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Sample records for chinese marine fishes

  1. Large-scale spatial and interspecies differences in trace elements and stable isotopes in marine wild fish from Chinese waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A large-scale study on trace element levels in marine wild fish from Chinese waters. ► Spatial variation found for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, but not for Ag, Cu, Mo, Se and Zn. ► The Pearl River Estuary contained the highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Ni, and Pb. ► No biomagnification occurred for any of the trace elements studied in marine fish. ► No obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through fish consumption. - Abstract: We conducted a large scale investigation of twelve trace element levels and stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in twenty-nine marine wild fish species collected from Chinese coastal waters. Trace element levels varied significantly with species. Clear spatial variations were found for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Pb, whereas Ag, Cu, Mo, Se and Zn did not show much spatial variation. The Pearl River Estuary contained the highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Ni, and Pb, whereas the most southern waters (Haikou) contained the lowest concentrations of Al, Fe, and Pb. There was no correlation between log-transformed trace elements concentrations and δ15N values or δ13C values, indicating no biomagnification among these trace elements. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of 10 elements were less than 1, thus there was no obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through marine wild fish consumption.

  2. Chinese Marine Materia Medica

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica), Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy). A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, colle...

  3. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio;

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology to...

  4. Marine cage fish farming

    OpenAIRE

    Espeut, P.; Harache, Yves; Lemarie, Gilles; Ricard, Jean-marc

    1993-01-01

    Les pêcheries de captage marin en Jamaïque sont principalement de nature artisanale et elles sont dirigées principalement par les pêcheurs qui travaillent depuis des canoës. Environ 95 % de ces pêcheurs travaillent sur la plaine côtière et ses bancs associés. Les espèces commerciales récoltées comprennent les espèces benthiques, les espèces de corail et les espèces de poisson marin de nage libre. D'autres ressources de pêcheries de valeur commerciale comprennent la crevette, la conque et le h...

  5. National Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine recreational fishing is a popular pastime across the United States that generates significant economic impacts to both local economies and to the nation. In...

  6. National Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine recreational fishing is a popular pastime across the United States that generates significant economic impacts to both local economies and to the nation. In...

  7. Invasion of parasitic isopods in marine fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganapathy Rameshkumar; Samuthirapandian Ravichandran

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a detailed three-year observation study on isopod parasites infestation in fish.Methods:Fish samples were collected from different localities in various landing centers along the Tamil Nadu coastal area. The prevalence and mean intensity were calculated. The proximate composition of infestation and uninfestation were studied in different marine fishes. A comparative analysis of bacteria and fungi in the infected and uninfected regions of fishes were analysed.Results:Tweenty six species including 12 genera of isopods (Cymothoidae) distributed in 39 species of marine fishes along the Tamil Nadu coast. The isopod parasites were attached in three different microhabitats in host fishes viz., buccal, branchial and body surfaces. They exhibited host and site specific occurrence. Maximum prevalence 17.11% was recorded in March 2010 and minimum 0.27% in Febuary 2010. The intensity ranged from 1 to 1.7 parasites per fish during the different months from Decmber 2008 to November 2011. There was a decrease in the protein, carbohydrate and lipid content in the infested fishes compared to uninfected fishes. A comparative analysis of bacteria and fungi in the infected and uninfected region of fishes were analysed. It revealed that infected portions had dense bacterial load as observed in the lesions of infected fishes than uninfected fishes.Conclusion:Factors which are able to induce parasitic manifestation are stock quality, stocking density, environmental conditions, biological and physiological characteristics of parasite, zoo technical measures, food quantity, feeding strategies, etc.

  8. Transaction of Marine Fishing Right: Theoretical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jishen; Long Wenjun

    2008-01-01

    The difference between fishermen's fishing catch and the optimal fishing catch is the basic reason for the transaction of marine fishing rights (TMFR). The effects of productive cost, non-productive cost, use-cost, transaction cost, productive revenue and non-productive revenue on the TMFR and the optimal fishing catch are analyzed. This paper draws following conclusions: the non-productive revenue has a positive effect on the TMFR, and other factors, such as non-productive cost, usecost and transaction cost, have a negative effect; the TMFR will promote the resource allocation; the high transaction cost may affect the implementation of TMFR.

  9. Alaska Arctic marine fish ecology catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The marine fishes in waters of the United States north of the Bering Strait have received new and increased scientific attention over the past decade (2005–15) in conjunction with frontier qualities of the region and societal concerns about the effects of Arctic climate change. Commercial fisheries are negligible in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, but many marine species have important traditional and cultural values to Alaska Native residents. Although baseline conditions are rapidly changing, effective decisions about research and monitoring investments must be based on reliable information and plausible future scenarios. For the first time, this synthesis presents a comprehensive evaluation of the marine fish fauna from both seas in a single reference. Although many unknowns and uncertainties remain in the scientific understanding, information presented here is foundational with respect to understanding marine ecosystems and addressing dual missions of the U.S. Department of the Interior for energy development and resource conservation. 

  10. ECTOPARASITOSES OF CULTURED MARINE FISH

    OpenAIRE

    Dario Čičin-Karlov; Zlatica Teskeredžić

    2005-01-01

    Total of 70 individua collected on the four different fish farms were examined — 40 sea bass, 10 gilthead sea bream, 10 sharp–snouted sparus and 10 dentex. The investigations were focused on the presence of the ectoparasit Diplectanum sp. which belongs to platyhelmintes, monogena, diplectanidae, and the results of the examination are presented in this paper.

  11. Histopathology of Marine and Freshwater Fish Lymphocytosis Disease Virus (LCDV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphocytosis disease (LCD) in fishes is caused by the agent called lymphocytosis disease virus (LCDV). LCDV is a chronic and benign virus. The disease affects 96 species of marine and fresh water fishes ranged among 34 families in the world. Affected fish with LCD has a typical external symptom with clusters consisted of enormously hypertrophied dermal cells on the skin and fins. The hypertrophied cells, generally named lymphocytosis cells, have a thick hyaline capsule, an enlarged nucleus and prominent basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Among the four species of fishes, olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, and rockfish Sebastes schlegeli were marine cultured fish, and gourami Trichogaster leeri and painted glass fish Channa baculis were freshwater ornamental fish. Although LCD causes low mortality, the disfigurement of infected fish can make them unsellable. Thus LCD has resulted in an important economic loss in the aquaculture industry. This study of histopathology may be adequate for a presumptive diagnosis of lymphocytosis diseases both in marine and freshwater fish species. (author)

  12. Risk-benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zdu@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Zhang, Jian [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing [Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Froyland, Livar [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2012-02-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk-benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB{sub 7}, arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80-100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk-benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We collected 24 fish species with more than

  13. Risk–benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk–benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB7, arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80–100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk–benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: ► We collected 24 fish species with more than 400 individual samples

  14. Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Domestically Prepared Chicken and Fish from Singapore Chinese Households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Felton, J S; Zhao, B; Seow, A

    2005-05-16

    Chicken and fish samples prepared by 42 Singapore Chinese in their homes were obtained. Researchers were present to collect data on raw meat weight, cooking time, maximum cooking surface temperature, and cooked meat weight. Each participant prepared one pan-fried fish sample and two pan-fried chicken samples, one marinated, one not marinated. The cooked samples were analyzed for five heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) mutagens, including MeIQx (2-amino 3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and IFP (2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo [4,5-b])pyridine). A paired Student's t-test showed that marinated chicken had lower concentrations of PhIP (p<0.05), but higher concentrations of MeIQx (p<0.05) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (p<0.001) than non-marinated chicken, and also that weight loss due to cooking was less in marinated chicken than in non-marinated chicken (p<0.001). Interestingly, the maximum cooking surface temperature was higher for fish than for either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001), yet fish was lower in 4,8-DiMeIQx per gram than marinated or non-marinated chicken (p<0.001), lower in PhIP than non-marinated chicken (P<0.05), and lost less weight due to cooking than either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001). Fish was also lower in MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx than marinated chicken (P<0.05). This study provides new information on HAA content in the Singapore Chinese diet.

  15. Studies of Antimicrobial Peptides Hepcidin and Scygonadin in Chinese Marine-cultured Fishes and Mud Crab%海洋鱼类和青蟹抗菌肽hepcidin和scygonadin的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克坚

    2011-01-01

    抗菌肽或抗微生物肽因具有杀死或抑制微生物的共同特性,近年来科学家又将这些肽类称为"天然抗生素",有望在将来作为一种新型的生物药物替代现有的化学类抗生素.海洋动物中蕴藏着世界上丰富的抗菌活性物质,研究与开发应用海洋动物抗菌肽成为近年来的研究热点.结合国内外的相关研究进展,简要总结了课题组近年来在我国海水养殖鱼类抗菌肽hepcidin和青蟹抗菌肽scygonadin的研究进展,从抗菌肽的蛋白分离、纯化、基因克隆、基因表达模式、基因工程表达以及抗菌肽合成与表达产品的抗菌活性等进行了简要细致的叙述,对深入探索海洋动物抗菌肽在我国水产养殖业的开发应用具有重要的参考价值.%The small native compounds are isolated from various species of lives,with resistant activity against bacteria , are known as "antibacterial peptides"or "antimicrobial peptides" ( AMPs) and are also thought as "natural antibiotics " in recent years by scientists.It is widely acknowledged that these defensive compounds or AMPs could become new types of bio-antibiotics substituting for the currently used chemical antibiotics in near future. More and more people in the world realize that there are luxuriant AMPs existing in the marine animals , plants and microorganisms. The study of AMPs in marine animals is now the hotspot in research, thus attracting many researchers engaged in this area. The author briefly summarizes some typical results obtained from the study of AMPs in his group in recent several years. His group has done a lot of work in mining of genes and isolation of proteins which are related to antimicrobial activity from Chinese cultured fishes and crabs. More than 20 hepcidin cDNA sequences have been identified and the gene expression patterns were investigated in normal and bacterial challenged fish including Lateolabrax japonicus , Pagrus major , Sparus macrocephlus, Tilapia

  16. Evidence of Melanoma in Wild Marine Fish Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet, Michael; Kirkham, Nigel; Bendall, Mark; Currey, Leanne; Bythell, John; Heupel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The increase in reports of novel diseases in a wide range of ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine, has been linked to many factors including exposure to novel pathogens and changes in the global climate. Prevalence of skin cancer in particular has been found to be increasing in humans, but has not been reported in wild fish before. Here we report extensive melanosis and melanoma (skin cancer) in wild populations of an iconic, commercially-important marine fish, the coral trout Plectropomus...

  17. Ocean acidification erodes crucial auditory behaviour in a marine fish

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen D Simpson; Philip L Munday; Wittenrich, Matthew L.; Manassa, Rachel; Dixson, Danielle L; Gagliano, Monica; Hong Y Yan

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to affect marine ecosystems in many ways, including modification of fish behaviour. Previous studies have identified effects of CO2-enriched conditions on the sensory behaviour of fishes, including the loss of natural responses to odours resulting in ecologically deleterious decisions. Many fishes also rely on hearing for orientation, habitat selection, predator avoidance and communication. We used an auditory choice chamber to study the influence of CO2-enric...

  18. Fuel properties of biodiesel produced from the crude fish oil from the soapstock of marine fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Li, Rong-Ji [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean, University, Keelung 20224 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The soapstock of a mixture of marine fish was used as the raw material to produce the biodiesel in this study. The soapstock was collected from discarded fish products. Crude fish oil was squeezed from the soapstock of the fish and refined by a series of processes. The refined fish oil was transesterified to produce biodiesel. The fuel properties of the biodiesel were analyzed. The experimental results showed that oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the two major components of the marine fish-oil biodiesel. The biodiesel from the mixed marine fish oil contained a significantly greater amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids than did the biodiesel from waste cooking oil. In addition, the marine fish-oil biodiesel contained as high as 37.07 wt.% saturated fatty acids and 37.3 wt.% long chain fatty acids in the range between C20 and C22. Moreover, the marine fish-oil biodiesel appeared to have a larger acid number, a greater increase in the rate of peroxidization with the increase in the time that it was stored, greater kinematic viscosity, higher heating value, higher cetane index, more carbon residue, and a lower peroxide value, flash point, and distillation temperature than those of waste cooking-oil biodiesel. (author)

  19. Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tye A Nichols

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound. These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

  20. Damped trophic cascades driven by fishing in model marine ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Pedersen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The largest perturbation on upper trophic levels of many marine ecosystems stems from fishing. The reaction of the ecosystem goes beyond the trophic levels directly targeted by the fishery. This reaction has been described either as a change in slope of the overall size spectrum or as a trophic...... cascade triggered by the removal of top predators. Here we use a novel size- and trait-based model to explore how marine ecosystems might react to perturbations from different types of fishing pressure. The model explicitly resolves the whole life history of fish, from larvae to adults. The results show...... as it comes further away from the perturbed trophic level. Fishing on several trophic levels leads to a disappearance of the signature of the trophic cascade. Differences in fishing patterns among ecosystems might influence whether a trophic cascade is observed....

  1. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew P; Sparks, John S; Smith, W Leo

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world's oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication. PMID:27276229

  2. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew P.; Sparks, John S.; Smith, W. Leo

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world’s oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication. PMID:27276229

  3. Age at maturity of Mediterranean marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. TSIKLIRAS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we collected data on the age at maturity (tm and maximum reported age (tmax for 235 stocks of Mediterranean marine fishes, belonging to 82 species, 37 families, 12 orders and 2 classes (Actinopterygii and Elasmobranchii. Among Actinopterygii (mean tm ± SD = 2.20 ± 1.43 y, n = 215, tm ranged from 0.3 y, for the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, to 12 y, for dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus, while among Elasmobranchii (mean tm ± SD = 5.94 ± 2.47 y, n = 20, tm ranged between 2.7 y, for brown ray Raja miraletus, and 12 y for picked dogfish Squalus acanthias. Overall, the tmax ranged between 1 y, for transparent goby Aphia minuta, and 70 y, for wreckfish Polyprion americanus. The mean tmax of Actinopterygii (tmax ± SD = 10.14 ± 9.42 y was lower than that of Elasmobranchii (tmax ± SD = 14.05 ± 8.47 y. The tm exhibited a strong positive linear relation with tmax for both Actinopterygii (logtm = 0.58 ´ logtmax – 0.25, r2 = 0.51, P < 0.001 and Elasmobranchii (logtm = 0.67 ´ logtmax – 0.006, r2 = 0.51, P = 0.007. The mean tm/tmax did not differ significantly with sex within Actinopterygii (ANOVA: F = 0.27, P = 0.60, n = 90; females: mean ± SD = 0.276 ± 0.143; males: mean ± SD = 0.265 ± 0.138 and Elasmobranchii (ANOVA: F = 1.44, P = 0.25, n = 10; females: mean ± SD = 0.499 ± 0.166; males: mean ± SD = 0.418 ± 0.133. Finally, the dimensionless ratio tm/tmax was significantly lower (ANOVA: F = 31.04, P < 0.001 for Actinopterygii (mean ± SD = 0.270 ± 0.135, n = 180 than for Elasmobranchii, (mean ± SD = 0.458 ± 0.152, n = 20, when stocks with combined sexes were excluded from the analysis.

  4. Arsenic bioaccumulation in a marine juvenile fish Terapon jarbua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wei [State Key Laboratory of Oceanography in the Tropics, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang Liangmin [State Key Laboratory of Oceanography in the Tropics, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [Division of Life Science, HKUST, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Radiotracer technique was used to quantify the biokinetics of As(V) in a marine fish. As(V) had a low bioavailability to Terapon jarbua. Dietary assimilation of As was only 3.1-7.4% for fish fed with different preys. Dietary uptake could be the primary route for As bioaccumulation in fish. - Abstract: Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous toxic metalloid that is causing widespread public concern. Recent measurements have indicated that some marine fish in China might be seriously contaminated with As. Yet the biokinetics and bioaccumulation pathway of As in fish remain little understood. In this study, we employed a radiotracer technique to quantify the dissolved uptake, dietary assimilation and subsequent efflux of As(V) in a marine predatory fish, Terapon jarbua. The dissolved uptake of As showed a linear pattern over a range of dissolved concentrations from 0.5 to 50 {mu}g L{sup -1}, with a corresponding uptake rate constant of 0.0015 L g{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of dietary As were only 3.1-7.4% for fish fed with copepods, clams, prey fish, or artificial diets, and were much lower than the As that entered the trophically available metal fraction in the prey. The dietary AEs were independent of the As(V) concentrations in the artificial diets. The efflux rate constant of As in fish following the dietary exposure was 0.03 d{sup -1}. Modeling calculations showed that dietary uptake could be the primary route for As bioaccumulation in fish, and the corresponding contributions of waterborne and dietary uptakes were related to the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and the ingestion rate of fish. This study demonstrates that As(V) has a low bioavailability to T. jarbua.

  5. Arsenic bioaccumulation in a marine juvenile fish Terapon jarbua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Radiotracer technique was used to quantify the biokinetics of As(V) in a marine fish. As(V) had a low bioavailability to Terapon jarbua. Dietary assimilation of As was only 3.1–7.4% for fish fed with different preys. Dietary uptake could be the primary route for As bioaccumulation in fish. - Abstract: Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous toxic metalloid that is causing widespread public concern. Recent measurements have indicated that some marine fish in China might be seriously contaminated with As. Yet the biokinetics and bioaccumulation pathway of As in fish remain little understood. In this study, we employed a radiotracer technique to quantify the dissolved uptake, dietary assimilation and subsequent efflux of As(V) in a marine predatory fish, Terapon jarbua. The dissolved uptake of As showed a linear pattern over a range of dissolved concentrations from 0.5 to 50 μg L−1, with a corresponding uptake rate constant of 0.0015 L g−1 d−1. The assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of dietary As were only 3.1–7.4% for fish fed with copepods, clams, prey fish, or artificial diets, and were much lower than the As that entered the trophically available metal fraction in the prey. The dietary AEs were independent of the As(V) concentrations in the artificial diets. The efflux rate constant of As in fish following the dietary exposure was 0.03 d−1. Modeling calculations showed that dietary uptake could be the primary route for As bioaccumulation in fish, and the corresponding contributions of waterborne and dietary uptakes were related to the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and the ingestion rate of fish. This study demonstrates that As(V) has a low bioavailability to T. jarbua.

  6. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz-Lazaro, Carlos, E-mail: carsanz@um.es [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marin, Arnaldo [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. - Research highlights: > Biofilms can act as a trophic pathway of fish farm dissolved wastes. > Biofilms are reliable tools for monitoring fish farm dissolved wastes. > The influence of the fish farm dissolved wastes can be detected 120-350 m from farm. - Under the influence of fish farming biofilm accumulates organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals, regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community.

  7. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. - Research highlights: → Biofilms can act as a trophic pathway of fish farm dissolved wastes. → Biofilms are reliable tools for monitoring fish farm dissolved wastes. → The influence of the fish farm dissolved wastes can be detected 120-350 m from farm. - Under the influence of fish farming biofilm accumulates organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals, regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community.

  8. Trace elements in two marine fish cultured in fish cages in Fujian province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Ke Caihuan; Wang Xinhong; Wang Kejian [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.h [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Two cultured marine fish, the Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and red seabream (Pagrus major) were collected from eight fish cage sites along the coast of Fujian province in China. The concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn in their muscle, stomach and liver tissue were quantified. The risk of these trace elements to humans through fish consumption was then assessed. The highest concentrations of As, Cd, Se and Zn in fish feed from fish cages were found in Dongshan Station. Moreover, the As levels in the muscles of both species at all sites were generally higher than China's national standard (>1.0 mug/g). Trace element concentrations in two marine fish followed the order of livers > stomachs > muscles. Although the As levels in two marine caged fish exceeded the permissible standards, the estimated daily intake of As did not exceed the reference dose guideline established by US EPA. For other trace elements examined in this study, their concentrations did not exceed the permissible concentrations of the international standards. - As levels in two marine caged fish from China exceeded the permissible standards, whereas the levels of others trace elements did not exceed the permissible concentrations.

  9. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in marine fish and its implications for fish farming - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Mellergaard, Stig

    2005-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) has, in recent decades, been isolated from an increasing number of free-living marine fish species. So far, it has been isolated from at least 48 fish species from the northern hemisphere, including North America, Asia and Europe, and fifteen different ...

  10. Field Guide to Nonindigenous Marine Fishes of Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Morris, Jr., J. Glenn; Akins, Lad

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this field guide is to provide information on nonindigenous (i.e., non-native) fishes that have been observed in Florida’s marine waters. Introductions of non-native marine fishes into Florida’s waters could be intentional or unintentional, and are likely from a variety of sources, including aquarium releases, escape from aquaculture, loss due to extreme weather events (e.g., flooding from hurricanes), and possibly transfer with ballast water or hull-fouling. Presently the lion...

  11. ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION AND BREEDING OF MARINE FISH IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪万树; 张其永

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1990s, artificial propagation and breeding technique of marine fish in China have developed by way of increasing species and fry numbers, with special stress laid on valuable species. Large quantities of artificial fry can meet the needs of both marine cage culture and pond culture for most species. Experimental results obtained by scientists have been put into use in actual production. Fish fry production has entered a period of sustainable development. So far, at least 44 species (21 families) of marine fish have been successfully bred in China. The artificial fry number of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) exceeded 300 million in 1999. The species whose artificial fry numbers have each surpassed 10 million annually are red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus), cuneate drum (Nibea miichthioides), spring spawning red seabream (Pagrosomus major) and threebanded sweetlip (Plectorhynchus cinctus). Millions of artificial fry are bred annually in the species of black porgy (Sparus macrocephalus), Russell's snapper (Lutjanus russelli), javelin grunt (Pomadasys hasta), miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) and skewband grunt (Hapalogenys nitens). The fish in the family Sciaenidae are the main species in artificial propagation and breeding. Some problems and prospects on marine fish culture and stock enhancement are also discussed and some proposals for sustainable development are put forward in this article.

  12. Bony fish and their contribution to marine inorganic carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael; Perry, Chris; Wilson, Rod; Harborne, Alistair

    2016-04-01

    Conventional understanding of the marine inorganic carbon cycle holds that CaCO3 (mostly as low Mg-calcite and aragonite) precipitates in the upper reaches of the ocean and sinks to a point where it either dissolves or is deposited as sediment. Thus, it plays a key role controlling the distribution of DIC in the oceans and in regulating their capacity to absorb atmospheric CO2. However, several aspects of this cycle remain poorly understood and have long perplexed oceanographers, such as the positive alkalinity anomaly observed in the upper water column of many of the world's oceans, above the aragonite and calcite saturation horizons. This anomaly would be explained by extensive dissolution of a carbonate phase more soluble than low Mg-calcite or aragonite, but major sources for such phases remain elusive. Here we highlight marine bony fish as a potentially important primary source of this 'missing' high-solubility CaCO3. Precipitation of CaCO3 takes place within the intestines of all marine bony fish as part of their normal physiological functioning, and global production models suggest it could account for up to 45 % of total new marine CaCO3 production. Moreover, high Mg-calcite containing >25 % mol% MgCO3 - a more soluble phase than aragonite - is a major component of these precipitates. Thus, fish CaCO3 may at least partially explain the alkalinity anomaly in the upper water column. However, the issue is complicated by the fact that carbonate mineralogy actually varies among fish species, with high Mg-calcite (HMC), low Mg-calcite (LMC), aragonite, and amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) all being common products. Using data from 22 Caribbean fish species, we have generated a novel production model that resolves phase proportions. We evaluate the preservation/dissolution potential of these phases and consider potential implications for marine inorganic carbon cycling. In addition, we consider the dramatic changes in fish biomass structure that have resulted

  13. [Application of zebra fishes in studies on traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li-li; Zhu, Guo-fu

    2015-03-01

    The zebra fish model, as an integral animal model, features small volume, high throughput, low cost, short cycle and reliable experimental results, thus has been widely used in medical studies. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) constitute a complex system, their active ingredients and action mechanisms are among study hotspots in during the development of modern TCMs. Along with the constant improvement of advanced technologies and methods, zebra fishes have been increasingly applied in studies on TCMs and shown advantages in active screening, and toxicity and metabolism studies. In this paper, TCM studies by using zebra fishes in recent years are summarized to provide new ideas and methods for basic studies on TCMs. PMID:26087540

  14. Arsenic bioaccumulation in a marine juvenile fish Terapon jarbua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Liangmin; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous toxic metalloid that is causing widespread public concern. Recent measurements have indicated that some marine fish in China might be seriously contaminated with As. Yet the biokinetics and bioaccumulation pathway of As in fish remain little understood. In this study, we employed a radiotracer technique to quantify the dissolved uptake, dietary assimilation and subsequent efflux of As(V) in a marine predatory fish, Terapon jarbua. The dissolved uptake of As showed a linear pattern over a range of dissolved concentrations from 0.5 to 50 μg L(-1), with a corresponding uptake rate constant of 0.0015 L g(-1)d(-1). The assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of dietary As were only 3.1-7.4% for fish fed with copepods, clams, prey fish, or artificial diets, and were much lower than the As that entered the trophically available metal fraction in the prey. The dietary AEs were independent of the As(V) concentrations in the artificial diets. The efflux rate constant of As in fish following the dietary exposure was 0.03 d(-1). Modeling calculations showed that dietary uptake could be the primary route for As bioaccumulation in fish, and the corresponding contributions of waterborne and dietary uptakes were related to the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and the ingestion rate of fish. This study demonstrates that As(V) has a low bioavailability to T. jarbua. PMID:21945928

  15. Isolation and identification of marine fish tumour (odontoma) associated bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja; Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify fish tumour associated bacteria. Methods: The marine fish Sphyraena jello with odontoma was collected from in Tamil Nadu (Southeast India), and tumour associated bacteria were isolated. Then the isolated bacteria were identified based on molecular characters. Results: A total of 4 different bacterial species were isolated from tumour tissue. The bacterial species were Bacillus sp., Pontibacter sp., Burkholderia sp. and Macrococcus sp., and the se...

  16. Nearshore marine fish assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish benthic trawls were completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data from 425 fisheries independent trawls ranging from 2-215...

  17. Characteristics of Marine Recreational Fishing in the anakkale Strait (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. UNAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic and harvest impacts of Marine Recreational Fishing (MRF in Çanakkale Strait were analysed along with fishing policy, sociology and habits of fishers. Data sources included field survey data carried out along the entire length of the Çanakkale strait and policy information gathered from published sources. MRF policy is commendable, even in the fishing tourism sector, and is better developed than that in many other European countries. In Çanakkale, 9.9% of the population is recreational fishers. Recreational fishers are typically men (90%, primarily those between the ages of 25 and 49 yrs. The occupation of the recreational fishers ranged from self-employed (28%, students (28%, retired persons (22% and public employees (15%, to currently-unemployed persons (7%. An analysis of diel behaviour showed that most recreational fishers preferred fishing during the day (56.1%, while the evening was the next most preferred time for fishing (18%, followed by the night-time (9.8%, while a substantial number of recreational fishers (16.1% reported that they fished at any time of day. The most popular type of fishing was shore-based (68%, followed by boat-based (21%, and underwater fishing (11%. The mean daily fishing times were 6.07 h d-1, 6.18 h d-1 4.75 d-1 for boat-based, underwater and shore-based fishing, respectively. Summer and autumn were the preferred seasons for shore-based and underwater fishing, while autumn and winter were preferred for boat-based fishing. The highest Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE was observed for boat-based fishing (2.77 kg h-1, followed by underwater (0.97 kg h-1 and shore-based fishing (0.81 kg h-1. The catch composition included 51 species, though the catch composition of each fishing type was mostly comprised of only 3 or 4 species. The impact of the MRF harvest was high (30% of commercial fishing, particularly for bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix and picarel (Spicara smaris species. The economic impact of MRF was

  18. Characteristics of Marine Recreational Fishing in the anakkale Strait (Turkey).

    OpenAIRE

    V. UNAL; Acarli, D.; A. GORDOA

    2011-01-01

    The economic and harvest impacts of Marine Recreational Fishing (MRF) in Çanakkale Strait were analysed along with fishing policy, sociology and habits of fishers. Data sources included field survey data carried out along the entire length of the Çanakkale strait and policy information gathered from published sources. MRF policy is commendable, even in the fishing tourism sector, and is better developed than that in many other European countries. In Çanakkale, 9.9% of the population is recrea...

  19. Domestication of Marine Fish Species: Update and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Teletchea

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Domestication is a long and endless process during which animals become, generations after generations, more adapted to both captive conditions and humans. Compared to land animals, domestication of fish species has started recently. This implies that most farmed marine fish species have only changed slightly from their wild counterparts, and production is based partly or completely on wild inputs. In the past decades, global marine fish production has increased tremendously, particularly since the 1990s, to reach more than 2.2 million tons in 2013. Among the 100 marine fish species listed in the FAO’s database in 2013, 35 are no longer produced, and only six have a production higher than 100,000 tons. The top ten farmed marine species accounted for nearly 90% of global production. The future growth and sustainability of mariculture will depend partly on our ability to domesticate (i.e., control the life cycle in captivity of both currently farmed and new species.

  20. High-seas fish wars generate marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Guillermo E; Moeller, Holly V; Neubert, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    The effective management of marine fisheries is an ongoing challenge at the intersection of biology, economics, and policy. One way in which fish stocks-and their habitats-can be protected is through the establishment of marine reserves, areas that are closed to fishing. Although the potential economic benefits of such reserves have been shown for single-owner fisheries, their implementation quickly becomes complicated when more than one noncooperating harvester is involved in fishery management, which is the case on the high seas. How do multiple self-interested actors distribute their fishing effort to maximize their individual economic gains in the presence of others? Here, we use a game theoretic model to compare the effort distributions of multiple noncooperating harvesters with the effort distributions in the benchmark sole owner and open access cases. In addition to comparing aggregate rent, stock size, and fishing effort, we focus on the occurrence, size, and location of marine reserves. We show that marine reserves are a component of many noncooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria. Furthermore, as the number of harvesters increases, (i) both total unfished area and the size of binding reserves (those that actually constrain behavior) may increase, although the latter eventually asymptotically decreases; (ii) total rents and stock size both decline; and (iii) aggregate effort used (i.e., employment) can either increase or decrease, perhaps nonmonotonically. PMID:26976560

  1. DNA barcoding of marine ornamental fishes from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaniya, Dhaval C; Pavan-Kumar, A; Gireesh-Babu, P; Sharma, Niti; Reang, Dhalongsaih; Krishna, Gopal; Lakra, W S

    2016-09-01

    India has rich marine ornamental fish diversity with 400 fish species distributed in Gulf of Munnar/Palk Bay, Gulf of Kutch, and in reefs around Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands. Marine ornamental fish identification at the field level is very difficult because of their high diversity and profound changes in appearance during their developmental stages and camouflage. To facilitate ornamental fish trading with ease and in compliance with the biodiversity act, DNA barcoding technique could be used to accurately identify species. In this study, DNA barcodes were generated for 31 species of commercially important marine ornamental fishes from India. The average genetic distance (K2P model) within species, genus, and family was 0.446, 13.08, and 20.09%, respectively. Intraspecific variation has increased several folds (15-20 times) after including conspecific sequences from different geographical locations. The presence of allopatric lineages/cryptic species was observed in the Indo-pacific region. The NJ tree constructed based on K2P values showed distinct clusters shared by congeneric species specific to populations. PMID:25703851

  2. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul...

  3. Mediterranean Aquaculture: Marine Fish Farming Development

    OpenAIRE

    Basurco, B.

    2001-01-01

    in many parts of the world, aquaculture production in the Mediterranean has been expanding rapidly over recent years. Total aquaculture production in the region reached 1,266,959 t in 1999, which represents approximately 6% of the world aquaculture production (3% in 1995). Although Mediterranean aquaculture still focuses more on mollusc production (53.9%), the share of fish production is progressing constantly (46% in 1999, and 35% in 1995), parallel to global trends of world a...

  4. 75 FR 8305 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... determination that incidental taking from commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on CNP humpback... serious injury incidental to commercial fishing in making the first negligible impact determinations (60... Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Proposed Permit AGENCY: National Marine...

  5. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul......(-1) of total egg volume is derived for most species spawning eggs without visible oil globules. The energy density of eggs with oil globules is predicted by (σ) over cap = 1.34 + 40.61 x (J mul(-1)) where x is the fractional volume of the oil globule. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British...

  6. Ventricular myocardial architecture in marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Quintana, D; Hurle, J M

    1987-03-01

    The fiber architecture of the ventricular myocardium has been studied in elasmobranch (Isurus oxyrhinchus, Galeorhinus galeus, Prionace glauca) and teleost (Xiphias gladius, Thunnus thynnus, Thunnus alalunga) fish species with hearts displaying mixed types of ventricular musculature (compact and trabecular). In all cases, the compact myocardium is organized in layers of fiber bundles with an orderly arrangement within the ventricular walls. The number of these layers appears to be dependent on the relative thickness of the compact myocardium. Differences in the pattern of myocardial fiber arrangement were observed among the different fish species. In elasmobranchs the compact myocardium at the level of the atrioventricular orifice is continuous with the trabeculated myocardium. Furthermore, in elasmobranchs the trabeculated myocardium displays a precise arrangement in arcuate trabeculae running from the auriculoventricular to the conoventricular orifices. In teleosts, the compact myocardium is independent of the trabeculated myocardium and a large number of fibers insert into the bulboventricular fibrous ring. The trabeculated myocardium in these species displays an anarchic arrangement except at the level of the bulboventricular orifice, where the fibers tend to be aligned longitudinally, also being inserted into the fibrous ring. Minor differences, consisting mainly of the presence of extra bundles of fibers, were also observed among different individuals of the same species. The possible relationship between myocardial fiber architecture and ventricular shape is discussed. PMID:3578842

  7. Fish Growth in Marine Culture Systems: A Challenge for Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon

    1999-07-01

    : Aquaculture production is constrained largely by the growth efficiency of the species being produced. Nutritional approaches have played an important part in improving this situation, but, it is argued, the room for further improvement using such established techniques is limited. Alternative ways of improving fish production by utilizing recent biotechnological advances are explored and assessed as to their potential for commercialization in the near future. Transgenic technologies promise a revolution in aquaculture, but it is considered that consumer resistance may delay the use of transgenic fish for food production. An alternative approach could be the breeding of transgenic fodder plants without the amino acid deficiencies of existing alternatives to fish meal in aquaculture diets. The use of probiotics could reduce antibiotic use on fish farms while they might also provide the basis for "smart" diets, tailored to specific purposes by the inclusion of microorganisms. The selection and genetic engineering of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria could also pave the way for fully enclosed, recirculating marine culture systems, which would allow control of the environmental variables that currently restrain marine fish culture. PMID:10489415

  8. A review of infectious gill disease in marine salmonid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S O; Rodger, H D

    2011-06-01

    Infectious gill diseases of marine salmonid fish present a significant challenge in salmon-farming regions. Infectious syndromes or disease conditions affecting marine-farmed salmonids include amoebic gill disease (AGD), proliferative gill inflammation (PGI) and tenacibaculosis. Pathogens involved include parasites, such as Neoparamoeba perurans, bacteria, such as Piscichlamydia salmonis and Tenacibaculum maritimum, and viruses, such as the Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV). The present level of understanding of these is reviewed with regard to risk factors, potential impacting factors, methods of best practice to mitigate infectious gill disease, as well as knowledge gaps and avenues for future research. PMID:21401646

  9. Projected impacts of climate change on marine fish and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollowed, Anne B.; Barange, Manuel; Beamish, Richard J.;

    2013-01-01

    ) implications for food security and associated changes; and (v) uncertainty and modelling skill assessment. Climate change will impact fish and shellfish, their fisheries, and fishery-dependent communities through a complex suite of linked processes. Integrated interdisciplinary research teams are forming in...... many regions to project these complex responses. National and international marine research organizations serve a key role in the coordination and integration of research to accelerate the production of projections of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems and to move towards a future where...

  10. Isolation and identification of marine fish tumour (odontoma) associated bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja; Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify fish tumour associated bacteria. Methods: The marine fish Sphyraena jello with odontoma was collected from in Tamil Nadu (Southeast India), and tumour associated bacteria were isolated. Then the isolated bacteria were identified based on molecular characters. Results: A total of 4 different bacterial species were isolated from tumour tissue. The bacterial species were Bacillus sp., Pontibacter sp., Burkholderia sp. and Macrococcus sp., and the sequences were submitted in DNA Data Bank of Japan with accession numbers of AB859240, AB859241, AB859242 and AB859243 respectively. Conclusions: Four different bacterial species were isolated from Sphyraena jello, but the role of bacteria within tumour needs to be further investigated.

  11. Nerocila species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Trilles, Jean-Paul; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2013-01-01

    Eleven Nerocila species are recorded from 22 marine fishes belonging to 15 families. Three, Nerocila arres, Nerocila depressa, and Nerocila loveni, are new for the Indian fauna. N. arres and Nerocila sigani, previously synonymized, are redescribed and their individuality is restored. Nerocila exocoeti, until now inadequately identified, is described and distinctly characterized. A neotype is designated. New hosts were identified for N. depressa, N. loveni, Nerocila phaiopleura, Nerocila serra...

  12. Reproductive timing in marine fishes: variability, temporal scales, and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan; Ganias, Konstantinos; Saborido-Rey, Fran; Murua, Hilario; Hunter, John

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive timing can be defined as the temporal pattern of reproduction over a lifetime. Although reproductive timing is highly variable in marine fishes, certain traits are universal, including sexual maturity, undergoing one or more reproductive cycles, participating in one or more spawning events within a reproductive cycle, release of eggs or offspring, aging, and death. These traits commonly occur at four temporal scales: lifetime, annual, intraseasonal, and diel. It has l...

  13. Hindgut Fermentation in Three Species of Marine Herbivorous Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Mountfort, Douglas O.; Campbell, Jane; Clements, Kendall D.

    2002-01-01

    Symbioses with gut microorganisms provides a means by which terrestrial herbivores are able to obtain energy. These microorganisms ferment cell wall materials of plants to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are then absorbed and used by the host animal. Many marine herbivorous fishes contain SCFA (predominantly acetate) in their hindgut, indicative of gut microbial activity, but rates of SCFA production have not been measured. Such information is an important prerequisite to understanding ...

  14. Mercury and stable isotope signatures in caged marine fish and fish feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Chen, Min; Ke, Caihuan [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Wen-Xiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury concentrations in caged fish were closely related to Hg concentrations in fish feeds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The trophic transfer factor of methylmercury was dependent on fish feeds, and was the highest for fish fed on pellet feeds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because Hg levels can be carefully controlled. - Abstract: Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in four species of marine caged carnivorous fish, one species of herbivorous fish and three types of fish feeds (dried pellet feed, forage fish and fish viscera), collected from five cage sites in the rural areas along Fujian coastline, China. For the carnivorous fish, the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 {mu}g/g and from 0.02 to 0.30 {mu}g/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The concentrations were lower for the herbivorous fish with both within the range of 0.01-0.03 {mu}g/g. Out of the three tested fish feeds, tuna viscera contained the highest level of mercury (0.20 {mu}g/g THg and 0.13 {mu}g/g MeHg), with pellet feed containing the lowest level (0.05 {mu}g/g THg and 0.01 {mu}g/g MeHg). The calculated trophic transfer factor of MeHg was the highest (12-64) for fish fed on pellet feeds, and was the lowest for fish fed on tuna viscera. A significant relationship was found between Hg concentrations in caged fish and in fish feeds, thus Hg was primarily accumulated from the diet. Furthermore, the stable isotope {delta}{sup 15}N was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in two caged sites, indicating that {delta}{sup 15}N may be a suitable tool for tracking mercury in caged fish. We conclude that fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because mercury levels can be carefully controlled in such farming systems.

  15. Evidence of melanoma in wild marine fish populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sweet

    Full Text Available The increase in reports of novel diseases in a wide range of ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine, has been linked to many factors including exposure to novel pathogens and changes in the global climate. Prevalence of skin cancer in particular has been found to be increasing in humans, but has not been reported in wild fish before. Here we report extensive melanosis and melanoma (skin cancer in wild populations of an iconic, commercially-important marine fish, the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus. The syndrome reported here has strong similarities to previous studies associated with UV induced melanomas in the well-established laboratory fish model Xiphophorus. Relatively high prevalence rates of this syndrome (15% were recorded at two offshore sites in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP. In the absence of microbial pathogens and given the strong similarities to the UV-induced melanomas, we conclude that the likely cause was environmental exposure to UV radiation. Further studies are needed to establish the large scale distribution of the syndrome and confirm that the lesions reported here are the same as the melanoma in Xiphophorus, by assessing mutation of the EGFR gene, Xmrk. Furthermore, research on the potential links of this syndrome to increases in UV radiation from stratospheric ozone depletion needs to be completed.

  16. Evidence of melanoma in wild marine fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Michael; Kirkham, Nigel; Bendall, Mark; Currey, Leanne; Bythell, John; Heupel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The increase in reports of novel diseases in a wide range of ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine, has been linked to many factors including exposure to novel pathogens and changes in the global climate. Prevalence of skin cancer in particular has been found to be increasing in humans, but has not been reported in wild fish before. Here we report extensive melanosis and melanoma (skin cancer) in wild populations of an iconic, commercially-important marine fish, the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus. The syndrome reported here has strong similarities to previous studies associated with UV induced melanomas in the well-established laboratory fish model Xiphophorus. Relatively high prevalence rates of this syndrome (15%) were recorded at two offshore sites in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). In the absence of microbial pathogens and given the strong similarities to the UV-induced melanomas, we conclude that the likely cause was environmental exposure to UV radiation. Further studies are needed to establish the large scale distribution of the syndrome and confirm that the lesions reported here are the same as the melanoma in Xiphophorus, by assessing mutation of the EGFR gene, Xmrk. Furthermore, research on the potential links of this syndrome to increases in UV radiation from stratospheric ozone depletion needs to be completed. PMID:22870273

  17. Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind;

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in...

  18. The auxin concentration in sixteen Chinese marine algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lijun

    2006-01-01

    The author determined the occurrence of indole-3-acetic acid in sixteen Chinese marine algae collected from the east coast of China with fluorescence spectrophotometry (FS) and wheat coleoptile bioanalysis methods (WCB). The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) presented was from 1.1-46.9 ng/g Fw (fresh weight) with FS and 5.3-110.2 ng/g Fw with WCB. The results by the two methods were in the orders of 10-3-103 ng/g Fw reported previously from multiple references.

  19. Bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora and fauna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-fang ZHOU; Yue-wei GUO

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades,the pharmaceutical application potential of marine natural products has attracted much interest from both natural product chemists and pharmacologists.Our group has long been engaged in the search for bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora (such as mangroves and algae) and fauna (including sponges,soft corals,and mollusks),resulting in the isolation and characterization of numerous novel secondary metabolites spanning a wide range of structural classes and various biosynthetic origins.Of particular interest is the fact that many of these compounds show promising biological activities,including cytotoxic,antibacterial,and enzyme inhibitory effects- By describing representative studies,this review presents a comprehensive summary regarding the achievements and progress made by our group in the past decade.Several interesting examples are discussed in detail.

  20. A review on fungal diseases of algae, marine fishes, shrimps and corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    of Marine Sciences Vol. 35(4), December 2006, pp. 380-387 A review on fungal diseases of algae, marine fishes, shrimps and corals N. Ramaiah* Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of OceanographyDoan Paula, Goa 403 004, India... diseases in particular. [Key words: Fungi, parasites, pathogens, algae, corals, marine fishes, Fusarium, Lagenidium, Sirolidium] Introduction Marine fisheries and aquaculture contribute to national productivity, socio-economic development...

  1. Speciation neutron activation analysis for arsenic in marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods involving chemical separations prior to irradiations can be developed to determine the species of an element. The technique can be called speciation NAA (SNAA). We have developed SNAA methods for assaying various arsenic species, namely As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsonic acid (DMA), monomethylarsinic acid (MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), organically bound arsenic (OBAs), and lipid-soluble arsenic (LSAs) in marine fish samples. The method involves extraction by a methanol-MIBK-water system, cation exchange chromatography, and HPLC followed by NAA. The detection limits for various arsenic species are around 20 ng g-1 of fish under the experimental conditions of 2-h irradiation in a neutron flux of 5x1011 cm-2 s-1 at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 facility. Details of the methods and results are presented

  2. Isolation and identification of marine fish tumour (odontoma associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify fish tumour associated bacteria. Methods: The marine fish Sphyraena jello with odontoma was collected from in Tamil Nadu (Southeast India, and tumour associated bacteria were isolated. Then the isolated bacteria were identified based on molecular characters. Results: A total of 4 different bacterial species were isolated from tumour tissue. The bacterial species were Bacillus sp., Pontibacter sp., Burkholderia sp. and Macrococcus sp., and the sequences were submitted in DNA Data Bank of Japan with accession numbers of AB859240, AB859241, AB859242 and AB859243 respectively. Conclusions: Four different bacterial species were isolated from Sphyraena jello, but the role of bacteria within tumour needs to be further investigated.

  3. Analysis of three marine fish cell lines by rapd assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H R; Zhang, S C; Tong, S L; Xiang, J H

    2001-01-01

    We tested the applicability of the random amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (RAPD) analysis for identification of three marine fish cell lines FG, SPH, and RSBF, and as a possible tool to detect cross-contamination. Sixty commercial 10-mer RAPD primers were tested on the cell lines and on samples collected from individual fish. The results obtained showed that the cell lines could be identified to the correspondent species on the basis of identical patterns produced by 35-48% of the primers tested; the total mean similarity indices for cell lines versus correspondent species of individual fish ranged from 0.825 to 0.851, indicating the existence of genetic variation in these cell lines in relation to the species of their origin. Also, four primers, which gave a monomorphic band pattern within species/line, but different among the species/line, were obtained. These primers can be useful for identification of these cell lines and for characterization of the genetic variation of these cell lines in relation to the species of their origin. This supported the use of RAPD analysis as an effective tool in species identification and cross-contamination test among different cell lines. PMID:11573817

  4. Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data from current meter and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from 26 January 1993 to 13 June 1994 (NODC Accession 9500088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using current meter and other...

  5. Strontium and barium uptake in aragonitic otoliths of marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Gretchen E.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Jones, Cynthia M.; Campana, Steven E.; McLaren, James W.; Lam, Joseph W. H.

    2000-05-01

    Minor and trace element analyses of fish otoliths (ear stones) may provide a high-resolution reconstruction of temperature histories and trace element compositions of aquatic systems where other environmental proxies are not available. However, before otoliths can be used to reconstruct water chemistry, it is essential to validate the assumption that trace metals in otoliths are deposited in proportion to dissolved concentrations in the ambient environment. We show, using a marine fish ( Leiostomus xanthurus) reared in the laboratory under controlled experimental conditions, that otolith Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios are deposited in proportion to their respective ratios in ambient waters. Temperature significantly affected Sr incorporation but did not affect Ba incorporation in otoliths. Sr/Ca partition coefficients ( DSr) were 0.182 and 0.205 at 20°C and 25°C, respectively. The partition coefficients for Ba/Ca were 0.055 at 20°C and 0.062 at 25°C. A nonlinearity in the relationship between DBa and ambient Ba concentrations suggested that extrapolation beyond the Ba levels used in the experiment was not justified. On the basis of our results, it should be possible to reconstruct Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca levels in environments inhabited by fish based on otolith chemistry. Furthermore, Sr/Ca thermometry may also be possible using fish otoliths, but validation of the temperature dependence of Sr/Ca in otoliths will be required. We believe otoliths represent an excellent, and as yet underused, record of the physicochemical properties of both modern and ancient aquatic environments.

  6. SNP Discovery In Marine Fish Species By 454 Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panitz, Frank; Nielsen, Rasmus Ory; van Houdt, Jeroen K J;

    2011-01-01

    Based on the 454 Next-Generation-Sequencing technology (Roche) a high throughput screening method was devised in order to generate novel genetic markers (SNPs). SNP discovery was performed for three target species of marine fish: hake (Merluccius merluccius), herring (Clupea harengus) and sole......-masked and assembled into high quality contig sequences using the Genomics Workbench (www.clcbio.com) and Cap3 (Huang and Madan, Genome Res. 1999) softwares. Since no genome reference information was available for any of these species, SNP detection was performed by mapping reads to the contig sequences as a...... reference using GigaBayes (http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/marthlab/GigaBayes). From the predicted polymorphic sites potential SNPs were filtered for intron-exon boundaries and visually inspected. We selected 1,536 candidate SNPs which were then used to design probes for validation by large-scale genotyping...

  7. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kan-Atireklap, Supawat [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sanguansin, Joompol [Eastern Marine Fisheries Development Center, Ban Phe, Muang, Rayong 21160 (Thailand); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Jl. Pasir Putih 1, Ancol Timur, Jakarta 11048 (Indonesia); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES), Office of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia.

  8. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia

  9. Effects of marine wind farms on the distribution of fish, shellfish and marine mammals in the Horns Rev area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.; Astrup, J.; Larsen, Finn; Munch-Petersen, S.

    2000-05-15

    The purpose of the report is: 1) to give a quantitative description of the abundance of the fish and shellfish in the area surrounding the windmill area and to evaluate the effects of the physically presence of the windmills on the abundance of fish and shellfish in the area; 2) to evaluate the artificial reef effect in the windmill area; 3) to evaluate the effects of noise and electromagnetic fields on the abundance of fish and marine mammals. (au)

  10. Effects of marine wind farms on the distribution of fish, shellfish and marine mammals in the Horns Rev area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the report is: 1) to give a quantitative description of the abundance of the fish and shellfish in the area surrounding the windmill area and to evaluate the effects of the physically presence of the windmills on the abundance of fish and shellfish in the area; 2) to evaluate the artificial reef effect in the windmill area; 3) to evaluate the effects of noise and electromagnetic fields on the abundance of fish and marine mammals. (au)

  11. Subcellular controls of mercury trophic transfer to a marine fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Fei [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-09-15

    Different behaviors of inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] and methylmercury (MeHg) during trophic transfer along the marine food chain have been widely reported, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The bioavailability of ingested mercury, quantified by assimilation efficiency (AE), was investigated in a marine fish, the grunt Terapon jarbua, based on mercury subcellular partitioning in prey and purified subcellular fractions of prey tissues. The subcellular distribution of Hg(II) differed substantially among prey types, with cellular debris being a major (49-57% in bivalves) or secondary (14-19% in other prey) binding pool. However, MeHg distribution varied little among prey types, with most MeHg (43-79%) in heat-stable protein (HSP) fraction. The greater AEs measured for MeHg (90-94%) than for Hg(II) (23-43%) confirmed the findings of previous studies. Bioavailability of each purified subcellular fraction rather than the proposed trophically available metal (TAM) fraction could better elucidate mercury assimilation difference. Hg(II) associated with insoluble fraction (e.g. cellular debris) was less bioavailable than that in soluble fraction (e.g. HSP). However, subcellular distribution was shown to be less important for MeHg, with each fraction having comparable MeHg bioavailability. Subcellular distribution in prey should be an important consideration in mercury trophic transfer studies.

