino Final de Materia Orgánica Fresca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Júlia Ferreira Rocha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El hombre, al ejercer sus actividades cotidianas, provoca modificaciones en el suelo de forma rápida, y que al mismo tiempo impiden la propia precomposición del suelo. Estas alteraciones son básicamente: evasión, excavaciones, minoración, salinización, aplicación de fertilizantes, prácticas agropecuarias, lanzamiento de residuos sólidos urbanos, sepultamiento de cuerpos humanos en los cementerios, etc. En este trabajo estudiemos las alteraciones del suelo asociados a su contaminación: debido a la entrada de microorganismo a partir de los residuos sólidos urbanos. A materia orgánica fresca (residuo orgánico sin vida cuando entra en contacto con el suelo le transmite los microorganismos que posee los cuales pueden sobrevivir muchos días en el producto resultante de su descomposición. Algunos de estos microorganismos pueden afectar la salud de los seres vivos, y en particular la salud del hombre. En este escenario se dice que el suelo está contaminado y los microorganismos son necrochorume. El presente artículo tendrá por objetivo identificar cuales son los microorganismos patogénicos presentes en el suelo y cuales las enfermedades que potencialmente tendrían capacidad de desarrollarse en el hombre en función de la utilización de este suelo contaminado.

  1. METODOLOGÍA DOCENTE Y EVALUACIÓN POR COMPETENCIAS: UNA EXPERIENCIA EN LA MATERIA DIRECCIÓN DE PRODUCCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Peña, María Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El diseño de los nuevos planes de estudio adaptados a las directrices del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES pretende acercar a los alumnos a la realidad empresarial, involucrarles más activamente en su proceso de aprendizaje y proporcionar un marco favorable para la adquisición de diversas competencias. Esto exige dise˜nar metodologías docentes más activas y establecer modelos de evaluación que permitan valorar la adquisición de competencias. El objetivo de este trabajo es doble, por un lado se pretenden identificar los métodos docentes que permiten la mejor adquisición de las competencias definidas para la materia Dirección de Producción en el marco del EEES y, por otro lado, plantear un modelo de evaluación satisfactorio para las mismas. El análisis empírico ha permitido demostrar la eficacia de los métodos docentes utilizados en el aula, así como evidenciar la importancia de la evaluación por competencias, lo que permite cumplir uno de los objetivos básicos del EEES.

  2. LA EXTENSIÓN DE LA JURISPRUDENCIA UNIFICADA DEL CONSEJO DE ESTADO: NUEVA COMPETENCIA DE LOS CONSULTORIOS JURÍDICOS EN MATERIA CONTENCIOSO ADMINISTRATIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Ángela Portilla Villamizar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La ley 1437 de 2011 implementó un procedimiento administrativo y contencioso ajustado a la protección de las garantías constitucionales de los administrados en sede administrativa y judicial, un ajuste del sistema procesal en concordancia con la Carta Política. Entre tantas novedades y cambios está la creación de una figura jurídica denominada Extensión de las Sentencias de Unificación Jurisprudencial del Consejo de Estado a terceros (Artículo 102 del Código de Procedimiento Administrativo y Contencioso Administrativo, ley 1437 de 2011, procedimiento que genera la posibilidad real de práctica desde los consultorios jurídicos de las universidades del país, puesto que sus presupuestos normativos y procesales permiten, desde las competencias contempladas en la ley y lo reiterado por la jurisprudencia constitucional, llevarlo a cabo por los estudiantes adscritos a los sultorios jurídicos. Se plantea un análisis que aborda los aspectos y características jurídicas del trámite de extensión de la jurisprudencia, en relación con las reglas de competencia de los consultorios jurídicos universitarios, generando una nueva competencia en materia de derecho administrativo.

  3. Composición quimicomineralógica de las materias primas y ahorro de energía en la industria del cemento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soria Santamaría, Francisco

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of energy saving, mainly thermic, in the cement industry, not only should we consider the possibilities in the technological process or the finished product, but also the influence of the chemical-mineral composition of the raw materials. The distinct parameters which fall into the reactivity of the crudes are analyzed, such as the size of the grain (fineness, chemical and mineral composition of the principal components. There follows an exposition of the importance of the minority components as smelting and mineralizers, finally emphasizing the interest and practical behaviour of some of them.

