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Sample records for chinese locusta migratoria

  1. Unexpected relationships of substructured populations in Chinese Locusta migratoria

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    Ji Ya-Jie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly migratory species are usually expected to have minimal population substructure because strong gene flow has the effect of homogenizing genetic variation over geographical populations, counteracting random drift, selection and mutation. The migratory locust Locusta migratoria belongs to a monotypic genus, and is an infamous pest insect with exceptional migratory ability – with dispersal documented over a thousand kilometers. Its distributional area is greater than that of any other locust or grasshopper, occurring in practically all the temperate and tropical regions of the eastern hemisphere. Consequently, minimal population substructuring is expected. However, in marked contrast to its high dispersal ability, three geographical subspecies have been distinguished in China, with more than nine being biologically and morphologically identified in the world. Such subspecies status has been under considerable debate. Results By multilocus microsatellite genotyping analysis, we provide ample genetic evidence for strong population substructure in this highly migratory insect that conforms to geography. More importantly, our genetic data identified an unexpected cryptic subdivision and demonstrated a strong affiliation of the East China locusts to those in Northwest/Northern China. The migratory locusts in China formed three distinct groups, viz. (1 the Tibetan group, comprising locusts from Tibet and nearby West China high mountain regions; this is congruent with the previously recognized Tibetan subspecies, L. m. tibetensis; (2 the South China group, containing locusts from the Hainan islands; this corresponds to the Southeast Asia oriental tropical subspecies L. m. manilensis; (3 the North China group, including locusts from the Northwest and Northern China (the Asiatic subspecies L. m. migratoria, Central China and Eastern China regions. Therefore, the traditional concept on Locusta subspecies status established from

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Locusta migratoria migratoria (Orthoptera: Oedipodidae): three tRNA-like sequences on the N-strand.

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    Ye, Hai-Yan; Xiao, Li-Li; Zhou, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Yuan

    2012-02-01

    The complete 16053 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Locusta migratoria migratoria has been determined. This mitogenome contains the base compositional biases and codon usage typical of metazoans, and the RSCU values indicate a negative correlation with the C and G contents in codon. The orientation and gene order of the L. migratoria migratoria is identical to Locusta migratoria migratoiodes. An unusual feature of the L. migratoria migratoria mitogenome is the presence of three tRNA-like structures on the N-strand: one tRNA(Ile)-like and two tRNA(Leu(CUN))-like sequences. The tRNA-like sequences have proper folding structures and anticodons sequences. Two repeated DNA sequences, Rpt I and Rpt II, were found in the A+T-rich region of the L. migratoria migratoria mitogenome. Both repeated sequences have various features. In the 5' region of Rpt I, a 51 bp fragment is localized in the srRNA gene; and there are two tandemly sub-repeated DNA sequences (sub-Rpts), Rpt 1-4, within Rpt I and Rpt II. One stem-loop structure on the N-strand that may be involved in the N-strand replication initiation was found in the A+T-rich region.

  3. Biochemical and histological effects of gibberellic acid on Locusta migratoria migratoria fifth instar larvae.

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    Abdellaoui, Khemais; Ben Halima-Kamel, Monia; Acheuk, Fatma; Soltani, Noureddine; Aribi, Nadia; Hamouda, Mohamed HabibBen

    2013-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3), a plant growth regulator, on Locusta migratoria migratoria fifth instar larvae. Newly emerged larvae were exposed to various concentrations of GA3 administered by topical application or by forced ingestion. Results showed that treated insects exhibited toxic symptoms with a dose-dependent mortality. GA3 toxicity was also demonstrated by perturbation of the moult processes. In fact, we noted that treated insects present exuviations difficulties due to the impossibility to reject the old integuments causing mortality in the 5th instar larvae. Histological study of proventriculus revealed alterations in the epithelial cells and absence of apolysis phenomenon. Data also showed that GA3 induced significant quantitative variation of haemolymph metabolites. These changes result in a significant decrease in the total concentration of proteins and carbohydrates and an increase in the total concentration of haemolymph lipids.

  4. Effects of barley chromosome addition to wheat on behavior and development of Locusta migratoria nymphs.

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    Suematsu, Shunji; Harano, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Seiji; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari; Watari, Yasuhiko; Saito, Osamu; Tokuda, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Locusta migratoria feeds on various Poaceae plants but barley. Barley genes related to feeding deterrence may be useful for developing novel resistant crops. We investigated the effects of barley cultivar Betzes, wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), and six barley chromosome disomic addition lines of wheat (2H-7H) on locomotor activity, feeding behavior, survival and development of L. migratoria nymphs. Locomotor activity was similar in nymphs kept with wheat and 2H-7H in an actograph, whereas it was generally high in those kept with barely. No-choice and choice feeding tests suggested that barley genes related to inhibition of feeding by L. migratoria are located on barley chromosomes 5H and 6H and those related to the palatability of plants on chromosomes 2H, 5H and 6H. Rearing experiments suggested the presence of barley genes negatively affecting the survival and growth of locust nymphs on chromosomes 5H and 2H, respectively, and the effects are phase-dependent.

  5. Crystal structure of the Locusta migratoria odorant binding protein.

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    Zheng, Jiangge; Li, Junru; Han, Lei; Wang, Yang; Wu, Wei; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Tao, Ye; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Ziding; Chen, Zhongzhou

    2015-01-16

    Locusta migratoria (Lmig) causes enormous losses to agricultural products, especially because it often infests the world with great swarms as locust plagues. Locusts find their plant hosts on which they feed through their olfactory system, in which odorant binding proteins (OBPs) play an important role. Previous study indicated that the amino acid sequences of LmigOBP showed low similarity to OBPs from other insect orders and we speculated that it might perform unique binding behavior. Here, we solved the first LmigOBP1 structure at 1.65Å, which is a monomer in solution and disulfide bonds play a key role in maintaining its function. We show that LmigOBP1 possesses a unique seventh α-helix, which is located at the surface with strong interactions with the LmigOBP1 scaffold consisting of other six α-helices. Moreover, the seventh α-helix forms a wall of an "L" shaped internal hydrophobic cavity to accommodate linear ligands, which is consistent with the binding experiments. We also demonstrate that the ligand-binding pocket in LmigOBP1 is greatly different from that in the closest homologs mosquito OBPs. Taken together, this study provides a structural basis for designing small inhibitors to control locust.

  6. The mechanism for microsporidian parasite suppression of the hindgut bacteria of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria manilensis.

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    Tan, Shu-Qian; Zhang, Kai-Qi; Chen, Hong-Xing; Ge, Yang; Ji, Rong; Shi, Wang-Peng

    2015-11-27

    Locusts aggregate into bands of nymphs and swarms of adults that can pose a major threat to crop. Previous studies have shown that infection by the microsporidian parasite Paranosema locustae prevents locust aggregation behavior and we show that gut bacteria, which produce components of locust aggregation pheromones, are substantially reduced in locusts infected with P. locustae. We found that P. locustae could reduce the diversity, abundance and community composition of Locusta migratoria's gut bacteria. The parasite infection was also shown to interrupt the peroxidase activity of locust hindgut. Genome-wide expression analysis showed that the parasite infection suppressed peroxidase mRNA relative expression of locust hindgut, but had no effects on attacin expression and superoxide dismutase at 16 d post-inoculation with 20,000 P. locustae spores. Our findings reveal the mechanisms by which P. locustae impairs bacterial diversity and community structure of Locusta migratoria's gut bacteria.

  7. Regulation of substrate utilization in the flight muscle of the locust, Locusta migratoria, during flight

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    Worm, R.A.A.; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of metabolites involved in carbohydrate metabolizing pathways, of amino acids and adenine nucleotides in the flight muscles of Locusta migratoria were determined during a fligt of 2 hr. During the first 15 min of flight, glycogen and glucose concentrations decreased to reach appro

  8. Effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria)

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    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria L.). Fresh and dry weight and the contents of dry matter, ash, lipid, protein, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Zn, retinol, lutein, zeaxanthine, cryptoxanthin, carotenes, lycop

  9. Joint action of Beauveria bassiana and the insect growth regulators diflubenzuron and novaluron, on the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria

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    Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and sublethal concentrations of the insect growth regulators (IGR) diflubenzuron and novaluron were applied simultaneously and sequentially to second instar Locusta migratoria migratorioides (Sauss.) to determine the interaction between these materials and an e...

  10. Identification of pheromone-like compounds in male reproductive organs of the oriental locust Locusta migratoria.

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    Ban, Liping; Napolitano, Elio; Serra, Andrea; Zhou, Xianhong; Iovinella, Immacolata; Pelosi, Paolo

    2013-08-09

    Despite the great economical interest of locusts in agriculture, knowledge on their chemoreception systems is still poor. Phenylacetonitrile is recognised as a pheromone of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria, triggering gregarization, promoting aggregation and inhibiting courtship. However, in the other major locust species, Locusta migratoria, pheromones have not been reported. We have identified the two isomers of naphthylpropionitrile from the male reproductive organs of L. migratoria. Chemical synthesis has confirmed the identity of the two compounds. Both isomers show significant affinity to CSP91, a protein reported in the testis, but not to three other proteins of the same family (CSP180, CSP540 and CSP884) expressed in female accessory glands. The striking similarity of these compounds with phenylacetonitrile and the unusual nature of such chemicals strongly suggest that naphthylpropionitrile could be pheromones for L. migratoria, while their site of expression and binding activity indicate a role in communication between sexes.

  11. Elimination of C-6-hydrogen during the formation of ecdysteroids from cholesterol in Locusta migratoria ovaries

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    Fujimoto, Y.; Hiramoto, M.; Kakinuma, K.; Ikekawa, N. (Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan))

    1989-03-01

    Being administered to Locusta migratoria adult females, (6-{sup 3}H, 4-{sup 14}C)cholesterol was incorporated into ecdysone and 2-deoxyecdysone. The ratio of {sup 3}H/{sup 14}C of the two ecdysteroids isolated from newly laid eggs revealed that C-6-hydrogen of cholesterol was eliminated during the conversion to ecdysteroids in the ovaries of the insects. Thus, a hypothetical mechanism involving migration of the C-6-hydrogen to the C-5 position in the formation of A/B cis junction turned out to be less likely.

  12. The cytogenetic effects of the aqueous extracts of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria L.) in vitro.

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    Turkez, Hasan; Incekara, Umit; Güner, Adem; Aydın, Elanur; Dirican, Ebubekir; Togar, Başak

    2014-04-01

    One of the useful and most commonly cultivated commercially species, migratory locust (Locusta migratoria; Orthoptera), was investigated in light of genotoxic damage potentials. For this aim, we evaluated the genotoxic potentials of water soluble extracts of L. migratoria on cultured human blood cells. The micronucleus, sister chromatid exchange and structural chromosome aberration assays were applied to assess DNA and chromosomal damage produced by aqueous extracts in vitro. The extracts were added to the cultures at different concentrations ranging from 0 to 1000 mg/L. Our results indicated that these extracts did not exhibit genotoxicity at tested concentrations. We conclude that this in vitro approach for biomonitoring genotoxicity assessment is useful for comparing the potential health risks of edible insects.

  13. Expression of hunchback during oogenesis and embryogenesis in Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen).

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    He, ZhengBo; Cao, YueQing; Chen, Bin; Li, TingJing

    2011-02-01

    hb (hunchback) is a contributing factor in anteroposterior axial patterning of insects. Although the hb function in Locusta migratoria manilensis has been investigated, its expression pattern remains unknown. Here, the mouse polyclonal antibody was produced against Hb fusion protein, and then its expression pattern during oogenesis and embryogenesis of L. migratoria manilensis was examined by immunohistochemical staining. Hb protein was detected in the oocyte nucleus which was positioned centrally within the developing oocyte. The oocyte nucleus gradually moved to the posterior end of the egg along with the oocyte maturing. In freshly laid eggs, Hb formed gradient at the posterior end of the egg, and then hb was expressed as a band in the middle of the blastodisc. As the blastodisc differentiated into the head and trunk, the expression region became wide, which would develop into spatial gnathal and thoracic segments. With abdominal segmentation, the expression domain in the gnathal and thoracic region became faint and eventually faded out, while the Hb expression domain appeared at the posterior growth zone in a discontinuous expression manner. The hb expression pattern of L. migratoria manilensis is greatly similar to that of other locusts, such as Schistocerca americana and another L. migratoria. Compared with other insects, hb expression is conserved in the gnathal and thoracic domains, while divergent in oogenesis and abdomen.

  14. The localization and structure of a neurohemal H-organ in Acrida bicolor (Thunberg) and Locusta migratoria (Linneaus) (Orthoptera)

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    Mutun, Serap

    1998-01-01

    Acrida bicolor (Thunberg) and Locusta migratoria (Linneaus) nymphs were taken as objects to investigate the presence of neurohemal H-organ in Orthoptera of which was previously reported in Lepidoptera. A triangle-shaped H-organ was clearly observed in between the suboesophagial and prothoracic ganglions in two species.

  15. 蝗虫节律基因pdp的克隆和功能分析%Cloning and Functional Analysis of Circadian Gene pdp in Locusta migratoria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宇刚; 郭宇辉; 陈光

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究不同条件下蝗虫(Locusta migratoria)节律基因pdp(Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase)的mRNA表达水平,进一步揭示蝗虫节律的分子机制。[方法]通过中国科学院动物研究所内的转录组数据库中找出pdp基因的原型来设计引物,以群居型东亚飞蝗的头部的反转录cDNA为模板,克隆出pdp基因的全序列。把一天24小时等分成八个点,进行定时取样,以qRT-PCR技术进行不同时段pdp基因表达量的测定;并在不同处理条件下,测定pdp基因的表达量。[结果]节律基因pdp在蝗虫的不同处理条件下变化不大。[结论]该研究对了解飞蝗节律规律﹑种族特点及有效防虫具有重要的现实意义。%[Objective] Through studying mRNA expression levels of circadian gene pdp(Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase) in Locusta migratoria under different conditions to reveal molecular mechanisms of rhythm of Locusta migratoria.[Methods] The prototype of the pdp gene and design primers were found out based on the database of Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences.Using aggregated locust head cDNA as templates,the complete sequence of the gene pdp was obtained.By dividing a day(24 hours) into eight points,fixed-point samples were taken,and the pdp gene expression levels at different time periods were determined by using qRT-PCR;and the pdp gene expression levels with different treatment were also determined.[Results] The circadian gene pdp in Locusta migratoria changed slightly with different treatment.[Conclusion] The study had extremely realistic significance for understanding the rhythm and population characteristics of Locusta migratoria as well as effective insect-resistant.

  16. Effects of juvenile hormone analogs and 20-hydroxyecdysone on diapause termination in eggs of Locusta migratoria and Oxya yezoensis.

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    Kidokoro, Kurako; Iwata, Ken-Ichi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Makio

    2006-05-01

    To understand the hormonal control of embryonic diapause, juvenile hormone analogs (JHAs), methoprene and hydroprene, and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) were applied onto diapause eggs of Locusta migratoria and Oxya yezoensis. These insects enter diapause at the mid-stage of embryogenesis prior to blastokinesis. Topical application of JHAs significantly facilitated diapause termination in both species but JHA-treated embryos underwent abnormal morphogenesis, pigmentation and sclerotization without dorsal closure. The Locusta eggs immersed in the 20E solution for 24h terminated diapause in a dose-dependent manner. We also investigated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), during diapause-terminating process of Locusta migratoria and found that ERK was activated either by cold exposure or JHA treatment. The possible involvement of the hormones and ERK in embryonic diapause and the possibility of ecdysteroids synthesis by prothoracic glands of diapause embryo were proposed.

  17. A quantitative peptidomics approach to unravel immunological functions of angiotensin converting enzyme in Locusta migratoria.

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    Duressa, Tewodros Firdissa; Boonen, Kurt; Huybrechts, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Locusta migratoria angiotensin converting enzyme (LmACE) is encoded by multiple exons displaying variable number of genomic duplications. Treatments of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as peptidoglycan but not β-1-3 glucan resulted in enhanced expression of angiotensin converting enzyme in hemocytes of Locusta migratoria. No such effect was observed in fat body cells. Differential peptidomics using locust plasma samples post infection with LPS in combination with both an LmACE transcript knockdown by RNAi and a functional knockdown using captopril allowed the identification of 5 circulating LPS induced peptides which only appear in the hemolymph of locust having full LmACE functionality. As these peptides originate from larger precursor proteins such as locust hemocyanin-like protein, having known antimicrobial properties, the obtained results suggest a possible direct or indirect role of LmACE in the release of these peptides from their precursors. Additionally, this experimental setup confirmed the role of LmACE in the clearance of multiple peptides from the hemolymph.

  18. Developmental expression of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins in the embryos of Locusta migratoria.

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    Yu, Yanxue; Zhang, Shangan; Zhang, Long; Zhao, Xingbo

    2009-06-01

    We have investigated the development of chemosensilla and the secretion of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) in the embryo of Locusta migratoria manilensis. We first report the changes of each sensillum in embryo just preceding hatch in detail and show that different sensilla have different developmental processes. Trichogen cells are first involved in forming the structure of pegs, and then, after retraction, they start secreting OBPs and CSPs in the sensillar lymph. The synthesis of LmigOBP1 starts during the embryogenesis about 0.5 h preceding hatching, specifically in sensilla trichodea and basiconica of the antenna. LmigOBP2, instead, was only found in the outer sensillum lymph (oSl) of sensilla chaetica of the antenna, while we could not detect LmigOBP3 in any type of sensilla of the antenna. The ontogenesis of CSPs in the embryos is similar to that of OBPs. Expression of CSPI homolog in Locusta migratoria is detected using the antiserum raised against SgreCSPI. CSPI is specifically expressed in the outer sensillum lymph of sensilla chaetica of the antenna, and anti-LmigCSPII dose not label any sensilla of the embryos. These data indicate that in locusts, OBPs and CSPs follow different temporal expression patterns, and also that OBPs are expressed in different types of sensilla.

  19. DNA amount of X and B chromosomes in the grasshoppers Eyprepocnemis plorans and Locusta migratoria.

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    Ruiz-Ruano, F J; Ruiz-Estévez, M; Rodríguez-Pérez, J; López-Pino, J L; Cabrero, J; Camacho, J P M

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the DNA amount in X and B chromosomes of 2 XX/X0 grasshopper species (Eyprepocnemis plorans and Locusta migratoria), by means of Feulgen image analysis densitometry (FIAD), using previous estimates in L. migratoria as standard (5.89 pg). We first analyzed spermatids of 0B males and found a bimodal distribution of integrated optical densities (IODs), suggesting that one peak corresponded to +X and the other to -X spermatids. The difference between the 2 peaks corresponded to the X chromosome DNA amount, which was 1.28 pg in E. plorans and 0.80 pg in L. migratoria. In addition, the +X peak in E. plorans gave an estimate of the C-value in this species (10.39 pg). We next analyzed diplotene cells from 1B males in E. plorans and +B males in L. migratoria (a species where Bs are mitotically unstable and no integer B number can be defined for an individual) and measured B chromosome IOD relative to X chromosome IOD, within the same cell, taking advantage of the similar degree of condensation for both positively heteropycnotic chromosomes at this meiotic stage. From this proportion, we estimated the DNA amount for 3 different B chromosome variants found in individuals from 3 E. plorans Spanish populations (0.54 pg for B1 from Saladares, 0.51 pg for B2 from Salobreña and 0.64 for B24 from Torrox). Likewise, we estimated the DNA amount of the B chromosome in L. migratoria to be 0.15 pg. To automate measurements, we wrote a GPL3 licensed Python program (pyFIA). We discuss the utility of the present approach for estimating X and B chromosome DNA amount in a variety of situations, and the meaning of the DNA amount estimates for X and B chromosomes in these 2 species.

  20. 东北地区亚洲飞蝗染色体核型分析%Karyotype analysis of Locusta migratoria migratoria in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 王寅亮; 宋慧华; 任炳忠

    2011-01-01

    The karyotype of Locusta migratoria migratoria (L.) in Jilin Province was analyzed by conventional chromosome analysis. The sex-determining mechanism of Locusta migratoria migratoria was XO and the chromosome number was 2n ♂ =23 with a karyotype formula of4L +4M +3S + X. All chromosomes were telocentric, NF =23 of the "1C" type. There was no obvious evidence of a B chromosome and satellite. A comparative study of the karyotypes of Locusta migratoria migratoria in Jilin and Xinjiang Provinces indicates that they belong to two different geographic populations of the same subspecies that have distinct geographical environments. Slight differences in chromosomal karyotype were apparent between the two populations.%采用常规压片法对吉林省亚洲飞蝗Locusta migratoria migratoria(L.)的染色体核型进行分析.研究结果表明:亚洲飞蝗性别决定机制为X0型,染色体数目为2n♂=23,染色体组式4L+4M+3S+X,全部为端部着丝粒染色体,NF=23.染色体中最长(L1)与最短(S11)染色体之比大于4:1,臂比大于2:1的染色体的百分比为0,因此亚洲飞蝗的染色体核型属"1C"核型.未发现B染色体和随体.对吉林和新疆2个地区的亚洲飞蝗的染色体核型进行比较,结果表明两者虽为同一亚种但分属于2个不同的地理种群,由于所处自然地理环境的不同,染色体核型存在微小的差异.

  1. 20-Hydroxyecdysone activates PGRP-SA mediated immune response in Locusta migratoria.

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    Han, Pengfei; Han, Jiao; Fan, Jiqiao; Zhang, Min; Ma, Enbo; Li, Sheng; Fan, Renjun; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2017-02-27

    20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) has been implicated in regulating the immune response in insects. Conflicting conclusions on 20E regulating immunity have been reported in model holometabolous species. However, in hemimetabolous insects, the role of 20E as an immune-suppressor or activator and the mechanism remains unclear. The migratory locust Locusta migratoria is a representative member of hemimetabolous insects. Here, digital gene expression (DGE) profiles of Locusta migratoria treated with 20E were analyzed. Pattern recognition receptors [peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP-SA), PGRP-LE, and gram-negative binding protein (GNBP3)] and antimicrobial peptides (defensin, diptericin, and i-type lysozyme) were significantly induced by 20E in fat body. These immune-related genes significantly increased their mRNA levels during the high-20E stage. Antibacterial activities in plasma were enhanced after 20E injection and during the high-20E developmental stage. Conversely, when 20E signal was suppressed by RNAi of EcR (ecdysone receptor), the expression levels of these genes and antibacterial activities failed to be increased by 20E injection and during the high-20E developmental stage, and the mortality increased after being infected by entomogenous fungus. The knockdown of PGRP-SA inhibited the expression level of defensin, diptericin and i-type lysozyme in fat body and reduced antibacterial activities in plasma. 20E injection could not significantly induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides after RNAi of PGRP-SA. These results demonstrated that 20E enhanced the immune response by activating PGRP-SA in L. migratoria.

  2. Low Temperature Storage of Eggs Improve the Development and Reproduction of Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

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    Cao, Guangchun; Jia, Miao; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lei; Tu, Xiongbing; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-10-01

    Locusta migratoria L. is an insect with significant economic value. Improving the long-term storage of L. migratoria eggs will help promote the large-scale rearing of this insect. We assessed multiple fitness parameters and enzyme activities of locusts emerged from eggs exposed to 4 °C for 1-4 wk. Locusts emerged from eggs stored at 4 °C for 2 wk showed significantly improved development and reproduction compared with locusts emerged from eggs stored for other time periods. The preimaginal survival rate increased significantly after 2-wk storage while it decreased significantly after 4-wk storage compared with other storage times. The fecundity, hatching rate, and growth rate increased significantly after 2-wk storage, but decreased significantly after 1, 3, and 4 wk compared with the control. However, the preimaginal developmental duration decreased significantly after 2-wk storage but increased significantly after storage for 1, 3, and 4 wk compared with the control. The activities of esterase, glutathione-S-transferases, phenol oxidase, and chitinase were obviously fluctuated with changes in intrinsic rate of increase (rm). These results showed that eggs stored at 4 °C for 2 wk could improve the development and reproduction of locust emerged from eggs, and four enzymes activities in above could reflect the health of locust. Our results could be useful in developing large-scale rearing protocols for L. migratoria.

  3. Evidence for widespread genomic methylation in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae.

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    Katie L Robinson

    Full Text Available The importance of DNA methylation in mammalian and plant systems is well established. In recent years there has been renewed interest in DNA methylation in insects. Accumulating evidence, both from mammals and insects, points towards an emerging role for DNA methylation in the regulation of phenotypic plasticity. The migratory locust (Locusta migratoria is a model organism for the study of phenotypic plasticity. Despite this, there is little information available about the degree to which the genome is methylated in this species and genes encoding methylation machinery have not been previously identified. We therefore undertook an initial investigation to establish the presence of a functional DNA methylation system in L. migratoria. We found that the migratory locust possesses genes that putatively encode methylation machinery (DNA methyltransferases and a methyl-binding domain protein and exhibits genomic methylation, some of which appears to be localised to repetitive regions of the genome. We have also identified a distinct group of genes within the L. migratoria genome that appear to have been historically methylated and show some possible functional differentiation. These results will facilitate more detailed research into the functional significance of DNA methylation in locusts.

  4. [Influence of low temperature and photoperiod on the substances in Locusta migratoria tibetensis].

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    Zhu, Yu-han; Li, Qing; Yang, Gang; Baima, Tun-zhu; Kuang, Jian-kang; Jiang, Chun-xian; Wang, Hai-jian; Yang, Qun-fang

    2016-02-01

    In order to investigate the adaption of Locusta migratoria tibetensis to the. environment, this paper adopted the experiments with full light exposure (24L/OD), total. darkness (OL/24D), and low temperature (5 °C) to study the effects of low temperature and illumination stress on the cold-resistant substances of L. migratoria tibetensis. The results showed that the fat content of L. migratoria tibetensis reached 11.8%, which was the highest under the condition of full light exposure (24L/OD) without low temperature stress. The fat content of body in low temperature and darkness treatment (OL/24D) was 4.7%, which was the lowest. The trehalose, mannitol and sorbitol contents of locust after low temperature stress were significantly higher than that of locust without the same stress. Glycogen content of locust treated by full light exposure without low temperature 'stress was the highest (6.40 mg . g-1). Besides, low temperature and darkness treatment stimulated the accumulation of alanine, glutamic acid, lysine, and phenylalanine, benefiting the accumulation of multi-amino acids, glycerinum, micro-molecule carbohydrate, and the reduction of glycogen and fat content.

  5. Wright-Giemsa staining to observe phagocytes in Locusta migratoria infected with Metarhizium acridum.

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    Yu, Ying; Cao, Yueqing; Xia, Yuxian; Liu, Feihong

    2016-09-01

    Hemocytes are the first line of defense in the invertebrate immune system. Understanding their roles in cellular immunity is important for developing more efficient mycoinsecticides. However, the exact classification of hemocytes has been inconsistent and the various types of phagocytes in Locusta migratoria are poorly defined. Herein, the Wright-Giemsa staining method and microscopy were employed to characterize the hemocytes of L. migratoria following infection by Metarhizium acridum. Hemocytes were classified into four types, including granulocytes, plasmatocytes, prohemocytes, and oenocytoids, based on size, morphology, and dye-staining properties. Each type of hemocyte was classified into several subtypes according to different ultrastructural features. At least four subtypes of granulocytes or plasmatocytes, including small-nucleus plasmatocytes, basophil vacuolated plasmatocytes, homogeneous plasmatocytes, and eosinophilic granulocytes, carried out phagocytosis. The percentage of total phagocytes increased two days after infection by M. acridum, then gradually declined during the next two days, and then increased sharply again at the fifth day. Our data suggested that plasmatocytes and granulocytes may be the major phagocytes that protect against invasion by a fungal pathogen in L. migratoria. Total hemocytes in locusts significantly increased in the initial days after infection and decreased in the late period of infection compared to controls. In the hemocoel, hyphal bodies were recognized, enwrapped, and digested by the phagocytes. Then, the broken hyphal pieces were packaged as vesicles to be secreted from the cell. Moreover, locusts might have a sensitive and efficient cellular immune system that can regulate phagocyte differentiation and proliferation before fungi colonize the host hemolymph.

  6. Citric acid production from Aspergillus niger MT-4 using hydrolysate extract of the insect Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Mesut; Tasar, Gani Erhan; Incekara, Umit

    2013-06-01

    Citric acid (CA) is the most important organic acid used in the food and other industries. Locusta migratoria is an insect species, which has rich nutritional composition (especially protein) and cultivated in some countries. Therefore, the present study investigated the usability of hydrolysate extract of L. migratoria biomass as substrate for the production of CA from Aspergillus niger MT-4. The insect extract (IE) was found to be rich in ash (34.9 g/100 g), protein (35.6 g/100 g) and mineral contents. Yeast extract was found to be the most favorable substrate for biomass production, whereas the maximum production of CA (41.8 g/L) was achieved in the medium containing IE. Besides, uniform pellets with the smallest size (4 mm) were observed in IE medium. It was thought that rich magnesium (6.78 g/100 g) and manganese (1.14 g/100 g) contents of IE increased the production of CA, resulting in the formation of small uniform pellets. This is the first report on the effect of protein-rich insect biomasses on the production of CA. In this regard, L. migratoria biomass was tested for the first time as a CA-production substrate.

  7. 蝗虫节律基因pdp的克隆及功能分析%Clone and Functional Analysis of Circadian Gene pdp in Locusta migratoria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宇辉; 陈光

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究不同条件下蝗虫(Locusta migratoria)节律基因Pdp( Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase)的mRNA表达水平,进一步揭示蝗虫节律的分子机制.[方法]通过中国科学院动物研究所内的转录组数据库中找出pdp基因的原型来设计引物,以群居型东亚飞蝗的头部的反转录cDNA为模板,克隆出pdp基因的全序列.把一天24h等分成8个点,进行定时取样,以qRT-PCR技术进行不同时段pdp基因表达量的测定;并在不同处理条件下.测定pdp基因的表达量.[结果]节律基因pdp在蝗虫的不同处理条件下变化不大.[结论]该研究对了解飞蝗节律规律、种群特点及有效防虫具有重要的现实意义.%[Objective]Through studying mRNA expression levels of circadian gene pdp in Locusta migratoria under different conditions to reveal molecular mechanisms of rhythm of Locusta migratoria. [ Methods ] Based on the database of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, to find out the prototype of the pdp gene and design primers. Using aggregated locust head cDNA cloning for templates, the complete sequence of the gene pdp was got. By dividing a day (24 hours)into eight points, we take fixed-point samples, and then measure the gene expression using qRT-PCR for different times of day. And then in different processing conditions, the pdp gene expression levels were determined. [ Results ] The rhythms of gene pdp locust changed slightly under different conditions. [ Conclusion ] The study had extremely realistic significance for understanding the rhythm and population characteristics of Locusta migratoria as well as effective insect-resistant.

  8. AN ODORANT-BINDING PROTEIN INVOLVED IN PERCEPTION OF HOST PLANT ODORANTS IN LOCUST Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Long; Wang, Xiaoqi

    2016-04-01

    Locusts, Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae), are extremely destructive agricultural pests, but very little is known of their molecular aspects of perception to host plant odorants including related odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), though several OBPs have been identified in locust. To elucidate the function of LmigOBP1, the first OBP identified from locust, RNA interference was employed in this study to silence LmigOBP1, which was achieved by injection of dsRNA targeting LmigOBP1 into the hemolymph of male nymphs. Compared with LmigOBP1 normal nymphs, LmigOBP1 knockdown nymphs significantly decreased food (maize leaf, Zea mays) consumption and electro-antennography responses to five maize leaf volatiles, ((Z)-3-hexenol, linalool, nonanal, decanal, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate). These suggest that LmigOBP1 is involved in perception of host plant odorants.

  9. Retinoic acid as a survival factor in neuronal development of the grasshopper, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukiban, Jeyathevy; Bräunig, Peter; Mey, Jörg; Bui-Göbbels, Katrin

    2014-11-01

    Based on experience with cell cultures of adult insect neurons, we develop a serum-free culture system for embryonic locust neurons. Influences of trophic substances on survival and neurite outgrowth of developing neurons are investigated. For the first time, a positive trophic effect of 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis RA) was shown in vitro on embryonic neurons of an insect. We observed longer cell survival of 50 % developmental stage neurons in cultures supplemented with 0.3 nM 9-cis RA. Furthermore, an influence on neuron morphology was revealed, as the addition of 9-cis RA to cell culture medium led to an increase in the number of neurites per cell. Although an RA receptor gene, LmRXR (Locusta migratoria retinoid X receptor), was expressed in the central nervous system throughout development, the influence of 9-cis RA on neuronal survival and outgrowth was restricted to 50 % stage embryonic cells.

  10. Microarray-based annotation of the gut transcriptome of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spit, J; Badisco, L; Vergauwen, L; Knapen, D; Vanden Broeck, J

    2016-12-01

    The migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, is a serious agricultural pest and important insect model in the study of insect digestion and feeding behaviour. The gut is one of the primary interfaces between the insect and its environment. Nevertheless, knowledge on the gut transcriptome of L. migratoria is still very limited. Here, 48 802 expressed sequence tags were extracted from publicly available databases and their expression in larval gut and/or brain tissue was determined using microarray hybridization. Our data show 2765 transcripts predominantly or exclusively expressed in the gut. Many transcripts had putative functions closely related to the physiological functions of the gut as a muscular digestive organ and as the first barrier against microorganisms and a wide range of toxins. By means of a ranking procedure based on the relative signal intensity, we estimated 15% of the transcripts to show high expression levels, the highest belonging to diverse digestive enzymes and muscle-related proteins. We also found evidence for very high expression of an allergen protein, which could have important implications, as locusts form a traditional food source in various parts of the world, and were also recently added to the list of insects fit for human consumption in Europe. Interestingly, many highly expressed sequences have as yet unknown functions. Taken together, the present data provide significant insight into locust larval gut physiology, and will be valuable for future studies on the insect gut.

  11. Feeding impairs chill coma recovery in the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Findsen, Anders; Overgaard, Johannes

    2013-10-01

    Low temperature causes loss of neuromuscular function in a wide range of insects, such that the animals enter a state known as chill coma. The ability to recover from chill coma (chill coma recovery time) is often a popular phenotype to characterise chill tolerance in insects. Chill coma in insects has been shown to be associated with a decrease in haemolymph volume and a marked increase in [K(+)], causing dissipation of K(+) equilibrium potential and resting membrane potential. High potassium diet (wheat) has also previously been shown to increase haemolymph [K(+)] in Locusta migratoria leading to sluggish behaviour. The present study combined these two independent stressors of ion and water homeostasis, in order to investigate the role of K(+)- and water-balance during recovery from chill coma, in the chill sensitive insect L. migratoria. We confirmed that cold shock elicits a fast increase in haemolymph [K(+)] which is likely caused by a water shift from the haemolymph to the muscles and other tissues. Recovery of haemolymph [K(+)] is however not only reliant on recovery of haemolymph volume, as the recovery of water and K(+) is decoupled. Chill coma recovery time, after 2h at -4 °C, differed significantly between fasted animals and those fed on high K(+) diet. This difference was not associated with an increased disturbance of haemolymph [K(+)] in the fed animals, instead it was associated with a slowed recovery of muscle [K(+)], muslce water, haemolymph [Na(+)] and K(+)equilibrium potential in the fed animals.

  12. Vacuolar ATPase subunit H is essential for the survival and moulting of Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Xia, Y

    2012-08-01

    Vacuolar (H(+) )-ATPase (V-ATPase) functions as an electrogenic pump, transporting protons from the cytoplasm to the extracellular fluid to generate cell-negative membrane voltage. The V-ATPase subunit H, encoded by Vhasfd, is required for V-ATPase activity. In this study, the gene encoding V-ATPase subunit H from Locusta migratoria manilensis was cloned, and designated as Lm-Vhasfd. The complete cDNA sequence is 2018 bp, with an open reading frame encoding 515 amino acid residues. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) showed that Lm-Vhasfd transcription is high in the haemolymph, midgut, trunk and leg, but relatively low in the fat body and head tissues. Injection with a specific double-strand RNA (dsRNA) led to a significant decrease in Lm-Vhasfd mRNA, V-ATPase enzyme activity and ATP concentration. Bioassays showed that silencing Lm-Vhasfd led to the death of individuals and various moulting defects. The accumulative mortality of the RNA interference (RNAi) mutant 11 days post-injection was 96.7%, which was conspicuously higher than that seen in wild type locusts. These RNAi phenotypes demonstrate that Lm-Vhasfd is essential for the growth and moulting of L. migratoria manilensis.

  13. Effects of chlorpyrifos on glutathione S-transferase in migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guohua; Liu, Ting; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Xueyao; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2014-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a typical organophosphate pesticide and is among the most widely used worldwide. The objective of the present investigation was to assess the effect of chlorpyrifos exposure on glutathione S-transferase in Locusta migratoria. In the present study, chlorpyrifos (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4mgg(-1) body weight) was topically applied in the abdomen of locusts. The GST activity, mRNA levels of ten L. migratoria GSTs and protein levels of four representative GSTs were detected. The results showed that chlorpyrifos treatment caused significant decrease of 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) and p-nitro-benzyl chloride (p-NBC) activities, whereas 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) activity was not altered in locusts. The mRNA levels of seven L. migratoria GSTs, including LmGSTs2, LmGSTs3, LmGSTs4, LmGSTs5, LmGSTs6, LmGSTt1, and LmGSTu1, were decreased after chlorpyrifos exposure. The protein levels of LmGSTs5, LmGSTt1 and LmGSTu1 were significantly decreased at higher doses of chlorpyrifos. However, chlorpyrifos elevated the mRNA and protein expression of LmGSTd1. It indicated that LmGSTd1 might contribute to the resistance of locust to organophosphate pesticides such as chlorpyrifos, whereas the decrease in other GSTs might be an economic compensation by the insect to differentially regulate the expression of enzymes involved in the detoxification of insecticides on the expense of those that are not.

  14. 东北地区亚洲飞蝗的生物学特性%Biological Characteristics of Locusta migratoria migratoria Linnaeus in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 吕耀星; 王雪松; 陈新; 张雪; 任炳忠

    2012-01-01

    In order to find out the life cycle and the main biological characteristics of Locusta migratoria migratoria Linnaeus in Northeast China, raising and investigation were conducted during 2010-2011 in Jilin province. The results show that one generation of Locusta migratoria migratoria occurs annually in Northeast China, and the eggs are laid in soil to overwinter. The overwintering eggs begin to hatch in early or middle June and reach the hatching peak in middle June. The developmental duration of nymphs are 28 ~ 35 days, each spends 5 - 7days. The adult emergence time is in early July, and reaches the eclosin peak period in middle July. After about a week the adult male and female begin to copulate, and reach the copulation peak in late July. The adult begin to oviposit in early August after copulation for two weeks,and the oviposition activity has been extended to the early October. The environmental conditions have important influences on the growth and breeding activities of Locusta migratoria migratoria.%采用室内饲养与野外调查相结合的方法对东北地区亚洲飞蝗的生活史及主要的生物学特性进行了研究.结果表明:亚洲飞蝗在东北地区1年发生1代,以卵在土中越冬,越冬蝗卵6月上中旬开始孵化,6月中旬为孵化盛期,蝗蝻发育历期为28~35 d,每个龄期历时5~7d,7月上旬末期开始羽化为成虫,7月中旬为羽化盛期,成虫羽化后约7d雌雄两性开始交尾,7月下旬为交尾盛期,交尾约14 d后雌性开始产卵,产卵一直延续到9月末.生态环境条件对亚洲飞蝗的取食、蜕皮、羽化、交尾、产卵等生长发育及繁殖活动具有重要影响.

  15. The role of egg pod foam and rearing conditions of the phase state of the Asian migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratoria (Orthoptera, Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamouda, Amel; Ammar, Mohamed; Ben Hamouda, Mohamed Habib; Bouain, Abderrahmen

    2009-07-01

    Coloration phase state, morphometrical ratios and the numbers of mature oocytes of Locusta migratoria migratoria were examined in a series of experiments to determine the means by which phase characteristics are passed to the next generation. Washing with distilled water of eggs from egg pods laid by gregarious crowd-reared females resulted in solitarization of the hatchlings after their isolation, indicating that a factor present in eggs encapsulated in foam is causal to gregarization. Such locusts showed a significant shift towards the typical solitarious body coloration, morphometry and number of mature oocytes as compared to locusts resulting from unwashed eggs. Gregarious coloration, morphometrical ratios and oocyte numbers could be partially restored when hatchlings from washed eggs were regrouped. When gregarious locusts were reared in isolation, they showed a solitary body color, whereas, morphometry and oocyte numbers were not affected by isolation.

  16. Genetic variation for parental effects on the propensity to gregarise in Locusta migratoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foucart Antoine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental parental effects can have important ecological and evolutionary consequences, yet little is known about genetic variation among populations in the plastic responses of offspring phenotypes to parental environmental conditions. This type of variation may lead to rapid phenotypic divergence among populations and facilitate speciation. With respect to density-dependent phenotypic plasticity, locust species (Orthoptera: family Acrididae, exhibit spectacular developmental and behavioural shifts in response to population density, called phase change. Given the significance of phase change in locust outbreaks and control, its triggering processes have been widely investigated. Whereas crowding within the lifetime of both offspring and parents has emerged as a primary causal factor of phase change, less is known about intraspecific genetic variation in the expression of phase change, and in particular in response to the parental environment. We conducted a laboratory experiment that explicitly controlled for the environmental effects of parental rearing density. This design enabled us to compare the parental effects on offspring expression of phase-related traits between two naturally-occurring, genetically distinct populations of Locusta migratoria that differed in their historical patterns of high population density outbreak events. Results We found that locusts from a historically outbreaking population of L. migratoria expressed parentally-inherited density-dependent phase changes to a greater degree than those from a historically non-outbreaking population. Conclusion Because locusts from both populations were raised in a common environment during our experiment, a genetically-based process must be responsible for the observed variation in the propensity to express phase change. This result emphasizes the importance of genetic factors in the expression of phase traits and calls for further investigations on density

  17. Characterization and functional analysis of four glutathione S-transferases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guohua; Jia, Miao; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Xueyao; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In this study, four GSTs (LmGSTd1, LmGSTs5, LmGSTt1, and LmGSTu1) representing different classes were identified from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. These four proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins, purified by Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose column and biochemically characterized. LmGSTd1, LmGSTs5, and LmGSTu1 showed high activities with 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), detectable activity with p-nitro-benzyl chloride (p-NBC) and 1, 2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), whereas LmGSTt1 showed high activity with p-NBC and detectable activity with CDNB. The optimal pH of the locust GSTs ranged between 7.0 to 9.0. Ethacrynic acid and reactive blue effectively inhibited all four GSTs. LmGSTs5 was most sensitive to heavy metals (Cu(2+) and Cd(2+)). The maximum expression of the four GSTs was observed in Malpighian tubules and fat bodies as evaluated by western blot. The nymph mortalities after carbaryl treatment increased by 28 and 12% after LmGSTs5 and LmGSTu1 were silenced, respectively. The nymph mortalities after malathion and chlorpyrifos treatments increased by 26 and 18% after LmGSTs5 and LmGSTu1 were silenced, respectively. These results suggest that sigma GSTs in L. migratoria play a significant role in carbaryl detoxification, whereas some of other GSTs may also involve in the detoxification of carbaryl and chlorpyrifos.