  12. Subcellular controls of mercury trophic transfer to a marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different behaviors of inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] and methylmercury (MeHg) during trophic transfer along the marine food chain have been widely reported, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The bioavailability of ingested mercury, quantified by assimilation efficiency (AE), was investigated in a marine fish, the grunt Terapon jarbua, based on mercury subcellular partitioning in prey and purified subcellular fractions of prey tissues. The subcellular distribution of Hg(II) differed substantially among prey types, with cellular debris being a major (49-57% in bivalves) or secondary (14-19% in other prey) binding pool. However, MeHg distribution varied little among prey types, with most MeHg (43-79%) in heat-stable protein (HSP) fraction. The greater AEs measured for MeHg (90-94%) than for Hg(II) (23-43%) confirmed the findings of previous studies. Bioavailability of each purified subcellular fraction rather than the proposed trophically available metal (TAM) fraction could better elucidate mercury assimilation difference. Hg(II) associated with insoluble fraction (e.g. cellular debris) was less bioavailable than that in soluble fraction (e.g. HSP). However, subcellular distribution was shown to be less important for MeHg, with each fraction having comparable MeHg bioavailability. Subcellular distribution in prey should be an important consideration in mercury trophic transfer studies.

  13. Fish diversity in southern California using trawl data from the National Marine Fisheries Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from National Marine Fisheries Service Groundfish Survey Program (NMFS GSP) fish trawl data. Data from 477 fishery...

  14. Fish assemblages in southern California using trawl data from the National Marine Fisheries Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish benthic trawls were completed by the National Marine Fisheries Service Groundfish Survey Program (NMFS GSP). Data from 477 fishery independent trawls ranging...

  15. Detection of a diverse marine fish fauna using environmental DNA from seawater samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Kielgast, Jos; Iversen, Lars Lønsman;

    2012-01-01

    Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly...... limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for...... marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from 1/2-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain...

  16. Measuring the Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Marine Recreational Shore Fishing in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    John C. Whitehead; Ben Poulter; Dumas, Christopher F.; Okmyung Bin

    2008-01-01

    We develop estimates of the economic effects of sea level rise on marine recreational shore fishing in North Carolina. We estimate the relationship between angler behavior and spatial differences in beach width using the Marine Recreational Fishing Statistics Survey and geospatial data. We exploit the empirical relationship between beach width and site choice by simulating the effects of (1) sea level rise on beach width and (2) beach width on angler site choice. We find that the welfare loss...

  17. Impacts of Fishing Low-Trophic Level Species on Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, A. D. M.; Brown, C. J.; Bulman, C. M.; Fulton, E. A.; Johnson, P; Kaplan, I. C.; Lozano-Montes, H.; Mackinson, S.; Marzloff, M.; Shannon, L.J.; Shin, Y.-J.; Tam, J

    2011-01-01

    Low-trophic level species account for more than 30% of global fisheries production and contribute substantially to global food security. We used a range of ecosystem models to explore the effects of fishing low-trophic level species on marine ecosystems, including marine mammals and seabirds, and on other commercially important species. In five well-studied ecosystems, we found that fishing these species at conventional maximum sustainable yield (MSY) levels can have large impacts on other pa...

  18. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza; Xavier Chiappa-Carrara

    2015-01-01

    Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analys...

  19. Mortality of marine megafauna induced by fisheries : insights from the whale shark, the world's largest fish

    OpenAIRE

    Capietto, A.; Escalle, L.; Chavance, Pierre; Dubroca, Laurent; Molina de, A. D.; Murua, H.; Floch, Laurent; Damiano, Alain; Rowat, D.; Merigot, B

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of human activities is endangering megafauna in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. While large marine vertebrates are often vulnerable and emblematic species, many are considered to be declining, primarily due to fisheries activities. In the open ocean, certain fisheries improve their efficiency of detecting tuna schools by locating and fishing close to some macro-organisms, such as whale sharks or marine mammals. However, collecting accurate data on the accidental capture ...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  1. Fish with chips: tracking reef fish movements to evaluate size and connectivity of Caribbean marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Pittman

    Full Text Available Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40-64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness.

  2. Anisakis simplex Larvae: Infection Status in Marine Fish and Cephalopods Purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae; Ock, Mee Sun

    2011-01-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached...

  3. Mechanisms driving recruitment variability in fish: comparisons between the Laurentian Great Lakes and marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; O'Brien, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal work, Hjort (in Fluctuations in the great fisheries of Northern Europe. Conseil Parmanent International Pour L'Exploration De La Mar. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux, 20: 1–228, 1914) observed that fish population levels fluctuated widely, year-class strength was set early in life, and egg production by adults could not alone explain variability in year-class strength. These observations laid the foundation for hypotheses on mechanisms driving recruitment variability in marine systems. More recently, researchers have sought to explain year-class strength of important fish in the Laurentian Great Lakes and some of the hypotheses developed for marine fisheries have been transferred to Great Lakes fish. We conducted a literature review to determine the applicability of marine recruitment hypotheses to Great Lakes fish. We found that temperature, interspecific interactions, and spawner effects (abundance, age, and condition of adults) were the most important factors in explaining recruitment variability in Great Lakes fish, whereas relatively fewer studies identified bottom-up trophodynamic factors or hydrodynamic factors as important. Next, we compared recruitment between Great Lakes and Baltic Sea fish populations and found no statistical difference in factors driving recruitment between the two systems, indicating that recruitment hypotheses may often be transferable between Great Lakes and marine systems. Many recruitment hypotheses developed for marine fish have yet to be applied to Great Lakes fish. We suggest that future research on recruitment in the Great Lakes should focus on forecasting the effects of climate change and invasive species. Further, because the Great Lakes are smaller and more enclosed than marine systems, and have abundant fishery-independent data, they are excellent candidates for future hypothesis testing on recruitment in fish.

  4. Selection drivers of life-history traits in marine coastal fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Alós Crespí, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Humans can induce contemporary evolution through harvesting wild animals. This thesis provides evidence of this process for recreational fishing at surprisingly small geographical scales. Marine fish populations are characterized by high variability in heritable individual life‐history traits which are exposed to biased fishing mortality. The life histories strategies of actual populations, which collectively reduce adult body size, mirror such biased mortality in populations exposed to limit...

  5. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Richard D. Evans; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Russ, Garry R

    2014-01-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish ...

  6. A histopathologic evaluation of gross lesions excised from commercially important North Altantic marine fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Murchelano, Robert A.; Despres-Patanjo, Linda; Ziskowski, John

    1986-01-01

    Histopathologic studies of lesions found in commercially important North Atlantic marine fishes are uncommon. As part of a comprehensive Northeast Fisheries Center program ("Ocean Pulse") to evaluate environmental and resource health on the U.S. Continental Shelf from Cape Hatteras to Nova Scotia, grossly visible lesions of the gills, integument, muscle, and viscera of primarily bottom-dwelling fishes were excised and examined using light microscopy. Several gadid and pleuronectid fish...

  7. Detection of a diverse marine fish fauna using environmental DNA from seawater samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Kielgast, Jos; Iversen, Lars Lønsman;

    2012-01-01

    Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly...... conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp...

  8. Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

    2014-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations. PMID:24767045

  9. Large recovery of fish biomass in a no-take marine reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Aburto-Oropeza

    Full Text Available No-take marine reserves are effective management tools used to restore fish biomass and community structure in areas depleted by overfishing. Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP was created in 1995 and is the only well enforced no-take area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, mostly because of widespread support from the local community. In 1999, four years after the establishment of the reserve, there were no significant differences in fish biomass between CPNP (0.75 t ha(-1 on average and other marine protected areas or open access areas in the Gulf of California. By 2009, total fish biomass at CPNP had increased to 4.24 t ha(-1 (absolute biomass increase of 3.49 t ha(-1, or 463%, and the biomass of top predators and carnivores increased by 11 and 4 times, respectively. However, fish biomass did not change significantly in other marine protected areas or open access areas over the same time period. The absolute increase in fish biomass at CPNP within a decade is the largest measured in a marine reserve worldwide, and it is likely due to a combination of social (strong community leadership, social cohesion, effective enforcement and ecological factors. The recovery of fish biomass inside CPNP has resulted in significant economic benefits, indicating that community-managed marine reserves are a viable solution to unsustainable coastal development and fisheries collapse in the Gulf of California and elsewhere.

  10. Large recovery of fish biomass in a no-take marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Erisman, Brad; Galland, Grantly R; Mascareñas-Osorio, Ismael; Sala, Enric; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2011-01-01

    No-take marine reserves are effective management tools used to restore fish biomass and community structure in areas depleted by overfishing. Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP) was created in 1995 and is the only well enforced no-take area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, mostly because of widespread support from the local community. In 1999, four years after the establishment of the reserve, there were no significant differences in fish biomass between CPNP (0.75 t ha(-1) on average) and other marine protected areas or open access areas in the Gulf of California. By 2009, total fish biomass at CPNP had increased to 4.24 t ha(-1) (absolute biomass increase of 3.49 t ha(-1), or 463%), and the biomass of top predators and carnivores increased by 11 and 4 times, respectively. However, fish biomass did not change significantly in other marine protected areas or open access areas over the same time period. The absolute increase in fish biomass at CPNP within a decade is the largest measured in a marine reserve worldwide, and it is likely due to a combination of social (strong community leadership, social cohesion, effective enforcement) and ecological factors. The recovery of fish biomass inside CPNP has resulted in significant economic benefits, indicating that community-managed marine reserves are a viable solution to unsustainable coastal development and fisheries collapse in the Gulf of California and elsewhere. PMID:21858183

  11. Oxidative Stability and Sensory Attributes of Fermented Milk Product Fortified with Fish Oil and Marine Phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2013-01-01

    flavor/odor were evaluated in fortified products by a trained panel. The results obtained showed that incorporation of a mixture of marine PL and fish oil into fermented milk products decreased the oxidative stability and sensory quality of fortified products. The pH-dependent behavior of iron seemed to......Marine phospholipids (PL) are potential ingredients for food fortification due to its numerous advantages. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether a fermented milk product fortified with a mixture of marine PL and fish oil had better oxidative stability than a fermented milk...... product fortified with fish oil alone. Fortification of a fermented milk product with marine PL was performed by incorporating 1 % w/w lipids, either in the form of neat oil or in the form of a pre-emulsion. Lipid oxidation was investigated in the neat emulsions and fortified products by the measurements...

  12. Distribution of Po-210 in two species of predatory marine fish from the Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonium-210 (210Po) concentration was quantified in the muscle tissue and organs of two predatory marine fishes (Genypterus brasiliensis and Cynoscion microlepidotus) from Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species C. microlepidotus, a benthic carnivore, registered higher 210Po in its tissue. The organs associated with digestion displayed the maximum radionuclide compared with other organs. The average activity was 2 mBq kg−1 for G. brasiliensis and it was 6 mBq kg−1 for C. microlepidotus. The activity concentrations varied significantly between the species and among organs. -- Highlights: • We analyzed the distribution of 210Po in two species of predator marine fish. • 210Po tends to accumulate in some organs, which make this radionuclide radiotoxic. • The consumption of small quantities of fish can represent high potential of 210Po exposure. • Data about 210Po bioaccumulation in tropical predator marine fish are limited

  13. Euros vs. yuan: comparing European and Chinese fishing access in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyhia Belhabib

    Full Text Available We compare the performance of European Union (EU and Chinese fisheries access agreements with West African countries in terms of illegal and unreported fishing, economic equity, and patterns of exploitation. Bottom-up re-estimations of catch reveal that the EU (1.6 million t•year(-1 and China (2.3 million t•year(-1 report only 29% and 8%, respectively, of their estimated total catches (including estimated discards whenever possible from West African countries between 2000 and 2010. EU catches are declining, while Chinese catches are increasing and are yet to reach the historic maximum level of EU catches (3 million t•year(-1 on average in the 1970s-1980s. The monetary value of EU fishing agreements, correlated in theory with reported catches, is straightforward to access, in contrast to Chinese agreements. However, once quantified, the value of Chinese agreements is readily traceable within the African economy through the different projects they directly cover, in contrast to the funds disbursed [to host governments] by the EU. Overall, China provides resources equivalent to about 4% of the ex-vessel value [value at landing] of the catch taken by Chinese distant-water fleets from West African waters, while the EU pays 8%. We address the difficulties of separating fees directly related to fishing from other economic or political motivations for Chinese fees, which could introduce a bias to the present findings as this operation is not performed for EU access fees officially related to fishing. Our study reveals that the EU and China perform similarly in terms of illegal fishing, patterns of exploitation and sustainability of resource use, while under-reporting by the EU increases and that by China decreases. The EU agreements provide, in theory, room for improving scientific research, monitoring and surveillance, suggesting a better performance than for Chinese agreements, but the end-use of the EU funds are more difficult, and sometime

  14. Distribution of Marine Lipophilic Toxins in Shellfish Products Collected from the Chinese Market

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Wu; Jianhua Yao; Mengmeng Guo; Zhijun Tan; Deqing Zhou; Yuxiu Zhai

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish from the Chinese market, we used hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure levels of okadaic acid (OA), azaspiracid (AZA1), pectenotoxin (PTX2), gymnodimine (GYM), and spirolide (SPX1). We collected and analyzed 291 shellfish samples from main production sites along a wide latitudinal transect along the Chinese coastline from December 2008 to December 2009. Results reve...

  15. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MARINE WATER IN ADRIATIC FISH FARMS: ENUMERATION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Teskeredžić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food production sectors in the world. Increase in nutrients and organic wastes lead to general deterioration of water quality. The problem of water quality is associated with both physical and chemical factors, as well as microbiological water quality. Heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in the process of decomposition of organic matter in water environment and indicate eutrophication process. Here we present our experience and knowledge on bacterial properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms with European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758, with an emphasis on enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water. We applied two temperatures of incubation, as well as two methods for enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria: substrate SimPlate® test and spread plate method on conventional artificial media (Marine agar and Tryptic Soy agar with added NaCl. The results of analysis of bacteriological properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms showed that enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water depends on the applied incubation temperature and media for enumeration. At the same time, the incubation temperature of 22C favours more intense growth of marine heterotrophic bacteria, whereas a SimPlate test gives higher values of heterotrophic bacteria. Volatile values of heterotrophic bacteria during this research indicate a possible deterioration of microbiological water quality in the Adriatic fish farms and a need for regular monitoring of marine water quality.

  16. Strategy for increasing marine fish production in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Workshop_Evol_Strat_Dev_Agric_Anim_Husb_Fish_Goa_1991_73.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Workshop_Evol_Strat_Dev_Agric_Anim_Husb_Fish_Goa_1991_73.pdf.txt Content...

  17. Notes on new or rare marine fishes from Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1963-01-01

    The fish collection of the Leiden Museum has recently been enriched by the donation of a few small or moderate collections of fishes assembled in tropical Atlantic America. As these proved to contain some representatives of species rarely encountered or even new to science and, moreover, provided in

  18. Historical DNA documents long-distance natal homing in marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, Sara; Overgaard Therkildsen, Nina; Retzel, Anja; Berg Hedeholm, Rasmus; Pedersen, Martin Waever; Meldrup, Dorte; Pampoulie, Christophe; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Grønkjaer, Peter; Nielsen, Einar Eg

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of natal homing in marine fish remains a fundamental question in fish ecology as its unequivocal demonstration requires tracking of individuals from fertilization to reproduction. Here, we provide evidence of long-distance natal homing (>1000 km) over more than 60 years in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), through genetic analysis of archived samples from marked and recaptured individuals. Using a high differentiation single-nucleotide polymorphism assay, we demonstrate that the vast majority of cod tagged in West Greenland and recaptured on Icelandic spawning grounds belonged to the Iceland offshore population, strongly supporting a hypothesis of homing. The high degree of natal fidelity observed provides the evolutionary settings for development of locally adapted populations in marine fish and emphasize the need to consider portfolio effects in marine fisheries management strategies. PMID:26859133

  19. Trends in marine fish catches at Pattani Fishery Port (1999-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchamai Karntanut

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop statistical models for forecasting the quantity of the various types of marine fish landed at Pattani Fishery Port, allowing for trend and seasonality, using official data during 1999-2003. The data comprise daily and monthly totals by weight for eight types of fish (mackerel, other food fish, squid, scads, trash fish, shrimp, lobster and crab. The statistical methods are one-way analysis of variance, multiple linear regression and time series forecasting using trend and seasonal models. It is found that mackerel, other food fish and squid catches tend to decrease, whereas the catches of scads tend to increase, and trash fish catches have no detectable trend up or down. Shrimp and lobster tend to decrease exponentially, and the trend of crab catch is constant. This study raises questions about the ecological and economic sustainability of the current fisheries policy in Thailand.

  20. Pacific Island Network Marine Fish Monitoring Dataset - Transects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic marine community in the Pacific Island Network (PACN) is a complex ecologic system and a diverse taxonomic environment, including algae and corals and...

  1. Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Darling

    Full Text Available Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management.

  2. Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Frommel, A. Y.; V Stiebens; Clemmesen, C.; J. Havenhand

    2010-01-01

    Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive – particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (d...

  3. Research on marine and freshwater fish identification model based on hyper-spectral imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yan; Guo, Pei-yuan; Xiang, Ling-zi; Bao, Man; Chen, Xing-hai

    2013-08-01

    With the gradually mature of hyper spectral image technology, the application of the meat nondestructive detection and recognition has become one of the current research focuses. This paper for the study of marine and freshwater fish by the pre-processing and feature extraction of the collected spectral curve data, combined with BP network structure and LVQ network structure, a predictive model of hyper spectral image data of marine and freshwater fish has been initially established and finally realized the qualitative analysis and identification of marine and freshwater fish quality. The results of this study show that hyper spectral imaging technology combined with the BP and LVQ Artificial Neural Network Model can be used for the identification of marine and freshwater fish detection. Hyper-spectral data acquisition can be carried out without any pretreatment of the samples, thus hyper-spectral imaging technique is the lossless, high- accuracy and rapid detection method for quality of fish. In this study, only 30 samples are used for the exploratory qualitative identification of research, although the ideal study results are achieved, we will further increase the sample capacity to take the analysis of quantitative identification and verify the feasibility of this theory.

  4. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in commercially important marine fishes from Mumbai Harbor, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • AAS, ICP-OES were used to evaluate metal content in various marine fishes. • Heavy metal levels significantly (p < 0.05) varied within and between the fish species. • Heavy metal levels were lower than the permissible levels prescribed by the European Union. • Fish catchments from this region are still safe for human consumption. - Abstract: Seventeen commercially important marine fish species were caught in Mumbai Harbor using a trawl net and evaluated using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and ICP-OES. It was found that certain species of fish contained lower levels of all metals tested. J. elongatus and C. dussumieri had the highest levels of all 8 metals tested. The heavy metal concentrations were significantly varied within and between the studied fishes (p < 0.05). However, a significant correlation among heavy metals was observed. This investigation indicated that various levels of heavy metals exist in the fish species sampled, but those concentrations are within the maximum residual levels recommended by the European Union and FAO/WHO. Therefore, fish caught in Mumbai Harbor can be considered safe for human consumption

  5. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g−1 (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems. -- Highlights: • Total and methylmercury in marine fish from estuarine and coastal ecosystems were compared. • Hg levels were generally low in the coastal wild fish in southern China. • Overfishing and decreased wetland coverage may be responsible for the low Hg concentration. • Stable isotopes signatures reveal that the two fish communities had contrasting trophic structures. -- Overfishing and habitat-specific geochemical properties are related to the low Hg concentrations in the wild fish

  6. Effects of Pile-driving Noise on the Behaviour of Marine Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller-Blenkle, Christina; McGregor, Peter K.; Gill, Andrew B.; Andersson, Mathias H.; Metcalfe, Julian; Bendall, Victoria; Sigray, Peter; Wood, Daniel T.; Thomsen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the effects of offshore wind farm construction on marine life have so far focussed onbehavioural reactions in porpoises and seals. The effects on fish have only very recently come intothe focus of scientists, regulators and stakeholders. Pile-driving noise during construction is ofparticular concern as the very high sound pressure levels could potentially prevent fish from reachingbreeding or spawning sites, finding food, and acoustically locating mates. This could result in longte...

  7. A bioeconomic analysis of sustainability of marine fish production in Kerala

    OpenAIRE

    Aswanthy, N.; Shanmugam, T.R.; Ashok, K.R.; Sathiadhas, R.

    2009-01-01

    The study has been undertaken in Kerala State in India with an overall objective of analyzing the bio-economic conditions of commercially exploited marine fishes for assessing their sustainability in the context of existing management practices. Maximum sustainable yield, maximum economic yield and open access levels of yield and effort were analyzed using Gompertz-Fox growth model. The study concluded that the fishing effort exceeded the economically optimal levels and there is unnecessary w...

  8. Biocomplexity in a highly migratory pelagic marine fish , Atlantic herring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Mariani, S.; Bekkevold, D.; André, C.; Mosegaard, H.; Clausen, L.A.W.; Dahlgren, T.G.; Hutchinson, W.F.; Hatfield, E.M.C.; Torstensen, E.; Brigham, J.; Simmonds, E.J.; Laikre, L.; Larsson, L.C.; Stet, R.J.M.; Ryman, N.; Carvalho, G.R.

    2006-01-01

    The existence of biologically differentiated populations has been credited with a major role in conferring sustainability and in buffering overall productivity of anadromous fish population complexes where evidence for spatial structure is uncontroversial. Here, we describe evidence of correlated ge

  9. Marine survey techniques: A prerequisite for exploratory fishing

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, M.C.; Kotnala, K.L.

    check to use the correct speed and position fixing techniques is essential for the exploratory fishing. Tidal correction is another essential factor to be considered. Contouring is an excellent means to obtain the topographic information of the sea floor...

  10. Biocomplexity in a highly migratory pelagic marine fish, Atlantic herring

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzzante, Daniel E.; Mariani, Stefano; Bekkevold, Dorte; André, Carl; Mosegaard, Henrik; Clausen, Lotte A.W; Thomas G Dahlgren; Hutchinson, William F.; HATFIELD Emma M. C.; Torstensen, Else; Brigham, Jennifer; Simmonds, E. John; Laikre, Linda; Larsson, Lena C; Stet, René J.M

    2006-01-01

    The existence of biologically differentiated populations has been credited with a major role in conferring sustainability and in buffering overall productivity of anadromous fish population complexes where evidence for spatial structure is uncontroversial. Here, we describe evidence of correlated genetic and life history (spawning season linked to spawning location) differentiation in an abundant and highly migratory pelagic fish, Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, in the North Sea (NS) and a...

  11. Diversity patterns of benthic macrofauna caused by marine fish farming

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaldo Marín; Carlos Sanz-Lázaro

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the patterns observed in the diversity and structure of the macrofauna benthic community under the influence of fish farming. First, we explain the effects of organic enrichment on the sediment and the consequences for the inhabiting communities. We describe the diversity trends in spatial and temporal gradients affected by fish farming and compare them with those described by the Pearson and Rosenberg model. We found that in general terms, the trends of...

  12. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German A Soler

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores was significantly greater (by 40% - 200% in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing.

  13. Diversity Patterns of Benthic Macrofauna Caused by Marine Fish Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Marín

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the patterns observed in the diversity and structure of the macrofauna benthic community under the influence of fish farming. First, we explain the effects of organic enrichment on the sediment and the consequences for the inhabiting communities. We describe the diversity trends in spatial and temporal gradients affected by fish farming and compare them with those described by the Pearson and Rosenberg model. We found that in general terms, the trends of diversity and other community parameters followed the Pearson and Rosenberg model but they can vary to some extent due to sediment local characteristics or to secondary disturbances. We also show the different mechanisms by which wild fish can affect macrofauna diversity patterns under fish farming influence. In addition, we comment the importance of the macrofauna diversity in the ecosystem functions and propose some guidelines to measure functional diversity related to relevant processes at ecosystem level. We propose more research efforts in the main topics commented in this review to improve management strategies to guarantee a good status of the diversity and ecosystem functioning of sediments influenced by fish farming.

  14. Copper uptake kinetics and regulation in a marine fish after waterborne copper acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake kinetics and regulation of copper in a marine predatory fish, the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli after acclimation to waterborne Cu were examined, using radiotracer techniques. The dissolved Cu uptake followed a linear pattern during the time of exposure, and the calculated uptake rate constant was 6.24 L kg-1 day-1. The efflux rate constant was 0.091 day-1 following dietary uptake of Cu, and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu varied between 1.7% and 10.9% after the fish were fed with three types of prey (oysters, clams and brine shrimp). After the fish were acclimated at a nominal concentration of 50 μg Cu L-1 for 14 days, the Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constant did not change significantly, but the Cu body concentrations and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in fish tissues increased significantly. Subcellular Cu distributions were also modified. Significant MT induction was observed in response to increased Cu tissue concentrations, indicating that MT rather than the uptake kinetics may play a primary role in Cu regulation during waterborne Cu acclimation in this marine fish. Moreover, the high Cu efflux may also be important in Cu regulation during long-term exposure. Our modeling calculations indicated that dietary uptake was likely to be the main route for Cu bioaccumulation in the fish, and the relative contribution of waterborne and dietary uptake depended on the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and ingestion rate of fish.

  15. Methylmercury in populations eating large quantities of marine fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.D. (Univ. of Rochester, NY); Marsh, D.O.; Smith, J.C.; Inglis, J.B.; Clarkson, T.W.; Rubio, C.E.; Chiriboga, J.; Chiriboga, C.C.

    1980-11-01

    A Peruvian population was identified that was chronically exposed to methylmercury from the longterm consumption of ocean fish. The weekly fish intake averaged 10.1 kg per average family of 6.2 persons. Blood methylmercury concentrations ranged from 11 to 275 ng/ml, with a mean of 82 ng/ml. Paresthesias were reported by 29.5% of the population. In contrast, a nearby control population had a mean weekly fish consumption of 1.9 kg per average family of 6.4 persons. Their blood methylmercury levels were 3.3-25.1 ng/ml, with a mean of 9.9 ng/ml. Paresthesias were reported by 49.5% of this control group. No individual was identified with symptoms or signs that could be attributed to methylmercury intoxication.

  16. Heavy metals in marine fish meat and consumer health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Adina C; O'Neill, Bernadette; Sigge, Gunnar O; Kerwath, Sven E; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-01-15

    The numerous health benefits provided by fish consumption may be compromised by the presence of toxic metals and metalloids such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury, which can have harmful effects on the human body if consumed in toxic quantities. The monitoring of metal concentrations in fish meat is therefore important to ensure compliance with food safety regulations and consequent consumer protection. The toxicity of these metals may be dependent on their chemical forms, which requires metal speciation processes for direct measurement of toxic metal species or the identification of prediction models in order to determine toxic metal forms from measured total metal concentrations. This review addresses various shortcomings in current knowledge and research on the accumulation of metal contaminants in commercially consumed marine fish globally and particularly in South Africa, affecting both the fishing industry as well as fish consumers. PMID:26238481

  17. Marine protected areas in the high seas and their impact on international fishing agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, M.J.; Weikard, H.P.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are gaining momentum as tools within fisheries management. Although many studies have been conducted to their use and potential, only few authors have considered their use in the High Seas. In this paper, we investigate the effects of fish growth enhancing MPAs on the f

  18. 78 FR 65971 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... information. The objective of the survey is to collect information on both trip expenditures and annual durable good expenditures made by marine recreational anglers. The survey will be conducted in two...

  19. Refugia of Marine Fish in the Northeast Atlantic During the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Anthony; Morales, Arturo; Rosello, Eufrasia; Heinrich, Dirk; Vollestad, Asbjorn

    2010-05-01

    Archaeozoological finds of the remains of marine and amphihaline fish from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ca. 21 ka ago show evidence of very different species ranges compared to the present. Recent genetic results of some marine species also indicate the presence of a local population structure that further suggests a dramatic southward displacement of species ranges during the LGM. There are very few studies that have attempted to delimit the glacial refugia of marine fish from our present understanding of LGM climate conditions. The few studies that exist make predictions that may not agree with the data from archaeozoology and genetics. In this contribution, we show how an ecological niche model based on sea surface temperature and bathymetry can be used to effectively predict the spatial range of marine fish during the LGM. The results are startling especially for the northern species because the glacial refugia are almost completely displaced from the modern distribution. The results are important for understanding the present spatial genetic structure of marine populations that arose during the Pleistocene glaciations, and they present a challenge for future archaeozoological work to test the model predictions and delimit the glacial refugia.

  20. Screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the Norwegian coastal line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sandlund

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, whiting (Merlangius merlangus and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus. All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented.

  1. Severe Inbreeding and Small Effective Number of Breeders in a Formerly Abundant Marine Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Shannon J.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.; Fast, Mark D.; Chapman, Demian D.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to freshwater fish it is presumed that marine fish are unlikely to spawn with close relatives due to the dilution effect of large breeding populations and their propensity for movement and reproductive mixing. Inbreeding is therefore not typically a focal concern of marine fish management. We measured the effective number of breeders in 6 New York estuaries for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), a formerly abundant fish, using 11 microsatellite markers (6–56 alleles per locus). The effective number of breeders for 1–2 years was remarkably small, with point estimates ranging from 65–289 individuals. Excess homozygosity was detected at 10 loci in all bays (FIS = 0.169–0.283) and individuals exhibited high average internal relatedness (IR; mean = 0.226). These both indicate that inbreeding is very common in all bays, after testing for and ruling out alternative explanations such as technical and sampling artifacts. This study demonstrates that even historically common marine fish can be prone to inbreeding, a factor that should be considered in fisheries management and conservation plans. PMID:23762473

  2. Severe inbreeding and small effective number of breeders in a formerly abundant marine fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon J O'Leary

    Full Text Available In contrast to freshwater fish it is presumed that marine fish are unlikely to spawn with close relatives due to the dilution effect of large breeding populations and their propensity for movement and reproductive mixing. Inbreeding is therefore not typically a focal concern of marine fish management. We measured the effective number of breeders in 6 New York estuaries for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus, a formerly abundant fish, using 11 microsatellite markers (6-56 alleles per locus. The effective number of breeders for 1-2 years was remarkably small, with point estimates ranging from 65-289 individuals. Excess homozygosity was detected at 10 loci in all bays (FIS = 0.169-0.283 and individuals exhibited high average internal relatedness (IR; mean = 0.226. These both indicate that inbreeding is very common in all bays, after testing for and ruling out alternative explanations such as technical and sampling artifacts. This study demonstrates that even historically common marine fish can be prone to inbreeding, a factor that should be considered in fisheries management and conservation plans.

  3. Avoiding conflicts and protecting coral reefs: Customary management benefits marine habitats and fish biomass

    KAUST Repository

    Campbell, Stuart J.

    2012-10-01

    Abstract One of the major goals of coral reef conservation is to determine the most effective means of managing marine resources in regions where economic conditions often limit the options available. For example, no-take fishing areas can be impractical in regions where people rely heavily on reef fish for food. In this study we test whether coral reef health differed among areas with varying management practices and socio-economic conditions on Pulau Weh in the Indonesian province of Aceh. Our results show that gear restrictions, in particular prohibiting the use of nets, were successful in minimizing habitat degradation and maintaining fish biomass despite ongoing access to the fishery. Reef fish biomass and hard-coral cover were two- to eight-fold higher at sites where fishing nets were prohibited. The guiding principle of the local customary management system, Panglima Laot, is to reduce conflict among community members over access to marine resources. Consequently, conservation benefits in Aceh have arisen from a customary system that lacks a specific environmental ethic or the means for strong resource-based management. Panglima Laot includes many of the features of successful institutions, such as clearly defined membership rights and the opportunity for resource users to be involved in making, enforcing and changing the rules. Such mechanisms to reduce conflict are the key to the success of marine resource management, particularly in settings that lack resources for enforcement. © 2012 Fauna & Flora International.

  4. Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Micheli, Fiorenza; Fernández, Miriam; Gelcich, Stefan; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Carvajal, Juan

    2013-11-01

    1. Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. 2. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. 3. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2)) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. 4. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). 5. Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance. PMID:23855822

  5. Effects of growth and change of food on the δ15N in marine fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is limited concerning variation of the δ15N with growth in marine organisms and consequently the effect of growth of marine biota on the δ15N is not yet well understood. The δ15N in 26 species of marine fishes taken from Japanese coastal waters together with 4664 stomach contents of these fishes were examined to investigate the effects of food habits and growth on the δ15N. The mean δ15N for two species that fed mainly on large-size fishes and six species that fed mainly on small-size fishes were 14.5±1.0per mille and 12.8±0.7per mille, respectively. For five species that fed mainly on decapod crustaceans, two species that fed mainly on zooplankton, and three species that fed mainly on benthos (mainly Polychaeta), the δ15N were 13.0±0.7, 9.7±0.9, and 12.2±1.2per mille, respectively. The mean δ15N in the species whose prey were mainly fish or decapod crustaceans was about 3-5per mille higher than the species whose prey was mainly zooplankton. Within the four species that shift their food habits with growth to higher trophic level, the δ15N significantly increased with growth in one species (Pacific cod), while not significant increase in the δ15N with growth in the remaining species. (author)

  6. Marine fishes from the Seychelles: 108 new records

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, J.E.; Egmond, van, H.

    1994-01-01

    The following 108 species of fishes are recorded for the first time from the Seychelles: Himantura granulata, Gymnothorax breedeni, G. chilospilus, G. fimbriatus, G. melatremus, G. nudivomer, G. zonipectis, Rhinomuraena quaesita, Uropterygius macrocephalus, Kaupichthys diodontus, Synodus binotatus, S. jaculum, Trachinocephalus myops, Ophidion smithi, Carapus mourlani, Brosmophyciops pautzkei, Antennarius hispidus, Myripristis berndti, M. melanosticta, Eurypegasus draconis, Cosmocampus banneri...

  7. Sensitivity of marine systems to climate and fishing: Concepts, issues and management responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Ian; Cury, Philippe; Brander, Keith;

    2010-01-01

    but will be manifest as the accumulation of the interactions between fishing and climate variability — unless threshold limits are exceeded. Marine resource managers need to develop approaches which maintain the resilience of individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems to the combined and interacting effects......Modern fisheries research and management must understand and take account of the interactions between climate and fishing, rather than try to disentangle their effects and address each separately. These interactions are significant drivers of change in exploited marine systems and have...... classes, spatial contraction, loss of sub-units, and alteration of life history traits in populations, making them more sensitive to climate variability at interannual to interdecadal scales. Fishing reduces the mean size of individuals and mean trophic level of communities, decreasing their turnover time...

  8. Don't bet against the natal homing abilities of marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, Paul; Bradbury, Ian R

    2016-06-01

    Whether marine fishes are capable of homing to their natal areas has long been something of an enigma. For some estuarine species or sharks (which have extended nondispersal juvenile stages or are born as relatively large, fully formed juveniles), the answer is clearly 'yes' (Thorrold et al. ; Feldheim et al. ), but for most marine fishes, the issue is much more mysterious. Many species have free-floating eggs, and most have pelagic, passively dispersing larvae. It is challenging to imagine how adult fish might navigate to a region of the ocean they experienced only as eggs or larvae, and easier to assume that such dispersal leads inexorably to high gene flow, and even panmixia. One way to resolve the conundrum would be to track fish from hatching to reproduction, but for marine fishes with tiny eggs and drifting larvae, this is notoriously difficult to do (Bradbury & Laurel ). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Bonanomi et al. () use a creative approach to solve this challenge for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) populations that mingle in the vicinity of Greenland. They show that cod that disperse more than a 1000 km away from Iceland as eggs and larvae, then spend years growing on the far side of Greenland, while mixing with two local populations, return as adults to spawning areas near Iceland - and further, that this behaviour has remained stable over more than six decades. They manage this feat with a clever use of historical cod tracking data, modern genomic data and genetic analysis of decades-old DNA obtained from archived materials. Their results have important implications for our view of the biocomplexity of marine fish populations, and how we should manage them. PMID:27306459

  9. Bioactive Natural Products From Chinese Tropical Marine Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Yue-Wei

    2004-01-01

    @@ The oceans contain a vast biological diversity of species that have so far been utilized by mankind mainly as a source of protein. In the last few decades, however, natural products chemists have started to discover the wealth of bioactive secondary metabolites that are produced by marine invertebrates such as sponges, soft corals, molluscs and others.

  10. Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2012-06-01

    Marine reserves, areas closed to all forms of fishing, continue to be advocated and implemented to supplement fisheries and conserve populations [1-4]. However, although the reproductive potential of important fishery species can dramatically increase inside reserves [5-8], the extent to which larval offspring are exported and the relative contribution of reserves to recruitment in fished and protected populations are unknown [4, 9-11]. Using genetic parentage analyses, we resolve patterns of larval dispersal for two species of exploited coral reef fish within a network of marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef. In a 1,000 km 2 study area, populations resident in three reserves exported 83% (coral trout, Plectropomus maculatus) and 55% (stripey snapper, Lutjanus carponotatus) of assigned offspring to fished reefs, with the remainder having recruited to natal reserves or other reserves in the region. We estimate that reserves, which account for just 28% of the local reef area, produced approximately half of all juvenile recruitment to both reserve and fished reefs within 30 km. Our results provide compelling evidence that adequately protected reserve networks can make a significant contribution to the replenishment of populations on both reserve and fished reefs at a scale that benefits local stakeholders. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Marine reserves and reproductive biomass: a case study of a heavily targeted reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Taylor

    Full Text Available Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.

  12. 中国海洋社会中的海生动物崇拜%The Marine Animal Worship in Chinese Marine Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜冰; 吴倩

    2015-01-01

    在远古时代,通过海洋捕捞而得的海生动物是原始先民最主要的生活资料,因生产和生活中对海洋的依赖、恐惧和羡慕而心生崇拜。在龙王、妈祖占据海神信仰主流之后,海生动物崇拜因世俗王权观念的投射、渔业丰收的期许、渔业捕捞经验的传授等在沿海渔民的信仰中占有重要地位。在渔业生产水平不断提高和海洋社会不断进步的当代,海生动物崇拜的神秘色彩逐渐退去而演变成对吉祥生活的追求和对万物的关爱与善待,这也与我国传统文化中“天人合一”的自然观一脉相承。作为海洋文明核心层的重要内容,海生动物崇拜的现代价值的转换既可以是海洋生态文明建设的重要精神动力,也可以依托民俗旅游等文化产业形态创造丰富的经济价值。%In ancient times ,marine animals hunted by fishing ,were the most important means of live‐lihood for primitive ancestors .Due to the dependence ,fear and admiration of the ocean in production and daily life ,the marine animal worship appeared and spread .After the Dragon King and Mazu belief domina‐ted sea‐god worship ,marine animal worship has been playing an important role in the coastal fishermen's belief because of the projection of the concept of secular royalty ,the expectation for fishery harvest ,and the passing on of fishing experience .In the modern society w here fishery production has continued to im‐prove and marine society has continued to advance ,the mysterious color of marine animal worship has fa‐ded and evolved into a pursuit for happy life and caring for all living things ,which coincides with the theo‐ry that man is an integral part of nature in Chinese traditional culture .As an important part of the marine civilization core ,the conversion of modern value of marine animal worship can be both an important spirit‐ual force for marine ecological civilization construction ,and a

  13. DNA barcoding identifies Argentine fishes from marine and brackish waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Mabragaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species, and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org. Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125 examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha

  14. DNA Barcoding Identifies Argentine Fishes from Marine and Brackish Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabragaña, Ezequiel; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan Martín; Hanner, Robert; Zhang, Junbin; González Castro, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species), and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125) examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. Conclusions/Significance This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha taxonomy, barcodes provide

  15. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE EVIDENCE OF VIRUS INFECTION IN CULTURED MARINE FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream (Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut (Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus).

  16. Alien marine fishes in Cyprus: update and new records

    OpenAIRE

    Iglésias, Samuel; Frotté, Lou

    2015-01-01

    International audience The Mediterranean Sea, due to its connection to the Red Sea via the Suez Canal, its heavy maritime traffic, and the effects of climate change is a hotspot of invasion by alien species. A survey carried out around Cyprus during September 2014 documented the occurrence of 25 alien fishes. Seven Lessepsian migrants (Hippocampus fuscus Rüppell, 1838, Nemipterus randalli Russell, 1986, Ostorhinchus fasciatus (Shaw, 1790), Parupeneus forsskali (Fourmanoir & Guézé, 1976), P...

  17. Optimization of the marinating conditions of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp.) fillet for Lanhouin production through application of Doehlert experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindossi, Janvier Mêlégnonfan; Anihouvi, Victor Bienvenu; Vieira-Dalodé, Générose; Akissoé, Noël Houédougbé; Hounhouigan, Djidjoho Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Lanhouin is a traditional fermented salted fish made from the spontaneous and uncontrolled fermentation of whole salted cassava fish (Pseudotolithus senegalensis) mainly produced in the coastal regions of West Africa. The combined effects of NaCl, citric acid concentration, and marination time on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the fish fillet used for Lanhouin production were studied using a Doehlert experimental design with the objective of preserving its quality and safety. The marination time has significant effects on total viable and lactic acid bacteria counts, and NaCl content of the marinated fish fillet while the pH was significantly affected by citric acid concentration and marination duration with high regression coefficient R (2) of 0.83. The experiment showed that the best conditions for marination process of fish fillet were salt ratio 10 g/100 g, acid citric concentration 2.5 g/100 g, and marination time 6 h. These optimum marinating conditions obtained present the best quality of marinated flesh fish leading to the safety of the final fermented product. This pretreatment is necessary in Lanhouin production processes to ensure its safety quality. PMID:27004115

  18. Development of a marine fish model for studying in vivo molecular responses in ecotoxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, R.Y.C. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Giesy, J.P. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Center, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Wu, R.S.S.; Chen, E.X.H.; Chiang, M.W.L. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lim, P.L. [Clinical Immunology Unit, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Yuen, B.B.H.; Yip, B.W.P.; Mok, H.O.L. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Au, D.W.T. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhdwtau@cityu.edu.hk

    2008-01-31

    A protocol for fixation and processing of whole adult marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) was developed in parallel with in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for molecular analysis of in vivo gene and protein responses in fish. Over 200 serial sagittal sections (5 {mu}m) can be produced from a single adult medaka to facilitate simultaneous localization and quantification of gene-specific mRNAs and proteins in different tissues and subcellular compartments of a single fish. Stereological analysis (as measured by volume density, V{sub v}) was used to quantify ISH and IHC signals on tissue sections. Using the telomerase reverse transcriptase (omTERT) gene, omTERT and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins as examples, we demonstrated that it is possible to localize, quantify and correlate their tissue expression profiles in a whole fish system. Using chronic hypoxia (1.8 {+-} 0.2 mg O{sub 2} L{sup -1} for 3 months) as an environmental stressor, we were able to identify significant alterations in levels of omTERT mRNA, omTERT protein, PCNA (cell proliferation marker) and TUNEL (apoptosis) in livers of hypoxic O. melastigma (p < 0.05). Overall, the results suggest that O. melastigma can serve as a model marine fish for assessing multiple in vivo molecular responses to stresses in the marine environment.

  19. The Assessment of Natural Radionuclides in Sea Fish from Gresik Coastal Marines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gresik coastal marines is the place used for the disposal of wastes from many industries such as phosphate fertilizer factory that is suspected to discharge natural radionuclide. This factory utilizes phosphate rock as raw material for producing phosphate acid and fertilizer, so that the product, by product and the waste could contained natural radionuclide. The discharge of waste to the marine will be potential pollutant to coastal environment and increased the contents of natural radionuclide in marine biota including fish. Therefore research on the quality and concentration of natural radionuclide in sea-fish from that area has been done. The result showed that there were 238U, 232Th and 226Ra also 40K in all types of sea-fish analyzed. In general, specific activities of 238U in the sea-fish sample was higher than those of 232Th and 226Ra, and the concentration were ranged 1.60 - 2.05 Bq/kg; 0.23 - 5.48 Bq/kg and 0.48 - 3.34 Bq/kg respectively. There were the tendency that bottom feeding species, such as Penaeldae, Portunus pelagicus and Plotosus anguilaris contained higher natural radionuclide compared to the other species. (author)

  20. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    KAUST Repository

    Garrido, S.

    2015-11-24

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish.

  1. A locomotor innovation enables water-land transition in a marine fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Tong Tonia Hsieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morphological innovations that significantly enhance performance capacity may enable exploitation of new resources and invasion of new ecological niches. The invasion of land from the aquatic realm requires dramatic structural and physiological modifications to permit survival in a gravity-dominated, aerial environment. Most fishes are obligatorily aquatic, with amphibious fishes typically making slow-moving and short forays on to land. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here I describe the behaviors and movements of a little known marine fish that moves extraordinarily rapidly on land. I found that the Pacific leaping blenny, Alticus arnoldorum, employs a tail-twisting movement on land, previously unreported in fishes. Focal point behavioral observations of Alticus show that they have largely abandoned the marine realm, feed and reproduce on land, and even defend terrestrial territories. Comparisons of these blennies' terrestrial kinematic and kinetic (i.e., force measurements with those of less terrestrial sister genera show A. arnoldorum move with greater stability and locomotor control, and can move away more rapidly from impending threats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: My results demonstrate that axial tail twisting serves as a key innovation enabling invasion of a novel marine niche. This paper highlights the potential of using this system to address general evolutionary questions about water-land transitions and niche invasions.

  2. Development of a marine fish model for studying in vivo molecular responses in ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protocol for fixation and processing of whole adult marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) was developed in parallel with in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for molecular analysis of in vivo gene and protein responses in fish. Over 200 serial sagittal sections (5 μm) can be produced from a single adult medaka to facilitate simultaneous localization and quantification of gene-specific mRNAs and proteins in different tissues and subcellular compartments of a single fish. Stereological analysis (as measured by volume density, Vv) was used to quantify ISH and IHC signals on tissue sections. Using the telomerase reverse transcriptase (omTERT) gene, omTERT and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins as examples, we demonstrated that it is possible to localize, quantify and correlate their tissue expression profiles in a whole fish system. Using chronic hypoxia (1.8 ± 0.2 mg O2 L-1 for 3 months) as an environmental stressor, we were able to identify significant alterations in levels of omTERT mRNA, omTERT protein, PCNA (cell proliferation marker) and TUNEL (apoptosis) in livers of hypoxic O. melastigma (p < 0.05). Overall, the results suggest that O. melastigma can serve as a model marine fish for assessing multiple in vivo molecular responses to stresses in the marine environment

  3. Determination of chromium, mercury, selenium and zinc in marine fish species of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: Concentrations of chromium, mercury, selenium and zinc were determined in eight commonly edible marine fish species; mackerel, red snapper, thread fin, tuna, hard tail scads, val, doubled spotted queen fish and shark. This study was based on market basket method were those species were collected from two locations of Kuala Selangor and Kuala Terengganu. All elements were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The accuracy and precision analysis were checked by analyzing Certified Reference Material (CRM) namely DORM-3 and MAA-2. Elements of interest in the edible parts of the investigated fish were mostly in the permissible safety levels for human consumption based on national and international safety guideline except for mercury where some fishes showed slightly higher concentrations than the guidelines. (author)

  4. Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries. PMID:24862838

  5. Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alison L; Maypa, Aileen P; Almany, Glenn R; Rhodes, Kevin L; Weeks, Rebecca; Abesamis, Rene A; Gleason, Mary G; Mumby, Peter J; White, Alan T

    2015-11-01

    Well-designed and effectively managed networks of marine reserves can be effective tools for both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation. Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals as larvae, juveniles or adults, is a key ecological factor to consider in marine reserve design, since it has important implications for the persistence of metapopulations and their recovery from disturbance. For marine reserves to protect biodiversity and enhance populations of species in fished areas, they must be able to sustain focal species (particularly fishery species) within their boundaries, and be spaced such that they can function as mutually replenishing networks whilst providing recruitment subsidies to fished areas. Thus the configuration (size, spacing and location) of individual reserves within a network should be informed by larval dispersal and movement patterns of the species for which protection is required. In the past, empirical data regarding larval dispersal and movement patterns of adults and juveniles of many tropical marine species have been unavailable or inaccessible to practitioners responsible for marine reserve design. Recent empirical studies using new technologies have also provided fresh insights into movement patterns of many species and redefined our understanding of connectivity among populations through larval dispersal. Our review of movement patterns of 34 families (210 species) of coral reef fishes demonstrates that movement patterns (home ranges, ontogenetic shifts and spawning migrations) vary among and within species, and are influenced by a range of factors (e.g. size, sex, behaviour, density, habitat characteristics, season, tide and time of day). Some species move sharks and tuna). Larval dispersal distances tend to be habitats that are critical to the life history of focal species (e.g. home ranges, nursery grounds, migration corridors and spawning aggregations), and be

  6. Lost at sea: ocean acidification undermines larval fish orientation via altered hearing and marine soundscape modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Tullio; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Connell, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal of larvae and their settlement to suitable habitat is fundamental to the replenishment of marine populations and the communities in which they live. Sound plays an important role in this process because for larvae of various species, it acts as an orientational cue towards suitable settlement habitat. Because marine sounds are largely of biological origin, they not only carry information about the location of potential habitat, but also information about the quality of habitat. While ocean acidification is known to affect a wide range of marine organisms and processes, its effect on marine soundscapes and its reception by navigating oceanic larvae remains unknown. Here, we show that ocean acidification causes a switch in role of present-day soundscapes from attractor to repellent in the auditory preferences in a temperate larval fish. Using natural CO2 vents as analogues of future ocean conditions, we further reveal that ocean acidification can impact marine soundscapes by profoundly diminishing their biological sound production. An altered soundscape poorer in biological cues indirectly penalizes oceanic larvae at settlement stage because both control and CO2-treated fish larvae showed lack of any response to such future soundscapes. These indirect and direct effects of ocean acidification put at risk the complex processes of larval dispersal and settlement. PMID:26763221

  7. DNA barcoding for species assignment: the case of Mediterranean marine fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Landi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding enhances the prospects for species-level identifications globally using a standardized and authenticated DNA-based approach. Reference libraries comprising validated DNA barcodes (COI constitute robust datasets for testing query sequences, providing considerable utility to identify marine fish and other organisms. Here we test the feasibility of using DNA barcoding to assign species to tissue samples from fish collected in the central Mediterranean Sea, a major contributor to the European marine ichthyofaunal diversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A dataset of 1278 DNA barcodes, representing 218 marine fish species, was used to test the utility of DNA barcodes to assign species from query sequences. We tested query sequences against 1 a reference library of ranked DNA barcodes from the neighbouring North East Atlantic, and 2 the public databases BOLD and GenBank. In the first case, a reference library comprising DNA barcodes with reliability grades for 146 fish species was used as diagnostic dataset to screen 486 query DNA sequences from fish specimens collected in the central basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Of all query sequences suitable for comparisons 98% were unambiguously confirmed through complete match with reference DNA barcodes. In the second case, it was possible to assign species to 83% (BOLD-IDS and 72% (GenBank of the sequences from the Mediterranean. Relatively high intraspecific genetic distances were found in 7 species (2.2%-18.74%, most of them of high commercial relevance, suggesting possible cryptic species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We emphasize the discriminatory power of COI barcodes and their application to cases requiring species level resolution starting from query sequences. Results highlight the value of public reference libraries of reliability grade-annotated DNA barcodes, to identify species from different geographical origins. The ability to assign species with high precision from DNA

  8. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Pina-Amargós

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope, inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed.

  9. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Joshua A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances.