    En el campo del ahorro de energía, principalmente térmica, en la industria cementera, no sólo deben contemplarse las posibilidades en cuanto al proceso tecnológico o el producto acabado, sino también la influencia de la composición quimicomineralógica de las materias primas. Se analizan los distintos parámetros que inciden en la reactividad de los crudos, tales como tamaño de grano (finura, composición química y mineralogía de los componentes principales. A continuación se hace una exposición de la importancia de los componentes minoritarios como fundentes y mineralizadores, destacando finalmente el interés y comportamiento práctico de alguno de ellos.

  4. Evaluación de acciones correctivas tendientes a mejorar la calidad dimensional de la materia aserrada de Pinus spp en Durango, Mex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Abel Nájera Luna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio es contribuir a optimizar el uso de la materia prima en el proceso de aserrío, por lo que se evaluaron once acciones correctivas tendientes a reducir la variación en el grosor de la madera aserrada de Pinus spp en tres aserraderos de Durango. Cada acción fue evaluada mediante muestras de 10 tablas con grueso nominal de 22.23 mm (7/8”; para conocer la variación del grueso en la madera, se utilizó el método de medición de puntos múltiples, comparando el efecto de cada acción con una muestra testigo de tablas aserradas sin implementar ninguna acción. Los resultados mostraron que dos de las once acciones evaluadas mostraron una marcada reducción en la variación del corte de la madera aserrada de un 49% hasta 64% lo cual se consiguió mediante la disminución de la velocidad de alimentación del asierre y el ajuste de las guías de la sierra.

  5. Simulación de un sistema de fangos activados en discontinuo para la eliminación de materia orgánica y nutrientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manga

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha desarrollado un simulador para el sistema de fangos activados en discontinuo (Sequencing Batch Reactor o SBR, que permite el estudio de los procesos para la eliminación de la materia orgánica y nutrientes. El simulador incluye el modelo Nº 2d de fangos activados (ASM2d propuesto por la International Water Association (IWA. Además, en fase de sedimentación, se incluye un modelo exponencial o de Vesinlind para la separación de los sólidos en suspensión del licor mezcla. La herramienta informática ha sido utilizada para describir el comportamiento de dos sistemas en discontinuo (anaerobio/aerobio y aerobio/ anóxico bajo diferentes condiciones de operación (tiempo de retención celular, tiempo de retención hidráulico, entre otros. Los resultados muestran que la herramienta informática desarrollada puede ser utilizada para el diseño y simulación de sistemas sbr en el tratamiento de aguas residuales.

  6. Energy model in regional energy system; Modello computazionale dei flussi di enegia, massa e materia in un sistema energetico regionale per la valutazione delle emissioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mura, P.G.; Baccoli, R.; Carlini, U.; Innamorati, R.; Mariotti, S. [Cagliari Univ., Cagliari (Italy). Sezione Fisica Tecnica ed Energetica Facolta' d' Ingegneria

    2005-09-01

    In this report is presented a computational model for analysis of energy, materials and mass flux in a complex energy system, at regional scale level. Specifically is described a calculation model of electric power generation for emission forecasting of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, ashes, limestone, chalks. [Italian] Dopo aver ricordato che nel campo della Fisica Tecnica ambientale acquista sempre piu' importanza l'analisi dei processi che interessano l'ambiente esterno in stretto rapporto con i processi di conversione ed uso dell'energia e con le condizioni di benessere nell'ambiente interno, in questa memoria viene presentato un modello computazionale per l'analisi dei flussi di energia, massa e materia che hanno luogo in un sistema energetico complesso esteso al territorio di una regione. In particolare viene descritto il modello di calcolo del sottosistema di generazione elettrica finalizzato alla previsione delle emissioni nocive riversate nell'ambiente naturale quali CO{sub 2}, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, polveri, ceneri, calcare, gessi.