  18. Identification and characterization of two CYP9A genes associated with pyrethroid detoxification in Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenya; Yu, Rongrong; Wu, Haihua; Zhang, Xueyao; Liu, Yaoming; Zhu, Kun Yan; Zhang, Jianzhen; Ma, Enbo

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) constitute one of the largest gene super families and distribute widely in all living organisms. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of two LmCYP9A genes (LmCYP9AQ1 and LmCYP9A3) were cloned from Locusta migratoria. We analyzed the expression patterns of two LmCYP9A genes in various tissues and different developmental stages using real-time quantitative PCR. Then we evaluated the detoxification functions of the two LmCYP9A genes by testing mortalities with four kinds of pyrethroid treatment after RNA interference (RNAi), respectively. Combining with docking structure of two LmCYP9A genes, their detoxification properties were extensively analyzed. The full-length cDNAs of LmCYP9AQ1 and LmCYP9A3 putatively encoded 525 and 524 amino acid residues, respectively. Both LmCYP9A genes were expressed throughout the developmental stages. The expression of LmCYP9AQ1 in the brain was higher than that in other examined tissues, whereas the LmCYP9A3 was mainly expressed in the fat body. The mortalities of nymphs exposed to deltamethrin and permethrin increased from 27.7% to 77.7% and 27.7% to 58.3%, respectively, after dsLmCYP9A3 injection. While the mortalities of nymphs exposed to fluvalinate increased from 29.8% to 53.0% after LmCYP9AQ1 was silenced using RNA interference. Our results suggested that the two LmCYP9A genes may be involved in different pyrethroid insecticide detoxification in L. migratoria.

  19. RNA interference revealed the roles of two carboxylesterase genes in insecticide detoxification in Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqin; Li, Daqi; Ge, Pingting; Yang, Meiling; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2013-10-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) play key roles in metabolism of specific hormones and detoxification of dietary and environmental xenobiotics in insects. We sequenced and characterized CarE cDNAs putatively derived from two different genes named LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, one of the most important agricultural pests in the world. The full-length cDNAs of LmCesA1 (1892 bp) and LmCesA2 (1643 bp) encode 543 and 501 amino acid residues, respectively. The two deduced CarEs share a characteristic α/β-hydrolase structure, including a catalytic triad composed of Ser-Glu (Asp)-His and a consensus sequence GQSAG, which suggests that both CarEs are biologically active. Phylogenetic analysis grouped both LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 into clade A which has been suggested to be involved in dietary detoxification. Both transcripts were highly expressed in all the nymphal and adult stages, but only slightly expressed in eggs. Analyses of tissue-dependent expression and in situ hybridization revealed that both transcripts were primarily expressed in gastric caeca. RNA interference (RNAi) of LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 followed by a topical application of carbaryl or deltamethrin did not lead to a significantly increased mortality with either insecticide. However, RNAi of LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 increased insect mortalities by 20.9% and 14.5%, respectively, when chlorpyrifos was applied. These results suggest that these genes might not play a significant role in detoxification of carbaryl and deltamethrin but are most likely to be involved in detoxification of chlorpyrifos in L. migratoria.

  20. Characterization and functional analysis of four glutathione S-transferases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Qin

    Full Text Available Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs play an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In this study, four GSTs (LmGSTd1, LmGSTs5, LmGSTt1, and LmGSTu1 representing different classes were identified from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. These four proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins, purified by Ni(2+-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose column and biochemically characterized. LmGSTd1, LmGSTs5, and LmGSTu1 showed high activities with 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB, detectable activity with p-nitro-benzyl chloride (p-NBC and 1, 2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB, whereas LmGSTt1 showed high activity with p-NBC and detectable activity with CDNB. The optimal pH of the locust GSTs ranged between 7.0 to 9.0. Ethacrynic acid and reactive blue effectively inhibited all four GSTs. LmGSTs5 was most sensitive to heavy metals (Cu(2+ and Cd(2+. The maximum expression of the four GSTs was observed in Malpighian tubules and fat bodies as evaluated by western blot. The nymph mortalities after carbaryl treatment increased by 28 and 12% after LmGSTs5 and LmGSTu1 were silenced, respectively. The nymph mortalities after malathion and chlorpyrifos treatments increased by 26 and 18% after LmGSTs5 and LmGSTu1 were silenced, respectively. These results suggest that sigma GSTs in L. migratoria play a significant role in carbaryl detoxification, whereas some of other GSTs may also involve in the detoxification of carbaryl and chlorpyrifos.

  1. Effects of the mycotoxin destruxin A on Locusta migratoria visceral muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sanchez, Esau; Lange, Angela B; Orchard, Ian

    2010-11-01

    Destruxins, a family of cyclic peptides, are produced by various species of entomopathogenic fungi. These peptides have been shown to influence calcium-dependent processes in insect cell lines and tissues, such as skeletal muscles. To better understand the mechanism of action of these peptide toxins on insect muscular tissues, we have evaluated the effects of destruxin A on the contractions of oviducts and hindgut of Locusta migratoria. In oviducts, destruxin A increased the frequency of spontaneous contractions and induced a dose-dependent tonic contraction; the EC(50) for lower lateral and upper lateral oviducts was 0.7 microM and 8.7 microM, respectively. In hindgut, destruxin A also caused an increase in the frequency of spontaneous contractions; the EC(50) was 3.2 microM. The action of destruxin A was abolished in Ca(2+)-free saline or when the Ca(2+) channel blocker CoCl(2) was added to the incubation saline. Likewise, the presence of 50 microM nifedipine or 100 microM verapamil in the medium reduced the magnitude of destruxin A's effect, particularly in hindgut. The depolarization of muscle membranes by 100 mM K(+) saline prevented the action of destruxin A. Preincubation of lower lateral oviducts in the intracellular Ca(2+) antagonist TMB-8 did not have any effect on destruxin A action; however, preincubation in the calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine greatly reduced the effect of destruxin A. Taken together, these results show that destruxin A has an excitatory effect on contractions of insect visceral muscles of L. migratoria. Destruxin A-induced contractions appear to be dependent on extracellular, but not on intracellularly-released Ca(2+), which suggest that this peptide toxin might be acting on insect visceral muscle by facilitating an influx of extracellular Ca(2+).

  2. Biochemical basis of synergism between pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and insecticide chlorantraniliprole in Locusta migratoria (Meyen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Miao; Cao, Guangchun; Li, Yibo; Tu, Xiongbing; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Whitman, Douglas W; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-06-22

    We challenged Locusta migratoria (Meyen) grasshoppers with simultaneous doses of both the insecticide chlorantraniliprole and the fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae. Our results showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on host mortality and enzyme activities. To elucidate the biochemical mechanisms that underlie detoxification and pathogen-immune responses in insects, we monitored the activities of 10 enzymes. After administration of insecticide and fungus, activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), general esterases (ESTs) and phenol oxidase (PO) decreased in the insect during the initial time period, whereas those of aryl acylamidase (AA) and chitinase (CHI) increased during the initial period and that of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) increased during a later time period. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) decreased at a later time period post treatment. Interestingly, treatment with chlorantraniliprole and M. anisopliae relieved the convulsions that normally accompany M. anisopliae infection. We speculate that locust mortality increased as a result of synergism via a mechanism related to Ca(2+) disruption in the host. Our study illuminates the biochemical mechanisms involved in insect immunity to xenobiotics and pathogens as well as the mechanisms by which these factors disrupt host homeostasis and induce death. We expect this knowledge to lead to more effective pest control.

  3. Octopamine modulates a central pattern generator associated with egg-laying in the locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Raymond; Lange, Angela B

    2014-04-01

    Egg-laying in Locusta migratoria involves the control of a variety of complex behavioural patterns including those that regulate digging of the oviposition hole and retention of eggs during digging. These two behavioural patterns are under the control of central pattern generators (CPGs). The digging and egg-retention CPGs are coordinated and integrated with overlapping locations of neural substrate within the VIIth and VIIIth abdominal ganglia of the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, the egg-retention CPG of the VIIth abdominal ganglion is involved in both egg-retention and protraction of the abdomen during digging. The biogenic amine, octopamine, has peripheral effects on oviduct muscle, relaxing basal tension of the lateral and upper common oviduct and enabling egg passage. Here we show that octopamine also modulates the pattern of the egg-retention CPG by altering the motor pattern that controls the external ventral protractor of the VIIth abdominal segment. There is no change in the motor pattern that goes to the oviducts. Octopamine decreased the frequency of the largest amplitude action potential and decreased burst duration while leading to an increase in cycle duration and interburst interval. The effects of octopamine were greatly reduced in the presence of the α-adrenergic blocker, phentolamine, indicating that the action of octopamine was via a receptor. Thus, octopamine orchestrates events that can lead to oviposition, centrally inhibiting the digging behavior and peripherally relaxing the lateral and common oviducts to enable egg-laying.

  4. Expression and characterization of recombinant Locusta migratoria manilensis acetylcholinesterase 1 in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoxia; Xia, Yuxian

    2011-05-01

    The acetylcholinesterase 1 from Locusta migratoria manilensis (LmAChE1) was successfully expressed in methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris KM71. The maximum expression of recombinant LmAChE1 (reLmAChE1) was achieved after 9 days of induction at 2.5% methanol. The reLmAChE1 was first precipitated with ammonium sulfate (50% saturation) and then was purified with nickel affinity chromatography. The enzyme was purified 3.2×10(3)-fold with a yield of 68% and a specific activity of 8.1 U/mg. The purified reLmAChE1 exhibited highest activity at 30°C in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and its activity could be inhibited by eserine sulfate and pentan-3-one-dibromide (BW284c51). Substrate specificity analysis showed that the purified reLmAChE1 preferred acetylthiocholine (ATC) and propionylthiocholine (BTC) rather than butyrylthiocholine (BTC). When ATC was used as substrate, the K(m) and V(max) values for the reLmAChE1 were 24.8 μM and 9.5 μmol/min/mg, respectively.

  5. Argonaute 1 is indispensable for juvenile hormone mediated oogenesis in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiasheng; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Feng; Kang, Le; Zhou, Shutang

    2013-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is the primary hormone controlling vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria, an evolutionarily primitive insect species with panoistic ovaries. However, molecular mechanisms of locust oogenesis remain unclear and the role of microRNA (miRNA) in JH mediated locust vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation has not been explored. Using miRNA sequencing and quantification with small RNA libraries derived from fat bodies of JH-deprived versus JH analog-exposed female adult locusts, we have identified 83 JH up-regulated and 60 JH down-regulated miRNAs. QRT-PCR validation has confirmed that transcription of selected miRNAs responded to JH administration and correlated with changes in endogenous hemolymph JH titers. Depletion of Argonaute 1 (Ago1), a key regulator of miRNA biogenesis and function by RNAi in female adult locusts dramatically decreased the expression of vitellogenin (Vg) and severely impaired follicular epithelium development, terminal oocyte maturation and ovarian growth. Our data indicate that Ago1 and Ago1-dependent miRNAs play a crucial role in locust vitellogenesis and egg production.

  6. A test of the oxidative damage hypothesis for discontinuous gas exchange in the locust Locusta migratoria.

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    Matthews, Philip G D; Snelling, Edward P; Seymour, Roger S; White, Craig R

    2012-08-23

    The discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) is a breathing pattern displayed by many insects, characterized by periodic breath-holding and intermittently low tracheal O(2) levels. It has been hypothesized that the adaptive value of DGCs is to reduce oxidative damage, with low tracheal O(2) partial pressures (PO(2) ≈ 2-5 kPa) occurring to reduce the production of oxygen free radicals. If this is so, insects displaying DGCs should continue to actively defend a low tracheal PO(2) even when breathing higher than atmospheric levels of oxygen (hyperoxia). This behaviour has been observed in moth pupae exposed to ambient PO(2) up to 50 kPa. To test this observation in adult insects, we implanted fibre-optic oxygen optodes within the tracheal systems of adult migratory locusts Locusta migratoria exposed to normoxia, hypoxia and hyperoxia. In normoxic and hypoxic atmospheres, the minimum tracheal PO(2) that occurred during DGCs varied between 3.4 and 1.2 kPa. In hyperoxia up to 40.5 kPa, the minimum tracheal PO(2) achieved during a DGC exceeded 30 kPa, increasing with ambient levels. These results are consistent with a respiratory control mechanism that functions to satisfy O(2) requirements by maintaining PO(2) above a critical level, not defend against high levels of O(2).

  7. Initial analysis of the hemocyanin subunit type 1 (Hc1 gene) from Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong; Guan, Ni; Dong, Lijun; Yue, Qiaoyun; Yin, Xiangchu; Zhang, Daochuan

    2012-03-01

    Hemocyanins are copper-containing (Cu(+)) proteins that transport oxygen in many arthropods hemolymph. We characterized Hc1 gene from the grasshopper species Locusta migratoria manilensis. In particular, we cloned and sequenced the corresponding cDNAs and studied their expression at different developmental stages. The cDNA of Hc1 gene (GenBank accession no.:HQ213937) is 2271 bp in length and the open reading frame is 2016 bp, which encodes a 672 amino acids protein with a calculated molecular mass of 77.9 kD and the isoelectric point of 6.06. Sequence alignment analysis result showed that this gene shares 94.7% identity with Schistocerca americana EHP. In addition, analysis of quantitative RT-PCR indicated that, LmiHc1 was expressed in the embyro (24, 39, 62, 86, 144, and 193 h after hatch), nymphs (1st instar, 2nd instar, 3rd instar, 4th instar and 5th instar) and in adult. These results showed that Hc1 plays an important role in grasshopper, which may be related to an enhanced oxygen supply. Phylogenetic analysis of insecta based on Hc1 are basically consistent with the morphology.

  8. A broadly tuned odorant receptor in neurons of trichoid sensilla in locust, Locusta migratoria.

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    You, Yinwei; Smith, Dean P; Lv, Mingyue; Zhang, Long

    2016-12-01

    Insects have evolved sophisticated olfactory reception systems to sense exogenous chemical signals. Odorant receptors (ORs) on the membrane of chemosensory neurons are believed to be key molecules in sensing exogenous chemical cues. ORs in different species of insects are diverse and should tune a species to its own specific semiochemicals relevant to their survival. The orthopteran insect, locust (Locusta migratoria), is a model hemimetabolous insect. There is very limited knowledge on the functions of locust ORs although many locust OR genes have been identified in genomic sequencing experiments. In this paper, a locust OR, LmigOR3 was localized to neurons housed in trichoid sensilla by in situ hybridization. LmigOR3 was expressed as a transgene in Drosophila trichoid olfactory neurons (aT1) lacking the endogenous receptor Or67d and the olfactory tuning curve and dose-response curves were established for this locust receptor. The results show that LmigOR3 sensitizes neurons to ketones, esters and heterocyclic compounds, indicating that LmigOR3 is a broadly tuned receptor. LmigOR3 is the first odorant receptor from Orthoptera that has been functionally analyzed in the Drosophila aT1 system. This work demonstrates the utility of the Drosophila aT1 system for functional analysis of locust odorant receptors and suggests that LmigOR3 may be involved in detecting food odorants, or perhaps locust body volatiles that may help us to develop new control methods for locusts.

  9. Tissue-Specific Immune Gene Expression in the Migratory Locust, Locusta Migratoria

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    Tamara Pulpitel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of hosts to respond to infection involves several complex immune recognition pathways. Broadly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs allow individuals to target a range of invading microbes. Recently, studies on insect innate immunity have found evidence that a single pathogen can activate different immune pathways across species. In this study, expression changes in immune genes encoding peptidoglycan-recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA, gram-negative binding protein 1 (GNBP1 and prophenoloxidase (ProPO were investigated in Locusta migratoria, following an immune challenge using injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS solution from Escherichia coli. Since immune activation might also be tissue-specific, gene expression levels were followed across a range of tissue types. For PGRP-SA, expression increased in response to LPS within all seven of the tissue-types assayed and differed significantly between tissues. Expression of GNBP1 similarly varied across tissue types, yet showed no clear expression difference between LPS-injected and uninfected locusts. Increases in ProPO expression in response to LPS, however, could only be detected in the gut sections. This study has revealed tissue-specific immune response to add a new level of complexity to insect immune studies. In addition to variation in recognition pathways identified in previous works, tissue-specificity should be carefully considered in similar works.

  10. Identification and characteristic analysis of the catalase gene from Locusta migratoria.

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    Zhang, Xueyao; Li, Yahong; Wang, Junxiu; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Tao; Dong, Wei; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-09-01

    Catalase (CAT) is a ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme in almost all living organisms exposed to atmosphere, which involved in decomposing harmful hydrogen peroxide, into oxygen and water. In this study, a full-length cDNA (1524bp) encoding the catalase gene (LmCAT) from Locusta migratoria was cloned (accession number KT716445). The open reading frame of the LmCAT gene encoded 507 amino acids and shared 57.8%-97.8% amino acid identities with other insect CATs. The coding region was interrupted by 9 introns, while its promoter region contained 15 putative binding sites for 5 kinds of transcriptional regulation factors. For the stage-specific expression profile, LmCAT was highly expressed in the fourth-instar nymphs. For the tissue-specific expression profile, the LmCAT transcripts were highest in the fat bodies, and relatively abundant in the gastric caecum, Malpighian tubules, ovary and integument. Moreover, the result showed that quercetin could significantly induce the expression level of LmCAT. The expression of LmCAT could be silenced by RNAi, but the moralities were not significantly different between control and RNAi groups. Our results would provide valuable information for further study on the ROS regulation mechanism in insect.

  11. Identification and distribution of products from novel tryptopyrokinin genes in the locust, Locusta migratoria.

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    Redeker, Jana; Bläser, Marcel; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard

    2017-04-22

    A recent analysis of the genome of Locusta migratoria indicated the presence of four novel insect neuropeptide genes encoding for multiple tryptopyrokinin peptides (tryptoPKs); hitherto only known from pyrokinin or capa genes. In our study, mature products of tryptoPK genes 1 and 2 were identified by mass spectrometry; precursor sequences assigned to the tryptoPK genes 3 and 4 are likely partial sequences of a single precursor. The expression of tryptoPK genes 1 and 2 is restricted to two cells in the subesophageal ganglion, exhibiting not only a unique neuropeptidome but also a very distinctive axonal projection. Comparative neuroendocrinology revealed that homologous cells in other insects also produce tryptoPKs but use other genes to generate this pattern. Since capa and pyrokinin genes are discussed as ancestors of the tryptoPK genes, we completed the hitherto only partially known precursor sequences of these genes by means of transcriptome analyses. The distribution of mature products of CAPA and pyrokinin precursors in the CNS is compared with that of tryptoPKs. In addition, a novel pyrokinin-like precursor is described.

  12. Flight-induced inhibition of the cerebral median peptidergic neurosecretory system in Locusta migratoria

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    Diederen, J.H.; van Etten, E.W.; Biegstraaten, A.I.; Terlou, M.; Vullings, H.G.; Jansen, W.F.

    1988-08-01

    This study discusses the effects of a 1-hr period of flight on the peptidergic pars intercerebralis (PI)-corpus cardiacum storage part (CCS) system in male Locusta migratoria, particularly the effect on material in this system stained by a histochemical method for peptidergic neurosecretory material (NSM) or labeled by in vivo incorporation of radioactive amino acid molecules. By use of an automatic image analysis system a number of parameters of the stained or radioactively labeled substances were measured to quantify the flight-induced effects and to get information on the manner in which the neurosecretory cell bodies in the PI and their axonal endings in the CCS accommodate changing amounts of NSM. The CCS of flown locusts contained distinctly more stained and radioactively labeled substances than the CCS of unflown locusts. A tendency to similar differences was observed in the cluster of neurosecretory cell bodies in the PI. The results indicate that 1 hr flight inhibited the release of NSM by the PI-CCS system. After the onset of reduced release activity by flight, some NSM continued to be synthesized and transported from the PI to the CCS, gradually filling up and expanding the entire PI-CCS system, the NSM at the same time becoming more and more densely packed. It is concluded that the peptidergic PI-CCS system is not actively involved in the control of flight metabolism or flight behavior.

  13. Functional interaction of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and Na+/K+ ATPase from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Xiao, Youxin; Zhang, Yixi; Wang, Xin; Xu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Zewen; Fang, Jichao; Li, Zhong

    2015-03-06

    Associated proteins are important for the correct functioning of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In the present study, a neonicotinoid-agarose affinity column was used to isolate related proteins from a solubilized membrane preparation from the nervous system of Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). 1530 peptides were identified and most of them were involved in the membranous structure, molecular interaction and cellular communication. Among these peptides, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase had the highest MASCOT score and were involved in the molecular interaction, which suggested that Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and nAChRs might have strong and stable interactions in insect central nervous system. In the present study, functional interactions between nAChRs and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase were examined by heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. The results showed that the activated nAChRs increased pump currents of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, which did not require current flow through open nAChRs. In turn, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase significantly increased agonist sensitivities of nAChRs in a pump activity-independent manner and reduced the maximum current (Imax) of nAChRs. These findings provide novel insights concerning the functional interactions between insect nAChRs and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase.

  14. Microdissection and chromosome painting of X and B chromosomes in Locusta migratoria.

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    Teruel, María; Cabrero, Josefa; Montiel, Eugenia E; Acosta, Manuel J; Sánchez, Antonio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition of knowledge of the nature and DNA content of B chromosomes has been triggered by a collection of molecular techniques, one of which, microdissection, has provided interesting results in a number of B chromosome systems. Here we provide the first data on the molecular composition of B chromosomes in Locusta migratoria, after microdissection of the B and X chromosomes, DNA amplification by one (B) or two (X) different methods, and chromosome painting. The results showed that B chromosomes share at least two types of repetitive DNA sequences with the A chromosomes, suggesting that Bs in this species most likely arose intraspecifically. One of these repetitive DNAs is located on the heterochromatic distal half of the B chromosome and in the pericentromeric regions of about half of the A chromosomes, including the X. The other type of repetitive DNA is located interspersedly over the non-centromeric euchromatic regions of all A chromosomes and in an interstitial part of the proximal euchromatic half of the B chromosome. Chromosome painting, however, did not provide results sufficiently reliable to determine, in this species, which A chromosome gave rise to the B; this might be done by detailed analysis of the microdissected DNA sequences.

  15. Fecal volatile components elicit aggregation in the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang-Peng Shi; Hong-Li Sun; Nyndat Edward; Yu-Hua Yan

    2011-01-01

    The aggregation components from fecal volatiles of the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis were identified with gas chromatographic/electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD), GC-MS (mass spectrometry) analyses and behavioral bioassays. Both last instar nymphs and adults of the oriental migratory locust have similar aggregation pheromones in their volatiles. A total of 11 electrophysioiogically active compounds, namely, hexanal, cyclohexanol, heptanal, phenol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, guaiacol, nonanal, 2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene1,4-dione and decyl aldehyde were identified in the fecal volatiles of 2-day-old immature adult male locusts. Only hexanal, nonanal, benzaldehyde, cyclohexanol and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine elicited significant aggregation responses in immature 2-day-old adult males.However, adult males had significantly lower behavioral responses to synthetics of five single compounds than the blend of cyclohexanol, 2,5-dimethyl-pyrazine, benzaldehyde,nonanal, hexanal in ratios of 100 : 100 : 2 : 60 : 30 in the range of 30-60 μg/mL. We propose that it is the blend of these five compounds that plays a key role in eliciting and sustaining aggregation in gregarious oriental migratory locusts. These results also showed that the aggregation pheromones of the oriental migratory locust are significantly different from those found in the desert locust.

  16. Biochemical basis of synergism between pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and insecticide chlorantraniliprole in Locusta migratoria (Meyen)

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    Jia, Miao; Cao, Guangchun; Li, Yibo; Tu, Xiongbing; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Whitman, Douglas W.; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    We challenged Locusta migratoria (Meyen) grasshoppers with simultaneous doses of both the insecticide chlorantraniliprole and the fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae. Our results showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on host mortality and enzyme activities. To elucidate the biochemical mechanisms that underlie detoxification and pathogen-immune responses in insects, we monitored the activities of 10 enzymes. After administration of insecticide and fungus, activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), general esterases (ESTs) and phenol oxidase (PO) decreased in the insect during the initial time period, whereas those of aryl acylamidase (AA) and chitinase (CHI) increased during the initial period and that of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) increased during a later time period. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) decreased at a later time period post treatment. Interestingly, treatment with chlorantraniliprole and M. anisopliae relieved the convulsions that normally accompany M. anisopliae infection. We speculate that locust mortality increased as a result of synergism via a mechanism related to Ca2+ disruption in the host. Our study illuminates the biochemical mechanisms involved in insect immunity to xenobiotics and pathogens as well as the mechanisms by which these factors disrupt host homeostasis and induce death. We expect this knowledge to lead to more effective pest control. PMID:27328936

  17. Isolation and characterization of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene from Locusta migratoria manflensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Yan Cui; Yu-Xian Xia

    2009-01-01

    Trehalose plays an important role in protecting organisms from various stresses.Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) is the key enzyme in trehalose synthesis, but in in-sects only a few TPS genes have been identified and their function has not been well characterized. To better understand the function of TPS in insects, a complete TPS com-plementary DNA (eDNA) clone was obtained from the fat body of the locust Locusta migratoria manilensis (GenBank accession number: EU 131894). The full-length cDNA is 2 806 bp, including an open reading frame of 2 442 bp, which encodes an 813 amino acids protein with a calculated molecular weight of 91 976 Daltons and an isoelectric point of 6.14. The deduced amino acid sequence is highly similar to other published insect TPS and its C-terminal also has a region homologous to trehalose phosphate phsophatase (TPP).Semi-quantitative analysis indicated that the TPS transcript was expressed not only in fat body, but also in gut, hemolymph and leg muscle. These data may facilitate studies of TPS function in insects and improve our understanding of trehalose metabolism.

  18. De novo transcriptome analysis of wing development-related signaling pathways in Locusta migratoria manilensis and Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee.

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    Suning Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Orthopteran migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, and lepidopteran Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, are two types of insects undergoing incomplete and complete metamorphosis, respectively. Identification of candidate genes regulating wing development in these two insects would provide insights into the further study about the molecular mechanisms controlling metamorphosis development. We have sequenced the transcriptome of O. furnacalis larvae previously. Here we sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of L. migratoria wing discs with special emphasis on wing development-related signaling pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina Hiseq2000 was used to sequence 8.38 Gb of the transcriptome from dissected nymphal wing discs. De novo assembly generated 91,907 unigenes with mean length of 610 nt. All unigenes were searched against five databases including Nt, Nr, Swiss-Prot, COG, and KEGG for annotations using blastn or blastx algorithm with an cut-off E-value of 10-5. A total of 23,359 (25.4% unigenes have homologs within at least one database. Based on sequence similarity to homologs known to regulate Drosophila melanogaster wing development, we identified 50 and 46 potential wing development-related unigenes from L. migratoria and O. furnacalis transcriptome, respectively. The identified unigenes encode putative orthologs for nearly all components of the Hedgehog (Hh, Decapentaplegic (Dpp, Notch (N, and Wingless (Wg signaling pathways, which are essential for growth and pattern formation during wing development. We investigated the expression profiles of the component genes involved in these signaling pathways in forewings and hind wings of L. migratoria and O. furnacalis. The results revealed the tested genes had different expression patterns in two insects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the comprehensive sequence resource of the wing development-related signaling pathways of L. migratoria. The

  19. Alternative splicing in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from Locusta migratoria and its influence on acetylcholine potencies.

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    Zhang, Yixi; Liu, Yang; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Liu, Zewen

    2017-01-18

    Due to the great abundance within insect central nervous system (CNS), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play key roles in insect CNS, which makes it to be the targets of several classes of insecticides, such as neonicotinoids. Insect nAChRs are pentameric complexes consisting of five subunits, and a dozen subunits in one insect species can theoretically comprise diverse nAChRs. The alternative splicing in insect nAChR subunits may increase the diversity of insect nAChRs. In the oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis Meyen), a model insect species with agricultural importance, the alternative splicing was found in six α subunits among nine α and two β subunits, such as missing conserved residues in Loop D from Locα1, Locα6 and Locα9, a 34-residue insertion in Locα8 cytoplasmic loop, and truncated transcripts for Locα4, Locα7 and Locα9. Hybrid nAChRs were successfully constructed in Xenopus oocytes through co-expression with rat β2 and one α subunit from L. migratoria, which included Locα1, Locα2, Locα3, Locα4, Locα5, Locα8 and Locα9. Influences of alternative splicing in Locα1, Locα8 and Locα9 on acetylcholine potency were tested on hybrid nAChRs. The alternative splicing in Locα1 and Locα9 could increase acetylcholine sensitivities on recombinant receptors, while the splicing in Locα8 showed significant influences on the current amplitudes of oocytes. The results revealed that the alternative splicing at or close to the ligand-binding sites, as well as at cytoplasmic regions away from the ligand-binding sites, in insect nAChR subunits would change the agonist potencies on the receptors, which consequently increased nAChR diversity in functional and pharmacological properties.

  20. Protein expression following heat shock in the nervous system of Locusta migratoria.

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    Dehghani, Mehrnoush; Xiao, Chengfeng; Money, Tomas G A; Shoemaker, Kelly L; Robertson, R Meldrum

    2011-11-01

    There is a thermal range for the operation of neural circuits beyond which nervous system function is compromised. Locusta migratoria is native to the semiarid regions of the world and provides an excellent model for studying neural phenomena. In this organism previous exposure to sublethal high temperatures (heat shock, HS) can protect neuronal function against future hyperthermia but, unlike many organisms, the profound physiological adaptations are not accompanied by a robust increase of Hsp70 transcript or protein in the nervous system. We compared Hsp70 increase following HS in the tissues of isolated and gregarious locusts to investigate the effect of population density. We also localized Hsp70 in the metathoracic ganglion (MTG) of gregarious locusts to determine if HS affects Hsp70 in specific cell types that could be masked in whole ganglion assays. Our study indicated no evidence of a consistent change in Hsp70 level in the MTG of isolated locusts following HS. Also, Hsp70 was mainly localized in perineurium, neural membranes and glia and prior HS had no effect on its density or distribution. Finally, we applied 2-D gels to study the proteomic profile of MTG in gregarious locusts following HS; although these experiments showed some changes in the level of ATP-synthase β isoforms, the overall amount of this protein was found unchanged following HS. We conclude that the constitutive level of Hsps in the tissues of locusts is high. Also the thermoprotective effect of HS on the nervous system might be mediated by post-translational modifications or protein trafficking.

  1. Selective actions of Lynx proteins on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis.

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    Wang, Xin; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Zhang, Yixi; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Qinghong; Liu, Zewen

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are major neurotransmitter receptors and targets of neonicotinoid insecticides in the insect nervous system. The full function of nAChRs is often dependent on associated proteins, such as chaperones, regulators and modulators. Here, three Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins, Loc-lynx1, Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3, were identified in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis. Co-expression with Lynx resulted in a dramatic increase in agonist-evoked macroscopic currents on nAChRs Locα1/β2 and Locα2/β2 in Xenopus oocytes, but no changes in agonist sensitivity. Loc-lynx1 and Loc-lynx3 only modulated nAChRs Locα1/β2 while Loc-lynx2 modulated Locα2/β2 specifically. Meanwhile, Loc-lynx1 induced a more significant increase in currents evoked by imidacloprid and epibatidine than Loc-lynx3, and the effects of Loc-lynx1 on imidacloprid and epibatidine were significantly higher than those on acetylcholine. Among three lynx proteins, only Loc-lynx1 significantly increased [(3) H]epibatidine binding on Locα1/β2. The results indicated that Loc-lynx1 had different modulation patterns in nAChRs compared to Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3. Taken together, these findings indicated that three Lynx proteins were nAChR modulators and had selective activities in different nAChRs. Lynx proteins might display their selectivities from three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. Insect Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins act as the allosteric modulators on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the important targets of insecticides. We found that insect lynx proteins showed their selectivities from at least three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns.

  2. Sulfakinin is an important regulator of digestive processes in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

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    Zels, Sven; Dillen, Senne; Crabbé, Katleen; Spit, Jornt; Nachman, Ronald J; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2015-06-01

    Sulfakinin (SK) is a sulfated insect neuropeptide that is best known for its function as a satiety factor. It displays structural and functional similarities with the vertebrate peptides gastrin and cholecystokinin. Peptidomic studies in multiple insects, crustaceans and arachnids have revealed the widespread occurrence of SK in the arthropod phylum. Multiple studies in hemi- and holometabolous insects revealed the pleiotropic nature of this neuropeptide: in addition to its activity as a satiety factor, SK was also reported to affect muscle contraction, digestive enzyme release, odor preference, aggression and metabolism. However, the main site of action seems to be the digestive system of insects. In this study, we have investigated whether SK can intervene in the control of nutrient uptake and digestion in the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria). We provide evidence that sulfakinin reduces food uptake in this species. Furthermore, we discovered that SK has very pronounced effects on the main digestive enzyme secreting parts of the locust gut. It effectively reduced digestive enzyme secretion from both the midgut and gastric caeca. SK injection also elicited a reduction in absorbance and proteolytic activity of the gastric caeca contents. The characteristic sulfation of the tyrosine residue is crucial for the observed effects on digestive enzyme secretion. In an attempt to provide potential leads for the development of peptidomimetic compounds based on SK, we also tested two mimetic analogs of the natural peptide ligand in the digestive enzyme secretion assay. These analogs were able to mimic the effect of the natural SK, but their effects were milder. The results of this study provide new insights into the action of SK on the digestive system in (hemimetabolous) insects.

  3. Heterologous expression and characterization of two chitinase 5 enzymes from the migratory locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Long; Song, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Li, Da-Qi; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Ma, En-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Insect chitinases are involved in degradation of chitin from the exoskeleton or peritrophic metrix of midgut. In Locusta migratoria, two duplicated Cht5s (LmCht5-1 and LmCht5-2) have been shown to have distinct molecular characteristics and biological roles. To explore the protein properties of the two LmCht5s, we heterologously expressed both enzymes using baculovirus expression system in SF9 cells, and characterized kinetic and carbohydrate-binding properties of purified enzymes. LmCht5-1 and LmCht5-2 exhibited similar pH and temperature optimums. LmCht5-1 has lower Km value for the oligomeric substrate (4MU-(GlcNAc)3 ), and higher Km value for the longer substrate (CM-Chitin-RBV) compared with LmCht5-2. A comparison of amino acids and homology modeling of catalytic domain presented similar TIM barrel structures and differentiated amino acids between two proteins. LmCht5-1 has a chitin-binding domain (CBD) tightly bound to colloidal chitin, but LmCht5-2 does not have a CBD for binding to colloidal chitin. Our results suggested both LmCht5-1 and LmCht5-2, which have the critical glutamate residue in region II of catalytic domain, exhibited chitinolytic activity cleaving both polymeric and oligomeric substrates. LmCht5-1 had relatively higher activity against the oligomeric substrate, 4MU-(GlcNAc)3 , whereas LmCht5-2 exhibited higher activity toward the longer substrate, CM-Chitin-RBV. These findings are helpful for further research to clarify their different roles in insect growth and development.

  4. Large-scale transcriptome analysis of retroelements in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retroelements can successfully colonize eukaryotic genome through RNA-mediated transposition, and are considered to be some of the major mediators of genome size. The migratory locust Locusta migratoria is an insect with a large genome size, and its genome is probably subject to the proliferation of retroelements. An analysis of deep-sequencing transcriptome data will elucidate the structure, diversity and expression characteristics of retroelements. RESULTS: We performed a de novo assembly from deep sequencing RNA-seq data and identified 105 retroelements in the locust transcriptome. Phylogenetic analysis of reverse transcriptase sequences revealed 1 copia, 1 BEL, 8 gypsy and 23 non-long terminal repeat (LTR retroelements in the locust transcriptome. A novel approach was developed to identify full-length LTR retroelements. A total of 5 full-length LTR retroelements and 2 full-length non-LTR retroelements that contained complete structures for retrotransposition were identified. Structural analysis indicated that all these retroelements may have been activated or deprived of retrotransposition activities very recently. Expression profiling analysis revealed that the retroelements exhibited a unique expression pattern at the egg stage and showed differential expression profiles between the solitarious and gregarious phases at the fifth instar and adult stage. CONCLUSION: We hereby present the first de novo transcriptome analysis of retroelements in a species whose genome is not available. This work contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the landscape of retroelements in the locust transcriptome. More importantly, the results reveal that non-LTR retroelements are abundant and diverse in the locust transcriptome.

  5. Two chitinase 5 genes from Locusta migratoria: molecular characteristics and functional differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daqi; Zhang, Jianqin; Wang, Yan; Liu, Xiaojian; Ma, Enbo; Sun, Yi; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Kun Yan; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2015-03-01

    The duplication of chitinase 5 (Cht5) into two to five different genes has been reported only in mosquito species to date. Here, we report the duplication of Cht5 genes (LmCht5-1 and LmCht5-2) in the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria). Both LmCht5-1 (505 aa) and LmCht5-2 (492 aa) possess a signal peptide and a catalytic domain with four conserved motifs, but only LmCht5-1 contains a chitin-binding domain. Structural and phylogenetic analyses suggest that LmCht5-1 is orthologous to other insect Cht5 genes, whereas LmCht5-2 might be newly duplicated. Both LmCht5 genes were expressed in all tested tissues with LmCht5-1 highly expressed in hindgut and LmCht5-2 highly expressed in integument, foregut, hindgut and fat bodies. From the fourth-instar nymphs to the adults, LmCht5-1 and LmCht5-2 showed similar developmental expression patterns with transcript peaks prior to each nymphal molting, suggesting that their expression levels are similarly regulated. Treatment with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E; the most active molting hormone) and reducing expression of EcR (ecdysone receptor gene) by RNAi increased and decreased expression of both LmCht5 genes, respectively, indicating that both genes are responsive to 20E. Although transcript level of LmCht5-2 is generally 10-fold higher than that of LmCht5-1, RNAi-mediated suppression of LmCht5-1 transcript led to severe molting defects and lethality, but such effects were not seen with RNAi of LmCht5-2, suggesting that the newly duplicated LmCht5-2 is not essential for development and survivorship of the locust.

  6. Mechanisms of organophosphate resistance in a field population of oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M L; Zhang, J Z; Zhu, K Y; Xuan, T; Liu, X J; Guo, Y P; Ma, E B

    2009-05-01

    The susceptibilities to three organophosphate (OP) insecticides (malathion, chlorpyrifos, and phoxim), responses to three metabolic synergists [triphenyl phosphate (TPP), piperonyl butoxide (PBO), and diethyl maleate (DEM)], activities of major detoxification enzymes [general esterases (ESTs), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s)], and sensitivity of the target enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were compared between a laboratory-susceptible strain (LS) and a field-resistant population (FR) of the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). The FR was significantly resistant to malathion (57.5-fold), but marginally resistant to chlorpyrifos (5.4) and phoxim (2.9). The malathion resistance of the FR was significantly diminished by TPP (synergism ratio: 16.2) and DEM (3.3), but was unchanged by PBO. In contrast, none of these synergists significantly affected the toxicity of malathion in the LS. Biochemical studies indicated that EST and GST activities in the FR were 2.1- to 3.2-fold and 1.2- to 2.0-fold, respectively, higher than those in the LS, but there was no significant difference in P450 activity between the LS and FR. Furthermore, AChE from the FR showed 4.0-fold higher activity but was 3.2-, 2.2-, and 1.1-fold less sensitive to inhibition by malaoxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and phoxim, respectively, than that from the LS. All these results clearly indicated that the observed malathion resistance in the FR was conferred by multiple mechanisms, including increased detoxification by ESTs and GSTs, and increased activity and reduced sensitivity of AChE to OP inhibition.

  7. Alternative exon-encoding regions of Locusta migratoria muscle myosin modulate the pH dependence of ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Lu, Z; He, J; Chen, Q; Wang, X; Kang, L; Li, X-D

    2016-12-01

    Whereas the vertebrate muscle myosin heavy chains (MHCs) are encoded by a family of Mhc genes, most insects examined to date contain a single Mhc gene and produce all of the different MHC isoforms by alternative RNA splicing. Here, we found that the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, has one Mhc gene, which contains 41 exons, including five alternative exclusive exons and one differently included penultimate exon, and potentially encodes 360 MHC isoforms. From the adult L. migratoria, we identified 14 MHC isoforms (including two identical isoforms): four from flight muscle (the thorax dorsal longitudinal muscle), three from jump muscle (the hind leg extensor tibiae muscle) and seven from the abdominal intersegmental muscle. We purified myosins from flight muscle and jump muscle and characterized their motor activities. At neutral pH, the flight and the jump muscle myosins displayed similar levels of in vitro actin-gliding activity, whereas the former had a slightly higher actin-activated ATPase activity than the latter. Interestingly, the pH dependences of the actin-activated ATPase activity of these two myosins are different. Because the dominant MHC isoforms in these two muscles are identical except for the two alternative exon-encoding regions, we propose that these two alternative regions modulate the pH dependence of L. migratoria muscle myosin.

  8. Comparison of Leg Regeneration Potency Between Holometabolous Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Hemimetabolous Locusta migratoria manilensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingpo; Li, Zhen; Li, Hui; Li, Yanrong; Yang, Yuhui; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2016-12-01

    After injury many insects could regenerate lost limb. In this study, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen, 1835) were chosen to compare the regeneration potency of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects. We employed the classical approach of surgical excision to verify the regeneration ability and to investigate the factors that affect the extent of regeneration. The results found that H. armigera could regenerate intact legs when the larval legs were excised at the first and second instar and that legs of adult H. armigera had a close relationship with their larval counterparts. However, the adult legs became malformed or disappeared when excised at other older instars. For the L. migratoria, we found the legs have weak partial regeneration ability when amputation was conducted at the joint of two segments. The regeneration potency might be stronger the more proximal the operation. Regeneration process had a negative impact on the larval development. This is the first report of complete leg regeneration capacity having a strong correlation with the instar but not with the position where amputation occurred for H. armigera, while for the L. migratoria, partial regenerative ability had a close relationship with the position where amputation occurred but not with instars.

  9. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Becker, Christie L; Seymour, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m) scales with body mass (M; g) according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI)), jump take-off angle (A; degrees) scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06), and jump energy (E; mJ per jump) scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09). Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm) of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02). The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12%) legs and a relatively larger (11%) femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight.

  10. Molecular and functional analysis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine Pyrophosphorylases from the Migratory Locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojian; Li, Feng; Li, Daqi; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Wenqing; Zhu, Kun Yan; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2013-01-01

    UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylases (UAP) function in the formation of extracellular matrix by producing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues needed for chitin biosynthesis and protein glycosylation. Herein, we report two UAP cDNA's derived from two different genes (LmUAP1 and LmUAP2) in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Both the cDNA and their deduced amino acid sequences showed about 70% identities between the two genes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that LmUAP1 and LmUAP2 derive from a relatively recent gene duplication event. Both LmUAP1 and LmUAP2 were widely expressed in all the major tissues besides chitin-containing tissues. However, the two genes exhibited different developmental expression patterns. High expression of LmUAP1 was detected during early embryogenesis, then decreased greatly, and slowly increased before egg hatch. During nymphal development, the highest expression of LmUAP1 appeared just after molting but declined in each inter-molting period and then increased before molting to the next stage, whereas LmUAP2 was more consistently expressed throughout all these stages. When the early second- and fifth-instar nymphs (1-day-old) were injected with LmUAP1 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), 100% mortality was observed 2 days after the injection. When the middle second- and fifth-instar nymphs (3- to 4-day-old) were injected with LmUAP1 dsRNA, 100% mortality was observed during their next molting process. In contrast, when the insects at the same stages were injected with LmUAP2 dsRNA, these insects were able to develop normally and molt to the next stage successfully. It is presumed that the lethality caused by RNAi of LmUAP1 is due to reduced chitin biosynthesis of the integument and midgut, whereas LmUAP2 is not essential for locust development at least in nymph stage. This study is expected to help better understand different functions of UAP1 and UAP2 in the locust and other insect species.