  10. Comparison of heavy metal concentration of some marine fishes from Black and Aegean Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makedonski Lubomir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Major part of healthy human diet consist of marine fish and seafood products. And it is not surprising that there are numerous studies based on metal accumulation in various fish species. Fish may also be used for heavy metal monitoring programs of marine environments due to their easy sampling, sample preparation and chemical analysis. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, manganese, zinc, iron, chromium, total mercury and total arsenic were determined in edible part of two commercially valuable fish Greek aquaculture species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata purchased from Bulgarian market during 2011. The concentration of metals was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The concentration of the heavy metals in examined fish species ranged as follow: Pb 0.008 - 0.013; Cd 0.0017 - 0.022; Ni 0.007 - 0.012; Cu 0.054 - 0.115; Mn 0.043 - 0.09; Zn 0.14 - 0.15; Fe 0.17 - 0.19; Cr 0.05 - 0.07; Hg 0.11 - 0.13; As 1.6 - 1.8 mg kg-1 wet weight, respectively.

  11. Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Smith

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae.

  12. Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Valerie J.; Desbois, Andrew P.; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae. PMID:20479976

  13. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

  14. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well

  15. Marine fronts are important fishing areas for demersal species at the Argentine Sea (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Daniela; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2014-03-01

    The high primary and secondary production associated with frontal systems attract a diversity of organisms due to high prey availability; this is why a strong relationship between fronts and pelagic fisheries has been shown worldwide. In the Argentine Sea, demersal resources are the most important, both in economical and in ecological sense; so we hypothesize that fronts are also preferred fishing areas for demersal resources. We evaluated the relationship between spatial distribution of fishing effort and oceanographic fronts, analyzing three of the most important frontal systems located in the Argentine Sea: the shelf-break front, the southern Patagonia front and the mid-shelf front. Individual vessel satellite monitoring system data (VMS; grouped by fleet type: ice-trawlers, freezer-trawlers and jigging fleet) were studied and fishing events were identified. Fishing events per area were used as a proxy of fishing effort and its spatial distribution by fleet type was visualized and analyzed with Geographic Information Systems. Oceanographic fronts were defined using polygons based on satellite chlorophyll amplitude values, and the percentage of fishing events within each polygon was calculated. Results showed a positive association between fronts and fishing activities of the different fleets, which suggests the aggregation of target species in these zones. The coupling of the freezer-trawler and jigging fleets (that operate on lower trophic level species; Macruronus magellanicus and Illex argentinus respectively) with fronts was higher than the ice-trawler fleet, targeting species of higher trophic level (Merluccius hubbsi). Marine fronts represent important fishing areas, even for demersal resources, as the distribution of fishing fleets and fishing effort are positively associated with frontal zones.

  16. Impacts of electromagnetic fields associated with marine and hydrokinetic surrogate technologies on fish movements and behaviors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claisse, Jeremy T. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pondella, Daniel J. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Williams, Chelsea M. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zahn, Laurel A. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Williams, Jonathan P. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) and offshore wind devices are being developed and deployed in U.S. and international waters. Electric current flowing through subsea transmission cables associated with these devices will generate electromagnetic fields (EMF), which may interact with, and potentially impact, marine fishes. Some marine fishes can detect electric and/or magnetic fields and use them to navigate, orientate, and sense prey, mates and predators. Over the past five years there have been multiple comprehensive reviews and studies evaluating the potential vulnerability of marine fishes to EMF produced by MHK devices. Most documented effects involve sub-lethal behavioral responses of individual fish when in close proximity to EMF (e.g., fish being repelled by or attracted to fields). These reviews reach conclusions that the current state of research on this topic is still in its infancy and evaluations of potential impacts are associated with great uncertainty. A variety of MHK technologies are likely to be considered for deployment offshore of the Hawaiian Islands, and there is a need to be able to better predict and assess potential associated environmental impacts. The goal of this study was to provide a complementary piece to these previous reviews (e.g., Normandeau et al. 2011) by focusing on marine fish species in the Hawaii region. We compiled the relevant available information, then prioritized fish species as candidates for various paths of future research. To address this, we first developed a list of Hawaii Region Focal Species, which included fishes that are more likely to be sensitive to EMF. We then compiled species-specific information available in the literature on their sensitivity to EMF, as well as life history, movement and habitat use information that could inform an analysis of their likelihood of encountering EMF from subsea cables associated with MHK devices. Studies have only documented EMF sensitivity in 11 of the marine fish

  17. Copper uptake kinetics and regulation in a marine fish after waterborne copper acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Fei; Zhong Huan [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-09-14

    The uptake kinetics and regulation of copper in a marine predatory fish, the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli after acclimation to waterborne Cu were examined, using radiotracer techniques. The dissolved Cu uptake followed a linear pattern during the time of exposure, and the calculated uptake rate constant was 6.24 L kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The efflux rate constant was 0.091 day{sup -1} following dietary uptake of Cu, and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu varied between 1.7% and 10.9% after the fish were fed with three types of prey (oysters, clams and brine shrimp). After the fish were acclimated at a nominal concentration of 50 {mu}g Cu L{sup -1} for 14 days, the Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constant did not change significantly, but the Cu body concentrations and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in fish tissues increased significantly. Subcellular Cu distributions were also modified. Significant MT induction was observed in response to increased Cu tissue concentrations, indicating that MT rather than the uptake kinetics may play a primary role in Cu regulation during waterborne Cu acclimation in this marine fish. Moreover, the high Cu efflux may also be important in Cu regulation during long-term exposure. Our modeling calculations indicated that dietary uptake was likely to be the main route for Cu bioaccumulation in the fish, and the relative contribution of waterborne and dietary uptake depended on the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and ingestion rate of fish.

  18. Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes--Proceedings of a Research Symposium, September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa; Gibson, Caroline; Lowry, Dayv; Fagergren, Duane

    2013-01-01

    Locally and globally, there is growing recognition of the critical roles that herring, smelt, sand lance, eulachon, and other forage fishes play in marine ecosystems. Scientific and resource management entities throughout the Salish Sea, agree that extensive information gaps exist, both in basic biological knowledge and parameters critical to fishery management. Communication and collaboration among researchers also is inadequate. Building on the interest and enthusiasm generated by recent forage fish workshops and symposia around the region, the 2012 Research Symposium on the Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes was designed to elucidate practical recommendations for science and policy needs and actions, and spur further collaboration in support for the precautionary management of forage fish. This dynamic and productive event was a joint venture of the Northwest Straits Commission Forage Fish Program, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and The Puget Sound Partnership. The symposium was held on September 12–14, 2012, at the University of Washington, Friday Harbor Laboratories campus. Sixty scientists, graduate students, and fisheries policy experts convened; showcasing ongoing research, conservation, and management efforts targeting forage fish from regional and national perspectives. The primary objectives of this event were to: (1) review current research and management related to marine forage fish species; and (2) identify priority science and policy needs and actions for Washington, British Columbia, and the entire West Coast. Given the diversity of knowledge, interests, and disciplines surrounding forage fish on both sides of the international border, the organizing committee made a concerted effort to contact many additional experts who, although unable to attend, provided valuable insights and ideas to the symposium structure and discussions. The value of the symposium format was highlighted in

  19. Coral reef fish species survey data GIS from the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida...

  20. Pharmacological characterization of the oxytocic peptides in the pituitary of a marine teleost fish (pollachius virens) (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonstration of the existence, in the neurohypophysis of a marine fish (pollachius virens), of an oxytocic-active peptide different to the oxytocin in mammals and to the arginine vasotocin. (authors)

  1. Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

  2. NODC Standard Format Marine Fish and Shellfish Surveys (F123) Data (1948-1992) (NCEI Accession 0014195)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data type contains data from field sampling of marine fish and shellfish. The data derive from analyses of midwater or bottom tow catches and provide...

  3. The Potential for Spatial Distribution Indices to Signal Thresholds in Marine Fish Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, Emilie; Shackell, Nancy L.; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    The frequently observed positive relationship between fish population abundance and spatial distribution suggests that changes in distribution can be indicative of trends in abundance. If contractions in spatial distribution precede declines in spawning stock biomass (SSB), spatial distribution reference points could complement the SSB reference points that are commonly used in marine conservation biology and fisheries management. When relevant spatial distribution information is integrated i...

  4. Ontogeny and physiology of the digestive system of marine fish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Zambonino, Jose-luis; Gisbert, E.; Sarasquete, C.; Navarro, I.; J. Gutiérrez; Cahu, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The ontogeny of the digestive tract of marine fish larvae has been the subject of many studies these last twenty years. Beyond the scientific interest for such animal species, particularly for developmental aspects, most of these studies aimed to come up with the expectations of commercial hatcheries by reducing the bottlenecks in larvae culture and weaning processes (switch from live preys to compound diet feeding sequence). Consequently, the profile and dietary adaptation of digestive enzym...

  5. Measuring marine fish biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and demography

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Baum, Julia K.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns in marine fish biodiversity can be assessed by quantifying temporal variation in rate of population change, abundance, life history and demography concomitant with long-term reductions in abundance. Based on data for 177 populations (62 species) from four north-temperate oceanic regions (Northeast Atlantic and Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, North mid-Atlantic), 81% of the populations in decline prior to 1992 experienced reductions in their rate of loss thereafter; species whose rate of...

  6. EVALUATION OF TOTAL MERCURY CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF MARINE FISH AND ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Bajčan; Július Árvay; Janette Musilová

    2013-01-01

    Nowdays, a degree of contamination by heavy metals can be observed in the environment. Heavy metals have serious effects on all living organisms because they can accumulate in lethal or sublethal concentrations in the various parts of food chain and so they can cause different health problems like cardiovascular and cancer diseases. Marine fish and animals are one of the bigges source of mercury in human food. Therefore this work is focused to the rate of mercury content in muscle tisuues of ...

  7. Antibacterial and antioxidant effects from seaweed, Sargassum wightii (Greville, 1848) against marine ornamental fish pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Karuppiah Nanthini devi; Thipramalai Thankappan Ajith Kumar; Thangavel Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To screen seaweed Sargassum wightii (S. wightii) for bioactive natural substance against marine ornamental fish bacterial pathogens, and also study the antioxidant properties, brine shrimp toxicity effect. Methods: Crude extract was made using three solvents (acetone, ethanol and methanol) and screened for antibacterial activity and purified by column chromatography, purified fractions obtained were tested for the activity. The 1st fraction of acetone extract showed ...

  8. Asymmetric connectivity of spawning aggregations of a commercially important marine fish using a multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Munguia-Vega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding patterns of larval dispersal is key in determining whether no-take marine reserves are self-sustaining, what will be protected inside reserves and where the benefits of reserves will be observed. We followed a multidisciplinary approach that merged detailed descriptions of fishing zones and spawning time at 17 sites distributed in the Midriff Island region of the Gulf of California with a biophysical oceanographic model that simulated larval transport at Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD 14, 21 and 28 days for the most common and targeted predatory reef fish, (leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea. We tested the hypothesis that source–sink larval metapopulation dynamics describing the direction and frequency of larval dispersal according to an oceanographic model can help to explain empirical genetic data. We described modeled metapopulation dynamics using graph theory and employed empirical sequence data from a subset of 11 sites at two mitochondrial genes to verify the model predictions based on patterns of genetic diversity within sites and genetic structure between sites. We employed a population graph describing a network of genetic relationships among sites and contrasted it against modeled networks. While our results failed to explain genetic diversity within sites, they confirmed that ocean models summarized via graph and adjacency distances over modeled networks can explain seemingly chaotic patterns of genetic structure between sites. Empirical and modeled networks showed significant similarities in the clustering coefficients of each site and adjacency matrices between sites. Most of the connectivity patterns observed towards downstream sites (Sonora coast were strictly asymmetric, while those between upstream sites (Baja and the Midriffs were symmetric. The best-supported gene flow model and analyses of modularity of the modeled networks confirmed a pulse of larvae from the Baja Peninsula, across the Midriff Island region

  9. Simulating Blade-Strike on Fish passing through Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2014-06-16

    The study reported here evaluated the occurrence, frequency, and intensity of blade strike of fish on an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic turbine by using two modeling approaches: a conventional kinematic formulation and a proposed Lagrangian particle- based scheme. The kinematic model included simplifying assumptions of fish trajectories such as distribution and velocity. The proposed method overcame the need for such simplifications by integrating the following components into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model: (i) advanced eddy-resolving flow simulation, (ii) generation of ambient turbulence based on field data, (iii) moving turbine blades in highly transient flows, and (iv) Lagrangian particles to mimic the potential fish pathways. The test conditions to evaluate the blade-strike probability and fish survival rate were: (i) the turbulent environment, (ii) the fish size, and (iii) the approaching flow velocity. The proposed method offered the ability to produce potential fish trajectories and their interaction with the rotating turbine. Depending upon the scenario, the percentile of particles that registered a collision event ranged from 6% to 19% of the released sample size. Next, by using a set of experimental correlations of the exposure-response of living fish colliding with moving blades, the simulated collision data were used as input variables to estimate the survival rate of fish passing through the operating turbine. The resulting survival rates were greater than 96% in all scenarios, which is comparable to or better than known survival rates for conventional hydropower turbines. The figures of strike probability and mortality rate were amplified by the kinematic model. The proposed method offered the advantage of expanding the evaluation of other mechanisms of stress and injury on fish derived from hydrokinetic turbines and related devices.

  10. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-02-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8 years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

  11. Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Guidetti

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS and thermophilic species (ThS is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1 MPAs are numerous, 2 fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3 the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP, partially-protected MPAs (IP and fished areas (F at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators, but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide.

  12. Predicting the natural mortality of marine fish from life history characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik

    their parents on a one-for-one basis in the long run. Otherwise the population would either increase exponentially or become extinct. Combining data on growth and specific fecundity in a size-based fish community model of the North Sea and using the requirement of a one-for-one replacement provides......For fish much of the life history is determined by body size. Body size and asymptotic size significantly influences important life history processes such as growth, maturity, egg production, and natural mortality. Futhermore, for a population to persist, offspring must be able to replace......, and with estimates from a comprehensive compilation of empirical data on the natural mortality of marine fishes. The comparisons are all in aggreement with the predictions from the model. We conclude that natural mortality scales with body length raised to a power around -1.6, with the asymptotic length...

  13. Forage Fish Interactions: a symposium on "Creating the tools for ecosystem-based management of marine resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, M.A.; Neuenfeldt, S.; Essington, T.E.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Forage fish (FF) have a unique position within marine foodwebs and the development of sustainable harvest strategies for FF will be a critical step in advancing and implementing the broader, ecosystem-based management of marine systems. In all, 70 scientists from 16 nations gathered for a symposium

  14. Evaluating genetic traceability methods for captive-bred marine fish and their applications in fisheries management and wildlife forensics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylemans, Jonas; Maes, Gregory E.; Diopere, Eveline;

    2016-01-01

    Growing demands for marine fish products is leading to increased pressure on already depleted wild populations and a rise in aquaculture production. Consequently, more captive-bred fish are released into the wild through accidental escape or deliberate releases. The increased mixing of captive-br...

  15. Gonad-infecting philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) including four new species from marine fishes off the eastern coast of India

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2013), s. 105-122. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dracunculoidea * Bay of Bengal * marine fishes * fish parasites * hosts * parasitic nematode * taxonomy Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.211, year: 2013

  16. Assessing the state of pelagic fish communities within an ecosystem approach and the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shephard, Samuel; Rindorf, Anna; Dickey-Collas, Mark; Hintzen, Niels T.; Farnsworth, Keith; Reid, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Pelagic fish are key elements in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. We develop a suite of ecological indicators that track pelagic fish community state and evaluate state of specific objectives against Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria. Indicator...

  17. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: salted fish and other dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R W; Imrey, P B; Lye, M S; Armstrong, M J; Yu, M C; Sani, S

    1998-07-17

    We interviewed 282 histologically confirmed cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Chinese residents of Selangor and the Federal Territory, Malaysia, and an equal number of Chinese age-, sex-, and length-of-residence-matched controls sampled from the general population. Consumption of 55 dietary items during childhood, and 5 years pre-diagnosis of NPC, was analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. Four salted preserved foods (fish, leafy vegetables, egg and root), fresh pork/beef organ meats and beer and liquor consumption exhibited strong positive associations, and 4 vegetable/fruit combinations strong negative associations with NPC. Factor analysis and multivariable modeling using estimated factor scores strongly supported separate effects on NPC of vegetables/fruits, salted preserved foods, pork/beef organ meats and beer/liquor consumption. Multivariable modeling associated NPC most clearly with high consumption of salted fish, salted eggs, pork/beef liver and beer and low consumption of Chinese flowering cabbage, oranges/tangerines and shrimp. A strong residual association of social class with NPC remained after adjustment for diet, which is consistent with a substantial role for non-dietary environmental factors. PMID:9650558

  18. Higher freshwater fish and sea fish intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Xu; Yu-Jing Fang; Yu-Ming Chen; Min-Shan Lu; Zhi-Zhong Pan; Bo Yan; Xiao Zhong; Cai-Xia Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population in a large case control study. During July 2010 to November 2014, 1189 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1189 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate log...

  19. Assessing Fishing and Marine Biodiversity Changes Using Fishers’ Perceptions: The Spanish Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Coll, Marta; Carreras, Marta; Ciércoles, Cristina; Cornax, Maria-José; Gorelli, Giulia; Morote, Elvira; Sáez‑Liante, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Background: The expansion of fishing activities has intensively transformed marine ecosystems worldwide. However, available time series do not frequently cover historical periods. Methodology: Fishers’ perceptions were used to complement data and characterise changes in fishing activity and exploited ecosystems in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. Fishers’ interviews were conducted in 27 fishing harbours of the area, and included 64 fishers from ages between 20 to > 70 ye...

  20. Can marine fisheries and aquaculture meet fish demand from a growing human population in a changing climate ?

    OpenAIRE

    Merino, G.; Barange, M.; Blanchard, J. L.; Harle, J.; Holmes, R.; Allen, I; Allison, E.H.; Badjeck, M.C.; Dulvy, N. K.; Holt, J.; Jennings, S.; Mullon, Christian; Rodwell, L. D.

    2012-01-01

    Expansion in the world's human population and economic development will increase future demand for fish products. As global fisheries yield is constrained by ecosystems productivity and management effectiveness, per capita fish consumption can only be maintained or increased if aquaculture makes an increasing contribution to the volume and stability of global fish supplies. Here, we use predictions of changes in global and regional climate (according to IPCC emissions scenario A1B), marine ec...

  1. Vast assembly of vocal marine mammals from diverse species on fish spawning ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Delin; Garcia, Heriberto; Huang, Wei; Tran, Duong D; Jain, Ankita D; Yi, Dong Hoon; Gong, Zheng; Jech, J Michael; Godø, Olav Rune; Makris, Nicholas C; Ratilal, Purnima

    2016-03-17

    Observing marine mammal (MM) populations continuously in time and space over the immense ocean areas they inhabit is challenging but essential for gathering an unambiguous record of their distribution, as well as understanding their behaviour and interaction with prey species. Here we use passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (POAWRS) in an important North Atlantic feeding ground to instantaneously detect, localize and classify MM vocalizations from diverse species over an approximately 100,000 km(2) region. More than eight species of vocal MMs are found to spatially converge on fish spawning areas containing massive densely populated herring shoals at night-time and diffuse herring distributions during daytime. We find the vocal MMs divide the enormous fish prey field into species-specific foraging areas with varying degrees of spatial overlap, maintained for at least two weeks of the herring spawning period. The recorded vocalization rates are diel (24 h)-dependent for all MM species, with some significantly more vocal at night and others more vocal during the day. The four key baleen whale species of the region: fin, humpback, blue and minke have vocalization rate trends that are highly correlated to trends in fish shoaling density and to each other over the diel cycle. These results reveal the temporospatial dynamics of combined multi-species MM foraging activities in the vicinity of an extensive fish prey field that forms a massive ecological hotspot, and would be unattainable with conventional methodologies. Understanding MM behaviour and distributions is essential for management of marine ecosystems and for accessing anthropogenic impacts on these protected marine species. PMID:26934221

  2. Analysis of reproductive patterns of fishes from three Large Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac eTrindade-Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish reproductive biology plays an important role for fishery management, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to compile all available information and analyze reproduction patterns of marine fishes in three Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs: North, East, and South Brazil Shelves. We tested the hypothesis that the onset and duration of spawning season differ among these three LMEs; compared the ratio between length at first maturity and asymptotic length with the global trend observed; analyzed sex ratios; and tested whether females allocate more energy into reproduction than males. The following data were compiled from published sources and ‘grey’ literature: sex ratio, spawning season, gonadosomatic indices (GSI, and length at first maturity (Lm. The reproductive load was estimated as Lm/L∞. The median extension of the spawning season in the North, East, and South Brazil Shelves were 6.5, 6.0 and 5.0 months, respectively, with higher frequency during austral summer in South Brazil. Marine fishes from these three LMEs can be grouped in summer and non-summer spawners. About ninety six percent of the cases the reproductive load was between 0.3 and 0.8, which is slightly shifted toward smaller values, compared with the global range of 0.4-0.9. Gonadosomatic indices for females were higher. Contrary to some expectations, there is seasonality in the reproduction of tropical fishes. However, seasonality is stronger in southern populations. Size at first maturity is not efficiently used as a tool for fisheries management in the ecosystems analyzed.

  3. Impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism of two marine fish by in vitro mercuric chloride exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hg levels usually found in contaminated environments may compromise fish metabolism. • Hg impairs both the oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain. • The decrease of F1Fo-ATPase activity confirmed Hg inhibition of ADP phosphorylation. • The decrease of SDH activity supported Hg inhibition of the electron transport chain. • Mitochondrial respiration is a suitable biomarker of exposure to Hg. - Abstract: The goal of this work was to understand the extent of mercury toxic effects in liver metabolism under an episode of acute contamination. Hence, the effects of in vitro mercuric chloride in liver mitochondria were assessed in two commercial marine fish: Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Liver mitochondria were exposed to 0.2 mg L−1 of mercury, the average concentration found in fish inhabiting contaminated areas. Mercuric chloride depressed mitochondrial respiration state 3 and the maximal oxygen consumption in the presence of FCCP indicating inhibitory effects on the oxidative phosphorylation and on the electron transport chain, respectively. The inhibition of F1Fo-ATPase and succinate-dehydrogenase activities also corroborated the ability of mercury to inhibit ADP phosphorylation and the electron transport chain. This study brings new understanding on the mercury levels able to impair fish mitochondrial function, reinforcing the need for further assessing bioenergetics as a proxy for fish health status

  4. Refugia of marine fish in the northeast Atlantic during the last glacial maximum: concordant assessment from archaeozoology and palaeotemperature reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, A. J.; Morales-Muñiz, A.; Roselló-Izquierdo, E.; Heinrich, D.; Vøllestad, L. A.

    2011-03-01

    Archaeozoological finds of the remains of marine and amphihaline fish from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ca. 21 ka ago show evidence of very different species ranges compared to the present. We have shown how an ecological niche model (ENM) based on palaeoclimatic reconstructions of sea surface temperature and bathymetry can be used to effectively predict the spatial range of marine fish during the LGM. The results indicate that the ranges of marine fish species now in northwestern Europe were displaced significantly southwards from the modern distribution, challenging an existing paradigm of marine glacial refugia. The model presents strong evidence that there was an invasion of important fish through the Straits of Gibraltar in glacial times, where they were exploited by Palaeolithic human populations around the western Mediterranean Sea. The ENM results are important for ongoing studies of molecular ecology that aim to assess marine glacial refugia from the genetic structure of living populations, and they pose questions about the genetic identity of vanished marine populations during the LGM. Economically, the approach may be used to understand how the ranges of exploited fish species may be displaced with the future climate warming. The research presents a challenge for future archaeozoological work to delimit the glacial refugia and to verify palaeoclimatic reconstructions based on deep-sea core records.

  5. A first sighting report of six fishes from the Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park, South Andaman, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamla Devi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available From the fish and fisheries point of view, the Andaman and Nicobar islands are the  most interesting and fascinating owing to a diversity of ichthyofauna occurring in the varied marine habitats, such as  mangroves, creeks, rocky beaches, extensive sandy beaches, muddy shores, coral reefs, etc. During a recent underwater survey around different islands inside the Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park (MGMNP, Wandoor, South Andaman six new records of marine fishes belonging to the families Apogonidae, Labridae and Scaridae, were reported as a new record from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. This paper deals with the morphological features, habitats and distribution of these fishes from this Marine National Park. 

  6. Latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants in pelagic and demersal marine fish on the Norwegian Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Borgå, Katrine; Dempster, Tim; Lie, Elisabeth; Nygård, Torgeir; Uglem, Ingebrigt

    2012-07-17

    The latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: legacy organochlorines [OCs], polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs,] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]) was examined in livers of two species of marine fish, the pelagic saithe (Pollachius virens,n = 40) and the demersal cod (Gadus morhua,n = 40), along a south-north gradient (59°-70°N) on the Norwegian Coast. Cod had in general two to three times higher concentrations of POPs than saithe, probably because of higher exposure in the benthic food chain. The concentrations of heavy halogenated compounds were higher in the southernmost region than further north. Moreover, the POP pattern showed a gradual shift in the compositions from south to north, especially for OCs in cod: i.e. the relative importance of low-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and some OC-pesticides (e.g., hexachlorobenzen [HCB]) in the contaminant burdens increased with latitude. The latitudinal fractionation signal was weaker in saithe, possibly due to its pelagic and nomadic behavior. Hence, this study shows not only a strong latitudinal fractionation in the compositional patterns of POPs in marine fish but also the effects of habitat use and fish behavior. PMID:22734881

  7. Patterns and drivers of fish community assembly in a large marine ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécuchet, Lauréne; Törnroos, Anna; Lindegren, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The presence and survival of the species in a community depend on their abilities to maximize fitness in a given environment. The study of the processes that control survival and co‑existence, termed ‘assembly rules’, follows various mechanisms, primarily related to biotic or abiotic factors. To ...... the knowledge base of key abiotic drivers impacting marine fish communities and their vulnerability to environmental changes, a key concern for fisheries and marine ecosystem management......The presence and survival of the species in a community depend on their abilities to maximize fitness in a given environment. The study of the processes that control survival and co‑existence, termed ‘assembly rules’, follows various mechanisms, primarily related to biotic or abiotic factors. To...

  8. Climate change affects marine fishes through the oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörtner, Hans O; Knust, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    A cause-and-effect understanding of climate influences on ecosystems requires evaluation of thermal limits of member species and of their ability to cope with changing temperatures. Laboratory data available for marine fish and invertebrates from various climatic regions led to the hypothesis that, as a unifying principle, a mismatch between the demand for oxygen and the capacity of oxygen supply to tissues is the first mechanism to restrict whole-animal tolerance to thermal extremes. We show in the eelpout, Zoarces viviparus, a bioindicator fish species for environmental monitoring from North and Baltic Seas (Helcom), that thermally limited oxygen delivery closely matches environmental temperatures beyond which growth performance and abundance decrease. Decrements in aerobic performance in warming seas will thus be the first process to cause extinction or relocation to cooler waters. PMID:17204649

  9. Adaptive capacity of fishing communities at marine protected areas: a case study from the Colombian Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rocío del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio

    2013-12-01

    Departing from a theoretical methodology, we estimate empirically an index of adaptive capacity (IAC) of a fishing community to the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). We carried out household surveys, designed to obtain information for indicators and sub-indicators, and calculated the IAC. Moreover, we performed a sensitivity analysis to check for robustness of the results. Our findings show that, despite being located between two MPAs, the fishing community of Bazán in the Colombian Pacific is highly vulnerable and that the socioeconomic dimension of the IAC constitutes the most binding dimension for building adaptive capacity. Bazán is characterized by extreme poverty, high dependence on resources, and lack of basic public infrastructure. Notwithstanding, social capital and local awareness about ecological conditions may act as enhancers of adaptive capacity. The establishment of MPAs should consider the development of strategies to confer adaptive capacity to local communities highly dependent on resource extraction. PMID:24213997

  10. Microalgae production improvement for the ICCM´s Marine Fish Hatchery

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Alva, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Máster Oficial en Cultivos Marinos. VI Máster Internacional en Acuicultura. Trabajo presentado como requisito parcial para la obtención del Título de Máster Oficial en Cultivos Marinos, otorgado por la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), el Instituto Canario de Ciencias Marinas (ICCM), y el Centro Internacional de Altos Estudios Agronómicos Mediterráneos de Zaragoza (CIHEAM) In order to improve the microalgae production in the ICCM`s marine fish hatchery one experiment to...

  11. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in marine fish flesh sample MA-B-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report presents results of the laboratory intercomparison of the activity concentration determination of 40K, 90Sr, 137Cs, 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am in the sample of garpike fish organized by the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service. The forty-three laboratories from twenty-three countries have reported results established by different analytical techniques. This sample is intended as a reference material for the measurement of 40K and 137Cs in marine biological samples and other similar matrices. 4 refs, 9 tabs

  12. Quantifying fish assemblages in large, offshore marine protected areas: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring

  13. Quantifying fish assemblages in large, offshore marine protected areas: an Australian case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Hill

    Full Text Available As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type, and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future

  14. Extraordinary aggressive behavior from the giant coral reef fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a remote marine reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roldan C Muñoz

    Full Text Available Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the world's largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marine fishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes.

  15. Distribution of Marine Lipophilic Toxins in Shellfish Products Collected from the Chinese Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Wu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the prevalence of lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish from the Chinese market, we used hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to measure levels of okadaic acid (OA, azaspiracid (AZA1, pectenotoxin (PTX2, gymnodimine (GYM, and spirolide (SPX1. We collected and analyzed 291 shellfish samples from main production sites along a wide latitudinal transect along the Chinese coastline from December 2008 to December 2009. Results revealed a patchy distribution of the five toxins and highlighted the specific geographical distribution and seasonal and species variation of the putative toxigenic organisms. All five lipophilic marine biotoxins were found in shellfish samples. The highest concentrations of OA, AZA1, PTX2, GYM, and SPX1 were 37.3, 5.90, 16.4, 14.4, and 8.97 μg/kg, respectively. These values were much lower than the legislation limits for lipophilic shellfish toxins. However, the value might be significantly underestimated for the limited detection toxins. Also, these toxins were found in most coastal areas of China and were present in almost all seasons of the year. Thus, these five toxins represent a potential threat to human health. Consequently, studies should be conducted and measures should be taken to ensure the safety of the harvested product.

  16. Distribution of Marine Lipophilic Toxins in Shellfish Products Collected from the Chinese Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Yao, Jianhua; Guo, Mengmeng; Tan, Zhijun; Zhou, Deqing; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish from the Chinese market, we used hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure levels of okadaic acid (OA), azaspiracid (AZA1), pectenotoxin (PTX2), gymnodimine (GYM), and spirolide (SPX1). We collected and analyzed 291 shellfish samples from main production sites along a wide latitudinal transect along the Chinese coastline from December 2008 to December 2009. Results revealed a patchy distribution of the five toxins and highlighted the specific geographical distribution and seasonal and species variation of the putative toxigenic organisms. All five lipophilic marine biotoxins were found in shellfish samples. The highest concentrations of OA, AZA1, PTX2, GYM, and SPX1 were 37.3, 5.90, 16.4, 14.4, and 8.97 μg/kg, respectively. These values were much lower than the legislation limits for lipophilic shellfish toxins. However, the value might be significantly underestimated for the limited detection toxins. Also, these toxins were found in most coastal areas of China and were present in almost all seasons of the year. Thus, these five toxins represent a potential threat to human health. Consequently, studies should be conducted and measures should be taken to ensure the safety of the harvested product. PMID:26184236

  17. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagang Tu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nervous necrosis virus (NNV is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER, a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi, the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  18. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB) Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jiagang Tu; Wenjie Chen; Xiaozhe Fu; Qiang Lin; Ouqin Chang; Lijuan Zhao; Jiangfeng Lan; Ningqiu Li; Li Lin

    2016-01-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellula...

  19. The year-class phenomenon and the storage effect in marine fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, David H.

    2007-02-01

    Factors contributing to population growth through strong year-class formation have driven a century of directed research in fisheries science. A central discovery of Hjort's paradigm was that multiple generations overlap and longevity is matched with frequency of strong recruitments. Here, I elaborate on this tenet by examining how intra-population modalities in spawning and early habitat use favour population resiliency. A modern theory that has application is the storage effect [Warner, R.R., Chesson, P.L., 1985. Coexistence mediated by recruitment fluctuations - a field guide to the storage effect. Am. Nat. 125, 769-787], whereby spawning stock biomass accumulates each year so that when early survival conditions are favourable, stored egg production can result in explosive population growth. I review two early life history behaviours that contribute to the storage effect: split cohorts (i.e., seasonal pulses of eggs and larvae) and contingent behaviour (i.e., dispersive and retentive patterns in early dispersal). Episodic and pulsed production of larvae is a common feature for marine fishes, well documented through otolith microstructure and hatch-date analyses. In temperate and boreal fishes, early and late spawned cohorts of larvae and juveniles may have differing fates dependent upon seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in weather and climate. Often, a coastal fish may spawn for a protracted period, yet only a few days' egg production will result in successful recruitment. In these and other instances, it is clear that diversity in spawning behaviour can confer resilience against temporal variations in early survival conditions. Although many factors contribute to intra-population spawning modalities, size and age structure of adults play an important role. Contingent structure, an idea dating to Hjort (herring contingents) and Gilbert (salmon contingents), has been resurrected to describe the diversity of intra-population modalities observed through

  20. Residual levels of DDTs and PAHs in freshwater and marine fish from Hong Kong markets and their health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K C; Leung, H M; Kong, K Y; Wong, M H

    2007-01-01

    Axial and ventral muscle from 10 each species of freshwater and marine fish purchased from markets in Hong Kong were analyzed for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (total DDTs including DDE, DDD and DDT) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Among the 10 freshwater fish species, rice field eel (Monopterus albus) showed significantly higher levels of DDTs in both ventral (125 ng/g wet wt) and axial muscle (127 ng/g wet wt) than the other species. The highest concentration of PAHs was detected in catfish (Clarias fuscus), with 24.8 ng/g in ventral muscle and 9.1 ng/g in axial muscle. As to marine fish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) showed significantly higher levels of DDT and its metabolites (1018 ng/g in ventral and 409 ng/g wet wt in axial tissues) than all other marine fish species. The overall concentrations of PAHs in marine fish species were 15.5-57.0 ng/g (axial muscle) and 18.1-118 ng/g wet wt (ventral muscle) where yellow seafin (Acanthopeyrus latus) and golden threadfin bream (Nemipterus virgatus) exhibited the highest concentrations of PAHs in the axial and ventral muscles, respectively. In general, results showed that levels of PAHs in Hong Kong market fish was low and do not expect to cause any concern for human consumption. However, the levels of DDTs in fish samples ranged from 1.10 to 1018 ng/g wet wt, and based on a fish consumption rate of 142.2g/day to calculate the screening value of 14.4 ng/g wet wt for human consumption (USEPA, 2000. Guidance for assessing chemical contaminant, data for use in fish advisories, vol. 1: fish sampling and analysis, third ed. EPA 823-R-95-007. Office of Water, Washington, DC), there were 9 out of 20 (45%) muscle samples of freshwater fish species and 14 out of 20 (70%) muscle samples of marine fish species had elevated levels of DDTs exceeded the screening value. It was also suggested to use ventral muscle for detecting concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in fish. PMID:16870232

  1. Paleoecological studies on variability in marine fish populations: A long-term perspective on the impacts of climatic change on marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Bruce P.; Alheit, Jürgen; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Field, David B.; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Struck, Ulrich

    2010-02-01

    reorganizations in the earth's climate system. Additional sedimentary records of marine fish abundance and corresponding paleoenvironmental conditions are likely to further enhance our understanding of marine ecosystem dynamics.

  2. Purification, Characterization and Antitumor Activities of a New Protein from Syngnathus acus, an Officinal Marine Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Peng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Discovery and development of new antitumor agents from abundant marine fish are attracting an increasing interest. In the present study, we extracted and purified a novel antitumor protein Syngnathusin from the whole body of Syngnathus acus L., a precious marine fish traditionally used for tumors. Syngnathusin was comprised of 16 kinds of amino acids, mainly acidic amino acids. Its molecular weight was 67.3 kDa and its isoelectric point was 4.57. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Syngnathusin was determined to be Lys-Arg-Asp-Leu-Gly-Phe-Val-Asp-Glu-Ile-Ser-Ala-His-Tyr and showed no significant homology with the known proteins. Syngnathusin could significantly inhibit the growth of A549 and CCRF-CEM cells. However, the obvious proliferation inhibition against human non-tumor cell lines was not observed. Flow cytometry, morphologic assessment and comet assay revealed that Syngnathusin could induce apoptosis in A549 and CCRF-CEM cells and strongly cooperated with MTX. Syngnathusin could inhibit the growth of S180 tumor transplanted in mice. Syngnathusin may be developed as a novel, selective and effective antineoplastic agent.

  3. Seaweed, fish and Crustaceans as bioindicators for {sup 99}Tc released to marine environment[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerpetjoen, A.; Oughton, D.; Skipperud, l. [Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    Along the Norwegian coast, {sup 99}Tc discharged from nuclear installations is found in seaweed, Crustaceans and fish. The activity concentrations of {sup 99}Tc in seaweed peaked around July 2002, giving a concentration ratio (CF) for the stems up to 121 m{sup 3}/Kg. The CF in different marine organisms differs between species, and within species; however, the CF is found to be highest for lobster, 4210 and 3755 m{sup 3}/Kg in the Irish Sea and 68 to 158 m{sup 3}/Kg along the Norwegian coast. {sup 99}Tc activity concentrations in Crabs from the Norwegian coast ranged from 0.12 to 0.61 Bq/kg giving CF's in Crab ranging from 0.24 to 1.22 m{sup 3}/Kg. Salmon filet collected from Norwegian fish farms showed CF levels ranging from 0.21 to 1.39 m{sup 3}/Kg, whereas Herring showed CF values of 0.08 and 0.16 m{sup 3}/Kg. Overall the data varies a lot, which is a problem when measuring natural organisms. Habitat, growth, and eating habits are among many different factors influencing the uptake of {sup 99}Tc. Further investigation on CF and how {sup 99}Tc are obtained by different species in the marine environment, and also different organs of the organisms, is needed. (au)

  4. Refugia of marine fish in the Northeast Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum: concordant assessment from archaeozoology and palaeotemperature reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Kettle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Archaeozoological finds of the remains of marine and amphihaline fish from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM ca. 21 ka ago show evidence of very different species ranges compared to the present. We show how an ecological niche model (ENM based on palaeoclimatic reconstructions of sea surface temperature and bathymetry can be used to effectively predict the spatial range of marine fish during the LGM. The results indicate that the ranges of marine fish species that are now in Northwestern Europe were almost completely displaced southward from the modern distribution. Significantly, there is strong evidence that there was an invasion of fish of current economic importance into the Western Mediterranean through the Straits of Gibraltar, where they were exploited by Palaeolithic human populations. There has been much recent interest in the marine glacial refugia to understand how the ranges of the economically important fish species will be displaced with the future climate warming. Recent ENM studies have suggested that species ranges may not have been displaced far southward during the coldest conditions of the LGM. However, archaeozoological evidence and LGM ocean temperature reconstructions indicate that there were large range changes, and certain marine species were able invade the Western Mediterranean. These findings are important for ongoing studies of molecular ecology that aim to assess marine glacial refugia from the genetic structure of living populations, and they pose questions about the genetic identity of vanished marine populations during the LGM. The research presents a challenge for future archaeozoological work to verify palaeoclimatic reconstructions and delimit the glacial refugia.

  5. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Vaniz, William F; Jelks, Howard L

    2014-01-01

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts. PMID:24871150

  6. Modelling the cumulative spatial-temporal effects of environmental drivers and fishing in a NW Mediterranean marine ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Coll, Marta; Steenbeek, J.; Sole, J.; Palomera, I.; Christensen, V.

    2016-01-01

    To realistically predict spatial-temporal dynamics of species in marine ecosystems it is essential to consider environmental conditions in conjunction with human activities and food web dynamics. In this study, we used Ecospace, the spatial-temporal dynamic module of Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) food web model, to drive a spatially explicit marine food web model representing the Southern Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean) with various environmental drivers and with fishing. We then evaluated the ind...

  7. Forage fish interactions: A symposium on creating the tools for ecosystem-based management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, M.A.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Essington, V.M.; Trenkel, A.; Takasuka, H.; Gislason, Henrik; Dickey-Collas, M.; Andersen, Ken Haste; Ravn-Jonsen, L.; Vestergaard, S.; Kvamsdal, A.; Gårdmark, J.; Link, J.; Rice, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Forage fish (FF) have a unique position within marine foodwebs and the development of sustainable harvest strategies for FF will be a critical step in advancing and implementing the broader, ecosystem-based management of marine systems. In all, 70 scientists from 16 nations gathered for a symposium...... economic and ecological costs and benefits of different FF management strategies, and (iii) do commonalities exist across ecosystems in terms of the effective management of FF exploitation?...

  8. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF MARINE FISH CAGE FARMS IN THE EASTERN ADRIATIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Katavić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariculture in Croatia could play a more important role in development of rural communities along coastline. However, by increase of fish farming, public concern over environmental issues has been raised, and the need for more responsible mariculture development and management has been asked. There are opportunities and challenges for effectively integrating mariculture into coastal zone management with equal rights and obligations. This is primarily because of its social and economic mission consisting in preventing de-population of rural coastal areas and islands and meeting the growing needs of tourist market for seafood. Although intensive mariculture production is accused of producing negative environmental effects, many of these effects still need to be scientifically documented. The effect of nitrogen and phosphorous releases from farmed fish faeces or uneaten food is not of significant issues for marine ecosystem, and it is generally of little importance compared to the inflow of nutrients from other coastal sources. The impact on sediment and benthic communities is mainly local and short-term ones, and depends on the number and extent of the farms and their location. Recovery of some benthic communities after the cessation of farming activities may be delayed over several years (i. e. Posidonia beds due to the accumulated organic matter. Bluefin tuna farming if not properly located and managed might cause pollution problems, either from uneaten feed and metabolic waste or from harvesting and processing the fish. In most cases the problem comes from smell pollution during the summer time and the oily water surface that may be widespread much outside of the farm areas. It will be important for sustainable development of Croatian mariculture to offer a healthy and good quality product in the quantities required by the market, while not degrading the marine environment.

  9. The antioxidant effects of complexes of tilapia fish skin collagen and different marine oligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shuwen; Li, Jing; Guan, Huashi

    2010-12-01

    An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to a variety of chronic health problems. As potent antioxidants, marine bioactive extracts containing oligosaccharides and peptides have been extensively studied. Recently, there is a growing interest in protein-polysaccharide complexes because of their potential uses in pharmaceutical and food industries. However, only few studies are available on the antioxidant activities of such complexes, in terms of their ROS scavenging capability. In this study, we combined different marine oligosaccharides (isolated and purified) with collagen peptides derived from tilapia fish skin, and evaluated the antioxidant activity of the marine peptide-oligosaccharide complexes vis-à-vis the activity of their original component molecules. Biochemical and cellular assays were performed to measure the scavenging effects on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and to evaluate the influences on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in UV-induced photoaging models. The results indicated that the antioxidant activities of all the complexes were stronger than those of their individual components. Among the 11 complexes tested, two complexes, namely MA1000+CP and κ-ca3000+CP, turned out to be highly effective antioxidants. Although the detailed mechanisms of this improved scavenging ability are not fully understood, this work provides insights into the design of highly efficient peptide-oligosaccharide complexes for potential applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  10. Annotated checklist of marine fishes from the Sanctuary of Bahía Chamela, Mexico with occurrence and biogeographic data

    OpenAIRE

    Galván-Villa, Cristian Moisés; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Bastida-Izaguirre,Dafne; Hastings, Philip A.; Eduardo F. Balart

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An annotated checklist of marine fishes of the Sanctuary of Islands and Islets of Bahía Chamela in the central Mexican Pacific is presented. Records of fish species were obtained by different methods including visual census, sampling with anesthetics, fisherman-nets, and trawling with a biological dredge. Additional records were obtained from natural history collections and publications. The list comprises 196 species in 64 families and 141 genera. The Carangidae is the most speciose...

  11. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: radionuclide concentrations in fish and clams and estimated doses via the marine pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey consisted, in part, of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates. As a secondary phase, terrestrial and marine samples were collected to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to atoll inhabitants. The marine sample collection, processing, and dose assessment methodology are presented as well as the concentration data for 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am, and any of the other gamma emitters in fish and clam muscle tissue from the different species collected. Doses are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in fish and clam muscle tissue assuming an average daily intake of 200 and 10 g, respectivelty. The 90Sr concentration in muscle tissue is very low and there is little difference in the average concentrations from the different fish from different atolls or islands. The 239+240Pu concentration in the muscle tissue of all reef species, however, is higher than that in pelagic lagoon fish. In contrast, 137Cs concentrations are lowest in the muscle tissue of the bottom-feeding reef species and highest in pelagic logoon fish. Recent measurements of radionuclide concentrations in fish muscle tissue and other marine dietary items from international sources show that the average concentrations in species from the Marshall Islands are comparable to those in fish typically consumed as food in the United States and are generally lower than those in most international marine dietary items. The whole-body dose rates based on continuous consumption of 200 g/d of fish range from 0.028 to 0.1 mrem/y; the bone-marrow dose rates range from 0.029 to 0.12 mrem/y. The dose commitment, or 30-y integral doses, range from 0.00063 to 0.0022 rem for the whole body and from 0.00065 to 0.0032 rem for the bone marrow

  12. Nitrogen Cycling and Community Structure of Proteobacterial β-Subgroup Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria within Polluted Marine Fish Farm Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    McCaig, Allison E.; Phillips, Carol J.; Stephen, John R.; Kowalchuk, George A.; Harvey, S. Martyn; Herbert, Rodney A.; Embley, T. Martin; Prosser, James I

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach was used to study the effects of pollution from a marine fish farm on nitrification rates and on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the underlying sediment. Organic content, ammonium concentrations, nitrification rates, and ammonia oxidizer most-probable-number counts were determined in samples of sediment collected from beneath a fish cage and on a transect at 20 and 40 m from the cage. The data suggest that nitrogen cycling was significantl...

  13. Trace elements in two marine fish species during estuarine residency: Non-essential versus essential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We assessed essential and non-essential trace elements loads in two marine fish. ► We found similarly low levels of Zn, Cr, and As in both sites and species. ► We compared recommended daily allowances with the estimated daily intake. ► Arsenic was higher than tolerable commercial levels and USA average daily intake. - Abstract: Trace element levels in fish are of particular interest, owing the potential risk to human health. In accordance, juveniles of Dicentrarchus labrax and of Liza aurata were sampled and arsenic, cadmium, chromium, selenium and zinc were determined in the muscle. The levels of trace elements in muscle demonstrated to be similar for both species and sites, with the exception of selenium levels at reference, which seemed to be higher in D. labrax. Moreover, apart from arsenic levels in muscle, all elements were in conformity with the existent regulatory guidelines for fish consumption. The dietary intake of each element was also calculated, with arsenic and selenium showing intakes above the recommended dietary allowances. Nevertheless, no arsenic speciation was carried out and thus no accurate risk evaluation could be established. Additionally, selenium levels never exceeded the dietary allowances more than five times, which are considered safe.

  14. Occurrence of tumour (odontoma) in marine fish Sphyraena jello from the southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R; Gopalakrishnan, A; Raja, K; Sinduja, K

    2014-02-01

    We examined the occurrence of odontoma in the marine fish Sphyraena jello sourced from 3 different landing centers (Cuddalore, Parangipettai and Nagapattinam) in Tamil Nadu (southeast India). A total of 19783 fishes were examined for odontoma presence, of which 2393 were affected with odontoma. The overall prevalence was 12.1% among the 3 stations. Fish landed at Parangipettai showed the highest peak prevalence of odontoma (16.8%) during the pre-monsoon, followed by Nagapatinam (9.1%) during summer 2011. The tumour lengths in premaxilla, supermaxilla and dentary bone were 1.1-3.6, 1.4-5.9 and 1.2-4.1 cm, respectively, and tumour widths were 0.3-1.9, 0.7-3.1 and 0.5-1.9 cm. Higher prevalence (0.206%) of tongue tumour along with odontoma was observed at Nagapattinam whereas it was lower (0.162%) at Cuddalore. Odontoma histopathology showed dense fibrous tissue with fine teeth roots. TEM analysis showed virus-like particles associated with odontoma. Radiography of the odontoma showed that the tumour masses were bony in nature and tissues were merged with upper and lower jaw. PMID:24492054

  15. Premature aging in bone of fish from a highly polluted marine area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Crystalline structure of fishbone mineral was defined by XRD and FT-IR analyses. • Expected positive relationship between fish age and bone maturity was not found. • Mineralisation degree was positively related to high concentration of Hg and Cr. • S. porcus and D. annularis showed the highest bone maturity and Hg content. - Abstract: Fish species have attracted considerable interest in studies assessing biological responses to environmental contaminants. In this study, the attention has been focussed on fishbone of selected fish species from a highly polluted marine area, Augusta Bay (Italy, Central Mediterranean) to evaluate if toxicant elements had an effect on the mineralogical structure of bones, although macroscopic deformations were not evident. In particular, an attempt was made to evaluate if bone mineral features, such as crystallinity, mineral maturity and carbonate/phosphate mineral content, determined by XR-Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy, suffered negative effects due to trace element levels in fishbone, detected by ICP-OES. Results confirmed the reliability of the use of diffractometric and spectroscopic techniques to assess the degree of crystallinity and the mineral maturity in fishbone. In addition, in highly polluted areas, Hg and Cr contamination induced a process of premature aging of fishbone, altering its biochemical and mineral contents

  16. Biogenic amines in commercially produced Yulu, a Chinese fermented fish sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Xu, Ying; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Seven biogenic amines were determined in 35 commercially produced Yulu samples from three provinces of China by pre-column derivatisation with dansyl chloride (Dns-Cl) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were the major biogenic amines (more than 100 mg kg(-1)), while tryptamine, spermidine and spermine were regarded as minor biogenic amines (less than 25 mg kg(-1)). Twenty samples contained more than 50 mg kg(-1) histamine (the limit for histamine in seafood products as suggested by the Food and Drug Administration). Twenty-one samples contained more than 100 mg kg(-1) tyramine and 10 contained more than 1000 mg kg(-1) total biogenic amines. This study provided data on biogenic amine levels in Chinese fermented fish sauce. The results suggested that biogenic amine content should be monitored in commercially produced Yulu. PMID:24779975

  17. Interesting new record and further notes on the occurrence of marine fish in Nyamithi Pan, Ndumo Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kyle

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Nyamithi Pan, situated in Ndumo Game Reserve, South Africa, is a floodplain pan near the confluence of the Usuthu and Pongolo rivers. It lies approximately 75 km from the Indian Ocean. The floodplain and its fish have been extensively surveyed (Coke & Pott 1970; Kok 1980; Merron et al 1993, 1994, 1994a, 1994b, 1994c, 1994d; Pooley 1975 and there are many records of the occurrence of marine fish in this and other pans of the Pongolo and Usuthu rivers. These are, however, usually isolated instances of individual fish being caught and attracting attention.

  18. Australia’s protected area network fails to adequately protect the world’s most threatened marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen R. Devitt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain ecosystems and biodiversity, Australia has long invested in the development of marine and terrestrial protected area networks. Within this land- and sea-scape, northern Australia represents a global population stronghold for four species of the world’s most threatened marine fish family, the sawfishes (family Pristidae. The distribution of sawfishes across northern Australia has previously only been coarsely estimated, and the adequacy of their representation in protected areas has not been evaluated. The calculated range of each species was intersected with Australia’s marine and terrestrial protected area datasets, and targets of 10% marine and 17% inland range protection were used to determine adequacy of sawfish range protection. Marine targets have been achieved for all species, but the inland range protection targets have not been met for any species. Results indicate that further protection of inland habitats is required in order to improve sawfish protection and habitat connectivity.