  7. Nueva visión de la conciliación en materia de familia y su relación con el interés superior del niño (a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattia Escalante Barboza

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se intenta reconocer que el modelo de conciliación a aplicar en materia de familia es muy complejo, ya que pretende generar cambios en la forma en que ha funcionado la familia hasta ahora, pero que puede resultar beneficioso para el interés superior del niño. Además hay que reconocer que no se puede improvisar una conciliación en materia de familia. La operacionalización de este procedimiento requiere necesariamente de la puesta en marcha de un proceso estratégico de negociación así como de un perfil de conciliador (a con formación y experiencia en la materia de conciliación familiar. También se considerará que para hacer conciliación en ésta materia, debe existir representación de los intereses de los miembros que van a resultar afectados con las decisiones que se tomen, lo que implica la participación activa de todos los miembros de la familia.In this essay we try to recognize that the conciliation model to apply in family matters is very complex, because it pretends to generate changes in the way that the family has been functioning up to certain moment, but it may result in benefits for the child’s superior interest. Furthermore, we have to recognize that there is no room for improvisation in conciliating family matters. The operationalization of this procedure necessarily requires the realization of an strategic negotiation process and a conciliator’s profile with experience and knowledge in family conciliation matters. We have to consider that in order to make conciliations on this subject, there has to be a representation of the interests of the members that are to be affected with the decisions that are made, this implies the active participation of all the family members.

  8. Carácter jurisdiccional de las resoluciones de la Dirección General del Registro Electoral en materia de faltas electorales: especial referencia a la facultad de recabar datos personales protegidos por el secreto bancario o tributario en el marco de una investigación por faltas en materia de financiamiento de los partidos políticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy López González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda el concepto y características distintivas de la función jurisdiccional del Estado. Con este marco teórico se analiza la función jurisdiccional del Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones en materia electoral y se esboza como tesis la delegación legislativa de competencias jurisdiccionales que operó a favor de la Dirección General del Registro Electoral y de Financiamiento de Partidos Políticos en el trámite y sanción de las faltas electorales tipificadas en el nuevo Código Electoral. Bajo esta premisa, se infiere la facultad de la Dirección de recabar pruebas que contengan datos de carácter confidencial protegidos bajo los institutos

  9. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive Warm-up in Jiang Hua (Department of Foreign Language, Modern College of Northwest University, Xi'an 710130, China)Read and Write Perodica,vol.9,No.10,10,2012 (ISSN1672 -1578,in, Chinese) Abstract: Classroom teaching activities should be an interactive process, which includes not only interaction between teachers and students but also includes the interaction between students and learning materials and the interaction between students and design activities in class. These interaction processes will directly affect the students learning interest and the effect. So classroom interactions are very important. But how to present these interactions well and make them educational in the classroom is a question which needs considered carefully by teachers. Because of the warm-up is the key part for teachers to introduce the whole unit and stimulate the interests of students, this article mainly discusses the warming-up part of college English teaching, to improve the classroom interactions, and stimulate the students' study enthusiasm and the initiative. Key words: Interaction; Educational; Warm-up

  10. Dieta del cangrejo dulceacuícola Bottiella niceforei (Schmitt & Pretzmann, 1968 (Decapoda: Trichodactylidae y su relación con el procesamiento de la materia orgánica en una corriente intermitente del noroeste de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Pirela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Para aproximarse al rol que tiene el cangrejo de río Bottiella niceforei en el procesamiento de materia orgánica, en una corriente intermitente al noroeste de Venezuela, se estudió su dieta natural, mediante el análisis del contenido del tracto digestivo entre junio 2009 y febrero 2010. Se determinó la abundancia de los cangrejos sobre la base de la proporción de individuos capturados por trampas, a lo largo del muestreo, y en cada pozo. Las mayores densidades ocurrieron en septiembre (2,7 ind trampa-1, seguido de junio (2,3 ind trampa-1 y julio (2,1 ind trampa-1, mientras que las menores se obtuvieron de noviembre a febrero, posiblemente debido al efecto erosivo de la corriente durante la época de lluvia. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la abundancia y dieta entre pozos. De junio a noviembre, se encontró que el ítem más abundante en la dieta fue el detrito vegetal, con una frecuencia de ocurrencia promedio de 68%; en segundo lugar, materia animal (restos de peces con 50% y detrito vegetal amorfo con 14%. Estos resultados demuestran la importancia de la participación del cangrejo B. niceforei en el procesamiento de la materia orgánica en forma de hojarasca en los pozos de caño Carichuano.