  11. Allometric scaling of discontinuous gas exchange patterns in the locust Locusta migratoria throughout ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Matthews, Philip G D; Seymour, Roger S

    2012-10-01

    The discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) is a three-phase breathing pattern displayed by many insects at rest. The pattern consists of an extended breath-hold period (closed phase), followed by a sequence of rapid gas exchange pulses (flutter phase), and then a period in which respiratory gases move freely between insect and environment (open phase). This study measured CO(2) emission in resting locusts Locusta migratoria throughout ontogeny, in normoxia (21 kPa P(O2)), hypoxia (7 kPa P(O2)) and hyperoxia (40 kPa P(O2)), to determine whether body mass and ambient O(2) affect DGC phase duration. In normoxia, mean CO(2) production rate scales with body mass (M(b); g) according to the allometric power equation , closed phase duration (C; min) scales with body mass according to the equation C=8.0M(b)(0.38±0.29), closed+flutter period (C+F; min) scales with body mass according to the equation C+F=26.6M (0.20±0.25)(b) and open phase duration (O; min) scales with body mass according to the equation O=13.3M(b) (0.23±0.18). Hypoxia results in a shorter C phase and longer O phase across all life stages, whereas hyperoxia elicits shorter C, C+F and O phases across all life stages. The tendency for larger locusts to exhibit longer C and C+F phases might arise if the positive allometric scaling of locust tracheal volume prolongs the time taken to reach the minimum O(2) and maximum CO(2) set-points that determine the duration of these respective periods, whereas an increasingly protracted O phase could reflect the additional time required for larger locusts to expel CO(2) through a relatively longer tracheal pathway. Observed changes in phase duration under hypoxia possibly serve to maximise O(2) uptake from the environment, whereas the response of the DGC to hyperoxia is difficult to explain, but could be affected by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species.

  12. Molecular and functional analysis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine Pyrophosphorylases from the Migratory Locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Liu

    Full Text Available UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylases (UAP function in the formation of extracellular matrix by producing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc residues needed for chitin biosynthesis and protein glycosylation. Herein, we report two UAP cDNA's derived from two different genes (LmUAP1 and LmUAP2 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Both the cDNA and their deduced amino acid sequences showed about 70% identities between the two genes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that LmUAP1 and LmUAP2 derive from a relatively recent gene duplication event. Both LmUAP1 and LmUAP2 were widely expressed in all the major tissues besides chitin-containing tissues. However, the two genes exhibited different developmental expression patterns. High expression of LmUAP1 was detected during early embryogenesis, then decreased greatly, and slowly increased before egg hatch. During nymphal development, the highest expression of LmUAP1 appeared just after molting but declined in each inter-molting period and then increased before molting to the next stage, whereas LmUAP2 was more consistently expressed throughout all these stages. When the early second- and fifth-instar nymphs (1-day-old were injected with LmUAP1 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA, 100% mortality was observed 2 days after the injection. When the middle second- and fifth-instar nymphs (3- to 4-day-old were injected with LmUAP1 dsRNA, 100% mortality was observed during their next molting process. In contrast, when the insects at the same stages were injected with LmUAP2 dsRNA, these insects were able to develop normally and molt to the next stage successfully. It is presumed that the lethality caused by RNAi of LmUAP1 is due to reduced chitin biosynthesis of the integument and midgut, whereas LmUAP2 is not essential for locust development at least in nymph stage. This study is expected to help better understand different functions of UAP1 and UAP2 in the locust and other insect species.

  13. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P Snelling

    Full Text Available Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m scales with body mass (M; g according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI, jump take-off angle (A; degrees scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06, and jump energy (E; mJ per jump scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09. Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02. The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12% legs and a relatively larger (11% femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight.

  14. Selection and assessment of reference genes for quantitative PCR normalization in migratory locust Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingpo; Li, Zhen; Cao, Jinjun; Zhang, Songdou; Zhang, Huaijiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Locusta migratoria is a classic hemimetamorphosis insect and has caused widespread economic damage to crops as a migratory pest. Researches on the expression pattern of functional genes in L. migratoria have drawn focus in recent years, especially with the release of genome information. Real-time quantitative PCR is the most reproducible and sensitive approach for detecting transcript expression levels of target genes, but optimal internal standards are key factors for its accuracy and reliability. Therefore, it's necessary to provide a systematic stability assessment of internal control for well-performed tests of target gene expression profile. In this study, twelve candidate genes (Ach, Act, Cht2, EF1α, RPL32, Hsp70, Tub, RP49, SDH, GAPDH, 18S, and His) were analyzed with four statistical methods: the delta Ct approach, geNorm, Bestkeeper and NormFinder. The results from these analyses aimed to choose the best suitable reference gene across different experimental situations for gene profile study in L. migratoria. The result demonstrated that for different developmental stages, EF1α, Hsp70 and RPL32 exhibited the most stable expression status for all samples; EF1α and RPL32 were selected as the best reference genes for studies involving embryo and larvae stages, while SDH and RP49 were identified for adult stage. The best-ranked reference genes across different tissues are RPL32, Hsp70 and RP49. For abiotic treatments, the most appropriate genes we identified were as follows: Act and SDH for larvae subjected to different insecticides; RPL32 and Ach for larvae exposed to different temperature treatments; and Act and Ach for larvae suffering from starvation. The present report should facilitate future researches on gene expression in L. migratoria with accessibly optimal reference genes under different experimental contexts.

  15. Selection and assessment of reference genes for quantitative PCR normalization in migratory locust Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingpo Yang

    Full Text Available Locusta migratoria is a classic hemimetamorphosis insect and has caused widespread economic damage to crops as a migratory pest. Researches on the expression pattern of functional genes in L. migratoria have drawn focus in recent years, especially with the release of genome information. Real-time quantitative PCR is the most reproducible and sensitive approach for detecting transcript expression levels of target genes, but optimal internal standards are key factors for its accuracy and reliability. Therefore, it's necessary to provide a systematic stability assessment of internal control for well-performed tests of target gene expression profile. In this study, twelve candidate genes (Ach, Act, Cht2, EF1α, RPL32, Hsp70, Tub, RP49, SDH, GAPDH, 18S, and His were analyzed with four statistical methods: the delta Ct approach, geNorm, Bestkeeper and NormFinder. The results from these analyses aimed to choose the best suitable reference gene across different experimental situations for gene profile study in L. migratoria. The result demonstrated that for different developmental stages, EF1α, Hsp70 and RPL32 exhibited the most stable expression status for all samples; EF1α and RPL32 were selected as the best reference genes for studies involving embryo and larvae stages, while SDH and RP49 were identified for adult stage. The best-ranked reference genes across different tissues are RPL32, Hsp70 and RP49. For abiotic treatments, the most appropriate genes we identified were as follows: Act and SDH for larvae subjected to different insecticides; RPL32 and Ach for larvae exposed to different temperature treatments; and Act and Ach for larvae suffering from starvation. The present report should facilitate future researches on gene expression in L. migratoria with accessibly optimal reference genes under different experimental contexts.

  16. Fine structure of the sensilla and immunolocalisation of odorant binding proteins in the cerci of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanxue; Zhou, Shuhui; Zhang, Shangan; Zhang, Long

    2011-01-01

    Using light and electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission), we observed the presence of sensilla chaetica and hairs on the cerci of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria L. (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Based on their fine structures, three types of sensilla chaetica were identified: long, medium, and short. Males presented significantly more numbers of medium and short sensilla chaetica than females (pmigratoria (LmigOBP2) and chemosensory protein class I from the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forsskål (SgreCSPI) strongly stained the outer lymph of sensilla chaetica of the cerci. The other two types of hairs were never labeled. The results indicate that the cerci might be involved in contact chemoreception processes.

  17. Determination of Trace Level of cAMP in Locusta Migratoria Manilensis Meyen by HPLC with Fluorescence Derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canping Pan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and rapid method was developed for the determination of cAMP inLocusta migratoria manilensis Meyen by high-performance liquid chromatography withfluorescence detection. The cAMP was derivatized using chloroacetaldehyde and TBASbuffer/methanol was used as the mobile phase. A detection quantification of 40 fmol/mlcould be achieved when using fluorescence detection. An HPLC-MS method using DMHAas an ion-pair agent to analyze cAMP was also demonstrated. We studied the effect ofdopamine and other stimulants on cAMP levels from isolated locust central nervoussystems. The new method is well suited for the analysis of cAMP in small biologicalsamples.

  18. Development of primary cell cultures using hemocytes and phagocytic tissue cells of Locusta migratoria: an application for locust immunity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duressa, Tewodros Firdissa; Huybrechts, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Insect cell cultures played central roles in unraveling many insect physiological and immunological processes. Regardless, despite imminent needs, insect cell lines were developed primarily from Dipteran and Lepidopteran orders, leaving many important insects such as Orthopteran locusts under-represented. Besides the lack of cell lines, the slow progress in development of in vitro techniques is attributed to poor communications between different laboratories regarding optimized primary cell cultures. Therefore, we report here about methods developed for primary cell culture of Locusta migratoria hemocyte and phagocytic tissue cells by which we could maintain viable hemocytes in vitro for over 5 d and phagocytic tissue cells for over 12 d. 2-Mercaptoethanol and phenyl-thiourea supplements in Grace's medium together with addition of fetal bovine serum 30 min after cell seeding resulted in a successful setup of the primary cell cultures and a week-long survival of the hemocytes and phagocytic tissue cells in vitro.

  19. Model of β-Sheet of Muscle Fatty Acid Binding Protein of Locusta migratoria Displays Characteristic Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilbash, Nadeem A; Hai, Abdul; Alruwaili, Jamal

    2013-01-01

    The β-sheet of muscle fatty acid binding protein of Locusta migratoria (Lm-FABP) was modeled by employing 2-D NMR data and the Rigid Body Assembly method. The model shows the β-sheet to comprise ten β-strands arranged anti-parallel to each other. There is a β-bulge between Ser 13 and Gln 14 which is a difference from the published structure of β-sheet of bovine heart Fatty Acid Binding Protein. Also, a hydrophobic patch consisting of Ile 45, Phe 51, Phe 64 and Phe 66 is present on the surface which is characteristic of most Fatty Acid Binding Proteins. A "gap" is present between βD and βE that provides evidence for the presence of a portal or opening between the polypeptide chains which allows ligand fatty acids to enter the protein cavity and bind to the protein.

  20. Primary structure of a 14 kDa basic structural protein (Lm-76) from the cuticle of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Andersen, S O; Højrup, P

    1993-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of a 14 kDa structural protein (LM-76) isolated from pharate cuticle of the locust, Locusta migratoria, was determined by Edman degradation of the intact protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Plasma desorption and electrospray mass spectrometry was used...... region surrounded by two hydrophobic regions with 7 repeats of a (Tyr)-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala/Val motif. The conservation around the prolyl residues within this sequence motif is demonstrated for the hitherto sequenced presumptive exocuticle proteins from L. migratoria. The N-terminal region of protein Lm-76...

  1. Egg hatching of two locusts, Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria, in response to light and temperature cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, Yudai; Tanaka, Seiji; Saeki, Shinjiro

    2015-05-01

    The present study showed that the eggs of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, responded to photoperiod by hatching when placed on sand in the laboratory. S. gregaria mainly hatched during the dark phase and L. migratoria during the light phase. The importance of light as a hatching cue depended on the magnitude of the temperature change during the thermoperiod; photoperiod played a more important role in the control of hatching time in both species when the magnitude of the temperature change was small. In addition, the eggs of the two species that were covered with sand did not respond to photoperiod and hatched during both the light and dark phases, indicating that light did not penetrate through the sand. Because locust eggs are normally laid as egg pods and a foam plug is deposited between the egg mass and the ground surface, we tested a possibility that naturally deposited eggs perceived light through the foam plug. The eggs that were deposited and left undisturbed in the sand hatched during the light and dark phases at similar frequencies. These results suggest that the eggs of both locust species responded to light and controlled their hatching timing accordingly but would not use light as a hatching cue in the field. The evolutionary significance of the ability of eggs to respond to light in these locusts was discussed.

  2. Identification and characterization of a gene encoding a UBX domain-containing protein in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zheng-Bo; Xie, Yu; Si, Feng-Ling; Chen, Bin

    2013-08-01

    Ubiquitin regulatory X (UBX) domain-containing proteins are believed to function as cofactors for p97/CDC48, an adenosine triphosphatase shown to be involved in multiple cellular processes. In the present study, a full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of UBX domain-containing gene, termed LmUBX1, was cloned from Locusta migratoria manilensis and characterized, using random amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE PCR), sequence analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. LmUBX1, 1 600 bp in length, is predicted to encode a 446-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 51.18 kDa that contains a central PUB domain and a carboxy-terminal UBX domain. Homology analysis revealed that LmUBX1 has higher similarity to the known UBX domain-containing proteins from insects than from other species. Moreover, based on sequence characteristics and phylogenetic relationships, it is suggested that LmUBX1 can be classified into the UBXD1 subfamily. Expression analysis founded that LmUBX1 exhibited significant expression variations at different developmental stages and in different tissues, suggesting that the expression of LmUBX1 was highly regulated. Interestingly, its messenger RNA transcript was more abundant in ovary and testis than in other tissues examined, suggesting that it may have more important roles in the reproductive system. In addition, LmUBX1 was differentially expressed in gregarious and solitary locusts and was significantly up-regulated in third and fifth instars of gregarious locusts, implying that LmUBX1 was also likely involved in the phase polyphenisms in L. migratoria manilensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cloning of a full-length cDNA of UBX domain-containing gene from L. migratoria manilensis.

  3. Advances of Integrated Control on Locusta migratoria migratoria in the Northeast of China%中国东北地区亚洲飞蝗绿色防控研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元; 王世喜; 郑树峰; 王贵强

    2011-01-01

    为了有效地治理亚洲飞蝗灾害,必须改变防治策略,加大生态控制和生物防治比重,科学运用各种方法,逐步实现对亚洲飞蝗的可持续治理.亚洲飞蝗的生物学特性复杂,目前对这种突发、迁移性害虫在中国东北地区的栖息环境和发生规律尚不明确.详细介绍了亚洲飞蝗的生活习性及其防治方法.防治方法主要包括生态控制、生物防治、化学防治等方面.对于亚洲飞蝗的防控,应以预防为主,综合考虑治蝗策略.%In order to control the Locusta migratoria migratoria effectively, control strategy must be changed. The proportion of ecological and biological control should be increased by using sustainable ways to control it. Locusta migratoria migratoria is the agricultural pest, its habit and occurrence is not clear in the northeast of China at present. In this paper, advances on its habit and control methods are mentioned. The control methods include ecological controlling, biological controlling and chemical controlling etc. It is supposed to put emphasis on prevention, controlling L. Migratoria migratoria in a sustainable way.

  4. RNA interference to reveal roles of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene during molting process in Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Shuo; Li, Da-Qi; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Kun Yan; Guo, Ya-Ping; Ma, En-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    β-N-acetylglucosaminidases are crucial enzymes involved in chitin degradation in insects. We identified a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene (LmNAG1) from Locusta migratoria. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of LmNAG1 consists of 2 667 nucleotides, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 845 nucleotides encoding 614 amino acid residues, and 233- and 589-nucleotide non-coding regions at the 5'- and 3'-ends, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the cDNA-deduced LmNAG1 protein with the enzymatically characterized β-N-acetylglucosaminidases in group I. Analyses of stage- and tissue-dependent expression patterns of LmNAG1 were carried out by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that LmNAG1 transcript level in the integument was significantly high in the last 2 days of the fourth and fifth instar nymphs. LmNAG1 was highly expressed in foregut and hindgut. RNA interference of LmNAG1 resulted in an effective silence of the gene and a significantly reduced total LmNAG enzyme activity at 48 and 72 h after the injection of LmNAG1 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). As compared with the control nymphs injected with GFP dsRNA, 50% of the dsLmNAG1-injected nymphs were not able to molt successfully and eventually died. Our results suggest that LmNAG1 plays an essential role in molting process of L. migratoria.

  5. RNA interference to reveal roles of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene during molting process in Locusta migratoria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Rong; Da-Qi Li; Xue-Yao Zhang; Sheng Li; Kun Yan Zhu; Ya-Ping Guo; En-Bo Ma; Jian-Zhen Zhang

    2013-01-01

    β-N-acetylglucosaminidases are crucial enzymes involved in chitin degradation in insects.We identified a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene(LmNAG1)from Locusta migratoria.The full-length complementary DNA(cDNA)of LmNAGI consists of 2 667 nucleotides,including an open reading frame(ORF)of 1 845 nucleotides encoding 614 amino acid residues,and 233-and 589-nucleotide non-coding regions at the 5'-and 3'-ends,respectively.Phylogenetic analysis grouped the cDNA-deduced LmNAG1 protein with the enzymatically characterized β-N-acetylglucosaminidases in group Ⅰ.Analyses of stage-and tissue-dependent expression patterns of LmNAG1 were carried out by realtime quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Our results showed that LmNAG1 transcript level in the integument was significantly high in the last 2 days of the fourth and fifth instar nymphs.LmNAG1 was highly expressed in foregut and hindgut.RNA interference of LmNAG1 resulted in an effective silence of the gene and a significantly reduced total LmNAG enzyme activity at 48 and 72 h after the injection of LmNAG1 double-stranded RNA(dsRNA).As compared with the control nymphs injected with GFP dsRNA,50% of the dsLmNAG1-injected nymphs were not able to molt successfully and eventually died.Our results suggest that LmNAG1 plays an essential role in molting process of L.migratoria.

  6. 亚洲飞蝗发声器结构与鸣声时域特征研究%Studies on the time domain characters of songs and the stridulatory organs of Locusta migratoria migratoria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 王寅亮; 宋慧华; 刘斐; 任炳忠

    2011-01-01

    The morphology of the stridulatory organs of Locusta rnigratoria migratoria ( L. ) was examined with a scanning electron microscope and the time domain characters of its songs analyzed. Stridulation in Locusta migratoria migratoria involves the forewing acting in combination with the rear femur. Rubbing stridulatory teeth on the middle intercalary vein of the forewing with on the rear femur produces sound. Stridulatory teeth with a circular granular swell are distributed regularly on the middle intercalary vein of the forewing in a single line. No significant differences in the shape and arrangement of stridulatory teeth were found between individuals of Locusta migratoria migratoria. However, the number and distribution of stridulatory teeth on the middle intercalary vein differed between male and female adults. Stridulatory organs of male adults were fully developed but those of female adults were only partially developed. We infer that this is the reason why the chirp of male adults is crisp and that of female adults is hoarse. Song analysis showed that the chirp rhythm of Locusta rnigratoria migratoria was highly regular with an obvious double pulse. Individual chirps lasted about 0. 042 s and the interchirp interval was about 0. 073 s. The A and B pulse of the chirps continued for about O. 015 s and 0. 017 s respectively with a pulse interval of about 0. 0075 s.%本文对亚洲飞蝗Locusta migratoria migratoria(L.)发声器的结构及鸣声的时域特征进行了研究.亚洲飞蝗主要的发声方式为前翅中闰脉-后足股节型,即前翅中闰脉的发声齿与后足股节内侧隆线相互摩擦发出鸣声.应用扫描电子显微镜技术对发声器的结构进行观察,结果表明,亚洲飞蝗前翅中闰脉具有单排规则排列的发声齿,发声齿为圆形颗粒状突起.同种不同个体,发声齿的形态与排列稳定,个体差异不明显.亚洲飞蝗雄性与雌性发声齿的数量和分布存在差异,雄性的发声齿发育

  7. Fenoxycarb and thyroid hormones have JH-like effects on the follicle cells of Locusta migratoria in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, K G; Gordon, D R

    1996-01-01

    Earlier work had shown that JH acts on the membrane of the follicle cell of Locusta migratoria, bringing about a rapid reduction in volume which can be detected in vitro by measuring the increase in optical path difference using quantitative interference microscopy. The juvenoid fenoxycarb, a phenoxyphenyl derivative, is unrelated in structure to the juvenile hormones (which are derivatives of farnesoic acid), but it also caused a reduction in volume of the cells in vitro as measured by an increase in the optical path difference. The vertebrate hormone thyroxine, and thyronine, the non-iodinated derivative of thyroxine, also phenoxy phenyl compounds, evoked a response like fenoxycarb. The effect of thyroxine was abolished by ouabain, which inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase, the effector molecule for JH, and inhibited by ethoxyzolamide which inhibits the binding of JH to a putative membrane receptor. Triiodothyronine, the effective vertebrate hormone, acted at a lower threshold and optimum concentration, and had a greater magnitude of effect than the other compounds tested. These facts suggest that these phenoxyphenyl compounds are JH agonists and that the membrane receptor for JH may resemble a possible membrane receptor for thyroxine.

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization and positively selected sites of the glutathione S-transferase family from Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyao Zhang

    Full Text Available Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs are multifunctional enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds and are related to insecticide resistance. The purpose of this study was to provide new information on the molecular characteristics and the positive selection of locust GSTs. Based on the transcriptome database, we sequenced 28 cytosolic GSTs and 4 microsomal GSTs from the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria. We assigned the 28 cytosolic GSTs into 6 classes--sigma, epsilon, delta, theta, omega and zeta, and the 4 microsomal GSTs into 2 subclasses--insect and MGST3. The tissue- and stage-expression patterns of the GSTs differed at the mRNA level. Further, the substrate specificities and kinetic constants of the cytosolic GSTs differed markedly at the protein level. The results of likelihood ratio tests provided strong evidence for positive selection in the delta class. The result of Bayes Empirical Bayes analysis identified 4 amino acid sites in the delta class as positive selection sites. These sites were located on the protein surface. Our findings will facilitate the elucidation of the molecular characteristics and evolutionary aspects of insect GST superfamily.

  9. Fas-associated factor 1 plays a negative regulatory role in the antibacterial immunity of Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z; Wang, P; Shi, H; Si, F; Hao, Y; Chen, B

    2013-08-01

    Insect immune responses are precisely regulated to maintain immune balance. In this study, the Fas-associated factor 1 (FAF1) gene of Locusta migratoria manilensis, a homologue of the caspar gene that functions as a specific negative regulator in the antibacterial immunity pathway, was cloned. Gene expression analysis showed that FAF1 was expressed throughout the developmental stages and in all tested tissues, but its transcription levels varied significantly. Thus, FAF1 appears to be tightly regulated and is probably involved in multiple physiological processes. In addition, the antimicrobial peptide gene prolixicin was cloned and characterized. After bacterial challenge, prolixicin was rapidly up-regulated, whereas FAF1 was markedly down-regulated. This result was consistent with the observation that prolixicin was hyperactivated when FAF1 was suppressed by RNA interference. Moreover, after bacterial infection, the survival rate of FAF1-knockdown locusts was much higher than that of the wild-type. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that FAF1 shares a similar function as caspar in Drosophila and may be involved in the negative regulation of antibacterial immunity in locusts.

  10. Different Effects of Metarhizium anisopliae Strains IMI330189 and IBC200614 on Enzymes Activities and Hemocytes of Locusta migratoria L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchun Cao

    Full Text Available Metarhizium is an important class of entomopathogenic fungi in the biocontrol of insects, but its virulence is affected by insect immunity. To clarify the mechanism in virulence of Metarhizium, we compared the immunological differences in Locusta migratoria L. when exposed to two strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma.The virulence of Ma IMI330189 was significantly higher than that of Ma IBC200614 to locust, and IMI330189 overcame the hemocytes and began destroying the hemocytes of locust at 72 h after spray, while locust is immune to IBC200614. IMI330189 could overcome the humoral immunity of locust by inhibiting the activities of phenol oxidase (PO, esterases, multi-function oxidases (MFOs and acetylcholinesterases in locust while increasing the activities of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs, catalase and aryl-acylamidase (AA. However IBC200614 inhibit the activities of GSTs and AA in locust and increase the activities of MFOs, PO, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and chitinase in locust. The changes of enzymes activities in period of infection showed that the time period between the 2nd and the 5th day after spray is critical in the pathogenic process.These results found the phenomenon that Ma initiatively broke host hemocytes, revealed the correlation between the virulence of Ma and the changes of enzymes activities in host induced by Ma, and clarified the critical period in the infection of Ma. So, these results should provide guidance for the construction of efficient biocontrol Ma strains.

  11. Trehalose and trehalose-hydrolyzing enzyme in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria infected with Metarhizium anisopliae strain CQMa102

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA ZHAO; ZHONG-KANG WANG; YOU-PING YIN; YAN-LING LI; ZHEN-LUN LI; GUO-XIONG PENG; YU-XIAN XIA

    2007-01-01

    Topical application of the Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum specialist strain CQMa102 to the locust Locusta migratoria man ilensis results in changes of the concentrations of trehalose and glucose in the haemolymph. Micrographs of the locust haemolymph shows Metarhizium anisopliae can effectivly penetrate the external skeleton of locust and after 2 days infection, the hyphae body will appear in the haemolymph of infected insects. The time in decrease of trehalose concentration coincided with that in increase of trehalose-hydrolysing enzyme activity in the haemolymph of the fungus-infected insects. Overlay gel analysis indicated there was considerably more trehalose-hydrolysing activity in the haemolymph of locusts infected by fungus than in controls. A comparable isoform was identified in in vitro culture of the fungus, suggesting a fungal origin for the in vivo enzyme. Haemolymph trehalose decreased significantly during mycosis of locusts by M. anisopliae. All these results suggested that this fungus may take advantage of competing nutrient utilization against the insect by its trehalose-hydrolyzing enzyme secretion. It may provide fundamental knowledge for fungal pathogenesis.

  12. Expression of scorpion toxin LqhIT2 increases the virulence of Metarhizium acridum towards Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guoxiong; Xia, Yuxian

    2014-11-01

    LqhIT2 is an insect-specific neurotoxin from the venom of scorpion. In this study, the LqhIT2 gene was introduced into the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium acridum. The virulence of the genetically modified strain MaLqhIT2 was then evaluated against locusts (Locusta migratoria manilensis). Compared with the wild-type strain, the median lethal cell density (LC50) for MaLqhIT2 was a 22.6-fold lower, and the median times to death (LT50) for MaLqhIT2 were reduced by 30.3 and 29.6 %, respectively, after topical inoculation and injection. MaLqhIT2 also grew significantly faster in the hemolymph than wild-type strain. There were no significant differences in germination, appressorium formation and sporulation in locust carcasses between the MaLqhIT2 and wild-type strain. These results indicate that LqhIT2 increased the virulence of M. acridum towards locusts by shortening the in vivo infection period, without affecting cuticle penetration or conidia formation in the carcasses. LqhIT2 thus shows considerable potential for increasing fungal virulence against locusts.

  13. Evidence of a central pattern generator regulating spermathecal muscle activity in Locusta migratoria and its coordination with oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rosa; Lange, Angela B

    2011-03-01

    Electrophysiological recordings were conducted to determine the control of spermathecal contractions during oviposition of interrupted egg-laying locusts, Locusta migratoria. Following transection of the central nervous system below the metathoracic ganglion, rhythmic patterned bursting was detected by extracellular recordings of the nerve N2B2 that innervates the muscles of the spermatheca. Subsequent transections at more posterior regions of the ventral nerve cord revealed more robust rhythmic bursting in N2B2. This rhythmic bursting pattern was found to be coordinated with bursting in the ventral opener nerve (N2B1) that innervates the ventral opener muscle. This muscle controls the ventral ovipositor valves. Electromyographic recordings from the spermathecal muscle and ventral opener muscle confirmed a rhythmic bursting pattern resulting in an increase in muscle activity. Taken together, the results indicate that there is probably a central pattern generator (CPG), which is regulated by descending inhibition, that controls the spermathecal muscle activity. This CPG appears to be located within the VIIth and VIIIth abdominal ganglia, and was found to integrate with the CPG that regulates oviposition digging in locusts. These results provide further insight into the intricate coordination and control of reproductive tissues underlying reproductive behaviours in locusts.

  14. Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel gene discovery in the Locusta migratoria manilensis through the neuron transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Meng, Xiangkun; Liu, Chuanjun; Gao, Hongli; Zhang, Yixi; Liu, Zewen

    2015-05-01

    As an ideal model, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) has been widely used in the study of endocrinological and neurobiological processes. Here we created a large transcriptome of the locust neurons, which enriched ion channels whose potential for functional genetic experiments is currently limited. With high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology, we obtained more than 50 million raw reads, which were assembled into 61,056 unique sequences with average size of 737bp. Among the unigenes, a total 24,884 sequences had significant similarities with proteins in the five public databases (NR, SwissProt, GO, COG and KEGG) with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5) using BLASTx. Moreover, the number of potential genes of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) was manually curated, including 39 putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), 6 putative γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) gated anion channels, 21 putative glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) and 1 histamine-gated chloride channels (HisCls). In addition, the full-length of 11 nAChRs subunits (9 alpha and 2 beta) were obtained by RACE technique that would be helpful to further studies on nAChR neurochemistry and pharmacological aspects. To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the locust neuron transcriptome, which will provide a useful resource especially for future studies on the neuro-function and behavior of the locust.

  15. Identification of representative genes of the central nervous system of the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyi; Peng, Zhi-Yu; Yi, Kang; Cheng, Yanbing; Xia, Yuxian

    2012-01-01

    The shortage of available genomic and transcriptomic data hampers the molecular study on the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (L.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) central nervous system (CNS). In this study, locust CNS RNA was sequenced by deep sequencing. 41,179 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 570 bp, and 5,519 unigenes were longer than 1,000 bp. Compared with an EST database of another locust species Schistocerca gregaria Forsskåi, 9,069 unigenes were found conserved, while 32,110 unigenes were differentially expressed. A total of 15,895 unigenes were identified, including 644 nervous system relevant unigenes. Among the 25,284 unknown unigenes, 9,482 were found to be specific to the CNS by filtering out the previous ESTs acquired from locust organs without CNS's. The locust CNS showed the most matches (18%) with Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) sequences. Comprehensive assessment reveals that the database generated in this study is broadly representative of the CNS of adult locust, providing comprehensive gene information at the transcriptional level that could facilitate research of the locust CNS, including various physiological aspects and pesticide target finding.

  16. LocustDB: a relational database for the transcriptome and biology of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Le

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The migratory locust (Locusta migratoria is an orthopteran pest and a representative member of hemimetabolous insects for biological studies. Its transcriptomic data provide invaluable information for molecular entomology and pave a way for the comparative research of other medically, agronomically, and ecologically relevant insects. We developed the first transcriptomic database of the locust (LocustDB, building necessary infrastructures to integrate, organize, and retrieve data that are either currently available or to be acquired in the future. Description LocustDB currently hosts 45,474 high-quality EST sequences from the locust, which were assembled into 12,161 unigenes. It, through user-friendly web interfaces, allows investigators to freely access sequence data, including homologous/orthologous sequences, functional annotations, and pathway analysis, based on conserved orthologous groups (COG, gene ontology (GO, protein domain (InterPro, and functional pathways (KEGG. It also provides information from comparative analysis based on data from the migratory locust and five other invertebrate species, including the silkworm, the honeybee, the fruitfly, the mosquito and the nematode. The website address of LocustDB is http://locustdb.genomics.org.cn/. Conclusion LocustDB starts with the first transcriptome information for an orthopteran and hemimetabolous insect and will be extended to provide a framework for incorporating in-coming genomic data of relevant insect groups and a workbench for cross-species comparative studies.

  17. Diversity, abundance, and sex-specific expression of chemosensory proteins in the reproductive organs of the locust Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xian-Hong; Ban, Li-Ping; Iovinella, Immacolata; Zhao, Li-Jing; Gao, Qian; Felicioli, Antonio; Sagona, Simona; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Pelosi, Paolo; Zhang, Long; Dani, Francesca Romana

    2013-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are small soluble proteins often associated with chemosensory organs in insects but include members involved in other functions, such as pheromone delivery and development. Although the CSPs of the sensory organs have been extensively studied, little is known on their functions in other parts of the body. A first screening of the available databases has identified 70 sequences encoding CSPs in the oriental locust Locusta migratoria manilensis. Applying proteomic analysis, we have identified 17 of them abundantly expressed in the female reproductive organs, but only one (CSP91) in male organs. Bacterially expressed CSP91 binds fatty acids with a specificity for oleic and linoleic acid, as well as medium-length alcohols and esters. The same acids have been detected as the main gas chromatographic peaks in the dichloromethane extracts of reproductive organs of both sexes. The abundance and the number of CSPs in female reproductive organs indicates important roles for these proteins. We cannot exclude that different functions can be associated with each of the 17 CSPs, including delivery of semiochemicals, solubilization of hormones, direct control of development, or other unknown tasks.

  18. The neural and peptidergic control of gut contraction in Locusta migratoria: the effect of an FGLa/AST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lisa; Rodriguez, E Patricia; Lange, Angela B

    2012-10-01

    The regulation of insect gut physiology is complex and involves the interactions of a number of mechanisms, including the neural regulation of gut contraction by altering neural input and the modulation of gut contractions by neuropeptides directly affecting the muscle. The FGLa-type allatostatins (FGLa/ASTs) are known brain/gut peptides with numerous physiological roles, including modulation of gut contraction and neural input. To further investigate the pleiotropic roles of FGLa/AST peptides in Locusta migratoria, we have examined the role of a locust FGLa/AST (Scg-AST-6) in the gut. Proctolin and Scg-AST-6 have opposing effects on gut contraction, where proctolin dose-dependently increases gut muscle tension, while Scg-AST-6 inhibits both muscle tension and spontaneous and neurogenic contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Results from neurophysiological recordings indicate that there may be a central pattern generator (CPG) within the ventricular ganglia regulated by descending inhibition, and the addition of Scg-AST-6 dose-dependently modulates this ventricular ganglion CPG. This work provides a comprehensive picture of how FGLa/ASTs may modulate and coordinate each region of the locust gut, and shows that FGLa/ASTs have both central effects, on the ventricular ganglion CPG, and peripheral effects on the gut muscle. Overall, this study shows how FGLa/ASTs contribute to the complex regulation and fine tuning of gut contraction.

  19. Molecular cloning, characterization and positively selected sites of the glutathione S-transferase family from Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyao; Wang, Jianxin; Zhang, Min; Qin, Guohua; Li, Daqi; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds and are related to insecticide resistance. The purpose of this study was to provide new information on the molecular characteristics and the positive selection of locust GSTs. Based on the transcriptome database, we sequenced 28 cytosolic GSTs and 4 microsomal GSTs from the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria). We assigned the 28 cytosolic GSTs into 6 classes--sigma, epsilon, delta, theta, omega and zeta, and the 4 microsomal GSTs into 2 subclasses--insect and MGST3. The tissue- and stage-expression patterns of the GSTs differed at the mRNA level. Further, the substrate specificities and kinetic constants of the cytosolic GSTs differed markedly at the protein level. The results of likelihood ratio tests provided strong evidence for positive selection in the delta class. The result of Bayes Empirical Bayes analysis identified 4 amino acid sites in the delta class as positive selection sites. These sites were located on the protein surface. Our findings will facilitate the elucidation of the molecular characteristics and evolutionary aspects of insect GST superfamily.

  20. Identification of genes differentially expressed by Metarhizium anisopliae growing on Locusta migratoria wings using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanbo; Xia, Yuxian; Li, Zhongyuan

    2011-05-01

    Insect-pathogenic fungi penetrate their hosts directly through the cuticle. To better understand this process, we identified genes that were up-regulated by Metarhizium anisopliae germinating and differentiating on Locusta migratoria wings using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 78 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) up-regulated more than twofold during fungal growth on locust wings were identified. Among these 78 ESTs, 30 (38.5%) shared significant similarity with NCBI annotated hypothetical proteins, 16 (20.5%) shared low similarity to known or predicted genes, might represent novel genes, and 32 (41.0%) shared significant similarity with known proteins that are involved in various cell and molecular processes such as cell metabolism, protein metabolism, stress response and defense, and cell structure and function. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of six randomly selected genes confirmed the SSH results, verifying the fidelity of the SSH data. The results of this study provide novel information on genes expressed during early stages of infection with M. anisopliae, and improve current understanding of fungal pathogenesis.

  1. Different Effects of Metarhizium anisopliae Strains IMI330189 and IBC200614 on Enzymes Activities and Hemocytes of Locusta migratoria L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangchun; Jia, Miao; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lei; Tu, Xiongbing; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    Background Metarhizium is an important class of entomopathogenic fungi in the biocontrol of insects, but its virulence is affected by insect immunity. To clarify the mechanism in virulence of Metarhizium, we compared the immunological differences in Locusta migratoria L. when exposed to two strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma). Results The virulence of Ma IMI330189 was significantly higher than that of Ma IBC200614 to locust, and IMI330189 overcame the hemocytes and began destroying the hemocytes of locust at 72 h after spray, while locust is immune to IBC200614. IMI330189 could overcome the humoral immunity of locust by inhibiting the activities of phenol oxidase (PO), esterases, multi-function oxidases (MFOs) and acetylcholinesterases in locust while increasing the activities of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), catalase and aryl-acylamidase (AA). However IBC200614 inhibit the activities of GSTs and AA in locust and increase the activities of MFOs, PO, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and chitinase in locust. The changes of enzymes activities in period of infection showed that the time period between the 2nd and the 5th day after spray is critical in the pathogenic process. Conclusion These results found the phenomenon that Ma initiatively broke host hemocytes, revealed the correlation between the virulence of Ma and the changes of enzymes activities in host induced by Ma, and clarified the critical period in the infection of Ma. So, these results should provide guidance for the construction of efficient biocontrol Ma strains. PMID:27227835

  2. The incidences of Locusta migratoria migratoria and its control strategy in the farmland in Xinjiang%亚洲飞蝗在新疆农田的发生情况与防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余虹丽; 侯洪

    2004-01-01

    新疆维吾尔自治区是中国耕地面积和宜农荒地最多的省、自治区之一,全区可垦地733万hm2。已耕地412.5万hm2。主要农作物有棉花、玉米、小麦等,是全国重要的农业省(自治区)。近年来,农田蝗虫特别是亚洲飞蝗[Locusta migratoria migratoria(L.)]的发生为害呈现不断加重的趋势,严重影响了农业的发展。

  3. Effects of Glutamate and Na+ on the Development and Enzyme Activity of the Oriental Migratory Locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) in Successive Generations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xia; JIA Miao; WANG Lei; CAO Guang-chun; ZHANG Ze-hua

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and mass rearing of Locusta migratoria manilensis is an urgent need to meet the increasing demand for food of people. In this study, the effects of four artiifcial feeds on the development, reproduction and the activities of detoxiifcation and protective enzymes of L. migratoria manilensis in three successive generations were investigated. The results showed that sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) signiifcantly increased the net reproductive rate (R0) and the intrinsic growth rate (rm) of L. migratoria manilensis, but sodium chloride (0.17%) suppressed this increase. Furthermore, the artiifcial feed with sucrose and monosodium glutamate increased the activities of esterase (EST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), multi-function oxidase (MFO), phenol oxidase (PO), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), but inhibited the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). However, sodium chloride (0.17%) increased the activities of EST, AChE, CAT and SOD, and inhibited the activities of MFO, GST, PO and POD. Correlation analysis found that the increasing of PO activity and the decreasing of SOD activities were signiifcantly related with the increasing of the intrinsic growth rate (rm). The above results indicated that sucrose and monosodium glutamate could promote the development and reproduction of L. migratoria manilensis, but Na+ inhibit such promotion with the concentration above 0.2%. The activities of PO and SOD can be used as biochemical standard to assess the effect of artiifcial feed.

  4. Studium produktů prothorakálních žláz u saranče stěhovavé (\\kur{Locusta migratoria L.})

    OpenAIRE

    LUSKOVÁ, Miroslava

    2007-01-01

    Prothoracic glands secrete ekdysteroids and protein products. The protein products of the prothoracic gland from the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria were a subject of this study. The secretion of the proteins is enhanced during in vitro incubation by tris [tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethan] while the content of non-secretory proteins remains without substantial changes.

  5. Preliminary study on physiological characteristics of Locusta migratoria migratoria from Jilin province%亚洲飞蝗吉林种群生理特征初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 张欣杨; 张龙

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the physiological characteristics of locust (Locusta migratoria migratoria) from Jilin province and reported a laboratory study on hatch rate, mean development duration, body length, weight, head width, sex ratio and adult emerge rate. The results showed that the hatch rate was 26.27%. Each instar lasted about 6-7 days, the instar would increase when temperature dropped, and the average lifetime was 74.52days. The body length grew steadily and the adult females' average body length was 5. 564 cm (with wings), males' was 4. 968 cm (with wings). The body weight grew fast from the third instar and the adult females' average body weight was 1. 030 g, males' was 0. 848 g. The head width grew steadily, too, and the adult females' average head width was 0. 508 cm, males' was 0. 526 cm. Female's body size was larger than male's.The locust's sex ratio (female/male)was 1/1.2. And average adult emerge rate was 81.25%. The results were helpful for the detailed understanding of physiological characteristics of the locust in Jilin province and laid the foundation of specially adapted control in this area.%为了解东北地区吉林省亚洲飞蝗的生理特性,通过室内饲养实验,对采自吉林省的亚洲飞蝗孵化率、发育历期、体长、体重、头壳宽度、雌雄比和羽化率进行了研究.研究结果表明,试虫孵化率为26.27%,各龄期时间6~7 d,并随环境温度降低有所增长,平均寿命74.52 d.体长生长速度稳定,成虫后雌性平均有翅体长为5.564 cm,雄性为4.968 cm.体重从三龄起生长迅速,成虫后雌性平均体重为1.030 g,雄性为0.848 g.头壳宽度生长也比较稳定,成虫后雌性平均头壳宽度为0.508 cm,雄性为0.526 cm,雌性体形比雄性稍大.试虫雌雄比为1/1.2(雌/雄),平均羽化率为81.25%.该研究结果有助于更为全面了解吉林省亚洲飞蝗生理特征,为有针对性防治奠定基础.

  6. Comparative analysis of cytochrome P450-like genes from Locusta migratoria manilensis: expression profiling and response to insecticide exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Qiong Guo; Jian-Zhen Zhang; Mei-Ling Yang; Liang-Zhen Yan; Kun Yan Zhu; Ya-Ping Guo; En-Bo Ma

    2012-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytochrome P450) gene superfamily comprises many genes that may be involved in the biotransformations of pesticides and other xenobiotics.To date,very little is known about cytochrome P450 genes in the oriental migratory locust,Locusta migratoria manilensis.In this study,we carried out a genomewide analysis of cytochrome P450 genes of the locust to identify putative cytochrome P450 genes and characterize their expression responses to insecticide exposures.We identified 15 cytochrome P450-1ike genes from a locust expressed sequence tag database (LocustDB).Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that most cytochrome P450-1ike genes displayed different tissue and developmental stage expression patterns.However,most of them were predominantly expressed in the midgut,gastric caeca,fatbodies,and/or hindgut.Biochemical analysis showed that cytochrome P450 was differentially affected by three different insecticides.Deltamethrin caused significant inductions in 12 h at LD30 (dose to kill 30% of the tested individuals) in the nymphs,whereas malathion and carbaryl did not have significant effect on cytochrome P450 enzyme activity.Further RT-PCR analysis showed significant increases of transcriptions of several cytochrome P450 genes in deltamethrin-treated locusts.Thus,the increased cytochrome P450 enzyme activity is likely due to increased transcriptions of multiple cytochrome P450genes in response to deltamethrin exposure.These results are expected to help us better understand the interactions between insecticides and major detoxification enzymes,and possible changes of the susceptibility to other insecticides in deltamethrin-treated insects at various molecular levels.