  19. Cucullanid nematodes (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from deep-sea marine fishes off New Caledonia, including Dichelyne etelidis n. sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Justine, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 2 (2011), s. 95-108. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cucullanidae * marine fish * New Caledonia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.250, year: 2011

  20. Effects of In Vivo Exposure to Tamoxifen on a Non-Target Species, the Marine Fish Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamoxifen is an endocrine-active pharmaceutical that is used world-wide to treat certain breast cancers. Because tamoxifen has been detected in aquatic environments, a study was undertaken to investigate its biological effects in a non-target species, the marine fish cunner (Taut...

  1. Two new species of Cucullanus Mu¨ ller, 1777 (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from marine fishes off Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yooyen, T.; Moravec, František; Wongsawad, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 2 (2011), s. 139-149. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cucullanus * marine fish * Thailand Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.250, year: 2011

  2. Experimental infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolates from European marine and farmed fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Slierendrecht, W.J.; King, J.A.;

    2004-01-01

    European waters (115 isolates), farmed turbot from Scotland and Ireland (2 isolates), and farmed rainbow trout (22 isolates). The isolates were tested by immersion and/or intraperitoneal injection either as pooled or single isolates. The isolates from wild marine fishes did not cause mortality by immersion...

  3. Tenacibaculosis infection in marine fish caused by Tenacibaculum maritimum: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Toranzo, Alicia E; Magariños, Beatriz

    2006-08-30

    Tenacibaculum maritimum is the aetiological agent of an ulcerative disease known as tenacibaculosis, which affects a large number of marine fish species in the world and is of considerable economic significance to aquaculture producers. Problems associated with epizootics include high mortality rates, increased susceptibility to other pathogens, high labour costs of treatment and enormous expenditures on chemotherapy. In the present article we review current knowledge on this bacterial pathogen, focusing on important aspects such as the phenotypic, serologic and genetic characterization of the bacterium, its geographical distribution and the host species affected. The epizootiology of the disease, the routes of transmission and the putative reservoirs of T. maritimum are also discussed. We include a summary of molecular diagnostic procedures, the current status of prevention and control strategies, the main virulence mechanisms of the pathogen, and we attempt to highlight fruitful areas for continued research. PMID:17058606

  4. DNA adducts in marine mussel and fresh water fishes living in polluted and unpolluted environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in the digestive gland of marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from polluted and unpolluted sites near Rovinj, Northern Adriatic, revealed that majority of adducts are caused by natural environmental factors rather than by man-made chemicals. The only pollutant-specific adducts were observed in a mussel exposed to seawater experimentally polluted with aminofluorene, and in a population of mussel living at a site heavily polluted with a waste waters of an oil refinery. Fresh water fish species Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama and Rutilus pigus virgo living in a polluted Sava River, Yugoslavia, or in its unpolluted tributary Korana River, have induced in their livers qualitatively identical and quantitatively similar DNA adducts. These DNA adducts had a species-specific patterns and their appearance was seasonally-dependent

  5. Calculation of annual radiation doses to human organs due to consumption of marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual radiation doses have been estimated from the analysis of 40 K, 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 228 Ra radionuclides in the marine fish of the Bay of Bengal for ten different organs of man including, red marrow, lung, thyroid, lower large intestine, upper large intestine, small intestine, muscle, stomach, gonads and bone surface. The lowest dose is calculated in thyroid as 2.7x10 -9 Sv/y and the highest in bone surface as 1.1x10-7 Sv/y. The dose due to 226Ra is highest (1.2x10-7 Sv/y) in the whole body while the lowest dose is delivered by 40K (3.6x10-8 Sv/yil)

  6. Nursery use patterns of commercially important marine fish species in estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, R. P.; Reis-Santos, P.; Maia, A.; Fonseca, V.; França, S.; Wouters, N.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2010-03-01

    Analysing the estuarine use patterns of juveniles of marine migrant fish species is vital for identifying important sites for juveniles as well as the basic environmental features that characterize these sites for different species. This is a key aspect towards understanding nursery function. Various estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast (Minho, Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) were sampled during Spring and Summer 2005 and 2006. Juveniles of commercially important marine fish species Solea solea, Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus, Diplodus vulgaris and Dicentrarchus labrax, predominantly 0-group individuals, were amongst the most abundant species and had distinct patterns of estuarine use as well as conspicuous associations with several environmental features. Juvenile occurrence and density varied amongst estuaries and sites within them, and differed with species. Sites with consistently high juvenile densities were identified as important juvenile sites (i.e. putative nursery grounds). Through generalized linear models (GLM), intra-estuarine variation in occurrence and density of each of the individual species was largely explained by environmental variables (temperature; salinity; depth; percentage of mud in the sediment; presence of seagrass; importance of intertidal areas; relative distance to estuary mouth; macrozoobenthos densities; and latitude). Decisive environmental factors defining important sites for juveniles varied depending on the system as a result of different environmental gradients, though there were common dominant features for each species regardless of the estuary considered. Analysed environmental variables in the GLM also accounted for inter-estuarine variation in species' occurrence and density. In several estuaries, the identified important juvenile sites were used by many of these species simultaneously and may be of increased value to both management and conservation. Overall, the

  7. Parasites and diseases in marine copepods: Challenges for future mass-production of live feed for fish larva production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf

    Copepods are the natural food for many marine fish larvae, and the use of cultured copepods as life feed is, therefore, becoming increasingly important as more marine fish species are being produced in aquaculture. Large-scale cultivation of copepods may be challenged by diseases and parasites. In...... effects on the population level are more difficult to assess. A few studies on the topic have documented that some of these parasites have the capability to control copepod populations in line with the more traditionally accepted mortality factors (predation and starvation). In general, however, our...... understanding of the role of marine copepods is limited and the exploration of this theme is a research area the just begun to emerge....

  8. Strategies to increase the hygienic and economic value of fresh fish: Biopreservation using lactic acid bacteria of marine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Herranz, Carmen; Díaz-Freitas, Belén; Hernández, Pablo E; Sala, Ana; Cintas, Luis M

    2016-04-16

    In this work we describe the development of a biopreservation strategy for fresh fish based on the use of bacteriocinogenic LAB of marine origin. For this purpose, two multibacteriocinogenic LAB strains, Lactobacillus curvatus BCS35 and Enterococcus faecium BNM58, previously isolated from fish and fish products were selected owing to their capability to inhibit the growth of several fish-spoilage and food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Two commercially important fish species were chosen, young hake (Merluccius merluccius) and megrim (Lepidorhombus boscii), and the specimens were acquired at the Marín (Pontevedra, Spain) retail fish market, after one night in the chilled hold of a near-shore fishing vessel. The biopreservation potential and the application strategies of these two LAB strains were first tested at a laboratory scale, where several batches of fresh fish were inoculated with: (i) the multibacteriocinogenic LAB culture(s) as protective culture(s); and/or (ii) their cell-free culture supernatant(s) as food ingredient(s), and (iii) the lyophilized bacteriocin preparation(s) as lyophilized food ingredient(s). All batches were stored in polystyrene boxes, permanently filled with ice at 0-2°C, for 14days. Microbiological analyses, as well as sensorial analyses, were carried out during the biopreservation trials. Subsequently, Lb. curvatus BCS35 was selected to up-scale the trials, and combinations of the three application methods were assayed. For this purpose, this strain was grown in a semi-industrial scale fermentor (150l) in modified MRS broth, and three batches of fresh fish were inoculated with the protective culture and/or food ingredient, and stored on ice in a chilled chamber at 0-2°C at the Marín retail fish market for 14days. Microbiological analyses were carried out during the storage period, showing that when Lb. curvatus BCS35 culture or the corresponding cell-free culture supernatant was used as protective culture or food ingredient

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOZYME PATTERN AND MORPHOLOGY OF THREE MARINE FISH CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华荣; 张士璀; 李红岩; 童裳亮; 相建海

    2002-01-01

    Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i.e. , Flounder Gill) from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i.e., Sea Perch Heart) fro m sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red se a bream (Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is ozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results sho wed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their cor responding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly di fferent from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and de tection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in compa rison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without mor phological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compa red to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns was related to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

  10. Test of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine fish and invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference method describes the measurement of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine animals (fish and invertebrates) by a static (non-continuous flow) method. Procedures are given for the determination of the toxicity curve (survival time-concentration relationship) and for the estimation of median lethal concentrations (LC50). The method is suitable for use with fish and macro-invertebrate species. It is not suitable for planktonic organisms nor for determining the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants or other petroleum products. Those methods are described in Reference Methods Nos. 44 and 45, respectively. The test animals are exposed, in groups of approximately ten, to each of several concentrations of the pollutant. The animals are observed, at intervals, for several days, the test solutions being renewed regularly. A record is maintained of the survival times of individual animals exposed to each concentration of pollutant. The medial survival time of each group of animals is determined from a graphical plot of the raw data after a log-probability transformation. Median survival times and their confidence limits are plotted against concentrations of test substance to give a toxicity curve. Additionally, the same experimental data can be used to estimate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the test substance to the animals after different periods of exposure. 3 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Simultaneous detection of marine fish pathogens by using multiplex PCR and a DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Santiago F; Krug, Melissa J; Nielsen, Michael E; Santos, Ysabel; Call, Douglas R

    2004-04-01

    We coupled multiplex PCR and a DNA microarray to construct an assay suitable for the simultaneous detection of five important marine fish pathogens (Vibrio vulnificus, Listonella anguillarum, Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus). The array was composed of nine short oligonucleotide probes (25-mer) complementary to seven chromosomal loci (cyt, rpoN, gyrB, toxR, ureC, dly, and vapA) and two plasmid-borne loci (fatA and A.sal). Nine primer sets were designed to amplify short fragments of these loci (100 to 177 bp) in a multiplex PCR. PCR products were subsequently labeled by nick translation and hybridized to the microarray. All strains of the five target species (n = 1 to 21) hybridized to at least one species-specific probe. Assay sensitivities ranged from 100% for seven probes to 83 and 67% for the two remaining probes. Multiplex PCR did not produce any nonspecific amplification products when tested against 23 related species of bacteria (n = 40 strains; 100% specificity). Using purified genomic DNA, we were able to detect PCR products with detecting PCR products. In addition, our method allowed the tentative identification of virulent strains of L. anguillarum serotype O1 based on the presence of the fatA gene (67% sensitivity and 100% specificity). This assay is a sensitive and specific tool for the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogenic bacteria that cause disease in fish and humans. PMID:15070982

  12. Effect of fucoidan from Turbinaria ornata against marine ornamental fish pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangapandi Marudhupandi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial capacity of fucoidan from the brown seaweed Turbinaria ornata against the marine ornamental fish bacterial pathogens. Methods: Fucoidan was isolated by the ethanol extraction method and the functional groups were identified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis. Subsequently, structural characterization was done by 1H NMR analysis. In vitro antibacterial activity of fucoidan was performed by the agar plate diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. Results: The characteristic C-O-S bending vibration of sulfate substituent the axial C-4 was observed at 839 cm-1 . Characterisitic signal of the fucoidan was detected in a different ppm of 1H NMR analysis. The maximum antibacterial activity (16.23±0.11 mm was obtained for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the minimum activity (5.1±0.24 mm was recorded for Yersinia enterocolitica. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration value was recorded between 2.5 to 10 mg/mL to the respective pathogens. Conclusions: The present study proved that fucoidan possessed the significant antibacterial activity against the tested fish bacterial pathogens. It could be further used as a natural antibiotic in an aquaculture system to control the bacterial diseases. However, the present study suggested that the further in vivo study is required to get the better understanding of the mode of action of fucoidan.

  13. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences for popul......Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences...... for population dynamics and life histories of marine biota as it progresses in the 21st century. In the present PhD project, a variety of meta-analytic methods was employed to statistically combine data across the north Atlantic distributions of 3 commercially and ecologically important species; cod (Gadus...... investigated also across the north Atlantic distribution of haddock. The major motivations were first, to provide an evaluation of potential thermal effects on haddock recruitment productivity across its distribution, since the species is relatively less investigated on this regard compared to cod. In addition...

  14. Cladogenesis and loss of the marine life-history phase in freshwater galaxiid fishes (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, J M; Wallis, G P

    2001-03-01

    Switches from migratory (diadromous) to nonmigratory (freshwater) life histories are known to have occurred repeatedly in some aquatic taxa. However, the significance of the loss of diadromy as an initiator for speciation remains poorly understood. The rivers of New Zealand's South Island house a species flock of recently derived nonmigratory galaxiid fishes known as the Galaxias vulgaris complex. Members of this complex are morphologically and genetically similar to the diadromous G. brevipinnis found in New Zealand and southeastern Australia. We hypothesised that South Island's G. vulgaris complex (at least 10 nonmigratory lineages) represents a number of independent radiations from a migratory G. brevipinnis stock, with repeated loss of diadromy. Sequence data were obtained for 31 ingroup samples (G. vulgaris complex and G. brevipinnis) plus four outgroup taxa. A well-resolved phylogeny based on 5039 base pairs of the mitochondrial genome suggests that diadromy has been lost on three separate occasions. Thus, speciation in these galaxiid fishes is partly an incidental phenomenon caused by switches from diadromous to nonmigratory strategies. However, much of the subsequent nonmigratory diversity is monophyletic, suggesting that drainage evolution (vicariance) has also played a major role in cladogenesis. Levels of sequence divergence among major ingroup lineages (1.6-12.7%) suggest that the radiation is considerably older relative to Northern Hemisphere (postglacial) complexes of salmonid, osmerid, and gasterosteid fishes. Sympatric taxa are not monophyletic, suggesting that their coexistence reflects secondary contact rather than sympatric speciation. The monophyly of New Zealand G. brevipinnis is well supported, but both mitochondrial DNA and nuclear sequences indicate that G. brevipinnis is paraphyletic on an intercontinental scale. The divergence (maximum 11.5%) between Tasmanian and New Zealand G. brevipinnis, although large, supports marine dispersal rather

  15. Models of Marine Fish Biodiversity: Assessing Predictors from Three Habitat Classification Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Katherine L; Mellin, Camille; Caley, M Julian; Radford, Ben T; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Prioritising biodiversity conservation requires knowledge of where biodiversity occurs. Such knowledge, however, is often lacking. New technologies for collecting biological and physical data coupled with advances in modelling techniques could help address these gaps and facilitate improved management outcomes. Here we examined the utility of environmental data, obtained using different methods, for developing models of both uni- and multivariate biodiversity metrics. We tested which biodiversity metrics could be predicted best and evaluated the performance of predictor variables generated from three types of habitat data: acoustic multibeam sonar imagery, predicted habitat classification, and direct observer habitat classification. We used boosted regression trees (BRT) to model metrics of fish species richness, abundance and biomass, and multivariate regression trees (MRT) to model biomass and abundance of fish functional groups. We compared model performance using different sets of predictors and estimated the relative influence of individual predictors. Models of total species richness and total abundance performed best; those developed for endemic species performed worst. Abundance models performed substantially better than corresponding biomass models. In general, BRT and MRTs developed using predicted habitat classifications performed less well than those using multibeam data. The most influential individual predictor was the abiotic categorical variable from direct observer habitat classification and models that incorporated predictors from direct observer habitat classification consistently outperformed those that did not. Our results show that while remotely sensed data can offer considerable utility for predictive modelling, the addition of direct observer habitat classification data can substantially improve model performance. Thus it appears that there are aspects of marine habitats that are important for modelling metrics of fish biodiversity that are

  16. Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean marine protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, J.; Muñoz, M.; Casadevall, M.

    2012-11-01

    Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of marine protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the marine reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those coastal fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of coastal fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on coastal resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.

  17. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A; Kinch, Jeff; Foale, Simon; Southgate, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data) to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii) accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886) was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%), Chaetodontidae (26.3%), and Acanthuridae (18.2%) and lowest for Labridae (6.6%) and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%). The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases), undersized fish (21.8%), and fish deemed too thin (11.1%). Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15) with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%). These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity. PMID:26963259

  18. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thane A Militz

    Full Text Available A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886 was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%, Chaetodontidae (26.3%, and Acanthuridae (18.2% and lowest for Labridae (6.6% and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%. The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases, undersized fish (21.8%, and fish deemed too thin (11.1%. Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15 with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%. These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity.

  19. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A.; Kinch, Jeff; Foale, Simon; Southgate, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data) to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii) accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886) was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%), Chaetodontidae (26.3%), and Acanthuridae (18.2%) and lowest for Labridae (6.6%) and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%). The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases), undersized fish (21.8%), and fish deemed too thin (11.1%). Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15) with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%). These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity. PMID:26963259

  20. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and immunostimulant of red seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni (Kuetzing, 1847 against marine ornamental fish pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunathan Ganeshamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity and immunostimulant of red seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni (C. hornemanni (Kuetzing, 1847 against marine ornamental fish pathogens. Methods: In the present study, seaweed extract of C. hornemanni showed significant antimicrobial activity against two fish pathogens and the partially purified potential compound was characterized by GC-MS. Purified seaweed extract was injected to the clownfish, Amphiprion sebae to study the innate immune response of these fishes. Results: The extracts was found effective and had more than 80% inhibitory activity against Aeromonas hydrophila (20 mm and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (19 mm at a concentration (25 mg/mL shown higher antimicrobial activity. The white blood cell count and respirator burst activity was significantly increased in the experimental tanks (E1 and (E2 when compared with control. Conclusions: Hence, it is concluded that the seaweed extracts of C. hornemanni had potential bioactive compounds and act an immunostimulant and improve the immune response to fish.

  1. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and immunostimulant of red seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni (Kuetzing, 1847) against marine ornamental fish pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raghunathan Ganeshamurthy; Saravanan Kumaresan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity and immunostimulant of red seaweedChondrococcus hornemanni pathogens.Methods:(C. hornemanni) (Kuetzing, 1847) against marine ornamental fish antimicrobial activity against two fish pathogens and the partially purified potential compound was characterized by GC-MS. Purified seaweed extract was injected to the clownfish, Amphiprion sebae to study the innate immune response of these fishes.Results:In the present study, seaweed extract of C. hornemanni showed significant Aeromonas hydrophila (20 mm) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (19 mm) at a concentration (25 mg/mL) shown higher antimicrobial activity. The white blood cell count and respirator burst activity was significantly increased in the experimental tanks (E1) and (E2) when compared with control. The extracts was found effective and had more than 80% inhibitory activity against Conclusions: Hence, it is concluded that the seaweed extracts of C. hornemanni had potential bioactive compounds and act an immunostimulant and improve the immune response to fish.

  2. Effects of isolation and fishing on the marine ecosystems of Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Beets, Jim; Berkenpas, Eric; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Gorny, Matthias; Sala, Enric

    2013-01-01

    1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000 km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gómez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gómez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gómez was relatively high (1.2 t ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45 t ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gómez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gómez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.

  3. Effects of Tidal Turbine Noise on Fish Hearing and Tissues - Draft Final Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Michele B.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2011-09-30

    Snohomish Public Utility District No.1 plans to deploy two 6 meter OpenHydro tidal turbines in Admiralty Inlet in Puget Sound, under a FERC pilot permitting process. Regulators and stakeholders have raised questions about the potential effect of noise from the turbines on marine life. Noise in the aquatic environment is known to be a stressor to many types of aquatic life, including marine mammals, fish and birds. Marine mammals and birds are exceptionally difficult to work with for technical and regulatory reasons. Fish have been used as surrogates for other aquatic organisms as they have similar auditory structures. This project was funded under the FY09 Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to Snohomish PUD, in partnership with the University of Washington - Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, the Sea Mammal Research Unit, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of this study will inform the larger research project outcomes. Proposed tidal turbine deployments in coastal waters are likely to propagate noise into nearby waters, potentially causing stress to native organisms. For this set of experiments, juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were used as the experimental model. Plans exist for prototype tidal turbines to be deployed into their habitat. Noise is known to affect fish in many ways, such as causing a threshold shift in auditory sensitivity or tissue damage. The characteristics of noise, its spectra and level, are important factors that influence the potential for the noise to injure fish. For example, the frequency range of the tidal turbine noise includes the audiogram (frequency range of hearing) of most fish. This study was performed during FY 2011 to determine if noise generated by a 6-m diameter OpenHydro turbine might affect juvenile Chinook salmon hearing or cause barotrauma. Naturally spawning stocks of Chinook salmon that utilize Puget Sound are listed as threatened (http://www.nwr.noaa

  4. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ivan; Martínez Bueno, María J; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-05-01

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. PMID:19932535

  5. Antibacterial and antioxidant effects from seaweed, Sargassum wightii (Greville, 1848) against marine ornamental fish pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karuppiah Nanthini devi; Thangavel Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To screen seaweed Sargassum wightii (S. wightii) for bioactive natural substance against marine ornamental fish bacterial pathogens, and also study the antioxidant properties, brine shrimp toxicity effect.Methods:screened for antibacterial activity and purified by column chromatography, purified fractions obtained were tested for the activity. The 1st fraction of acetone extract showed maximum activity, this was again subjected for purification and obtained three sub-fractions also tested for the activity. Total phenols and flavonoid contents, reducing power, free radical scavenging activities (DPPH and H2O2) and brine shrimp toxicity were also studied using purified acetone extract followed by standard methods.Results:Crude extract was made using three solvents (acetone, ethanol and methanol) and ten. GC-MS results revealed two major compounds such as 24-methylene cholesterol (79.9%) and methyl oleate (30.3%) which presented in higher percentage in purified extract and had highest phenols and flavonoid contents, reducing power, free radical scavenging activities, and also showed less toxicity effect. In he present study, the purified extract of S. wightii had potential antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila [(22.25±0.35) mm] and minimum activity against Streptococcus sp. [(10.00±0.00) mm]. The purified extract of S. wightii also had potential total antioxidant activity of (3.87±0.04) µg at 100 µg/mL concentration and the lowest activity was exhibited (1.52±0.01) µg at 25 µg/mL. The purified acetone extract showed maximum activity against eight pathogens among Conclusions: The present study concluded that the brown seaweed, S. wightii has potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, which can be used in aquaculture industry for treated bacterial diseases in infected fishes.

  6. Antibacterial and antioxidant effects from seaweed, Sargassum wightii (Greville, 1848 against marine ornamental fish pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuppiah Nanthini devi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen seaweed Sargassum wightii (S. wightii for bioactive natural substance against marine ornamental fish bacterial pathogens, and also study the antioxidant properties, brine shrimp toxicity effect. Methods: Crude extract was made using three solvents (acetone, ethanol and methanol and screened for antibacterial activity and purified by column chromatography, purified fractions obtained were tested for the activity. The 1st fraction of acetone extract showed maximum activity, this was again subjected for purification and obtained three sub-fractions also tested for the activity. Total phenols and flavonoid contents, reducing power, free radical scavenging activities (DPPH and H2O2 and brine shrimp toxicity were also studied using purified acetone extract followed by standard methods. Results: The purified acetone extract showed maximum activity against eight pathogens among ten. GC-MS results revealed two major compounds such as 24-methylene cholesterol (79.9% and methyl oleate (30.3% which presented in higher percentage in purified extract and had highest phenols and flavonoid contents, reducing power, free radical scavenging activities, and also showed less toxicity effect. In he present study, the purified extract of S. wightii had potential antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila [(22.25±0.35 mm] and minimum activity against Streptococcus sp. [(10.00±0.00 mm]. The purified extract of S. wightii also had potential total antioxidant activity of (3.87±0.04 µg at 100 µg/mL concentration and the lowest activity was exhibited (1.52±0.01 µg at 25 µg/mL. Conclusions: The present study concluded that the brown seaweed, S. wightii has potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, which can be used in aquaculture industry for treated bacterial diseases in infected fishes.

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary using the Belt Transect fish census method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Belt Transect method is used to conduct fish surveys at Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the National...

  8. Potential Indicators and Reference Points for Good Environmental Status of Commercially Exploited Marine Fishes and Invertebrates in the German EEZ

    OpenAIRE

    Froese, Rainer; Sampang, Arlene

    2013-01-01

    Indicators and reference points for assessing the good environmental status of commercially exploited marine fishes and invertebrates are presented, using 20 stocks from the German exclusive economic zone. New estimates of length-weight relationship, von Bertalanffy growth, length at 50% and 90% maturity, age at 50% maturity, and length and age where cohort biomass is maximum are presented for each stock. Twice the stock size below which recruitment may become impaired (SSBpa) is proposed as ...

  9. Marine trophic diversity in an anadromous fish is linked to its life-history variation in fresh water

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Susan P.; Schindler, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from muscle tissues accrued in the ocean to examine whether marine foraging tactics in anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are linked to their ultimate freshwater life history as adults. Adults from large-bodied populations spawning in deep freshwater habitats had more enriched δ15N than individuals from small-bodied populations from shallow streams. Within populations, earlier maturing individuals had higher δ15N than older fish. These d...

  10. Two species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Japan, including Philometroides branchiostegi sp. n. from Branchiostegus japonicus (Malacanthidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Nagasawa, K.; Nohara, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2012), s. 71-78. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Philometridae * marine fish * Japan Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2012 http://folia.paru.cas.cz/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=22038

  11. Temperature-associated habitat selection in a cold-water marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben M; Knutsen, Halvor; Albretsen, Jon; Moland, Even

    2016-05-01

    Habitat selection is a complex process, which involves behavioural decisions guided by the multiple needs and constraints faced by individuals. Climate-induced changes in environmental conditions may alter those trade-offs and resulting habitat use patterns. In this study, we investigated the effect of sea temperature on habitat selection and habitat use of acoustically tagged Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. Significant relationships between ocean temperature and habitat selection and use were found. Under favourable sea temperature thresholds (<16 °C), cod selected vegetated habitats, such as eelgrass and macroalgae beds, available in shallow areas. Selection for those habitats was especially high at night, when cod tended to ascend to shallower areas, presumably to feed. Selection and use of those habitats decreased significantly as temperature rose. Under increased sea surface temperature conditions, cod were absent from vegetated shallow habitats, both during the day and night, and selected instead non-vegetated rocky bottoms and sand habitats, available in deeper, colder areas. This study shows the dynamic nature of habitat selection and strongly suggests that cod in this region have to trade off food availability against favourable temperature conditions. Future increases in ocean temperature are expected to further influence the spatial behaviour of marine fish, potentially affecting individual fitness and population dynamics. PMID:26476092

  12. Effect of fucoidan from Turbinaria ornata against marine ornamental fish pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thangapandi Marudhupandi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial capacity of fucoidan from the brown seaweed Turbinaria ornata against the marine ornamental fish bacterial pathogens. Methods: Fucoidan was isolated by the ethanol extraction method and the were identified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis. Subseq fuuenncttliyo,n satlr ugcrtouurpasl pcherafroarcmteerdi zbayt itohne wagaasr dpolantee bdyif f1uHsi oNnM mR eatnhoadly asinsd. MIni nviimtruom a nIntihbiabcittoerryia Cl oanccteivnittrya toiof nf.ucoidan was Results: The characteristic C-O-S bending vibration of sulfate substituent the axial C-4 was observed at 839 cm-1. Characterisitic signal of the fucoidan was detected in a different ppm of 1H NMR analysis. The maximum antibacterial activity (16.23±0.11) mm was obtained for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the minimum activity (5.1±0.24) mm was recorded for Yersinia enterocolitica. Trehsep eMctiinviem puamth oIgnehnibs.itory Concentration value was recorded between 2.5 to 10 mg/mL to the Conclusions: The present study proved that fucoidan possessed the significant antibacterial ainc taivni tayq augaaciunlsttu trhee s ytesstetemd tfois hco bnatcrotel rtihael pbaatchtoegrieanl sd. iIste caosuelsd. Hbeo wfuervtehre,r t huese pdr easse an tn asttuudrayl saungtgibeisotteidc ftuhacto itdhaen f.urther

  13. Patterns and persistence of larval retention and connectivity in a marine fish metapopulation

    KAUST Repository

    Saenz Agudelo, Pablo

    2012-08-14

    Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals, is one of the most poorly understood processes in population dynamics, yet has profound implications for conservation and harvest strategies. For marine species with pelagic larvae, direct estimation of connectivity remains logistically challenging and has mostly been limited to single snapshots in time. Here, we document seasonal and interannual patterns of larval dispersal in a metapopulation of the coral reef fish Amphiprion polymnus. A 3-year record of larval trajectories within and among nine discrete local populations from an area of approximately 35 km was established by determining the natal origin of settled juveniles through DNA parentage analysis. We found that spatial patterns of both self-recruitment and connectivity were remarkably consistent over time, with a low level of self-recruitment at the scale of individual sites. Connectivity among sites was common and multidirectional in all years and was not significantly influenced by seasonal variability of predominant surface current directions. However, approximately 75% of the sampled juveniles could not be assigned to parents within the study area, indicating high levels of immigrations from sources outside the study area. The data support predictions that the magnitude and temporal stability of larval connectivity decreases significantly with increasing distance between subpopulations, but increases with the size of subpopulations. Given the considerable effort needed to directly measure larval exchange, the consistent patterns suggest snapshot parentage analyses can provide useful dispersal estimates to inform spatial management decisions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Induction and characterization of a lysogenic bacteriophage of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from marine fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, T D; Yoshida, T

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the presence of prophages in Lactococcus garvieae isolated from several marine fish species in Japan. Representative strains of 16 bacterial genotypes (S1-S16) selected from more than 400 L. garvieae isolates were used to induce lysogenic bacteriophages. These strains were treated with 500 ng mL(-1) freshly prepared mitomycin C. A cross-spotting assay was performed to validate the lysogenic and indicator strains. The lysogenic strains were selected for isolation and concentration of the phages. Phage DNA was digested with EcoRI for biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect integrated prophage DNA. Of the 16 representative bacterial genotypes, 12 strains integrated prophages as indicated by the PCR assay, and 10 phages were detected and isolated using two indicator bacterial strains. Analysis of genomic DNA showed that these phages were homologous and named as PLgT-1. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the morphology of PLgT-1 was consistent with the virus family Siphoviridae. PCR analysis of the prophage DNA revealed that all of the S1 genotype strains were lysogenic (30/30), but none of the S16 genotype strains were lysogenic (0/30). This is the first study to investigate lysogenic bacteriophages from L. garvieae. PMID:26471724

  15. Transcriptome Survey of a Marine Food Fish: Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha M. Thevasagayam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian seabass (or barramundi; Lates calcarifer is a marine teleost and a popular food fish in Southeast Asia and Australia. To date, comprehensive genome and transcriptome sequence information has not been available for this species in public repositories. Here, we report a comprehensive de novo transcriptome assembly of the Asian seabass. These data will be useful for the development of molecular tools for use in aquaculture of Asian seabass as well as a resource for genome annotation. The transcriptome was obtained from sequences generated from organs of multiple individuals using three different next-generation sequencing platforms (454-FLX Titanium, SOLiD 3+, and paired-end Illumina HiSeq 2000. The assembled transcriptome contains >80% of the expected protein-coding loci, with 58% of these represented by a predicted full-length cDNA sequence when compared to the available Nile tilapia RefSeq dataset. Detailed descriptions of the various steps involved in sequencing and assembling a transcriptome are provided to serve as a helpful guide for transcriptome projects involving de novo assembly of short sequence reads for non-model teleosts or any species of interest.

  16. Integrated ecotoxicological assessment of marine sediments affected by land-based marine fish farm effluents: physicochemical, acute toxicity and benthic community analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C; Yáñez, E; Martín-Díaz, M L; Riba, I; DelValls, T A

    2013-08-01

    An integrated ecotoxicological assessment of marine sediments affected by land-based marine fish farm effluents was developed using physicochemical and benthic community structure analyses and standardised laboratory bioassays with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), amphipods (Ampelisca brevicornis) and sea urchin larvae (Paracentrotus lividus). Intertidal sediment samples were collected at five sites of the Rio San Pedro (RSP) creek, from the aquaculture effluent to a clean site. The effective concentration (EC50) from bacterial bioluminescence and A. brevicornis survival on whole sediments and P. lividus larval developmental success on sediment elutriates were assessed. Numbers of species, abundance and Shannon diversity were the biodiversity indicators measured in benthic fauna of sediment samples. In parallel, redox potential, pH, organic matter and metal levels (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the sediment and dissolved oxygen in the interstitial water were measured in situ. Water and sediment physicochemical analysis revealed the exhibition of a spatial gradient in the RSP, evidenced by hypoxia/anoxia, reduced and acidic conditions, high organic enrichment and metal concentrations at the most contaminated sites. Whereas, the benthic fauna biodiversity decreased the bioassays depicted decreases in EC50, A. brevicornis survival, P. lividus larval success at sampling sites closer to the studied fish farms. This study demonstrates that the sediments polluted by fish farm effluents may lead to alterations of the biodiversity of the exposed organisms. PMID:23681739

  17. Multilocus Sequence Analysis of the Marine Bacterial Genus Tenacibaculum Suggests Parallel Evolution of Fish Pathogenicity and Endemic Colonization of Aquaculture Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, Christophe; Houel, Armel; Lunazzi, Aurélie; Bernardet, Jean-François; Olsen, Anne Berit; Nilsen, Hanne; Toranzo, Alicia E.; Castro, Nuria; Nicolas, Pierre; Duchaud, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The genus Tenacibaculum, a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, is an abundant component of marine bacterial ecosystems that also hosts several fish pathogens, some of which are of serious concern for marine aquaculture. Here, we applied multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to 114 representatives of most known species in the genus and of the worldwide diversity of the major fish pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum. Recombination hampers precise phylogenetic reconstruction, but the data indicat...

  18. A Preliminary Study on the Diversity of Fish Species and Marine Fish Faunas of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Caihua; YOU Kui; ZHANG Meizhao; LI Fengqi; CHEN Dagang

    2008-01-01

    There are 3048 species offish occurring in the China Seas (CS), of which at least 2321 species are found in the South China Sea (SCS), belonging to 35 orders, 236 families and 822 genera. The fish species diversity is analyzed in this paper based on biogeography, biostatisties, fishing methods, etc. It is found that the regional environment, especially biological factors, plays an important role in the distribution of faunas, and there are two fish faunas in the SCS, one in the north and another in the center and south. This regional division is of value for sustainable fishery production and efficient management of fishery resources.

  19. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  20. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan, E-mail: ivanmuno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Martinez Bueno, Maria J., E-mail: mjbueno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Agueera, Ana, E-mail: aaguera@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R., E-mail: amadeo@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  1. Changes in the fish community structure after the implementation of Marine Protected Areas in the south western coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu J. Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs are increasingly being recommended as management tools for biodiversity conservation and fisheries. With the purpose of protecting the region’s biodiversity and prevent the over exploitation of marine resources, in February 2011 the MPAs of Ilha do Pessegueiro and Cabo Sardão were implemented in the “Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina “(PNSACV Natural Park, south western coast of Portugal. In these areas, commercial and recreational fishing became prohibited. In order to evaluate the effects of these MPAs, the structure of its fish communities and of adjacent control areas without fishing restrictions were studied in 2011/12 (immediately after implementation and 2013 (two years after implementation. A total of 4 sampling campaigns were conducted (summer 2011, winter 2012, summer 2013 and winter 2013 using bottom trawl and gillnets. Faunal communities from the MPAs (treatment were compared with adjacent areas (controls and changes evaluated with time. Results revealed significant changes on abundance, having this parameter a slight increase after the implementation of the MPAs. Also, significant differences were observed on the structure of the protected areas communities when compared with neighbouring areas where fishing was still allowed, even though the small amount of time elapsed. In addition, specimens of larger size occurred more frequently within Ilha do Pessegueiro MPA in the last year of the study. Despite the young age of these MPAs, changes on their fish communities’ structure are already visible after only 3 years of protection, showing that these management measures may promote sustainable exploitation of fishing resources as well as protect species with conservation interest, thus leading to a global biodiversity increase.

  2. Assessment of tissue-specific accumulation and effects of cadmium in a marine fish fed contaminated commercially produced diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercially produced fish diet is now widely used in fish farming but it often contains elevated levels of cadmium (Cd). However, the adverse effects on fish are poorly understood. In this study, farm-raised marine grunts, Terapon jarbua, were fed Cd-contaminated diet or exposed to waterborne Cd for 4 weeks. Tissue-specific Cd bioaccumulation and its effects were subsequently examined. We found that Cd was accumulated in different fish tissues (digestive tracts, gills or livers). At the end of the exposure, Cd accumulation peaked in the fishes' livers (5.0-6.3 μg g-1), followed by the digestive tracts (0.83-3.16 μg g-1) and gills (0.27-2.74 μg g-1). Endpoints such as the survival rate, specific growth rate, condition factor, and superoxide dismutase activity were not significantly affected by Cd exposure. In contrast, metallothionein (MT) induction and subcellular Cd distribution indicated that there were possible sublethal effects of Cd exposure. MT was induced in response to Cd accumulation, but it returned to the control levels after a longer exposure period, except for hepatic MT induction resulting from waterborne or low dietary Cd exposure. The Cd percentage in the metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) fraction increased over exposure time, and it accounted for more than 57% Cd in the fishes' livers and 80% Cd in their digestive tracts by the end of the exposure period. Overall, although Cd in commercial fish diet did not have significant lethality to T. jarbua, sensitive responses such as hepatic MT induction and subcellular Cd distribution revealed that the Cd-induced storage and detoxification in T. jarbua may increase fish's tolerance to toxic metals.

  3. Assessment of tissue-specific accumulation and effects of cadmium in a marine fish fed contaminated commercially produced diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Fei [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-11-27

    Commercially produced fish diet is now widely used in fish farming but it often contains elevated levels of cadmium (Cd). However, the adverse effects on fish are poorly understood. In this study, farm-raised marine grunts, Terapon jarbua, were fed Cd-contaminated diet or exposed to waterborne Cd for 4 weeks. Tissue-specific Cd bioaccumulation and its effects were subsequently examined. We found that Cd was accumulated in different fish tissues (digestive tracts, gills or livers). At the end of the exposure, Cd accumulation peaked in the fishes' livers (5.0-6.3 {mu}g g{sup -1}), followed by the digestive tracts (0.83-3.16 {mu}g g{sup -1}) and gills (0.27-2.74 {mu}g g{sup -1}). Endpoints such as the survival rate, specific growth rate, condition factor, and superoxide dismutase activity were not significantly affected by Cd exposure. In contrast, metallothionein (MT) induction and subcellular Cd distribution indicated that there were possible sublethal effects of Cd exposure. MT was induced in response to Cd accumulation, but it returned to the control levels after a longer exposure period, except for hepatic MT induction resulting from waterborne or low dietary Cd exposure. The Cd percentage in the metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) fraction increased over exposure time, and it accounted for more than 57% Cd in the fishes' livers and 80% Cd in their digestive tracts by the end of the exposure period. Overall, although Cd in commercial fish diet did not have significant lethality to T. jarbua, sensitive responses such as hepatic MT induction and subcellular Cd distribution revealed that the Cd-induced storage and detoxification in T. jarbua may increase fish's tolerance to toxic metals.

  4. Self-recruitment in a coral reef fish population in a marine reserve

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela

    2014-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have proliferated in the past decades to protect biodiversity and sustain fisheries. However, most of the MPA networks have been designed without taking into account a critical factor: the larval dispersal patterns of populations within and outside the reserves. The scale and predictability of larval dispersal, however, remain unknown due to the difficulty of measuring dispersal when larvae are minute (~ cm) compared to the potential scale of dispersal (~ km). Nevertheless, genetic approaches can now be used to make estimates of larval dispersal. The following thesis describes self-recruitment and connectivity patterns of a coral reef fish species (Centropyge bicolor) in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea. To do this, microsatellite markers were developed to evaluate fine-scale genetics and recruit assignment via genetic parentage analysis. In this method, offspring are assigned to potential parents, so that larval dispersal distances can then be inferred for each individual larvae. From a total of 255 adults and 426 juveniles collected only 2 parentoffspring pairs were assigned, representing less than 1% self-recruitment. Previous data from the same study system showed that both Chaetodon vagagundus and Amphiprion percula have consistent high self-recuitment rates (~ 60%), despite having contrasting life history traits. Since C. bicolor and C. vagabundus have similar characteristics (e.g. reproductive mode, pelagic larval duration), comparable results were expected. On the contrary, the results of this study showed that dispersal patterns cannot be generalized across species. Hence the importance of studying different species and seascapes to better understand the patterns of larval dispersal. This, in turn, will be essential to improve the design and implementation of MPAs as conservation and management tools.

  5. Pacific Basin climate variability and patterns of Northeast Pacific marine fish production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowed, Anne Babcock; Hare, Steven R.; Wooster, Warren S.

    A review of oceanographic and climate data from the North Pacific and Bering Sea has revealed climate events that occur on two principal time scales: a) 2-7 years (i.e. El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO), and b) inter-decadal (i.e. Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO). The timing of ENSO events and of related oceanic changes at higher latitudes were examined. The frequency of ENSO was high in the 1980s. Evidence of ENSO forcing on ocean conditions in the North Pacific (Niño North conditions) showed ENSO events were more frequently observed along the West Coast than in the western Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and Eastern Bering Sea (EBS). Time series of catches for 30 region/species groups of salmon, and recruitment data for 29 groundfish and 5 non-salmonid pelagic species, were examined for evidence of a statistical relationship with any of the time scales associated with Niño North conditions or the PDO. Some flatfish stocks exhibited high autocorrelation in recruitment coupled with a significant step in recruitment in 1977 suggesting a relationship between PDO forcing and recruitment success. Five of the dominant gadid stocks (EBS and GOA Pacific cod, Pacific hake and EBS and GOA walleye pollock) exhibited low autocorrelation in recruitment. Of these, Pacific hake, GOA walleye pollock and GOA Pacific cod exhibited significantly higher incidence of strong year classes in years associated with Niño North conditions. These findings suggest that the PDO and ENSO may play an important role in governing year-class strength of several Northeast Pacific marine fish stocks.

  6. Infection of Anisakis sp. larvae in some marine fishes from the southern coast of Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SENNY HELMIATI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Setyobudi E, Soeparno, Helmiati S (2011 Infection of Anisakis sp. larvae in some marine fishes from the southern coast of Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. Biodiversitas 12: 34-37. The prevalence, intensity and distribution of Anisakis sp. larvae which infected some fishes at the southern coast of Kulon Progo District were investigated. Totally 95 fish specimens were collected during December 2007. Results of the present study indicated that the Anisakis sp. larvae infected various fish species i.e: Trichiurus lepturus, Parupeneus sp., Lutjanus malabaricus, Terapon jarbua and Caesio sp. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection showed the differences between fish species. The highest mean intensity of infection was found in L. malabaricus (7.71 larvae/infected host and T. Lepturus (3.18 larvae/infected host, while the lowest intensity of infection was found in Parupeneus sp., T. jarbua and Caesio sp. (1 larvae/infected host. Infected host organs were body cavities (peritoneum, digestive tract, gonads, and liver. Presence of this parasite may be harmful for consumer, however it can be used for several ecological studies as biological tags.

  7. Connectivity patterns of coastal fishes following different dispersal scenarios across a transboundary marine protected area (Bonifacio strait, NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, Barbara; Gérigny, Olivia; Durieux, Eric Dominique Henri; Coudray, Sylvain; Garsi, Laure-Hélène; Bisgambiglia, Paul-Antoine; Galgani, François; Agostini, Sylvia

    2015-03-01

    The Strait of Bonifacio constitutes one of the rare transboundary Marine Protected Areas (MPA) of the Mediterranean Sea (between Sardinia, Italy and Corsica, France). Based on the hypothesis that no-take zones will produce more fish larvae, compared to adjacent fished areas, we modeled the outcome of larvae released by coastal fishes inside the no-take zones of the MPA in order to: (1) characterize the dispersal patterns across the Strait of Bonifacio; (2) identify the main potential settlement areas; (3) quantify the connectivity and the larval supply from the MPAs to the surrounding areas. A high resolution hydrodynamic model (MARS 3D, Corse 400 m) combined to an individual based model (Ichthyop software) was used to model the larval dispersal of fish following various scenarios (Pelagic Larval Duration PLD and release depth) over the main spawning period (i.e. between April and September). Dispersal model outputs were then compared with those obtained from an ichthyoplankton sampling cruise performed in August 2012. There was a significant influence of PLD to the connectivity between coastal areas. The synchronization between spawning and hydrodynamic conditions appeared to be determinant in the larval transport success. Biotic and abiotic parameters affecting the dispersal dynamic of fish larvae within the Strait of Bonifacio were identified and synthesis maps were established as a tool for conservation planning.

  8. 75 FR 29984 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... humpback whales incidental to commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on the CNP stock of humpback... of CNP humpbacks incidental to commercial fishing is having a negligible impact on the stock. HSUS... Management Council (Council) have analyzed the impacts of fishing operations, including the deep-set...

  9. 76 FR 42082 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; False Killer Whale Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... from commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on CNP humpback whales (75 FR 29984, May 28, 2010... of the FKWTRP would not simply displace fishing effort and its corresponding impacts on the Hawaii... al., 2011). Given that longline fishing in this area may impact both false killer whale stocks,...

  10. 75 FR 81972 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    .... stock of Steller sea lions incidental to commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on these... commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on the stock because population growth is stable or... lions, and Eastern U.S. Steller sea lions incidental to commercial fishing will have a negligible...

  11. Genotoxicity, potential cytotoxicity and cell uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignardi, Caroline P., E-mail: carolpatvig@usp.br [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Hasue, Fabio M., E-mail: humbigutis@gmail.com [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Sartório, Priscila V., E-mail: pri.sartorio@gmail.com [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Cardoso, Caroline M., E-mail: camargonato@gmail.com [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Machado, Alex S.D., E-mail: mamiferomarinho@gmail.com [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Integrated College North of Minas Osmane Barbosa Avenue, 11111, JK, Montes Claros, MG 39404006 (Brazil); and others

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}–NP cytogenotoxicity and cell uptake in marine fish was studied. • TiO{sub 2}–NP suspension was in primary particle, agglomerated and aggregated form. • TiO{sub 2}–NP genotoxicity was time/dose dependent and may induce cell uptake. • Methodology proved to be efficient for evaluating the toxic effect of TiO{sub 2}–NP. - Abstract: Nanoparticles have physicochemical characteristics that make them useful in areas such as science, technology, medicine and in products of everyday use. Recently the manufacture and variety of these products has grown rapidly, raising concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Adverse effects of exposure to nanoparticles have been reported for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms, but the toxic effects of the substances on marine organisms remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of TiO{sub 2}–NP in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus, through cytogenotoxic methods. The fish received two different doses of 1.5 μg and 3.0 μg–TiO{sub 2}–NP g{sup −1} by intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, comet assay (pH > 13), micronucleus (MN) and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) 24, 48 and 72 h after injection. The possible cell uptake of TiO{sub 2}–NP in fish injected with the higher dose was investigated after 72 h using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that TiO{sub 2}–NP is genotoxic and potentially cytotoxic for this species, causing DNA damage, inducing the formation of MN and other ENA, and decreasing erythrocyte viability. TEM examination revealed that cell uptake of TiO{sub 2}–NP was mainly in the kidney, liver, gills and to a lesser degree in muscle. To the extent of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first in vivo study of genotoxicity and other effects of TiO{sub 2}–NP in a marine fish.

  12. Genotoxicity, potential cytotoxicity and cell uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • TiO2–NP cytogenotoxicity and cell uptake in marine fish was studied. • TiO2–NP suspension was in primary particle, agglomerated and aggregated form. • TiO2–NP genotoxicity was time/dose dependent and may induce cell uptake. • Methodology proved to be efficient for evaluating the toxic effect of TiO2–NP. - Abstract: Nanoparticles have physicochemical characteristics that make them useful in areas such as science, technology, medicine and in products of everyday use. Recently the manufacture and variety of these products has grown rapidly, raising concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Adverse effects of exposure to nanoparticles have been reported for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms, but the toxic effects of the substances on marine organisms remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of TiO2–NP in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus, through cytogenotoxic methods. The fish received two different doses of 1.5 μg and 3.0 μg–TiO2–NP g−1 by intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, comet assay (pH > 13), micronucleus (MN) and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) 24, 48 and 72 h after injection. The possible cell uptake of TiO2–NP in fish injected with the higher dose was investigated after 72 h using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that TiO2–NP is genotoxic and potentially cytotoxic for this species, causing DNA damage, inducing the formation of MN and other ENA, and decreasing erythrocyte viability. TEM examination revealed that cell uptake of TiO2–NP was mainly in the kidney, liver, gills and to a lesser degree in muscle. To the extent of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first in vivo study of genotoxicity and other effects of TiO2–NP in a marine fish

  13. Fishing inside or outside? A case studies analysis of potential spillover effect from marine protected areas, using food web models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colléter, Mathieu; Gascuel, Didier; Albouy, Camille; Francour, Patrice; Tito de Morais, Luis; Valls, Audrey; Le Loc'h, François

    2014-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are implemented worldwide as an efficient tool to preserve biodiversity and protect ecosystems. We used food web models (Ecopath and EcoTroph) to assess the ability of MPAs to reduce fishing impacts on targeted resources and to provide biomass exports for adjacent fisheries. Three coastal MPAs: Bonifacio and Port-Cros (Mediterranean Sea), and Bamboung (Senegalese coast), were used as case studies. Pre-existing related Ecopath models were homogenized and ecosystem characteristics were compared based on network indices and trophic spectra analyses. Using the EcoTroph model, we simulated different fishing mortality scenarios and assessed fishing impacts on the three ecosystems. Lastly, the potential biomass that could be exported from each MPA was estimated. Despite structural and functional trophic differences, the three MPAs showed similar patterns of resistance to simulated fishing mortalities, with the Bonifacio case study exhibiting the highest potential catches and a slightly inferior resistance to fishing. We also show that the potential exports from our small size MPAs are limited and thus may only benefit local fishing activities. Based on simulations, their potential exports were estimated to be at the same order of magnitude as the amount of catch that could have been obtained inside the reserve. In Port Cros, the ban of fishing inside MPA could actually allow for improved catch yields outside the MPA due to biomass exports. This was not the case for the Bonifacio site, as its potential exports were too low to offset catch losses. This insight suggests the need for MPA networks and/or sufficiently large MPAs to effectively protect juveniles and adults and provide important exports. Finally, we discuss the effects of MPAs on fisheries that were not considered in food web models, and conclude by suggesting possible improvements in the analysis of MPA efficiency.