  11. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  12. A Chinese Herbal Preparation Containing Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum Reduces Circulating Adhesion Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. O’Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating adhesion molecules (CAMs, surface proteins expressed in the vascular endothelium, have emerged as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. CAMs are involved in intercellular communication that are believed to play a role in atherosclerosis. A Chinese medicine, the “Dantonic Pill” (DP (also known as the “Cardiotonic Pill”, containing three Chinese herbal material medica, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been used in China for the prevention and management of CVD. Previous laboratory and animal studies have suggested that this preparation reduces both atherogenesis and adhesion molecule expression. A parallel double blind randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of the DP on three species of CAM (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin in participants with mild-moderate hypercholesterolemia. Secondary endpoints included biochemical and hematological variables and clinical effects. Forty participants were randomized to either treatment or control for 12 weeks. Treatment with DP was associated with a statistically significant decrease in ICAM-1 (9% decrease, P = .03 and E-Selectin (15% decrease, P = .004. There was no significant change in renal function tests, liver function tests, glucose, lipids or C-reactive protein levels and clinical adverse effects did not differ between the active and the control groups. There were no relevant changes in participants receiving placebo. These results suggest that this herbal medicine may contribute to the development of a novel approach to cardiovascular risk reduction.

  13. A Primer on Chinese Music Instruments Released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuSan

    2005-01-01

    Chinese traditional musical instruments, with a history of 8,000 years, are known for their diverse forms and types. The qualities, functions and materials of these instrunents reflect the unique aesthetic value of Chinese traditional music.

  14. Chinese Private Direct Investment and Overseas Chinese Network in Africa%Chinese Private Direct Investment and Overseas Chinese Network in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Song

    2011-01-01

    Based on extensive interviews in China and in Africa over 2 years, the present paper investigates Chinese private direct investment in Africa. Drawing on the Swedish Uppsala model, we explore two mian issues. First, do Chinese private enterprises follow t

  15. Consideration on Wavelet through Chinese Archaian Dialectics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhi Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Materialistic philosophy opens out universal law of things evolution. Chinese Yinyang theory is materialistic. Wavelet contain dialectic rule inevitably. As material mathematic technique, wavelet can be given a new look by Chinese archaian dialectics.

  16. "Uighur's Contributions to the Ancient Chinese Culture"

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIN, Geng

    2010-01-01

    In this my paper I speak briefly on the contributions made by the Uighurs and their ancestors to the Chinese civilization. Of course, the Chinese people also made great contributions to the civilization of Uighur people

  17. Translating Chinese Zero Anaphoric Subjects into English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher-leng

    1993-01-01

    Deals with a major difference between European languages and Chinese, namely the sparse use of anaphoric reference in Chinese. Suggests that the translator's way of rendering references will affect the interpretational potential of the text in the target language. (NKA)

  18. Traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    @@ Further progress has been made in the traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer over the past few years, especially in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment principle, improvement of therapeutic results and prolonging the survival.

  19. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, no systematic study of Chinese FDI has been undertaken to date. This paper contributes to filling this research gap and analyses the current composition as well as the historical evolution of Chinese FDI in Indonesia, relying on a survey conducted in 2008 among Chinese invested...... enterprises supplemented with key informant interviews, available official statistics and secondary data. Considering the evolution of Chinese investments in Indonesia over time, investments have evolved from being individual and isolated projects to acquiring more systemic properties. Chinese companies have...... acquired a broader sectoral presence in Indonesia and Chinese invested companies in, e.g., extractive or manufacturing activities can increasingly rely on complementary Chinese investments in logistics, travel, finance, etc. Where the local development effects are concerned, a picture emerges where Chinese...

  20. Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

  1. The liberalisation of Chinese financial markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semerák, Vilém

    London : Imperial College Press, 2015 - (Brown, K.), s. 309-326 ISBN 978-1-78326-454-4 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : Chinese financial market s * Chinese financial system Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  2. Chinese Curriculum Design and Motivation of Chinese Background Students in Australian Tertiary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Li

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the need for a change in the current Chinese curriculum for Chinese-background students at the University of Newcastle (UoN). It examines the motivation behind the learning behaviour of Chinese-background students enrolling in the discipline of Chinese at the UoN as well as Chinese curriculum design at other Australian universities. The data from two sources were collected and analysed, Chinese-background students in the Chinese discipline at the UoN and lecturers in the C...