  7. Scaling of resting and maximum hopping metabolic rate throughout the life cycle of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Seymour, Roger S; Matthews, Philip G D; Runciman, Sue; White, Craig R

    2011-10-01

    The hemimetabolous migratory locust Locusta migratoria progresses through five instars to the adult, increasing in size from 0.02 to 0.95 g, a 45-fold change. Hopping locomotion occurs at all life stages and is supported by aerobic metabolism and provision of oxygen through the tracheal system. This allometric study investigates the effect of body mass (Mb) on oxygen consumption rate (MO2, μmol h(-1)) to establish resting metabolic rate (MRO2), maximum metabolic rate during hopping (MMO2) and maximum metabolic rate of the hopping muscles (MMO2,hop) in first instar, third instar, fifth instar and adult locusts. Oxygen consumption rates increased throughout development according to the allometric equations MRO2=30.1Mb(0.83±0.02), MMO2=155Mb(1.01±0.02), MMO2,hop=120Mb(1.07±0.02) and, if adults are excluded, MMO2,juv=136Mb(0.97±0.02) and MMO2,juv,hop=103Mb(1.02±0.02). Increasing body mass by 20-45% with attached weights did not increase mass-specific MMO2 significantly at any life stage, although mean mass-specific hopping MO2 was slightly higher (ca. 8%) when juvenile data were pooled. The allometric exponents for all measures of metabolic rate are much greater than 0.75, and therefore do not support West, Brown and Enquist’s optimised fractal network model, which predicts that metabolism scales with a 3⁄4-power exponent owing to limitations in the rate at which resources can be transported within the body.

  8. Two homologous carboxylesterase genes from Locusta migratoria with different tissue expression patterns and roles in insecticide detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqin; Ge, Pingting; Li, Daqi; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2015-06-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) play a crucial role in detoxification of xenobiotics and resistance to insecticides in insects. In this study, two cDNAs of CarE genes (LmCesA4 and LmCesA5) were sequenced from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. The cDNAs of LmCesA4 and LmCesA5 putatively encoded 538 and 470 amino acid residues, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two CarE genes showed 45.0% identities, possessed highly conserved catalytic triads (Ser-Glu-His), and clustered in phylogenetic analysis. These results suggest that they are homologous genes. Both CarE genes were expressed throughout the developmental stages. However, LmCesA4 was predominately expressed in the midgut (including the gastric caeca) and fat bodies, whereas LmCesA5 was mainly expressed in the gastric caeca. The in situ hybridization results showed that the transcripts of the two genes were localized in apical and basal regions of the columnar cells in the gastric caeca. Gene silencing followed by insecticide bioassay increased the mortalities of deltamethrin-, malathion-, and carbaryl-treated locusts by 29.5%, 31.0% and 20.4%, respectively, after the locusts were injected with LmCesA4 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In contrast, the injection of LmCesA5 dsRNA did not significantly increase the susceptibility of the locusts to any of these insecticides. These results suggest that these genes not only show different tissue expression patterns but also play different roles in insecticide detoxification.

  9. Developmental expression of cell recognition molecules in the mushroom body and antennal lobe of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, René; Bicker, Gerd

    2012-06-15

    We examined the development of olfactory neuropils in the hemimetabolous insect Locusta migratoria with an emphasis on the mushroom bodies, protocerebral integration centers implicated in memory formation. Using a marker of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling cascade and lipophilic dye labeling, we obtained new insights into mushroom body organization by resolving previously unrecognized accessory lobelets arising from Class III Kenyon cells. We utilized antibodies against axonal guidance cues, such as the cell surface glycoproteins Semaphorin 1a (Sema 1a) and Fasciclin I (Fas I), as embryonic markers to compile a comprehensive atlas of mushroom body development. During embryogenesis, all neuropils of the olfactory pathway transiently expressed Sema 1a. The immunoreactivity was particularly strong in developing mushroom bodies. During late embryonic stages, Sema 1a expression in the mushroom bodies became restricted to a subset of Kenyon cells in the core region of the peduncle. Sema 1a was differentially sorted to the Kenyon cell axons and absent in the dendrites. In contrast to Drosophila, locust mushroom bodies and antennal lobes expressed Fas I, but not Fas II. While Fas I immunoreactivity was widely distributed in the midbrain during embryogenesis, labeling persisted into adulthood only in the mushroom bodies and antennal lobes. Kenyon cells proliferated throughout the larval stages. Their neurites retained the embryonic expression pattern of Sema 1a and Fas I, suggesting a role for these molecules in developmental mushroom body plasticity. Our study serves as an initial step toward functional analyses of Sema 1a and Fas I expression during locust mushroom body formation.

  10. Rapid cold hardening improves recovery of ion homeostasis and chill coma recovery time in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findsen, Anders; Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Calderon, Sofia; Overgaard, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    Chill tolerance of insects is defined as the ability to tolerate low temperature under circumstances not involving freezing of intracellular or extracellular fluids. For many insects chill tolerance is crucial for their ability to persist in cold environments and mounting evidence indicates that chill tolerance is associated with the ability to maintain ion and water homeostasis, thereby ensuring muscular function and preventing chill injury at low temperature. The present study describes the relationship between muscle and haemolymph ion homeostasis and time to regain posture following cold shock (CS, 2 h at -4°C) in the chill-susceptible locust Locusta migratoria. This relationship was examined in animals with and without a prior rapid cold-hardening treatment (RCH, 2 h at 0°C) to investigate the physiological underpinnings of RCH. CS elicited a doubling of haemolymph [K(+)] and this disturbance was greater in locusts pre-exposed to RCH. Recovery of ion homeostasis was, however, markedly faster in RCH-treated animals, which correlated well with whole-organism performance as hardened individuals regained posture faster than non-hardened individuals following CS. The present study indicates that loss and recovery of muscular function are associated with the resting membrane potential of excitable membranes as attested by the changes in the equilibrium potential for K(+) (EK) following CS. Both hardened and non-hardened animals regained movement once K(+) homeostasis had recovered to a fixed level (EK≈-41 mV). RCH is therefore not associated with altered sensitivity to ion disturbance but instead is correlated to a faster recovery of haemolymph [K(+)].

  11. Outbreak of Oriental migratory locust Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)in Baiyandian Lake.%白洋淀东亚飞蝗持续大发生浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春光

    2001-01-01

    进入90年代以来,白洋淀蝗区东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)持续大发生4次,是50年来十分罕见的。究其原因,主要受白洋淀水位变化的影响,其中8月水位的高低直接影响翌年夏蝗发生程度,其次是生态环境和气候条件等因素的影响。%Since 1990,Oriental migratory locust Locusta migratoria manilensis had continually broken out four time in Baiyangdian lake which had been very rare in the recent fifty years. The major reason of that is the influence of variation of water level of Baiyangdian lake,and the height of water level in August affects directly the degree of the occurrence of summer locusts in the next year. The second reason is the influences of ecological environment and climate condtion.

  12. Techniques for assaying detoxification enzyme activity inLocusta migratoria%飞蝗解毒酶系活力测定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玮; 吴海花; 张建珍; 王泽世; 马恩波

    2016-01-01

    飞蝗Locusta migratoria是重要的农业害虫,代谢抗性是飞蝗主要的农药抗性机制之一。与代谢抗性相关的解毒酶系主要有:非专一性酯酶系( Non-specficesterases , ESTs )、谷胱甘肽 S-转移酶系(GlutathioneS-transferases,GSTs)和细胞色素P450单加氧酶系(Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, P450s),解毒酶系活力的测定是研究飞蝗农药代谢机制的重要途径。本文详细介绍了飞蝗解毒酶系的测定方法,为蝗虫及其他昆虫解毒酶系的测定提供参考。%Locusta migratoria(L.) is a major agricultural pest and metabolic resistance is one of the most important mechanisms by which this species develops resistance to insecticides. The detoxification enzymes, which are associated with metabolic resistance, include non-specific esterase (ESTs), glutathioneS-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s). Assaying detoxification enzyme activity is an important way to study pesticide metabolism inL. migratoria. This paper describes in detail how to analyze the detoxification enzymes activity in L. migratoria, and provides a reference for this in other insects.

  13. Adaptive difference in daily timing of hatch in two locust species, Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria: the effects of thermocycles and phase polyphenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, Yudai; Tanaka, Seiji; Saeki, Shinjiro

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of temperature and phase polyphenism on egg hatching time in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. The two species exhibited differences and similarities in hatching behavior when exposed to different temperature conditions. In 12-h thermocycles of various temperatures, the S. gregaria eggs hatched during the cryoperiod (low temperature period), whereas L. migratoria eggs hatched during the thermoperiod (high temperature period). The eggs of both species hatched during the species-specific period of the thermoperiod in response to a temperature difference as small as 1 °C. Furthermore, the locusts adjusted hatching time to a new thermal environment that occurred shortly before the expected hatching time. In both species, the hatching of the eggs was synchronized to a specific time of the day, and two hatching peaks separated by approximately 1 day were observed at a constant temperature after the eggs were transferred from thermocycles 3 days before hatching. Eggs laid by gregarious females hatched earlier than those laid by solitarious females in S. gregaria but this difference was not observed in L. migratoria.

  14. Molecular and functional characterization of cDNAs putatively encoding carboxylesterases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqin Zhang

    Full Text Available Carboxylesterases (CarEs belong to a superfamily of metabolic enzymes encoded by a number of genes and are widely distributed in microbes, plants and animals including insects. These enzymes play important roles in detoxification of insecticides and other xenobiotics, degradation of pheromones, regulation of neurodevelopment, and control of animal development. In this study, we characterized a total of 39 full-length cDNAs putatively encoding different CarEs from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, one of the most severe insect pests in many regions of the world, and evaluated the role of four CarE genes in insecticide detoxification. Our phylogenetic analysis grouped the 39 CarEs into five different clades including 20 CarEs in clade A, 3 in D, 13 in E, 1 in F and 2 in I. Four CarE genes (LmCesA3, LmCesA20, LmCesD1, LmCesE1, representing three different clades (A, D and E, were selected for further analyses. The transcripts of the four genes were detectable in all the developmental stages and tissues examined. LmCesA3 and LmCesE1 were mainly expressed in the fat bodies and Malpighian tubules, whereas LmCesA20 and LmCesD1 were predominately expressed in the muscles and hemolymph, respectively. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA synthesized from each of the four CarE genes followed by the bioassay with each of four insecticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, carbaryl and deltamethrin increased the nymphal mortalities by 37.2 and 28.4% in response to malathion after LmCesA20 and LmCesE1 were silenced, respectively. Thus, we proposed that both LmCesA20 and LmCesE1 played an important role in detoxification of malathion in the locust. These results are expected to help researchers reveal the characteristics of diverse CarEs and assess the risk of insecticide resistance conferred by CarEs in the locust and other insect species.

  15. Molecular and functional characterization of cDNAs putatively encoding carboxylesterases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqin; Li, Daqi; Ge, Pingting; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) belong to a superfamily of metabolic enzymes encoded by a number of genes and are widely distributed in microbes, plants and animals including insects. These enzymes play important roles in detoxification of insecticides and other xenobiotics, degradation of pheromones, regulation of neurodevelopment, and control of animal development. In this study, we characterized a total of 39 full-length cDNAs putatively encoding different CarEs from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, one of the most severe insect pests in many regions of the world, and evaluated the role of four CarE genes in insecticide detoxification. Our phylogenetic analysis grouped the 39 CarEs into five different clades including 20 CarEs in clade A, 3 in D, 13 in E, 1 in F and 2 in I. Four CarE genes (LmCesA3, LmCesA20, LmCesD1, LmCesE1), representing three different clades (A, D and E), were selected for further analyses. The transcripts of the four genes were detectable in all the developmental stages and tissues examined. LmCesA3 and LmCesE1 were mainly expressed in the fat bodies and Malpighian tubules, whereas LmCesA20 and LmCesD1 were predominately expressed in the muscles and hemolymph, respectively. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) synthesized from each of the four CarE genes followed by the bioassay with each of four insecticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, carbaryl and deltamethrin) increased the nymphal mortalities by 37.2 and 28.4% in response to malathion after LmCesA20 and LmCesE1 were silenced, respectively. Thus, we proposed that both LmCesA20 and LmCesE1 played an important role in detoxification of malathion in the locust. These results are expected to help researchers reveal the characteristics of diverse CarEs and assess the risk of insecticide resistance conferred by CarEs in the locust and other insect species.

  16. Control efficacy of three biological pesticides on Locusta migratoria tibetensis%3种生物农药对西藏飞蝗的防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 周俗; 严东海; 余勇; 杨廷勇; 张绪校

    2015-01-01

    西藏飞蝗是川西北草原主要的生物灾害之一,近年来平均危害面积在7.5万 hm2左右,且呈现出逐年加重趋势。为加大对西藏飞蝗的防治力度,试验应用瑞·苏生防剂、2%阿维·苏云菌可湿性粉剂、1%苦参碱可溶液剂3种生物农药分别对西藏飞蝗进行小区和大面积防治试验,比较3种生物药剂的防治效果。结果表明,3种生物农药对西藏飞蝗的小区试验防治效果在89.99%~92.12%之间,大面积防治效果在86.50%~92.41%之间,均具有较高的防效,可作为防治川西草原西藏飞蝗的选用药剂。%Locusta migratoria tibetensis is one of the main biological disasters in northwest Sichuan grassland.Dur-ing the past years,the annual damaged grassland area was 75 thousand hectares,and presents the increasing trend year by year.In order to effectively control L .migratoria tibetensis ,three biological pesticides were used for con-trolling L .migratoria tibetensis by plot experiments and large-area field trials.The control efficacies of the three biological pesticides are 89.99%-92.12% and 86.50%-92.41% in plot experiments and field trials,respective-ly,which indicates that the three biological pesticides all can be used for controlling L .migratoria tibetensis .

  17. 西藏飞蝗各发育阶段的耐寒性%Cold-hardiness of Locusta migratoria tibetensis in each developmental stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王思忠; 李庆; 封传红; 张敏; 蒋凡; 杨刚; 罗林明

    2007-01-01

    西藏飞蝗Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen是青藏高原的重要农牧业害虫.对该虫各发育阶段的过冷却点和结冰点的测定表明,西藏飞蝗卵的过冷却点和结冰点为最低,分别为-22.02℃、-16.36℃,4龄蝻的过冷却点和结冰点最高,分别是-6.46℃和-5.05℃,西藏飞蝗在甘孜以卵越冬.

  18. The microstructure of the external genitalia of Locusta migratoria manilensis%东亚飞蝗外生殖器的显微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄延霞; 连国云; 刘志刚; 高松

    2013-01-01

    利用扫描电镜技术观测了东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen)雌雄个体外生殖器的显微构造,描述了雌雄两性外生殖器的具体结构以及其表面上感受器的分布情况.雌性的外生殖器由背、腹产卵瓣构成,雄性的外生殖器由外骨骼所包被的阳具基背片和阳具复合体构成.在雌雄两性的外生殖器表面着生有大量的感受器,包括毛形、刺形、锥形,主要是机械感受器,还有少量化学感受器.

  19. Moulting of insect tracheae captured by light and electron-microscopy in the metathoracic femur of a third instar locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Seymour, Roger S; Runciman, Sue

    2011-09-01

    The insect tracheal system is an air-filled branching network of internal tubing that functions to exchange respiratory gases between the tissues and the environment. The light and electron-micrographs presented in this study show tracheae in the process of moulting, captured from the metathoracic hopping femur of a juvenile third instar locust (Locusta migratoria). The images provide evidence for the detachment of the cuticular intima from the tracheal epithelial cells, the presence of moulting fluid between the new and old cuticle layers, and the withdrawal of the shed cuticular lining through larger upstream regions of the tracheal system during moulting. The micrographs also reveal that the cuticular intima of the fine terminal branches of the tracheal system is cast at ecdysis. Therefore, the hypothesis that tracheoles retain their cuticle lining at each moult may not apply to all insect species or developmental stages.

  20. 磁场对东亚飞蝗体色的影响%Influence of magnetic field on body colour of Locusta migratoria manilensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹成全; 张合伦; 陈海霖; 黄成军

    2010-01-01

    本试验用0.45 T的稳定磁场处理东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)的若虫和成虫,在温度为(35±2)℃、光周期为(L:D=10:14)、光照度12 000 lx、相对湿度64%的光照培养箱中饲养,历时38 d,发现该磁场对东亚飞蝗体表色素的变化有明显的影响,主要表现为草绿色、乳黄色和浅白色等几种颜色,对开发昆虫宠物市场有一定的启发.

  1. Factors of Locusta migratoria Outbreak in Songnen Plain%松嫩平原亚洲飞蝗发生的成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑树峰; 孙元; 孙阎; 王世喜; 王贵强; 肖洋

    2011-01-01

    Locust (Locusta migratoria) plague happened in Dabaishui wetland on July 2009, where is located at the junction of Zhaoyuan County and Zhaozhou County of Heilongjiang Province. Factors, including climate conditions, geomorphic characteristics, soil hydrological properties, and vegetation situation, which have impact on the locust outbreak in Songnen Plain were analyzed based on "3S" technology by field survey and laboratory data analysis. Results showed that the outbreak of Locusta migratoria in Songnen Plain was influenced by many factors such as landform, climate, soil, hydrological properties, and vegetation type, among which the climate was the most important factor.%以2009年7月发生在黑龙江省肇源县与肇州县交界处大白水苇塘湿地的蝗灾为例,采用野外调查、室内实验室数据分析与“3S”技术相结合的方法,对影响松嫩平原蝗灾发生的气候条件、地质地貌、土壤水文及植被情况进行分析.结果表明:松嫩平原亚洲飞蝗的发生,受地形地貌、气候、土壤、水文及植被类型等多种因素的影响,其中气候因素是影响亚洲飞蝗发生的主要原因.

  2. Occurrence of Tibetan Migratory Locust: Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen%西藏飞蝗发生规律的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牙森·沙力; 高松; 学加热; 涂雄兵; 彭仕鼎; 薛志平; 张泽华

    2011-01-01

    In order to clarify the occurrence of Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen in Jin Sha Jiang River Valley, we analyzed the life history and population dynamics of L. m. tibetensis Chen based on field data in 2007. Result showed that L. m. tibetensis Chen has one generation per year. Its eggs began hatching in mid-late of April with emergence as adults in mid July starting oviposition in mid August. Swarm of gregarious individuals in plot 1, plot 2 and plot 3, had large population density, then gradually decreased from end of June to first week of July. The population has small density in Plot 4. Growth and dynamics of L.m. tibetensis Chen have different characteristics in different habitat.%为阐明金沙江流域蝗区两藏飞蝗(Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen)发生规律,2007年夏季依据不同植物群落中西藏飞蝗年生活史和种群动态数据分析其发生规律.结果表明:西藏飞蝗在金沙江流域一年发生一代,4月中下旬开始孵化,7月上中旬开始羽化为成虫,8月中旬起进入产卵期.在样地1、样地2和样地3内西藏飞蝗以群居型个体为主,前期虫口密度高,到6月下旬至7月上旬逐渐降低;在样地4内虫口密度低,以散居型个体为主.生境对两藏飞蝗生长发育和消长动态有一定的影响.

  3. The Olfactory Co-receptor Orco from the Migratory Locust (Locusta migratoria and the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria: Identification and Expression pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang, Jürgen Krieger, Long Zhang, Heinz Breer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In locusts, olfaction plays a crucial role for initiating and controlling behaviours, including food seeking and aggregation with conspecifics, which underlie the agricultural pest capacity of the animals. In this context, the molecular basis of olfaction in these insects is of particular interest. Here, we have identified genes of two orthopteran species, Locusta migratoria and Schistocera gregaria, which encode the olfactory receptor co-receptor (Orco. It was found that the sequences of LmigOrco and SgreOrco share a high degree of identity to each other and also to Orco proteins from different insect orders. The Orco-expressing cells in the antenna of S. gregaria and L. migratoria were visualized by in situ hybridization. Orco expression could be assigned to clusters of cells in sensilla basiconica and few cells in sensilla trichoidea, most likely representing olfactory sensory neurons. No Orco-positive cells were detected in sensilla coeloconica and sensilla chaetica. Orco expression was found already in all nymphal stages and was verified in some other tissues which are equipped with chemosensory hairs (mouthparts, tarsi, wings. Together, the results support the notion for a decisive role of Orco in locust olfaction.

  4. β-1,3-Glucan recognition protein (βGRP) is essential for resistance against fungal pathogen and opportunistic pathogenic gut bacteria in Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoli; Xia, Yuxian

    2012-03-01

    Pattern recognition proteins, which form part of the innate immune system, initiate host defense reactions in response to pathogen surface molecules. The pattern recognition protein β-1,3-glucan recognition protein (βGRP) binds to β-1,3-glucan on fungal surfaces to mediate melanization via the prophenoloxidase (PPO)-activating cascade. In this study, cDNA encoding a 53-kDa βGRP (LmβGRP) was cloned from Locusta migratoria manilensis. LmβGRP mRNA shown to be constitutively expressed specifically in hemocytes and was highly upregulated following fungal infection. LmβGRP-silenced (LmβGRP-RNAi) mutant locusts exhibited significantly reduced survival rate following fungal infection (Metarhizium acridum) compared with the wild-type. Furthermore, LmβGRP-RNAi mutants exhibited abnormally loose stools indicative of a gut defect. 16S rRNA gene analysis detected the opportunistic pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio vulnificus in LmβGRP mutant but not wild-type locusts, suggesting changes in the composition of gut bacterial communities. These results indicate that LmβGRP is essential to gut immunity in L. migratoria manilensis.

  5. An isoform of Taiman that contains a PRD-repeat motif is indispensable for transducing the vitellogenic juvenile hormone signal in Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiming; Yang, Libin; Song, Jiasheng; Kang, Le; Zhou, Shutang

    2017-03-01

    Taiman (Tai) has been recently identified as the dimerizing partner of juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met). However, the role of Tai isoforms in transducing vitellogenic signal of JH has not been determined. In this study, we show that the migratory locust Locusta migratoria has two Tai isoforms, which differ in an INDEL-1 domain with the PRD-repeat motif rich in histidine and proline at the C-terminus. Tai-A with the INDEL-1 is expressed at levels about 50-fold higher than Tai-B without the INDEL-1 in the fat body of vitellogenic adult females. Knockdown of Tai-A but not Tai-B results in a substantial reduction of vitellogenin expression in the fat body accompanied by the arrest of ovarian development and oocyte maturation, similar to that caused by depletion of both Tai isoforms. Either Tai-A or Tai-B combined with Met can induce target gene transcription in response to JH, but Tai-A appears to mediate a significantly higher transactivation. Our data suggest that the INDEL-1 domain plays a critical role in Tai function during reproduction as Tai-A appears be more active than Tai-B in transducing the vitellogenic JH signal in L. migratoria.

  6. The olfactory co-receptor Orco from the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) and the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria): identification and expression pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Krieger, Jürgen; Zhang, Long; Breer, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    In locusts, olfaction plays a crucial role for initiating and controlling behaviours, including food seeking and aggregation with conspecifics, which underlie the agricultural pest capacity of the animals. In this context, the molecular basis of olfaction in these insects is of particular interest. Here, we have identified genes of two orthopteran species, Locusta migratoria and Schistocera gregaria, which encode the olfactory receptor co-receptor (Orco). It was found that the sequences of LmigOrco and SgreOrco share a high degree of identity to each other and also to Orco proteins from different insect orders. The Orco-expressing cells in the antenna of S. gregaria and L. migratoria were visualized by in situ hybridization. Orco expression could be assigned to clusters of cells in sensilla basiconica and few cells in sensilla trichodea, most likely representing olfactory sensory neurons. No Orco-positive cells were detected in sensilla coeloconica and sensilla chaetica. Orco expression was found already in all nymphal stages and was verified in some other tissues which are equipped with chemosensory hairs (mouthparts, tarsi, wings). Together, the results support the notion for a decisive role of Orco in locust olfaction.

  7. LmCYP4G102: An oenocyte-specific cytochrome P450 gene required for cuticular waterproofing in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhitao; Zhang, Xueyao; Wang, Yiwen; Moussian, Bernard; Zhu, Kun Yan; Li, Sheng; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-07-22

    Cytochrome P450 superfamily proteins play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and during physiological and developmental processes. To contribute to our understanding of this large gene family in insects, we have investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 gene LmCYP4G102 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Suppression of LmCYP4G102 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) does not interfere with moulting but causes rapid loss of body weight - probably due to massive loss of water, and death soon after moulting. Accordingly, maintaining these animals at 90% relative humidity prevented lethality. Consistently, RNAi against LmCYP4G102 provoked a decrease in the content of cuticular alkanes, which as an important fraction of cuticular hydrocarbons have been shown to confer desiccation resistance. In addition, the cuticle of LmCYP4G102-knockdown locusts was fragile and easier deformable than in control animals. Presumably, this phenotype is due to decreased amounts of cuticular water that is reported to modulate cuticle mechanics. Interestingly, LmCYP4G102 was not expressed in the epidermis that produces the cuticle but in the sub-epdiermal hepatocyte-like oenocytes. Together, our results suggest that the oenocyte-specific LmCYP4G102 plays a critical role in the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are important for cuticle waterproofing and mechanical stability in L. migratoria.

  8. Heterologous expression and characterization of a sigma glutathione S-transferase involved in carbaryl detoxification from oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guohua; Jia, Miao; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Xueyao; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2012-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a major role in detoxification of xenobiotics and resistance to insecticides in insects. In the present study, a sigma-class GST gene (LmGSTs3) was identified from the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis. Its full-length cDNA sequence is 828 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 612 bp that encodes 204 amino acid residues. The predicted protein molecular mass and pI are 23.4 kDa and 7.62, respectively. Recombinant LmGSTs3 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble fusion protein. Its optimal activity was observed at pH 8.0. Incubation for 30 min at temperatures below 40 °C scarcely affected activity. The LmGSTs3 at pH values between 4.0 and 11.0 retained more than 80% of its original activity. Ethacrynic acid and cibacron blue were very effective inhibitors of LmGSTs3 with I50-values 1.7 and 3.7 μM, respectively. In response to heavy metal (CuSO4, CdCl2) exposure there was a concentration-dependent and time-dependent decrease in activity. The nymph mortalities after carbaryl treatment increased 38.7% after LmGSTs3 were silenced. These results suggest that LmGSTs3 may be involved in carbaryl detoxification in L. migratoria manilensis.

  9. Study on evolution of occurring area of Locusta migratoria manilensis and its sustainable control strategies%无棣县东亚飞蝗蝗区演变研究及其持续控制对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田方文; 张秀安

    2005-01-01

    根据新中国成立以来的有关历史资料和7次蝗区勘察结果,阐述了无棣县东亚飞蝗(Locusta migratoria manilensis)蝗区的演变过程和结果,东亚飞蝗的发生规律和影响因素,提出了可持续控制对策.

  10. 植被及土壤对西藏飞蝗产卵的影响%Effect of Vegetation and Soil on Oviposition of Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆; 廖志昌; 杨刚; 封传红; 杨群芳; 罗怀海; 蒋春先; 王海建

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探索植被及土壤的理化性质对西藏飞蝗(Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen)产卵量及产卵分布的影响.[方法]采用室外及室内笼罩模拟法,利用三因子二次回归通用旋转组合设计构建西藏飞蝗产卵选择模型.[结果]西藏飞蝗对不同植被的土壤有产卵选择性,其中草地和青稞地的产卵量最大(分别为36.03%和21.20%).土壤的理化性质能显著影响西藏飞蝗对产卵地的选择,其中含盐量、含水量和pH值影响最大.单因素分析表明在试验设置的含盐量区间内选择产卵量随含盐量的增加而急剧减少,而含水量和pH值各有一最适值.双因素分析表明3个因素之间有一定的互作影响,其中含盐量的影响最大.统计频率优化法得出最适宜产卵的土壤综合指标为含盐量0.08%-0.12%、含水量2.91%-3.75%、pH7.35-7.65.[结论]西藏飞蝗在不同的植被上生活,其产卵量差异显著.土壤含盐量、含水量和pH值显著影响西藏飞蝗产卵选择性.%[Objective] The objective of this study is to explore the effect of vegetation and soil physical and chemical properties on fecundity and oviposition distribution of Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen. [Method] Three-factor quadratic regression general rotary combination experimental design was used to construct oviposition preference model of L. Migratoria tibetensis by using the caging simulation method in laboratory and field. [Result] L. Migratoria tibetensis had oviposition preference on different land soils, and had the highest fecundity in the grassland and barley field (36.03% and 21.20%, respectively). The soil physical and chemical properties had significant effects on oviposition preference. The salt content, water content and pH value had a great effect on oviposition preference. Single factor analysis showed that the fecundity decreased rapidly as the salt content increased in salt content intervals, but the water content and pH value

  11. Observation of antennal sensilla of Locusta migratoria tibetensis with scanning electron microscope%西藏飞蝗触角感器的扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彝利; 李庆; 匡健康; 杨刚; 封传红; 罗怀海

    2011-01-01

    应用扫描电镜对西藏飞蝗Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen触角的外部形态结构及其感器进行了观察和研究.结果表明,西藏飞蝗触角上存在5种感器即毛形感器、刺形感器、腔锥形感器、锥形感器和腔形感器.通过对各种感器的形态特点进行描述,发现西藏飞蝗群居型与散居型、蝗蝻与成虫、雌性与雄性的感器在类型上无明显差异,但是群居型较散居型在数量上偏少;蝗蝻较成虫在形态上偏小、数量上偏少,主要集中分布位置也有所不同.与东亚飞蝗L.migratoria manilensis(Meyen)相比,二者在感器类型上无明显差异,但西藏飞蝗触角感器在形态上较东亚飞蝗偏小,数量上偏少,分布情况也有所差别.%Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the antennae and sensilla of Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen.Five types of sensilla were found on antennae: sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla coeloclnica, sensilla basiconica and sensilla cavity.Describing the morphological characteristics of these sensilla indicates that there was generally little variation in sensilla type, however, gregarious locusts had fewer sensilla than solitary locusts.Nymphs had smaller and fewer sensilla than adults, and nymphs and adults also differed in the distribution of sensilla.L.m.tibetensis had similar types of sensilla to L.m.manilensis (Meyen) but these subspecies differ in the morphological characteristics,quantity and distribution of sensilla, such as differences in distribution of sensilla between nymphs and adults.

  12. 东亚飞蝗血细胞形态学研究%Morphological study on hemocytes of Locusta migratoria manilensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾雷坡; 崔智芳; 王强; 吴昊; 张小民

    2011-01-01

    通过Wright's染色和光学显微镜对不同地区东亚飞蝗的血细胞进行了观察,发现东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)的血细胞包括原血胞、浆血胞、粒血胞和类绛血胞4种类型.原血胞的细胞核为红色,而其它3种血细胞的细胞核均被Wright's染液染成红色和蓝色2种类型.故认为浆血胞是由原血胞分裂而来;浆血胞进一步分化为蓝核浆血胞和红核浆血胞,蓝核浆血胞进一步演化为蓝核粒血胞和蓝核类绛血胞;红核浆血胞进一步演化为红核粒血胞和红核类绛血胞.粒血胞又分化为大颗粒粒血胞和小颗粒粒血胞,小颗粒粒血胞又进一步分化为密集小颗粒粒血胞和稀少小颗粒粒血胞,由此将东亚飞蝗的血细胞分为4类11种.该研究不仅为蝗虫形态学提供依据,同时也为蝗虫生理、蝗虫免疫,以及防蝗治蝗提供依据.%Light microscopy and the Wright stain method revealed four types of hemocytes; prohaemocytes,plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids, in Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). Prohaemocytes' had a red nucleus, whereas the nucleus of the other three haemocytes was dyed red and blue by Wright' s dye. Plasmatocytes are considered to be disintegrated prohaemocytes and can be further differentiated into red-nucleus plasmatocytes and bluenucleus plasmatocytes. Blue-nucleus plasmatocytes evolve into blue-nucleus granulocyte and oenocytoids whereas rednucleus plasmatocytes evolve into red-nucleus granulocyte and ocnocytoids. Granulocytes are differentiated into largegranular granulocytes and small-granular granulocytes, the latter are differentiated into exiguous and dense small granular granulocytes. Hemocytes of L. m. manilersi can therefore be divided into four main types with eleven subtypes. This study not only provides a basis for grasshopper morphology, but also grasshopper physiology, immunity and locust control.

  13. 东亚飞蝗主要过敏原的分析、鉴定与纯化%Purification and identification of allergens in Locusta migratoria manilensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义昆; 邬玉兰; 刘志刚

    2012-01-01

    通过十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)分离东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen)的蛋白质组分并测定其分子量,收集过敏病人血清,采用免疫印迹(Western-blotting)法鉴定其过敏原成分,通过凝胶过滤层析对东亚飞蝗过敏原进行分离纯化.结果表明:东亚飞蝗蛋白粗提液条带大概有30条左右,其中主带大约有10条,相对分子量约为13、15、25、28、40、45、55、70、100、110 ku,其中蛋白含量最丰富的约在70ku左右.免疫印迹结果显示,蝗虫过敏条带主要有5条,相对分子量分别约为19、29、38、70、130 ku.通过凝胶过滤层析对东亚飞蝗过敏原进行分离纯化,得到了一个高纯度相对分子质量约为70 ku东亚飞蝗过敏原,并且发现了一个相对分子质量约为130 ku的蝗虫新过敏原.本研究为临床上蝗虫食物变态反应性疾病的诊断和治疗奠定基础.%Proteins from Locusta migratoria manilensis were isolated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ( SDS-PAGE) and identified by Western-blotting using sera from patients allergic to locusts. Allergens from L. m. manilensis were purified by gel filtration chromatography. About 30 protein bands were separated by SDS-PAGE,ten of which were major bands. The proteins, whose molecular weights (MW) were 70 ku, could bind with specific IgE from the sera of locust-allergic patients, thereby identifying them as specific allergens of L. m. manilensis. We identified the primary allergens, whose molecular masses were 19,29,38,70 and 130 ku, by Western-blotting. These results may provide a basis for the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergic reactions to locusts.

  14. Identification and functional analysis of a cytochrome P450 gene CYP9AQ2 involved in deltamethrin detoxification from Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanqiong; Zhang, Xueyao; Wu, Haihua; Yu, Rongrong; Zhang, Jianzhen; Zhu, Kun Yan; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo

    2015-07-01

    A 1578-bp cDNA of a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP9AQ2) was sequenced from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. It contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1557 bp that encodes 519 amino acid residues. As compared with other known insect cytochrome P450 enzymes, the overall structure of its deduced protein is highly conserved. The expression of CYP9AQ2 was relatively higher in nymphal stages than in egg and adult stages, and the highest expression was found in fourth-instar nymphs, which was 8.7-fold higher than that of eggs. High expression of CYP9AQ2 was observed in foregut, followed by hindgut, Malpighian tubules, brain and fat bodies, which were 75~142-fold higher than that in hemolymph. Low expression was found in midgut, gastric cecum and hemolymph. The expression of CYP9AQ2 was up-regulated by deltamethrin at the concentrations of 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12 µg/mL and the maximal up-regulation was 2.6-fold at LD10 (0.04 µg/mL). RNA interference-mediated silencing of CYP9AQ2 led to an increased mortality of 25.3% when the nymphs were exposed to deltamethrin, suggesting that CYP9AQ2 plays an important role in deltamethrin detoxification in L. migratoria. Computational docking studies suggested that hydroxylation of the phenoxybenzyl moiety might be one of the deltamethrin metabolic pathways by CYP9AQ2.

  15. Effects of different dietary conditions on the expression of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like protease genes in the digestive system of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spit, Jornt; Zels, Sven; Dillen, Senne; Holtof, Michiel; Wynant, Niels; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2014-05-01

    While technological advancements have recently led to a steep increase in genomic and transcriptomic data, and large numbers of protease sequences are being discovered in diverse insect species, little information is available about the expression of digestive enzymes in Orthoptera. Here we describe the identification of Locusta migratoria serine protease transcripts (cDNAs) involved in digestion, which might serve as possible targets for pest control management. A total of 5 putative trypsin and 15 putative chymotrypsin gene sequences were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these are distributed among 3 evolutionary conserved clusters. In addition, we have determined the relative gene expression levels of representative members in the gut under different feeding conditions. This study demonstrated that the transcript levels for all measured serine proteases were strongly reduced after starvation. On the other hand, larvae of L. migratoria displayed compensatory effects to the presence of Soybean Bowman Birk (SBBI) and Soybean Trypsin (SBTI) inhibitors in their diet by differential upregulation of multiple proteases. A rapid initial upregulation was observed for all tested serine protease transcripts, while only for members belonging to class I, the transcript levels remained elevated after prolonged exposure. In full agreement with these results, we also observed an increase in proteolytic activity in midgut secretions of locusts that were accustomed to the presence of protease inhibitors in their diet, while no change in sensitivity to these inhibitors was observed. Taken together, this paper is the first comprehensive study on dietary dependent transcript levels of proteolytic enzymes in Orthoptera. Our data suggest that compensatory response mechanisms to protease inhibitor ingestion may have appeared early in insect evolution.

  16. A Family of CSαβ Defensins and Defensin-Like Peptides from the Migratory Locust, Locusta migratoria, and Their Expression Dynamics during Mycosis and Nosemosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Mingyue; Mohamed, Amr Ahmed; Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Long

    2016-01-01

    Insect defensins are effector components of the innate defense system. During infection, these peptides may play a role in the control of pathogens by providing protective antimicrobial barriers between epithelial cells and the hemocoel. The cDNAs encoding four defensins of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, designated LmDEF 1, 3-5, were identified for the first time by transcriptome-targeted analysis. Three of the members of this CSαβ defensin family, LmDEF 1, 3, and 5, were detected in locust tissues. The pro regions of their sequences have little-shared identities with other insect defensins, though the predicted mature peptides align well with other insect defensins. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a completely novel position of both LmDEF 1 and 3, compared to defensins from hymenopterans. The expression patterns of the genes encoding LmDEFs in the fat body and salivary glands were studied in response to immune-challenge by the microsporidian pathogen Nosema locustae and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae after feeding or topical application, respectively. Focusing on Nosema-induced immunity, qRT-PCR was employed to quantify the transcript levels of LmDEFs. A higher transcript abundance of LmDEF5 was distributed more or less uniformly throughout the fat body along time. A very low baseline transcription of both LmDEFs 1 and 3 in naïve insects was indicated, and that transcription increases with time or is latent in the fat body or salivary glands of infected nymphs. In the salivary glands, expression of LmDEF3 was 20-40-times higher than in the fat body post-microbial infection. A very low expression of LmDEF3 could be detected in the fat body, but eventually increased with time up to a maximum at day 15. Delayed induction of transcription of these peptides in the fat body and salivary glands 5-15 days post-activation and the differential expression patterns suggest that the fat body/salivary glands of this species are active in the immune response

  17. A Family of CSαβ Defensins and Defensin-Like Peptides from the Migratory Locust, Locusta migratoria, and Their Expression Dynamics during Mycosis and Nosemosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Long

    2016-01-01

    Insect defensins are effector components of the innate defense system. During infection, these peptides may play a role in the control of pathogens by providing protective antimicrobial barriers between epithelial cells and the hemocoel. The cDNAs encoding four defensins of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, designated LmDEF 1, 3–5, were identified for the first time by transcriptome-targeted analysis. Three of the members of this CSαβ defensin family, LmDEF 1, 3, and 5, were detected in locust tissues. The pro regions of their sequences have little-shared identities with other insect defensins, though the predicted mature peptides align well with other insect defensins. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a completely novel position of both LmDEF 1 and 3, compared to defensins from hymenopterans. The expression patterns of the genes encoding LmDEFs in the fat body and salivary glands were studied in response to immune-challenge by the microsporidian pathogen Nosema locustae and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae after feeding or topical application, respectively. Focusing on Nosema-induced immunity, qRT-PCR was employed to quantify the transcript levels of LmDEFs. A higher transcript abundance of LmDEF5 was distributed more or less uniformly throughout the fat body along time. A very low baseline transcription of both LmDEFs 1 and 3 in naïve insects was indicated, and that transcription increases with time or is latent in the fat body or salivary glands of infected nymphs. In the salivary glands, expression of LmDEF3 was 20-40-times higher than in the fat body post-microbial infection. A very low expression of LmDEF3 could be detected in the fat body, but eventually increased with time up to a maximum at day 15. Delayed induction of transcription of these peptides in the fat body and salivary glands 5–15 days post-activation and the differential expression patterns suggest that the fat body/salivary glands of this species are active in the immune response

  18. Effect of Nosema locustae on the content of vitellogenin of Locusta migratoria ma-nilensis%蝗虫微孢子虫对东亚飞蝗卵黄原蛋白含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建新; 沈杰; 宋敦伦; 张龙; 严毓骅

    2002-01-01

    采用免疫学方法,对东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis感染蝗虫微孢子虫Nosema locustae后体内卵黄蛋白含量的变化进行了研究.结果表明,感病蝗虫与对照健虫相比,卵黄发生有严重障碍,脂肪体和卵巢中卵黄原蛋白或卵黄蛋白含量极低,导致感病雌虫丧失产卵能力.脂肪体中卵黄原蛋白含量最高峰健虫为18.7 mg/mL,而病虫只有4.7 mg/mL;血淋巴中卵黄原蛋白含量最高峰健虫为7.6 mg/mL,而病虫只有2.6 mg/mL;卵巢中卵黄蛋白含量最高峰健虫为73.4 mg/mL,而病虫只有4.9 mg/mL.

  19. ER type I signal peptidase subunit (LmSPC1) is essential for the survival of Locusta migratoria manilensis and affects moulting, feeding, reproduction and embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Xia, Y

    2014-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum type I signal peptidase complex (ER SPC) is a conserved enzyme that cleaves the signal peptides of secretory or membrane preproteins. The deletion of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of uncleaved proteins in biomembranes and cell death. However, the physiological functions of ER SPC in insects are not fully understood. Here, a catalytic subunit gene of ER SPC, LmSPC1, was cloned from Locusta migratoria manilensis and its physiological functions were analysed by RNA interference (RNAi). The LmSPC1 open reading frame encoded a protein of 178 amino acids with all five conserved regions of signal peptidases. RNAi-mediated knockdown of LmSPC1 resulted in high mortality. Sixty-nine per cent of dead nymphs died of abnormal moulting, corresponding to decreased activity of moulting fluid protease. Moreover, insects in the RNAi group experienced a decline in food intake, and a decrease in the secretion of total protein and digestive enzymes from midgut tissues to the midgut lumen. Furthermore, the females produced fewer eggs and eggs with disrupted embryogenesis. These results indicate that LmSPC1 is required for the secretion of secretory proteins, affects physiological functions, including moulting, feeding, reproduction and embryonic development, and is essential for survival. Therefore, LmSPC1 may be a potential target for locust control.

  20. Effects of a methanolic extract of the plant Haplophyllum tuberculatum and of teflubenzuron on female reproduction in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Oedipodinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheuk, Fatma; Cusson, Michel; Doumandji-Mitiche, Bahia

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a methanolic extract of the plant Haplophyllum tuberculatum (ME-Ht) and of teflubenzuron (TFB) were compared on several reproductive variables and ecdysteroid titers in the females of Locusta migratoria. The test products were administered orally to newly emerged females at doses of 1500 (ME-Ht) and 10μg/female (TFB). The methanolic extract and TFB had comparable effects on several of the variables examined. Both significantly delayed the first oviposition and reduced fecundity and fertility. ME-Ht and TFB also displayed similar effects on ovarian growth, vitellogenesis and ecdysteroid titers. Both treatments induced a drop in hemolymph protein levels as well as a reduction in vitellogenin uptake by oocytes. This delay in oogenesis was accompanied by a resorption of terminal oocytes. However, whereas TFB completely blocked egg hatch, ME-Ht only had a modest inhibitory effect on this variable. Hemolymph and ovarian ecdysteroid titers, as measured by radioimmunoassay, were similar and low in both control and treated females, except for a peak observed only in control females at the end of vitellogenesis. We discuss the functional significance of the observed effects in the context of the putative modes of action of the methanolic plant extract and TFB.