  14. Marine and farmed fish on the Polish market: comparison of the nutritive value and human exposure to PCDD/Fs and other contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlinder-Richert, Joanna; Usydus, Zygmunt; Malesa-Ciećwierz, Małgorzata; Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna; Ruczyńska, Wiesława

    2011-12-01

    Chemical analyses were performed in nine fish species that are popular on the Polish market. These included Baltic fish (cod, herring, salmon), fish farmed in Poland (carp, trout), marine fish imported from China (Alaska pollock, sole), and farmed fish imported from Vietnam and China (sutchi catfish, tilapia). The nutritional composition (amino acid, micro- and macronutrients, fat-soluble vitamins - A(1), D(3), E) and certain contaminants (organochlorine pesticides, OCPs; indicator polychlorinated biphenyl, PCB(6); polychlorinated dibenzo-paradioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDD/Fs; dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, dl-PCBs; organotin compounds, OCTs; dyes, malachite green and crystal violet; veterinary drug residues, nitrofurans and chloramphenicol; toxic metals, Cd, Pb, Hg) in the muscle tissues of fish were determined. It was confirmed that the fish species analyzed were excellent sources of amino acids, and were rich in phosphorous and selenium. Baltic Sea fish (salmon, herring), fish farmed in Poland (carp and trout), and tilapia were also rich in vitamin D(3). Traces of OCP, PCB(6), OCT, dyes, veterinary drug residues, and heavy metals were detected in concentrations which do not pose a threat to consumers at the current rate of fish consumption in Poland. However, the problem might arise from the content of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in fatty Baltic fish. The fish species analyzed, differed in their nutritional values and degrees of contamination. We suggest that for optimum health and safety, it is advisable that consumers include a variety of different fish species in their diets. PMID:22014661

  15. High rate algal pond treatment for water reuse in a marine fish recirculation system: Water purification and fish health

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxa, Elisabeta; Deviller, Genevieve; Pagand, P; Alliaume, C; Casellas, C.; Blancheton, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    Regardless of the degree of closure of a recirculation system, effluents are produced and replacement water is needed, which limits the possibility of locating a seawater production system away from the shoreline. At the Palavas Ifremer station, in the south of France, a High Rate Algal Pond (HRAP) was operated during several years to treat the effluent from a recirculating aquaculture system before reusing it. The effect of the HRAP-treated water on the recirculation system and on the fish w...

  16. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of bioactive compounds obtained from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni on ichthyopathogenic bacteria affecting marine ornamental fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raghunathan Ganeshamurthy; Kapila Tissera

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibacterial effects of extracts from the seaweed Chondrococcushornemanni (C. hornemanni) on bacterial pathogens of marine ornamental fish. Method: Methanol extract obtained from C. hornemanni showed a broad and high antibacterial activity against four fish pathogens including Providencia rettgeri, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrioalginoticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The crude extract obtained from the dried seaweeds was fractionated and purified using column chromatography. Purified extracts were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for identifying the functional groups. Phytoconstituents of the active fraction were further identified by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. Result: The first fraction of the extracts showed effective inhibitory activity against Aeromonashydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at a concentration of 100 µL. However, Vibrio alginolyticus and Providencia rettgeri had shown a moderately lesser inhibitory response to the extract.Conclusion:Hence, it is concluded that extracts of seaweed C. hornemanni, contain potential bioactive compounds with a considerable antibiotic activity.

  17. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of bioactive compounds obtained from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni on ichthyopathogenic bacteria affecting marine ornamental fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunathan Ganeshamurthy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antibacterial effects of extracts from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni (C. hornemanni on bacterial pathogens of marine ornamental fish. Method: Methanol extract obtained from C. hornemanni showed a broad and high antibacterial activity against four fish pathogens including Providencia rettgeri, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio alginoticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The crude extract obtained from the dried seaweeds was fractionated and purified using column chromatography. Purified extracts were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR for identifying the functional groups. Phytoconstituents of the active fraction were further identified by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometric (GC-MS analysis. Result: The first fraction of the extracts showed effective inhibitory activity against Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at a concentration of 100 µL. However, Vibrio alginolyticus and Providencia rettgeri had shown a moderately lesser inhibitory response to the extract. Conclusion: Hence, it is concluded that extracts of seaweed C. hornemanni, contain potential bioactive compounds with a considerable antibiotic activity.

  18. Evolutionary mechanisms shaping the genetic population structure of marine fishes; lessons from the European flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Grønkjær, P.; Loeschcke, V.

    2007-01-01

    A number of evolutionary mechanisms have been suggested for generating low but significant genetic structuring among marine fish populations. We used nine microsatellite loci and recently developed methods in landscape genetics and coalescence-based estimation of historical gene flow and effective...... Atlantic and western Baltic Sea samples. Alternative factors, such as dispersal potential and/or environmental gradients, could be important for generating genetic divergence in this region. The results show that the magnitude and scale of structuring generated by a specific mechanism depend critically on...

  19. A population assessment of mercury exposure from two cities of Pakistan with respect to freshwater and marine fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Abdul Qadir; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mohammad Balal

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to estimate the level of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair samples of human subjects and its association with consumption of sea- and freshwater fish species. The scalp hairs were collected from both genders (male and female) aged between 15 and 50 years (n = 200), living in coastal areas of Karachi, who mostly consumed sea fish species, referred to as exposed subjects. For comparison purposes, scalp hair samples of both genders (n = 160) were collected from the inhabitants of Karachi and Hyderabad cities who consumed freshwater fish species termed as referent subjects. The frequently consumed fresh and marine fish species were also collected. The level of Hg was determined in fish and scalp hair samples by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to ultrasonic-assisted acid digestion in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The validity of methodology was checked by certified reference material (CRM) BCR 397 (human hair) and DORM-2. The concentrations of Hg in sea- and freshwater fish were found in the range of 1.47-2.09 and 0.402-0.676 μg/g, respectively. The exposed subjects had significantly elevated levels of Hg in scalp hair samples (1.8-4.3 μg/g) as compared to referent subjects (0.87-1.95 μg/g) (p < 0.001). A significant positive correlation was obtained between the concentration of Hg in hair and age of study population. Exposed and referent female subjects had higher levels of Hg in scalp hair than that in males of both study groups (p = 0.02-0.031). PMID:25147303

  20. Tidal Flushing Time of Marine Fish Culture Zones in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jing-qiao; WONG Ken T.M.; LEE Joseph H. W.; CHOI K.W.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate determination of flushing time is crucial for maintaining sustainable production in fish culture zones (FCZs),as it represents the physical self-purification capability via tidal exchange with clean water in the outer sea.However,owing to the temporal and spatial complexity of the coastal flushing process,existing methods for determining flushing time may not be generally applicable.In this paper,a systematic method for determining the flushing time in FCZs is presented,in which bathymetry,runoff,tidal range and stratification are properly accounted for.We determine the flushing time via numerical tracer experiments,using robust 3D hydrodynamic and mass transport models.For FCZs located in sheltered and land-locked tidal inlets,the system boundary can be naturally defined at the connection with the open sea.For FCZs located in open waters,hydrodynamic tracking is first used to assess the extent of tidal excursion and thus delimit the initial boundary between clean water and polluted water.This general method is applied to all designated marine FCZs in Hong Kong for both the dry and wet seasons,including 20 sheltered FCZs (in semi-enclosed waters of Tolo Harbour,Mirs Bay,and Port Shelter) and 6 FCZs in open waters.Our results show that flushing time is the longest in inner Port Shelter (about 40 days in dry season),and the shortest for the FCZs in open waters (less than one week in dry season).In addition,the flushing time in dry season is commonly longer than that in wet season:20%~40% for most well-sheltered FCZs; 2.6~4 times for the others.Our results indicate a positive correlation between the flushing time and distance to open boundary,supporting the view that the flushing time of a FCZ is closely related to its location.This study provides a solid basis for mariculture management such as the determination of carrying capacity of FCZs.

  1. Genetic diversity affects the strength of population regulation in a marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D W; Freiwald, J; Bernardi, G

    2016-03-01

    Variation is an essential feature of biological populations, yet much of ecological theory treats individuals as though they are identical. This simplifying assumption is often justified by the perception that variation among individuals does not have significant effects on the dynamics of whole populations. However, this perception may be skewed by a historic focus on studying single populations. A true evaluation of the extent to which among-individual variation affects the dynamics of populations requires the study of multiple populations. In this study, we examined variation in the dynamics of populations of a live-bearing, marine fish (black surfperch; Embiotoca jacksoni). In collaboration with an organization of citizen scientists (Reef Check California), we were able to examine the dynamics of eight populations that were distributed throughout approximately 700 km of coastline, a distance that encompasses much of this species' range. We hypothesized that genetic variation within a local population would be related to the intensity of competition and to the strength of population regulation. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether genetic diversity (measured by the diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes) was related to the strength of population regulation. Low-diversity populations experienced strong density dependence in population growth rates and population sizes were regulated much more tightly than they were in high-diversity populations. Mechanisms that contributed to this pattern include links between genetic diversity, habitat use, and spatial crowding. On average, low-diversity populations used less of the available habitat and exhibited greater spatial clustering (and more intense competition) for a given level of density (measured at the scale of the reef). Although the populations we studied also varied with respect to exogenous characteristics (habitat complexity, densities of predators, and interspecific competitors), none of these

  2. Fish, fishers, seals and tourists: Economic consequences of creating a marine reserve in a multi-species, multi-activity context

    OpenAIRE

    Boncoeur, Jean; Alban, Frederique; Guyader, Olivier; Thebaud, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates some economic consequences of creating a marine reserve on both fishing and ecotourism, when the range of controllability of fishing effort is limited and the impact of the reserve on ecosystem is considered. The issue is illustrated by the example of creating a no-take zone in part of a region where fishing is managed through a limited entry license system, and which is inhabited by two interacting stocks: a stock of prey (fish) and a stock of predators (seals). While...

  3. Dietary toxicity of field-contaminated invertebrates to marine fish: effects of metal doses and subcellular metal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Fei; Rainbow, Philip S; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-09-15

    There is growing awareness of the toxicological effects of metal-contaminated invertebrate diets on the health of fish populations in metal-contaminated habitats, yet the mechanisms underlying metal bioaccumulation and toxicity are complex. In the present study, marine fish Terapon jurbua terepon were fed a commercial diet supplemented with specimens of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor or the clam Scrobicularia plana, collected from four metal-impacted estuaries (Tavy, Restronguet Creek, West Looe, Gannel) in southwest England, as environmentally realistic metal sources. A comparative toxicological evaluation of both invertebrates showed that fish fed S. plana for 21 d exhibited evident mortality compared to those fed N. diversicolor. Furthermore, a spatial effect on mortality was observed. Differences in metal doses rather than subcellular metal distributions between N. diversicolor and S. plana appeared to be the cause of such different mortalities. Partial least squares regression was used to evaluate the statistical relationship between multiple-metal doses and fish mortality, revealing that Pb, Fe, Cd and Zn in field-collected invertebrates co-varied most strongly with the observed mortality. This study provides a step toward exploring the underlying mechanism of dietary toxicity and identifying the potential causality in complex metal mixture exposures in the field. PMID:22579710

  4. Derelict fishing line provides a useful proxy for estimating levels of non-compliance with no-take marine reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Williamson

    Full Text Available No-take marine reserves (NTMRs are increasingly being established to conserve or restore biodiversity and to enhance the sustainability of fisheries. Although effectively designed and protected NTMR networks can yield conservation and fishery benefits, reserve effects often fail to manifest in systems where there are high levels of non-compliance by fishers (poaching. Obtaining reliable estimates of NTMR non-compliance can be expensive and logistically challenging, particularly in areas with limited or non-existent resources for conducting surveillance and enforcement. Here we assess the utility of density estimates and re-accumulation rates of derelict (lost and abandoned fishing line as a proxy for fishing effort and NTMR non-compliance on fringing coral reefs in three island groups of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP, Australia. Densities of derelict fishing line were consistently lower on reefs within old (>20 year NTMRs than on non-NTMR reefs (significantly in the Palm and Whitsunday Islands, whereas line densities did not differ significantly between reefs in new NTMRs (5 years of protection and non-NTMR reefs. A manipulative experiment in which derelict fishing lines were removed from a subset of the monitoring sites demonstrated that lines re-accumulated on NTMR reefs at approximately one third (32.4% of the rate observed on non-NTMR reefs over a thirty-two month period. Although these inshore NTMRs have long been considered some of the best protected within the GBRMP, evidence presented here suggests that the level of non-compliance with NTMR regulations is higher than previously assumed.

  5. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. PMID:24995635

  6. Philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia, including three new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Diggles, B.K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2014), s. 37-54. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : taxonomy * diversity * endoparasites * fish host * fish parasites * Nematoda * Philometra * Philometroides * Spirophilometra Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014

  7. 77 FR 21946 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... 2001 and the BDTRP implemented in 2006 to reduce impacts from commercial fishing. The geographic scope... regulation or have a significant impact on the environment. NMFS prepared an EA on the final rule (71 FR... Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan AGENCY: National...

  8. Characterising reef fish populations and habitats within and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument: A lesson in marine protected area design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, A.M.; Caldow, Chris; Christensen, J.D.; Rogers, C.; Beets, J.; Miller, J.; Boulon, Rafe

    2007-01-01

    Marine protected areas are an important tool for management of marine ecosystems. Despite their utility, ecological design criteria are often not considered or feasible to implement when establishing protected areas. In 2001, the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICRNM) in St John, US Virgin Islands was established by Executive Order. The VICRNM prohibits almost all extractive uses. Surveys of habitat and fishes inside and outside of the VICRNM were conducted in 2002-2004. Areas outside the VICRNM had significantly more hard corals, greater habitat complexity, and greater richness, abundance and biomass of reef fishes than areas within the VICRNM. The administrative process used to delineate the boundaries of the VICRNM did not include a robust ecological characterisation of the area. Because of reduced habitat complexity within the VICRNM, the enhancement of the marine ecosystem may not be fully realised or increases in economically important reef fishes may take longer to detect. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of gemfibrozil effects on a marine fish (Sparus aurata) combining gene expression with conventional endocrine and biochemical endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, M; Fierro-Castro, C; Na-Phatthalung, P; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Soares, A M V M; Tort, L; Oliveira, M

    2016-11-15

    The information on the potential hazardous effects of gemfibrozil (GEM) on marine fish is extremely scarce. In the current study, molecular, endocrine and biochemical parameters were assessed in Sparus aurata after 96h waterborne exposure to a GEM concentration range. Hepatic mRNA levels of target genes known to be regulated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (pparα) in mammals, such as apolipoprotein AI (apoa1) and lipoprotein (lpl) were significantly increased, without a concomitant activation of the ppar pathways. GEM (15μgL(-1)) induced an upregulation in mRNA levels of interleukin 1β (il1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (tnfα) and caspase 3 (casp3), suggesting an activation of proinflammatory processes in S. aurata liver. However, mRNA levels of genes related with the antioxidant defence system and cell-tissue repair were unaltered under the tested experimental conditions. Higher levels of GEM induced a cortisol rise, an indication that it is recognized as a stressor by S. aurata. Cortisol levels and the mRNA levels of il1β, tnfα and casp3 may be suggested as potential biomarkers of GEM effects in marine fish. PMID:27474849

  10. Dual impact of temperature on growth and mortality of marine fish larvae in a shallow estuarine habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arula, Timo; Laur, Kerli; Simm, Mart; Ojaveer, Henn

    2015-12-01

    High individual growth and mortality rates of herring Clupea harengus membras and goby Pomatoschistus spp. larvae were observed in the estuarine habitat of the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea. Both instantaneous mortality (0.76-1.05) as well as growth rate (0.41-0.82 mm day-1) of larval herring were amongst highest observed elsewhere previously. Mortality rates of goby larvae were also high (0.57-1.05), while first ever data on growth rates were provided in this study (0.23-0.35 mm day-1). Our study also evidenced that higher growth rate of marine fish larvae did not result in lower mortalities. We suggest that high growth and mortality rates primarily resulted from a rapidly increasing and high (>18 °C) water temperature that masked potential food-web effects. The explanation for observed patterns lies in the interactive manner temperature contributed: i) facilitating prey production, which supported high growth rate and decreased mortalities; ii) exceeding physiological thermal optimum of larvae, which resulted in decreased growth rate and generally high mortalities. Our investigation suggests that the projected climate warming may have significant effect on early life history stages of the dominating marine fish species inhabiting shallow estuaries.

  11. Observations of migrant exchange and mixing in a coral reef fish metapopulation link scales of marine population connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, John B; van Herwerden, Lynne; Abellana, Sheena; McIlwain, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Much progress has been made toward understanding marine metapopulation dynamics, largely because of multilocus microsatellite surveys able to connect related individuals within the metapopulation. However, most studies are focused on small spatial scales, tens of kilometers, while demographic exchange at larger spatial scales remains poorly documented. Additionally, many small-scale demographic studies conflict with broad-scale phylogeographic patterns concerning levels of marine population connectivity, highlighting a need for data on more intermediate scales. Here, we investigated demographic recruitment processes of a commercially important coral reef fish, the bluespine unicornfish (Naso unicornis) using a suite of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite markers. Sampling for this study ranged across the southern Marianas Islands, a linear distance of 250 km and included 386 newly settled postlarval recruits. In contrast with other studies, we report that cohorts of recruits were genetically homogeneous in space and time, with no evidence of temporally stochastic sweepstakes reproduction. The genetic diversity of recruits was high and commensurate with that of the adult population. In addition, there is substantial evidence that 2 recruits, separated by 250 km, were full siblings. This is the largest direct observation of dispersal to date for a coral reef fish. All indications suggest that subpopulations of N. unicornis experience high levels of demographic migrant exchange and metapopulation mixing on a spatial scale of hundreds of kilometers, consistent with high levels of broad-scale genetic connectivity previously reported in this species. PMID:23580757

  12. Follow-up trends of parasite community alteration in a marine fish after the Prestige oil-spill: Shifting baselines?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the follow-up trends in the composition and structure of the parasite communities in the marine sparid Boops boops after the Prestige oil-spill. A total of 400 fish comprising 11 seasonal samples was analyzed from three impacted localities on the Atlantic coast of Spain. A large number of parasite species was recovered only after the spill thus suggesting a substantial alteration of the marine food webs. Post-spill communities exhibited higher richness and abundance due to the significant changes in the abundance of the common species, the latter indicating accelerated parasite transmission rates. Multivariate analyses at two nested scales detected a directional trend in parasite community succession towards the pre-spill situation, however, with no full support for community recovery. The state of parasite communities in 2005-2006 may provide the new baseline data which can serve as a framework for quantifying the impact of potential future spills in the region. - Prestige oil-spill impact on parasite communities in the sparid fish B. boops

  13. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (< 1 mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. - Highlights: • We saw down-regulation of Chg H in males exposed to marine plastic. • We saw down-regulation of Vtg I, Chg H and ERα in females exposed to plastic. • We saw abnormal proliferation of germ cells in a male exposed to marine plastic. • Our results suggest that the ingestion of plastic may alter endocrine system function

  14. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochman, Chelsea M., E-mail: cmrochman@ucdavis.edu; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J.

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (< 1 mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. - Highlights: • We saw down-regulation of Chg H in males exposed to marine plastic. • We saw down-regulation of Vtg I, Chg H and ERα in females exposed to plastic. • We saw abnormal proliferation of germ cells in a male exposed to marine plastic. • Our results suggest that the ingestion of plastic may alter endocrine system function.

  15. Predicting Consumer Biomass, Size-Structure, Production, Catch Potential, Responses to Fishing and Associated Uncertainties in the World's Marine Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jennings

    Full Text Available Existing estimates of fish and consumer biomass in the world's oceans are disparate. This creates uncertainty about the roles of fish and other consumers in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem processes, the extent of human and environmental impacts and fishery potential. We develop and use a size-based macroecological model to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on predicted consumer biomass, production and distribution. Resulting uncertainty is large (e.g. median global biomass 4.9 billion tonnes for consumers weighing 1 g to 1000 kg; 50% uncertainty intervals of 2 to 10.4 billion tonnes; 90% uncertainty intervals of 0.3 to 26.1 billion tonnes and driven primarily by uncertainty in trophic transfer efficiency and its relationship with predator-prey body mass ratios. Even the upper uncertainty intervals for global predictions of consumer biomass demonstrate the remarkable scarcity of marine consumers, with less than one part in 30 million by volume of the global oceans comprising tissue of macroscopic animals. Thus the apparently high densities of marine life seen in surface and coastal waters and frequently visited abundance hotspots will likely give many in society a false impression of the abundance of marine animals. Unexploited baseline biomass predictions from the simple macroecological model were used to calibrate a more complex size- and trait-based model to estimate fisheries yield and impacts. Yields are highly dependent on baseline biomass and fisheries selectivity. Predicted global sustainable fisheries yield increases ≈4 fold when smaller individuals (< 20 cm from species of maximum mass < 1 kg are targeted in all oceans, but the predicted yields would rarely be accessible in practice and this fishing strategy leads to the collapse of larger species if fishing mortality rates on different size classes cannot be decoupled. Our analyses show that models with minimal parameter demands that are based on a few established

  16. A study on the effect of using mangrove leaf extracts as a feed additive in the progress of bacterial infections in marine ornamental fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thangavelu Balasubramanian; Kapila Tissera

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the feasibility of using sustainable natural resources in maintaining disease free fish in such establishments.Methods:causative bacteria were identified by morphology and biochemical techniques. The antibacterial activity and disease resistant capability of mangrove plant leaf extract were investigated against fish pathogens.Results:The infected marine ornamental fishes were collected from the hatchery condition and inhibition activity at the concentration of 220, 200, 175 and 150 µg/mL against Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio anguillarum respectively. The experimental trial reveals feeding marine ornamental fish with feed incorporated with a methanol leaf extract of Avicennia marina, increases their survival and reduces their susceptibility to infections from the isolated bacteria. Based on the in vitro assay, methanol extract of Avicennia marina was exhibited good Conclusions: The mangrove leaves have potential to control the infections caused by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio anguillarum.

  17. Biogeographic Characterization of Fish Communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (2006 - 2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The overarching goal of this collaboration was to provide the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) staff with information on biogeographic...

  18. Water Balance - Optimization of High Intensity Flow-Through Systems for Marine Fish Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Land-based marine culture systems offer many advantages over netpens. This includes reduced siting problems, ability to disinfect the influent water, and better...

  19. Nutrient Discharges - Optimization of High Intensity Flow-Through Systems for Marine Fish Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Land-based marine culture systems offer many advantages over netpens. This includes reduced siting problems, ability to disinfect the influent water, and better...

  20. Energy Consumption - Optimization of High Intensity Flow-Through Systems for Marine Fish Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Land-based marine culture systems offer many advantages over netpens. This includes reduced siting problems, ability to disinfect the influent water, and better...

  1. Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature - Optimization of High Intensity Flow-Through Systems for Marine Fish Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Land-based marine culture systems offer many advantages over netpens. This includes reduced siting problems, ability to disinfect the influent water, and better...

  2. Imprints from genetic drift and mutation imply relative divergence times across marine transition zones in a Pan European small pelagic fish (Sprattus sprattus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten; Hanel, R.; Debes, P.;

    2012-01-01

    Geographic distributions of most temperate marine fishes are affected by postglacial recolonisation events, which have left complex genetic imprints on populations of marine species. This study investigated population structure and demographic history of European sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by......’ southern distribution in the Mediterranean region. These results were interpreted to reflect more recent divergence times between northern populations in accordance with previous findings. This study demonstrates the usefulness of comparing inference from different markers and estimators of divergence for...

  3. In vitro quenching of fish pathogen Edwardsiella tarda AHL production using marine bacterium Tenacibaculum sp. strain 20J cell extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Manuel; Muras, Andrea; Mayer, Celia; Buján, Noemí; Magariños, Beatriz; Otero, Ana

    2014-04-01

    Quorum quenching (QQ) has become an interesting alternative for solving the problem of bacterial antibiotic resistance, especially in the aquaculture industry, since many species of fish-pathogenic bacteria control their virulence factors through quorum sensing (QS) systems mediated by N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). In a screening for bacterial strains with QQ activity in different marine environments, Tenacibaculum sp. strain 20J was identified and selected for its high degradation activity against a wide range of AHLs. In this study, the QQ activity of live cells and crude cell extracts (CCEs) of strain 20J was characterized and the possibilities of the use of CCEs of this strain to quench the production of AHLs in cultures of the fish pathogen Edwardsiella tarda ACC35.1 was explored. E. tarda ACC35.1 produces N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (OC6-HSL). This differs from profiles registered for other E. tarda strains and indicates an important intra-specific variability in AHL production in this species. The CCEs of strain 20J presented a wide-spectrum QQ activity and, unlike Bacillus thuringiensis serovar Berliner ATCC10792 CCEs, were effective in eliminating the AHLs produced in E. tarda ACC35.1 cultures. The fast and wide-spectrum AHL-degradation activity shown by this member of the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroidetes group consolidates this strain as a promising candidate for the control of AHL-based QS pathogens, especially in the marine fish farming industry. PMID:24695235

  4. How does fishing alter marine populations and ecosystems sensitivity to climate?

    OpenAIRE

    Planque, B.; Fromentin, J.M.; Cury, Philippe; Drinkwater, K.F.; Jennings, S.; Perry, R.I.; Kifani, S

    2010-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that climate variability influences the state and functioning of marine ecosystems. At the same time increasing pressure from exploitation and other human activities has been shown to impact exploited and non-exploited species and potentially modify ecosystem structure. There has been a tendency among marine scientists to pose the question as a dichotomy, i.e., whether (1) "natural" climate variability or (2) fishery exploitation bears the primary responsibility for p...

  5. QUANTIFYING ABUNDANCE OF PREDATORS USING EXPERIMENTAL HOOK AND LINE FISHING: COMPARISONS INSIDE AND OUTSIDE A MARINE PROTECTED AREA IN THE CENTRAL ADRIATIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard Blindow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental question in ecology is the role of predators in limiting their prey populations. This question can be approached for shallow marine fish communities by comparison of abundance of species inside and outside marine protected areas (MPAs, where fishing restrictions may enforce large abundance differences in large (top predators. The first step in demonstrating differences in these populations is the development and testing of methods capable of estimating abundance of fast-swimming and alert species which generally are difficult to quantify with traditional net-based sampling or visual census. That the method of experimental fishing with hook and line is capable of sampling predatory fish of a wide range of sizes, from 15 to 125 cm, inside and outside an MPA in the central Adriatic Sea, Kornati National Park, Croatia, was demonstrated in this preliminary study. Evidence of significantly more abundant top predators inside the MPA and a significantly higher mean size of fish overall was found. A total of 11 species of fish were sampled across several benthic habitats, of which six were found only in the MPA. It is concluded that the MPA represents a natural experiment with greater abundance of larger predators than outside, and that experimental fishing can take advantage of these differences to test the hypothesis of top-down regulation of fish communities.

  6. New data on the morphology of Iheringascaris inquies (Linton, 1901) (Nematoda: Anisakidae), a specific parasite of the marine fish Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus), as revealed by SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Yost, J.; de Buron, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2012), s. 315-318. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fish host * marine fish * morphology * North America * parasitic nematode Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2012 http://folia.paru.cas.cz/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=22098

  7. Predicting the 137Cs ingestion dose from marine fish consumption in Hong Kong after an accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesium-137 is one of the more important radionuclides released during a nuclear power plant accident. Based on a mathematical model developed earlier by the present authors for estimating 137Cs ingestion dose from consumption of marine fish in Hong Kong, doses due to an accidental release into Daya Bay from the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station are predicted. Assuming a release of 30 000 TBq of 137Cs, results show that the cumulative dose rises rapidly during the first five years and then gradually levels off. In the first and 50th years after discharge, doses to an average Hong Kong citizen would cumulate to 17 and 38 μSv respectively, which are dominated by the contribution from fish cultured in Hong Kong waters. The first year dose to members of the critical group of local fish farmers is estimated to be 1600 μSv, accumulating to 3600 μSv in the 50th year. Apart from this small number of critical group members whose doses may need some monitoring, the doses to the population at large are considered small compared with an annual dose of 175 μSv from ingestion of natural radionuclides in food and drinks in Hong Kong. (note)

  8. AFSC/REFM: Beaufort Sea Marine Fish Survey, Beaufort Sea, Alaska, August 2008, Fisheries Interaction Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alaska Fisheries Science Center's Status of Stocks and Multispecies Assessment (SSMA) Programs Fishery Interaction Team (FIT) conducted a fish survey in the...

  9. Behavior Data - The effect of dietary taurine on feed attraction and physiology of carnivorous marine fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As the global population continues to rise, so does the demand for sustainable sources of protein. The worldwide harvest of wild fish has remained flat for three...

  10. Effect of Cooking on Quality Commonly Consumed Marine Fish Platycephalidae (Platycephalus indicus) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Aberoumand; Saeed Ziaei-Nejad

    2015-01-01

    Fish Platycephalus indicus usually are consumed by southern people in Iran. The present study assessed the effect of processing on proximate compositions in the fillets of P.indicus. The fish samples were prepared by boiling, baking and frying, while proximate analysis was done by standard methods. Boiling processing method significantly reduced ash content in the fillet whereas fat content was significantly increased in frying. Baking method recorded highest ash content of 10.64%. The hi...

  11. Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species

    OpenAIRE

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced ...

  12. Illegal, Unreported And Unregulated Fishing In Small-Scale Marine And Inland Capture Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Drammeh, O.K.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the nature and significance of IUU small-scale fisheries and its evolution, from subsistence activities into activities that are capable of generating significant economic exchanges. The majority of small-scale fisheries are located in the poorer, underdeveloped and developing countries. In most small scale fisheries, access to the fish resources is open, unrestricted and in most cases, unregulated. Fishing activities are hardly reported. The local fisheries administratio...

  13. Diversity of marine fishing tackles in Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available During the year 2002, a survey of fishing activity was conducted at 36 landing points within 10 zones through out Espírito Santo State, southeastern Brazil. This study aimed to describe the fishing modalities employed along the coast, associating them with respective target species and landing points. The fishing gear registered was divided into ‘nets’ and ‘lines’. In the net division, the following assemblages were recorded: (i seine nets, (ii trawl nets, and (iii gillnets. In the line division, the assemblages recorded were: (i long-lines, and (ii hand-lines. Among the modalities of fishing tackle, 97.5% were used by artisanal fishermen. Industrial fishing included only “Mexican double rig” trawl net operations. The great variety of modalities may be due to the diversity of target-species found in the region as well as the instability of the activity, leading fishermen to alternate fishing gears according to the different seasons.

  14. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Pallab K.; Kapuscinski, Anne R.; Lanois, Alison J.; Livesey, Erin D.; Bernhard, Katie P.; Coley, Mariah L.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds. PMID:27258552

  15. Deep sequencing-based transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus reveals insight into the immune-relevant genes in marine fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li-xin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic research on fish immunogenetics is indispensable in understanding the origin and evolution of immune systems. This has long been a challenging task because of the limited number of deep sequencing technologies and genome backgrounds of non-model fish available. The newly developed Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq and Digital gene expression (DGE are high-throughput sequencing approaches and are powerful tools for genomic studies at the transcriptome level. This study reports the transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus using RNA-seq and DGE in an attempt to gain insights into the immunogenetics of marine fish. Results RNA-seq analysis generated 169,950 non-redundant consensus sequences, among which 48,987 functional transcripts with complete or various length encoding regions were identified. More than 52% of these transcripts are possibly involved in approximately 219 known metabolic or signalling pathways, while 2,673 transcripts were associated with immune-relevant genes. In addition, approximately 8% of the transcripts appeared to be fish-specific genes that have never been described before. DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile of Vibrio harveyi-challenged L. japonicus is considerably altered, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 1,224 strong infection-responsive transcripts. Results indicated an overall conservation of the components and transcriptome alterations underlying innate and adaptive immunity in fish and other vertebrate models. Analysis suggested the acquisition of numerous fish-specific immune system components during early vertebrate evolution. Conclusion This study provided a global survey of host defence gene activities against bacterial challenge in a non-model marine fish. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in marine fish immunity, and help improve current understanding of host

  16. The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Emily S; Tissot, Brian N; Heidel, Jerry R; Miller-Morgan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas) following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects. PMID:25737809

  17. The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S. Munday

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens. We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects.

  18. Identification of Shewanella baltica as the most important H2S-producing species during iced storage of danish marine fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Venkateswaran, K.; Satomi, M.; Gram, Lone

    2005-01-01

    important in fish spoilage. More than 500 H2S-producing strains were isolated from iced stored marine fish (cod, plaice, and flounder) caught in the Baltic Sea during winter or summer time. All strains were identified as Shewanella species by phenotypic tests. Different Shewanella species were present on...... newly caught fish. During the warm summer months the mesophilic human pathogenic S. algae dominated the H2S-producing bacterial population. After iced storage, a shift in the Shewanella species was found, and most of the H2S-producing strains were identified as S. baltica. The 16S rRNA gene sequence...

  19. Hair Mercury Levels in Relation to Marine Fish Consumption among Adults in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of carnivorous fish is one of the major sources of human exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg. This study presents the data on fish consumption habits and hair mercury levels taken from 201 adults aged between 17- 72 years from four districts in the Peninsular Malaysia. The means for total mercury (THg ranged from 0.93 ppm-1.69 ppm. The means for females and males were 1.21 ppm (SD=0.76 and 1.48 ppm (SD=0.89 respectively. The THg level for 59.30% of the study population (26.60% female participants exceeded the USEPA recommendation of 1 ppm. The average fish consumption was 180.19+11.34 g/day/person with higher fish consumption in both rural coastal areas compared with the urban communities (p=0.0001. Age was positively correlated with THg (rs=0.4588; p=0.0001 followed by the amount of fish eaten (rs=0.4199; p=0.0001, use of whitening cream (rs=0.2410; p=0.006, BMI (rs=0.2034; p=0.0041, location of study (rs=0.1818; p=0.01, and gender (0.1637; p=0.0241. However, we found negative correlation between the numbers of filling with THg (rs=-0.2485; p=0.004.

  20. Progress of marine biodiversity studies in China seas

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiyu Liu

    2011-01-01

    Efforts have been made by scientists studying on the taxonomy, biogeography and biodiversity in China seas since 1950, the establishment of Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Over 1,000 papers and 200 volumes of monographs have been published, of which more than 47 volumes are Fauna Sinica ― Invertebrata (27 volumes on marine biota), 11 volumes of Fauna Sinica ― Vertebrata are on fishes, and 8 volumes are Flora Algarum Marinarum Sinicarum. Results of stud...

  1. Fishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜群山

    2002-01-01

    @@ Last Saturday my cousin (表兄) came to my home. We were very happy to see each other. We decided that the next day we went to fish. We got up very early that day. When we left home,the moon could still be seen in the sky.

  2. Hair Mercury Levels in Relation to Marine Fish Consumption among Adults in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of carnivorous fish is one of the major sources of human exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg). This study presents the data on fish consumption habits and hair mercury levels taken from 201 adults aged between 17- 72 years from four districts in the Peninsular Malaysia. The means for total mercury (THg) ranged from 0.93 ppm-1.69 ppm. The means for females and males were 1.21 ppm (SD=0.76) and 1.48 ppm (SD=0.89) respectively. The THg level for 59.30% of the study population (26.60% fe...

  3. New data on the morphology of Procamallanus (Procamallanus) annulatus and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) monotaxis (Nematoda: Camallanidae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Justine, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2011), 41-50. ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Procamallanus * marine fish * New Caledonia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.773, year: 2011

  4. A new gonad-infecting species of Philometra, P. barnesi sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae), from the marine fish Pomadasys argenteus (Haemulidae) off the northern coast of Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Diggles, B.K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 11 (2015), s. 4121-4126. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Australia * Dracunculoidea * Marine fish * Nematode parasite Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  5. New records of species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including P. cephalopholidis sp. n. from Cephalopholis sonnerati (Serranidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Justine, J.-L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 9 (2015), s. 3223-3228. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dracunculoidea * marine fish * nematode parasite * South Pacific Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  6. Two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Diggles, B.K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2014), s. 33-44. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Philometra * marine fish * Australia Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  7. Redescription of three Philometra spp. (Nematoda, Philometridae) from the gonads of marine perciform fishes of Iskenderun Bay (North-East Mediterranean), Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Genc, E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2004), s. 31-40. ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Philometra * marine fishes Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.560, year: 2004

  8. Structural changes in a Posidonia oceanica meadow exposed to a pollution gradient from a marine fish-farm in Malta (Central Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Dimech, Mark; Borg, Joseph A.; Schembri, Patrick J.

    2000-01-01

    Posidonia oceanica morphological parameters where measured at increasing distance from a marine fish-farm that has been operational for 7 years. Most parameters changed significantly with increasing distance from the cages, the greatest change occurring in the first 50 m.

  9. Inland marine fish culture in low-salinity recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expansion of marine aquaculture is challenged by the high cost and limited availability of coastal land and water resources, effluent concerns, high production costs, restricted growing seasons, lack of quality seedstock, and inadequate regulatory and permitting processes. Many of these constraints...

  10. Effects of fish CYP inducers on difloxacin N-demethylation in kidney cell of Chinese idle (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling Zhi; Yang, Xian Le; Wang, Xiang Ling; Yu, Wen Juan; Hu, Kun

    2010-09-01

    A drug-drug interaction occurs when the effect of one drug is altered by the presence of another drug which is generally associated with the induction of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) activity. Thus, unexpected treatment failures often happen resulting from inappropriate coadministration in fisheries. However, little information is available about CYP induction in fish. The reaction of difloxacin (DIF) biotransformation to sarafloxacin (SAR) belongs to N-demethylation catalyzed mainly by CYP(s). In order to supply useful information on CYP induction, the present study assessed the effects of fish-specific CYP inducers on DIF N-demethylation and enzyme kinetics in kidney cell of Chinese idle (CIK; grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)) by RP-HPLC. Results demonstrated that the amounts of SAR formation and enzymatic parameters Clint and Vmax were significantly increased due to beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) pretreatment. Therefore, we suggest that CYP1A may be involved in DIF N-demethylation in CIK. This study provides instructive information to ensure treatment success via avoiding CYP induction in fisheries. PMID:19685219

  11. Osseous skeletal material and fish scales in marine sediments under the oxygen minimum zone off northern and central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milessi, Andrés C.; Sellanes, Javier; Gallardo, Víctor A.; Lange, Carina B.

    2005-08-01

    The significance of whale falls for the study of the biogeography, evolution and biodiversity of deep-sea biota has been recently recognized by international programs since large carcasses are known to give rise to biogenic chemosynthetic ecosystems. However, the plain accumulation of smaller bone material in the shallower settings of the continental shelf and upper slope under the hypoxic conditions of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), has received much less attention. Here we describe new findings of skeletal material and fish scales in marine sediments under the OMZ off northern and central Chile which, combined with previous reports for the study area, lead us to suggest the existence of a band in the benthos of accumulation of bones and scales extending at least twenty degrees in latitude (18-38° S). Future studies should focus on the characterization of biotic communities living upon these resources in order to elucidate their peculiarities and importance in the Eastern South Pacific.

  12. Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurnadia Abd Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3. Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P<0.05 amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2–944.1 mg/100g wet sample of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S=0.58, a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω-3/ω-6=6.4, P/S=1.7, moonfish (highest ALA, ω-3/ω-6=1.9, P/S=1.0, and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω-3/ω-6=0.8, P/S=0.4 were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.

  13. Evaluation of the “fishing down marine food web” process in the north-west of Persian Gulf (Khuzestan Province) during the period of 2002-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MASHJOOR Sakineh; KAMRANI Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase in commercial fisheries and its impact on ecosystems as well as inefficient fishery management have led to overfishing and frequent breakdown of traditional fish stocks. In this context, an analysis of Khuzestan inshore fisheries data covering the years 2002–2011, was conducted in reliance on testing for occurrence of the fishing down marine food webs (FDMFW) phenomenon in the North of Persian Gulf Large Marine Ecosystem (LME). In this study, the mean trophic level (mTL) and the fishing-in-balance (FIB)-index of Khuzestan landings during this period of time were estimated using the trophic level of 47 fishery resources. Increase in total landings (Y) was observed, which explained the high fishing yield in major fishery resources (especially demersal). Moreover, the moderates decreasing trend in mTL per decade, and the increasing trend in FIB-index were observed. The status of fishery resources in Khuzestan inshore waters (under exploited but not overexploited), the rise inY, FIB and slightly drop in mTL can be considered as indirect indicators of the fishing impacts on the trophic structure of marine communities. Based on this result, probability occurrence of FDMFW process in Khuzestan inshore waters is low to some extent. However, we suggest that the goal of management programs in Khuzestan inshore waters should prevent the continuance of this trend in the long-term using an ecosystem-based approach.

  14. Marine fish may be biochemically constrained from inhabiting the deepest ocean depths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Paul H; Gerringer, Mackenzie E; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Rowden, Ashley A; Jamieson, Alan

    2014-03-25

    No fish have been found in the deepest 25% of the ocean (8,400-11,000 m). This apparent absence has been attributed to hydrostatic pressure, although direct evidence is wanting because of the lack of deepest-living species to study. The common osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) stabilizes proteins against pressure and increases with depth, going from 40 to 261 mmol/kg in teleost fishes from 0 to 4,850 m. TMAO accumulation with depth results in increasing internal osmolality (typically 350 mOsmol/kg in shallow species compared with seawater's 1,100 mOsmol/kg). Preliminary extrapolation of osmolalities of predicted isosmotic state at 8,000-8,500 m may indicate a possible physiological limit, as greater depths would require reversal of osmotic gradients and, thus, osmoregulatory systems. We tested this prediction by capturing five of the second-deepest known fish, the hadal snailfish (Notoliparis kermadecensis; Liparidae), from 7,000 m in the Kermadec Trench. We found their muscles to have a TMAO content of 386 ± 18 mmol/kg and osmolality of 991 ± 22 mOsmol/kg. These data fit previous extrapolations and, combined with new osmolalities from bathyal and abyssal fishes, predict isosmotic state at 8,200 m. This is previously unidentified evidence that biochemistry could constrain the depth of a large, complex taxonomic group. PMID:24591588

  15. Sensory properties of marinated herring ( Clupea harengus ) - influence of fishing ground and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Durita; Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Nielsen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    fillets. Fishing ground did not influence the odor, flavor or texture, but there was an apparent effect of season on the sensory profile. The sensory properties were influenced by body weight, but not by age, sex and gonad maturity. The influence of varying lipid content, water content and liquid holding...

  16. 78 FR 54553 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... incidental taking from commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on the fin whale, CA/OR/WA stock... FR 26751, May 8, 2013). Basis for Determining Negligible Impact Prior to issuing a permit to take ESA..., based on the negligible impact criteria outlined in 1999 (64 FR 28800), the 2011 Pacific SARs...

  17. Factors determining δ13C and δ18O fractionation in aragonitic otoliths of marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorrold, Simon R.; Campana, Steven E.; Jones, Cynthia M.; Swart, Peter K.

    1997-07-01

    Fish otoliths are aragonitic accretions located within the inner ear of teleost fish. The acellular nature of otoliths, along with taxon-specific shapes, chronological growth increments, and abundance in the fossil record suggest that the stable isotope chemistry of these structures may be unique recorders of environmental conditions experienced by fish in both modern and ancient water masses. To assess the factors determining δ 13C and δ 18O fractionation in fish otoliths, we reared Atlantic croaker ( Micropogonias undulatus) larvae under controlled environmental conditions. Metabolic effects apparently generated large isotopic disequilibria in the δ 13C values of M. undulatus otoliths. We found evidence of a negative regression between δ 13C- carbonate-δ 13C water (δ 13C) and temperature: δ 13C = -1.78 - 0.18 T °C However, this relationship was aliased to a degree by a positive correlation between δ 13C and somatic growth and otolith precipitation rates. Oxygen isotopes were deposited close to equilibrium with the ambient water. The relationship between temperature and the 18O/ 16O fractionation factor (α) was determined empirically to be: 1000 ln α = 18.56(10 3T K -1) - 32.54 The fractionation factor was not affected by either otolith precipitation or fish growth rates. Reconstruction of water temperature histories should, therefore, be possible from the δ 18O values of M. undulatus otoliths with a precision of 1°C, providing the δ 18O of the ambient water can be estimated.

  18. Phenotypic characterization and description of two major O-serotypes in Tenacibaculum maritimum strains from marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Magariños, Beatriz; López-Romalde, Sonia; Romalde, Jesús L; Toranzo, Alicia E

    2004-01-28

    Tenacibaculum maritimum is the etiological agent of marine flexibacteriosis disease, with the potential to cause severe mortalities in various cultured marine fishes. The development of effective preventive measures (i.e. vaccination) requires biochemical, serological and genetic knowledge of the pathogen. With this aim, the biochemical and antigenic characteristics of T. maritimum strains isolated from sole, turbot and gilthead sea bream were analysed. Rabbit antisera were prepared against sole and turbot strains to examine the antigenic relationships between the 29 isolates and 3 reference strains. The results of the slide agglutination test, dot-blot assay and immunoblotting of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and membrane proteins were evaluated. All bacteria studied were biochemically identical to the T. maritimum reference strains. The slide agglutination assays using O-antigens revealed cross-reaction for all strains regardless of the host species and serum employed. However, when the dot-blot assays were performed, the existence of antigenic heterogeneity was demonstrated. This heterogeneity was supported by immunoblot analysis of the LPS, which clearly revealed 2 major serological groups that were distinguishable without the use of absorbed antiserum: Serotypes O1 and O2. These 2 serotypes seem to be host-specfic. In addition, 2 sole isolates and the Japanese reference strains displayed cross-reaction with both sera in all serological assays, and are considered to constitute a minor serotype, O1/O2. Analysis of total and outer membrane proteins revealed that all strains share a considerable number of common bands that are antigenically related. PMID:15038445

  19. Heavy metals produce toxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis in the marine teleost fish SAF-1 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Patricia; Esteban, María Á; Cuesta, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    The use of cell lines to test the toxicity of aquatic pollutants is a valuable alternative to fish bioassays. In this study, fibroblast SAF-1 cells from the marine gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) were exposed for 24 h to the heavy metals Cd, Hg, MeHg (Methylmercury), As or Pb and the resulting cytotoxicity was assessed. Neutral red (NR), MTT-tetrazolio (MTT), crystal violet (CV) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) viability tests showed that SAF-1 cells exposed to the above heavy metals produced a dose-dependent reduction in the number of viable cells. Methylmercury showed the highest toxicity (EC50 = 0.01 mM) followed by As, Cd, Hg and Pb. NR was the most sensitive method followed by MTT, CV and LDH. SAF-1 cells incubated with each of the heavy metals also exhibited an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis cell death. Moreover, the corresponding gene expression profiles pointed to the induction of the metallothionein protective system, cellular and oxidative stress and apoptosis after heavy metal exposure for 24 h. This report describes and compares tools for evaluating the potential effects of marine contamination using the SAF-1 cell line. PMID:26363324

  20. Screening of marine seaweeds for bioactive compound against fish pathogenic bacteria and active fraction analysed by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate bioactive molecules from marine seaweeds and check the antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii were collected. Each seaweed was extracted with different solvents. In the study, test pathogens were collected from microbial type culture collection. Antibacterial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC was calculated. Best seaweed was analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The cured extract was separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Fraction was collected from TLC to check the antimicrobial activity. Best fraction was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS. Results: Based on the disc diffusion method, S. wightii showed a better antimicrobial activity than other seaweed extracts. Based on the MIC, methanol extract of S. wightii showed lower MIC than other solvents. S. wightii were separated by TLC. In this TLC, plate showed a two fraction. These two fractions were separated in preparative TLC and checked for their antimicrobial activity. Fraction 2 showed best MIC value against the tested pathogen. Fraction 2 was analysed by GCMS. Based on the GCMS, fraction 2 contains n-hexadecanoic acid (59.44%. Conclusions: From this present study, it can be concluded that S. wightii was potential sources of bioactive compounds.

  1. A census of fishes and everything they eat: How the census of marine life advanced fisheries science

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dor, Ron; Boustany, Andre M.; Chittenden, Cedar M.; Costello, Mark J.; Moustahfid, Hassan; Payne, John; Steinke, Dirk; Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Vanden Berghe, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The Census of Marine Life was a 10-year, international research effort to explore poorly known ocean habitats and conduct large-scale experimentation with new technology. The goal of Census 2010 in its mission statement was to describe what did live in the oceans, what does live in the oceans, and what will live in the ocean. Many of the findings and techniques from census research may prove valuable in making a transition, which many governments have publicly endorsed, from single-species fisheries management to more holistic ecosystem management. Census researchers sampled continental margins, mid-Atlantic ridges, ocean floor vents and seeps, and abyssal plains and polar seas and organized massive amounts of past and new information in a public online database called the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (www.iobis.org). The census described and categorized seamount biology worldwide for its vulnerability to fishing, advanced large-scale animal tracking with acoustic arrays and satellite archival tags, and accelerated species identification, including nearshore, coral reef, and zooplankton sampling using genetic barcoding and pyrotag sequencing for microbes and helped to launch the exciting new field of marine environmental history. Above all, the census showed the value of investing in large-scale, collaborative projects and sharing results publicly.

  2. Annotated checklist of marine fishes from the Sanctuary of Bahía Chamela, Mexico with occurrence and biogeographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Villa, Cristian Moisés; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Bastida-Izaguirre, Dafne; Hastings, Philip A; Balart, Eduardo F

    2016-01-01

    An annotated checklist of marine fishes of the Sanctuary of Islands and Islets of Bahía Chamela in the central Mexican Pacific is presented. Records of fish species were obtained by different methods including visual census, sampling with anesthetics, fisherman-nets, and trawling with a biological dredge. Additional records were obtained from natural history collections and publications. The list comprises 196 species in 64 families and 141 genera. The Carangidae is the most speciose family with 11 species, followed by the Labridae with 10 and the Pomacentridae with nine. Fourteen species are endemic in Mexican Pacific waters, but none is restricted to Bahía Chamela. The most dominant species recorded during underwater surveys were Epinephelus labriformis, Stegastes flavilatus, and Halichoeres dispilus. Most species are of tropical affinities distributed throughout the tropical eastern Pacific (123), eastern Pacific (23), and Mexican Pacific (14). Other species are known from the eastern and Indo-Pacific regions (18), eastern Pacific and western Atlantic oceans (2), and some are circumtropical (9). A new record of the Gulf Brotula Ogilbia ventralis is provided for the Bahía Chamela and its geographical distribution is extended to Mexican central Pacific. PMID:26877683

  3. Annotated checklist of marine fishes from the Sanctuary of Bahía Chamela, Mexico with occurrence and biogeographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Villa, Cristian Moisés; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Bastida-Izaguirre, Dafne; Hastings, Philip A.; Balart, Eduardo F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An annotated checklist of marine fishes of the Sanctuary of Islands and Islets of Bahía Chamela in the central Mexican Pacific is presented. Records of fish species were obtained by different methods including visual census, sampling with anesthetics, fisherman-nets, and trawling with a biological dredge. Additional records were obtained from natural history collections and publications. The list comprises 196 species in 64 families and 141 genera. The Carangidae is the most speciose family with 11 species, followed by the Labridae with 10 and the Pomacentridae with nine. Fourteen species are endemic in Mexican Pacific waters, but none is restricted to Bahía Chamela. The most dominant species recorded during underwater surveys were Epinephelus labriformis, Stegastes flavilatus, and Halichoeres dispilus. Most species are of tropical affinities distributed throughout the tropical eastern Pacific (123), eastern Pacific (23), and Mexican Pacific (14). Other species are known from the eastern and Indo-Pacific regions (18), eastern Pacific and western Atlantic oceans (2), and some are circumtropical (9). A new record of the Gulf Brotula Ogilbia ventralis is provided for the Bahía Chamela and its geographical distribution is extended to Mexican central Pacific. PMID:26877683

  4. Rapid assessment of visual impairment (RAVI in marine fishing communities in South India - study protocol and main findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madala Sreenivas R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable data are a pre-requisite for planning eye care services. Though conventional cross sectional studies provide reliable information, they are resource intensive. A novel rapid assessment method was used to investigate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and presbyopia in subjects aged 40 years and older. This paper describes the detailed methodology and study procedures of Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI project. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling in the coastal region of Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh in India, predominantly inhabited by fishing communities. Unaided, aided and pinhole visual acuity (VA was assessed using a Snellen chart at a distance of 6 meters. The VA was re-assessed using a pinhole, if VA was Results The data collection was completed in Conclusion There is a high prevalence of visual impairment in marine fishing communities in Prakasam district in India. The data from this rapid assessment survey can now be used as a baseline to start eye care services in this region. The rapid assessment methodology (RAVI reported in this paper is robust, quick and has the potential to be replicated in other areas.