  3. Scientometric Analysis of the Journals of the Academy of Medical Sciences in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Currently in Bosnia and Herzegovina there are 25 journals in the field of biomedicine, 6 of them are indexed in Medline/PubMed base (Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica, Acta Informatica Medica, Acta Medica Academica, Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (BJBMS) and Medical Glasnik), and one (BJBMS) is indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)/Web of Science base. Aim: The aim of this study was to show the scope of work of the journals that were published by Academy of Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica. Material and Methods: The research presents a meta-analysis of three journals, or their issues, during the calendar year 2015 (retrospective and descriptive character). Results: During 2015 calendar year a total of 286 articles were published (in Medical Archives 104 (36.3%), in Materia Socio-Medica 99 (34.6%), and in Acta Informatica Medica 83 (29%)). Original articles are present in the highest number in all three journals (in Medical Archives 80.7%, in Materia Socio Medica 77.7%, and in Acta Informatica Medica 68.6%). In Medical Archives, 90.3% of the articles were related to the field of clinical medicine. In Materia Socio-Medica, the domain of clinical medicine and public health was the most represented. Preclinical areas are most frequent in Acta Informatica Medica. The period of 50-60 days for a decision on the admission of article is most common in all three journals, with trend of shortening of that period. Articles came from 19 countries, mostly from Bosnia and Herzegovina, then from Iran, Kosovo, Saudi Arabia and Greece. Conclusion: In Medical Archives original articles in the field of clinical medicine (usually internal and surgical disciplines) are most often present, and that is the case in last four years. The number of articles in Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica is growing from year to year. In Materia Socio-Medica there is a

  4. Padronização dos critérios de seleção em estudos sobre medicações nasais Standardizing selection criteria in nasal medication studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Borin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos clínicos sobre medicações tópicas nasais exigem a padronização de "normalidade nasossinusal" na constituição de grupos controle através de uma avaliação específica da via aérea superior. OBJETIVO: Padronizar a avaliação de candidatos a grupos controle em estudos clínicos sobre medicações tópicas nasais. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Voluntários do sexo masculino, de 18 a 50 anos, que se declararam saudáveis, livres de doenças e assintomáticos nasossinusais foram submetidos a uma avaliação sequencial e excludente composta de uma avaliação clínica, teste cutâneo de hipersensibilidade imediata, teste da sacarina, nasofibroscopia flexível e citograma nasal. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Coorte contemporânea com corte transversal. RESULTADOS: Dos 33 indivíduos inicialmente incluídos, 14 (42,4% foram excluídos na avaliação clínica. Dos 19 restantes, 2 (10,5% apresentaram atopia no teste cutâneo, sendo excluídos. 17 foram submetidos ao teste da sacarina demonstrando em todos os casos uma depuração mucociliar normal, sendo avaliados por nasofibroscopia flexível que detectou anormalidade em 2 casos (11,8% e excluídos. Os 15 restantes foram submetidos ao citograma nasal, demonstrando normalidade, representando 45,5% dos indivíduos inicialmente incluídos. CONCLUSÃO: O protocolo proposto de avaliação sequencial e excludente foi efetivo na definição de candidatos à constituição de grupos controle em estudos clínicos sobre medicações tópicas nasais.Clinical studies on nasal topical medications require the standardization of "nasosinusal normality" in order to establish control groups through a specific evaluation of the upper airways. AIM: to standardize the evaluation of candidates for control groups in clinical studies on nasal topical medications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: healthy male volunteers of 18 to 50 years of age, asymptomatic from the nasosinusal standpoint were subjected to a sequential and excluding

  5. 药用唇柱苣苔叶片分化及植株再生研究%Research on Differentiation and Plant Regeneration From in Vitro Leaf Tissues of Chirita medica D.Fang ex W.T.Wang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚绍嫦; 凌征柱; 李翠; 吕惠珍; 张占江