  1. Construction and preliminary analysis of a normalized cDNA library from Locusta migratoria manilensis topically infected with Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Xia, Yuxian

    2010-08-01

    The insect immune response to fungal infection is poorly understood at the molecular level. To explore the molecular basis of this process, a novel method to analyze the gene transcripts of insects in response to pathogenic fungus was established. A normalized cDNA library based on the SMART method combined with DSN (duplex-specific nuclease) treatment was constructed using mRNA extracted from the fat body and hemocytes of Locusta migratoria manilensis 6-24h after being topically infected with Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum. Analysis of 259 unigenes out of 303 sequenced inserts from the cDNA library revealed that the cDNA library was not contaminated with M. anisopliae transcripts and validated the presence of the immune-related genes characterized here. These results suggest that this method overcame the difficulties of contamination from a fungal source in constructing the host cDNA library from mycosed insects and proved that this method is reliable and feasible for investigation of host genes in response to fungal infection. Further studies of the expressed sequence tags from this library will provide insights into the molecular basis of insect immune response to fungal infection.

  2. Identification of LmUAP1 as a 20-hydroxyecdysone response gene in the chitin biosynthesis pathway from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Ya-Wen; Li, Da-Qi; Li, Sheng; Ma, En-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Zhen

    2016-10-03

    In Locusta migratoria, we found that two chitin biosynthesis genes, UDP N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase gene LmUAP1 and chitin synthase gene LmCHS1, are expressed mainly in the integument and are responsible for cuticle formation. However, whether these genes are regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is still largely unclear. Here, we showed the developmental expression pattern of LmUAP1, LmCHS1 and the corresponding 20E titer during the last instar nymph stage of locust. RNA interference (RNAi) directed toward a common region of the two isoforms of LmEcR (LmEcRcom) reduced the expression level of LmUAP1, while there was no difference in the expression of LmCHS1. Meantime, injection of 20E in vivo induced the expression of LmUAP1 but not LmCHS1. Further, we found injection-based RNAi of LmEcRcom resulted in 100% mortality. The locusts failed to molt with no apolysis, and maintained in the nymph stage until death. In conclusion, our preliminary results indicated that LmUAP1 in the chitin biosynthesis pathway is a 20E late-response gene and LmEcR plays an essential role in locust growth and development, which could be a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control.

  3. Chill injury in the eggs of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae): the time-temperature relationship with high-temperature interruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-HONGJING; XIAN-HUIWANG; LEKANG

    2005-01-01

    Mortality of the overwinteing egg of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria L., was attributed to chill injury because of its occurrence weU above the egg's supercooling point. In this study, two parameters, upper limit of chill injury zone (ULCIZ) and sum of the injurious temperature (SIT), were used to examine the locust egg' s cold hardiness.The value of ULCIZ for the locust egg is 1.06 + 0.54℃, and the SIT is -329.7 (hour·degree). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities changed dramatically after cold stress, indicating that oxygen and hydroxide free radicals are probably efficiently detoxified at low temperatures. It was suggested that the nature of chill in jury inlocust egg might be a complex of metabolic disorder and a non-proportional decrease in enzymatic reaction and transports, because the LDH activity at low temperature increased significantly and the ATPase activity decreased with prolonged duration of exposure to low temperatures. The results from high temperature interruption revealed that the high temperature intervals significantly increased the survival of locust eggs.

  4. Purification of glutathione S-transferase from Locusta migratoria manilensis%东亚飞蝗谷胱甘肽S-转移酶分离纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣涛; 吴海花; 郭亚平; 田怀东; 马恩波

    2009-01-01

    通过硫酸铵沉淀技术和GSH-agarose亲和层析对东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)5龄若虫谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(glutathione S-transferases,GSTs)进行了分离纯化.结果表明GSTs活性在硫酸铵各沉淀段均有分布,但在55%~100%沉淀段活性较高,在硫酸铵饱和度为85%时比活力最高,达到420.33 μmol/min/mg protein,纯化倍数为18.86.根据硫酸铵粗沉淀谷胱甘肽S-转移酶结果,选择硫酸铵浓度为60%~90%沉淀段进行GSH-agarose亲和层析,纯化后比活力最高达到1 365.29 μmol/min/mgprotein,纯化倍数达到61.25.经SDS-PAGE鉴定,得到的GST为1条带,亚基的分子量约为24 kDa.

  5. Feeding habits and economic threshold of Locusta migratoria tibetensis%西藏飞蝗食性及其防治指标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨群芳; 廖志昌; 李庆; 杨刚; 封传红; 蒋春先

    2008-01-01

    采用室外笼罩法测定西藏飞蝗Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen的食性、食量及其对青稞和牧草造成的产量损失,并初步制定其防治指标.结果表明:西藏飞蝗1~2龄蝗蝻喜食牧草,3龄后喜食青稞和冬小麦;其在草地(亚高山草甸)、青稞和冬小麦3种植被上均能获得必需的营养并完成发育,而在沙棘Hippophae rhamnoides和白菜地则不能完成整个生活史;西藏飞蝗的取食量在1~3龄时很小,5龄和成虫期为暴食期;西藏飞蝗取食青稞和牧草的防治指标分别为3.01和4.44头/m2.

  6. Segmentation process during embryogenesis in Locusta migratoria manilensis ( Orthoptera: Acrididae)%东亚飞蝗胚胎体节的形成过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何正波; 李廷景; 陈斌

    2011-01-01

    Segmentation is critical to insect embryogenesis, yet little is known about this process in Locusta migratoda mandensis (Meyen) which is an important pest. In this study, the spatio-temporal process of segmentation in L. migratoria manilensis was observed by using immunohistochemical and fuchsin staining methods. The results showed that the zygote nucleus quickly divided and migrated to the egg periphery after fertilization, and then the nuclei were condensing at the posterior end of the egg where a circular blastodisc formed. The blastodisc subsequently differentiated into head lobe and posterior germband. With elongation of the germband, the first segment was observed at thoracic region at about 50 h after egg laid, and then other segments, including 3 head segments, 3 gnathal segments, 3 thoracic segments, and 10 abdominal segments,gradually formed in a sequential pattern within 44 h. The thoracic and gnathal regions were added one or more segments at a time, while orly one segment at a time was formed for the abdomen. Our results further confirmed that L. migratoria rnandensis is a classic short germband insect with the anterior thoracic region as the morphological differentiation center. Meanwhile, the developmental rates of embryo vary among different locust species, while the segmentation patterns and the relative time required for segmentation are identical.%体节形成是昆虫胚胎发育过程中的关键问题.东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)是一种重要的农业害虫,其体节形成的时序过程尚无详细报道.本研究采用免疫组化和品红染色方法研究了室内人工饲养东亚飞蝗的体节形成过程.结果表明:完成受精后,细胞核开始分裂并向卵表面迁移.细胞核到达卵表面的时间有差异,卵后端的表面最先出现细胞核.卵后端腹面的细胞分裂旺盛,在此处形成胚盘.胚盘分化成原头和原躯干2个部分,随后形成前头部、颌部、胸部和腹部

  7. 东亚飞蝗连年大发生成因机制研究%Study on the outbreak mechanism of Locusta migratoria manilensis in a period of consecutive years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张路生; 刘俊展; 刘庆年

    2006-01-01

    滨州市地处山东北部、渤海南岸,历史上是东亚飞蝗[Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)]的常发区,发生类型属沿海蝗区.新中国成立后,大部分蝗区经过改造,基本控制了蝗害.但20世纪80年代中期以后,特别是近10年来,发生程度又有加重.为此,对其重发生成因机制进行了研究.

  8. Identification of two new cytochrome P450 genes and RNA interference to evaluate their roles in detoxification of commonly used insecticides in Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanqiong; Zhang, Jianzhen; Yu, Rongrong; Zhu, Kun Yan; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo

    2012-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (cytochrome P450s), found in virtually all living organisms, play an important role in the metabolism of xenobiotics such as drugs, pesticides, and plant toxins. We have previously evaluated the responses of the oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) to the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin and revealed that increased cytochrome P450 enzyme activity was due to increased transcription of multiple cytochrome P450 genes. In this study, we identified for the first time two new cytochrome P450 genes, which belong to two novel cytochrome P450 gene families. CYP409A1 belongs to CYP409 family whereas CYP408B1 belongs to CYP408 family. Our molecular analysis indicated that CYP409A1 was mainly expressed in fatbodies, midgut, gastric caecum, foregut and Malpighian tubules of the third- and fourth-instar nymphs, whereas CYP408B1 was mainly expressed in foregut, hindgut and muscle of the insects at all developmental stages examined. The expression of these two cytochrome P450 genes were differentially affected by three representative insecticides, including carbaryl (carbamate), malathion (organophosphate) and deltamethrin (pyrethroid). The exposure of the locust to carbaryl, malathion and deltamethrin resulted in reduced, moderately increased and significantly increased transcript levels, respectively, of the two cytochrome P450 genes. Our further analysis of their detoxification roles by using RNA interference followed by deltamethrin bioassay showed increased nymph mortalities by 21.1% and 16.7%, respectively, after CYP409A1 and CYP408B1 were silenced. These results strongly support our notion that these two new cytochrome P450 genes play an important role in deltamethrin detoxification in the locust.

  9. 飞蝗五个自然种群的遗传分化研究%Analysis on the Genetic Divergence of Five Populations of Locusta migratoria by using RAPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任俐; 张建珍; 李春选; 郭亚平; 马恩波

    2005-01-01

    采用随机扩增多态性DNA(RAPD)技术检测飞蝗Locusta migratoria(Linnaeus)2个亚种5个种群的遗传多样性,11个随机引物扩增共产生了163条带,其中多态性片段为156条.Shannon信息指数和Nei's指数对RAPD数据的分析表明:东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)不同种群存在较高的遗传多样性;同时,东亚飞蝗种群间出现一定程度的遗传分化,遗传分化系数分别为36.09%和33.85%.用UPGMA对Nei's遗传距离作聚类分析,结果表明:东亚飞蝗不同种群的亲缘关系较近,而它们与亚洲飞蝗Locusta migratoria migratoria (Linnaeus)关系较远.由Nei's遗传一致度和遗传距离可以看出,东亚飞蝗不同种群间的遗传距离均小于东亚飞蝗与亚洲飞蝗之间的遗传距离.由Mantel软件检验得出地理距离和遗传距离的相关性系数r<0.7,表明这5个种群亲缘关系的远近与地理距离无相关性.同时,还结合等位酶种群遗传结构研究结果综合分析了上述东亚飞蝗4种群的遗传多样性及其分化,表明RAPD可检测出更高水平的遗传多样性.

  10. 东北亚洲飞蝗发生区生态环境特征研究——以吉林省为例%The Ecological-Environment Characters of Locusta migratoria migratoria Linnaeus Plague Area in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 苗会; 付志欣; 韩叶; 王贵强; 任炳忠

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between locust occurrence and landforms of topography, climate, vegetation, soil pH value, soil salinity and soil organic matter of the locust plague area are analyzed in this paper. The results indicate that the locust plague area is low-lying reed wetlands which is nearby the inland lake;The vegetation coverage which is below 55% is good for Locusta migratoria migratoria Linnaeus to survive and the results show that the soil which the adults choose to spawn is alkalescent,and salinity is below 0.5% . The soil conditions also help to the survival of Locusta migratoria migratoria Linnaeus. The temperature and precipitation have important influence on the locust plague happened.%对东北地区亚洲飞蝗发生地的地形、水文、气候、植被、土壤等生态环境因子进行了调查研究.结果表明:亚洲飞蝗发生区地势平坦低洼,海拔为100~200 m;亚洲飞蝗发生区一般为内陆湖或河流周边的芦苇丛生地带,适宜的栖息场所植被覆盖度<55%;发生地的土壤呈碱性,土壤含盐量均<0.5%,土壤性质有利于蝗虫产卵和蝗卵的存活与孵化;蝗卵孵化期和产卵期的气温和降水条件对亚洲飞蝗的大发生具有重要影响.

  11. Characterization of a midgut-specific chitin synthase gene (LmCHS2) responsible for biosynthesis of chitin of peritrophic matrix in Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Huanhuan; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2012-12-01

    Chitin, an essential component of peritrophic matrix (PM), is produced by a series of biochemical reactions. Chitin synthase plays a crucial role in chitin polymerization in chitin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we identified and characterized a full-length cDNA of chitin synthase 2 gene (LmCHS2) from Locusta migratoria. The cDNA contains an open reading frame of 4569 nucleotides that encode 1523 amino acid residues, and 76- and 373-nucleotides for 5'- and 3'-noncoding regions, respectively. Analysis of LmCHS2 transcript in different tissues of the locust by using real-time quantitative PCR indicated that LmCHS2 was exclusively expressed in midgut and gastric caeca (a part of the midgut). The highest expression was found in the anterior midgut with a decline of the transcript level from the anterior to posterior regions. During growth and development of locusts, there was only a slight expression in eggs, but the expression gradually increased from nymphs to adults. In situ hybridization further revealed that LmCHS2 transcript mainly presented in the apical regions of brush border forming columnar cells of gastric caeca. LmCHS2 dsRNA was injected to fifth-instar nymphs to further explore biological functions of LmCHS2. Significantly down-regulated transcript of LmCHS2 resulted in a cessation of feeding and a high mortality of the insect. However, no visible abnormal morphological change of locusts was observed until insects molted to adults. After dissection, we found that the average length of midguts from the LmCHS2 dsRNA-injected locusts was shorter than that of the control insects that were injected with dsGFP. Furthermore, microsection of midguts showed that the PM of the LmCHS2 dsRNA-injected nymphs was amorphous and thin as compared with the controls. Our results demonstrate that LmCHS2 is responsible for the biosynthesis of chitin associated with PM and plays an essential role in locust growth and development.

  12. Dispersion of peptides in vegetable oil as a simple slow release formula for both injection and oral uptake in insects: a case study with [His7]-corazonin in an albino Locusta migratoria deficient in corazonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerjan, Bart; De Loof, Arnold; Tanaka, Seiji; Schoofs, Liliane

    2011-07-01

    Upon realizing that for drug delivery in the body, lipidization is a technique used in the pharmaceutical industry, we took in consideration that corazonin melanizes the cuticle of albino Locusta migratoria only when injected in an emulsion in oil, not when applied in a watery solution. In this study, we investigate the possibility for oral uptake of corazonin dispersed in oil, and validated the activity by a melanization assay. Not only was it active, it also induced red cuticular coloration in some animals, and it was also unexpectedly lethal for nymphs, but not for adults. These results necessitate the revision of the potential of (some) peptides for insect control. Also, they suggest practical recommendations for the application of other peptides in physiological assays where oil could be used as a simple slow release formula.

  13. Study and field trials on the non-pollution control of Locusta migratoria manilensis at Panjiakou reservoir%潘家口水库东亚飞蝗无污染防治技术试验示范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永刚; 苑凤瑞; 袁纯刚; 吴叔臻; 陈建英; 冯秀华; 李树才; 寇春会; 谷敬全

    2004-01-01

    承德市位于河北省东北部,辖区内有本省最大的水库——潘家口水库,库区荒滩是河北省最北部的东亚飞蝗【Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)】发生区。近年来,由于连续干旱,库区水位下降严重,脱水面积逐年加大,杂草丛生,致使飞蝗发生面积逐年扩大。2000年库区飞蝗发生面积2300hm2,

  14. Structure determination of adipokinetic hormones using fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry; An unknown adipokinetic hormone (AKH-III) from Locusta migratoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heerma, W.; Versluis, C.; Lankhof, H. (Utrecht University (Netherlands). Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Molecular Spectrometry); Oudejans, R.C.H.M.; Kooiman, F.P.; Beenakkers, A.M.T. (Utrecht University (Netherlands). Department of Experimental Zoology)

    1991-08-01

    Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry combined with various tandem mass spectrometric techniques and accurate mass measurement were used to elucidate the structure of an unknown biologically active peptide isolated from Locusa migratoria. (author). 23 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 schemes.

  15. RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WIDE-FIELD NON-HABITUATING NON-DIRECTIONAL MOTION DETECTING NEURONS IN THE OPTIC LOBE OF THE LOCUST, LOCUSTA-MIGRATORIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BULT, R; MASTEBROEK, HAK

    1994-01-01

    1. Extracellular recordings from wide-field non-habituating non-directional (ND) motion detecting neurons in the second optic chiasma of the locust Locusta migrator ia are presented. The responses to various types of stepwise moving spot and bar stimuli were monitored (Fig.1). 2. Stepwise motion in

  16. 东亚飞蝗羧酸酯酶基因的克隆和原核表达%Cloning and prokaryotical expression of CarE gene in Locusta migratoria manilensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清; 张学尧; 张建珍; 马恩波

    2012-01-01

    羧酸酯酶是昆虫体内重要的代谢解毒酶系,其主要功能是水解和结合内源性和外源性含有酯键的有毒物质,减缓其到达靶标部位的时间.东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen)是我国重要的农业害虫,对其羧酸酯酶基因克隆和表达有助于深入探索杀虫剂代谢毒理机制.本研究首先对羧酸酯酶基因(CarE4)进行了克隆,并将其插入到pCold TF DNA Vector中,在大肠杆菌中进行了原核表达,最后用疏水层析和离子交换层析方法对目的蛋白进行了纯化.本文成功建立了羧酸酯酶蛋白原核表达和纯化技术体系,为进一步研究东亚飞蝗羧酸酯酶的生理功能、结构特点和作用原理提供了基础资料.%The migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) ( Orthoptera, Acridoidea) , is one of the most important pests in China. Carboxylesterase is an important metabolic detoxification enzyme in insects the main function of which is the hydrolysis of endogenous and exogenous toxic substances containing ester bonds. In this study, the carboxylesterase gene (CarE4) wa9 cloned and inserted into the pCold TF DNA vector. A recombinant carboxylesterase was successfully expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein purified by hydrophobic chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. The results provide a basis for further study of the physiological function, structural characteristics and function of locust carboxylesterases.

  17. 东亚飞蝗细胞色素P450基因的克隆及表达分析%Cloning, expression of cytochrome P450 from Locusta migratoria manilensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义昆; 邬玉兰; 李荔; 连国云; 刘志刚

    2013-01-01

    To clone the gene of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen),produce its recotnbinant protein. The cDNA of CYP450 was cloned using specific primers from the total RNA of L. m. manilensis. The cloned gene was inserted into pMD18-T vector and digested by BamH Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ. The cDNA was sequenced and subcloned into pET-28a expression vector. The cloned CYP450 cDNA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta by IPTG induction. Result showed that the cloned cDNA ORF sequence contained 1 551 bp and encoded 516 amino acids. Its sequence homology with the published one (Accession no. HM153426) was 99% at nucleotide level. The CYP450 was highly expressed in E. coli Rosetta as a unsoluble protein mainly with the molecular weight of about Mr 53 000 under induction of IPTG.%本文克隆了东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen)细胞色素P450(cytochrome P450)基因全长,表达重组蛋白,并对其可溶性进行了分析.通过提取东亚飞蝗总的RNA,反转录成cDNA,设计特异性引物,PCR克隆东亚飞蝗细胞色素P450基因,将测序正确的目的片段克隆至原核表达载体pET-28a中,在大肠埃希菌Escherichia coli Rosetta中用异丙基-β-D-硫代半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导表达.用十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)检测重组蛋白表达结果.结果表明:东亚飞蝗细胞色素P450基因开放阅读框全长为1 551 bp,编码516个氨基酸,与GenBank中已登录的东亚飞蝗细胞色素P450基因(HM153426)的同源性为99%,重组质粒pET-28a-P450在E.coli Rosetta中获得高效表达,重组蛋白相对分子质量(Mr)约为53 000,主要以包涵体的形式存在.

  18. Morphological observation and 3D reconstruction of the brain of Locusta migratoria manilansis%东亚飞蝗脑的形态学观察及三维重建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连国云; 李德智; 陈义昆; 娄延霞; 刘志刚

    2013-01-01

    本文主要研究东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilansis (Meyen)脑部的形态结构及其三维重建模型.采用石蜡包埋切片,在光镜下观察了东亚飞蝗脑部的形态结构,其由前脑、中脑和后脑3部分组成.为了获得整只蝗虫的连续、完整的图像数据集,采用冰冻切片技术将冰冻包埋剂(OCT)包埋的飞蝗成虫做连续切片.然后利用图像处理方法对飞蝗脑部的连续切片进行配准、分割,再用三维重建软件Image-Pro Plus (IPP)对分割后的脑部二维图像序列进行三维重建,构建出的飞蝗脑部三维结构模型可以任意旋转,能从不同角度观察.其结果为蝗虫生理和防蝗治蝗提供科学依据.%The morphological structure of the brain of Locusta migratoria manilansis (Meyen) was observed and a 3D digital model of the brain developed. The brain was dissected and observed under light microscopy. The brain was found to consist of a protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum. In order to obtain a 2D sectional image dataset of the locust, male adults were embedded in frozen embedding medium (OCT) and sliced into sections, and a 2D image of each section was stored in a dataset. After registering and segmenting the brain regions in the serial section images using image processing methods, Image-Pro Plus (IPP) was used to reconstruct a 3D model of the brain which can be freely rotated and observed from any angle. This model provides a basis for scientific research on grasshopper physiology and locust control.

  19. 东亚飞蝗谷胱甘肽S-转移酶RNA干扰效率研究%The RNA interference efficiency of glutathione S-transferases from Locusta migratoria manilensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 秦国华; 张建珍; 马恩波

    2011-01-01

    The migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis ( Meyen ) ( Orthoptera: Acridoidea), is one of the most important pests in our country. Resistance of this locust to some insecticides has been detected and the resistance mechanism hypothesized to involve glutathione S-transferases (GST). In this study, double-stranded RNA of four different classes of GST was synthesized using specific gene primers and injected into the 2nd instar nymphs of L. m. manilensis. The effects of silencing time on target GSTs mRNA expression was assayed by real time RT-PCR. The results show that the expression of LmGSTdl and LmGSTs5 were reduced significantly 12 h after injection, whereas LmGSTtl and LmGSTul were reduced significantly 24 h after injection. These results provide a foundation for further study of GST function and mechanisms in locusts.%东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)是我国主要的农业害虫之一,已发现东亚飞蝗对某些农药产生了抗性,其抗性机制可能与谷胱甘肽硫转移酶(GST)代谢解毒相关.本研究利用特异性引物合成东亚飞蝗GST 4个不同家族基因的双链RNA(dsRNA),将dsRNA注射到东亚飞蝗幼虫体内,采用Real time RT-PCR技术测定了干扰不同时间后目的基因mRNA的表达水平.结果表明,4个不同家族GST的沉默效应具有时间差异.来自delta家族的LmGSTdl和sigma家族的LmGSTs5基因在注射dsRNA后12 h时mRNA量就已显著下降;而来自theta家族的LmGSTt1和unknown家族的LmGSTu1基因在注射24 h后mRNA水平才呈现显著下降.本研究对后续东亚飞蝗GST功能及抗性机制研究提供了基础资料和依据,同时对其它昆虫RNA干扰研究具有一定的借鉴作用.

  20. 东亚飞蝗和中华蚱蜢的蛋白质与脂肪酸分析%Analysis of Protein and Fatty Acids in Locusta Migratoria Manilensis and Acrida Cinera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林育真; 战新梅

    2000-01-01

    对东亚飞蝗和中华蚱蜢的蛋白质、氨基酸、脂肪与脂肪酸进行了分析研究,并与常见食品的有关营养成分进行比较。结果表明,东亚飞蝗和中华蚱蜢是一类高蛋白、低脂肪、富含必需氨基酸和脂肪酸,具有很高营养价值的昆虫食品资源。%Protein,amino acid,crude fat and fatty acids in Locusta migratoria manilensis and Acrida cinera were analysed and compared with those of other foods.The results showed that the two species of insects were rich in protein,and poor in fat,and their content of essential amino acids and fatty acids were abundant.So we came to the conclusion that the two experimental insects were good food resouces with higher nutrient value.

  1. 飞蝗越冬卵过冷却点的季节性变化及 生态学意义%Seasonal changes in the supercooling point of overwintering eggs of Locusta migratoria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景晓红; 康乐

    2003-01-01

    运用热电偶方法测定了飞蝗Locusta migratoria L.越冬卵过冷却点月份间的变化.结果表明:飞蝗卵的过冷却点值波动较大, 主要形成2部分,一部分分布在-25℃左右,另一部分分布在-10℃左右,同时,这两部分的比例随着季节性气温的变化有明显的差异,气温较低的月份,-25℃左右的比例增加,而且最小过冷却点的值也更低;反之,-10℃左右的比例增加, 过冷却点最高值也升高.这种现象说明了飞蝗卵对冬季低温的一种生态适应.

  2. Tissue Expression of Toll-9 Receptor Gene of Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)%东亚飞蝗Toll-9受体基因及组织定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎群英; 夏玉先

    2008-01-01

    采用RT-PCR争RACE方法获得了东亚飞蝗(Locusta migratoria manilensis)Toll-9受体基因(Lm Toll-9)的部分cDNA序列(GeneBank登录号:EU573213),分析了该基因的组织表达特征.获得的cDNA包括3'端,长1231 bp,含一个长918 bp的开放阅读框,编码305个氨基酸,推测的氨基酸序列与其它昆虫的Toll-9受体基因有较高的相似性.东亚飞蝗Toll-9受体具有昆虫Toll受体家族的典型结构,包括胞内的TIR结构域和跨膜区域.半定量RT-PCR研究表明,LmToll-9基因只在东亚飞蝗的中肠组织中表达,而在东亚飞蝗的头部、脂肪体、后腿和血细胞中均没有发现LmToll-9基因的转录.

  3. 东亚飞蝗感染绿僵菌后的组织病理变化%The histopathological changes of Locusta migratoria manilensis after infection with Metarhizium anisopliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冬如; 雷仲仁; 王国平; 问锦曾

    2005-01-01

    将人工培养的绿僵菌分生孢子配制成浓度为1×108分生孢子/mL的孢子油剂,涂抹在供试东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)幼虫的腹侧部.通过组织切片研究表明,绿僵菌主要是从东亚飞蝗体表侵入的,72 h后可见体腔内有菌丝和组织病变, 侵入体内的菌丝在血腔中不断增殖,使得脂肪体、肌肉组织、马氏管和消化道发生病变解体 .96 h后,肠壁细胞结构开始疏松、内膜解体.120 h后,多数幼虫死亡,消化道内外布满菌丝.

  4. 黄河滩区东亚飞蝗天敌种类及其消长规律%The natural enemies of Locusta migratoria manilensis in the Yellow River beach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝伟; 江新林; 张冬菊; 杨亚丽; 王爱东

    2007-01-01

    2000~2005年对黄河滩区东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen)天敌种类普查,调查结果显示,东亚飞蝗天敌104种,隶属6纲23目43科,优势种9种.评价了天敌对东亚飞蝗的控制作用,优势种为中国雏蜂虻Anastoechus chinensis Paramonow,在发生区内,对卵块寄生率为22.4%~56.5%,一般年份寄食率为36%.星豹蛛Pardosa astrigera L.Koch在蜘蛛类天敌中占50%~70%,是蝗蝻期的重要天敌.发现不同植被覆盖度内的飞蝗天敌群落和数量有明显的差异.

  5. Transcriptional Changes in nAChRs, Interactive Proteins and P450s in Locusta migratoria manilensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) CNS in Response to High and Low Oral Doses of Imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Sun, Huahua; Zhang, Yixi; Liu, Chuanjun; Liu, Zewen

    2015-01-01

    The insect central nervous system (CNS) is the target for many insecticides, and changes in transcript levels could be expected after insecticide applications. In this study, differentially expressed genes in the locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis) CNS in response to imidacloprid treatments at low dose (LD, 10% mortality) and high dose (HD, 80% mortality) were identified. Two nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits genes and 18 interacting protein genes were regulated at LD, and only one nAChR subunit gene and 11 interacting proteins were regulated at HD. Among the 110 annotated P450 unigenes, 43 unigenes were regulated at LD and 34 unigenes were regulated at HD. Most of the differentially expressed P450 unigenes were mapped to CYP4, in which most unigenes were upregulated at LD, but downregulated at HD. Totally, the numbers and regulation levels of the regulated genes were more at LD than that at HD. Seventeen unigenes were selected to test their expression changes following insecticide treatments by qRT-PCR, in which the changes in more than half of the selected genes were verified. The results revealed the variation in the response of locusts to different insecticide pressure, such as different doses.

  6. 东亚飞蝗染色体C带和银染带型分析%Analysis on C-banding and silver staining karyotypes of Locusta migratoria manilensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴学芳; 何正波; 陶红梅; 蔡志华

    2011-01-01

    本研究采用改进后的悬浮滴片法制备东亚飞蝗(Locusta migratoria manilensis)雄性染色体标本,进行东亚飞蝗核型、C带和银染显带分析.东亚飞蝗雄性核型为2N-22+XO(↑),染色体组式为4L+4M+4S+XO.C带显示东亚飞蝗染色体全部为端着丝粒,第2对染色体有端带;东亚飞蝗的银染核仁组织区位于2号染色体近端部次缢痕处,仅有1条染色体深染.2号染色体带型丰富,可作为东亚飞蝗的遗传标记.

  7. Prokaryotic expression of the CYP408B1 and CYP409A1 genes in Locusta migratoria%飞蝗 CYP408B1和 CYP409A1基因的原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翠娥; 任晓宇; 张学尧; 张婷婷; 张建珍; 马恩波; 吴海花

    2015-01-01

    【目的】细胞色素 P450是分布极其广泛的超家族酶,在昆虫内源及外源化合物代谢中发挥着重要的作用。本文分析了飞蝗 Locusta migratoria CYP408B1和 CYP409A1基因在不同组织部位的表达差异,并对两种蛋白进行原核表达,为其分子特性和生物学功能的深入研究提供基础资料。【方法】提取飞蝗5龄若虫不同组织部位的总 RNA,体外反转录成 cDNA,采用 Real-time PCR 和 RT-PCR 技术分析飞蝗CYP408B1和 CYP409A1在不同组织部位的表达模式,构建表达载体 pCW/CYP408B1、pCW/CYP409A1和 pAC/CPR,将 pCW/CYP408B1和 pCW/CYP409A1分别与 pAC/CPR 在大肠杆菌 Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)中进行共表达。【结果】通过 PCR 检测,发现 CYP408B1和 CYP409A1在飞蝗5 龄若虫触角、脑、视叶、咽下神经节、胸神经节和附腺中均有表达,其中 CYP408B1在附腺中表达量较高。原核表达结果显示,CYP409A1和 CPR(NADPH 细胞色素 P450还原酶)均可表达,蛋白分子量分别约为58 ku 和77 ku,但均为包涵体,而 CYP408B1未能成功表达。【结论】本文揭示了飞蝗 CYP408B1和 CYP409A1在不同组织部位的表达模式,并对 CYP409A1和 CPR 进行了原核表达,研究结果为深入探讨飞蝗细胞色素 P450基因对杀虫剂的代谢解毒作用提供了实验依据和基础资料。%Objectives] Cytochrome P450s are ubiquitous superfamily enzymes that play important roles in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds in insects. In order to provide a basis for the further study of the molecular properties and biological functions of the CYP408B1 and CYP409A1 genes in Locusta migratoria, we analyzed their expression patterns in different tissues and performed the prokaryotic expression of these two genes. [Methods] Total RNA of different tissues from fifth-instar nymphs of L. migratoria was used to synthesize cDNA using MLV reverse transcriptase. Real-time PCR and

  8. 东亚飞蝗fem-1基因的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of fem-1 genes from the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Orthoptera:Locustidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时红; 郝友进; 陈斌; 司凤玲; 王鹏; 何正波

    2013-01-01

    Thefem-1 gene plays a key role in sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans.In this study,three homologs of the C.elegansfem-1 gene were cloned and characterized from a transcriptome database of the oriental migratory locust,Locusta migratoria manilensis,based on bioinformatical analysis.They were named Lmfem-1a,Lmfem-1b and Lmfem-1c,with the Genbank accession numbers of AB698670,AB698671 and AB698672,respectively.The cDNAs of the three genes are 2 233,2 625 and 2 142 bp in length,encoding proteins with 662,642 and 638 amino acids,respectively.Bioinformatical analysis revealed that Lmfem-1a,Lmfem-1b and Lmfem-1c contain 6,8 and 8 typical ankyrin repeat motifs,respectively.Gene expression analysis showed that Lmfem-1 a,Lmfem-1 b and Lmfem-1c were expressed in all tested tissues with significantly different transcript level,suggesting that Lmfem-1a,Lmfem-1b and Lmfem-1c are tightly regulated and might be involved in multiple physiological processes.Lmfem-1a,Lmfem-1b and Lmfem-1c had the highest expression level in testis,and their expression increased gradually with the development of testis.These findings strongly suggest that Lmfem-1a,Lmfem-1b and Lmfem-1c may be involved in the spermatogenesis of the locust.Further functional analysis is required to clarify the roles of these genes in sex determination in the locust.%秀丽隐杆线虫Caenorhabditis elegans fem-1基因是性别决定的关键基因.本研究基于生物信息学方法从东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis的转录组数据库中克隆出了线虫fem-1的3个同源基因,将其分别命名为Lmfem-1a,Lmfem-1b和Lmfem-1c(GenBank登录号分别为AB698670,AB698671和AB698672).其cDNA序列长度分别为2 233,2 625和2 142 bp,分别编码662,642和638个氨基酸.生物信息学分析显示,Lmfem-1a,Lmfem-1b和Lmfem-1c分别含有6,8和8个典型的锚蛋白重复序列模体.组织表达谱分析发现,Lmfem-1a,Lmfem-1b和Lmfem-1c基因在检测的所有组织中都有表达,但均在精巢

  9. 绿僵菌侵染后东亚飞蝗营养生理参数变化研究%Nutrition physiological parameter changes of Locusta migratoria manilensis ( Meyen ) infected with Metarhizium anisopliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂雄兵; 李志红; 牙森·沙力; 张泽华

    2011-01-01

    We investigated changes in the nutritional physiological parameters of Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen)infected with Metarhizium anisopliae at 18, 21, 24, 27 and 30℃.Total food consumption of 3rd -5th instar nymphs infected with M.anisopliae was 96.4, 108.3, 131.9, 103.2 and 249.5 mg respectively.The total food consumption of infected adults at 21, 24, 27 and 30℃, was 93.1, 121.8, 109.0 and 237.5 mg, respectively for males, and 108.7、195.5 、234.7、114.7 mg for females.The approximate digestive efficiency of infected nymphs decreased, and conversion efficiency increased, with increasing temperature, the latter being a negative value at lower temperatures.There were no significant differences in the approximate digestive efficiency of infected male adults, but that of infected female adults decreased after initially rising.The conversion efficiency of infected male adults decreased from 24 to 30℃, but that of infected female adults did not.The total food consumption of infected locusts was much less than that of CK locusts.We also studied changes in the food consumption of different developmental stages; the daily food consumption of CK nymphs increased at constant temperature and that of female adults was higher than that of male adults.Changes in the total food consumption of CK locusts were the same as changes in daily food consumption.However, there was no obvious relationship between these paramenters in locusts infected with M.anisopliae.%本文采用饵剂饲喂方法研究东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)营养生理参数变化,结果表明:绿僵菌(Metarhizium anisopliae)侵染后,5个温度梯度下蝻期总取食量分别为96.4、108.3、131.9、103.2、249.5mg;21、24、27、30℃4个温度梯度下雄成虫总取食量为93.1、121.8、109.0、237.5 mg,雌成虫为108.7、195.5、234.7、114.7 mg.随温度升高,蝻期近似消化力降低,食物转化率升高,低温时转化率为负值.21~30℃范围内雄成虫近

  10. Ultrastructure of Four Types of Antennal Sensilla in Locusta migratoria manilensis (Insecta, Orthoptera)%东亚飞蝗四种类型的触角感受器超微结构(昆虫纲,直翅目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鑫; 张善干; 张龙

    2004-01-01

    The ultrastructures of different types of antennal sensilla in Locusta migratoria manilensis were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. There are four types of sensilla on its antenna: namely, sensilla basiconica, sensilla trichodea,sensilla coeloconica and sensilla chaetica. Sensilla basiconica have two subtypes: subtype A has thin cuticular wall perforated by numerous pores and more than 100 dendritic branchings, each of which contains 1~5 microtubules. Subtype B has also thin wall but much fewer(less than 6) dendritic branchings. Sensilla trichodea are single-walled and grooved. There are relatively few pores on the wall. More than 20 dendrites, each of which contains 1~5 microtubules, can be found in the sensillar lumen. Sensilla coeloconica are situated in pits on the antennal surface and divided into two subtypes: subtype A has grooved surface and double sensillar walls perforated by radial pores and 6~7 dendrites. Subtype B contains 4 dendrites with non-grooved, non-porous single wall. Sensilla chaetica have a thick non-porous wall and contain 5 dendrites sent to a terminal pore. The functions of four types of sensilla were discussed that sensilla basiconica and sensilla trichodea are olfactory sensilla; sensilla coeloconica may be respond to chemo-, hygroand thermostimulation and sensilla chaetica are possibly gustatory or mechanoreceptors.%利用扫描电镜和透射电镜观察了东亚飞蝗(Locusta migratoria manilensis)不同类型触角感受器的超微结构.在触角上存在4种类型的感受器:锥形感受器、毛形感受器、腔锥形感受器和刺形感受器.锥形感受器分为两个亚型:A亚型壁薄多孔,有100多个树突分枝,每个分枝有l~5个微管;B亚型壁薄,只有少于6个树突分枝.毛形感受器单壁,壁上有沟和小孔,孔数相对较少.对感受器腔中有超过20个的树突,每一树突中含有1~5个微管.腔锥形感受器位于触角表皮凹陷当中,含两个亚

  11. Silencing of two alternative splicing-derived mRNA variants of chitin synthase 1 gene by RNAi is lethal to the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhen; Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jianqin; Li, Daqi; Sun, Yi; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2010-11-01

    Chitin synthases are crucial enzymes responsible for chitin biosynthesis in fungi, nematodes and arthropods. We characterized two alternative splicing-derived variants of chitin synthase 1 gene (LmCHS1) from the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). Each cDNA of the two variants (LmCHS1A and LmCHS1B) consists of 5116 nucleotides that include a 4728-nucleotide open reading frame (ORF) encoding 1576 amino acid residues, and 67- and 321-bp non-coding regions at the 5'- and 3'-ends of the cDNA, respectively. The two variants differ only in one exon consisting of 177 nucleotides that encode 59 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequences within this alternative splicing region are 75% identical between the two variants. Both variants were expressed in all the developmental stages. However, LmCHS1A was predominately expressed in the integument whereas LmCHS1B was mainly expressed in the trachea. Our RNAi-based gene silencing study resulted in a dramatic reduction in the levels of the corresponding mRNA in the locust nymphs injected with dsRNA of LmCHS1, or either of its two variants, LmCHS1A and LmCHS1B. Consequentially, 95, 88 and 51% of mortalities were observed in the locusts injected with the LmCHS1, LmCHS1A and LmCHS1B dsRNA, respectively. The phenotypes resulted from the injection of LmCHS1A dsRNA were similar to those from the injection of LmCHS1 dsRNA, whereas the locusts injected with LmCHS1B dsRNA exhibited crimpled cuticle phenotype. Our results suggest that both variants of chitin synthase 1 are essential for insect growth and development.

  12. Determination of protein content in Locusta migratoria manilensis based on infrared spectroscopy%红外光谱法测定东亚飞蝗蛋白质含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连国云; 何伟逸; 陈义昆; 刘志刚

    2013-01-01

    采用近红外光谱和中红外光谱技术测定不同个体东亚飞蝗的蛋白质含量.以化学分析值作参比,采用偏最小二乘回归算法,在近红外、中红外及全波段光谱范围内分别建立东亚飞蝗光谱信息与蛋白质含量定量模型.预测结果表明,利用红外光谱技术可实现对可食昆虫类蛋白质含量的快速检测,检测过程比传统化学检测法简捷高效,且中红外光谱区域的建模效果优于近红外光谱区域.该研究为快速检测可食昆虫类蛋白质含量提供了借鉴.%The protein content in Locusta migratoria manilensis individuals was determined by using near-and mid-infrared spectrum technology. Based on the chemical values of the protein content of these locusts, the quantitative relation models between the real protein content and the spectral information were respectively established in the near-infrared, mid-infrared and full-band spectral range by using the partial least squares (PLS) regression algorithm. The predicted results show that infrared spectrum technology can be used to rapidly determine the protein content of edible insects. In addition, the mid-infrared model exhibit better effects than the near-infrared one. Furthermore, the determination process is simpler and more effective than traditional chemical methods. This study provides a new method for rapid determination of protein content of edible insects.