  5. Effect of Marine Omega 3 Fatty Acids on Methylmercury-Induced Toxicity in Fish and Mammalian Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Nøstbakken

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant which bioaccumulates in marine biota. Fish constitute an important part of a balanced human diet contributing with health beneficial nutrients but may also contain contaminants such as MeHg. Interactions between the marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA with MeHg-induced toxicity were investigated. Different toxic and metabolic responses were studied in Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK cell line and the mammalian kidney-derived HEK293 cell line. Both cell lines were preincubated with DHA or EPA prior to MeHg-exposure, and cell toxicity was assessed differently in the cell lines by MeHg-uptake in cells (ASK and HEK293, proliferation (HEK293 and ASK, apoptosis (ASK, oxidation of the red-ox probe roGFP (HEK293, and regulation of selected toxicological and metabolic transcriptional markers (ASK. DHA was observed to decrease the uptake of MeHg in HEK293, but not in ASK cells. DHA also increased, while EPA decreased, MeHg-induced apoptosis in ASK. MeHg exposure induced changes in selected metabolic and known MeHg biomarkers in ASK cells. Both DHA and MeHg, but not EPA, oxidized roGFP in HEK293 cells. In conclusion, marine n-3 fatty acids may ameliorate MeHg toxicity, either by decreasing apoptosis (EPA or by reducing MeHg uptake (DHA. However, DHA can also augment MeHg toxicity by increasing oxidative stress and apoptosis when combined with MeHg.

  6. Marine fish assemblages as indicators of anthropogenic pressures:identifying sensitive metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Sofia Nunes Henriques Margarido

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Marinha e Aquacultura), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 Worldwide concern about the environmental threats and need for sustainable development has led to increased efforts to understand and assess anthropogenic pressure effects. However, the development of indicators for marine ecosystems is still at an early stage, due to their high spatial and temporal complexity. Based on several structural and functional traits (guild approac...

  7. Biochemical composition of copepods for evaluation of feed quality in production of juvenile marine fish

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meeren, Terje; Olsen, Rolf Erik; Hamre, Kristin; Fyhn, Hans Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    To increase current knowledge on the nutritional value of natural prey organisms, the biochemical components of mainly three copepods (Acartia grani, Centropages hamatus, and Eurytemora affinis) from a marine pond system were analysed once a week from spring until late fall, over two years. The analysed components were total lipid, lipid class composition, total lipid fatty acid composition, free amino acids, total protein, protein-bound amino acids, pigment (astaxanthin and ß-carotene), and ...

  8. Effects of exotic fish farms on bird communities in lake and marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jaime E.; Arriagada, Aldo M.; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Camus, Patricio A.; Ávila-Thieme, M. Isidora

    2013-08-01

    Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local community structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two marine and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or marine locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the community structure of birds in both lake and marine habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird communities, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants.

  9. When biogeographical provinces collide: Hybridization of reef fishes at the crossroads of marine biogeographical provinces in the Arabian Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Aim: Suture zones are areas where closely related species from different biogeographical regions come into contact and interbreed. This concept originated from the study of terrestrial ecosystems but it remains unclear whether a similar phenomenon occurs in the marine environment. Here we investigate a potential suture zone from a previously unknown hybrid hotspot at the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen), located in the Arabian Sea, where fauna from the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, western Indian Ocean and greater Indo-Polynesian Province intersect. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. Methods: Putative hybrid reef fish were identified based on intermediate coloration and morphology. Underwater observations and collections were conducted to determine: (1) whether parent species form heterospecific social groups or breeding pairs; (2) the sex and reproductive status of morphologically intermediate individuals; and (3) whether parent species were forming mixed species associations owing to a dearth of conspecific partners. To support hybrid status, morphologically intermediate and parental individuals were genotyped using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), nuclear recombination-activating gene 2 (RAG2) and the nuclear TMO-4C4 (TMO) gene. Results: We observed putative hybrids involving 14 species from four reef fish families at Socotra. Most cases involved a parental species with a restricted distribution (e.g. Red Sea or Arabian Sea) and a broadly distributed Indo-Pacific species. In most cases, at least one of the parent species was rare at Socotra. Hybrid gene flow was largely unidirectional, and although introgression was rare, we found evidence that some butterflyfish and surgeonfish hybrids were fertile and formed breeding groups with parental species. Main conclusions: The rate of hybrid discovery at Socotra is much greater than that recorded elsewhere in the marine environment and involved both allopatric and

  10. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF MARINE FISH CAGE FARMS IN THE EASTERN ADRIATIC

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Katavić

    2003-01-01

    Mariculture in Croatia could play a more important role in development of rural communities along coastline. However, by increase of fish farming, public concern over environmental issues has been raised, and the need for more responsible mariculture development and management has been asked. There are opportunities and challenges for effectively integrating mariculture into coastal zone management with equal rights and obligations. This is primarily because of its social and economic mission...

  11. Five new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Java, Indonesia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; WALTER, T.; YUNIAR, A. T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2012), s. 115-130. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : parasitic nematodes * Philometra * Philometroides * taxonomy * teleost fish Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2012 http://folia.paru.cas.cz/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=22049

  12. ROLE OF INSTITUTIONAL FINANCE IN MOTORISED MARINE FISHING SECTOR IN THOOTHUKUDI DISTRICT OF TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    J. ELLORA

    2013-01-01

    Finance plays a crucial role in accelerating any business activity/economic development and fisheries sector is not an exception. The economic activities of the fishing villages mainly depend upon the availability of credit at reasonable cost to enhance production and income. Lack of institutional credit is an obstacle to further development of the small-scale fisheries sector. In this context the researcher has attempted to study the credit needs of the fishermen, various sources of institut...

  13. Effect of ocean acidification on otolith development in larvae of a tropical marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, P. L.; Hernaman, V.; Dixson, D. L.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-06-01

    Calcification in many invertebrate species is predicted to decline due to ocean acidification. The potential effects of elevated CO2 and reduced carbonate saturation state on other species, such as fish, are less well understood. Fish otoliths (earbones) are composed of aragonite, and thus, might be susceptible to either the reduced availability of carbonate ions in seawater at low pH, or to changes in extracellular concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate ions caused by acid-base regulation in fish exposed to high pCO2. We reared larvae of the clownfish Amphiprion percula from hatching to settlement at three pHNBS and pCO2 levels (control: ~pH 8.15 and 404 μatm CO2; intermediate: pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2; extreme: pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2) to test the possible effects of ocean acidification on otolith development. There was no effect of the intermediate treatment (pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2) on otolith size, shape, symmetry between left and right otoliths, or otolith elemental chemistry, compared with controls. However, in the more extreme treatment (pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2) otolith area and maximum length were larger than controls, although no other traits were significantly affected. Our results support the hypothesis that pH regulation in the otolith endolymph can lead to increased precipitation of CaCO3 in otoliths of larval fish exposed to elevated CO2, as proposed by an earlier study, however, our results also show that sensitivity varies considerably among species. Importantly, our results suggest that otolith development in clownfishes is robust to even the more pessimistic changes in ocean chemistry predicted to occur by 2100.

  14. Mapping the movement of marine fishes: methods, mechanisms, and implications for invasion management

    OpenAIRE

    Tamburello, Natascia

    2015-01-01

    Movement represents a key ecological trait of individuals that has important implications for the spatial structuring of population, community, and ecosystem processes. However, the spatial ecology of terrestrial organisms is much better understood than that of their comparatively understudied aquatic counterparts. My thesis focuses on the methods and mechanisms underpinning the study of movement ecology in fishes, with special attention on the movement of invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pter...

  15. RA-226 concentration in water samples near uranium mines and in marine fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium-226 and calcium were measured in water samples from the vicinity of three uranium mines and in fish samples collected from Puget sound, Washington State. The radium content of the samples were below the maximum permissible concentration 3 pCi/L for drinking water recommended by the Public Health Service and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The mean value of Ra-226 in water was 0.428 pCi/L and ranged from 0.043 to 1.552 pCi/L, whereas calcium content ranged from 3.0 to 190.0 mg/L. Ra-226 concentrations and calcium content in whole fish were 0.833-20.328 pCi/kg wet wt. and 114.1-259.3 mg/g ash, respectively. Results of the study indicated that Ra-226 concentration in water was correlated with calcium concentration but that this correlation was not observed in fish sample except English sole

  16. Trophic relationships among fish assemblages on a mudflat within a Brazilian Marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Marcelle de Almeida Ramos Campos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study deals with the temporal variations in diet and the trophic guilds of dominant fish species on a tidal mudflat during the dry and rainy seasons. We sought to classify the diet composition of 17 species in the Mamanguape river estuary, northeastern Brazil, identifying the dominant food components and evaluating the effects of seasonality on the guild organization. Diets varied little between species and seasons, though they seemed to be more heterogeneous during the rainy season. Five primary feeding guilds were identified, in accordance with the importance of prey in the diets: (1 Detritivore, (2 Zooplanktivore, (3 Zoobenthivore-epifaune, (4 Zoobenthivore-infaune, and (5 Piscivore. Most fishes fed on a diverse range of food items but relied heavily on zooplankton prey. Several fish species showed a tendency to a specialised diet, with almost all species showing some degree of opportunistic feeding. A high degree of diet overlap was found among some species; however, the presence of exploitative competition could not be determined.

  17. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (♀) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (♀, ♂) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (♀) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (♀) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided. PMID:26691264

  18. Higher fish intake is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in Chinese men and women: a matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. METHODS: A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years, were enrolled from four hospitals. 1∶1 matched controls by gender and age (±3 years were also recruited from communities and hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were used to obtain habitual dietary intake and information on various covariates. RESULTS: Univariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed significantly dose-dependent inverse correlations between the risk of hip fractures and the intake of fresh-water fish, sea fish, mollusca, shellfish, and total fish in all of the subjects (p-trend: <0.001-0.016. After adjusting for covariates, the associations were slightly attenuated but remained significant for all (p-trend: <0.001-0.017 except for fresh-water fish (p = 0.553. The ORs (95%CI of hip fractures for the highest (vs. lowest quartile were 0.80 (0.48-1.31 for fresh-water fish, 0.31 (0.18-0.52 for sea fish, 0.55 (0.34-0.88 for mollusca and shellfish, and 0.47 (0.28-0.79 for total fish, respectively. Stratified and interaction analyses showed that the association was more significant in males than in females (p-interaction = 0.052. CONCLUSION: Higher intake of seafood is independently associated with lower risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese. Increasing consumption of sea fish may benefit the prevention of hip fractures in this population.

  19. Updated checklist of marine fishes (Chordata: Craniata from Portugal and the proposed extension of the Portuguese continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Carneiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Portuguese marine ichthyofauna has a long historical tradition, rooted back in the 18th Century. Here we present an annotated checklist of the marine fishes from Portuguese waters, including the area encompassed by the proposed extension of the Portuguese continental shelf and the Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ. The list is based on historical literature records and taxon occurrence data obtained from natural history collections, together with new revisions and occurrences. It comprises a total of 1191 species, distributed among 3 superclasses, 4 classes, 42 orders, 212 families and 617 genera. If considering only the EEZ and present territorial waters, this list represents an increase of 230 species (27.8% and of 238 species (29.0%, when compared to the information available in FishBase (2012 and in the last checklist of marine and estuarine fishes of Portugal (1993, respectively. The order Perciformes shows the highest diversity, with 54 families, 162 genera and 299 species. Stomiidae (80 species, Myctophidae (71 species and Macrouridae (37 species are the richest families. From the listed species, 734 are present off mainland Portugal, 857 off the Azores and 766 off Madeira. Within the limits of the examined area, three species are reported for the first time in mainland Portugal and twenty-nine records are identified as doubtful. A total of 133 species have been recorded from the extended Portuguese continental shelf (2 off mainland Portugal, 117 off the Azores and 14 off Madeira, two of which are common to the Azores and Madeira extensions. Biogeographically, the Atlantic group is the most important (548 species – 46.01%, followed by the Lusitanian group (256 species – 21.49%, the African group (71 species – 5.96%, the Boreal group (34 species – 2.85%, the Mediterranean group (31 species – 2.60%, the Macaronesian group (21 species – 1.76%, the Atlantic/African group (19 species – 1.60% and the Mediterranean

  20. Effect of ocean acidification on otolith development in larvae of a tropical marine fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Munday

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcification in many invertebrate species is predicted to decline due to ocean acidification. The potential effects of elevated pCO2 and reduced carbonate saturation state on other species, such as fish, are less well understood. Fish otoliths (earbones are composed of aragonite, and thus, might be susceptible to either the reduced availability of carbonate ions in seawater at low pH, or to changes in extracellular concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate ions caused by acid-base regulation in fish exposed to high pCO2. We reared larvae of the clownfish Amphiprion percula from hatching to settlement at three pHNBS and pCO2 levels (control: pH 8.15 and 404 μatm CO2; intermediate: pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2; extreme: pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2 to test the possible effects of ocean acidification on otolith development. There was no effect of the intermediate treatment (pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2 on otolith size, shape, symmetry between left and right otoliths, or otolith elemental chemistry, compared with controls. However, in the more extreme treatment (pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2 otolith area and maximum length were larger than controls, although no other traits were affected. Our results support the hypothesis that pH regulation in the otolith endolymph of fish exposed to elevated pCO2 can lead to increased precipitation of CaCO3 in otoliths of larval fish, as proposed by an earlier study, however, our results also show that sensitivity varies considerably among species. Importantly, our results suggest that otolith development in clownfishes is robust to even the more pessimistic changes in ocean chemistry predicted to occur by 2100.

  1. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in commercially important marine fishes from Mumbai Harbor, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Velusamy, A.; SatheeshKumar, P.; Ram, A.; Chinnadurai, S.

    The objective of BASELINE is to publish short communications on papers which clearly identify the quality of the data will be co ‘Baseline—The New Format and Content’ (Mar. Pollut. Bull. 60, 1– journal homepage: www.eerent aspects of pollution of the marine..., and placed into glass beakers to dry at 60 �C. A wet sample was used to conduct the Hg analysis. Triplicate samples were collected, and the complete ana- lytical study was conducted three times to compare to standards. A microwave accelerated digestion system...

  2. Digest of data from the measurement of radioactivity in the Irish Marine Environment 1982-1984. Part I: Fish and Shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of radioactivity in fish and shellfish have been measured at the National Radiation Monitoring Service since 1982. These measurement are part of the Nuclear Energy Board's radioactivity monitoring of the marine environment. The main effort was directed at the measurement of radioactivity, in particular radiocaesium, in fish and shellfish from the Irish Sea where the polluting effect of radioactive wastes from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield is greatest. The measured levels of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in the popular species of fish and shellfish allow the estimation of the population dose to the Irish public as a result of eating seafood contaminated with radiocaseium. This report attempts to set out, in summarised form, a comprehensive review of sampling, analytical and dose assessment details for the three-year period 1982 to 1984. Levels of K-40, the naturally occurring radionuclide, in the fish and shellfish samples are also reported. (author)

  3. The influence of the Mackenzie River plume on distribution and diversity of marine larval fish assemblages on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sally; Walkusz, Wojciech; Hanson, Mark; Papst, Michael H.

    2013-11-01

    In the Beaufort Sea, freshwater input from the Mackenzie River creates a relatively warm and turbid plume across the coastal shelf region. To determine the influence of this plume on marine larval fish abundance, distribution, and assemblages, we sampled larval fish during July and August of 2007 using 500 μm bongo nets on transects across the plume gradient at three sampling stations per transect, along with oceanographic measurements. Three larval fish assemblages were identified within three distinct oceanographic zones: intense plume, diffuse plume and oceanic. The intense plume assemblage was dominated by Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii); the diffuse plume assemblage was dominated by the Pricklebacks (sub-family Lumpeninae); and the oceanic assemblage was dominated by Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). Even though there were differences in relative abundance of particular species among these areas, no significant differences in total abundances of larval fish were found.

  4. Effect of ocean acidification on otolith development in larvae of a tropical marine fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Munday

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcification in many invertebrate species is predicted to decline due to ocean acidification. The potential effects of elevated CO2 and reduced carbonate saturation state on other species, such as fish, are less well understood. Fish otoliths (earbones are composed of aragonite, and thus, might be susceptible to either the reduced availability of carbonate ions in seawater at low pH, or to changes in extracellular concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate ions caused by acid-base regulation in fish exposed to high pCO2. We reared larvae of the clownfish Amphiprion percula from hatching to settlement at three pHNBS and pCO2 levels (control: ~pH 8.15 and 404 μatm CO2; intermediate: pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2; extreme: pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2 to test the possible effects of ocean acidification on otolith development. There was no effect of the intermediate treatment (pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2 on otolith size, shape, symmetry between left and right otoliths, or otolith elemental chemistry, compared with controls. However, in the more extreme treatment (pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2 otolith area and maximum length were larger than controls, although no other traits were significantly affected. Our results support the hypothesis that pH regulation in the otolith endolymph can lead to increased precipitation of CaCO3 in otoliths of larval fish exposed to elevated CO2, as proposed by an earlier study, however, our results also show that sensitivity varies considerably among species. Importantly, our results suggest that otolith development in clownfishes is robust to even the more pessimistic changes in ocean chemistry predicted to occur by 2100.

  5. Hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes of two marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorni, A; Diamant, A

    2005-06-01

    Two unusual cases of hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes are described from southern Israel (Red Sea). The first case occurred in cultured European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax infected by Diplectanum aequans, while the second was observed in a feral devil firefish Pterois miles infected by Haliotrema sp. In both cases, the trichodinids heavily co-infested the host fish gills. The flukes were completely coated by the ciliates, which gave them a cobblestone appearance, but no damage to their tegument was apparent. Both cases are most likely a result of accidental hyperparasitism, brought about by perturbed environmental conditions. PMID:16060271

  6. Kin-Aggregations Explain Chaotic Genetic Patchiness, a Commonly Observed Genetic Pattern, in a Marine Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Jason D; Hogan, J Derek; Downey-Wall, Alan M; Gurski, Lauren M; Portnoy, David S; Heath, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of chaotic genetic patchiness is a pattern commonly seen in marine organisms, particularly those with demersal adults and pelagic larvae. This pattern is usually associated with sweepstakes recruitment and variable reproductive success. Here we investigate the biological underpinnings of this pattern in a species of marine goby Coryphopterus personatus. We find that populations of this species show tell-tale signs of chaotic genetic patchiness including: small, but significant, differences in genetic structure over short distances; a non-equilibrium or "chaotic" pattern of differentiation among locations in space; and within locus, within population deviations from the expectations of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). We show that despite having a pelagic larval stage, and a wide distribution across Caribbean coral reefs, this species forms groups of highly related individuals at small spatial scales (<10 metres). These spatially clustered family groups cause the observed deviations from HWE and local population differentiation, a finding that is rarely demonstrated, but could be more common than previously thought. PMID:27119659

  7. Bioeconomic analysis of the environmental impact of a marine fish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabassó, Miguel; Hernández, Juan M

    2015-08-01

    The evaluation of the environmental impact of aquaculture installations is nowadays a common social demand in many countries. The usual scientific approach to this question has been to assess the outcome from an ecological perspective, focussing on the effects produced on benthos or the water column and interactions with marine flora and fauna. In this paper, a bioeconomic model is developed to extend this traditional approach, to determine both the amount of total settled matter, its dispersion on the ocean floor and impacts on the marine ecosystem, while also taking into account other social considerations such as discounted net profits and investment returns. The model was applied to the case of off-shore gilthead seabream production in a coastal area of the Canary Isles archipelago, where the tidal current is predominant. Cage emissions and the degree of degradation of seagrass meadows on the seabed were taken as ecological impact indicators, while the net present value (NPV) for a specific time period was used as an economic indicator. By analysing the simulation results obtained by the bioeconomic model, we were able to determine the combination of production volume and harvest quantity which yields the greatest economic efficiency for different levels of degraded area. PMID:25942562

  8. Preliminary assessment of surf-zone and estuarine line-fish species of the Dwesa-Cwebe Marine Protected Area, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Venter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of surf-zone and estuarine line fish was carried out in the DwesaCwebe Marine Protected Area (MPA, on the Wild Coast, South Africa. The purpose was to provide baseline data on inshore line-fish stocks in the MPA. A total of 28 species was recorded, of which 53% have a conservation status reflecting some concern and 43% are endemic to southern Africa. This highlights the value of the MPA for protection of important line-fish species. Within the MPA, localised differences were detected in species diversity, size frequency and catch per unit effort between unexploited and illegally exploited areas. These differences were more prominent in slow growing, long-lived species. It thus appears that illegal exploitation is negatively affecting fish populations within the MPA, which counteract and potentially could eliminate the benefits of fish protection typically associated with no-take MPAs. These results highlight the need for improved law enforcement and better communication with neighbouring communities to increase awareness. It is further recommended that the current no-take status of the MPA should be maintained. In addition, baseline fisheries information was collected on certain fish species that could be used to inform future conservation management of the MPA.Conservation implications: The Dwesa-Cwebe Marine Protected Area is unique and important for the conservation of key surf zone and estuarine fish species. However there is a significant risk to the fish populations due to illegal exploitation. Key interventions should include enhanced law enforcement but, more important, the creation of alternative livelihoods and long term sustainable benefits to local communities.

  9. Comparative toxicity of water-accommodated fractions of oil and dispersed oil to marine fish larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillard, C.M.; Legare, B.; St-Pierre, S. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2003-07-01

    The use of chemical dispersants to clean oil spills on water can increase the risk of toxic effects to early life stages of fish by increasing their exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, water-accommodated fractions of dispersed crude oil were prepared with weathered Mesa light crude oil and filtered seawater with and without Corexit 9500. Newly hatched larvae of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were exposed to the mixtures to examine the biological effects on the larvae. For an oil loading of 0.2 g/L, the addition of dispersant caused a 2-fold and 7-fold increase in total PAH and high molecular weight PAH with 3 or more benzene rings. A 5-fold increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was observed in larvae exposed to dispersed crude oil water accommodated fractions at a loading of 0.05 g/L. A 4-fold increase was noted when the crude oil water accommodated fractions were loaded at 1 g/L. Both mixtures resulted in reduced body length. The study confirmed that dispersants increase the risk of toxic effects for the early life stage of fish.

  10. Seasonal effect on biomarkers of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in fish from Kuwait's marine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, M U; Al-Subiai, S N; Al-Jandal, N; Butt, S A; Beg, K R; Al-Husaini, M

    2015-11-30

    The aquatic biota of the Arabian Gulf deals with exposure to chronic oil pollution, several constituents of which cause induction of Cytochrome P450 1A that serves as a biomarker of AhR ligand exposure. In this study, fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in bile and 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity were determined as a measure of exposure biomarkers in two fish species, yellow fin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and tonguesole (Cynoglossus arel) captured from Kuwait Bay and outside the Bay area. FACs in fish bile determined by using fixed-wavelength fluorescence (FF) showed high fluorescence ratios between FF290/335 and FF380/430 indicating predominant exposure to low molecular weight, naphthalene-rich petroleum products (375±91.0 pg ml(-1)). Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene-type high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originating from burnt fuel were also present in appreciable concentration in the bile. The ratio of petrogenic to pyrogenic hydrocarbon was twofold higher in winter compared to summer months in both species. Seasonal effect on EROD was significant in tonguesole in Auha site (P<0.05); whereas seabream resisted seasonal change. Tonguesole is considered to be a suitable bioindicator of oil pollution in Kuwait Bay area. PMID:26409815

  11. Distribution and transmission of the highly pathogenic parasite Ichthyophonus in marine fishes of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Jacob L.; Grady, Courtney A.; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    A combination of field surveys, molecular typing, and laboratory experiments were used to improve our understanding of the distribution and transmission mechanisms of fish parasites in the genus Ichthyophonus. Ichthyophonus spp. infections were detected from the Bering Sea to the coast of Oregon in 10 of 13 host species surveyed. Sequences of rDNA extracted from these isolates indicate that a ubiquitous Ichthyophonus type occurs in the NE Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and accounts for nearly all the infections encountered. Among NE Pacific isolates, only parasites from yellowtail rockfish and Puget Sound rockfish varied at the DNA locus examined. These data suggest that a single source population of these parasites is available to fishes in diverse niches across a wide geographic range. A direct life cycle within a common forage species could account for the relatively low parasite diversity we encountered. In the laboratory we tested the hypothesis that waterborne transmission occurs among Pacific herring, a common NE Pacific forage species. No horizontal transmission occurred during a four-month cohabitation experiment involving infected herring and conspecific sentinels. The complete life cycle of Ichthyophonus spp. is not known, but these results suggest that system-wide processes maintain a relatively homogenous parasite population.

  12. Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Kurazono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 155 puffers caught from two of Thailand’s seas, the Gulf of Siam and the Andaman seas, during April to July 2010 were included in this study. Among 125 puffers from the Gulf of Siam, 18 were Lagocephalus lunaris and 107 were L. spadiceus which were the same two species found previously in 2000–2001. Thirty puffers were collected from the Andaman seas, 28 Tetraodon nigroviridis and two juvenile Arothron reticularis; the two new species totally replaced the nine species found previously in 1992–1993. Conventional mouse bioassay was used to determine the toxicity in all fish tissue extracts, i.e., liver, reproductive tissue, digestive tissue and muscle. One of each of the species L. lunaris and L. spadiceus (5.56 and 0.93%, respectively were toxic. All 28 T. nigroviridis and 2 A. reticularis (100% from the Andaman seas were toxic. The toxicity scores in T. nigroviridis tissues were much higher than in the respective tissues of the other three fish species. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS revealed that the main toxic principle was tetrodotoxin (TTX. This study is the first to report TTX in L. spadiceus. Our findings raised a concern for people, not only Thais but also inhabitants of other countries situated on the Andaman coast; consuming puffers of the Andaman seas is risky due to potential TTX intoxication.

  13. Fish Bulletin 176. The Marine Recreational Fishery In Northern and Central California : A Historical Comparison (1958–86), Status of Stocks (1980–86), and Effects of Changes In The California Current

    OpenAIRE

    Karpov, Konstantin A; Albin, Douglas P; Van Buskirk, Wade H

    1995-01-01

    Our study focused on the status of the marine recreational fishery along the northern and central California coast, where surveys of recreational fishing effort and catch were conducted from 1958–61 and from 1981–86. Between the two surveys, annual recreational fishing effort rose from 1.6 million fishing days to 2.7 million fishing days. Nearly all the increase was due to increases in fishing from boats (commercial passenger fishing vessels and private/rental boats). Annual recreational catc...

  14. Fish faunas from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Vaca Muerta Formation of Argentina: One of the most important Jurassic marine ichthyofaunas of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouiric-Cavalli, Soledad; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2015-11-01

    The marine deposits of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Tithonian-Berriasian) houses one of the most diverse Late Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Gondwana. However, most of the specimens remain undescribed. Jurassic fishes have been recovered from several localities at Neuquén Province (i.e., Picún Leufú, Plaza Huincul, Cerro Lotena, Portada Las Lajas, Los Catutos, and Arroyo Covunco) but also from Mendoza Province (i.e., La Valenciana, Los Molles, and Arroyo del Cajón Grande). Presently, the fish fauna of Los Catutos, near Zapala city (Neuquén Province), has yielded the highest number of specimens, which are taxonomically and morphologically diverse. At Los Catutos locality, the Vaca Muerta Formation is represented by the Los Catutos Member, which is considered the only lithographic limestones known in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we review the Tithonian fish faunas from the Vaca Muerta Formation. During Late Jurassic times, the actual Argentinian territory could have been a morphological diversification center, at least for some actinopterygian groups. The apparently lower species diversity recorded in marine Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Argentina (and some Gondwanan countries) in comparison with Chilean and European fish faunas could be related to the fish paleontological research history in Gondwana and the low number of detailed studies of most of specimens recorded.

  15. Radiocesium in marine fish, shrimps and scallops in coastal waters in Northern Norway and in the Barents Sea, measured over a period of two years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with a national programme for assessing the radioactivity in marine species important for human consumption. The programme that started in 1993 and will continue for several years, focuses on the marine area of Norway north of the Arctic Circle. Using NaI detectors, measurements of 59 samples from fish, shrimps and scallops have recently been made. In all samples the radioactivity was below the detection limit (29 Bq/kg wet weight). Compared to the intervention levels for foodstuff, this level is negligible. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Chemistry and fish status of 67 acidified lakes at the coast of Aust-Agder, Southern Norway, in relation to post-glacial marine deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Hindar, A.; Kleiven, E.

    1990-01-01

    67 lakes in a 0-15 km wide coastal zone within Aust-Agder County in Southern Norway have been investigated. The area receives 1,5 g S/m² and, 1,7 g N/m² as wet deposition. All lakes had about the same concentration of non-marine sulphate. Lakes in southwest were significantly less influenced by post-glacial marine deposits and markedly more acidified than lakes in the northeastern part of the region. Twentyone, probably 23, of the lakes were barren of fish. Lakes with pH higher than 5,5 in Ma...

  17. Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of golfe juan marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodilis Pascaline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs were deployed within the Golfe-Juan marine protected area (Alpes-Maritimes coast, France, Northwestern Mediterranean created in 1981. This no-take area is fully protected since its establishment, except in 2004 when some anthropic activities were, exceptionally, authorized. Moreover, no park rangers to prevent poaching since 2002 occur. In order to carry out a long term monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages, underwater visual censuses (UVC were carried out in 1988, 1998 and 2008, according to a traditional standardized visual census method that taken into account all fish species. The complexification of some large reefs built with wide voide spaces called Bonna reefs appear to be a good solution to increase species richness and density. Species richness and density of the fish assemblages showed significant increase between 1988 and 1998. However the fast increasing was stopped from 1998 and 2008 probably due to a lack of law enforcement and poaching. Despite artificial reefs were deployed in MPA since at least 20 years, they did not show a real positive impact on fish assemblages. These results could be explained (i by a lack of law enforcement patrol within the protected areas during the last decade, and (ii by the one-year opening to fishing activities within MPA. The real effectiveness of the artificial reefs in sustaining fish assemblages is discussed and the necessity of a regular and efficient control by park rangers is highlighted.Recifes artificiais foram implantados na área protegida Golfe-Juan (costa dos Alpes-Maritimes, Noroeste do Mediterraneo criada em 1981. Esta área NTZ (Area de Restrição da Pesca é inteiramente protegida, desde seu estabelecimento, exceto em 2004, quando algumas atividades antropicas foram excepcionalmente autorizadas. Além disso, desde 2002, não houve nenhuma patrulha florestal para impedir a caça e pesca ilegais. . A fim realizar um monitoramento a longo prazo das assembl

  18. Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI: The First Global Environmental Assessment of Marine Fish Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M.S. Stoner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available “Sustainable” is among the most sought after of all seafood product adjectives. Ironically it is also one of the most poorly defined and understood. The Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI is the first tool to assess environmental performance of global marine aquaculture production, permitting direct comparison of disparate species, production methods and jurisdictions. Clear patterns emerge from this analysis; significant variation of environmental performance is driven by the species being farmed, significant room for improvement exists across the entire sector, the worst performing players are also the fastest growing, particularly within Asia, and perhaps most importantly, this work highlights the potential trap awaiting policy makers who focus too narrowly on farm production efficiency alone as a solution to diminishing seafood availability.

  19. Extinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Valentin; Bardet, Nathalie; Benson, Roger B J; Arkhangelsky, Maxim S; Friedman, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current hypotheses for this early demise involve relatively minor biotic events, but are at odds with recent understanding of the ichthyosaur fossil record. Here, we show that ichthyosaurs maintained high but diminishing richness and disparity throughout the Early Cretaceous. The last ichthyosaurs are characterized by reduced rates of origination and phenotypic evolution and their elevated extinction rates correlate with increased environmental volatility. In addition, we find that ichthyosaurs suffered from a profound Early Cenomanian extinction that reduced their ecological diversity, likely contributing to their final extinction at the end of the Cenomanian. Our results support a growing body of evidence revealing that global environmental change resulted in a major, temporally staggered turnover event that profoundly reorganized marine ecosystems during the Cenomanian. PMID:26953824

  20. Fundamental geological elements for the occurrence of Chinese marine oil and gas accumulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Paleozoic strata in the Tarim Basin, Sichuan Basin and Ordos Basin are the major targets for marine petroleum exploration, with developed high quality hydrocarbon, mainly argillite. The deep burial of these source rocks suggests that they mainly develop gas instead of oil. But different maturities of organic matter may lead to different hydrocarbon facies. Through thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), the hydrocarbon in the carbonate rocks may undergo a process of pyrolytic cracking and be catalyzed into gases. The marine reservoirs mainly consist of carbonate and clastic rocks, and the former is controlled by sedimentary facies, dolomitization, solution, TSR and cracking. The multiphase tectonic cycling develops multiple source-reservoir-cap combinations and diversified types of traps and reservoirs, featuring multiphase reservoir formation, mainly late-phase formation or consolidation.Palaeo-uplifts play a controlling role in hydrocarbon accumulation. Differences in major source rocks in the three basins lead to different locations of oil-gas accumulation layers, different types and patterns of reservoirs and different features of reservoir formation.

  1. Microsomal estradiol 2-hydroxylase regulation in the marine fish winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2-Hydroxyestradiol (2-OH E2) is a major E2 metabolite in mammals. The 2-hydroxylation of E2 by liver microsomes from two marine fish species, measured as 3H liberation from 2-[3H]-E2, was cytochrome, P-450 mediated. 2-OH-E2 represented as much as 80% of microsomal E2 metabolism. Microsomes from mature female winter flounder formed 0.337 +/- 0.192 of nmol 2-OH E2/min/nmol P-450 compared to the male activity of 0.128 +/- 0.030. Mature female scup also had higher E2-2-OH activities than male scup. E2 2-hydroxylation by microsomes from β-naphthoflavone (BNF)-treated immature scup declined to 0.498 +/- 0.083 nmol/min/nmol P-450 from the control value of 1.05 +/- 0.113. Polyclonal antibodies to P-450E, the major BNF-inducible scup P-450 isozyme, stimulated 2-hydroxylation in microsomes from BNF-treated scup by 80% but did not affect the activity in control microsomes. This first description of 2-OH E2 formation by teleosts shows that it is a major microsomal activity in fish. The sex differences in E2 2-hydroxylation indicate the catalysts is regulated by sex hormones. Stimulation of this activity by anti-P-450E suggests that BNF-induced P-450 isozymes with intrinsically low E2 2-hydroxylase activity may also bind factors necessary for E2 metabolism by other isozymes. In teleosts, then, E2 metabolism might be governed by both endogenous and exogenous factors

  2. Acetylcholine produces contraction mediated by cyclooxigenase pathway in arterial vessels in the marine fish (Isacia conceptionis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, F A; Urriola-Urriola, N

    2015-05-01

    Preliminary studies showed that dorsal artery contraction mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) is blocked with indomethacin in intertidal fish (G. laevifrons). Our objective was to characterize the cholinergic pathway in several artery vessels of the I. conceptionis. Afferent and efferent branchial, dorsal and mesenteric arteries were dissected of 6 juvenile specimens, isometric tension studies were done using doses response curves (DRC) for Ach (10(-13) to 10(-3) M), and cholinergic pathways were obtained by blocking with atropine or indomethacin. CRC to ACh showed a pattern of high sensitivity only in efferente branchial artery and low sensibility in all vessels. Furthermore, these contractions were blocked in the presence of atropine and indomethacin in all vessels. Our results corroborate previous results observed in intertidal species that contraction induced by acetylcholine is mediated by receptors that activate a cyclooxygenase contraction pathway. PMID:26132019

  3. Lack of population genetic differentiation of a marine ovoviviparous fish Sebastes schlegelii in Northwestern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Zhang, Xiumei; Song, Na; Gao, Tianxiang

    2016-05-01

    Sebastes schlegelii is one of the fishes that aggregate around drifting seaweed during early development. To examine the population genetic structure of S. schlegelii, a 452-bp fragment of the mtDNA control region was sequenced and used to interpret life history characteristics and larval dispersal strategy. Two-hundred and twenty-one individuals from 13 sites across the entire range of S. schlegelii in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed. A neighbor-joining tree and network showed that there were no significant genealogical structures corresponding to sampling locations. AMOVA, pair-wise FST and exact test revealed no significant genetic differentiation among locations. The migration rate among locations was high based on the result of LAMARC. We conclude that larval dispersal with drifting seaweed and the current environmental factors may play an important role in shaping the contemporary phylogeographic pattern and genetic homogeneity of S. schlegelii. PMID:25269000

  4. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  5. Evolutionary force in confamiliar marine vertebrates of different temperature realms: adaptive trends in zoarcid fish transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windisch Heidrun Sigrid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of temperature-induced adaptation on the basis of genomic sequence data were mainly done in extremophiles. Although the general hypothesis of an increased molecular flexibility in the cold is widely accepted, the results of thermal adaptation are still difficult to detect at proteomic down to the genomic sequence level. Approaches towards a more detailed picture emerge with the advent of new sequencing technologies. Only small changes in primary protein structure have been shown to modify kinetic and thermal properties of enzymes, but likewise for interspecies comparisons a high genetic identity is still essential to specify common principles. The present study uses comprehensive transcriptomic sequence information to uncover general patterns of thermal adaptation on the RNA as well as protein primary structure. Results By comparing orthologous sequences of two closely related zoarcid fish inhabiting different latitudinal zones (Antarctica: Pachycara brachycephalum, temperate zone: Zoarces viviparus we were able to detect significant differences in the codon usage. In the cold-adapted species a lower GC content in the wobble position prevailed for preserved amino acids. We were able to estimate 40-60% coverage of the functions represented within the two compared zoarcid cDNA-libraries on the basis of a reference genome of the phylogenetically closely related fish Gasterosteus aculeatus. A distinct pattern of amino acid substitutions could be identified for the non-synonymous codon exchanges, with a remarkable surplus of serine and reduction of glutamic acid and asparagine for the Antarctic species. Conclusion Based on the differences between orthologous sequences from confamiliar species, distinguished mainly by the temperature regimes of their habitats, we hypothesize that temperature leaves a signature on the composition of biological macromolecules (RNA, proteins with implications for the transcription and

  6. 海洋鱼类的转换效率及其影响因子%A review of the conversion efficiency and its influencers in marine fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭学武; 唐启升

    2004-01-01

    A review of conversion efficiency and its influencers in marine fishes is presented in this paper. The conversion efficiency is the efficiency of food utilization for growth, usually expressed as energy conversion efficiency, i. e, growth efficiency, when measured in energy, or food conversion efficiency when measured in biomass. So, estimation of conversion efficiency is basically a work on determinations of food consumption and weight growth of fish. Influence factor of conversion efficiency are mostly those influencing food consumption and weight growth, containing abiotic, biotic, and physiological factors, and limitations of controlled conditions in experiments, in many cases, which leads to results not reflecting the natural states. The abiotic influencers include water temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, current surrounding, and photoperiod, of which water temperature and photoperiod are the most important. In experiments without food limitation, the growth rate of fish increases generally with rising of water temperature, and reaches a maximum at an optimum temperature. But that the optimum temperature for growth goes down at low ration levels indicates that the temperature influence on growth depends upon food availability for fishes. The photoperiod can speed up or keep down the fish growth with its alternation during a year. The biotic influencers contain food availability, competition, and predation. The food availability is considered as a key factor, as important as water temperature, manipulating food consumption and growth of fish, It is density dependent and is diversified temporally and spatially due to climate change, physical and chemical oceanography processes in the ecosystem. The availability of food that contains high calorie is a primary reason why food type shifts evidently the food conversion efficiency in a species of fish. Comparatively, the energy conversion efficiency is much more steady with the change of

  7. Marine Fish and Shellfish Survey data from otter trawls in the Chukchi Sea from the OCEAN HOPE 3 and OSHORO MARU from 16 August 1990 to 31 July 1992 (NODC Accession 9400061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Fish and Shellfish Survey data were collected from otter trawls in the Chukchi Sea from the OCEAN HOPE. Data were collected by the University of Alaska from...

  8. Physical, chemical, marine fish, shellfish, and other data from bottle casts and bottom trawls from the JEFF AND TINA as part of the EPA/FLOWER GARDENS project from 11 October 1980 to 27 July 1981 (NODC Accession 8200169)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, marine fish, shellfish, and other data from bottle casts and bottom trawls from the JEFF AND TINA from 11 October 1980 to 27 July 1981. Data...

  9. Stable isotopes from Benthic foraminifera and Fish otoliths as proxies for Orbital Climate Forcing and Seasonality Changes during the Middle Eocene to Late Oligocene in the shallow marine North Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Man, Ellen; Ivany, Linda; van Simaeys, Stefaan; Steurbaut, Etienne; Vandenberghe, Noel

    2010-05-01

    Stable isotopes from Benthic foraminifera and Fish otoliths as proxies for Orbital Climate Forcing and Seasonality Changes during the Middle Eocene to Late Oligocene in the shallow marine North Sea Basin

  10. Global sensitivity analysis of an end-to-end marine ecosystem model of the North Sea: Factors affecting the biomass of fish and benthos

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, David J.; Speir, Douglas C.; Cameron, Angus I; Heath, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of parameter and driver sensitivity is key to establishing the credibility of models representing complex systems. This is especially so for models of natural systems where experimental manipulation of the real-world to provide controlled validation data is not possible. End-to-end ecosystem models (nutrients to birds and mammals) of marine ecosystems fall into this category with applications for evaluating the effects of climate change and fishing on nutrient fluxes an...

  11. Lironeca desterroensis sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from the gills of a marine fish, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, of Santa Catarina Island, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Thatcher Vernon E.; Souza-Conceição José M.; Jost Glauco Fernando

    2003-01-01

    Lironeca desterroensis sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) is described on the basis of 105 females and three males taken from the gill chambers of the marine fish, Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier,1829), obtained near Santa Catarina Island, Brazil. The new species resembles Lironeca redmanni Leach, 1818, in size and general appearance but differs from that species in a number of important respects. In the new species, the pleotelson is larger, the pleonites are laterally produced, the uropods have...

  12. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  13. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  14. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this...

  15. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this...

  16. A quantitative genetic approach to assess the evolutionary potential of a coastal marine fish to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvezzi, Alex J; Murray, Christopher S; Feldheim, Kevin A; DiBattista, Joseph D; Garant, Dany; Gobler, Christopher J; Chapman, Demian D; Baumann, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the potential of marine organisms to adapt genetically to increasing oceanic CO2 levels requires proxies such as heritability of fitness-related traits under ocean acidification (OA). We applied a quantitative genetic method to derive the first heritability estimate of survival under elevated CO2 conditions in a metazoan. Specifically, we reared offspring, selected from a wild coastal fish population (Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia), at high CO2 conditions (∼2300 μatm) from fertilization to 15 days posthatch, which significantly reduced survival compared to controls. Perished and surviving offspring were quantitatively sampled and genotyped along with their parents, using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, to reconstruct a parent–offspring pedigree and estimate variance components. Genetically related individuals were phenotypically more similar (i.e., survived similarly long at elevated CO2 conditions) than unrelated individuals, which translated into a significantly nonzero heritability (0.20 ± 0.07). The contribution of maternal effects was surprisingly small (0.05 ± 0.04) and nonsignificant. Survival among replicates was positively correlated with genetic diversity, particularly with observed heterozygosity. We conclude that early life survival of M. menidia under high CO2 levels has a significant additive genetic component that could elicit an evolutionary response to OA, depending on the strength and direction of future selection. PMID:25926880

  17. ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF THE SEA SURFACE MICROLAYER NEAR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS AND MARINE FISH CULTURE ZONES IN DAYA BAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇峰; 王肇鼎; 潘明祥; 焦念志

    2002-01-01

    The authors' surveys in May-June 1999 (two cruises) at six sampling stations near nuclear power plants (NPP) and marine fish culture zones in Daya Bay, Guangdong, revealed species composition, densities and body-size of thesea surface microlayer (SM) zooplankton (>35 μm). Results showed that protozoans and copepod nauplii were the predominant components, accounting for 65.40% to95.56% of total zooplankton in abundance. The size-frequency distributions showed that the frequency of micro-zooplankton (0.02-0.2 mm) reached 0.8235. The SM zooplankton community structure revealed in the present study was quite different from that revealed by investigations in the 1980s in Daya Bay. Difference of sampling method has important influence on the obtained zooplankton community structure. SM zooplankton consisted of micro- and mesozooplankton (0.2-2.0 mm), with micro-zooplankton being predominant. Some possible cause-effect relations between the zooplankton community structure and mariculture, nuclear power plants cooling systems and sampling method are discussed.``

  18. Zooplankton community structure of the sea surface microlayer near nuclear power plants and marine fish culture zones in Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Zhao-Ding; Pan, Ming-Xiang; Jiao, Nian-Zhi

    2002-06-01

    The authors' surveys in May June 1999 (two cruises) at six sampling stations near nuclear power plants (NPP) and marine fish culture zones in Daya Bay, Guangdong, revealed species composition, densities and body-size of the sea surface microlayer (SM) zooplankton (>35 μm). Results showed that protozoans and copepod nauplii were the predominant components, accounting for 65.40% to 95.56% of total zooplankton in abundance. The size-frequency distributions showed that the frequency of micro-zooplankton (0.02 0.2 mm) reached 0.8235. The SM zooplankton community structure revealed in the present study was quite different from that revealed by investigations in the 1980s in Daya Bay. Difference of sampling method has important influence on the obtained zooplankton community structure. SM zooplankton consisted of micro- and mesozooplankton (0.2 2.0 mm), with micro-zooplankton being predominant. Some possible cause-effect relations between the zooplankton community structure and mariculture, nuclear power plants cooling systems and sampling method are discussed.

  19. A quantitative genetic approach to assess the evolutionary potential of a coastal marine fish to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Malvezzi, Alex J.

    2015-02-01

    Assessing the potential of marine organisms to adapt genetically to increasing oceanic CO2 levels requires proxies such as heritability of fitness-related traits under ocean acidification (OA). We applied a quantitative genetic method to derive the first heritability estimate of survival under elevated CO2 conditions in a metazoan. Specifically, we reared offspring, selected from a wild coastal fish population (Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia), at high CO2 conditions (~2300 μatm) from fertilization to 15 days posthatch, which significantly reduced survival compared to controls. Perished and surviving offspring were quantitatively sampled and genotyped along with their parents, using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, to reconstruct a parent-offspring pedigree and estimate variance components. Genetically related individuals were phenotypically more similar (i.e., survived similarly long at elevated CO2 conditions) than unrelated individuals, which translated into a significantly nonzero heritability (0.20 ± 0.07). The contribution of maternal effects was surprisingly small (0.05 ± 0.04) and nonsignificant. Survival among replicates was positively correlated with genetic diversity, particularly with observed heterozygosity. We conclude that early life survival of M. menidia under high CO2 levels has a significant additive genetic component that could elicit an evolutionary response to OA, depending on the strength and direction of future selection.

  20. Multilocus sequence analysis of the marine bacterial genus Tenacibaculum suggests parallel evolution of fish pathogenicity and endemic colonization of aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Christophe; Houel, Armel; Lunazzi, Aurélie; Bernardet, Jean-François; Olsen, Anne Berit; Nilsen, Hanne; Toranzo, Alicia E; Castro, Nuria; Nicolas, Pierre; Duchaud, Eric

    2014-09-01

    The genus Tenacibaculum, a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, is an abundant component of marine bacterial ecosystems that also hosts several fish pathogens, some of which are of serious concern for marine aquaculture. Here, we applied multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to 114 representatives of most known species in the genus and of the worldwide diversity of the major fish pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum. Recombination hampers precise phylogenetic reconstruction, but the data indicate intertwined environmental and pathogenic lineages, which suggests that pathogenicity evolved independently in several species. At lower phylogenetic levels recombination is also important, and the species T. maritimum constitutes a cohesive group of isolates. Importantly, the data reveal no trace of long-distance dissemination that could be linked to international fish movements. Instead, the high number of distinct genotypes suggests an endemic distribution of strains. The MLSA scheme and the data described in this study will help in monitoring Tenacibaculum infections in marine aquaculture; we show, for instance, that isolates from tenacibaculosis outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms are related to T. dicentrarchi, a recently described species. PMID:24973065

  1. Study on the sensitivity to cadmium of marine fish Salaria basilisca (Pisces: Blennidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imed MESSAOUDI; Sana BARHOUMI; Khaled SA1d; Abdelhamid KERKENI

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to test the sensitivity of Salaria basilisca to water-cadmium (Cd) contamination.For this purpose,liver somatic index (LSI),Cd concentrations and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT),superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured in the liver of S.Basilisca exposed to Cd-contaminated water (2 mg Cd/L as CdCl_2) for 14 and 28 d.The results showed that the LSI decreased significantly after 14 and 28 d of Cd-exposure.Cd bioaccumulation in the liver resulted in an increasing uptake up to 42 μg/g dry weight after 28 d of exposure.Activities of CAT and SOD were observed significantly increased with increasing exposure.A significant increase in GSH-Px activity,under Cd influence,was observed during 14-day exposure period (p < 0.0001).However,a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in this activity with respect to control fish was registered after 28 d of Cd-exposure.These results show that Cd accumulation in the liver of S.Basilisca induces oxidative stress as demonstrated by changes in the antioxidant enzyme activities.Results also emphasized that S.Basilisca may considered as a sensitive species to Cd exposure.

  2. Tests to evaluate the ecological impact of treated ballast water on three Chinese marine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Zixi; Cai, Leiming; Cai, Xiang; Sun, Wenjun; Ma, Liqing

    2014-09-01

    Ballast water has been a topic of concern for some time because of its potential to introduce invasive species to new habitats. To comply with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, members of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) must equip their ships with on-board treatment systems to eliminate organism release with ballast water. There are many challenges associated with the implementation of this IMO guideline, one of which is the selection of species for testing the ecological impacts of the treated ballast water. In the United States, ballast water toxicity test methods have been defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the test methods had not been finalized in China until the toxicity test methods for ballast water were established in 2008. The Chinese methods have been based on species from three trophic levels: Skeletonema costatum, Neomysis awatschensis, and Ctenogobius gymnauchen. All three species live in broad estuarine and open sea areas of China; they are sensitive to reference toxicants and acclimatize easily to different conditions. In this paper, the biological characteristics, test processes and statistical analysis methods are presented for the three species. Results indicate that the methods for evaluating these three organisms can be included in the ecological toxicity tests for treated ballast water in China.