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立濒危药用植物药用唇柱苣苔叶片分化及植株再生体系.方法:以药用唇柱苣苔(Chirita medica D.Fang ex W.T.Wang)叶片为外植体,灭菌后接种到附加不同激素配比的培养基中培养,筛选各阶段合适的培养基.结果:不定芽诱导的最适培养基为MS+ 1.0 mg/L 6-BA+ 0.2 mg/L NAA,pH =6.0,诱导率为100%;最佳继代增殖培养基为MS+0.5 mg/L 6-BA+ 0.2 mg/L NAA,pH6.0,增殖系数为12.6/30 d;最适合的生根培养基为1/2 MS+ 0.2 mg/L NAA,pH=6.0,生根率高达100%,移栽成活率为95.0%.结论:本繁殖体系可在短时间内提供大量种苗,并为种质资源的保护和可持续利用提供技术指导.%Objective: To develop differentiation and plant regeneration system from in vitro leaf tissues of Chirita medica D. Fang ex W. T. Wang,an endangered medicinal species. Methods:The leaf of Chirita medica as explants were cultured on MS supplemented with different kinds and concentrations of hormone to select optimized different phase. Results;The optimum medium for adventitious buds induction and seedling regeneration was MS + 1.0 mg/L 6-BA + 0. 2 mg/L NAA (pH 6. 0) and the induce rate of bud regeneration was 100% . The efficient medium for high regeneration frequency was MS +0. 5 mg/L 6-BA +0. 2 mg/L NAA( pH 6.0) and the proliferation coefficient was 12. 6/30 d. The optimal rooting medium was 1/2 MS +0. 2 mg/L NAA(pH 6.0) and the rooting rate was 100% and the rate of transplanting survival was 95.0%. Conclusions; This system could be used to develop more seedlings in short time,and to provide guidance for conserving and sustainably developing the resource.

  6. Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingjin

    2015-01-01

    In his article "Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature" Yingjin Zhang revisits the challenge of mapping Chinese literature as world literature in three steps: 1) he delineates of positions of view as proposed by Western scholars who engaged in rethinking world literature(s) in the age of globalization, 2) evaluates consequences of such a new mapping for Chinese literature and tests a different set of "technologies of recognition" (Shih) in the context of Chinese versus Sinophone studi...

  7. Introduction to CRM Systems in Chinese SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoting

    2015-01-01

    CRM (Customer Relationship Management) is an efficient management tool for an enterprise to improve the service level and customer relationships. However, CRM is not widely applied by Chinese SMEs. The implementation of CRM still faces some problems in Chinese CRM market. In this thesis is CRM systems applied in Chinese SMEs were discussed Chinese,including the current situation of CRM and what the SMEs need from a CRM system. In addition, it was discussed how to implement a CRM system in...

  8. Student Approaches to Learning Chinese Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, I-Ping P.

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the strategies that native English speakers use as they learn to speak and write Chinese vocabulary words in the first year of an elementary Chinese class. The main research question was: what strategies do native English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese use to learn Chinese vocabulary words in their speaking and writing? The study was conducted at a medium-sized comprehensive university in the Southeastern U.S. The study drew from concepts and theories in s...

  9. Chinese Consumers' Preferences for Livestock Products

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xuehua; Marchant, Mary A.; Qin, Xiang Dong; Zhuang, Jun

    2005-01-01

    This research surveyed over 784 Chinese consumers in Shanghai and Nanjing in 2001 and 2002, evaluating their preferences for livestock product attributes using ordered-probit models and factor analyses. Empirical results confirm the heterogeneity of Chinese livestock retail markets and suggest that livestock distributors should focus on Chinese female consumers and young consumers considering cooking convenience as a key attribute. Chinese consumers with higher incomes placed less importance ...

  10. The Lancaster Corpus of Mandarin Chinese.

    OpenAIRE

    McEnery, A. M.; Xiao, R. Z.

    2003-01-01

    The Lancaster Corpus of Mandarin Chinese (LCMC) addresses an increasing need within the research community for a publicly available balanced corpus of Mandarin Chinese. LCMC has been constructed as part of a research project undertaken by the Linguistics Department, Lancaster University. The corpus is designed as a Chinese match of the Freiburg-LOB Corpus of British English (FLOB), and, as such, will provide a valuable resource for contrastive studies between English and Chinese as well as a ...