  13. 瑞香狼毒活性成分对东亚飞蝗的生物活性和病理学研究%Bioactivity and histopathology study of the active ingredients from Stellera chamaej asme L .against Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高嫚潞; 吴朗; 陈龙; 周卫; 陶科; 侯太平

    2013-01-01

    The activity of ligarine extracts from Stellera chamaej asme L .against Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen) was tested and compared by bioassay methods . The biological activity and histopathological effects of the active ingredients from Stellera chamaej asme L .on Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen) and mid-gut cells were determined .The results showed that the active ingredients from Stellera chamaej asme L .had anti-feeding activity ,contacting activity ,stomach toxicity activity and inhibition of growth and development on Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen) .The AFC50of complete anti-feeding activity were 317 .63mg/L ,113 .20mg/L in 24 hour and 48 hour ;The LC50 of contacting activity were 548 .21 mg/L and the LC50 of stomach toxicity activity were 2486 .19 mg/L in 96 hour for ligarine extracts from Stellera chamaej asme L .,active ingredients also had strong effect on growth and development of Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen) .The EC50of growth inhibition rate was 39 .75 mg/L in 48 hour . The histopathology studies on mid-gut from Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen) showed that the ligarine extracts from Stellera chamaej asme L .damage the normal structure of mid-gut and lead to columnar epithelial cells fell off and death .%采用活体生物试验方法进行活性跟踪,选取瑞香狼毒对东亚飞蝗毒杀活性最高的石油醚萃取部分,测定瑞香狼毒活性成分对东亚飞蝗的生物活性及其中肠消化道的组织病理学影响.结果表明:瑞香狼毒活性成分对东亚飞蝗具有拒食、触杀、胃毒活性及生长发育抑制作用,其中拒食活性最为显著,24 h、48 h拒食中浓度(A FC50)分别为317.63、113.20 mg/L ;96 h触杀致死中浓度(LC50)、胃毒致死中浓度(LC50)分别为548.21 mg/L、2486.19 mg/L ;生长发育抑制作用也十分明显,48 h生长发育抑制中浓度(EC50)为39.75 mg/L .东亚飞蝗中肠组织病理学变化研究结果表明,

  14. High temperature tolerance and thermoregulation behavior of the oriental migratory locust,Locusta migratoria manilensis(Orthoptera:Acrididae)%东亚飞蝗耐高温能力及其体温调节行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳梅; 雷仲仁; 朱彬洲; 姚君明

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the ability of high temperature tolerance and thermoregulation behavior of the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis,we adopted the methods of high-temperature breeding and offering radiant heat and wind to research the high temperature tolerance of the locust at different developmental stages, the relationship between body temperature (Tb) and air temperature (Ta) and radiant temperature (Tr) , choosing behavior of locusts to radiant heat, the increasing velocity of Tb and the effects of radiant angle and wind power to Tb. The results showed that LT_(90) reached 326.4 h at 44℃ and 20.6 h at 50℃, respectively. In the condition without radiant heat, Tb increased with Ta. Locusts showed thermoregulation behavior when Ta was raised to 32℃. When Ta was raised at the velocity of 0.5℃/min, the percentage of individuals with temperature undulation was 53.7% , the average undulation range of Tb was 1.15℃, the average undulation time was 5.2 min and the average initiative undulation of Tb was 47.2℃. The lethal time of adults was longer than that of nymphs. In the condition with radiant heat, locusts inclined to choose the bottom of cage when the radiant temperature of the top was raised gradually; thermoregulation behavior was stronger than that in the condition without radiant heat. Under different radiant angles and different wind levels and illumination combinations, locusts displayed significant differences in Tb. The results indicate that Locusta migratoria manilensis has obvious high temperature tolerance and thermoregulation behavior which can adjust Tb to the best physiological condition.%为明确东亚飞蝗Locuaa migratorla manilensis的耐高温能力和体温调节行为,采用高温饲养、提供辐射热源和风力等方法,对东亚飞蝗各发育期的高温耐受能力、体温(body temperature,Tb)与环境温度(air temperature,Ta)和辐射温度(radiant temperature,Tr)的关系、飞蝗对辐射热的选择行

  15. 两个不同生态特征蝗区东亚飞蝗的两种代谢酶%Two metabolic enzymes of oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria mani-lensis (Meyen), from two locust areas with different ecological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺艳萍; 刘新; 马恩波

    2005-01-01

    黄骅和平山是中国河北省两个不同的蝗区,这两个蝗区的生态特征有很大的不同.黄骅位于河北平原,靠近渤海湾,属于滨海蝗区,蝗区植被以芦苇为主,是我国东亚飞蝗重点防治地区;平山位于河北和山西交界处,仍属于山区,蝗区位于岗南水库库区,属于滨湖蝗区,植被以稗草为主,并兼有玉米、豆类等农作物,为了保护岗南水库水质不受污染,该蝗区很少进行防治.对采自这两个蝗区东亚飞蝗的两种代谢酶:酯酶和谷胱甘肽S-转移酶进行了比较研究.用对氧磷、马拉氧磷、西维因及毒扁豆碱等4种抑制剂对这两个种群飞蝗的酯酶进行体外抑制实验,结果表明,这两个种群的大部分酯酶属于B-型.在雌性飞蝗中,用α-NA,α-NB和β-NA 3种酯酶底物测定酯酶活性,黄骅种群比平山种群的酯酶活性分别高1.63、1.66和1.70倍,雄性中则分别高1.12、1.41和1.27倍.对两个种群酯酶活性频率分布进行比较,黄骅种群中酯酶活性高的个体数远大于平山种群.两个种群酶活性的差异与马拉硫磷半致死剂量(LD50)的差异很相近,这提示酯酶活性的提高在东亚飞蝗对马拉硫磷的抗性中起一定的作用.酯酶活性频率分布显示出东亚飞蝗黄骅种群比平山种群具有较高的马拉硫磷抗性发展趋势,其抗性发展速度较平山种群快.然而,黄骅种群谷胱甘肽S-转移酶活性略低于平山种群,因此推测,谷胱甘肽S-转移酶活性与这两个东亚飞蝗种群对马拉硫磷的抗性无明显相关.%Huanghua and Pingshan are two different locust swarming areas in Hebei, China. Huanghua is sea-coast locust area and Pingshan is lake-shored area. Huanghua is a plain in Hebei province close to Bohai bay, where Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) feeds on Phragmites communis (Trin). Frequent massive outbreaks of Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) in Huanghua make it an important area of locust pest

  16. Heterologous expression of Paranosema (Antonospora) locustae hexokinase in lepidopteran, Sf9, cells is followed by accumulation of the microsporidian protein in insect cell nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Sergey A; Senderskiy, Igor V; Tsarev, Alexander A; Tokarev, Yuri S; Dolgikh, Viacheslav V

    2017-02-01

    Paranosema (Nosema, Antonospora) locustae is the only microsporidium produced as a commercial product for biological control. Molecular mechanisms of the effects of this pathogen and other invertebrate microsporidia on host cells remain uncharacterized. Previously, we immunolocalized P. locustae hexokinase in nuclei of Locusta migratoria infected adipocytes. Here, the microsporidian protein was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris and in lepidopteran Sf9 cells. During heterologous expression, P. locustae hexokinase was accumulated in the nuclei of insect cells but not in yeast cell nuclei. This confirms nuclear localization of hexokinase secreted by microsporidia into infected host cells and suggests convenient model for its further study.

  17. 飞蝗谷胱甘肽S-转移酶基因克隆、序列分析及表达特征%Cloning, sequence analysis and expression profiling of glutathione Stransferase omega 1 gene from Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera:Acridoidea )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学尧; 王建新; 郭艳琼; 张建珍; 马恩波

    2012-01-01

    谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(glutathione S-transferase,GST)是一类广泛分布的多功能超家族酶系,其中Omega家族GST在昆虫体内担负重要生理功能.为探讨飞蝗Locusta migratoria Omega家族GST功能,利用RT-PCR技术克隆得到1条飞蝗谷胱甘肽S-转移酶Omega家族基因全长cDNA,命名为LmGSTol(GenBank登录号:JQ750592).该基因开放阅读框长738 bp,编码245个氨基酸.该酶含有N-端和C-端2个结构域,N-端结构域由5个β-折叠和3个α螺旋组成,包括4个GSH结合位点;C-端结构域由8个α螺旋组成,含有5个底物结合位点.Real-time PCR 结果表明,LmGSTo1在飞蝗不同龄期均有表达,在胃盲囊和中肠表达量较低,在前肠、马氏管、肌肉和脂肪体表达量较高;溴氰菊酯处理可导致LmGSTo1表达水平显著下降.这些结果为进一步研究LmGSTo1基因功能提供了依据.%Glutathione S-transferases are a ubiquitous superfamily of multifunctional enzymes, in which Omega-class GST is responsible for important physiological function in insects. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a GST Omega gene from Locusta migratoria was cloned by RT-PCR technique, and named as LmGSTol (GenBank accession no. JQ750592). The open reading frame (ORF) of LmGSTol is 738 bp in length coding 245 amino acids. LmGSTOl consists of an N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain. The N-terminal domain includes five p-sheets and three a-tums, while the C-terminal domain is composed of eight a-turns. Temporal expression pattern revealed that LmGSTol was constitutively expressed in all developmental stages of the locust. Tissue expression profiling further indicated that LmGSTol was slightly expressed in midgut and gastric caecum and had higher expression levels in foregut, Malpighian tubules, fat body and muscle. The expression level of LmGSTol was significantly decreased after deltamethrin treatment. The results provide a basis for further studying the function of LmGSTol.

  18. Cloning, expression and purification of arginine kinase from Locusta migratoria manilensis and its allergic activity%东亚飞蝗主要过敏原精氨酸激酶基因的克隆表达、纯化及免疫原性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义昆; 邬玉兰; 李荔; 连国云; 刘志刚

    2013-01-01

    This investigation aimed to clone the Locusta migratoria manilensis arginine kinase (AK) gene, produce its recombinant protein and investigate the protein ' s allergenicity. The cDNA of AK was cloned, using specific primers, from the total RNA of L. m. manilensis. The cloned gene was inserted into pMD18-T vector and digested by EcoR I and Xho I. The cDNA was sequenced and subcloned into a pET-28a expression vector. The cloned AK cDNA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta by IPTG induction. The recombinant AK (rAK) was purified by metal ( Ni2+) chelating affinity chromatography. Its allergenicity was examined by Western blotting. The cloned cDNA ORF sequence contained 1 068 bp and encoded 355 amino acids. Its sequence homology with the published sequence (Accession no. DQ513322) was 98% at nucleotide level. The allergen rAK was highly expressed in E. coli as a soluble protein with a molecular weight of about Mr 40 000 under induction with IPTG and purified by a 6-His-tag purification system. Under both non-denaturalization and denaturalization conditions, the recombinant allergen was identified by its affinity to IgE antibodies from the cockroach-allergic patient sera by Western blotting. It is concluded that recombinant arginine kinase with proper allergenicity was successfully obtained.%本研究克隆了东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen)精氨酸激酶(arginine kinase,AK)基因全长,表达并纯化重组AK蛋白,研究重组蛋白的免疫反应性.东亚飞蝗AK基因开放阅读框全长为1 068 bp,编码355个氨基酸,与GenBank中已登录的东亚飞蝗AK(DQ513322)基因同源性为98%,重组质粒pET-28 a-AK在E.coli中获得高效表达,重组蛋白相对分子质量(Mr)约为40 000,主要以可溶性形式表达,经亲和层析获得重组蛋白.通过免疫印迹分析结果表明,重组AK蛋白可被过敏性患者血清识别,免疫原性良好.结果表明我们成功获得东亚飞蝗精氨酸激

  19. 五龄飞蝗不同发育时间实时定量PCR内参基因的筛选%Selection of reference genes on different days during the development of the fifth-instar nymph of Locusta migratoria with quantitative real-time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔淼; 刘晓健; 李涛; 郭亚平; 马恩波; 张建珍

    2014-01-01

    Objectives] To identify the most appropriate reference genes on different days during the development of fifth-instar nymphs of Locusta migratoria to pave the way for relevant studies. [Methods] Six genes were selected as candidate reference genes, including the beta actin gene (β-actin), the Elongation factor 1α gene (EF-1α), the Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH), the Ribosomal protein 49 gene (RP49), the Alpha tubulin gene (α-Tubulin) and the 18S ribosome RNA gene (18S rRNA). The relative expression of these genes on different days during the development of L. migratoria was detected with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The expression stability of these genes was then investigated using geNorm and Normfinder software. [Results] Based on the results of geNorm analysis, the average expression stability (M) of the six genes was, in descending order; β-actin (0.3720)>RP49 (0.3750)>α-Tubulin (0.4030)>18S rRNA (0.4270)>EF-1α(0.4970)>GAPDH (0.6040). The less the M value the more stable the gene expression. The software took 0.15 as a constant value for pairwise variations. The appropriate number of reference genes was 2 because V2/3=0.098<0.15. Similar results were obtained using NormFinder software. [Conclusion] β-actin and RP49 are the most suitable reference genes during the development of fifth-instar nymph of L. migratoria.%【目的】筛选5龄飞蝗不同发育时间的最适内参基因,为相关研究提供基础数据。【方法】本文选取β-肌动蛋白(β-actin)、延长因子(EF-1α)、3-磷酸甘油醛脱氢酶(GAPDH)、核糖体蛋白49(RP49)、α-微管蛋白(α-Tubulin)和18S核糖体RNA(18S rRNA)基因作为候选内参基因,运用实时定量PCR(qPCR)方法研究各基因在5龄飞蝗不同发育时间的相对表达量,用geNorm与Normfinder软件分析这6个基因表达稳定性。【结果】geNorm分析结果显示6个内参基因表达稳定度M值顺序为:β-actin(0

  20. 采用飞机施药对青藏高原西藏飞蝗的防效研究%Effect of chemical spreading by helicopter on the control of Locusta migratoria in Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俗; 唐川江; 张绪校; 谢红旗; 谢文斌

    2008-01-01

    采用米-17B7型直升飞机,应用3种农药对西藏飞蝗Locusta migratoria进行大规模灭治应用研究,结果表明:军用高原直升飞机施药效率高,能有效克服高原地区开展虫害防治的困难,是控制青藏高原区蝗虫爆发和危害的有效手段;应用200亿/mL类产碱假单胞菌·苏云金杆菌悬乳剂平均灭效88.5%,100亿/mL杀蝗绿僵菌油悬浮剂平均灭效83.2%,4.5%高效氯氰菊酯乳油平均灭效95.4%;高效氯氰菊酯乳油对生物多样性的危害明显,应注意对害虫天敌的保护.

  1. 雷公藤总生物碱的提取及对东亚飞蝗的生物活性检测%Bioactivity Detection of the Total Alkaloids Extracted from Tripterygium wilfordii against Locustas migratoria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小慧; 廉玉利; 郭金剑; 王元清

    2009-01-01

    提取、分离了雷公藤Tripterygium wilfordii根皮中总生物碱物质,采用小叶蝶添加法测定其对东亚飞蝗Locustas migratoria拒食、生长发育及毒杀等生物活性.结果表明:雷公藤总生物碱对3龄东亚飞蝗具有拒食、生长发育抑制和毒杀作用.48 h非选择性拒食中浓度AFC_(50)、生长发育抑制中浓度EC_(50)48 h毒杀中浓度LC_(50)分别为236.84 mg/L、151.96 mg/L和171.72 mg/L;雷公藤总生物碱对东亚飞蝗无明显触杀作用.

  2. Susceptibility of Transgenetic Drosophila withLocusta migratoria CYP408B1 andCYP409A1 to Insecticides%转飞蝗CYP408B1和CYP409A1基因果蝇品系对杀虫剂的敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翠娥; 张建琴; 张徐波; 张建珍; 封云涛; 吴海花; 马恩波

    2015-01-01

    Objective]Cytochrome P450s are ubiquitous metabolic detoxification enzymes in insects.Locusta migratoria is a major agricultural pest. It is important to identify and validate the metabolic detoxification function of P450. The objectives of this study are to construct transgenicDrosophilamelanogaster lines with locustCYP408B1 andCYP409A1genes, determine the susceptibility of transgenic Drosophila expressed exogenousCYP408B1 orCYP409A1 to insecticides, and to reveal the characteristics of locustCYP408B1 andCYP409A1.[Method] Homozygous transgeneticDrosophila lines with locustCYP408B1 andCYP409A1 were successfully constructed by using transgenic technology. Male transgenic flies (UAS-CYP408B1 and UAS-CYP409A1), and parental flies attp40 were crossed with tub-gal4 virgin flies, respectively. Genomic DNA and total RNA were isolated from hybrid offsprings: transgenic flies expressed locustCYP408B1 andCYP409A1 (tub>CYP408B1and tub>CYP409A1) and the control tub>attp40, respectively. At the same time, total RNA was used to synthesize cDNA using MLV reverse transcriptase. In order to validate transgenic flies UAS-CYP408B1 and UAS-CYP409A1, PCR amplification was conducted with DNA and cDNA as templates, respectively. The susceptibility of transgenicflies (tub>CYP408B1 and tub>CYP409A1) and control flies (tub>attp40, UAS-CYP408B1, UAS-CYP409A1 and attp40) to three selected insecticides (deltamethrin, malathion and chlorpyrifos) were analyzed. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity of transgenic flies (tub>CYP408B1 and tub>CYP409A1) and the control tub>attp40 by fluorescence measurements were measured.[Result]PCR amplification showed a clear single target band in flies tub>CYP408B1 (1 555 bp) and tub>CYP409A1 (1 585 bp), respectively. RT-PCR and RT-qPCR showed the locustCYP408B1 andCYP409A1 were expressed in transgenicDrosophilaflies, respectively. Insecticide bioassay results indicated that the sensitivity of transgenic flies tub>CYP408B1 and tub>CYP409A1 to deltamethrin was

  3. Analysis of the Nutritional Composition in Locusta migratorla manilensis%东亚飞蝗营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张干伟; 孙素玲; 汤坚; 凌文慧; 钟玉林

    2011-01-01

    @@ 东亚飞蝗(Locusta migratoria manilensis),又名飞蝗,属昆虫纲,直翅目,蝗科[1].东亚飞蝗在我国分布非常广泛,主要分布于华北、华南、华中、华东及台湾、广西、四川、云南.东亚飞蝗主要以小麦、玉米、高粱、粟、水稻、稷等多种禾本科植物为食,也侵害棉花、大豆、蔬菜农作物等.

  4. 苏云金芽孢杆菌抗东亚飞蝗(Locusta migratoria manilensis)的活性%ACTIVITY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS AGAINST LOCUSTA MIGRATORIA MANILENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玲莉; 高梅影; 戴顺英; 彭可凡

    2005-01-01

    采用毒力生物测定的方法,测定了600株从我国各地土壤和死虫等样品中分离的苏云金芽孢杆菌对东亚飞蝗的毒力.这些菌株几乎分布于已知的70个H血清型.在600株苏云金芽孢杆菌中,有560株(占93.4%)对东亚飞蝗无毒(死亡率小于20%),只有3株(占0.5%)对东亚飞蝗有较高毒性(死亡率大于70%).同时对筛选出的特异性菌株的杀虫活性进行了进一步研究.图2表2参8

  5. Dynamics of energy substrates in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Houben, N.M.D.; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    In the two-fuel system for flight of the migratory locust, the haemolymph carbohydrate concentration falls during flight periods of up to 1 hr, the decrease being greater in case the pre-flight carbohydrate level is higher. The increase in the lipid concentration from the onset of flight is virtuall

  6. Thermal sensitivity of excitation-contraction-coupling in a chill susceptible insect, Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Overgaard, Johannes

    Many insect species enter a state of neuromuscular paralysis when their body temperature is lowered to a critical limit but the physiological and cellular processes underlying this chill coma are largely unknown. Previous studies on locusts show that muscle force production is highly depressed at...

  7. Looming detection by identified visual interneurons during larval development of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Peter J; Sztarker, Julieta; Rind, F Claire

    2013-06-15

    Insect larvae clearly react to visual stimuli, but the ability of any visual neuron in a newly hatched insect to respond selectively to particular stimuli has not been directly tested. We characterised a pair of neurons in locust larvae that have been extensively studied in adults, where they are known to respond selectively to objects approaching on a collision course: the lobula giant motion detector (LGMD) and its postsynaptic partner, the descending contralateral motion detector (DCMD). Our physiological recordings of DCMD axon spikes reveal that at the time of hatching, the neurons already respond selectively to objects approaching the locust and they discriminate between stimulus approach speeds with differences in spike frequency. For a particular approaching stimulus, both the number and peak frequency of spikes increase with instar. In contrast, the number of spikes in responses to receding stimuli decreases with instar, so performance in discriminating approaching from receding stimuli improves as the locust goes through successive moults. In all instars, visual movement over one part of the visual field suppresses a response to movement over another part. Electron microscopy demonstrates that the anatomical substrate for the selective response to approaching stimuli is present in all larval instars: small neuronal processes carrying information from the eye make synapses both onto LGMD dendrites and with each other, providing pathways for lateral inhibition that shape selectivity for approaching objects.

  8. Improving the degree-day model for forecasting Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen (Orthoptera: Acridoidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongbing Tu

    Full Text Available The degree-day (DD model is an important tool for forecasting pest phenology and voltinism. Unfortunately, the DD model is inaccurate, as is the case for the Oriental migratory locust. To improve the existing DD model for this pest, we first studied locust development in seven growth chambers, each of which simulated the complete growing-season climate of a specific region in China (Baiquan, Chengde, Tumotezuoqi, Wenan, Rongan, Qiongzhong, or Qiongshan. In these seven treatments, locusts completed 0.95, 1, 1.1, 2.2, 2.95, 3.95, and 4.95 generations, respectively. Hence, in the Baiquan (700, Rongan (2400, Qiongzhong (3200, and Qiongshan (2400 treatments, the final generation were unable to lay eggs. In a second experiment, we reared locusts for a full generation in growth chambers, at different constant temperatures. This experiment provided two important findings. First, temperatures between 32 and 42°C did not influence locust development rate. Hence, the additional heat provided by temperatures above 32°C did not add to the total heat units acquired by the insects, according to the traditional DD model. Instead, temperatures above 32°C represent overflow heat, and can not be included when calculating total heat acquired during development. We also noted that females raised at constant 21°C failed to oviposit. Hence, temperatures lower than 21°C should be deducted when calculating total heat acquired during adult development. Using our experimental findings, we next micmiked 24-h temperature curve and constructed a new DD model based on a 24-h temperature integral calculation. We then compared our new model with the traditional DD model, results showed the DD deviation was 166 heat units in Langfang during 2011. At last we recalculated the heat by our new DD model, which better predicted the results from our first growth chamber experiment.

  9. Cell swelling increases the severity of spreading depression in Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Kristin E; Chin, Brittany; Witiuk, Kelsey L M; Robertson, R Meldrum

    2015-12-01

    Progressive accumulation of extracellular potassium ions can trigger propagating waves of spreading depression (SD), which are associated with dramatic increases in extracellular potassium levels ([K(+)]o) and arrest in neural activity. In the central nervous system the restricted nature of the extracellular compartment creates an environment that is vulnerable to disturbances in ionic homeostasis. Here we investigate how changes in the size of the extracellular space induced by alterations in extracellular osmolarity affect locust SD. We found that hypotonic exposure increased susceptibility to experimentally induced SD evidenced by a decrease in the latency to onset and period between individual events. Hypertonic exposure was observed to delay the onset of SD or prevent the occurrence altogether. Additionally, the magnitude of extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)]o) disturbance during individual SD events was significantly greater and they were observed to propagate more quickly under hypotonic conditions compared with hypertonic conditions. Our results are consistent with a conclusion that hypotonic exposure reduced the size of the extracellular compartment by causing cell swelling and thus facilitated the accumulation of K(+) ions. Lastly, we found that pharmacologically reducing the accumulation of extracellular K(+) using the K(+) channel blocker tetraethylammonium slowed the rate of SD propagation while increasing [K(+)]o through inhibition of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter increased propagation rates. Overall our findings indicate that treatments or conditions that act to reduce the accumulation of extracellular K(+) help to protect against the development of SD and attenuate the spread of ionic disturbance adding to the evidence that diffusion of K(+) is a leading event during locust SD.

  10. 基于线粒体细胞色素氧化酶基因序列的飞蝗属4亚种系统发育关系分析%The Phylogenetic Relationships among Four Subspecies of the Genus Locusta Based on Sequences of Three Subunit of Cytochrome Oxidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张道川; 王健学; 智永超

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析4个飞蝗亚种间的系统发育关系.[方法]利用PCR扩增技术测定了西藏飞蝗(L.migratoria tibetensis)和东亚飞蝗(L.m.manilensis)细胞色素氧化酶3亚基基因序列(COⅠ1 539 bp、COⅡ684 bp、COⅢ792bp,共计3 015 bp),结合GenBank下载的亚洲飞蝗(L.m.migratoria)和非洲飞蝗(L.m.migratorioides)的细胞色素氧化酶3亚基基因序列进行综合分析.以云斑车蝗(G.marmoratus)为外群,通过邻接法、最大简约法和贝叶斯法重建4个飞蝗亚种的分子系统树.[结果]在碱基组成上,A+T的平均含量为69.57%,4个飞蝗亚种的密码子第3位点A+T含量最高,其中最高的是COⅠ(达87.6%);4个飞蝗亚种中核苷酸替换主要发生在密码子第3位,COⅡ的核酸替代率最高,第2位点较为保守,替换率在5.9%~15%之间;C0I的起始密码子是特殊的CCG或ACG;4个飞蝗亚种的遗传距离在0.001~0.076之间;飞蝗属中4个亚种之间的系统发育关系为东亚飞蝗和西藏飞蝗亲缘关系最近,亚洲飞蝗与东亚飞蝗、西藏飞蝗亲缘关系次之,非洲飞蝗与其余3个亚种的亲缘关系较远.[结论]该研究可为西藏飞蝗亚种地位的确定提供分子依据.%[Objective] The aim was to explore the phylogenetic relationships among four subspecies of the genus Locusta. [Method] The sequences of three subunits of cytochrome oxidase of Locusta migratoria tibetensis and Locusta migratoria manilensis were amplified and sequenced ( COⅠ 1 539 bp, COⅡ 684 bp, CO Ⅲ 792 bp, with the total of 3 015 bp). The corresponding sequenses of Locusta migratoria migratoria and Locusta migratoria migratorioides were obtained from GenBank and constructed a multiple alignment. Phylogenic trees of four subspecies of L. migratoria were constructed by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-parsimony and Bayesian, respectively. [Result] The average content of A + T in three subunits of four subspecies was 69.57%; the third site of codon showed the highest A + T content

  11. Biological Characteristics and Artificial Rearing Technique for Locusta migratoria L.%亚洲飞蝗(Locusta migratoria L.)生物学特性及人工饲养技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连霞; 罗宝军; 赵秀梅; 谭可菲; 姜晓军; 刘传增; 袁明

    2012-01-01

    The growth development of Asian migratoroy locust was stated. The biological characteristics that growth character of 1-5 instar, physiological characteristics, the temporal duration, fecundity, overwintering situation were clarified, At the same time,according to the former characteristics artificial rearing was conducted,and the occurrence rule of Asian migratoroy locust was grasped so as to provide a preliminary reference to the Asian migratory locust control provention.%阐述了亚洲飞蝗的卵期发育情况,1~5龄幼虫的生长特点,生理特性,各时态持续时间,产卵量及越冬情况等生物学特性。同时根据其特性进行人工饲养,从中掌握亚洲飞蝗的发生规律,为亚洲飞蝗的防治提供参考。

  12. 西藏飞蝗(Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen)耐寒性理化指标%The physiological and biochemical indexes of the cold-hardiness of Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆; 王思忠; 封传红; 张敏; 蒋凡; 杨刚; 罗林明

    2008-01-01

    西藏飞蝗是青藏高原上的一种重要害虫.近年来, 西藏飞蝗在西藏、青海玉树以及川西高原上危害十分严重.通过对该虫各发育阶段过冷却能力测定,研究了各发育阶段虫体内生理生化物质与过冷却能力之间的关系,揭示了该虫耐寒性规律.结果表明,西藏飞蝗蝗卵的过冷却点和结冰点为最低,分别为-22.02℃和-16.36℃.在1~4龄蝗蝻期,过冷却点随体内水分、糖原和脂肪含量随着虫体的发育而升高,其过冷却点分别为-9.28℃、-8.51℃、-7.18℃、-6.46℃;到5龄蝗蝻时,虫体脂肪和糖原含量达最高值,过冷却点下降为-8.07℃.讨论了虫体脂肪、糖原和甘油含量变化与其耐寒力之间的关系.

  13. Occurrence of Locusta migra oria tibetensis and its integrated control measures in Ganzi Prefecture%甘孜州西藏飞蝗发生为害状况及综合治理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡健康; 杨刚; 封传红; 冯晓东; 罗林明

    2008-01-01

    西藏飞蝗(Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen)是威胁甘孜州农牧业生产的重要害虫。据历史资料,西藏飞蝗有过多次暴发为害的记载。1984年,甘孜州理塘县濯桑片区农牧区遭受西藏飞蝗、青海痂蝗(Bryodema miramac miramac B.-Bienko)等的严重为害。2001年,四川省西部甘孜州金沙江以东的德格、白玉等8个县的农牧区遭受西藏飞蝗、青海痂蝗等的严重为害(王正军等,2002)。近年来,

  14. Contents of nucleic and amino acids and rate of protein synthesis in developing flight muscles of Locusta migratoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrewijk, W.J.A. van; Schrikker, A.E.M.; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    1. 1. Changes in the contents of DNA, RNA, free amino acids (FAA) and protein as well as in the rate of protein synthesis in vivo were measured in the developing flight muscles of Locustamigratoria. 2. 2. The DNA concentration rises temporarily at the end of the last larval instar, possibly in rela

  15. In vitro studies on hormone-stimulated lipid mobilization from fat body and interconversion of haemolymph lipoproteins of Locusta migratoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Heusden, M.C. van; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1984-01-01

    Both adipokinetic hormone and octopamine have a stimulating effect on lipid release from locust fat body in vitro, when incubated in diluted haemolymph. The presence of adipokinetic hormone results in the formation of the flight-specific haemolymph lipoprotein A⁺ accepting the increased amount of li

  16. Influence of juvenile hormone on growth and digestion in fifth instar larvae and adults of Locusta migratoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakkers, A.M.Th.; Broek, A.Th.M. van den

    1974-01-01

    Food utilization was measured in female fifth instar larvae and adults of the migratory locust by following the weight of food ingested, the weight of faeces produced, and the increase in body weight. These parameters were measured in normally developing locusts, in locusts that had been implanted w

  17. Microbial community assessment of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) sold for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, J; Crauwels, S; Waud, M; Claes, J; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2016-02-01

    In Western countries, the popularity of edible insects as an alternative animal protein source is increasing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of profound insight into the microbial safety and shelf life of living insects sold for human consumption. The purpose of this study was to characterise the microflora of fresh edible mealworm larvae and grasshoppers in a quantitative and qualitative way. Therefore, culture-dependent analyses (the total viable aerobic count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and bacterial endospores) and next-generation sequencing (454amplicon pyrosequencing) were performed. High microbial counts were obtained for both insect species. Different insect batches resulted in quite similar microbial numbers, except for bacterial endospores. However, the bacterial community composition differed between both insect species. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in mealworm larvae was Propionibacterium. Also members of the genera Haemophilus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium were found. Grasshoppers were mainly dominated by Weissella, Lactococcus and Yersinia/Rahnella. Overall, a variety of potential spoilage bacteria and food pathogens were characterised. The results of this study suggest that a processing step with a microbiocidal effect is required to avoid or minimize risks involved with the consumption of edible insects.

  18. Uptake of (N-Me-3H)-choline by synaptosomes from the central nervous system of Locusta migratoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breer, H.

    1982-03-01

    The accumulation of 3H-choline by isolated synaptosomes from the central nervous system of locust was studied at concentrations varying from 0.05 to 40 microM. Kinetic analysis of the saturable process revealed a high-affinity and a low-affinity system. The high-affinity uptake was competitively inhibited by hemicholinium-3 and was absolutely dependent on external sodium. Elevated potassium concentrations inhibited choline uptake. The choline uptake by insect synaptosomes was found to be remarkably resistant to a variety of metabolic inhibitors. The reduced choline uptake under depolarizing conditions (high potassium concentration or veratridine) in the absence of calcium implies that electrochemical gradients are important for high-affinity choline uptake. Depolarization of preloaded synaptosomes under appropriate conditions resulted in a significant release of newly accumulated choline radioactivity.

  19. Why do insects enter chill coma? Low temperature and high extracellular potassium compromises muscle function in Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard

    Many insect species enter a comatose state when their body temperature is lowered to a critical limit (critical thermal minimum) but the physiological and cellular processes that underlie chill coma are still unresolved. Several studies have demonstrated that transition into chill-coma involves a...

  20. Mécanisme de la sensibilité au lindane chez le criquet migrateur Locusta migratoria L.

    OpenAIRE

    DOUAHO, Alfred; Kerhoas, Lucien; Fuzeau-Braesch, Suzel

    1982-01-01

    Il a été précédemment montré que le criquet solitaire est plus résistant à l’action du lindane que le criquet grégaire. Pour élucider le mécanisme de cette résistance, l’absorption intestinale, l’accumulation, la dégradation et l’élimination de l’insecticide ont été quantitativement étudiées par dosages du lindane par chromatographie en phase gazeuse et utilisation de la molécule marquée. Il apparaît que les insectes solitaires ont une activité dégradative plus grande que les grégaires, ta...

  1. Presencia de Malameba locustae (Protozoa: Rhizopoda en acridios (Orthoptera: Acrididae de la provincia de Misiones, Argentina Presence of Malameba locustae (Protozoa: Rhizopoda in grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae of Misiones province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Lange

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available La ameba patógena Malameba locustae King y Taylor fue detectada parasitando ejemplares del acridio Ronderosia bergi (Stal recolectados en las cercanías del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones. El hallazgo constituye el segundo registro de M. locustae para acridios sudamericanos.Individuals of the grasshopper Ronderosia bergi (Stal collected in the surroundings of Iguazú National Park, Misiones, were found to be parasitized by the pathogenic amoeba Malameba locustae King & Taylor. The finding constitutes the second record of M. locustae for southamerican grasshoppers.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1041 - Nosema locustae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... insecticide Nosema locustae is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or on all...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1323 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1323 ref|YP_002117966.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Locusta migratoria migra...toria] gb|ABX59319.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Locusta migratoria migratoria] YP_002117966.1 0.19 30% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1065 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1065 ref|YP_002117966.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Locusta migratoria migra...toria] gb|ABX59319.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Locusta migratoria migratoria] YP_002117966.1 0.85 30% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1342 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1342 ref|YP_002117966.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Locusta migratoria migra...toria] gb|ABX59319.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Locusta migratoria migratoria] YP_002117966.1 0.003 28% ...

  6. Migrantes culiacanenses en California: Diversidad en sus redes migratorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto SÁNCHEZ SÁNCHEZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un hecho la dinámica extraordinaria que tienen los lugares de reciente migración, ya sea como lugares de origen o destino. El estado de Sinaloa se suma a esta dinámica en la cual aparecen ahora sus tres principales zonas urbanas --Culiacán, Mazatlán y Ahome-- dentro de su mapa migratorio. Sin embargo la migración, como proceso social, implica una serie de interrelaciones formadas tiempo atrás. Éstas repercuten en la conformación de las nuevas redes migratorias. No obstante, durante décadas, las principales zonas de expulsión en Sinaloa han sido rurales y siguen teniendo un papel esencial en las actuales relaciones sociales de los migrantes provenientes de Culiacán.

  7. Why do insects enter and recover from chill coma? Low temperature and high extracellular potassium compromises muscle function in Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Petersen, Asbjørn G

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to low temperatures, many insect species enter a reversible comatose state (chill coma), which is driven by a failure of neuromuscular function. Chill coma and chill coma recovery have been associated with a loss and recovery of ion-homeostasis (particularly extracellular [K...... of chill coma in locusts exposed to cold at varying rates of cooling. Chill coma onset temperature changed maximally 1°C under different cooling rates and marked disturbances of ion homeostasis were not observed at any of the cooling rates. In a second set of experiments we used isolated tibial muscle...... these two stressors almost abolished force production. Thus, low temperature alone may be responsible for chill coma entry, rather than a disruption of extracellular K+ homeostasis. Since [K+] also has a large effect on tetanic force production, it is hypothesized that recovery of extracellular [K...

  8. Quantitative determination of the juvenile hormones in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria during normal development and after implantation of corpora allata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibregtse-Minderhoud, L.; Hondel-Franken, M.A.M. van; Kerk-Van Hoof, A.C. van der; Biessels, H.W.A.; Salemink, C.A.; Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous quantitative determination of the three naturally occurring juvenile hormones in insects (JH-I, JH-II and JH-III) was performed on haemolymph samples of both normally developing locusts and locusts implanted with active corpora allata, using capillary gas chromatography with electron ca

  9. Regulatory properties of changes in the contents of coenzyme A, carnitine and their acyl derivatives in flight muscle metabolism of Locusta migratoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, R.A.A.; Luytjes, W.; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of coenzyme A, carnitine and their acyl derivatives in flight muscles of the locust were determined during a two hours flight. The concentration of acetyl-CoA fell sharply immediately after the onset of flight, whereas coenzyme A level remained relatively constant. Acetylcarnitin

  10. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of pre-diapause and non-diapause eggs of migratory locust, Locusta migratoria L. (Orthoptera: Acridoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiongbing; Wang, Jie; Hao, Kun; Whitman, Douglas W; Fan, Yaoli; Cao, Guangchun; Zhang, Zehua

    2015-06-19

    Low temperature induces diapause in locusts. However, the physiological processes and initiation mechanism of diapause are not well understood. To understand the molecular basis of diapause, 'omics' analyses were performed to examine the differences between diapause and non-diapause eggs at both transcriptional and translational levels. Results indicated that a total of 62,241 mRNAs and 212 proteins were differentially expressed. Among them, 116 transcripts had concurrent transcription and translation profiles. Up-regulated genes related to diapause included glutathiones-S-transferase et al., and down-regulated genes including juvenile hormone esterase-like protein et al. KEGG analysis mapped 7,243 and 99 differentially expressed genes and proteins, to 83 and 25 pathways, respectively. Correlation enriched pathways indicated that there were nine identical pathways related to diapause. Gene Ontology analysis placed these genes and proteins into three categories, and a higher proportion of genes related to metabolism was up-regulated than down-regulated. Furthermore, three up-regulated pathways were linked to cryoprotection. This study demonstrates the applicability of high-throughput omics tools to identify molecules linked to diapause in the locust. In addition, it reveals cellular metabolism in diapause eggs is more active than in non-diapause eggs, and up-regulated enzymes may play roles in cryoprotection and storing energy for diapause and post-diapause stages.

  11. ANALYSIS ON THE OCCURRENCE OF SOCIAL TYPE LOCUSTA MIGRATORIA MANILENSIS%东亚飞蝗群居型蝗群发生原因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜新勋

    2001-01-01

    @@据史料记载,公元前158年至公元1948年的2 106年间,东亚飞蝗在河北省曾发生蝗灾486次。蝗害给人们造成“蝗食禾稼,草木皆尽,饿殍遍野,则人相食”的悲惨灾难

  12. dsRNA uptake and persistence account for tissue-dependent susceptibility to RNA interference in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, D; Cai, Z; Song, J; Wu, Z; Zhou, S

    2014-04-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) by introducing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a powerful approach to the analysis of gene function in insects; however, RNAi responses vary dramatically in different insect species and tissues, and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The migratory locust, a destructive insect pest and a hemimetabolic insect with panoistic ovaries, is considered to be a highly susceptible species to RNAi via dsRNA injection, but its ovary appears to be completely insensitive. In the present study, we showed that dsRNA persisted only briefly in locust haemolymph. The ovariole sheath was permeable to dsRNA, but injected dsRNA was not present in the follicle cells and oocytes. The lack of dsRNA uptake into the follicle cells and oocytes is likely to be the primary factor that contributes to the ineffective RNAi response in locust ovaries. These observations provide insights into tissue-dependent variability of RNAi and help in achieving successful gene silencing in insensitive tissues.

  13. Análisis de recapturas de carriceros (Acrocephalus spp. en Txingudi: ruta migratoria, tiempo de paso y velocidades migratorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arizaga, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las recapturas de carriceros (Acrocephalus spp. que se han anillado en Txingudi (N de España y recapturado en otras zonas, y viceversa, para estudiar el origen de los carriceros que pasan por este espacio natural en su migración hacia o desde las áreas de invernada, en el C y S de África, así como sus tiempos de paso y velocidades migratorias. Se obtienen recapturas para tres especies: carricerín común (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, n = 32, carricero común (Acrocephalus scirpaceus, n =102 y carricero tordal (Acrocephalus arundinaceus, n = 2. En todos los casos, las aves que pasan por Txingudi provienen de países del W del Paleártico, principalmente Francia, Bélgica y Reino Unido. Al S de Txingudi, las recapturas son obtenidas en dirección SW, en el W de la Península y NW de África. No hay recapturas más al S de Senegal. La mayoría de las recapturas son obtenidas en el paso posnupcial, no habiendo capturas de A. arundinaceus en el prenupcial. Considerando las recapturas al N de Txingudi, en A. scirpaceus el tiempo de paso se correlacionó con la distancia, sugiriendo que las aves que pasan más tarde por Txingudi provienen de más al N que las que pasan antes. Las velocidades migratorias no variaron entre A. schoenobaenus y A. scirpaceus, siendo en promedio de 60,8 ± 12,1 km/día.

  14. OXYGEN DEPENDENCE OF PHOTOINHIBITION AT LOW-TEMPERATURE IN INTACT PROTOPLASTS OF VALERIANELLA-LOCUSTA L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWIJK, KJ; KRAUSE, GH

    1991-01-01

    Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in vivo is shown to be considerably promoted by O2 under circumstances where energy turnover by photorespiration and photosynthetic carbon metabolism are low. Intact protoplasts of Valerianella locusta L. were photoinhibited by 30 min irradiation with 3000-mu-mol ph

  15. La inversión migratoria en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Lou, María Asunción

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available After a long introduction on the subject, the paper deals with the problem related with the use of statistical sources when looking at international migrations. Secondly, it addresses the interaction between migration patterns and demographic dynamics in Western Europe. Next, the article looks into the labor markets in current western societies and the role of immigrants therein. Finally, the main features of immigration policies in the EU countries are discussed. The rising importance of immigration in Spain is clearly underlined.Tras una extensa introducción para enmarcar el fenómeno descrito, el artículo aborda el problema de las fuentes estadísticas para el estudio de los procesos migratorios internacionales, la incidencia de la inmigración actual en la dinámica demográfica europea, los aspectos más sobresalientes de los nuevos mercados de trabajo y las líneas previsibles de la política migratoria de la Unión Europea a corto y medio plazo. El artículo refleja la importancia relativa de la inmigración española en lo que va de siglo XXI, cuando se compara con la de otros países occidentales.

  16. Gestión migratoria en Norte y Centroamérica: manifestaciones y contestaciones.

    OpenAIRE

    Kron, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    En este ensayo analizo las manifestaciones y contestaciones del paradigma de la gestión migratoria en Norte y Centroamérica. Le concedo especial atención a los países poco estudiados del istmo centroamericano. Sostengo que la gestión migratoria (migration management) es una respuesta importante a la creciente migración transnacional, ya que determina los arreglos institucionales de un nuevo régimen de movilidad regional que articula a Norte y Centroamérica. Me baso en el análisis etnográfico ...

  17. 培养基和温度对2株治蝗绿僵菌生长和毒力的影响%Effect of Different Media and Temperatures on Growth and Virulence of Two Isolates of Metarhizium anisopliaed from Locusta migr atoria manilensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树一; 雷仲仁; 李传仁

    2007-01-01

    研究了不同培养基及培养温度对治蝗绿僵菌(Metarhizium anisopliae)菌株LA和LD菌落面积、产孢量及毒力的影响,结果表明:LA在SMAY和PPDA培养基上的菌落面积较大,在SDAY上次之,在PCA上最小,且在SMAY培养基上的产孢量最高;LD在SMAY、PPDA和SDAY培养基上的菌落面积较大,在PCA上较小,且也在SMAY培养基上的产孢量最高;LA在30 ℃下生长较快,而LD则在25 ℃生长较快,但2种菌株均在25 ℃下产孢量较高;在SMAY上培养的LA、LD对东亚飞蝗(Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen))毒力较高,LT50分别是4.321 2 d和4.890 2 d.

  18. Central and Peripheral Significance of Neuropeptide Y and Its Related Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-15

    Neuropeptide Y-Like Immunoreactive Peptides in the Nervous System and Midgut of Locusta migratoria and in the Brain of Sarcophaga bullata. By LILIANE...Characterization of Neuropeptide Y-Like Immunoreactive Peptides in the Nervous System and Midgut of Locusta migratoria and in the Brain of Sarcophaga bullata...neuropeptide tyrosine) in two insect species, Locusta migratoria and Sarcophaga bullata. NPY has a widespread distribution and is present in extremely high

  19. Gobernanza y seguridad: Hacia una redefinición de la política migratoria mexicana, 2012-2014

    OpenAIRE

    José María Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Se analiza la importancia del enfoque de la gobernanza para impulsar una política migratoria mexicana más eficaz en el contexto de la violación a derechos humanos de migrantes indocumentados y con participación de diferentes actores guberna - mentales y no gubernamentales. La aportación principal del artículo es destacar un modelo de Gobernanza para Resultados ( gpr ) que pueda orientar hacia una implementación eficaz de la actual política migratoria mexicana, en especial, res - pecto del...

  20. Prevalencia de los Derechos de los Niños frente a la potestad migratoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Estela Tobón Berrío

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este es un avance de investigación derivado del proyecto ¿Derechos de los niños vs. potestad migratoria en el contexto jurisprudencial colombiano¿, financiado por la Universidad del Norte. El texto realiza la presentación de cinco sentencias identificadas en la jurisprudencia de revisión de tutelas de la Corte Constitucional colombiana, que examinan el derecho fundamental de los niños a tener una familia, no ser separados de ella y su carácter prevalente frente a la potestad migratoria del Estado en el marco de la orden de expulsión del territorio colombiano de uno de sus progenitores. Se esboza la construcción de una posible línea jurisprudencial, defensora de la prevalencia de los derechos de los niños a tener una familia, que propugna la limitación a la discrecionalidad de las autoridades de migración; la cual parece desvanecerse cuando la expulsión del extranjero se realiza bajo el contexto de la ejecución de una sanción derivada del poder punitivo estatal.