  3. Experiment of mechanized gutting for typical small marine fish%典型海产小杂鱼机械去脏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆余; 沈建; 欧阳杰; 丁建乐; 钟俊生; 张敬峰; 胡晓亮

    2013-01-01

    针对海产小杂鱼前处理设备短缺现状,开展小杂鱼机械去脏试验研究。利用去脏加工试验平台,选取深水红娘鱼(Lepidotrigla abyssalis)、叉斑狗母鱼(Synodus macrops)和小黄鱼(Pseudosciaena polyactis)作为小杂鱼典型代表,分别进行2种剖腹去脏布置方式、2种剖腹刀具构型、4种除脏轮构型以及剖腹刀具和除脏轮的转速转向变化、夹送带线速度与其不同的匹配组合对去脏效果和感官质量的比较试验。结果表明:上述3种小杂鱼以剖腹去脏装置下置式并匹配以高转速无齿圆盘刀逆向剖腹和低转速仿形异构齿除脏轮逆向去脏加工方法比较合适;平肚型类的深水红娘鱼和侧扁型类的小黄鱼还可采用适当构型的三角形齿或梯形齿除脏轮进行逆向去脏加工方法;机械方法的生产率是手工方法的8~12倍,能够实现某些小杂鱼品种的鱼内脏100%除净率和近似零损伤鱼体的质量效果。海产小杂鱼机械去脏加工技术路线可以设计为:去头后的小杂鱼-定向与有序喂料-夹带定位与输送--圆盘刀旋切鱼腹-夹带定位与输送-鱼腹张开-除脏轮去除鱼内脏-夹带定位与输送-去脏后的鱼体输出漂洗。该研究可为小杂鱼机械去头去脏加工设备的设计提供参考。%An experimental study on mechanized gutting for small marine fish was conducted, faced with equipment shortages for the pre-processing of small marine fish. The test platform of fish gutting was established. Abyssal searobin (Lepidotrigla abyssalis), crossbarred lizardfish (Synodus macrops), and little yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena polyactis) were selected as the typical representative fish. The following experiments were conducted for comparing the gutting effects and sensory quality of processed small marine fish:the two types of arrangement patterns for fish belly cutting and gutting, two types of cutting disc configuration, four types of

  4. ROLE OF INSTITUTIONAL FINANCE IN MOTORISED MARINE FISHING SECTOR IN THOOTHUKUDI DISTRICT OF TAMILNADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ELLORA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Finance plays a crucial role in accelerating any business activity/economic development and fisheries sector is not an exception. The economic activities of the fishing villages mainly depend upon the availability of credit at reasonable cost to enhance production and income. Lack of institutional credit is an obstacle to further development of the small-scale fisheries sector. In this context the researcher has attempted to study the credit needs of the fishermen, various sources of institutional credit availed by them and their experience with financial institutions. This is an empirical study completed through field study. Thoothukudi District has been selected as the study area. In the study area only 152 respondents have accessed the various institutional agencies and availed 250 loans for meeting the expenditures. The data were collected using a survey schedule. Mean, standard deviation, co-efficient of variation and the One-way ANOVA were used. It is inferred that most of loans are availed from the Cooperative banks (42% followed by Commercial banks (21%. The vallam craft owners have borrowed the highest number of loans followed by catamaran and FRPboat owners. From the analysis it could be understood that majority of the loans availed from the financial institutions are less than Rs.25, 000 and the financial institutions fail to come forward to provide higher loan amount for the craft owners. Consequently for want of further loans they fall in the clutches of middlemen. Thus it is clear that the financial institutions play a very little role in bringing up the economic status of the fishermen in Thoothukudi District.

  5. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Histone-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide Teleostin from the Marine Teleost Fishes, Tachysurus jella and Cynoglossus semifasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaithanya, E R; Philip, Rosamma; Sathyan, Naveen; Anil Kumar, P R

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are host defense peptides that are well conserved throughout the course of evolution. Histones are classical DNA-binding proteins, rich in cationic amino acids, and recently appreciated as precursors for various histone-derived AMPs. The present study deals with identification of the potential antimicrobial peptide sequence of teleostin from the histone H2A of marine teleost fishes, Cynoglossus semifasciatus and Tachysurus jella. A 245 bp amplicon coding for 81 amino acids was obtained from the cDNA transcripts of these fishes. The first 52 amino acids from the N terminal of the peptide were identical to previously characterized histone-derived antimicrobial peptides. Molecular and physicochemical characterizations of the sequence were found to be in agreement with previously reported histone H2A-derived AMPs, suggesting the possible role of histone H2A in innate defense mechanism in fishes. PMID:27335674

  6. Antitumor and immune regulation activities of the extracts of some Chinese marine invertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lixin; FAN Xiao; HAN Lijun

    2005-01-01

    Extracts of 21 marine invertebrates belonging to Coelenterata, Mollusca, Annelida, Bryozoa,Echiura, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Urochordata were screened for the studies on their antitumor and immune regulation activities. Antitumor activity was determined by MTT method and immune regulation activity was studied using T- and B-lymphocytes in mice spleen in vitro. It was found that the n-butanol part of Asterina pectinifera, the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina, 95% ethanol extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus have a high inhibition rate of 96.7%, 63.9% and 50.5% respectively on tumor cell line HL-60 at the concentration of 0.063 mg/ml. The inhibition rate of the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina on the tumor cell line A-549 is 65.4 % at concentration of 0.063 mg/mL. The 95% ethanol extract of Meretrix meretrix has so outstanding promoting effect on T-lymphocyfes that their multiplication increases 25% when the sample concentration is only 1 μg/ml. On B-lymphocytes, the 95% extract of Rapana venosa, at concentration of 100μg/ml, has a promotion percentage of 60%. On the other hand, under the condition of no cytotoxic effect, the 95% ethanol extracts of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus and Cellana toreum can reach 92% inhibition rate on T lymphocyte at concentration of 100 μg/ml, while the inhibition rate on B lymphocyte of the 95% extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus reaches 92% at the same concentration.

  7. Recreational Fish-Finders—An Inexpensive Alternative to Scientific Echo-Sounders for Unravelling the Links between Marine Top Predators and Their Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Alistair M.; Khoosal, Arjun; Murrell, Ben; Merkle, Dagmar; Lacerda, Miguel; Nyengera, Reason; Coetzee, Janet C.; Edwards, Loyd C.; Ryan, Peter G.; Rademan, Johan; van der Westhuizen, Jan J; Pichegru, Lorien

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating how mobile marine predators respond to their prey are limited due to the challenging nature of the environment. While marine top predators are increasingly easy to study thanks to developments in bio-logging technology, typically there is scant information on the distribution and abundance of their prey, largely due to the specialised nature of acquiring this information. We explore the potential of using single-beam recreational fish-finders (RFF) to quantify relative forage fish abundance and draw inferences of the prey distribution at a fine spatial scale. We compared fish school characteristics as inferred from the RFF with that of a calibrated scientific split-beam echo-sounder (SES) by simultaneously operating both systems from the same vessel in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Customized open-source software was developed to extract fish school information from the echo returns of the RFF. For schools insonified by both systems, there was close correspondence between estimates of mean school depth (R2 = 0.98) and school area (R2 = 0.70). Estimates of relative school density (mean volume backscattering strength; Sv) measured by the RFF were negatively biased through saturation of this system given its smaller dynamic range. A correction factor applied to the RFF-derived density estimates improved the comparability between the two systems. Relative abundance estimates using all schools from both systems were congruent at scales from 0.5 km to 18 km with a strong positive linear trend in model fit estimates with increasing scale. Although absolute estimates of fish abundance cannot be derived from these systems, they are effective at describing prey school characteristics and have good potential for mapping forage fish distribution and relative abundance. Using such relatively inexpensive systems could greatly enhance our understanding of predator-prey interactions. PMID:26600300

  8. Characterization of Cryptocaryon irritans isolates from marine fishes in Mainland China by ITS ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H Y; Zhu, X Q; Xie, M Q; Wu, X Y; Li, A X; Lin, R Q; Song, H Q

    2006-07-01

    Seven isolates of Cryptocaryon irritans from different host species and geographical locations in Mainland China were characterized by the first (ITS-1) and second (ITS-2) internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using two isolates of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis for comparative purposes. The rDNA region including the ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2, and flanking 18S and 28S sequences were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplicons were sequenced directly. The ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 sequences were 129, 160, and 190 bp in length, respectively, for all seven C. irritans isolates, whereas the corresponding sequences for the two I. multifiliis isolates were 142, 153, and 194 bp, respectively. While sequence variation among the seven C. irritans isolates ranged from 0 to 1.6% in both the ITS-1 and ITS-2, and the two I. multifiliis isolates differed by 1.4% in the ITS-1 and 1.0% in the ITS-2; C. irritans differed from I. multifiliis by 57.1-60.9% in the ITS-1 and 79.4-83.0% in the ITS-2, indicating that ITS sequences provide reliable genetic markers for the identification and differentiation of the two species. Phylogenetic analysis using the sequence pairwise-distance data using the neighbor-joining method inferred that the seven C. irritans isolates from Mainland China and two other isolates (T.A and Aus.C) from other countries clustered together to show monophyly, which could be readily distinguished from the other monophyletic group all from other regions. Therefore, ITS sequence data and phylogenetic analysis provided strong support that C. irritans isolates from Mainland China represent a single species. The definition of genetic markers in the ITS rDNA provide opportunities for studying the ecology and population genetic structures of the C. irritans from Mainland China and elsewhere and is also relevant to the diagnosis and control of fish diseases they cause. PMID:16523350

  9. Isolation of bioactive compound from marine seaweeds against fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus (VA09) and characterisation by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu; Priyadharshini Pandiyan; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Kumaran Subaramaniyan; George Edward Gnana Jothi; Sakthivel Manikkam; Balamurugan Sadaiyappan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Gracillaria verrcosa, Acanthospora spicifera,Ulva facita, Ulva lacta (U. lacta), Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum ilicifolium, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii), Padina tetramatica and Padina gymonospora were collected from Mandapam (Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu) of South East coast of India and were screened for antibacterial activity.Methods:All the collected seaweeds were extracted by using five different solvent (methanol, isopropanol, acetone, chloroform, diethyl ether) to study their extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria V. alginolyticus (VA09) purchased from MTCC. And minimum inhibition carried out by using Resazurin micro-titre assay. Crude extract of S. wightii analysied by FTIR.Results:The methanolic extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone of inhibition (1.95±0.11) cm, isopropanol extract maximum inhibition was produced by S. wightii (1.93±0.78) cm, Acetone extract of Gracilaria verrcosa showed maximum zone of inhibition (1.36±0.05) cm, chloroform extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone (1.56±0.25) cm and diethyl ether extract of S.wightii produced maximum zone of inhibition(1.86±0.11) cm. Based on the antibacterial activity S. wightii, U. lacta and Padina tetramatica showed best antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. In this three seaweeds were taken for MIC study. The S. wightii methanolic extract, U. lacta diethyl ether extract and Padina tetramatica methanolic extract showed a higher MIC values, and despectively were 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL. FTIR result showed that mostly phenolic compounds were present in the S. wightii.Conclusions:Based on the FTIR result S. wightii have high amount of phenolic compound. Phenolic compound have the good antimicrobial activity. The results clearly show that seaweedS. wightii is an interesting source for biologically active compounds that may be applied for prophylaxis and therapy of bacterial fish diseases and it should be used for

  10. Deepwater Habitat and Fish Resources Associated With A Marine Ecological Reserve: Implications For Fisheries Management, 1996 - 2001 (NODC Accession 0000765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The California Marine Resources Protection Act (MRPA) authorized approximately $1 million for research on marine resource enhancement and management to be conducted...

  11. Studies of the levels of Cd, Hg, Mn, Se and Zn in Marine Fish Species commonly available and highly consumed in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine fish is one of the main sources of dietary exposure to Hg and Cd. High levels of Hg and Cd are often reported in marine fishes, creating the impression that the mere consumption of marine fish exposes humans to the toxic effects of Cd and Hg. These reports often ignore the protective effects of Se against Hg toxicity. Mn and Zn also moderate the toxic effects of Cd. Consequently, the use of the levels of Hg and Cd alone without considering the levels of Se, Mn and Zn, and their antagonistic interaction is not appropriate and leads to misinformation. Antagonistic interaction between Se-Hg, Zn-Cd, and Mn-Cd, are essential factors in evaluating the health risk associated with dietary exposure to Cd and Hg due to fish consumption. the interacton depends on the concentratiions (µmol kg-1) of the elements and the molar ratios of the respective interacting pairs of elements. This study evaluated the antagonistic interaction [through estimation of concentration (µmol kg-1), molar ratios and the health benefit value (for selenium only)] between cadmium (Cd)- manganese(Mn), cadmium (Cd)- zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se)-mercury (Hg) in the nine (9) marine fish species. This fish species are Frigate tuna (Auxis thazard), African forktail snapper (Apsilus fuscus), Bigeye forstfish (Benthodesmus elongatus), Blue runner (Caranx crysos), Atlantic herrings (Clupea harengus), Smooth puffer (Lagocephalus laevigatusP, Brown shrimps (metapenaeus monoceros), Round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) and African moonfish (Selene dorsalis). This was achieved through the determination of the concerntrations(µg g-1) of Cd and Zn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), Se by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS), and Mn by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in the lyophilized fish species. Hg in the lyophilized fish species was determined by HG-AAS after extraction of Hg in the fish species as the dithizonate using dithizonu as ligand and CHCL3 as

  12. 典型海产小杂鱼机械去头方法研究%Method study on mechanized head cutting for marine small fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆余; 沈建; 傅润泽; 谈佳玉; 张敬峰

    2012-01-01

    针对海产小杂鱼前处理机械化程度低、设备短缺的现状,进行小杂鱼机械去头方法的研究.测量与统计分析深水红娘鱼(Lepidotrigla abyssalis)、叉斑狗母鱼(Synodus macrops)和竹筴鱼(Trachurus japonicus)3种典型小杂鱼的体型特征参数,构建试验平台,对3种小杂鱼分别进行3种加工方式、两种刀具构型、两种刀具旋向以及两种放置形式的鱼身得率和切断面质量效果的试验.结果表明,上述3种小杂鱼去头皆以匹配无齿圆盘刀、直切加工和顺向切割方式的加工方法比较合适;竹筴鱼的去头加工以选择鱼体平放形式更合适;机械去头的生产率是手工方法的6~8倍.%The method study on mechanized head cutting for marine small fish was conducted, facing with the current situation of low mechanization and equipment shortages for the pre-processing of marine small fish. The body characteristic parameters of three typical marine small fish, abyssal searobin ( Lepidotrigla abyssalis ) , crossbarred lizardfish ( Synodus macrops ) and jack mackerel ( Trachurus japonicus) , was measured and statistically analyzed. The test platform was established to test the fish product yield and quality effects of the cutting surface for the three processing methods, two knife configurations, two knife rotating directions and two kinds of fish body placement. The research results show that the toothless disc knife, straight cut processing and forward cut are the processing method suitable for all kinds of above-mentioned fish. Flat-on of the fish body is more suitable for the head cutting of jack mackerel. The production rate of mechanized head cutting is 6-8 times as high as those of manual cutting.

  13. Climate induced temperature effects on growth performance, fecundity and recruitment in marine fish: developing a hypothesis for cause and effect relationships in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and common eelpout (Zoarces viviparus)

    OpenAIRE

    Portner, H.O.; Berdal, B.; Blust, R.; Brix, O.; Colosimo, A.; Wachter, B; A. Giuliani; Johansen, T.; Fischer, T.; Knust, R.; Lannig, G.; Naevdal, G.; Nedenes, A.; Nyhammer, G.; Sartoris, F. J.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of global warming on animal distribution and performance become visible in many marine ecosystems. The present study was designed to develop a concept for a cause and effect understanding with respect to temperature changes and to explain ecological findings based on physiological processes. The concept is based on a wide comparison of invertebrate and fish species with a special focus on recent data obtained in two model species of fish. These fish species are both characterized by n...

  14. Derelict Gear - Impacts of derelict fishing gear on marine fauna in Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits have experienced a long history of commercial fishing activity. Although much of this fishing activity no longer takes place,...

  15. Diet composition and food habits of demersal and pelagic marine fishes from Terengganu waters, east coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bachok, Z.; Mansor, M.I.; Noordin, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    Fish stomachs from 18 demersal and pelagic fishes from the coast of Terengganu in Malaysia were examined. The components of the fishesÆ diets varied in number, weight, and their frequency of occurrence. The major food items in the stomachs of each species were determined using an Index of Relative Importance. A "conceptualö food web structure indicates that fish species in the study area can be classified into three predatory groups: (1) predators on largely planktivorous or pelagic species; ...

  16. Kudoa iwatai and two novel Kudoa spp., K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), from daily consumed marine fish in western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukane, Yuuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2011-04-01

    Infection of marine fish by certain myxosporean species of the genus Kudoa results in unsightly cyst formation in the trunk muscle or post-mortem myoliquefaction, causing a great economic loss to aquaculture industries, capture fisheries, and fish dealers. In addition, consumers encountering unsightly Kudoa cysts in fish fillets believe them to be unknown foreign materials acquired during processing. To identify prevalent Kudoa spp. encountered in daily life by the Japanese population, fresh fish slices (sashimi) or fish fillets with whitish spots were collected during a 7-month period (May to December 2008) at local markets in the city of Yamaguchi, western Japan. Kudoa cysts were found in three Japanese seaperches (Lateolabrax japonicus), two black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii), two Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), and one albacore (Thunnus alalunga). Kudoa iwatai was identified in all the examined Japanese seaperch and black sea bream from Japan's Inland Sea, as assessed by morphology and genetic analysis of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). Kudoa trachuri n. sp. from two Japanese jack mackerel fished in the Japanese Sea off Nagasaki and Kudoa thunni n. sp. from one albacore fished in the Pacific Ocean had a spore, which was semiquadrate in shape in apical views and ovoid in lateral views, with four equal shell valves and drop-like polar capsules. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these three Kudoa species had different types of small projections at the apex of each valve. The 18S and 28S rDNA sequences of K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. were found to be closely related to those of Kudoa crumena; however, these sequences were distinct in each of the species, which additionally exhibited different morphological features. PMID:21053015

  17. Preliminary screening of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish, birds and marine mammals from Greenland and the Faroe Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive screening analyses of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated compounds in biota samples from all over the world have identified PFOS as a global pollutant and have shown its bioaccumulation into higher trophic levels in the food chain. Perfluorinated compounds have been found in remote areas as the Arctic. In this study a preliminary screening of PFOS and related compounds has been performed in liver samples of fish, birds and marine mammals from Greenland and the Faroe Islands. PFOS was the predominant fluorochemical in the biota analyzed, followed by perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). PFOS was found at concentrations above LOQ (10 ng/g wet weight) in 13 out of 16 samples from Greenland and in all samples from the Faroe Islands. The results from Greenland showed a biomagnification of PFOS along the marine food chain (shorthorn sculpin< ringed seal< polar bear). The greatest concentration of PFOS was found in liver of polar bear from east Greenland (mean: 1285 ng/g wet weight, n=2). The geographical distribution of perfluorinated compounds in Greenland was similar to that of persistent organohalogenated compounds (OHCs), with the highest concentrations in east Greenland, indicating a similar geographical distribution to that of OHCs, with higher concentrations in east Greenland than in west Greenland. - Perfluorinated acids were detected in livers of fish, birds and marine mammals from Greenland and the Faroe Islands

  18. Effect of sucrose on the generation of free amino acids and biogenic amines in Chinese traditional dry-cured fish during processing and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jinjie; Liu, Zhenfeng; Hu, Yaqin; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; YE, XINGQIAN

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese traditional dry-cured grass carp fish (Layú) was processed with (A) and without (B) sucrose. Higher levels of free amino acids (FAA) and biogenic amines were detected in the final products when compared to the fresh fish. In the presence of sucrose, Layú A had higher total free amino acids (39.9 g/kg DW) but lower total biogenic amines (112.5 mg/kg DW) than those in Layú B (35.4 g/kg DW and 143.7 mg/kg DW, respectively) after ageing. After 60 days, the products storaged at 4 °C ha...

  19. In vivo mutagenicity studies in rats mice and Chinese hamsters fed irradiated foodstuffs - chicken, fish, dates, pulses, mangoes and cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three in vivo genetic toxicity tests were performed in rats, mice and Chinese hamsters to detect possible mutagenic effects of irradiated chicken, dried dates, fish, cocoa beans, pulses and mangoes. The tests employed were the micronucleus test and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) test for irradiated and unirradiated samples of all foodstuffs listed, and the spermatogonia test, (including SCE technique) in mice for irradiated and unirradiated chicken, fish and dates only. In the case of cocoa beans, the mutagenicity tests were performed on an additional test group fed beans fumigated with ethylene oxide. The different mammalian species used for the various experiments are given below. None of the tests provided any evidence of mutagenicity induced by irradiation in any of the foodstuffs studied. Moreover, these tests are currently considered to be the most sensitive in vivo mutagenicity tests in mammals. (orig.)

  20. Carbonate deposits in marine fish intestines: contribution of marine fish cultures to carbon sink fisheries%鱼类肠道的碳酸盐结晶物:海水鱼类养殖在碳汇渔业中的地位和作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕为群; 陈阿琴; 刘慧

    2012-01-01

    鱼类是一个迄今尚未被认知的非常重要的微细碳酸盐沉积物的来源,对海洋固碳有着重要作用,这个发现直接影响到碳汇渔业的内涵.本研究介绍了海洋硬骨鱼类渗透压调节机制及鱼类肠道碳酸盐结晶形成与其肠细胞膜上物质转运之间的关系,着重阐述了鱼类肠道碳酸盐结晶的特征,并论述了通过对特定区域内鱼类生物量和碳酸盐排泄率数据的研究,估计出全球海洋鱼类每年可产生大约1.1亿t的碳酸钙,在海洋总碳酸盐岩泥中占14%以上.研究重点论述了海水鱼类固碳的独特优势潜力,同时,提出为了更好地确定海水鱼类养殖在碳汇渔业中的地位和作用,有必要对主要海水养殖鱼类肠道碳酸结晶物的形成量及其调控机制,碳收支动态模型进行研究,进而合理地估算和测定海水鱼类养殖的碳汇量.%A variety of marine ecosystems play an important role in the ocean biological carbon sink. More and more often, people are paying closer attention to impacts of marine fish on carbon cycle. Recent studies showed that marine fishes produce and excrete various forms of precipitated calcium carbonate with high magnesium content from their guts. Precipitation occurs as a by-product of the osmoregulatory requirement of teleosts to continuously drink Ca- and Mg-rich seawater. Using the Bahamian archipelago site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data, scientists estimated that marine fishes produce about l.lxlO9 kg CaCCVyear as mud-grade carbonate, and it is potential sediment constituent. Marine fishes contribute over 14% to total estimated global carbonate mud production. Therefore, marine fishes represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, and affect coastal carbon sink capacity. This directly affects connotation of carbon sink fisheries. The carbon budget of marine fishes culture may influence carbon source and carbon

  1. Lironeca desterroensis sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae from the gills of a marine fish, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, of Santa Catarina Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatcher Vernon E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lironeca desterroensis sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae is described on the basis of 105 females and three males taken from the gill chambers of the marine fish, Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier,1829, obtained near Santa Catarina Island, Brazil. The new species resembles Lironeca redmanni Leach, 1818, in size and general appearance but differs from that species in a number of important respects. In the new species, the pleotelson is larger, the pleonites are laterally produced, the uropods have elongate and slender rami and the larval stage (Pullus II has a prominent frontal projection.

  2. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal

  3. Three dimensional marine seismic survey has no measurable effect on species richness or abundance of a coral reef associated fish community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A marine seismic survey was conducted at Scott Reef, North Western Australia. • Effects of the survey on demersal fish were gauged using underwater visual census. • There was no detectable impact of the seismic survey on species abundance. • There was no detectable impact of the seismic survey on species richness. -- Abstract: Underwater visual census was used to determine the effect of a three dimensional seismic survey on the shallow water coral reef slope associated fish community at Scott Reef. A census of the fish community was conducted on six locations at Scott Reef both before and after the survey. The census included small site attached demersal species belonging to the family Pomacentridae and larger roving demersal species belonging to the non-Pomacentridae families. These data were combined with a decade of historical data to assess the impact of the seismic survey. Taking into account spatial, temporal, spatio-temporal and observer variability, modelling showed no significant effect of the seismic survey on the overall abundance or species richness of Pomacentridae or non-Pomacentridae. The six most abundant species were also analysed individually. In all cases no detectable effect of the seismic survey was found on the abundance of these fish species at Scott Reef

  4. Is the nestedness of metazoan parasite assemblages of marine fishes from the southeastern Pacific coast a pattern associated with the geographical distributional range of the host?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M T; Oliva, M E

    2009-04-01

    Nested structure is a pattern originally described in island biogeography to characterize how a set of species is distributed among a set of islands. In parasite communities, nestedness has been intensively studied among individual fish from a locality. However, nested patterns among parasite assemblages from different host populations (localities) have scarcely been investigated. We recorded the occurrence of parasites in 9 fish species widely distributed along the southeastern Pacific coast to determine whether the ecto- and endoparasite assemblages of marine fishes show a nested structure associated with host distributional range. Nestedness was tested using Brualdi-Sanderson index of discrepancy (BR); and 5 null models incorporated in a 'Nestedness' programme (Ulrich, 2006). The ecto- and endoparasite richness do not show similar patterns of latitudinal gradients among fish hosts, with 33-66% of analysed ectoparasite assemblages, and 25-75% of endoparasite assemblages showing nested structures through the host distributional range. For ectoparasites, species richness gradients and nested structure (when present) might be associated with decreased host densities or could reflect negative environmental conditions in the distributional border of the host species, whereas for endoparasites might be caused by geographical breaks of prey or changes in prey availability (intermediate hosts). The sampled extension of the distributional range of the host species, as well as the lack of specificity of some parasites, could influence the detection of nestedness. PMID:19195414

  5. The use of Pb-210/Ra-226 and Th-228/Ra-228 dis-equilibria in the ageing of otoliths of marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally-occurring isotopes of radium are ideally suited as tracers for chemical uptake in the calcified tissues of marine organisms since radium is a water soluble, bio-geochemical analogue for calcium. Assays designed to exploit this uptake mechanism can be used to determine the longevity of certain species of fish. Measurements of Pb-210/Ra-226 disequilibria in the otoliths of redfish have revealed that this species of fish can live to ages in excess of 75 years in coastal waters off Nova Scotia, Canada. Measurements of the Th-228/Ra-228 disequilibria in the otoliths of the much shorter-lived silver hake and flying fish may provide estimates of longevity on time scales of 0-10 years, which could then be used to evaluate the accuracy of currently-used ageing models based on otolith annulus counts. Age determinations of fish based on natural radioisotopes can result in significant improvements in the assessment and management of certain fisheries resources. (author)

  6. Jellyfication of marine ecosystems as a likely consequence of overfishing small pelagic fishes : lessons from the Benguela

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Jean-Paul; van der Lingen, Carl D; Mark J. Gibbons; Moroff, Nadine E; Shannon, Lynne J.; Smith, Anthony DM; Cury, Philippe M.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in two contrasting ecosystems of the Benguela upwelling region, one dominated at mid-trophic level by jellyfishes (Namibia, northern Benguela ecosystem, where small pelagic fish abundance has been severely depleted) and one still dominated by small pelagic fishes (South Africa, southern Benguela) were compared in an effort to determine ecosystem trajectories under different exploitation regimes. The role of small pelagic fishes (clupeoids) was highlighted in the context of their impor...

  7. Monitoring the influence of marine aquaculture on wild fish communities: benefits and limitations of fatty acid profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Jover, Damian; Arechavala-Lopez, Pablo; Martínez Rubio, Laura; Tocher, Douglas R.; Bayle-Sempere, Just T.; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; Martínez-López, Francisco Javier; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA) have been applied as indicators of the influence of coastal sea-cage fish farming on wild fish communities in several recent scientific publications. Due to the relatively high conservation of FA composition throughout the food web, they are useful for characterizing trophic relationships. The increasing utilization of vegetable or alternative animal oils in the production of aquafeeds results in cultivated fish exhibiting higher levels of terrestrial FAs in their tissues. As...

  8. Environmental selection on transcriptome-derived SNPs in a high gene flow marine fish, the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten; Helyar, S.J.; de Bruyn, M.;

    2012-01-01

    High gene flow is considered the norm for most marine organisms and is expected to limit their ability to adapt to local environments. Few studies have directly compared the patterns of differentiation at neutral and selected gene loci in marine organisms. We analysed a transcriptome-derived panel...

  9. Functional responses and scaling in predator-prey interactions of marine fishes: contemporary issues and emerging concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunsicker, M.E.; Ciannelli, L.; Bailey, K.M.; Buckel, J.A.; White, J.W.; Link, J.S.; Essington, T.E.; Gaichas, S.; Anderson, T.W.; Brodeur, R.D.; Chan, K.S.; Chen, K.; Englund, G.; Frank, K.T.; Freitas, V.; Hixon, M.A.; Hurst, T.; Johnson, D.W.; Kitchell, J.F.; Reese, D.; Rose, G.A.; Sjodin, H.; Sydeman, W.J.; van der Veer, H.W.; Vollset, K.; Zador, S.

    2011-01-01

    Predatorprey interactions are a primary structuring force vital to the resilience of marine communities and sustainability of the worlds oceans. Human influences on marine ecosystems mediate changes in species interactions. This generality is evinced by the cascading effects of overharvesting top pr

  10. Concentration of Zn, Cu and Pb in Some Selected Marine Fishes of the Pahang Coastal Waters, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Y. Kamaruzzaman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Heavy metals constitute one of the most hazardous substances that could be accumulated in biota. Fish populations exploited by man often live in coastal area environments that contain high levels of heavy metals, coming from human activities such as industrial and agricultural wastes. A problem to deal when using fishes as biomonitors of heavy metals is the relationship existing between metal concentration and several intrinsic factors of the fish such as organism size, genetic composition and age of fish. Approach: Concentration of Zn, Cu and Pb were determined in eight commercially valuable fish species, Selaroides leptolepis, Euthynnus affinis, Parastromateus niger, Lutjanius malabaricus, Epinephelus sexfasciatus, Rastrelliger kanagurta, Nemipterus japonicus and Megalaspis cordyla from Pahang coastal water. The concentration was measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The study focuses on the level of Zn, Cu and Pb in order to assess the environmental pollution by using fishes as an indicator. Results: Concentrations of the heavy metals in examined fish species ranged as follow: Zn 19.27 µg g-1 dry weight; Cu 2.88 µg g-1 dry weight and Pb 0.26 µg g-1 dry weight, respectively. The concentrations of Zn, Cu and Pb were found to follow the order: stomach > muscle > gills. Significant correlations were found between fish weight and heavy metals concentration in the fish organs. Conclusion: The estimated values of all metals in muscles of fish in this study were below the established values. Therefore, it can be concluded that the fish from Pahang coastal water are comparatively clean and do not constitute a risk for human health.

  11. Marine n-3 fatty acid intake, glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in post-menopausal Chinese women in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Castelao, J Esteban; Sun, Can-Lan; Van Den Berg, David; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lee, Hin-Peng; Yu, Mimi C

    2004-11-01

    We have previously found marine n-3 fatty acids to be inversely related to post-menopausal breast cancer in Chinese women from Singapore. Post-menopausal women with high [quartiles 2-4 (Q2-Q4)] versus low [quartile 1 (Q1)] intake exhibited a statistically significant reduction in risk of breast cancer after adjustment for potential confounders [relative risk (RR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50, 0.87]. Experimental studies have demonstrated a direct role for the peroxidation products of marine n-3 fatty acids in breast cancer protection. There is a suggestion that the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) may be major catalysts in the elimination of these beneficial by-products. Therefore, we hypothesized that individuals possessing the low activity genotypes of GSTM1, GSTT1 and/or GSTP1 (i.e. the GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null and GSTP1 AB/BB genotypes, respectively) may exhibit a stronger marine n-3 fatty acid-breast cancer association than their high activity counterparts. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a prospective investigation involving 35,298 middle-aged and older women, who were enrolled between April 1993 and December 1998. In this case-control analysis, nested within the Singapore Chinese Health Study, we compared 258 incident breast cancer cases with 670 cohort controls. Overall, breast cancer risk was unrelated to GSTM1 and GSTP1 genotypes. However, the GSTT1 null genotype was associated with a 30% reduced risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.52, 0.96]. Among women with high activity GST genotypes (i.e. GSTM1 positive, GSTT1 positive and GSTP1 AA), no marine n-3 fatty acid-breast cancer relationships were observed in either pre-menopausal or post-menopausal women at baseline. However, post-menopausal women possessing the combined GSTM1 null and GSTP1 AB/BB genotypes showed a statistically significant reduction in risk after adjustment for potential confounders (Q2-Q4 versus Q1, OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.14, 0.94). A similar

  12. Marine ecosystem appropriation in the Indo-Pacific: a case study of the live reef fish food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley; Sadovy, Yvonne; Cesar, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Our ecological footprint analyses of coral reef fish fisheries and, in particular, the live reef fish food trade (FT), indicate many countries' current consumption exceeds estimated sustainable per capita global, regional and local coral reef production levels. Hong Kong appropriates 25% of SE Asia's annual reef fish production of 135 260-286 560 tonnes (t) through its FT demand, exceeding regional biocapacity by 8.3 times; reef fish fisheries demand out-paces sustainable production in the Indo-Pacific and SE Asia by 2.5 and 6 times. In contrast, most Pacific islands live within their own reef fisheries means with local demand at < 20% of total capacity in Oceania. The FT annually requisitions up to 40% of SE Asia's estimated reef fish and virtually all of its estimated grouper yields. Our results underscore the unsustainable nature of the FT and the urgent need for regional management and conservation of coral reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific.

  13. Effect of the parasitic isopod, Catoessa boscii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), a buccal cavity parasite of the marine fish, Carangoides malabaricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganapathy Rameshkumar; Samuthirapandian Ravichandran

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of isopod parasite Catoessa boscii (C. boscii) on Carangoides malabaricus (C. malabaricus). Methods:The host fish C. malabaricus infested by C. boscii were collected directly from the trawlers landed at Parangipettai coast during December 2008 to November 2009. Data regarding the total length, width, weight and sex of the host fish were recorded. Effect of infestation on C. malabaricus, the length and weight data were analysed and host specificity of isopods was also examined. Results:During the sampling period, 585 C. malabaricus were examined. Among them, 218 specimens were found to carry 243 parasites. Three pairs of isopods (one male with one female) were recorded from the host fish and each pair was attached to the tongue in the buccal cavity of the host. Another pair was also found where the male and male, female and female isopod had settled on the tongue in the buccal cavity. Gross lesions observed in the buccal cavity of infested fish showed small pin-holes in the tongue region, through which dactyls of pereopod’s penetrating claws dig into the host tissues. The maximum weight loss was reported in females (5.43%) than in males (3.75%) of C. malabaricus. Due to infestation of different isopod parasites in both male and female fish, the effects on the length-weight relationship of C. malabaricus were compared. The rate of increased growth in weight in uninfested female fish was found to be higher than that of the infested. The weight gain is faster in uninfested fish than in the infested fish. Conclusions:From the above mentioned observations, it is clear that the worst of fish on account of the infestation of isopods are the C. malabaricus succumbed to the attack of isopod parasites. Although, the infestation did not cause immediate death, it had affected the normal growth of the host fish.

  14. Gendered Disparities in Quality of Cataract Surgery in a Marginalised Population in Pakistan: The Karachi Marine Fishing Communities Eye and General Health Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabir Ahmad

    Full Text Available Marine fishing communities are among the most marginalised and hard-to-reach groups and have been largely neglected in health research. We examined the quality of cataract surgery and its determinants, with an emphasis on gender, in marine fishing communities in Karachi, Pakistan, using multiple indicators of performance.The Karachi Marine Fishing Communities Eye and General Health Survey was a door-to-door, cross-sectional study conducted between March 2009 and April 2010 in fishing communities living on 7 islands and in coastal areas in Keamari, Karachi, located on the Arabian Sea. A population-based sample of 638 adults, aged ≥ 50 years, was studied. A total of 145 eyes (of 97 persons had undergone cataract surgery in this sample. Cataract surgical outcomes assessed included vision (presenting and best-corrected with a reduced logMAR chart, satisfaction with surgery, astigmatism, and pupil shape. Overall, 65.5% of the operated eyes had some form of visual loss (presenting visual acuity [PVA] < 6/12. 55.2%, 29.0%, and 15.9% of these had good, borderline, and poor visual outcomes based on presenting vision; with best correction, these values were: 68.3 %, 18.6%, and 13.1%, respectively. Of 7 covariates evaluated in the multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEE analyses, gender was the only significant independent predictor of visual outcome. Women's eyes were nearly 4.38 times more likely to have suboptimal visual outcome (PVA<6/18 compared with men's eyes (adjusted odds ratio 4.38, 95% CI 1.96-9.79; P<0.001 after adjusting for the effect of household financial status. A higher proportion of women's than men's eyes had an irregular pupil (26.5% vs. 14.8% or severe/very severe astigmatism (27.5% vs. 18.2%. However, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Overall, more than one fourth (44/144 of cataract surgeries resulted in dissatisfaction. The only significant predictor of satisfaction was visual outcome (P <0

  15. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  16. Biogeographic Characterization of Fish Communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (2006 - 2007) (NODC Accession 0118358)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The overarching goal of this collaboration was to provide the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) staff with information on biogeographic...

  17. Hysterothylacium gibsoni sp. nov. and H. tetrapteri (Bruce et Cannon, 1989) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the Chinese marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Li, Liang; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2014-06-01

    A new species of ascaridoid nematode, Hysterothylacium gibsoni sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from the intestine of the slender lizardfish Saurida elongata (Temminck et Schlegel) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) in the Yellow Sea, China. The new species differs from its congeners by its small body size (12.8-13.2 mm), the absence of cervical alae, a very short intestinal caecum (representing 8.86-9.52% of oesophageal length) and a long ventricular appendix (intestinal caecum to ventricular appendix ratio 1:15.3-20.0), short spicules (0.38-0.41 mm, representing 2.97-3.11% of body length), the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae (25-28 pairs arranged as follows: 18-22 pairs precloacal, 3 pairs paracloacal, and 3-4 pairs postcloacal). In addition, Hysterothylacium tetrapteri (Bruce et Cannon, 1989) is also redescribed based on the material collected from the striped marlin Kajikia audax (Philippi) (Perciformes: Istiophoridae) in the South China Sea. PMID:24827106

  18. The cultivation of Acartia tonsa Dana for use as a live food source for marine fish larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Richardson, Katherine; Kirkegaard, Eskild; Pihl, Niels Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    The marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa has been continuously cultivated in the laboratory at the Danish Institute for Fisheries and Marine Research for over 70 generations. A description of the cultivation procedures is presented in this paper. Adult copepods are maintained in 200–450-l tanks ...... and are fed the cryptophyte Rhodomonas baltica. The concentration of adult copepods is held between 50 and 100/l. Eggs are harvested daily and, on average, ca. 25 eggs are collected per female per day....

  19. The Effect of 17α-Ethynylestradiol on Steroidogenesis and Gonadal Cytokine Gene Expression Is Related to the Reproductive Stage in Marine Hermaphrodite Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollutants have been reported to disrupt the endocrine system of marine animals, which may be exposed through contaminated seawater or through the food chain. Although 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2, a drug used in hormone therapies, is widely present in the aquatic environment, current knowledge on the sensitivity of marine fish to estrogenic pollutants is limited. We report the effect of the dietary intake of 5 µg EE2/g food on different processes of testicular physiology, ranging from steroidogenesis to pathogen recognition, at both pre-spermatogenesis (pre-SG and spermatogenesis (SG reproductive stages, of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., a marine hermaphrodite teleost. A differential effect between pre-SG and SG specimens was detected in the sex steroid serum levels and in the expression profile of some steroidogenic-relevant molecules, vitellogenin, double sex- and mab3-related transcription factor 1 and some hormone receptors. Interestingly, EE2 modified the expression pattern of some immune molecules involved in testicular physiology. These differences probably reflect a developmental adjustment of the sensitivity to EE2 in the gilthead seabream gonad.

  20. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  1. Structure and seasonal variability of fish food webs in an estuarine tropical marine protected area (Senegal): Evidence from stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Djibril; Tito de Morais, Luis; Raffray, Jean; Sadio, Oumar; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Le Loc'h, François

    2011-05-01

    West African tropical estuaries play an important role in the growth and survival of many commercially exploited fish species and enable the sustainability of considerable artisanal fishery yields. However, their trophic functioning remains poorly understood. In the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal), a marine protected area (MPAs) was designated in 2003 to manage fisheries resources. The present study aimed to determine the structure, trophic functioning and seasonal patterns of the fish assemblages in this MPA. Throughout the study, 28 fish species were collected, with higher values of biomass (3826 kg km -2) recorded during the wet season and lower values during the dry season (1228 kg km -2). Fish assemblages in both seasons were dominated by species with marine affinity, which accounted for 87% of the total biomass in the wet season and 70% in the dry season, with their abundance varying from 83% to 57%, respectively. Based on stable isotopic composition (δ 13C and δ 15N), species were combined into trophic groups. Primary consumers were partitioned into suspensivores (pelagic copepods, oysters and mussels), which fed mainly on particulate organic matter, and intermediate consumers, feeding on freshly deposited organic matter and benthic microalgae ( Sarotherodon melanotheron and Arca senilis). Secondary consumers were divided into three groups. The first group included mullet, which fed by grazing on benthic microalgae (benthic affinity feeders). The second group, pelagic affinity feeders, was the most heterogeneous and fed mainly on pelagic components. The last secondary consumer group termed the intermediate group, included piscivores and benthic and pelagic invertebrate feeders, which dominated the top of the food web. The food chain in October was lengthened due to the occurrence of tertiary consumers. Food webs were dominated by secondary consumers, which constituted 89% of total biomass in the dry season and 71% in the wet season. The fish food web varied

  2. Size fraction analysis of fish-derived carbonates in shallow sub-tropical marine environments and a potentially unrecognised origin for peloidal carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael A.; Perry, Chris T.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2014-12-01

    Marine bony fish are now known as primary producers of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, within the shallow sub-tropical platform settings of the Bahamas, this production process has been shown to occur at rates relevant to carbonate sediment production budgets. Fish excrete these carbonates as loosely aggregated pellets which, post-excretion, exhibit a range of distinctive crystal morphologies and have mineralogies ranging from low (0-4 mol% MgCO3) to high (4-40 mol% MgCO3) Mg-calcites, aragonite and amorphous carbonate phases. Here we provide the first quantitative assessment of the size fractions of the carbonates produced by a range of tropical fish species, and document the extent of post-excretion carbonate pellet break down under a range of physical agitation conditions. Specifically, we document the morphologies and size fractions of: i) intact pellets at the point of excretion; ii) intact pellets after agitation in seawater; and iii) the particles released from pellets post-disaggregation. Results indicate that fish-derived pellets initially fall within the very fine to very coarse sand fractions. Exposure to conditions of moderate seawater agitation for 30 days results in significant pellet diminution; 66% of initial pellet mass being released as individual particles, whilst 34% is retained as partially intact pellets that are smaller (fine sand-grade) and more rounded than initial pellets. In contrast, pellets exposed to very gently agitated conditions for up to 200 days show little change. Where pellet disaggregation does occur, particles are commonly released as individual clay- and silt-grade crystals. However, some morphotypes (e.g., polycrystalline spheres) can be intergrown and are released as strongly cohesive particle clusters falling within the coarse silt to fine sand fractions. Only very vigorous agitation may disaggregate such particles, resulting in the release of their component clay-grade crystals. We conclude that fish-derived carbonates

  3. Elucidating the identity of Anisakis larvae from a broad range of marine fishes from the Yellow Sea, China, using a combined electrophoretic-sequencing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunxia; Zhang, Luping; Shi, Meiqing; Ming, Zhu; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B

    2010-01-01

    Larval nematodes were collected from marine fishes from the Yellow Sea, China. Specimens (n=1731) of Anisakis type I from 311 fishes (representing 40 species) were each identified based on morphological characters. From the genomic DNA from individual specimens, a region of nuclear ribosomal DNA was amplified by PCR, followed by digestion with restriction endonuclease HinfI, TaqI or HhaI. Subsequently, the ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of selected samples were sequenced. The results revealed three species of Anisakis, namely Anisakis pegreffii (n=1709), A. typica (n=3) and a genotype (n=19) proposed, also based on comparison with previous studies, to be a "hybrid" between A. pegreffii and A. simplex sensu stricto. Thus, A. pegreffii was the dominant species, accounting for 98.7% of the total number of specimens examined herein. This is the first report of A. typica and the "hybrid" genotype from fishes from the Yellow Sea. This study provides important basic information on Anisakis in this region and suggests that the genus Anisakis has substantial host and geographical distributions. PMID:20108262

  4. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae: Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A'wani Aziz Nurdalila

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish.

  5. Nearshore marine fish diversity in southern California using trawl information from the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of mean fish diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  6. Marine ecosystem appropriation in the Indo-Pacific: a case study of the live reef fish food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley; Sadovy, Yvonne; Cesar, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Our ecological footprint analyses of coral reef fish fisheries and, in particular, the live reef fish food trade (FT), indicate many countries' current consumption exceeds estimated sustainable per capita global, regional and local coral reef production levels. Hong Kong appropriates 25% of SE Asia's annual reef fish production of 135 260-286 560 tonnes (t) through its FT demand, exceeding regional biocapacity by 8.3 times; reef fish fisheries demand out-paces sustainable production in the Indo-Pacific and SE Asia by 2.5 and 6 times. In contrast, most Pacific islands live within their own reef fisheries means with local demand at unsustainable nature of the FT and the urgent need for regional management and conservation of coral reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific.

  7. POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF A NON-MIGRATORY MARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETERCLITUS ACROSS A STRONG GRADIENT OF PCB CONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus indigenous to contaminated sites exhibit heritable resistance to some of the toxic effects of early life-stage exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This evolved tolerance provides evidence of strong selection by PCB...

  8. Isolation and characterization of acid-soluble collagen from the scales of marine fishes from Japan and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh Thuy, Le Thi; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi

    2014-04-15

    Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) was successfully extracted from the scales of lizard fish (Saurida spp.) and horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) from Japan and Vietnam and grey mullet (Mugil cephalis), flying fish (Cypselurus melanurus) and yellowback seabream (Dentex tumifrons) from Japan. ASC yields were about 0.43-1.5% (on a dry weight basis), depending on the species. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the ASCs were type I collagens, and consisted of two different α chains, α1 and α2, as well as a β component. ASC of horse mackerel from Vietnam contained a higher imino acid level than that from Japan. ASC denaturation temperature (Td) ranged from 26 to 29 °C, depending on fish species and imino acid content (pcollagens was observed at pHs 1-3. Collagen solubility decreased sharply at NaCl concentrations >0.4M, regardless of fish type. PMID:24295705

  9. Effects of offshore drilling activities on some selected marine fish species (A case study at the Saltpond Oil Field)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of some heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in gills, liver and muscle and the levels of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in muscles of some selected fish collected from the coast of Saltpond and Jamestown were determined. Quantitative determination of the heavy metals was determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) The validation of the heavy metal procedure was performed by analysis of standard reference material (DORM-2 Dogfish Muscles) in NAA while that of PCBs compounds were performed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry detection (MC-MS). Hg and Pb were under the detection limits for most of the fish tissues with the exception of Sphyraena sphyraena caught from Jamestown, which measured a Pb concentration of 0.56 μg/g in the muscles but was below Turkish guidelines of 1μg/g. Fishes from Saltpond had only As and Mn measured in them with the rest of the metals below detection. A high concentration of arsenic (0.46 to 13.32 μg/g) which was far above the guideline of 1 μg/g (SASO) was measured while concentration of Mn for all fishes measured was below guidelines. However, fishes from Jamestown had most of the heavy metals detected in them but were all below guidelines. The seven indicator PCBs (IUPAC No 18, 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) were determined in the muscles of the fishes. PCBs were found in all samples from Saltpond while Jamestown had PCB 18 not detected in any of the fishes. Total PCBs in fishes from Saltpond and Jamestown were 82.81 ng/g and 35.06 ng/g respectively. None of the fish recorded a total PCB above 200ng/g which is the permissible level (EC, 2001). From the risk assessment, consumers of all ages are likely to contract arsenic-related diseases through the consumption of fish from Saltpond since the arsenic concentration in all fishes examined were very high making the PHQs (1.738 to 58.178) values greater than 1. The

  10. Fish farm ecology : a conceptual framework and empirical investigation of the CSR performance of Marine Harvest ASA and Cermaq ASA

    OpenAIRE

    Bundli, Vidar Andersen; Liltvedt, Kristian Korvald

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this master thesis is to give business participants, regulatory authorities, researchers and the broader community awareness of priority areas within the fish farming industry. In this sense, we have developed a conceptual framework; Fish Farm Ecology (FFE). The FFE model equates three spheres; economy, ecology, and ichthyology. It has flexibility and can be used both as an analytical tool for a broader interest group and as a management tool for companies within the industry. ...

  11. Evaluating seasonal dynamics of bacterial communities in marine fish aquaculture: a preliminary study before applying phage therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, C; Salvador, S.; Arrojado, C.; Silva, Y.; A.L. Santos; Cunha, A.; Gomes, N.; Almeida, A.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing problem of antibiotic resistance in common pathogenic bacteria and the concern about the spreading of antibiotics in the environment bring the need to find new methods to control fish pathogens. Phage therapy represents a potential alternative to antibiotics, but its use in aquaculture requires a detailed understanding of bacterial communities, namely of fish pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, in this study the seasonal dynamics of the overall bacterial communities, microbiologica...