  11. Traditional Chinese culture in modern Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the sources and features of traditional Chinese culture. It also discusses the aesthetic thoughts of Chinese traditional culture. Chinese traditional culture has been illustrated broad and far-reaching impact on design since ancient time. In the context of globalization and the rapid development of science and technology, the difference between traditional design and modern product design should be explored. Chinese traditional culture cannot be totally absorbed. It is im...

  12. Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yun; Walter J B van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    We present Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N=28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1429 English words. The results revealed that 71% of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigat...

  13. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    OpenAIRE

    Addendum by Penny Edwards; Lorraine Paterson

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45). He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967) and...

  14. Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chengjun; Ma, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    In their article "Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture" Chengjun Wang and Junhong Ma discuss three main channels of the "traveling" of Chinese culture to the outside world. Focusing on the situation of bilingualism (i.e., Chinese and English) and the need of spreading Chinese literature and culture especially in the English-speaking world, Wang and Ma argue for "localization and globalization." Further, Wang and Ma argue that in order to narrow the gap of the cultural di...

  15. Informization Implementation for Chinese Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; QIAN Yu; CHEN Jianfeng; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    Retailing is an important component of every country's economic system. The current status and developments in the informization of Chinese retail industry were investigated by using questionnaires and interviews to survey 139 retailers throughout China. The investigation shows that Chinese retailers are in the initial informization stage, and can be classified into different types with corresponding informization characteristics. In addition, the survey identified the key problems faced by retailers in the initial stage. Developments in the information technology field were analyzed to identify the key technologies that Chinese retailers should focus on during the informization process. The investigation also shows that the retailers have not arrived at a consensus about information technology adoption, and thus hesitate to use new information technologies, such as the radio frequency identification.

  16. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  17. Mamma Mia!Hits Chinese Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese version of Broadway’s musical sensation set to run for six months The Chinese version of Mamma Mia!,one of the most popular musicals in the world,has come to China,to demonstrate the charm of the musical to Chinese citizens in three major cities in 2011.

  18. NEW INSIGHT OF CHINESE LIVESTOCK CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xiang Dong; Peng, Xuehua; Marchant, Mary A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper overviews the development of Chinese livestock market. Based on a consumer preferences survey, a series of ordered probit models is developed to estimate Chinese consumers' preferences on the attributes of frozen and chilled livestock products. Keywords: Chinese livestock market, consumers' preferences, ordered probit model, attributes

  19. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  20. Factors Influencing the Learning of Chinese Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ko-Yin; Wu, Hsiao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    This survey study, which involved 108 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the United States, intended to address the research questions, "What types of Chinese-character learning strategies do US learners use?" and "Do US learners' Chinese-character learning strategy use differ based on the…

  1. Of Course You Can Learn Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Henrietta

    1980-01-01

    To master the subtleties of Chinese takes years, but most Americans can learn some basic spoken and written Chinese in a matter of weeks or months. A new phonic system, Pin Yin Romanizing System, tones, structure, and characters, and a comparison of Japanese and Chinese are discussed. (MLW)

  2. WEB BASED TRANSLATION OF CHINESE ORGANIZATION NAME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Muyun; Liu Daxin; Zhao Tiejun; Qi Haoliang; Lin Kaiming

    2009-01-01

    A web-based translation method for Chinese organization name is proposed. After analyzing the structure of Chinese organization name, the methods of bilingual query formulation and maximum entropy based translation re-ranking are suggested to retrieve the English translation from the web via public search engine. The experiments on Chinese university names demonstrate the validness of this approach.

  3. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  4. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  5. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  6. Adaptation Processes in Chinese: Word Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasierbsky, Fritz

    The typical pattern of Chinese word formation is to have native material adapt to changed circumstances. The Chinese language neither borrows nor lends words, but it does occasionally borrow concepts. The larger cultural pattern in which this occurs is that the Chinese culture borrows, if necessary, but ensures that the act of borrowing does not…

  7. Writing Concepts in Chinese Writing Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on how Chinese writing instruction can cause negative interference for Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language students writing in English. The study shows that in Chinese writing, the main idea can be more general, as a theme, or specific, as a thesis statement. It can also come at the beginning or end of a paper, and the writer…

  8. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  9. How Do Chinese Enterprises Look at REACH?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The new European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization of Chemicals) regulation has come into force. As soon as the REACH white paper was issued, Chinese enterprises started to research the possible impacts of REACH and prepare to cope with them. How then do these Chinese enterprises look at REACH? Following are views of some Chinese enterprises exporting chemical products to the European Union.