  1. [Peculiarities of the expression, structure, and localization of the subtilisin-like protease in the microsporidium Paranosema locustae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, S A; Sendersky, I V; Pavlova, O A; Dolgikh, V V

    2014-01-01

    Peculiarities of the expression, localization, and structure of the subtilisin-like protease from the microsporidium Paranosema locustae, a parasite of the migratory locust and other orthopteran species, are analyzed. Heterologous expression of the microsporidian ferment in the bacterium Escherichia coli allowed obtaining antibodies to the recombinant protein and to start its examination. In spite of the presence of the N-tail signal peptide in the ferment, potentially able to secret it into the cytoplasm of the infected cell, immunoblotting with obtained antibodies had demonstrated specific accumulation of the protease in the insoluble fraction of spore homogenate. At the same time, the ferment was absent in intracellular stages.of the parasite and also in the cytoplasm of infested host cells. Accumulation of mRNA, coding the studied protein in microsporidian spores was confirmed with the use of RT-PCR method. Heterologous expression of the protease in the methylotrophic yeast Pichiapastoris demonstrated the same result. The ferment of P. locustae was not secreted into a culture medium and was absent in the cytoplasm of yeast cells, accumulating in a dissoluble (membrane) fraction of the homogenate. On the whole, the obtained data testify to the fact that the subtilisin-like protease of P. locustae plays an important role in the physiology of spores rather than participates in host-parasite relations during intra-cellular development.

  2. Biologically Inspired Polymer Micro-Patterned Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    contained a volatile, hydrophilic phase.1 Another suggests that the pad secretion from the locust Locusta migratoria is an emulsion of lipidic nano...R.; Stierhof, Y. D.; Gorb, S.; Schwarz, U. Chemical composition of the attachment pad secretion of the locust Locusta migratoria . Insect Biochem

  3. Hormonal Interference with Pheromone Systems in Parasitic Acarines, Especially Ixodid Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    hydroxyecdysone by treatment of frations in Locusta migratoria extracts with the enzymie glucuronidase. A second fraction, which did not respond to this enzyne...products of ecdysone in Locusta migratoria . Hoppe-Ze.l er’Is ;.. Z. Physiol. Chem. Bd. 354: 1043-1048.. Obenchain, F.D. and J.H. Oliver. 1975

  4. La política migratoria en España Un análisis de largo plazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Alonso, Blanca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse migration policies in Spain from 1900 until present time. The basic idea is that the so called gap hypothesis (significant and persistent gaps between official migration policies and actual policy outcomes can also be applied to historical situations. In the Spanish case, the gap between stated policy objectives and outcomes is a constant over time both in the phase of external migration and in current immigration policies. The article is divided in two main sections. The first one presents a brief summary of the main trends in migration policies in Spain since the beginning of the 20th century. The second (and longer section analyzes the main gaps in Spanish migration policies. Policy gaps are of two kinds: those caused by objectives impossible to fulfil and those caused by the frequent use of inadequate policy instruments.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la política migratoria en España desde 1900 hasta la actualidad. La tesis fundamental es que la teoría del diferencial entre los objetivos de la política migratoria oficial y los resultados reales se puede aplicar a situaciones históricas. En el caso español, tanto en la fase en que los gobiernos desarrollan políticas de emigración como en las políticas de inmigración actuales, la realidad de la política migratoria se desvía constantemente de sus objetivos oficiales. El artículo se divide en dos secciones: la primera traza un breve panorama de las líneas maestras de las políticas migratorias en España desde comienzos del siglo XX hasta la actualidad. La segunda, más extensa, analiza los principales diferenciales en la política migratoria española tanto por el planteamiento de objetivos generales imposibles de cumplir como por el uso frecuente de instrumentos de política migratoria inadecuados.

  5. Opinión de los polleros tamaulipecos sobre la política migratoria estadounidense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro IZCARA PALACIOS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el comienzo de los años noventa, la política migratoria estadounidense ha centrado la atención en el control de la frontera, mientras las sanciones a los empleadores, la vigilancia de los lugares de trabajo y otras formas de control del interior han permanecido desatendidas. Sin embargo, un resguardo más estricto de la frontera ha sido incapaz de contener el flujo de inmigrantes indocumentados. En la medida en que Estados Unidos ha reforzado la vigilancia fronteriza, los inmigrantes se han tornado más dependientes de los contrabandistas de indocumentados. Este artículo analiza qué opinión tienen los polleros tamaulipecos sobre la estrategia estadounidense de control de la inmigración centrada en la vigilancia de la frontera y cómo ha afectado esto el contrabando de indocumentados.

  6. Neurophysiological Study of Vector Responses to Repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    E. A., and Chapman R. F. (1972) The control of changes in peripheral sensilla associated with feeding in Locusta migratoria (L.). J. exp. Biol. 57...sensitive to 4-methyl-hexanoic acid’ in Locusta migratoria . Receptors on the other neuron did, however, differentiate between the C-)- and (+)-enantiomers of...Bernars and haij ( 19 72) reported that a substance f rom the corpora cardiaca o t rec-,nt I f ed Locusta Mi.&ratoria acts d irect ly an the

  7. The complete mitogenome of the Chinese bush cricket, Gampsocleis gratiosa (Orthoptera: Tettigonioidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun Zhou; Fuming Shi; Yuan Huang

    2008-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Gampsocleis gratiosa was determined. The 15, 929 bp in the size of G. gratiosa mitogenome contains a typical gene content, base composition, and codon usage found in metazoan. All 13 protein coding genes (PCGs) of the G. gratiosa mitogenome start with a typical ATN codon. The usual termination codons (TAA and TAG) were found from 10 PCGs. However, the atp6, nad4, and nad5 had incomplete termination codon (T). The anticodons of all tRNAs are identical to those observed in Drosophila yakuba and Locusta migratoria, and can be folded in the form of a typical clover leaf structure except for trnS (AGN). The secondary structure of trnS (AGN) was drawn according with the Steinberg-Cedergren tertiary structure. The A+T content (67.4%) of the A+T-rich region is relatively lower among the mitogenome regions, in contrast, it usually contains the highest A+T content for most insects. Two isolated sequence repeat regions (202 bp) were found in the A+T-rich region with mapping and secondary structure information.

  8. Uptake of azoles by lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta L.) grown in hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valcárcel, Ana I; Loureiro, Iñigo; Escorial, Concepción; Molero, Encarnación; Tadeo, José L

    2016-02-01

    An uptake and translocation study of azole compounds was performed in lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta L.) grown in nutrient solution fortified with different azoles. Three azoles, (clotrimazole, fluconazole and propiconazole), which have different physico-chemical properties and are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, were the compounds selected. An analytical method, based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by LC-MS/MS determination, was developed to quantify these compounds in aqueous solution and in roots and leaves. The physicochemical properties of azoles are the main factors governing the uptake and plant accumulation. These azoles were detected in leaves indicating their transport within lamb's lettuce. Translocation from nutrient solution to the aerial part of lamb's lettuce was found to be highly dependent on the hydrophobicity of the azole. Clotrimazole accumulates in roots causing necrosis in roots and leaves, whereas fluconazole was the azole with the highest concentration in leaves without causing apparent phytotoxicity symptoms. The assessment of the levels of these azoles in leaves indicates that the risk for human health is negligible.

  9. Gobernanza y seguridad: Hacia una redefinición de la política migratoria mexicana, 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la importancia del enfoque de la gobernanza para impulsar una política migratoria mexicana más eficaz en el contexto de la violación a derechos humanos de migrantes indocumentados y con participación de diferentes actores guberna - mentales y no gubernamentales. La aportación principal del artículo es destacar un modelo de Gobernanza para Resultados ( gpr que pueda orientar hacia una implementación eficaz de la actual política migratoria mexicana, en especial, res - pecto del Programa Especial de Migración ( pem , 2014-2018 en el contexto de la inseguridad. Se parte de la premisa de que existe un enfoque limitado de gpr en la política migratoria mexicana, por lo cual, no se han reducido los factores que provocan la inseguridad y la violencia que afectan los derechos humanos de los migrantes indocumentados –nacionales y extranjeros– en territorio mexicano, de manera particular en la frontera norte.

  10. REGISTROS NUEVOS O POCO CONOCIDOS DE AVES MIGRATORIAS EN LA LAGUNA DEL OTÚN, PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL LOS NEVADOS, RISARALDA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORLANDO ACEVEDO-CHARRY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombia es un sitio importante para las aves migratorias. Sin embargo, aún falta mucho conocimiento de dónde estas se encuentran durante su paso o permanencia por el país y cuáles utilizan los páramos. Registramos nuevas especies de aves migratorias para la laguna del Otún, inmersa en un complejo de humedales declarados sitio Ramsar desde el 2008. La laguna está localizada en el Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados a 3932 msnm, en ecosistema de páramo, en la Cordillera Central de los Andes de Colombia. Durante cinco salidas entre 2010 y 2012 se registraron cuatro nuevas especies de aves migratorias para el parque: Anas acuta, Pandion haliaetus, Riparia riparia y Dendroica petechia. Adicionalmente, se registró una ampliación del rango altitudinal para dos especies mi- gratorias que solo habían sido registradas en la región a menos de 3500 msnm: Tringa flavipes e Hirundo rustica. Estas observaciones sugieren que dichas especies podrían tolerar condiciones de alta montaña y utilizar el páramo. Es necesario estudiar a fondo las diná- micas migratorias y el uso de hábitat de alta montaña por las aves migratorias.

  11. [Immunolocalization of microsporidium paranosema locustae canning lSP70 family proteins in locust infected fat body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderskiĭ, I V; Pavlova, O A; Timofeev, S A; Dolgikh, V V

    2014-01-01

    Immunolabeling method of microsporidium Paranosema locustae proteins on cryosections of locust infected fat body was proposed. In contrast to single parasite cells and artificially infected host cell cultures, this method allows to study molecular mechanisms of host-parasite relationships and in particular the secretory microsporidial proteins either at cellular or tissue level. Immunolocalization of the EPR-specific and cytoplasmic forms of Hsp70 family of molecular chaperones on cryosections showed accumulation of these proteins in the respective compartments of intracellular developmental stages of P. locustae and their absence in host structures. This allows to use them in diagnostics of microsporidiosis lesions in infected tissues as well as in colocalization analysis with P. lociustatre secretory proteins as a marker of parasite. The cytoplasmic chaperone stains cytoplasmic compartment homogeneously, but in the infected host cell during sporogony it disappears partially from the intracellular stages of development which damaged by maturing spores. Thereby study of molecular mechanisms of host-parasite relationships is to be carried out at the earlier stages of infection before active sporogony.

  12. Infectividad de Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia en la “tucura quebrachera” Tropidacris collaris (Orthoptera: Romaleidae en laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. LANGE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Siguiendo el procedimiento estándar de inocular por vía oral ninfas de tercer estadio con 105 esporos cada una, se determinó la infectividad del microsporidio Paranosema locustae (Canning, un patógeno desarrollado para el control biológico a largo plazo de tucuras, respecto del Romaleidae Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, especie que en años recientes ha demandado una mayor aplicación de insecticidas para su control. La proporción de insectos que desarrolló infección fue baja (38 %; n = 50, la producción de esporos en ellos fue casi nula (sólo dos infecciones traza y no se observaron signos o síntomas típicos asociados a infecciones fuertes. Dado que una alta producción de unidades infectivas transmisibles (esporos es normalmente necesaria para la persistencia de una enfermedad infecciosa (con transmisión horizontal predominante en la población del huésped, se estima que P. locustae no sería una alternativa eficaz para el control de T. collaris.

  13. The subtle effects of sea water acidification on the amphipod Gammarus locusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We report an investigation of the effects of increases in pCO2 on the survival, growth and molecular physiology of the neritic amphipod Gammarus locusta which has a cosmopolitan distribution in estuaries. Amphipods were reared from juvenile to mature adult in laboratory microcosms at three different levels of pH in nominal range 8.1–7.6. Growth rate was estimated from weekly measures of body length. At sexual maturity the amphipods were sacrificed and assayed for changes in the expression of genes coding for a heat shock protein (hsp70 gene and the metabolic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh gene. The data show that the growth and survival of this species is not significantly impacted by a decrease in sea water pH of up to 0.5 units. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that there was no significant effect of growth in acidified sea water on the sustained expression of the hsp70 gene. There was a consistent and significant increase in the expression of the gapdh gene at a pH of ~7.5 which, when combined with observations from other workers, suggests that metabolic changes may occur in response to acidification. It is concluded that sensitive assays of tissue physiology and molecular biology should be routinely employed in future studies of the impacts of sea water acidification as subtle effects on the physiology and metabolism of coastal marine species may be overlooked in conventional gross "end-point" studies of organism growth or mortality.

  14. DESARROLLO LOCAL: VULNERABILIDAD HÍDRICA, PRECARIEDAD LABORAL, INTENSIDAD MIGRATORIA E IDENTIDAD RESILIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirios Cruz García

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se consideraron pertinentes las Teorías del Conflicto y Cambio para conceptualizar el Desarrollo local. A partir de tal distinción, el presente estudio se propuso analizar los discursos de migrantes retornados a la microrregión de Xilitla. Para tal propósito, se plantearon tres dimensiones de análisis: vulnerabilidad hídrica, precariedad laboral e intensificación migratoria. Una vez establecida la guía para entrevista, llevó a cabo un estudio transversal con una muestra no probabilística. Los resultados muestran que la preservación de edificaciones tales como iglesias, camposantos y casa habitación son escenarios de simbolización que insertan a los grupos en una dinámica de competencia simbólica. La discusión relativa al Desarrollo Local de Xilitla permitió diferenciar las propuestas de sustentabilidad y matizar las alternativas de desarrollo en comunidades con baja disponibilidad de agua.

  15. Corrupción y gestión migratoria en el México posrevolucionario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankelevich, Pablo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the nature, extension and significances of the corruption practices inside the Mexican Migration Service during the first decades of the 20th century. In a context in which the need to enter or exit the country was seen, both by Mexicans or foreigners, as an opportunity for illicit enrichment, the article reveals how corruption practices flourished under the increase of immigration regulations. The pervasiveness of these practices allows one to assess them as a consubstantial part of the political order as opposed to an issue of a moral character.

    En este trabajo se estudia la naturaleza, extensión y significados de prácticas de corrupción en el Servicio de Migración de México durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Se advierten las maneras en que la corrupción creció al amparo de un ensanchamiento de las regulaciones migratorias y el control fronterizo, en un contexto en que la necesidad de ingresar o salir de país por parte de extranjeros y mexicanos era valorada como una oportunidad para enriquecimientos ilícitos. La dimensión alcanzada por estas prácticas permite valorarlas como parte consustancial del orden político antes que como un asunto de carácter moral.

  16. Migración hacia Estados Unidos y su impacto en la nueva reforma migratoria (parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asael Mercado Maldonado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar el contexto social y político para la implementación de una nueva reforma migratoria integral del gobierno norteamericano. Es importante abordar varias posturas que van desde los legisladores demócratas, republicanos, el presidente, los empresarios y la sociedad civil para considerar los pros y los contras de dicha reforma, así como el contenido de varias propuestas, sin perder de vista la postura mexicana.

  17. Migración hacia Estados Unidos y su impacto en la nueva reforma migratoria (Parte I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asael Mercado Maldonado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar el contexto social y político para la implementación de una nueva reforma migratoria integral del Gobierno Norteamericano. Es importante abordar varias posturas que van desde los legisladores Demócratas, Republicanos, el Presidente, los empresarios y la sociedad civil, con la finalidad de reconocer los pros y los contras de dicha reforma, así como el contenido de varias propuestas y sin perder de vista la postura mexicana.

  18. Beneficial effects of silicon on hydroponically grown corn salad (Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Stefano; Iacuzzo, Francesco; Tomasi, Nicola; Cortella, Giovanni; Manzocco, Lara; Pinton, Roberto; Römheld, Volker; Mimmo, Tanja; Scampicchio, Matteo; Dalla Costa, Luisa; Cesco, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    Soil-less cultivation of horticultural crops represents a fairly recent innovation to traditional agriculture which has several advantages including higher water-use efficiency. When plants are grown with this system, their roots come in contact with nutrients solely via the hydroponic solution. Although its beneficial effects have been widely demonstrated, silicon (Si) is mostly omitted from the composition of nutrient solutions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the beneficial effect of Si addition to hydroponic solution on quali-quantitative aspects of edible production of two cultivars of corn salad (Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr.) grown in soil-less floating system. Impacts on shelf life of this food were also studied. Results show that the supply of Si increased the edible yield and the quality level reducing the nitrate concentration in edible tissues. This result might be attributed to changes either in the metabolism (such as the nitrate assimilation process) or to the functionality of root mechanisms involved in the nutrient acquisition from the outer medium. In fact, our results show for the first time the ability of Si to modulate the root activity of nitrate and Fe uptake through, at least in part, a regulation of gene expression levels of the proteins involved in this phenomenon. In addition, the presence of Si decreased the levels of polyphenoloxidase gene expression at harvest and, in post-harvest, slowed down the chlorophyll degradation delaying leaf senescence and thus prolonging the shelf life of these edible tissues. In conclusion, data showed that the addition of Si to the nutrient solution can be a useful tool for improving quali-quantitatively the yield of baby leaf vegetable corn salad as well as its shelf life. Since the amelioration due to the Si has been achieved only with one cultivar, the recommendation of its inclusion in the nutrient solution does not exclude the identification of cultivars suitable for this

  19. La transformación del coyotaje en el contexto de políticas migratorias restrictivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo está fundamentado en una metodología cualitativa que incluye entrevistas en profundidad a un centenar de agentes facilitadores del cruce fronterizo. El estudio fue conducido entre abril de 2008 y julio de 2012. Examina la transformación del tráfico de migrantes entre México y los Estados Unidos en el contexto de políticas migratorias restrictivas. El artículo concluye que los polleros mexicanos han perdido independencia, porque ahora tienen que pagar múltiples sobornos y necesitan contar con el apoyo de los empleadores estadounidenses para poder conducir a los migrantes desde el lugar de origen hasta el punto de destino en los Estados Unidos.

  20. Dejando atrás las fronteras. Las políticas migratorias ante las exigencias de la justicia global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco, Juan Carlos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the reciprocal normative implications between the conceptions of global justice and citizenship on the one hand, and the definition of migration politics on the other hand. The investigation is carried out in four steps: first, there will be provided some reasons to overcome the state oriented focus of the theory of justice; then the worldwide poverty and the migration flows will be pointed out as problems that any modern theory of justice has to cope with; in a third step, it will be shown to what extent the national borders have to be regarded as obstacles for an implementation of a global conception of justice; and, finally, it will be argued for a redefinition of the notion of citizenship that is meant to build the normative horizon of migration politics.

    En este artículo se abordan las recíprocas implicaciones normativas existentes entre las concepciones de la justicia global y de la ciudadanía, por un lado, y la definición de las políticas migratorias, por otro. La exploración se hace en cuatro pasos: se ofrecen algunas razones para superar el enfoque estadocéntrico de la teoría de la justicia; se presentan la pobreza mundial y los flujos migratorios generados por ella como cuestiones ineludibles para una teoría de la justicia; se analizan los obstáculos que las fronteras estatales representan a la hora de implementar una concepción global de la justicia; y, finalmente, se argumenta a favor de redefinir la noción de ciudadanía de modo que constituya el horizonte normativo de las políticas migratorias.

  1. Políticas migratorias e instituciones hacia los marroquíes en el extranjero ¿Amenaza política o panacea transfronteriza?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Yrizar Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    migratorias y se muestra cómo ha sido la actividad del gobierno de Marruecos hacia sus migrantes. Finalmente, se identifican cambios en la acción pública y en el discurso oficial del gobierno que abren el debate en cuanto a si la migración internacional, además de ser un proceso social, puede considerarse un proceso político.

  2. Secretion of Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae proteins into infected cells suggests an active role of microsporidia in the control of host programs and metabolic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderskiy, Igor V; Timofeev, Sergey A; Seliverstova, Elena V; Pavlova, Olga A; Dolgikh, Viacheslav V

    2014-01-01

    Molecular tools of the intracellular protozoan pathogens Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastida for manipulation of host cell machinery have been the focus of investigation for approximately two decades. Microsporidia, fungi-related microorganisms forming another large group of obligate intracellular parasites, are characterized by development in direct contact with host cytoplasm (the majority of species), strong minimization of cell machinery, and acquisition of unique transporters to exploit host metabolic system. All the aforementioned features are suggestive of the ability of microsporidia to modify host metabolic and regulatory pathways. Seven proteins of the microsporidium Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae with predicted signal peptides but without transmembrane domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Western-blot analysis with antibodies against recombinant products showed secretion of parasite proteins from different functional categories into the infected host cell. Secretion of parasite hexokinase and α/β-hydrolase was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, this method showed specific accumulation of A. locustae hexokinase in host nuclei. Expression of hexokinase, trehalase, and two leucine-rich repeat proteins without any exogenous signal peptide led to their secretion in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In contrast, α/β-hydrolase was not found in the culture medium, though a significant amount of this enzyme accumulated in the yeast membrane fraction. These results suggest that microsporidia possess a broad set of enzymes and regulatory proteins secreted into infected cells to control host metabolic processes and molecular programs.

  3. Secretion of Antonospora (Paranosema locustae proteins into infected cells suggests an active role of microsporidia in the control of host programs and metabolic processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V Senderskiy

    Full Text Available Molecular tools of the intracellular protozoan pathogens Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastida for manipulation of host cell machinery have been the focus of investigation for approximately two decades. Microsporidia, fungi-related microorganisms forming another large group of obligate intracellular parasites, are characterized by development in direct contact with host cytoplasm (the majority of species, strong minimization of cell machinery, and acquisition of unique transporters to exploit host metabolic system. All the aforementioned features are suggestive of the ability of microsporidia to modify host metabolic and regulatory pathways. Seven proteins of the microsporidium Antonospora (Paranosema locustae with predicted signal peptides but without transmembrane domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Western-blot analysis with antibodies against recombinant products showed secretion of parasite proteins from different functional categories into the infected host cell. Secretion of parasite hexokinase and α/β-hydrolase was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, this method showed specific accumulation of A. locustae hexokinase in host nuclei. Expression of hexokinase, trehalase, and two leucine-rich repeat proteins without any exogenous signal peptide led to their secretion in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In contrast, α/β-hydrolase was not found in the culture medium, though a significant amount of this enzyme accumulated in the yeast membrane fraction. These results suggest that microsporidia possess a broad set of enzymes and regulatory proteins secreted into infected cells to control host metabolic processes and molecular programs.

  4. Disponibilidad de alimento para aves playeras (tigüises migratorias en la bahía de Bluefields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayda Agui ar Arroyo

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available En la red de humedales que rodea la bahía de Bluefields indagamos y analizamos la disponibilidad de invertebrados bentónicos susceptibles de ser parte de la dieta de aves playeras (Charadriidae. Por medio de búsqueda intensiva en tres microhabitats de la bahía investigamos la fauna invertebrada béntica en general está conformada por 4 phylum, 6 clases, 14 órdenes, 35 familias y 36 géneros más 2 no identificados. La densidad poblacional de estos organismos reflejan variaciones: E Bluff registra 14,814.72 ind/m en febrero, I I ,342.52 ind/m2 en marzo y 31,828.8 ind/m' en abril. La Isla El Venado es el microhabitat que reporta las densidades de población más alta. La Barra de Hone Sound tiene las densidades de invertebrados más bajas. Los tres microhabitats estudiados muestran diferencias en la disponibilidad de alimento para las aves playeras migratorias, probablemente se deba a las particularidades en las características ecológicas de cada sitio.

  5. EL MODELO DE CONTROL DE GESTIÓN MIGRATORIA FRANCÉS: UNA EXTENSIÓN DEL SISTEMA PENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Debandi

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo se desprende de la tesis doctoral realizada sobre las políticas y prácticas de expulsión de migrantes en Francia. En primer lugar, se propone la expulsión de extranjeros como un dispositivo de seguridad2 que se concentrará especialmente en una parte de la población, los migrantes, catalogados como necesarios o excedente en función de los lineamientos que impone el mercado. Este dispositivo post-disciplinario se puede concebir como parte del sistema penal, conjugando con éste mecanismos y modalidades de intervención al mismo tiempo que se deslinda del peso burocrático y simbólico que éste ha adquirido. Esto se comprueba por ejemplo con la trasferencia del “publico” de un mecanismo al otro, es decir desde la prisión hacia los centros, a partir de la instauración del dispositivo de expulsión, pero también por medio de las prácticas y los innumerables puntos de contacto. Se señala asimismo el caso francés como un modelo de gestión migratoria que presenta características propias y distintivas de otras formas de gestión.

  6. Sexualidades migrantes: La experiencia migratoria de los hombres homosexuales y bisexuales colombianos en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Eduardo Restrepo Pineda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es parte de la primera aproximación al trabajo de campo de la tesis doctoral: “Sexualidades migrantes la experiencia migratoria de los hombres homosexuales y bisexuales colombianos en España”, cuya finalidad es conocer cómo los hombres homosexuales y bisexuales colombianos construyen su sexualidad en función de los valores, las creencias, las representaciones sociales y la cultura de su país de origen y cómo cambian estos en cuanto a significados, representaciones y comportamientos al llegar a un nuevo contexto social en España. Se pretende indagar además si esta interrelación conduce o no a asumir conductas de alto riesgo que afecten su salud, ya que estos comportamientos están influenciados de manera directa por las situaciones y contextos en los cuales las personas tienen sexo, así como por las culturas sexuales que informan lo que cualquier conducta significa dentro de dichas situaciones.

  7. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  8. Tablas de Contingencia y Modelos de Regresión Logística aplicados a cuatro rutas migratorias a partir del medio rural en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina López-Calleja Hiort-Lorenzen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Las migraciones internas se han convertido en un problema de fundamental importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las migraciones internas desde el medio rural, en Cuba; identificar las características de los migrantes, en relación con los no migrantes. Se utilizan modelos de regresión logística para los cuatro movimientos migratorios: Rural-Rural-Rural, Rural-Rural-Urbano, Rural-Urbano-Rural y Rural-Urbano-Urbano, con sus pruebas de bondad de ajuste y diagnósticos. A partir de la Encuesta de Migraciones Internas (ENMI se construyen tablas cruzadas que caracterizan a los migrantes,. En el análisis, se interpretan las conocidas razones de disparidad para cada ruta migratoria. Los modelos construidos se ajustan a los datos. Para las rutas analizadas la migración resultó selectiva atendiendo a diferentes atributos sociodemográficos; el color de la piel no resultó importante. En algunos casos existen efectos confusores, por tanto son las razones de disparidad de la regresión logística las válidas. El sexo no influye para la ruta migratoria RRR. Cuando el destino del migrante contiene una zona urbana, el sexo influye. El movimiento migratorio se realiza en familia, para todas las rutas migratorias migran más los jóvenes; en la ruta RUR migran más las con vínculo laboral, y en la ruta RUU las más calificadas.

  9. Tablas de Contingencia y Modelos de Regresión Logística aplicados a cuatro rutas migratorias a partir del medio rural en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina López-Calleja Hiort-Lorenzen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las migraciones internas se han convertido en un problema de fundamental importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las migraciones internas desde el medio rural, en Cuba; identificar las características de los migrantes, en relación con los no migrantes. Se utilizan modelos de regresión logística para los cuatro movimientos migratorios: Rural-Rural-Rural, Rural-Rural-Urbano, Rural-Urbano-Rural y Rural-Urbano- Urbano, con sus pruebas de bondad de ajuste y diagnósticos. A partir de la Encuesta de Migraciones Internas (ENMI se construyen tablas cruzadas que caracterizan a los migrantes,. En el análisis, se interpretan las conocidas razones de disparidad para cada ruta migratoria. Los modelos construidos se ajustan a los datos. Para las rutas analizadas la migración resultó selectiva atendiendo a diferentes atributos sociodemográficos; el color de la piel no resultó importante. En algunos casos existen efectos confusores, por tanto son las razones de disparidad de la regresión logística las válidas. El sexo no influye para la ruta migratoria RRR. Cuando el destino del migrante contiene una zona urbana, el sexo influye. El movimiento migratorio se realiza en familia, para todas las rutas migratorias migran más los jóvenes; en la ruta RUR migran más las con vínculo laboral, y en la ruta RUU las más calificadas.

  10. La tradición migratoria como factor explicativo del uso de remesas en la financiación de negocios en Guanajuato

    OpenAIRE

    Jazmín GARCÍA GÓMEZ; Óscar PELÁEZ HERREROS; Noé Arón FUENTES FLORES

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza el uso de las remesas por parte de las familias receptoras en México. Los resultados muestran la existencia de diferencias regionales, en el sentido de que la tradición migratoria de una región contribuye a que una mayor proporción de remesas se destine a inversión en negocios. Dos hechos favorecen esta relación: la mayor edad de emigrantes y jefes de hogares receptores (que, por tanto, se encuentran en una fase más avanzada del ciclo vital del ahorro), y el mayor ...

  11. Elementos del contexto sociocultural de origen que inciden en la decisión migratoria de los estudiantes universitarios huastecos residentes en Monterrey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Martínez Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de una investigación mayor sobre el proceso de reconfiguración étnica de los universitarios huastecos emigrados a Monterrey, en este artículo se identifican los principales elementos del contexto sociocultural de origen que inciden de manera significativa en su decisión migratoria. Se trata de un estudio de corte cualitativo, realizado a través de entrevistas a profundidad realizadas a líderes comunitarios en las comunidades de origen, así como historias de vida de los estudiantes en la ciudad de acogida. Presentamos los resultados desde las dos perspectivas mencionadas, las cuales evidencian aspectos significativos, como la ruptura con la comunidad indígena que se refleja en las nuevas configuraciones de ideales, expectativas y valorizaciones, por parte de ambos actores. Asimismo, en estas nuevas valorizaciones aparece el papel de la educación superior como uno de los elementos que participan no solo en la decisión migratoria sino en la movilidad social de los jóvenes huastecos.

  12. REGISTROS NUEVOS O POCO CONOCIDOS DE AVES MIGRATORIAS EN LA LAGUNA DEL OTÚN, PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL LOS NEVADOS, RISARALDA, COLOMBIA Records of New or Poorly Known Migratory Birds from Laguna del Otún, los Nevados National Natural Park, Risaralda, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORLANDO ACEVEDO-CHARRY

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia es un sitio importante para las aves migratorias. Sin embargo, aún falta mucho conocimiento de dónde estas se encuentran durante su paso o permanencia por el país y cuáles utilizan los páramos. Registramos nuevas especies de aves migratorias para la laguna del Otún, inmersa en un complejo de humedales declarados sitio Ramsar desde el 2008. La laguna está localizada en el Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados a 3932 msnm, en ecosistema de páramo, en la Cordillera Central de los Andes de Colombia. Durante cinco salidas entre 2010 y 2012 se registraron cuatro nuevas especies de aves migratorias para el parque: Anas acuta, Pandion haliaetus, Riparia riparia y Dendroica petechia. Adicionalmente, se registró una ampliación del rango altitudinal para dos especies migratorias que solo habían sido registradas en la región a menos de 3500 msnm: Tringa flavipes e Hirundo rustica. Estas observaciones sugieren que dichas especies podrían tolerar condiciones de alta montaña y utilizar el páramo. Es necesario estudiar a fondo las dinámicas migratorias y el uso de hábitat de alta montaña por las aves migratorias.

  13. La tradición migratoria como factor explicativo del uso de remesas en la financiación de negocios en Guanajuato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín GARCÍA GÓMEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el uso de las remesas por parte de las familias receptoras en México. Los resultados muestran la existencia de diferencias regionales, en el sentido de que la tradición migratoria de una región contribuye a que una mayor proporción de remesas se destine a inversión en negocios. Dos hechos favorecen esta relación: la mayor edad de emigrantes y jefes de hogares receptores (que, por tanto, se encuentran en una fase más avanzada del ciclo vital del ahorro, y el mayor grado de desarrollo de las instituciones relacionadas con el proceso migratorio. La información utilizada para este análisis procede de la Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares (ENIGH y de entrevistas realizadas a la colonia de guanajuaten-ses residentes en California, Estados Unidos.

  14. Inmigrantes laborales y flujo en tránsito en la Frontera Sur de México: dos manifestaciones del proceso y una política migratoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Martínez Velasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto presenta una caracterización de la inmigración laboral de guatemaltecos a México, su perspectiva histórica y sus procesos de cambio en relación con los nuevos espacios territoriales de destino, cruces e inserciones laborales. También establece los rasgos fundamentales de la migración en tránsito proveniente de Centroamérica que cruza el territorio nacional mexicano, sus nuevas trayectorias de cruce y sus costos sociales en términos de sus derechos humanos en un marco de mayor vulnerabilidad social. Con base en esos dos procesos de migración, se analiza el papel que ha desplegado el Estado mexicano en relación con el establecimiento de una nueva política migratoria emprendida en las dos últimas administraciones (2001-2012 de gobiernos del Partido Acción Nacional, los arreglos institucionales y legislativos, sus avances y la asignatura pendiente en relación con la proclamación de los derechos humanos y laborales. Se concluye que aun cuando la normatividad migratoria tuvo avances sin precedentes, ésta manifiesta serias insuficiencias en relación a la inmigración centroamericana a México (sea la laboral como la de tránsito la cual ha cambiado a nuevas formas de expresión, registrando cambios cualitativos y cuantitativos en su cruce, en un ambiente de mayor riesgo en el territorio nacional mexicano.

  15. Prokaryotic expression of the hemocyanin subunit type 1 gene from Locusta migratoria manilensis and protein prediction%东亚飞蝗血蓝蛋白亚基1基因的原核表达与蛋白结构预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新新; 游婷; 刘海霞; 印红

    2013-01-01

    为了分析东亚飞蝗血蓝蛋白亚基1(LmiHc1)基因的原核表达情况,并对其蛋白结构进行预测,采用PCR方法扩增LmiHc1目的基因片段,克隆至pET-DsbA表达载体中,构建含目的基因的表达质粒pET-DsbA/LmiHc1,将重组体转化为E.coli BL21 (DE3)并诱导蛋白表达,至此成功构建了LmiHc1的原核表达载体.SDS-PAGE电泳结果显示目的基因得到了相对分子质量约为60 ku的高表达的融合蛋白.采用SABLE与Swiss-Model软件分别预测LmiHc1蛋白的二级结构和三级结构,LmiHc1蛋白的二级结构为α螺旋、β折叠、无规则卷曲的混合体;其三级结构含有3个结构域:Hemocyanin_N,Hemocyanin_M,Hemocyanin_C.

  16. 东亚飞蝗肠道细菌鉴定及其对金龟子绿僵菌拮抗作用分析%Identification of the intestinal bacteria in Locusta migratoria manilensis and their antagonism to Metarhizium anisopliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵悦; 张泽华; 王广君

    2008-01-01

    通过对室内饲养的东亚飞蝗5龄若虫肠道细菌的分离纯化培养,共获得8个细菌菌株,16s rDNA鉴定分别与绿脓杆菌(Pseudomonas aeruginosa)、克雷伯氏菌属(Klebsiella sp.)、地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheniformis)、阴沟肠杆菌(Enterobacter cloacae)、节杆菌属(Arthrobacter sp.)、木糖葡萄球菌(Staphylococcusxylosus)、蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)和芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus sp.)有较高的同源性,其中克雷伯氏菌和阴沟肠杆菌检出率为100%,检出量最大,均达到109cfu/g肠道,为常驻的优势菌群.肠道细菌在东亚飞蝗体内的数量分布为后肠>中肠>前肠,种类分布为中肠(8种)>后肠(6种)>前肠(4种).常驻细菌克雷伯氏菌和阴沟肠杆菌对金龟子绿僵菌则无拮抗作用,表明肠道常驻菌不是影响金龟子绿僵菌在蝗虫肠道内萌发侵染的主要因素,但同时也说明了在不同环境条件下使用绿僵菌防治蝗虫在防效上可能会有很大的差异.

  17. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  18. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  19. Diversidad, abundancia estacional y uso de hábitat de aves playeras migratorias en el estuario del Rio Gallegos (Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Anahí Becerra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversidad, abundancia estacional y uso de hábitat de aves playeras migratorias en el estuario del rio Gallegos (Santa Cruz. Se presenta información sobre la condición actual de las aves playeras migratorias en un sector del estuario, adyacente a la ciudad de Río Gallegos, que está sujeto a diversos cambios provenientes del uso urbano. Desde marzo de 2011 a enero de 2012, se realizaron 52 visitas a 5 estaciones de muestreo, recorriéndose transectas perpendiculares a la costa. La diversidad específica fue mayor en primavera, superando en más del doble al resto de las estaciones. Del análisis comparativo entre los resultados obtenidos y estudios previos, surgió que la riqueza específica no presentó cambios, manteniéndose entre 8/9 especies. Los cambios más notables en la comunidad no obstante, se presentaron en la abundancia máxima por especie y uso del hábitat, excepto el Ostrero Austral que mantuvo su abundancia, resultando dominante (Frecuencia de Ocurrencia= 92%. El resto de las especies disminuyeron drásticamente el uso del área, como el Playerito Rabadilla Blanca (99%, Becasa de Mar (96,3% y Playero Rojizo (97,4%, en relación a registros históricos de 1997/99. Los hábitats más utilizados fueron el sustrato limo-arcilloso y el arenoso, mientras que la marisma fue la de menor uso, a pesar de que existen reportes anteriores de uso frecuente por varias especies. Se discuten las posibles causas de estos cambios y se efectúan recomendaciones, como la necesidad de mantener un mosaico de diferentes tipos de hábitats, la estructura del sustrato y la Reserva Costera Urbana, siendo necesario la planificación y estudio previo ante cualquier acción antrópica que altere el natural equilibrio erosivo-sedimentario de estos frágiles ecosistemas.

  20. LEARNING CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Vocabulary: 银行 yin hang bank 邮局 you jǔ (you as in "slow") post office 电报 dian bao telegram 邮票 you piao (you as in "know") stamp 信 xin letter 信封 xin feng envelope 航空 hang kong airmail 包裹 bao guo parcel 元 yuan a unit of currency in China 人民币 ren min bi RMB (the name of Chinese currency)

  1. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  2. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  3. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  5. La Ley argentina de Migraciones en el contexto del Multiculturalismo: La presencia de caracteres culturales en las políticas migratorias a partir de 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sebastián Crescentino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo reflexiona sobre las transformaciones de la normativa migratoria argentina entre 2004-2014. Se analizan los preceptos legales dictados con posterioridad a la promulgación de la Ley de Migraciones N.25.871/04, observando la presencia de caracteres culturales en las mismas, y el fomento de principios de interculturalidad en la sociedad argentina. Además, se examina si se ha contemplado una alternativa a la representación de una identidad nacional homogénea instituida a partir de la demarcación del Estado Moderno.Por otra parte, se pone a consideración la estructura orgánica de la institución estatal responsable de la cultura a nivel nacional, comprobando la incorporación de los principios multiculturalistas en sus objetivos. Para concluir, se verifican las tareas pendientes para el cumplimiento de la ley; y se indaga sobre la pertinencia de estas políticas para la interpretación de la realidad cultural argentina.

  6. La práctica del fútbol entre mujeres bolivianas en Sevilla. Redes sociales, trayectorias migratorias y relaciones de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Müller

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los inmigrados en España, especialmente de países andinos, han constituido un movimiento asociativoemergente que ha tomado cuerpo en ligas autogestionadas de fútbol y futsal. En dichas ligas la participaciónfemenina es significativa. ¿Cómo entender esta práctica deportiva de las mujeres? Este artículo se centra enel estudio de redes migratorias, sociales y laborales para entender la práctica del fútbol y su influencia en lasrelaciones de género. Su objetivo es analizar las estrategias de los migrantes y explicar cómo las redes migratoriasy sociales de arribo han incidido en la formación y potencialidad de este espacio, así como en el desenvolvimientode los equipos; ejemplificado, en este caso, en el equipo Bolivia de Sevilla donde la autoraparticipó como etnógrafa-jugadora. Con tal fin, se ha utilizado un enfoque empírico, social y procesual queme ha permitido analizar los cambios en el deporte como proceso paralelo al avance de las trayectoriasmigratorias y de las relaciones de pareja.

  7. Culturas migratorias en el Caribe colombiano: El caso de los isleños raizales de las islas de Old Providence y Santa Catalina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Márquez Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las migraciones caribeñas han sido ampliamente documentadas, especialmente desde visiones económicas y demográficas que enfatizan los aspectos negativos que estas causan en individuos y sociedades. Sin embargo, desde las ciencias humanas se ha difundido el concepto de culturas migratorias para analizarlas . El eje central es que, más allá de un fenómeno de tipo económico, ligado a superpoblación y desempleo , la movilidad caribeña puede entenderse como una tradición cultural que se ha convertido en un modo de vida legitimado por generaciones de migrantes, permitiendo la viabilidad de estas sociedades. Este concepto supone la movilidad constante a manera de migraciones temporales utilizadas como estrategias económicas básicas, así como mecanismos socioculturales que facilitan y perpetúan esta práctica. Este seria el caso de los habitantes de Providencia y Santa Catalina en el territorio de habla inglesa en el Caribe colombiano, quienes poseen una larga historia de migraciones que continúan hasta hoy y que constituyen una forma de vida. Este documento resulta de investigaciones realizadas tanto en las islas como con migrantes en Bogotá, entre 2004 y 2011, en las cuales se abordaron diversos temas, incluyendo el papel de las migraciones en la vida de estos isleños, las memorias y las percepciones sobre las mismas.

  8. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  9. La migración infantil indocumentada de Centroamérica, un desafío a la reformulación de la política migratoria de Estados Unidos. Estudio de caso de Honduras (2010-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Forero Padilla, Fabian Enrique

    2016-01-01

    El siguiente estudio de caso analiza la influencia de la llegada de la migración infantil indocumentada centroamericana en la reformulación de la política migratoria de Estados Unidos en el período 2010-2014. Enfocándose en el caso de Honduras para dar a conocer y analizar las causas que crean las dinámicas migratorias por parte de los menores, este trabajo analiza como la llegada de estas poblaciones genera ciertos efectos en el proceso de toma de decisión de las políticas internas de los Es...

  10. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  11. Propuesta de mejora de la política migratoria en materia de derechos humanos de la frontera sur de México. Período 2006-2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Alcántara, Edith

    2015-01-01

    La presente investigación realiza una propuesta de mejora de la política migratoria enfocada en la frontera sur de México, durante el período gubernamental 2006-2012, respecto de la observancia de los derechos humanos de los migrantes centroamericanos en tránsito por México, a través del método sociohistórico (weberiano), cualitativo y cuantitativo. En virtud de lo anterior, se identificaron los antecedentes y concepciones del fenómeno migratorio, se realizó el análisis de l...

  12. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  13. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  14. Scanorama in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scanorama, the SAS on-board magazine,is now also available in Chinese. Table-tennis star,J-O Waldner, Scandinavian design and delicious Norwegian seafood are what SAS Chinese customers can read about while sitting on board SAS flights on the Copenhagen - Beijing and Copenhagen-Shanghai routes. The magazine uses the written Chinese language that is read by nearly one billion mainland Chinese.

  15. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  16. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  17. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  18. “No es fácil..., y aquí tampoco”. Trayectorias migratorias de mujeres cubanas en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Muñoz, Joan Josep

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available “It is not easy” is one of the most commonly used expressions by women and men in Cuba because it sums up the hard times that the Caribbean island is currently going through. In the new Cuban socioeconomic landscape, it is women who, to a great extent, are suffering the consequences of the economic crisis in their family and social lives, given that have to work for the productive system, generate networks of solidarity and, above all, act as important home keepers. By studying different migratory trajectory of Cuban women who live in Spain, we ask if the situation of family and social pressure linked to the reproductive ambit has become one of the factors causing Cuban women to emigrate, above all when, from a Cuban ideological perspective, they have been made aware of the possibilities open to them in the public domain.“No es fácil” es una de las expresiones más usadas por mujeres y hombres en Cuba, siendo esta la que mejor resume la dureza de los tiempos que corren en la isla caribeña. En el nuevo paisaje socioeconómico cubano, son las mujeres quienes están viviendo, en mayor medida, las consecuencias de la crisis económica en la vida familiar y social: aportando su trabajo al sistema productivo, generando redes de solidaridad y, sobre todo, como principales gestoras y proveedoras de los hogares. A través del análisis de diferentes trayectorias migratorias de mujeres cubanas que se encuentran en España, nos preguntamos si la situación de presión familiar y social vinculada al ámbito reproductivo se ha convertido en uno de los factores que las ha llevado a emigrar, sobre todo cuando, desde el planteamiento ideológico cubano, se les ha hecho conscientes de sus posibilidades en el espacio público.