  12. Evaluating mercury biomagnification in fish from a tropical marine environment using stable isotopes (delta13C and delta15N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Reasi, Hassan A; Ababneh, Fuad A; Lean, David R

    2007-08-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were measured in zooplankton and 13 fish species from a coastal food web of the Gulf of Oman, an arm of the Arabian Sea between Oman and Iran. Stable isotope ratios (delta13C and delta15N) also were determined to track mercury biomagnification. The average concentration of T-Hg in zooplankton was 21 +/- 8.0 ng g(-1) with MeHg accounting 10% of T-Hg. Total mercury levels in fish species ranged from 3.0 ng g(-1) (Sardinella longiceps) to 760 ng g(-1) (Rhizoprionodon acutus) with relatively lower fraction of MeHg (72%) than that found in other studies. The average trophic difference (Deltadelta13C) between zooplankton and planktivorous fish (Selar crumenopthalmus, Rastrelliger kanagurta, and S. longiceps) was higher (3.4 per thousandth) than expected, suggesting that zooplankton may not be the main diet or direct carbon source for these fish species. However, further sampling would be required to compensate for temporal changes in zooplankton and the influence of their lipid content. Trophic position inferred by delta15N and and slopes of the regression equations (log10[T-Hg] = 0.13[delta15N] - 3.57 and log10[MeHg] = 0.14[delta15N] - 3.90) as estimates of biomagnification indicate that biomagnification of T-Hg and MeHg was lower in this tropical ocean compared to what has been observed in arctic and temperate ecosystems and tropical African lakes. The calculated daily intake of methylmercury in the diet of local people through fish consumption was well below the established World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake threshold for most of the fish species except Euthynnus affinis, Epinephelus epistictus, R. acutus, and Thunnus tonggol, illustrating safe consumption of the commonly consumed fish species. PMID:17702328

  13. Three new records of copepods (Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on marine fishes of Iraq, including the relegation of two species of Lernanthropinus to Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Moon, Seong Yong; Adday, Thamir Katea; Khamees, Najim Rijab; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2014-03-01

    Three parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) belonging to three different genera were recovered from marine fishes of Iraq, and are listed here as new records. The sea lice Caligus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 (Caligidae) was collected from the Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch). It had been frequently reported from teleost fishes around the world. The second record, comprising male and female, was another caligid, rarely caught from fishes - Hermilius longicornis Bassett-Smith, 1898, collected from the giant catfish, Netuma thalassina (Rüppell). This paper features the first description of the male of the latter species. The third record was the lernanthropid, Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864) (Lernanthropidae), redescribed based on the specimens collected from the greater lizard fish, Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Synodontidae). In order to clarify its taxonomic status, our specimen was compared with the holotype of L. gibbosus (Pillai, 1964) from the collections of Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, and the syntypes of L. sauridae Do in Ho and Do, 1985 and L. temminckii from the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. We found similarities in the morphology of the body, mouthparts, and legs 1-4 in three above-mentioned species. The prominent feature, the setation pattern of legs 1 and 2 was similar in all the female specimens examined. In the light of this, we formally relegate L. gibbosus and L. sauridae to synonymy with L. temminckii. Another important similarity is that Lernanthropinus gibbosus, L. sauridae, and L. temminckii have exclusively been parasitic on lizardfishes (Synodontidae). The attachment site of all three copepods reported form Iraq were the gill filaments. PMID:24570061

  14. 海洋鱼类摄食生态与食物网研究进展%Marine fish feeding ecology and food web:progress and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜云榕; 卢伙胜; 金显仕

    2011-01-01

    This paper firstly summarized the experimental methods on marine fish feeding ecology and food web ,mainly including stomach contents analysis, stable isotope analysis, compound-specific stable isotope analysis and behavior methods, their development and current applications.Secondly, the progress and achievement of fish diet composition, foraging types, food consumption and distribution in body were introduced.The strategies of marine food web research based on traditional stomach contents analysis,focusing on simplified food web, developing in stable isotope analysis techniques and ecosystem modeling were also presented.Finally, the trends of marine fish feeding ecology and food web research were predicted;furthermore, the problems and deficiency of the development and research in this field in China were discussed.%首先总结归纳了海洋鱼类摄食生态与食物网研究中的实验方法,主要包括胃含物分析法、碳氮稳定同位素法、特定化合物同位素法等实验方法的发展历史和应用现状;随后介绍了海洋鱼类摄食生态与食物网最新研究进展和取得的成绩,主要包括海洋鱼类摄食生态中食物组成、摄食方式、摄食量和食物用于机体各种生命活动分配方式,以及海洋食物网研究中以传统胃含物分析法为基础、以简化食物网为核心,碳氮稳定同位素技术和生态系统模型的应用发展;最后,着重分析了我国海洋鱼类摄食生态和食物网研究中有待解决的问题,并对该领域今后的发展趋势进行了展望.

  15. Monthly variation in the Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and other safety issues in some marine and fresh water fish species in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish is one of the major sources of animal protein in Ghana and the fisheries industry is vital to the economy of the country. Unfortunately, most of the aquatic systems in Ghana are being polluted with domestic and industrial wastes which results in bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species. The traditional method for preserving fish in the country is by hot smoking or smoke drying, through freezing may be preferred where facilities are available. The presence of high levels of heavy metals in both fresh and smoked fish as well as other fish products is a matter of public health concern in Ghana. Variations in the level of bioaccumulation of heavy metals in both fresh and smoked marine fish, Sebastes marinus (red fish) and fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus (tilapia) caught off the coast of James Town in Accra and from the Volta river at Kpong respectively were monitored monthly from September 2013 to March 2014. Extension of two shelf life of the smoked fish species by gamma irradiation was also studied during 4 weeks of low temperature (5± 1 C) storage by refrigeration. The total concentration of Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Cobalt (Co), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Arsenic (As) and Mercury (Hg) in the fish species as well as in their muscles, gills and bones were determined by Flame or Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The moisture content, pH, sensory analysis and population of aerobic mesophiles (on PCA), yeast and moulds (on OGYE), Escherichia coli (on EMB), Staphylococcus aureus (on BPA) and Salmonella (on XLD) in fresh fish, and smoked fish after treatment with 1, 2 and 3kGy of gamma irradiation and during storage were determined. Four patterns in the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in both Sebastes marinus and Oreochromis niloticus were observed over the 6 months monitoring period. Fe, Cu, Co and Cr accumulated heavily in the fish species during September and October after which the

  16. Vaccine:A crucial support for industrial upgrading of marine fish farming in China%疫苗:我国海水鱼类养殖业向工业化转型的重要支撑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马悦; 张元兴; 雷霁霖

    2014-01-01

    国际上水产养殖发达国家和地区的成功产业实践证实,接种疫苗在规模化、集约化的海水鱼类工业化进程中扮演着重要角色。疫苗的广泛应用为大幅度减少抗生素等化学药物的使用起到显著效应,为海水养殖业的健康和可持续发展发挥着关键性的产业支撑作用。中国作为世界上产量遥遥领先的水产养殖大国,以鱼类为代表的海水养殖业正在向工业化转型升级,而日益严重的病害和水产品安全问题正成为我国海水鱼类养殖业获得更大发展的制约性障碍之一。随着国家鲆鲽类产业技术体系为代表的海水鱼类疫苗的研究和商业化开发所取得的不断突破,我国海水鱼类养殖业的病害防治策略正在朝着以疫苗接种为核心的产业方向快速迈进。%Vaccination plays an important role in large-scale and intensive commercial ma-rine fish farming. Vaccines have significant positive impact on the reduced usage of antibiotics and have been a key reason for the successes of the healthy and sustainable development in ma-rine fish aquaculture industries of developed countries and regions in the world. China,the world’s largest fish producer,has been in the time of industrial transformation and upgrading on marine fish farming,however the increasing serious problems of fish diseases and food safe-ty have become one of the executing barriers for the greater progress in marine fish farming. With continuous technical breakthroughs in research and commercial development of marine fish vaccines funded by national industry system of flounder fishes,vaccination will be the core strategy of disease control and prevention in China’s marine fish aquaculture.

  17. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    the East China Sea. The identification of A. typica, recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii, H. amoyense and H. fabri is first reported in this area. The wide diversity and substantial geographical distributions of these nematodes will provide a foundation for future studies of Anisakidae family. The high prevalence of these nematodes in marine fishes off the East China Sea may pose considerable food safety problems, which is a potential cause of human anisakiasis. PMID:25617845

  18. Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the Western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gi Hoon [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, 1270 Sa 2 dong, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Baskaran, Mark, E-mail: Baskaran@wayne.edu [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Molaroni, Shannon Marie [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Lee, Hyun-Mi [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, 1270 Sa 2 dong, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) and natural radionculides ({sup 40} K, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of {sup 90}Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg{sup -1} and {sup 137}Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg{sup -1}.{sup 137}Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average {sup 137}Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in {sup 210}Pb, {sup 40} K, and {sup 226}Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total {sup 210}Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported {sup 210}Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess {sup 210}Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, {sup 137}Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, {sup 210}Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 {mu}SV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological

  19. Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the Western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic (90Sr and 137Cs) and natural radionculides (40 K, 210Pb and 226Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of 90Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg-1 and 137Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg-1.137Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average 137Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in 210Pb, 40 K, and 226Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total 210Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported 210Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess 210Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, 137Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, 210Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, 40K and 226Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to 90Sr and 137Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 μSV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological threat to humans. - Highlights: → Quantification of radiation dose to humans from the ingestion of fish, muskox, and caribou Arctic

  20. Dichelyne (Dichelyne) spinigerus sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the marine fish Otolithes ruber (Sciaenidae) off Iran and first description of the male of Philometra otolithi Moravec et Manoharan, 2013 (Nematoda: Philometridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Khosheghbal, M.; Pazooki, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2014), s. 229-237. ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Dichelyne * Philometra * marine fish * Otolithes * Iran Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.905, year: 2014

  1. Inorganic elemental determinations of marine traditional Chinese Medicine Meretricis concha from Jiaozhou Bay: The construction of inorganic elemental fingerprint based on chemometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mingying; Li, Xuejie; Zheng, Kang; Jiang, Man; Yan, Cuiwei; Li, Yantuan

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the relationship between the inorganic elemental fingerprint and the geographical origin identification of Meretricis concha, which is a commonly used marine traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of asthma and scald burns. For that, the inorganic elemental contents of Meretricis concha from five sampling points in Jiaozhou Bay have been determined by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and the comparative investigations based on the contents of 14 inorganic elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) of the samples from Jiaozhou Bay and the previous reported Rushan Bay were performed. It has been found that the samples from the two bays are approximately classified into two kinds using hierarchical cluster analysis, and a four-factor model based on principle component analysis could explain approximately 75% of the detection data, also linear discriminant analysis can be used to develop a prediction model to distinguish the samples from Jiaozhou Bay and Rushan Bay with accuracy of about 93%. The results of the present investigation suggested that the inorganic elemental fingerprint based on the combination of the measured elemental content and chemometric analysis is a promising approach for verifying the geographical origin of Meretricis concha, and this strategy should be valuable for the authenticity discrimination of some marine TCM.

  2. Temperature-dependent toxicities of nano zinc oxide to marine diatom, amphipod and fish in relation to its aggregation size and ion dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stella W Y; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-08-01

    This study, for the first time, concurrently investigated the influence of seawater temperature, exposure concentration and time on the aggregation size and ion dissolution of nano zinc oxides (nZnO) in seawater, and the interacting effect of temperature and waterborne exposure of nZnO to the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum, amphipod Melita longidactyla and fish Oryzias melastigma, respectively. Our results showed that aggregate size was jointly affected by seawater temperature, nZnO concentration and exposure time. Among the three factors, the concentration of nZnO was the most important and followed by exposure time, whereas temperature was less important as reflected by their F values in the three-way analysis of variance (concentration: F3, 300 = 247.305; time: F2, 300 = 20.923 and temperature: F4, 300 = 4.107; All p values <0.001). The aggregate size generally increased with increasing nZnO concentration and exposure time. The release of Zn ions from nZnO was significantly influenced by seawater temperature and exposure time; the ion dissolution rate generally increased with decreasing temperature and increasing exposure time. Growth inhibition of diatoms increased with increasing temperature, while temperature and nZnO had an interactional effect on their photosynthesis. For the amphipod, mortality was positively correlated with temperature. Fish larvae growth rate was only affected by temperature but not nZnO, while the two factors interactively modulated the expression of heat shock and metallothionein proteins. Evidently, temperature can influence aggregate size and ion dissolution and thus toxicity of nZnO to the marine organisms in a species-specific manner. PMID:24219175

  3. A Comparative Study of the Influence of Energy Level in the Fillet and Food Intake of Economically Important Marine-and-Freshwater Fish Species from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Javed Kamal Shamsi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy content interms of calories/ gram dry weight in the fillet as well as in the food as the dietary ratio of some economically important fishes from different habitat (Marine and freshwater were determined by two methods; The Organic Carbon and The Karzinkin Tarkovaskaya. The energy value of the nutrients in the fillet/food was determined by these two methods which were highly significant (p<0.001 and in order [Rastrillegar kanagurta(988.50/8251.66 and 12088.28/8694.46 Joules gm-1; Lethrinus lentjan (7274.80/ 5544.50 and 9237.30/ 5978.26 Joules gm-1; Aphareus rutilans (6891.56/ 4813.56 and 9092 58/ 5136.78 Joules gm-1 and Chanos chanos (6681.50/ 5120.56 and 8841.48/ 5520.54 Joules gm-1] in Marine water fishes. As compare to other environment of freshwater, the order was as such, Clarius gariepinus (7888.61/6613.83 and 8779.25/7290.40 Joules gm-1 Oreochromis niloticus (6103.00/4778.69 and 6896.20/5584.16 Joules gm-1; Cyprinus carpio (5639.38/4276.49 and 6370.41/4942.18 Joules gm-1 and Gara tibanica (4353. 22/3300.45 and 3882.73/2680.53 Joules gm-1 respectively. The moisture content and the ratio of energetic values of fillet/food were also determined and tabulated. Consistency of the results obtained indicate the reliability of the method used and to explain the validity of conversion factor from weight to energy which will be useful for general estimation of energy contents and energy flow in aquatic ecosystem.

  4. FCJ-167 Spraying, fishing, looking for trouble: The Chinese Internet and a critical perspective on the concept of trolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele de Seta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet research has dealt with trolls from many different perspectives, framing them as agents of disruption, nomadic hate breeders and lowbrow cynics spawned by the excessive freedoms of online interaction, or as legitimate and necessary actors in the ecology of online communities. Yet, the question remains: what is a troll, where it come from and where does it belong? Presenting the results of a brief troll-hunt on the Chinese Internet and discussing the features of troll-like figures in Chinese digital folklore, I argue in favour of a localised understanding of Internet cultures, presenting trolling as a culture-specific construct that has come to embody disparate kinds of online behaviour and to function as an umbrella term for different kinds of discourse about the Internet itself.

  5. Effects of fish cytochromes P450 inducers and inhibitors on difloxacin N-demethylation in kidney of Chinese idle (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling Zhi; Yang, Xian Le

    2010-05-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play key roles in drug metabolism which are widely distributed in kidney in aquatic organisms. CYP(s) mainly catalyzed the N-demethylation reaction of difloxacin (DIF) biotransformation to sarafloxacin (SAR). However, limited information is available about CYP investigation in fish. In order to supply useful information on CYP(s) characterization for DIF N-demethylation, the present study assessed the effects of fish potent CYP inducers and inhibitors on DIF N-demethylation and the inductive and inhibitive enzyme kinetics in kidney of Chinese idle (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Results demonstrated that the amounts of SAR formation pretreated by β-naphthoflavone (BNF) increased by 1.1-fold and α-naphthoflavone (ANF) inhibited SAR formation level by 0.6-fold at the third day. Enzymatic parameters V(max) and Cl(int) of DIF N-demethylase were increased by 0.56- and 0.38-fold due to β-naphthoflavone (BNF) pretreatment. DIF N-demethylation inhibition by varying ANF concentrations represented a mixed-type inhibition with the value of the inhibition constants (K(i)) 12.9mg/kg. BNF and ANF are the separate typical inducer and inhibitor for CYP1A in fish. Thus, we suggest that CYP1A may be responsible for DIF N-demethylation in kidney. This study provides instructive information to ensure treatment success in fisheries medication with two or more drugs. PMID:21787603

  6. Chinese Marine Materia Medica. By Huashi Guan and Shuguang Wang. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, China Ocean Press, and Chemical Industry Press: Shanghai, Beijing, China, 2009; Hardback, 7064 pp; ¥ 2920; ISBN 978-7-5323-9958-1/R•2707; ISBN 978-7-5323-9973-4/R•2708; ISBN 978-7-1220-6012-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica, Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy. A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, collected over thousands of years, has provided an important foundation for modern research in the area of marine drugs. Thanks to these records and references, the research and development of modern Chinese marine drugs continue to evolve and mature. Since the middle of the 20th century, special attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicine, resulting in a significant increase in the number of newly discovered marine herbs. Comprehensive surveys in the past have also created a wealth of data on the pharmacology, chemistry, biology and ecology of marine medicinal bioresources. After thousands of years of research, historical references to traditional marine herbs are scattered throughout ancient books, local chronicles, medical books, or monographs on medicinal herbs. Unfortunately, there is no systematic way to collate or scientifically verify these references. Furthermore, during the last century, scientists around the world have accumulated large quantities of information on marine natural products, but these are also scattered throughout academic books and journals.

  7. The statue and countermeasures of Chinese exports for living fish%我国出口鲜活鱼类现状及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珮; 汤志旭; 刘凡; 高昕

    2014-01-01

    入世以来,我国出口鲜活鱼类产品时有农兽药残留高、检测不合格、安全卫生措施不符合要求、认证体系不完善等情况发生,给国家和企业造成不良影响和不同程度的损失。针对这一问题,本文首先阐述了我国鲜活鱼类产品出口贸易现状;其次分析了欧美日等主要水产品贸易国应对此类问题的措施及贸易壁垒情况,并从养殖环境中各种有害成分的沉积及迁移、鱼病防治及渔药使用、饲料安全、水体自身所含的有害物及清理水中杂草所用药物、养殖过程中的人员操作等五个方面提出我国活鱼产业发展对策和解决方法;最后提出我国出口活鱼贸易的建议和展望,并在此基础上建立适用于我国的活鱼养殖安全体系,提升出口活鱼的质量安全,加强出口企业的国际竞争力,扩大活鱼出口的国际市场,以促进我国相关产业的发展。%Since joining into the WTO, China's export for living fish products has been reported, returned or retreated by different nations, because of their high veterinary drugs residues, inspection disqualification, non-conformance term of health and safety requirements, incomprehensive of the certification system and so on, which makes bad influences to the state and enterprises with different losses. In order to solve this problem, this article expounds the living fish products export trade status quo in China at first. Then, it analyzes the main requirements for aquatic products trading from different countries, such as Europe, America and Japan, to deal with such problems and barriers of trade. Furthermore, this article puts forward countermeasures and solutions in the course of developing Chinese living fish industry from five aspects-all kinds of harmful ingredients from aquaculture environment of sedimentation and migration, fish disease and veterinary drugs, the security of feedstuff and feed additives, the poisonous

  8. The statue and countermeasures of Chinese exports for living fish%我国出口鲜活鱼类现状及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珮; 汤志旭; 刘凡; 高昕

    2014-01-01

    Since joining into the WTO, China's export for living fish products has been reported, returned or retreated by different nations, because of their high veterinary drugs residues, inspection disqualification, non-conformance term of health and safety requirements, incomprehensive of the certification system and so on, which makes bad influences to the state and enterprises with different losses. In order to solve this problem, this article expounds the living fish products export trade status quo in China at first. Then, it analyzes the main requirements for aquatic products trading from different countries, such as Europe, America and Japan, to deal with such problems and barriers of trade. Furthermore, this article puts forward countermeasures and solutions in the course of developing Chinese living fish industry from five aspects-all kinds of harmful ingredients from aquaculture environment of sedimentation and migration, fish disease and veterinary drugs, the security of feedstuff and feed additives, the poisonous water and the drugs cleaned up the water weeds, and artificial breeding technology. Finally, the article brings up suggestions and outlook of China's export of fresh fish trade, and on this basis to establish suitable China's export of fresh fish breeding security system, to promote the quality and safety of China's export of fresh fish, to strengthen the international competitiveness of export enterprises, to expand the export’s of fresh fish in the international market, and to promote development of the relevant industries in China.%入世以来,我国出口鲜活鱼类产品时有农兽药残留高、检测不合格、安全卫生措施不符合要求、认证体系不完善等情况发生,给国家和企业造成不良影响和不同程度的损失。针对这一问题,本文首先阐述了我国鲜活鱼类产品出口贸易现状;其次分析了欧美日等主要水产品贸易国应对此类问题的措施及贸易壁垒情况,并

  9. Linking δ15N and histopathological effects in molluscs exposed in situ to effluents from land-based marine fish farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Land-based marine aquaculture effluents induce branchial exfoliation and phagocytic haemocytosis in exposed molluscs. ► Transplanted clams are more sensitive to aquaculture discharges than native mussels. ► δ15N in organisms is a cost-effective means of biomonitoring exposure to contamination from aquaculture. ► δ15N analysis may facilitate the evaluation of potential effects at the tissue level. - Abstract: Histopathological alterations can indicate time-integrated impacts on organisms stemming from alterations at lower biological organisation levels. Long-term (native mussels) and short-term (transplanted clams) changes in the tissues of molluscs exposed to the effluents from two land-based marine fish farms (LBMFFs) were determined. Histological alterations were related to the δ15N isotopic signal measured in mussels and macroalgae. Effluents from LBMFFs were found to cause severe and moderate gill filament exfoliation in clams and mussels, respectively. Some transplanted clams showed severe degrees of hemocytic phagocytosis in gonads and connective tissue. In an attempt to semi-quantitatively summarize the observed histopathological alterations, a weighted index of damage (WID) was calculated for each type of alteration, species and sampling site. The WID was clearly related to the δ15N descriptor of exposure. Further studies aimed at standardizing this relationship may establish critical thresholds of the descriptor for its implementation within environmental monitoring plans for LBMFFs.

  10. Empirical Evidence for Species-Specific Export of Fish Naivete from a No-Take Marine Protected Area in a Coastal Recreational Hook and Line Fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Alós

    Full Text Available No-take marine protected areas (MPAs are assumed to enhance fisheries catch via the "spillover" effect, where biomass is exported to adjacent exploited areas. Recent studies in spearfishing fisheries suggest that the spillover of gear-naïve individuals from protected to unprotected sites increases catch rates outside the boundaries of MPAs. Whether this is a widespread phenomenon that also holds for other gear types and species is unknown. In this study, we tested if the distance to a Mediterranean MPA predicted the degree of vulnerability to hook and line in four small-bodied coastal fish species. With the assistance of underwater video recording, we investigated the interaction effect of the distance to the boundary of an MPA and species type relative to the latency time to ingest a natural bait, which was considered as a surrogate of fish naïveté or vulnerability to fishing. Vulnerability to angling increased (i.e., latency time decreased within and near the boundary of an MPA for an intrinsically highly catchable species (Serranus scriba, while it remained constant for an intrinsically uncatchable control species (Chromis chromis. While all of the individuals of S. scriba observed within the MPA and surrounding areas were in essence captured by angling gear, only one fifth of individuals in the far locations were captured. This supports the potential for the spillover of gear-naïve and consequently more vulnerable fish from no-take MPAs. Two other species initially characterized as intermediately catchable (Coris julis and Diplodus annularis also had a shorter latency time in the vicinity of an MPA, but for these two cases the trend was not statistically significant. Overall, our results suggest that an MPA-induced naïveté effect may not be universal and may be confined to only intrinsically highly catchable fish species. This fact emphasizes the importance of considering the behavioural dimension when predicting the outcomes of MPAs

  11. Challenges in integrative approaches to modelling the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic: Physics to fish and coasts to ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Jason; Icarus Allen, J.; Anderson, Thomas R.;

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognised that there are strong interactions and feedbacks between climate, upper ocean biogeochemistry and marine food webs, and also that food web structure and phytoplankton community distribution are important determinants of variability in carbon production and export from...... for quantitative tools to support ecosystem-based management initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to review approaches to the modelling of marine ecosystems with a focus on the North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent shelf seas, and to highlight the challenges they face and suggest ways forward. We consider...... the state of the art in simulating oceans and shelf sea physics, planktonic and higher trophic level ecosystems, and look towards building an integrative approach with these existing tools. We note how the different approaches have evolved historically and that many of the previous obstacles...

  12. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.

    2014-12-23

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as “vulnerable” by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity (M = 259–1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited (M = 3–9) with high self-replenishment (68–93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations

  13. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, M. H.; Berumen, M. L.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.; van Herwerden, L.

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as "vulnerable" by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity ( M = 259-1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited ( M = 3-9) with high self-replenishment (68-93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations, but not

  14. Coral reef fish assemblages of Baie Ternay National Marine Park and Baie Beau Vallon, Mahé, Seychelles

    OpenAIRE

    Pittman, S J

    1995-01-01

    The two most important foreign exchange earning activities in the Seychelles are tourism and fisheries and therefore, the coastal areas and their management are of the greatest importance to the Seychelles government (Khadun, 1991). In recent years government policy has encouraged marine conservation (Procter, 1970; 1984-1989 National Development Plan) and is part way to fulfilling the programme outlined in the Environmental Management Plan of the Seychelles (EMPS, 1990-2000). To date, fiv...

  15. PFOS and PFOA in influents, effluents, and biosolids of Chinese wastewater treatment plants and effluent-receiving marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in influents, effluents and sludges were investigated by analyzing the samples from twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. The highest concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in influents were found to occur in municipal and industrial WWTPs, respectively. Relative to PFOS and PFOA concentrations in influents, elevated concentrations were observed in effluents from WWTPs applying anaerobic–anoxic–oxic wastewater treatment process. Importantly, application of previously reported organic carbon normalized partition coefficients (KOC) derived from sediment-based sorption experiments appear to underestimate the PFOS and PFOA levels in biosolids quantified in the current study. PFOS and PFOA levels in effluents were found to be approximately 27 and 2 times higher than those detected in the effluent-receiving seawater, respectively. However, their levels in this area of seawater haven't exceeded the provisional short-term health advisories in drinking water issued by U.S. EPA yet. - Highlights: ► Levels of PFOS and PFOA in influents, effluents and sludge from Chinese WWTPs were examined. ► Municipal sewage was the main source for PFOS in Chinese WWTPs, while industrial sewage for PFOA. ► PFOS and PFOA concentrations in effluents were much higher than those in receiving seawater. - Levels of PFOS and PFOA in influent, effluent and sludge samples from Chinese WWTPs were examined and found much higher than those in receiving seawater.

  16. The Rab5A gene of marine fish, large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), and its response to the infection of Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Dongling; Liu, Lanping; Tsai, Huai Jen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-07-01

    Rab GTPases, members of the Ras superfamily, encode monomeric G-proteins. Rab proteins regulate key steps in membrane traffic transport and endocytic pathway of host immune responses. Rab5A is involved in immune regulation, particularly in T cell migration and macrophage endocytosis in higher vertebrates. However, little is known of the molecular structure of Rab5A gene in marine teleost fish species and its expression profile during the parasite infection. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence and genomic structure of Rab5A gene of the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) (LycRab5A), one of the most economical marine fishes, were identified and characterized. The LycRab5A protein, containing the ATPase/GTPase binding motifs and the effector molecules binding motifs, was highly homologous to that of other animals. The expression plasmid containing LycRab5A cDNA fused with GST was engineered and transformed into Escherichia coli to produce recombinant protein GST-LycRab5A, which was purified to prepare a polyclonal antibody specifically against LycRab5A. Subcellular localization revealed that LycRab5A expressed in the membrane and cytoplasm. Based on real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, we found that both mRNA and protein of LycRab5A were expressed in all tissues we examined; especially it was highly expressed in blood and gill. Interestingly, both mRNA and protein of LycRab5A were substantially up-regulated when parasitic ciliate protozoan (Cryptocaryon irritans) was infected. The expression of LycRab5A was reached to the maximal level at 24 h after infection. The line of evidence suggested that LycRab5A might play an important role in large yellow croaker defense against parasite infection. Moreover, on the basis of protein interaction, it was found that the LycRab5A interacted with myosin light chain (designated as LycMLC), a crucial protein in the process of phagocytosis. This discovery might contribute better understanding to the molecular

  17. Mercury Exposure from Domestic and Imported Estuarine and Marine Fish in the U.S. Seafood Market

    OpenAIRE

    Elsie M Sunderland

    2006-01-01

    Background Methylmercury exposure causes a variety of adverse effects on human health. Per capita estimates of mercury exposure are critical for risk assessments and for developing effective risk management strategies. Objective This study investigated the impact of natural stochasticity in mercury concentrations among fish and shellfish harvested from the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and foreign shores on estimated mercury exposures. Methods Mercury concentrations and seafood consumption a...

  18. The detection of dioxin- and estrogen-like pollutants in marine and freshwater fishes cultivated in Pearl River Delta, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, X.; Ching, L.Y. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Cheng, S.H. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wong, M.H. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Croucher institute of Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong, Chris K.C., E-mail: ckcwong@hkbu.edu.h [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Croucher institute of Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-06-15

    In this study we aimed to assess the dioxin- and estrogen-like activities of contaminants extracted from twenty species of freshwater and seawater fishes, using luciferase reporter assays. Transfected MCF7 cells were treated with sample extracts and luciferase activities were then measured at 24-h of post-treatment. The mean values of the detected dioxin- and estrogen-like activities in the freshwater fishes were 25.3 pg TEQ/g ww and 102.3 pM EEQ/g ww whereas in the seawater fishes, the values were 46.2 pg TEQ/g ww and 118.8 pM EEQ/g ww. Using sample-relevant dosage of estrogen, inductions of cell proliferation markers (i.e. retinoblastoma, cyclin D) and stimulations of cell growth were revealed by Western blotting, colony formation and BrdU uptake assays. A cotreatment with TCDD significantly reduced these effects. Using the sample extracts with different dioxin- and estrogen-like activities, similar observation was revealed. The data highlighted the mixture effect of food contaminants on human health. - The data reveals the potential risk of dietary intake of endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

  19. The detection of dioxin- and estrogen-like pollutants in marine and freshwater fishes cultivated in Pearl River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we aimed to assess the dioxin- and estrogen-like activities of contaminants extracted from twenty species of freshwater and seawater fishes, using luciferase reporter assays. Transfected MCF7 cells were treated with sample extracts and luciferase activities were then measured at 24-h of post-treatment. The mean values of the detected dioxin- and estrogen-like activities in the freshwater fishes were 25.3 pg TEQ/g ww and 102.3 pM EEQ/g ww whereas in the seawater fishes, the values were 46.2 pg TEQ/g ww and 118.8 pM EEQ/g ww. Using sample-relevant dosage of estrogen, inductions of cell proliferation markers (i.e. retinoblastoma, cyclin D) and stimulations of cell growth were revealed by Western blotting, colony formation and BrdU uptake assays. A cotreatment with TCDD significantly reduced these effects. Using the sample extracts with different dioxin- and estrogen-like activities, similar observation was revealed. The data highlighted the mixture effect of food contaminants on human health. - The data reveals the potential risk of dietary intake of endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

  20. Prevention of vessel-source marine pollution: a note on the challenges and prospects for Chinese practice under international law

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, N; Maes, F

    2011-01-01

    This article examines China's domestic legal regime for the prevention of vessel source pollution. It pays special attention to the recently adopted Regulation on Prevention and Control of Marine Pollution from Vessels. Potential challenges and emerging issues that China has to confront are addressed, including: application of the legislation to disputed sea areas between China and its neighbors, freedom of navigation in the exclusive economic zone, reduction of emission from ships, and preve...

  1. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on marine benthic invertebrates and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changkeun; Hong, Seongjin; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Jung-Ho; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-08-01

    Concern about leakage of carbon dioxide (CO2) from deep-sea storage in geological reservoirs is increasing because of its possible adverse effects on marine organisms locally or at nearby coastal areas both in sediment and water column. In the present study, we examined how elevated CO2 affects various intertidal epibenthic (benthic copepod), intertidal endobenthic (Manila clam and Venus clam), sub-tidal benthic (brittle starfish), and free-living (marine medaka) organisms in areas expected to be impacted by leakage. Acute lethal and sub-lethal effects were detected in the adult stage of all test organisms exposed to varying concentrations of CO2, due to the associated decline in pH (8.3 to 5.2) during 96-h exposure. However, intertidal organisms (such as benthic copepods and clams) showed remarkable resistance to elevated CO2, with the Venus clam being the most tolerant (LpH50 = 5.45). Sub-tidal species (such as brittle starfish [LpH50 = 6.16] and marine medaka [LpH50 = 5.91]) were more sensitive to elevated CO2 compared to intertidal species, possibly because they have fewer defensive capabilities. Of note, the exposure duration might regulate the degree of acute sub-lethal effects, as evidenced by the Venus clam, which showed a time-dependent effect to elevated CO2. Finally, copper was chosen as a model toxic element to find out the synergistic or antagonistic effects between ocean acidification and metal pollution. Combination of CO2 and Cu exposure enhances the adverse effects to organisms, generally supporting a synergistic effect scenario. Overall, the significant variation in the degree to which CO2 adversely affected organisms (viz., working range and strength) was clearly observed, supporting the general concept of species-dependent effects of elevated CO2. PMID:27074931

  2. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrada-Fuentes, Sandra; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Hernández, Cristián E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords), but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf) are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone), and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos). We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA) of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA. PMID:27505009

  3. Phylogenetic and morphologic analyses of a coastal fish reveals a marine biogeographic break of terrestrial origin in the southern Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Betancur-R

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marine allopatric speciation involves interplay between intrinsic organismal properties and extrinsic factors. However, the relative contribution of each depends on the taxon under study and its geographic context. Utilizing sea catfishes in the Cathorops mapale species group, this study tests the hypothesis that both reproductive strategies conferring limited dispersal opportunities and an apparent geomorphologic barrier in the Southern Caribbean have promoted speciation in this group from a little studied area of the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained from representatives of the Cathorops mapale species group across its distributional range from Colombia to Venezuela. Morphometric and meristic analyses were also done to assess morphologic variation. Along a approximately 2000 km transect, two major lineages, Cathorops sp. and C. mapale, were identified by levels of genetic differentiation, phylogenetic reconstructions, and morphological analyses. The lineages are separated by approximately 150 km at the Santa Marta Massif (SMM in Colombia. The northward displacement of the SMM into the Caribbean in the early Pleistocene altered the geomorphology of the continental margin, ultimately disrupting the natural habitat of C. mapale. The estimated approximately 0.86 my divergence of the lineages from a common ancestor coincides with the timing of the SMM displacement at approximately 0.78 my. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results presented here support the hypothesis that organismal properties as well as extrinsic factors lead to diversification of the Cathorops mapale group along the northern coast of South America. While a lack of pelagic larval stages and ecological specialization are forces impacting this process, the identification of the SMM as contributing to allopatric speciation in marine organisms adds to the list of recognized barriers in the Caribbean. Comparative examination of

  4. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales-Aguirre, Cristian B; Ferrada-Fuentes, Sandra; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Hernández, Cristián E

    2016-01-01

    Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords), but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf) are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone), and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos). We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA) of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA. PMID:27505009

  5. Climate variability and change scenarios for a marine commodity: Modelling small pelagic fish, fisheries and fishmeal in a globalized market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Gorka; Barange, Manuel; Mullon, Christian

    2010-04-01

    The world's small pelagic fish populations, their fisheries, fishmeal and fish oil production industries and markets are part of a globalised production and consumption system. The potential for climate variability and change to alter the balance in this system is explored by means of bioeconomic models at two different temporal scales, with the objective of investigating the interactive nature of environmental and human-induced changes on this globalised system. Short-term (interannual) environmental impacts on fishmeal production are considered by including an annual variable production rate on individual small pelagic fish stocks over a 10-year simulation period. These impacts on the resources are perceived by the fishmeal markets, where they are confronted by two aquaculture expansion hypotheses. Long-term (2080) environmental impacts on the same stocks are estimated using long-term primary production predictions as proxies for the species' carrying capacities, rather than using variable production rates, and are confronted on the market side by two alternative fishmeal management scenarios consistent with IPCC-type storylines. The two scenarios, World Markets and Global Commons, are parameterized through classic equilibrium solutions for a global surplus production bioeconomic model, namely maximum sustainable yield and open access, respectively. The fisheries explicitly modelled in this paper represent 70% of total fishmeal production, thus encapsulating the expected dynamics of the global production and consumption system. Both short and long-term simulations suggest that the sustainability of the small pelagic resources, in the face of climate variability and change, depends more on how society responds to climate impacts than on the magnitude of climate alterations per se.

  6. Screening of lactic acid bacteria from gastrointestinal tracts of marine fish for their potential use as probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipparat Hongpattarakere

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and sixty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB with inhibitory activity against pathogenic Escherichia coli were isolated from gastrointestinal tracts of fish, shrimp and shellfish. One hundred and sixteen isolates were obtained from fish, twenty isolates from shrimp and twenty-four isolates from shellfish. Three strains were selected based on their bile and acid tolerances. All acid-tolerant strains showed inhibitory activity against human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli. However, the antibacterial activities were lost when the culture supernatants were neutralized to pH 6.5- 7.0 and treated with catalase, indicating that the inhibition may be contributed by acid and hydrogen-peroxide production of the strains. Nucleotide sequences of their 16s rDNA showed 98% (655/668 bp, 97% (691/712 bp and 98% (492/501 bp homology to Pediococcus pentosaceus LM2, Pediococcus pentosaceus SL4 and Enterococcus faecium SF, respectively.

  7. Effects of brown fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, feed efficiency and enzyme activities of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yurong; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A 120-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of brown fish meal (BFM) by fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets of Chinese soft-shelled turtle ( Pelodiscus sinensis). The turtles (initial mean body weight, (115.52 ± 1.05) g) were fed with three experimental diets, in which 0%, 4.72% and 9.44% BFM protein was replaced by 0%, 3% and 6% FSBM, respectively. Results showed that the feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of turtles fed with the diet containing 3% FSBM were not significantly different from the control group (0% FSBM) ( P > 0.05). However, FR, SGR and FER of turtles fed with the diet containing 6% FSBM were significantly lower than those of the control group ( P 0.05). However, the uric acid concentration in turtles fed with the diet containing 3% or 6% FSBM was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P 0.05). The results suggested that FSBM could replace 4.72% BFM protein in turtle diets without exerting adverse effects on turtle growth, feed utilization and measured immune parameters.

  8. The history of Makassan trepang fishing and trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Schwerdtner Máñez

    Full Text Available The Malayan term trepang describes a variety of edible holothurians commonly known as sea cucumbers. Although found in temperate and tropical marine waters all over the world, the centre of species diversity and abundance are the shallow coastal waters of Island Southeast Asia. For at least 300 years, trepang has been a highly priced commodity in the Chinese market. Originally, its fishing and trade was a specialized business, centred on the town of Makassar in South Sulawesi (Indonesia. The rise of trepang fishing in the 17(th century added valuable export merchandize to the rich shallow seas surrounding the islands of Southeast Asia. This enabled local communities to become part of large trading networks and greatly supported their economic development. In this article, we follow Makassan trepang fishing and trading from its beginning until the industrialization of the fishery and worldwide depletion of sea cucumbers in the 20(th century. Thereby, we identify a number of characteristics which trepang fishing shares with the exploitation of other marine resources, including (1 a strong influence of international markets, (2 the role of patron-client relationships which heavily influence the resource selection, and (3 the roving-bandit-syndrome, where fishermen exploit local stocks of valuable resources until they are depleted, and then move to another area. We suggest that understanding the similarities and differences between historical and recent exploitation of marine resources is an important step towards effective management solutions.

  9. 海水鱼类高度不饱和脂肪酸营养研究概况%A REVIEW ON NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF HIGH UNSATURATED FATTY ACID IN MARINE FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高淳仁; 雷霁霖

    2000-01-01

    就近年来国外有关海水鱼类高度不饱和脂肪酸必需性的研究、海水鱼类对n-3系列高度不饱和脂肪酸需求量的研究、不同脂型脂肪酸的利用效果、必需脂肪酸的转化途径研究以及仔稚鱼胚胎和发育过程中的脂类代谢最新研究进展进行了综述。%This paper gives a review of necessity of high unsaturated fatty acid and requirements of n-3 high unsaturated fatty acid of marine fish. The utilizing efficiency of different type of fatty acid, conversion ways of essential fatty acid and lipid metabolism during embryonic and larval development in marine fish are summarized.

  10. Myostatin-2 gene structure and polymorphism of the promoter and first intron in the marine fish Sparus aurata: evidence for DNA duplications and/or translocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funkenstein Bruria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myostatin (MSTN is a member of the transforming growth factor-ß superfamily that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth in mammals. Fish express at least two genes for MSTN: MSTN-1 and MSTN-2. To date, MSTN-2 promoters have been cloned only from salmonids and zebrafish. Results Here we described the cloning and sequence analysis of MSTN-2 gene and its 5' flanking region in the marine fish Sparus aurata (saMSTN-2. We demonstrate the existence of three alleles of the promoter and three alleles of the first intron. Sequence comparison of the promoter region in the three alleles revealed that although the sequences of the first 1050 bp upstream of the translation start site are almost identical in the three alleles, a substantial sequence divergence is seen further upstream. Careful sequence analysis of the region upstream of the first 1050 bp in the three alleles identified several elements that appear to be repeated in some or all sequences, at different positions. This suggests that the promoter region of saMSTN-2 has been subjected to various chromosomal rearrangements during the course of evolution, reflecting either insertion or deletion events. Screening of several genomic DNA collections indicated differences in allele frequency, with allele 'b' being the most abundant, followed by allele 'c', whereas allele 'a' is relatively rare. Sequence analysis of saMSTN-2 gene also revealed polymorphism in the first intron, identifying three alleles. The length difference in alleles '1R' and '2R' of the first intron is due to the presence of one or two copies of a repeated block of approximately 150 bp, located at the 5' end of the first intron. The third allele, '4R', has an additional insertion of 323 bp located 116 bp upstream of the 3' end of the first intron. Analysis of several DNA collections showed that the '2R' allele is the most common, followed by the '4R' allele, whereas the '1R

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef fish communities in Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary from 2013-09-02 to 2013-09-06 and from 2015-08-24 to 2015-08-28 (NCEI Accession 0151817)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Belt Transect method is used to conduct fish surveys at Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the National...

  12. Seasonal variation in parasite infection patterns of marine fish species from the Northern Wadden Sea in relation to interannual temperature fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Franziska M.; Raupach, Michael J.; Mathias Wegner, K.

    2016-07-01

    Marine environmental conditions are naturally changing throughout the year, affecting life cycles of hosts as well as parasites. In particular, water temperature is positively correlated with the development of many parasites and pathogenic bacteria, increasing the risk of infection and diseases during summer. Interannual temperature fluctuations are likely to alter host-parasite interactions, which may result in profound impacts on sensitive ecosystems. In this context we investigated the parasite and bacterial Vibrionaceae communities of four common small fish species (three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, Atlantic herring Clupea harengus, European sprat Sprattus sprattus and lesser sand eel Ammodytes tobianus) in the Northern Wadden Sea over a period of two years. Overall, we found significantly increased relative diversities of infectious species at higher temperature differentials. On the taxon-specific level some macroparasite species (trematodes, nematodes) showed a shift in infection peaks that followed the water temperatures of preceding months, whereas other parasite groups showed no effects of temperature differentials on infection parameters. Our results show that even subtle changes in seasonal temperatures may shift and modify the phenology of parasites as well as opportunistic pathogens that can have far reaching consequences for sensitive ecosystems.

  13. Effects of excluding bottom-disturbing mobile fishing gear on abundance and biomass of groundfishes in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana K. BROWN, Elizabeth SOULE, Les KAUFMAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (southern Gulf of Maine, northwest Atlantic is partially overlapped by the Western Gulf of Maine Closure Area (WGMCA. This is a region in which mobile, bottom-disturbing fishing gear has been banned by the New England Fishery Management Council to facilitate the rebuilding of depleted groundfish populations. We assessed the effects and effectiveness of the WGMCA on groundfish assemblages using habitat-stratified (gravel, sand, mixed benthic habitats sampling by means of a commercial trawler, inside and outside of the WGMCA. Sampling occurred over three month-long sampling periods in 2004-2005, two during the spring seasons and one during the fall season. A total of 18 species were analyzed for protection effects. After controlling for substratum, location and sampling season, eight groundfish species exhibited higher mean proportional abundance inside than outside the WGMCA while two were proportionally more abundant on average outside of the closure. Four species had higher mean proportional biomasses on average inside the closure and three outside. We conclude that the WGMCA may be achieving its goal of rebuilding abundance and biomass for some commercially targeted groundfishes but not all. This study, six to seven years post-closure establishment, reveals fine-scale spatial and taxonomic complexity which will require a very different monitoring protocol than the one currently in place if adaptive management is to be successful in the region [Current Zoology 56 (1: 134–143, 2010].

  14. Genetic considerations on the introduction of farmed fish in marine protected areas: The case of study of white seabream restocking in the Gulf of Castellammare (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Giacalone, Maximiliano; D'Anna, Giovanni; Badalamenti, Fabio

    2012-02-01

    Human exploitation has drastically reduced the abundance and distribution of several marine fish and invertebrate populations through overfishing and habitat destruction. Restocking can potentially mitigate these impacts and help to reconstitute depleted stocks but genetic repercussions must be considered. In the present study, the degree of genetic similarity between white seabream (Diplodus sargus Linnaeus 1758) individuals reared for restocking purposes and the receiving population in the Gulf of Castellammare fishery reserve (Sicily, Italy) was assessed using microsatellites. We also inferred the spatial pattern of the genetic structure of D. sargus and connectivity along Sicilian coasts. The farmed population showed significant heterozygosity deficiency in 6 loci and an important reduction in the number of alleles, which could indicate an incipient inbreeding. Both the farmed population and the target one for restocking (Castellammare fishery reserve), showed high and significant values of genetic differentiation due to different allele frequencies, number of privative alleles and total number of alleles. These findings indicate a low degree of genetic similarity between both populations, therefore this restocking initiative is not advisable. The genetic connectivity pattern, highly consistent with oceanographic currents, identified two distinct metapopulations of white seabream around Sicily. Thus it is recommended to utilize broods from the same metapopulation for restocking purposes to provide a better genetic match to the wild populations.

  15. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Glugea arabica n. sp. (Microsporidia), infecting the marine fish Epinephelus polyphekadion from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Carlos; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Rocha, Sónia; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Casal, Graça

    2016-02-01

    A new microsporidian species, Glugea arabica n. sp., is reported infecting the intestinal wall of the marine teleost Epinephelus polyphekadion (=microdon) collected from the Red Sea coast off Saudi Arabia, and described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. Spherical blackish xenomas formed parasitophorous vacuoles completely packed with several parasitic developmental stages, including spores. The nuclei were monokaryotic in all developmental stages. Spores were ellipsoidal to pyriform and measured 6.3 ± 0.3 (5.9-6.6) μm in length and 3.3 ± 0.4 (2.9-3.7) μm in width. A lamellar polaroplast surrounded the uncoiled portion of the polar filament, which extended into the spore's posterior pole and formed 27-29 coils organized in three or four rows. The posterior vacuole, located at the spore's posterior pole, appeared surrounded by the polar filament coils and displayed an irregular matrix composed of light material, in which was located the posterosome. Molecular analysis of the rRNA genes, including the ITS region, was performed using maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methodologies. The ultrastructural features observed, in combination with the molecular data analysed, suggests the parasite to be a new species of the genus Glugea. PMID:26555734

  16. Hemolysin, Protease, and EPS Producing Pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila Strain An4 Shows Antibacterial Activity against Marine Bacterial Fish Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strain An4 was isolated from marine catfish and characterized with reference to its proteolytic and hemolytic activity along with SDS-PAGE profile (sodium dodecyl sulphate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ECPs (extracellular proteins showing hemolysin (approximately 50 kDa. Agar well diffusion assay using crude cell extract of the bacterial isolate clearly demonstrated antibacterial activity against indicator pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus arlettae strain An1, Acinetobacter sp. strain An2, Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3, and Alteromonas aurentia SE3 showing inhibitory zone >10 mm well comparable to common antibiotics. Further GC-MS analysis of crude cell extract revealed several metabolites, namely, phenolics, pyrrolo-pyrazines, pyrrolo-pyridine, and butylated hydroxytoluene (well-known antimicrobials. Characterization of EPS using FTIR indicated presence of several protein-related amine and amide groups along with peaks corresponding to carboxylic and phenyl rings which may be attributed to its virulent and antibacterial properties, respectively. Besides hemolysin, EPS, and protease, Aeromonas hydrophila strain An4 also produced several antibacterial metabolites.

  17. Establishment and characterization of a new marine fish cell line from ovary of barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Fan, Tingjun; Jiang, Guojian; Yang, Xiuxia

    2015-12-01

    A novel continuous ovary cell line from barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri) (BFO cell line) was established with its primitive application in transgenic expression demonstrated in this study. Primarily cultured cells grew well at 22°C in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 medium (DMEM/F12, 1:1; pH 7.2) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), carboxymethyl chitooligosaccharide, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The primary BFO cells in fibroblastic morphology proliferated into a confluent monolayer about 2 weeks later, and were able to be subcultured. Impacts of medium and temperature on the growth of the cells were examined. The optimum growth was found in DMEM/F12 with 20% FBS and at 22°C. The BFO cells can be continuously subcultured to Passage 120 steadily with a population doubling time of 32.7 h at Passage 60. Chromosome analysis revealed that 72% of BFO cells at Passage 60 maintained the normal diploid chromosome number (46) with a normal karyotype of 2st+44t. The results of gene transformation indicated that green fluorescence protein (GFP) positively expressed in these cells after being transformed with pcDNA3.1-GFP. Therefore, a continuous and transformable BFO cell line was successfully established, which may serve as a useful tool for cytotechnological manipulation and transgenic modification of this fish.

  18. Patterns in the abundance and size-distribution of syngnathid fishes among habitats in a seagrass-dominated marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, A. J.; Hyndes, G. A.

    2003-07-01

    Syngnathid fishes were sampled using a 1 m wide beam trawl during the day and night in each season from summer 1996/1997 to summer 1997/1998 in five habitat types in an approximately 90 km 2 area located on the lower west coast of Australia. The seagrasses Amphibolis griffithii, Posidonia sinuosa and Posidonia coriacea and shallow unvegetated sand were all in depths of 4-9 m, while deep habitat, which comprised mainly bare sand with isolated patches of the seagrasses Heterozostera tasmanica and Halophila ovalis, occurred at depths of 12-16 m. While A. griffithii and P. sinuosa each formed dense monospecific meadows, P. coriacea occurred in sparse clumps surrounded by areas of bare sand and patches of H. tasmanica. While catches of spotted pipefish Stigmatopora argus occurred mainly in P. sinuosa and P. coriacea, individuals of this species that exceeded ca. 55 mm in snout-vent length were far more abundant in the former habitat whereas smaller fish occurred mostly in the latter. Densities of S. argus were similar in P. sinuosa and P. coriacea, but differed between seasons, and a season/habitat interaction was present. In contrast, wide-bodied pipefish Stigmatopora nigra were collected mainly in P. coriacea and deep habitat and, although the densities were greater in P. coriacea than in deep habitat, the size-distributions of this species in these habitats were similar. Notably, S. nigra was never collected in P. sinuosa. Although less abundant than the above pipefish, the long-snouted pipefish Vanacampus poecilolaemus was collected almost exclusively in P. sinuosa. Few syngnathids were collected from shallow unvegetated sand or from A. griffithii, which differed markedly in plant structure from both Posidonia species. It is suggested that these syngnathid species occupy habitats that best enable them to remain inconspicuous to predators. Both S. argus and S. nigra have green or brown colouration and mimic strap-like seagrass leaves which they grasp with prehensile

  19. When a Fish is a Fish: The Economic Impacts of Escaped Farmed Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Yajie Liu; Jon Olaf Olaussen; Anders Skonhoft

    2011-01-01

    The escape of cultured fish from a marine aquaculture facility is a type of biological invasion that may lead to a variety of potential ecological and economic effects on native fish. This paper develops a general invasive species impact model to capture explicitly both the ecological and economic effects of invasive species, especially escaped farmed fish, on native stocks and harvests. First, the possible effects of escaped farmed fish on the growth and stock size of a native fish are exami...

  20. Preservation of Fish by Irradiation. Proceedings of a Panel on the Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing emphasis on the need for protein-rich foods to improve the nutritional status of the world’s population has stimulated research on new methods of preserving fishery products. The sea offers a source of protein that could markedly reduce the protein gap existing in many parts of the world. The major problem in attaining a more complete exploitation of these products is how to preserve them so that they can be transported from the points of origin to areas of greatest need. The use of ionizing radiation as a preservation method has been satisfactorily demonstrated in many countries. In some respects it offers advantages over conventional methods; for example, it prolongs the market life without using heat or chemicals, and what is more, the products are treated while they are sealed in commercial types of containers. Although radiation processing appears feasible, additional research is needed to improve certain quality attributes of some treated foods and to demonstrate to the satisfaction of health authorities' that no deleterious effects result. To obtain advice on the problems that need attention a Panel on Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin was convened in Vienna, by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, on 15—19 December 1969. The main purpose of the panel’s work was to advise the Director General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these organizations can best fulfil their roles in radiation research on fishery products. The meeting was attended by thirteen experts from various countries and one representative of the World Health Organization. Reports were presented on research performed and detailed discussions were held on work done in perfecting the radurization treatment of fishery products. Evaluations were made of the microbiology of the radurization process, with special reference to