  10. Scientific and Technical Chinese, Volume II. Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kung-yi; And Others

    A composite English-to-Chinese glossary of all terms introduced in the individual lessons of "Scientific and Technical Chinese" is presented here. The appendices include lists of weights and measures and chemical elements, and a partial list of Chinese government organizations and research institutes related to science and technology. (AMH)

  11. Chinese Information Processing and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Li; Tie-Jun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents some main progresses and achievements in Chinese information processing. It focuses on six aspects, I.e., Chinese syntactic analysis, Chinese semantic analysis, machine translation, information retrieval, information extraction, and speech recognition and synthesis. The important techniques and possible key problems of the respective branch in the near future are discussed as well.

  12. Problems of Textbook in Teaching Chinese Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ta-hsia

    It is proposed that teachers of Chinese expose their students to traditional critical views of Chinese poetics and criticism through careful selection of poems. This approach to language study is based on the assumption that the student may gain insight and appreciation of Chinese poetry as well as a feeling for the culture. Arguments favoring…

  13. Teaching Oral Chinese in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    1976-01-01

    Because Chinese language textbooks were judged inadequate in teaching vocabulary dealing with everyday life in the U.S. and in China, new methods and materials were introduced into an oral Chinese course. Prepared discussion topics, Chinese films, soap operas, and shortwave radio broadcasts were used. (CHK)

  14. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  15. Modern Chinese Punctuation and CSL Reading Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickel, Stan

    1988-01-01

    Provides a brief history of Chinese punctuation and detailed analysis of modern Chinese punctuation. Three tables show: 1) uniquely Chinese punctuation markers; 2) markers graphemically identical and functionally similar to Western markers; and 3) markers graphemically identical but functionally different from Western markers. Each punctuation…

  16. A Cultural Perspective on Chinese Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaofang

    2011-01-01

    Politeness is a universal phenomenon, but its actual manifestations and the standards for judgment are culturally different. This paper analyzes the characteristics of Chinese politeness from a cultural perspective. It aims to improve our understanding of Chinese politeness and our knowledge of Chinese traditional culture and undertake interpersonal communication successfully.

  17. Accessing Chinese Resources on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yu-lan Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Internet resources on subjects related to the Chinese, both in English and Chinese: discussion groups; news; literature and linguistics; social studies; East Asian Studies programs, departments, and libraries; Chinese computer issues; cultural activities; weather; business; art; and entertainment. Hardware and software requirements…

  18. How Should We Revive Traditional Chinese Culture?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    There has been a growing interest during the past year in the popularity of traditional Chinese culture, both domestically and globally. Currently, over 40 Confucius Institutes have been set up worldwide, focusing on promoting Chinese culture. Named after China's most eminent philosopher and the father of Confucianism, the Chinese

  19. Young Chinese ESL Children's Home Literacy Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong

    1999-01-01

    Describes home literacy experiences of six Chinese English-as-a-second-language kindergartners. Includes the parents' provision of literate home environments as well as children's functional use of Chinese and English and engagement in Chinese and English literacy activities. Indicates the diverse and cultural nature of the home literacy…

  20. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addendum by Penny Edwards

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45. He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967 and The Political Structure of the Chinese Community in Cambodia (1970. However, subsequent to his research, Chinese communities suffered terribly during the repression of the Lon Nol government between 1970 and 1975 and the atrocities of the Democratic Kampuchea regime. Willmott thus declared Chinese communities—and a willingness to identify as Chinese—destroyed. This understandably pessimistic vision turned out to be unfounded; the next extensive research done on Chinese in Cambodia by Penny Edwards and Chan Sambath in 1995 showed Chinese communities rebuilding. However, the descriptions of these communities showed a complexity of identity formation—from recent immigrants, “the raw Chinese,” to the five “traditional” Chinese dialect groups—that differed markedly from the indexes of identity applied by Willmott in his initial analysis. Academic ideas of how Chineseness should be configured had shifted and complicated; ascribing identity had become increasingly problematic...