  19. Development of catabolic pathways in insect flight muscles. A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakkers, A.M.Th.; Broek, A.Th.M. van den; Ronde, Th.J.A. de

    1975-01-01

    Activities of enzymes representative of glycolytic and β-oxidative pathways and citric acid and glycerophosphate cycles were measured in the developing flight muscles of three species: Calliphora erythrocephala, Locusta migratoria, and Philosamia cynthia. The activities were measured in vitro under

  20. Coherence between biosynthesis, storage, and release of adipokinetic hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, Leunis Forrinus

    2002-01-01

    In insects, specific parts of the retrocerebral complex are essential for homeostatic control in response to changes in both internal and external environments. Neuroendocrine cells in the glandular part of the coprus cardiacum of Locusta migratoria represent the site of synthesis and release of thr

  1. Regulation of glycogenolysis in the locust fat body during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrewijk, W.J.A. van; Broek, A.Th.M. van den; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Glycogen reserves in the fat body of Locusta migratoria decrease dramatically during the first two hours of flight. In fat body of rested locusts only 10% of glycogen phosphorylase occurs in the active form. The enzyme is activated significantly during flight, when up to one-third of the total phosp

  2. Speed over efficiency: locusts select body temperatures that favour growth rate over efficient nutrient utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Gabriel A; Clissold, Fiona J; Mayntz, David

    2009-01-01

    Ectotherms have evolved preferences for particular body temperatures, but the nutritional and life-history consequences of such temperature preferences are not well understood. We measured thermal preferences in Locusta migratoria (migratory locusts) and used a multi-factorial experimental design...

  3. A Biological Model for Directional Sensing of Seismic Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    186: 695-705. Cokl, A., Otto, C. and Kalmring, K. 1985. The processing of directional vibratory signals in the ventral nerve cord of Locusta ... migratoria . J. Comp. Physiol. A 156:45-52. Cokl, A., M. Virant-Doberlet, and A. McDowell. 1999. Vibrational directionality in the southern green stink bug

  4. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  5. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  6. Análisis y tendencias migratorias en la región del Biobío (Chile entre 1982 y 2002. Aplicación desde el modelo gravitacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maturana-Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de migraciones internas en la región del Biobío expresa un proceso de redistribución espacial que tiende a la polarización del espacio hacia la capital regional –Concepción metropolitano– y a las comunas contiguas a ésta. De igual manera, se observa una fuerte atracción migratoria de las capitales provinciales pero circunscrita a su hinterland . Además, se determina que el perfil del migrante desde estas ciudades hacia la capital regional se caracterizaría por una alta educación, a diferencia de los migrantes de las comunas aledañas a las capitales provinciales, que se compondrían más bien por población joven con bajos grados de escolaridad.

  7. La experiencia migratoria según género: salvadoreños y salvadoreñas en el Estado de Maryland Migratory experiences according gender: salvadoreños y salvadoreñas in Maryland state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Poggio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo discuto primero la importancia de la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en el análisis de las migraciones internacionales, como única manera de obtener conocimiento acabado sobre el fenómeno. A partir del análisis de dos muestras de mujeres y una de hombres inmigrantes Salvadoreños en el área denominada "El corredor Washington-Baltimore", intento demostrar que la estructura de género existente en el país de origen así como la que hay en el país de destino son determinantes en la formación de una corriente migratoria. En un segundo momento comparo las experiencias migratorias de hombres y mujeres de la misma corriente con el propósito de contrastar las percepciones de ambos géneros en lo que se relaciona a los efectos de la migración a nivel individual y a las relaciones familiares de género y generaciones.In this article, I first, discuss the importance of the incorporation of gender's perspective in the analysis of the international migrations as the unique manner to obtain complete knowledge from the phenomenon. Since the analysis of two samples of women and one of men immigrant salvadoreños in the designate area "The runner Washington-Baltimore", I attempt to prove the determinacy of the existent gender's structure in the origin country ant in the destiny country to form a migration stream. Second, I compare the migration experiences of women and men from the same stream to check the two gender's perceptions of the migration's results in the individual level as in the family's relations and generations.

  8. 中国的飞蝗研究及其治理的主要成就

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永林

    2000-01-01

    @@ 飞蝗Locusta migratoria(L.)是洲际性农业重大害虫.分布于亚、非、欧、澳洲.已知有1种l0亚种,即亚洲飞蝗Locusta migratoria migratoria (Linnaeus)、东亚飞蝗L.m.manilensis(Meyen)、西藏飞蝗L.m.tibeteasis Chen、缅甸飞蝗L.m.burmana Ramme、非洲飞蝗L.m.migratorioides(Reiche & Fainnaire)、马达加斯加飞蝗L.m.capito(Saussure)、地中海飞蝗L.m.cineracens(Fabricius)、西欧飞蝗L.m.gallica Remaudiere、何氏飞蝗L.m.remaudierei Harz、俄罗斯飞蝗L.m.rossica Uvarovet Zolotarevsky.

  9. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  10. Españoles fuera de España. Historia y memoria de la última ola migratoria española (1945-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Fernández Vicente

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Les années 1980 furent marquées par la transformation d’une Espagne pays d’émigration en une Espagne accueillant des milliers d’immigrés. Submergée et souvent dépassée par cette réalité, nouvelle et conflictuelle, la société espagnole semble avoir oublié que l’Espagne avait été, jusque récemment, une « terre d’émigrants ». Ce travail a ainsi comme but de récupérer une partie de cette histoire-mémoire concernant la dernière vague migratoire espagnole. Prenant comme point de départ l’extrême richesse et complexité des sources orales, nous tenterons de reconstituer les raisons ayant poussé une partie des Espagnols à l’émigration. Face à l’impossibilité d’embrasser la totalité du flux migratoire, nous avons opté par une comparaison des deux destinations principales du flux : l’Argentine pour la période où l’émigration se dirigeait massivement vers des destinations d’Outre-mer (1945-1955, et la France pour la période dite « continentale » (1956-1980.Los años 80 asistieron a la transformación de una España que «emigraba» en una España que acogía a miles de inmigrantes. Sumida, y a menudo desbordada por esta nueva y conflictiva realidad social, la sociedad española parece haber olvidado que, hasta hace muy poco, España fue, esencialmente, «tierra de emigrantes». Por ello, este trabajo se propone contribuir a recuperar una parte de la historia-memoria de la última ola migratoria española. Partiendo de la riqueza y complejidad de las fuentes orales, se tratará de reconstituir las razones que empujaron a una parte de estos españoles a emigrar. Pero ante la imposibilidad de abarcar la totalidad del flujo migratorio, se optará por una comparación entre sus dos destinos principales : Argentina, para la etapa «ultramarina» (1945-1955 y Francia para la fase «continental» (1956-1980.The’80s have seen Spain transformed from an “Emigration country” to an

  11. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  12. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  13. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  14. Not Your Father's Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government's first annual report on the evolution of the Chinese language contains some surprisesThe Chinese people are proud of their language, which they consider the most essential part of their civilization of 5,000 years. The charm of the language includes its ideographic writing system, in which the structure of the characters is directly related

  15. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...

  16. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  17. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  18. Doorway to Chinese Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xi’an,the ancient Chinese capital and modern day metropolis,offers an exciting array of historic attractions and tourist charms The long and extensive history of Xi’an,an ancient Chinese capital,has endowed it with an abundant variety of cultural sites and artifacts,including the

  19. Chinese Conversation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  20. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  1. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  2. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  3. Una aproximación al análisis de las cadenas migratorias en España a partir de la encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes An Approach to the Analysis of Migratory Chains in Spain from the National Immigrant Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO GAETE QUEZADA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan los resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes aplicada en España desde la perspectiva de las cadenas migratorias como paradigma explicativo de los procesos migratorios en el país. En la primera parte se ofrece una revisión bibliográfica de los principales aspectos del concepto de cadenas migratorias. En la segunda, se identifican y analizan algunas variables indicativas de la existencia de cadenas migratorias en el proceso inmigratorio español reciente, tales como: contactos previos del inmigrante, influencia de los contactos en la decisión de viajar, envío de remesas, los contactos del inmigrante en el país de origen, y la intención de traer familiares.This paper focuses on the First National Immigrant Survey in Spain from the perspective of the migratory chains as an explanatory paradigm of migration processes in the country. The first part provides a literature review of key aspects o the concept of migratory chains. In the second part, we identify and discuss the survey results related to migratory chains, such as: contacts in Spain before arrival, influence of contacts in the decision to travel, money transfer, contacts in the immigrant's home country and intention of bringing relatives.

  4. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  5. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  6. The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In the movement of Chinese indigenous management research, a sort of ‘Chinese exceptionalism’ (as critiqued by Peng, 2005: 133) seems to have been emerging, namely, some Chinese scholars see Chinese culture, philosophy, and way of thinking are unique and cannot be accounted for by some...

  7. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  8. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both tr

  9. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  10. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  11. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  12. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  13. Ancient Chinese Dress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Chinese archaeologists discov- ered in Zhoukoudian on theoutskirts of Beijing the firstneedle made by Chinese about 18,000years ago.It was about 82 mm longand 3.3 mm in diameter,polishedcarefully and had a hole,showing thatthe Chinese of that time had masteredthe skill of polishing and drilling andcould make clothes ont of animalskins.It Is recorded in The Book of Rites(one of the Confucian classics,includ- ing essays on rites and etiquette of theQin and Han dynasties),compiled byDai Sheng of the Western Han Dy- nasty(206 B.C.-A.D.24),that therehad been no flax or silk in the pastand people wore animal skins or feathers as clothes.That proves that appa-rel appeared earlier than textiles in theChinese culture.

  14. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The feature and development direction of ecological garden city; The problem and countermeasures in urban construction audio-visual file management task;Youth network moral education is imperative;A shallow discussion about moral education penetration in Chinese classroom;

  15. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  16. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Compiled by the Central Document Compiling Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CPC), the third volume of the Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping was published by the People’s Publishing House and was issued nationwide on November 2, 1993.

  17. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  18. Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CHINESE people have accu-mulated a great deal ofexperience in architecture,constantly improving building ma-terials and thus creating uniquebuilding styles.The history of ancient Chinesearchitechtural development can be

  19. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  20. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  1. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  2. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  4. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  5. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  6. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  7. Migración de guatemaltecos a México y Estados Unidos a partir de la Encuesta sobre migración en la frontera Guatemala-México 2004: Un análisis de estrategias migratorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Paredes Orozco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La migración guatemalteca hacia México y Estados Unidos ha llamado la atención del debate público en años recientes. Hasta hace poco la disponibilidad de fuentes de datos sobre la misma había sido muy escasa como para emprender un estudio riguroso del fenómeno. Utilizando datos de la Encuesta sobre migración en la frontera Guatemala-México 2004 se realizó un análisis logístico para determinar las diferencias entre dos grupos de migrantes guatemaltecos, uno que retorna desde México y el otro proveniente de Estados Unidos. En el análisis se identifica un conjunto de características demográficas, sociales y laborales que distinguen claramente a ambos flujos de migrantes, y que sirve para: 1 constatar la presencia de diferentes factores de expulsión y de configuración migratoria en el flujo internacional guatemalteco, y 2 identificar a los integrantes de uno y otro flujos como grupos con necesidades de atención distintas.

  8. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  9. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  10. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their

  11. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate

    for asymmetric games when some valuations are zero. In that case we prove that the auctioneer can stabilize the game by placing his own ticket in each basket. On the other hand, when all the valuations are strictly positive, a pure Nash equilibrium is guaranteed to exist, and the equilibrium strategies......Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...... are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural...

  12. Ancient Chinese Landscape Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    IN the past decade,the worldhas suddenly discovered thewonders of Chinese landscapegardening and garden architecture,and places like New York,Singaporeand London have all built Chinese-style gardens.The architectural stylespecial to Chinese gardens has,infact,developed·a“school”of itsown.In China,the landscaped gardenhas long been a part of culture,andliterature,painting,philosophy,cal-ligraphy and folk customs have alldealt with it at one time or another.Two categories of garden architec-ture exist:the imperial garden andthe private garden.The former is,ofcourse,grand and palatial and occu-pies large tracts of land,while the

  13. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  14. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  15. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  16. How Iconic Are Chinese Characters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The study explores the notion that some Chinese characters contain pictorial indications of meanings that can be used to help retrieve the referent. Thirty adults with no prior knowledge of Chinese guessed the meanings of twenty Chinese characters by choosing between one of two photographs. Half of the characters were considered to be iconic and…

  17. Directory of Chinese American Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese American Librarians Association, River Forest, IL.

    This directory was compiled by the Chinese American Librarians Association based on replies to questionnaires sent to more than 500 Chinese American librarians in the United States and research based on secondary sources. Information provided on each person includes: name, name in Chinese, position/title, institution, institution's address, field…

  18. Chinese Contemporary Art: Ink Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiDaojian

    2003-01-01

    Chinese ink painting is an age-old art tradition that embodies distinctive characteristics of Chinese culture. In these exquisite paintings, artists integrate nature and everyday life to show how the two exist in harmonyalso a frequent theme in Chinese philosophy.

  19. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  20. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  1. Chinese Commercial Negotiating Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    the importance of whatever activities they are a part of-a form of Sinocentrism --and relations among all others belong to the periphery of the Chinese...Siemens, 22 73-74 "Silent Treatment," 68-69 Trade agreements, 4. See a/so Singapore, 32 Agreements; Compensatory Sinocentrism , 86 trade I----- Index / 105

  2. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  3. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  4. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  5. Milestone for Chinese physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Chinese scientists have discovered a new particle predicted decades ago but never observed before. It could be what was once called the "multi-quark state," tiny elementary particles with a strong interaction or force that serves as the source of nuclear energy (1/2 page).

  6. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  7. Chinese court case fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    established as early as the 6th Century AD, whereas the first substantial evidence of the tradition is from 13th Century and the first Chinese crime fiction novels were written during the 17th Century. This article is, then, a corrective for the international history of crime fiction based on numerous...

  8. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Corbiere

    2013-01-01

    <正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in

  9. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Li Yiyi, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of Shenyang Metal Research Institute, has developed a new system for creating a low temperature and high pressure anti-hydrogen material in the research of engineering material. She has also been successful in her research of various types of steel.

  10. Chinese Students' Constructive Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Last June the author, a teacher of political theory at Tsinghua University, was asked by a Canadian television crew to get hold of some students for a special on modern China. During the discussion, the author observed that his Chinese students express a thoughtful and informed nationalism, and a distrust of Western-style democracy. Some of the…

  11. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese Ethnic Park, divided into two parts, occupies 45 hectares. The northern section, which opened first, occupies 20 hectares, featuring 16 ethnic villages where people can enjoy indigenous music and dance. About 200 performers working in the village represent a number of minority nationalities. Their performances are based on local custom, and mostly comprise greeting and bidding

  12. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  13. Chinese Lacquer Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengXiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the

  14. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  15. Chinese Decorative Coatings Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Growth prospects The Chinese market for decorative coatings, excluding non-architectural products such as industrial varnishes,marine paint and other industrially applied coatings, has been growing byaround 10% annually and was estimated to be worth Eurol.3 billion a year, with an annual per capita consumption of just less than 1 liter ofpaint.

  16. SWOT analysis - Chinese Petroleum

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  17. Chinese Yuan after Chinese Exchange Rate System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eiji Ogawa; Michiru Sakane

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the actual exchange rate policy conducted by the Chinese government after the Chinese exchange rate system reform on 21 July 2005 is investigated. Also, the long-run effect is investigated, including the Balassa-Samuelson effect on the Chinese yuan. It was found that the Chinese government generated a statistically significant but small change in exchange rate policy during the sample period until 25 January 2006. It was not identifted that the Chinese monetary authority is adopting the currency basket system because the change is too small in the economic sense. It is indicated that the Chinese government should take account of the productivity growth of countries composing the currency basket in order to operate a currency basket regime.

  18. I-Ching, Chinese Thinking Mode And Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧媛

    2013-01-01

      I-Ching regards human-being as an integral part of nature and stresses the relative complimentary of the two opposing principles of nature, Yin and Yang. Therefore, under the influence of I-Ching, the Chinese thinking mode is different from the west-erners’. The Chinese thinking pattern is holistic, dynamic and abstract, but lacking logic and inference. The Chinese tend to express their ideas succinctly in a few simple remarks. Consequently Chinese is a concise and comprehensive language full of hint and ambiguity.

  19. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...... that contemporary China studies have increasingly developed into a collective effort and that no scholar conducts his/her research in a vacuum devoid of dept to other contributions in the field. The paper will focus on the period since the Cultural Revolution. Consequently, we will not attempt a discussion...

  20. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Discoverer of the Origin of Life The origin of life on earth has long been a subject explored by scientists around the world. At the 11th International Conference on the Origin of Life held at Orleans University in France on July 9th, 1996, Chinese scientist Zhao Yufen and her partner Cao Peisheng announced the contents of the origin of the seed of life.

  1. INSET for Chinese Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 陈涛; 刘子春

    2007-01-01

    By setting examples,giving tables or taxonomy and so on,the thesis mainly explains the eight general INSET ( in-service teacher training) principles,including Participation,Sympathetic to the context,Teachers' attitude change,Integration of approaches,Communication and support,Evaluation and follow-up,Adequate timescale,then especially concentrate on the problems and solutions to Chinese teacher in using the INSET principles.

  2. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  3. My Chinese Teacher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金平; 郭克晴

    2002-01-01

    I have already been a student for about six and half years.So many teachers have taught me.I like them all,but the best one I like is my Chinese teacher,Mr Liu.He is more than thirty years old.He is a little short man,but he is really a good teacher and we all love him.

  4. The Developing Chinese Garment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1997-01-01

    CHINA is a country with a 5,000-year history and a population of 1.2 billion people. Clothing plays an important role in Chinese people’s cultural and social life. Since the reform and opening up in the 1980s, the garment industry has greatly developed and has increased progressively by an average of 15.7 percent a year. In the past 10 years particularly, township-run garment production enterprises have suddenly come to the fore,

  5. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dutch-based information provider expands in China to tap new market There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them. "You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,

  6. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2011-01-01

    There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them."You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,Wolters Kluwer China CEO.

  7. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  8. REQUESTS IN CHINESE AND ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sociolinguistic competence is essential for foreign languagelearners to acquire effective communication becausecommunication is subject to social appropriateness.Differentlanguages,however,have different sociallinguistic rules(Wolfson,1989),the knowledge as to what is appropriate tosay to whom,and under what conditions.This paper attemptsto study requests in Chinese and English contrastively,in orderto account for the Chinese transfer influence and the pragmaticfailure in the use of English by Chinese students of English,andto draw pedagogical implications.

  9. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of mode...

  10. I Married a Chinese Woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEPHEN SAYERS

    1997-01-01

    He became known all over China because of his appearance on the national television competition "Foreigners Singing Chinese Songs."Dressed in traditional Chinese costume and accompanied by his Chinese wife,he Chinese Girl."In this article,Stephen Sayers tells about his marriage and his personal feelings during his five years in China,Stephen and his wife Candy just moved to Macao in July.In arecent letter he asked the editor to give the money for this article to the education-aiding"Hope project" and specified it for Guizhou.

  11. Statistical distribution of Chinese names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jin-Zhong; Chen Qing-Hua; Wang You-Gui

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the statistical characteristics of Chinese surnames,first names and full names based on a credible sample.The distribution of Chinese surnames,unlike that in any other countries,shows an exponential pattern in the top part and a power-law pattern in the tail part.The distributions of Chinese first names and full names have the characteristics of a power law with different exponents.Finally,the interrelation of the first name and the surname is demonstrated by using a computer simulation and an exhibition of the name network.Chinese people take the surname into account when they choose a first name for somebody.

  12. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  13. Funkce adipokinetických hormonů v metabolismu hmyzích lipidů

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This PhD. thesis summarizes the effect of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) on a spectrum of mobilized lipids in model insect species the locust Locusta migratoria and the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus. The results revealed that mobilization of diacylglycerols and fatty acids from the fat body into the haemolymph is not uniform and suggested there is partial specificity of individual AKHs. This could contribute to the answer of the question why some insect species have more than one AKH. The results...

  14. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  15. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from

  16. Chinese private yards catch up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese shipbuilding industry was dominated by state-owned companies for a long time. In 2005, when a global shipbuilding summit was held in China for the first time, no Chinese private shipyards appeared except two national shipbuilders, namely COSCO and CSIC. However, in the same year, Rongsheng,Mingde and Hantong began their first step.

  17. The chinese health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese...

  18. Danish Chinese Center for Nanometals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    The Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The Chinese partners in the Center are Institute of Metal Research in Shenyang, Tsinghua University and Chongqing University. The Danish part...

  19. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  20. Why Do I Study Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Translator’s Note: The cross language year program-the Chinese Language Year in France and the French Language Year in China-initiated by Chinese and French leaders were held in 2011 and 2012 to promote cultural exchanges and further deepen the China-France comprehensive strategic partnership. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the CPAFFC and the

  1. Greenland and Chinese outbound investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Su, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    Chinese companies and their global partners. However, Chinese outbound investment faces many hurdles both at home and outside. This article analyzes some of the main aspects in relation to regulatory hurdles, political obstacles as well as environmental, labor and financial challenges primarily focusing...

  2. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  3. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  4. Chinese American Manpower and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Betty Lee

    A study of the economic characteristics and occupational status of the Chinese in the United States, based primarily on a special tabulation of the 1970 census, has resulted in a demographic profile of this bicultural and physically distinct ethnic group. Potential improvement and expansion of the occupational sphere of the Chinese is discussed in…

  5. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  6. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  7. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    As important providers of information, analysis of current events and debates, journalists are subject to high expectations regarding their professional values. Journalism is considered to be more than merely a career; it is construed as a profession that builds on personal commitment to serve...... society. This chapter is concerned with Chinese journalism students' self-perceptions and evaluations of journalistic performances in order to understand the professional values to which they adhere. The study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted in two periods in Spring 2011 and Fall...

  8. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    to study abroad, the article shows how personal, professional and even national goals are closely interwoven. Students expect education abroad to be a personally transformative experience, but rather than defining their goals of individual freedom and creativity in opposition to the authoritarian political......The article focuses on Chinese students' hopes and expectations before leaving to study abroad. The national political environment for their decision to go abroad is shaped by an official narrative of China's transition to a more creative and innovative economy. Students draw on this narrative...

  9. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chinese children are taller and heavier than ever before. According to a national survey from 1995, the average height of children aged 7-14 was 142.3 centimeters, 2 centimeters taller than the average height of children in the same age group ten years before. The average weight was 31.9 kilograms, which is 2.8 kilograms heavier than children of the same age group in 1985. Such improvements must be credited to the development of China’s health care network for children. By the end of last

  10. Chinese Vegetarian Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ONCE in a restaurant specializing in vegetarian food in Hubei Province, I saw some dishes on the menu which did not sound like vegetarian food, such as chicken, duck, fish and pork. Only after I ordered and tasted did I understand that these were all made of bean products. Simply speaking, the Chinese vegetarian diet is comprised of grains, vegetables, bean products and fruits. It also includes bamboo shoots, mushrooms, edible fungus, aquatic plants and dried fruit. This kind of diet boasts a long history. As early as the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) and the early Han

  11. CHINESE COMMUNITY IN ECUADOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARIA JOSE CIFUENTES CERVANTES

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Republic Of Ecuador is located in the west coast of South America.It has a total area of 256.370 km2 and a population of approximately 14 million.Spanish is considered as the official language.The country is subdivided into 24 provinces with the capital city being Quito and the other major city being Guayaquil.Since the year 2000 US Dollar had been the official currency.Approximately 50,000 people from China live now in Ecuador.Although the Chinese community in Ecuador is not as large as those in Brazil and Peru, it has a strong economic and social weight in the country.

  12. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Over 1.5 million women workers from 13,000 enterprises have joined the social coordinated system for child-bearing insurance funds in Zhejiang Province. The funds are paid by regular and contract workers and casual laborers from state-owned and collective enterprises and Chinese employees from joint ventures. The social labor insurance committees under the local governments at the city or county levels are in charge of the practical work for taking over the funds. The amounts of money each pays varies according to the different living standard and salary level in each area.

  13. Chinese Negative Transfer in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红琴

    2009-01-01

    The nat ive language can help learn a foreign language, but foreign language learners const ant ly suffer negat ivet ransfer from t heir mot her language. We,as Chinese English learners in t he environment ,in t he English-Chinese t ranslat ion inChinese is oft en negat ive impact .The present paper probes int o t he essence of language t ransfer ,making a det ailed comparisonbet ween Chinese and English vocabulary in t erms of concept ual meaning,connot at ive meaning and idioms in order t o find out t hebasic principle of t ranslat ion which may help avoid negat ive t ransfer from Chinese.

  14. La e-migración: un nuevo espacio para pensar la retórica de la integración en las políticas migratorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Nihil Olivera Cajiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, basado en un estudio comparativo de migrantes franceses y ecuatorianos en Barcelona, discute la retórica de la integración en las políticas migratorias dentro del contexto de las tecnologías de la información y la comunica­ción (TIC. Los resultados que se presentan permiten problematizar las relaciones de los migrantes en Barcelona a partir de sus prácticas sociales en las TICs, así como también plantear la existencia de unas características tecnológicas, geográficas y sociales (TGS que crean un nuevo espacio que llamamos e-migración. Se argumenta en este artículo que el discurso de la integración y las TICs, que forma parte de la retórica de las administraciones de gobierno catalana, ocultan desigualdades estructurales entre los migrantes comunitarios y no comunitarios. El estudio de caso de franceses y ecuatorianos migrantes en Cataluña es una muestra de cómo se gestiona la diversidad en clave cultura para categorizar a determinadas poblaciones y no para integrarlas. Palabras clave: integración, política, e-migración, ecuatorianos, franceses, TIC, Barcelona, retórica.   E-migration: a new space to think the rhetoric of integration in migration policies  Abstract This article, based on a comparative study of French and Ecuadorian migrants in Barcelona, discusses the rhetoric of integration in migration policies within the context of information and communication technologies (ICT. The results presented allow to question the relationship of migrants in Barcelona taking into account their ICT social practices, as well as propose the existence of technological, geographical and social (TGS characteristics to create a new space we call e-migration. It is argued in this article that the discourse of integration and ICT, which is part of the rhetoric of the Catalan government administrations, hides structural inequalities between migrants from EU and outside of the EU. The case study of French and Ecuadorian

  15. Perinatal outcomes in native Chinese and Chinese-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinghui; Zhang, Jun; Li, Zhu

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to compare perinatal outcomes in native Chinese, foreign-born and US-born Chinese-American women by analysing a cohort of 950,624 singleton pregnancies in south-east China and 293,849 singleton births from the US live and stillbirth certificates from 1995 to 2004. Only births at 28 weeks or later were included. Compared with US-born Chinese-American women, native Chinese and foreign-born Chinese-American women had substantially lower risks of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant (adjusted relative risk [aRR] ranging from 0.46 to 0.66) or preterm birth (aRR ranging from 0.53 to 0.82). While having a White or Black father had a reduced risk of SGA (aRR=0.45 and 0.62, respectively), it has an increased risk for preterm birth (aRR=1.13 and 1.57, respectively). Infants with Chinese father and foreign-born mother were heavier than those with Chinese father and US-born mothers. All findings were statistically significant. Our findings demonstrated the protective role of foreign-born status on low birthweight and preterm delivery. The paternal contribution to fetal size is substantial.

  16. Biosolubilisation of Chinese lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Tao, Xiuxiang; Shi, Kaiyi [School of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The biosolubilisation of coal is a promising coal processing technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil at ambient conditions. In this study, the biosolubilisation of Chinese lignite was studied using a fungus isolated from decaying wood. The intensity of biosolubilisation was determined by estimating the liquid formation time and by measuring the weight loss of the lignite granules gravimetrically. The biosolubilisation product (black liquid) was characterized by ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, element analysis, and heating value. Results showed that this fungus isolated from the decaying wood solubilised 31.83% (by weight) of Chinese lignite to black liquid within 11 days at 27.5 C. The biosolubilisation product mainly contained aromatic acids and chain hydrocarbons, and had organic function groups of hydroxyl, cyclane, carbonyl, ether linkage and aromatic rings. The heating value of the biosolubilisation product was 14 MJ/kg. Chemical analysis of the biosolubilisation product indicated that side chains of lignite were important structures in the biosolubilisation mechanism. (author)

  17. Genetic Algorithm for Chinese Postman Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hua; Kang Li-shan

    2003-01-01

    Chinese Postman Problem is an unsettled graphic problem. It was approached seldom by evolutionary computation. Now we use genetic algorithm to solve Chinese Postman Problem in undirected graph and get good results. It could be extended to solve Chinese postman problem in directed graph. We make these efforts for exploring in optimizing the mixed Chinese postman problem.

  18. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment beh

  19. Multicultural Awareness for the Classroom: The Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Felix Mario; And Others

    This guide provides the teacher of multiethnic students with information and teaching resources on Chinese. An historical overview of China and the Chinese experience in America is presented in English and Chinese. Several lesson plans and classroom activities reviewing Chinese geography, holidays, legends, and stories are presented. (APM)

  20. What Should American-Born Chinese Children Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shirley

    This paper discusses the teaching of Chinese to both students with Chinese background and students with non-Chinese background. It is suggested that students with a Chinese background be separated from those without a Chinese background in order not to discourage the latter group from studying Chinese. Chinese background students should be taught…

  1. The Profound and Extensive Chinese Tea Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航

    2014-01-01

    Anyone who knows a little bit about Chinese culture usualy knows about Chinese tea culture.Chinese tea culture has a history of more than 4,000 years and stil emerges fresh and vigorous from the test of history. Chinese tea culture has played an important and indispensable role in Chinese culture. The extensiveness and profoundness of Chinese tea culture is unpaneled. Its importance to Chinese people is noticeable. Tea has surprising functions: it can not only refresh the body but also the mind. Tea is prevalent in and out of China and is loved by people throughout the world.

  2. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  3. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  4. The Analysis of the Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓慧

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of pragmatic studies, politeness has aroused great interest among Chinese scholars. Different cultures have different traditions and values, which bring out different understanding and application of politeness strategies. Great Chinese culture brings out the complicated Chinese politeness scale. A successful communication depends on politeness principle. Learning the Chinese politeness scale will make we know more about the Chinese culture. By researching this, we will perform better in communication.

  5. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  6. Clinical Features of Chinese of Chinese Patients with Fuchs' Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peizeng Yang,; Haoli Jin,; Bing Li,; Xuan Chen,; Kijlstra, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the clinical features of Chinese patients with Fuchs' syndrome. Design: Retrospective noncomparative case series. Participants: One hundred eighteen eyes of 104 consecutive patients with Fuchs' syndrome initially examined between January 1999 and March 2005. Methods: The his

  7. TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930433 A study on relationship between hy-pothyroidism and deficiency of kidney YANG.ZHA Lianglun(查良伦),et al.lnstit Integr TCM& West Med,Shanghai Med Univ,Shanghai,200040.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 1993;13(4):202—204.Thirty—two cases of hypothyroidism causedby various factors were treated for one year withChinese medicinal herbs preparation“Shen Lutablet”(SLT)to warm and reinforce the KidneyYang.34 normal persons were studied as a con-trol group.After treatment with SLT,the clini-cal symptoms of hypothyroidism were markedlyimproved.Average serum concentration of totalT3,T4 increased significantly from 67.06±4.81

  8. Structure of Chinese algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Jaszunska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the algebra K[M] of the Chinese monoid M over a field K is studied. The minimal prime ideals are described. They are determined by certain homogeneous congruences on M and they are in a one to one correspondence with diagrams of certain special type. There are finitely many such ideals. It is also shown that the prime radical B(K[M]) of K[M] coincides with the Jacobson radical and the monoid M embeds into the algebra K[M]/B(K[M]). A new representation of M as a submonoid of the direct product of finitely many copies of the bicyclic monoid and finitely many copies of the infinite cyclic monoid is derived. Consequently, M satisfies a nontrivial identity.

  9. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Dr. Zhao Honored Dr. Zhao Xuefang is in charge of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of the Changzhi City People’s Hospital in Shanxi Province. On April 23, 1994, she received from the hands of Qian Zhengying, Vice-Chairman of Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, the first Norman Bethune Medal, granted by the Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of Labor and Personnel. Since Dr. Zhao began working in the medical field in 1963, she has continued to improve her techniques. After more than 30 years in medicine, she has treated thousands of patients without incident. Though Dr. Zhao has been diagnosed with cancer and has had two operations, she has continued to heal the wounded and rescue the dying. Her only wish is to relieve the pain of more patients as long as she can. —China Women’s News

  10. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  11. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Beijing Celebrates 10th Anniversary of the CWJA On March 20, more than 200 female journalists gathered in Beijing together to celebrate the 10th Anniversary of the Capital Women Journalists’ Association. The celebration, ended with the establishment of a women’s media supervision network. Since its founding in March 1986, the CWJA has accomplished a great deal in uniting as many female journalists as possible. The association has made great strides in developing socialist journalism, promoting exchanges between Chinese and foreign female journalists, reporting on the achievements of women from all walks of life, and safeguarding the legal rights of women. The CWJA membership has grown from the original 5,000 women from 60 media units, to the current total of more than 7,000 from nearly 100 media units.

  12. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Study on the Application of Mass Media and English Han cui xia (ShanDong BinZhou medical college ShanDong YanTai 264003)Read and Write Periodica,vol.9, No.5,16,2012(ISSN1672-1578,in,Chinese ) Abstract: Rapid technological development of mass media and Internt chances of improvement. This paper analyzes the present situation of adult teaching and learning of English and the application of mass media and Internet in it in the hope of changing the present situation and improving the effect in order for adult learners to benefit more from it.. Key words: mass media; Internet; adult education; teaching and learning of English

  13. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives.

  14. Chinese culture approached through touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Champion, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Can recent technology help bridge cultures through playful interaction appropriate to traditional tacit means of acquiring knowledge? In order to help answer this question, we designed four Adobe Flash-based based game prototypes and evaluated them via a touch-screen PC. The goal was to offer non......Chinese participants a playful way of experiencing aspects of traditional Chinese culture. The four single-player games were based on the four arts of China (music, calligraphy, painting and the game of Go!). In the evaluation we asked non-Chinese and the Chinese participants to evaluate the games in terms of learning......, fun, and cultural authenticity. While this form of tangible computing proved engaging, it raises technical issues of how to convey appropriately the interactive elements without the help of the evaluator, and how to evaluate user satisfaction. We also briefly discuss more embodied and spatial...

  15. Soundscape of classical Chinese garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With deep humanized connotation,the classical Chinese garden uses human intuitive sensation and personal poetic observation to express natural sound phenomena.It differs from the rational modern soundscape in western countries.

  16. Tone features in whispered Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xueli; XU Boling

    2005-01-01

    Study on the whispered tone is important to speech recognition and conversion in whispered Chinese. In this paper, the characteristics of whispered speech are introduced and the tone features in whispered Chinese are discussed. There is no fundamental frequency in the whispered speech, so other features, such as the amplitude envelope, duration, glottal area, lip area, forrnant, and vocal tract length, are extracted and their contributions to the automatic tone recognition are compared. From the experiments with six simple Chinese whispered vowels in four tones, it is proved that loudness-weighted 32 Mel-frequency bands log-amplitude envelopes and duration can be used as the main tone features in the whispered Chinese tone recognition. The average tone recognition rate approaches that of the human perception level.

  17. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  18. A Model of Chinese Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    At a national conference at the end of May,the Chinese Government said partnership assistance in the past year had boosted development in northwestern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region remarkably and called for greater support.Since March2010,

  19. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  20. Chinese Women’s College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Chinese Women’s College is located in Yuhuidong Road, in northeast Beijing. The name of the college was written by Jiang Zemin, President of the People’s Republic of China in August 1995 to honor the school.

  1. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  2. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  3. Chinese Loan Words in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜战莹

    2015-01-01

    English language is the most common working language.In the history of its development,English has widened its vocabulary by borrowing.Borrowing plays an important role in the formation of modern English.Chinese loan words are a part in the family of all the loan words.Therefore,the number of loan words which originate from Chinese is not that great,but they hold an important role in contemporary English.

  4. English and Chinese language ambiguity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海

    2009-01-01

    This article from the Voice of Ambiguity,Lexical Ambiguity and Ambiguity in the three aspects of the grammatical structure of English and Chinese languages are compared ambiguity And analysis.Ambiguity in English and Chinese language through the comparison,resulted in two languages to explore the reasons for ambiguity;analysis of the characteristics of English language ambiguities;Research Should not be some ambiguity on how to avoid the emergence of the phenomenon.

  5. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    LI J

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  6. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive Warm-up in Jiang Hua (Department of Foreign Language, Modern College of Northwest University, Xi'an 710130, China)Read and Write Perodica,vol.9,No.10,10,2012 (ISSN1672 -1578,in, Chinese) Abstract: Classroom teaching activities should be an interactive process, which includes not only interaction between teachers and students but also includes the interaction between students and learning materials and the interaction between students and design activities in class. These interaction processes will directly affect the students learning interest and the effect. So classroom interactions are very important. But how to present these interactions well and make them educational in the classroom is a question which needs considered carefully by teachers. Because of the warm-up is the key part for teachers to introduce the whole unit and stimulate the interests of students, this article mainly discusses the warming-up part of college English teaching, to improve the classroom interactions, and stimulate the students' study enthusiasm and the initiative. Key words: Interaction; Educational; Warm-up

  7. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  8. Germany Readies For Chinese IPOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TARA; TAO

    2007-01-01

    Even the freezing cold of a Beijing winter could not stop Duke Alexander’s China visit last December. As the IPo divisional director of Deutsche Boerse AG, Alexander visited China five times in six months, with the aim of helping the first Chinese enter-prises in history to launch their IPOs on Deutsche Boerse AG. He revealed that “in the first quarter of 2007, the first Chinese enterprise will trade on the Deutsche Boerse AG.”Deutsche Boerse AG’s IPO seminar, held in Beijing, attracted many Chinese entrepreneurs looking into listing their companies in Germany. The vice president of a Beijing investment company said that his company was considering an IPO through either the London AIM or Deutsche Boerse AG. “Deutsche Boerse AG’ sfee for launching an IPO is 20 percent lower than that of AIM, but also involves addressing the requirement that the company must be estab-lished in Germany,” he said. The businessman said he was still undecided on the final destination of his company’s IPO launch. Why have there been no Chinese IPOs on the Deutsche Boerse AG in the past?Why would a Chinese enterprise want to list on the Deutsche Boerse AG? What strategies has Deutsche Boerse AG implemented to compete with other prestigious global stock exchanges? We explored these questions in an exclusive interview with Alexander.

  9. The Chinese-American Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, S.H.

    1990-05-01

    The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Oscar Montelius and Chinese Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, the world-famous Swedish archaeologist, had a key role in the development of modern scientific Chinese archaeology and the discovery of China’s prehistory. We know that one of his major works, Die Methode, the first volume of his Älteren kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, translated into Chinese in the 1930s, had considerable influence on generations of Chinese archaeologists and art historians. What has previously remained unknown, is that Montelius personally promoted the research undertaken in China by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960, whose discoveries of Neolithic cultures in the 1920s constituted the breakthrough and starting point for the development of prehistoric archaeology in China. In this paper, we reproduce, translate and discuss a long forgotten memorandum written by Montelius in 1920 in support of Andersson’s research. In this Montelius indicated his belief in the potential of prehistoric Chinese archaeology as well as his predictions regarding the discoveries about to be made. It is therefore an important document for the study of the history of Chinese archaeology as a whole.

  11. The Meaning of "Being Chinese" and "Being American." Variation among Chinese American Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how meanings of being Chinese and being American varied among young adults, examining orientations to Chinese and American cultures and noting cultural domains upon which being Chinese and being American were based. Surveys of Chinese American college students who were American-born or immigrants indicated that the meanings attached…

  12. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  13. Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

  14. Traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    @@ Further progress has been made in the traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer over the past few years, especially in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment principle, improvement of therapeutic results and prolonging the survival.

  15. A Primer on Chinese Music Instruments Released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuSan

    2005-01-01

    Chinese traditional musical instruments, with a history of 8,000 years, are known for their diverse forms and types. The qualities, functions and materials of these instrunents reflect the unique aesthetic value of Chinese traditional music.

  16. Chinese Silk in Tibetan Buddhism Monastery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chinese traditional silk has held a special place in Chinese tex-tile history as its great contribution to the development of economy and culture of all ethnic groups as well as international exchanges.From time immemorial,

  17. A Comparison between Chinese and Western Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ting-ting

    2015-01-01

    Different countries have different cultures. Understanding the differences between Chinese and western culture will help us to communicate with each other better. From three aspects, this paper mainly compares the differences between Chinese and western culture.

  18. Informization Implementation for Chinese Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; QIAN Yu; CHEN Jianfeng; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    Retailing is an important component of every country's economic system. The current status and developments in the informization of Chinese retail industry were investigated by using questionnaires and interviews to survey 139 retailers throughout China. The investigation shows that Chinese retailers are in the initial informization stage, and can be classified into different types with corresponding informization characteristics. In addition, the survey identified the key problems faced by retailers in the initial stage. Developments in the information technology field were analyzed to identify the key technologies that Chinese retailers should focus on during the informization process. The investigation also shows that the retailers have not arrived at a consensus about information technology adoption, and thus hesitate to use new information technologies, such as the radio frequency identification.

  19. Moon Cakes, A Chinese Favorite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINA is a nation with many ethnic groups. Thus, there are many legends to explain the nation’s many festivals. The largest and most striking of these festivals are the Spring Festival and Midautumn Festival. Anywhere Chinese people go, they will remember and celebrate these two festivals. The Mid-autumn Festival falls on the fifteenth day of the 8th lunar month. In this festival, Chinese people eat moon cakes, a baked food, with a flour crust around a dense filling. Coming in a great variety of flavors and styles, the moon cake carries a great deal of symbolic significance. The moon cake is round like the moon. "Round" is pronounced "yuan" in Chinese. This character is full of good meanings. When used in reference to a

  20. Chinese Feelings Cherished By Canadians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On March 30, "The Chinese Feelings Across the Pacific-The Century Exhibition of the Old Photos Treasured by the Canadians" was open in the Lu Xun Museum in Beijing. The exhibition lasted for one week. At the exhibition some old photos taken in the early 20th century were on display, showing James G. Endicott, envoy of world peace, together with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai; the family of O. L. Kilborn, one of the founders of West China Union University, together with Chinese women with bound feet: O. L. Kilborn treating the wounded soldiers during the Revolution of 1911; Leslie Earl Willmott in Chinese tunic suit and his wife reluctant to bid farewell to China, as well as photos of Ashley Woodward Lindesay, founder of China’s modern

  1. English Loan Words in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡悦

    2016-01-01

    During the process of language contact, a lot of language changes may appear, among which lexical borrowing, the ori-gin lexical item from one language being used by another language, is one of the most common phenomena. As a result of glo-balization, the frequent contact with western culture and the English language has brought a huge amount of lexical borrowings to the Chinese language. This paper mainly looks at the language contact of the English loan words in Chinese in the following three methods, namely transliteration, semantic loan and a mixture of the two respectively. The discussion over the examination will contribute to the understanding of English as a lingua franca and its language contact with Chinese.

  2. Annotation of novel neuropeptide precursors in the migratory locust based on transcript screening of a public EST database and mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Loof Arnold

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For holometabolous insects there has been an explosion of proteomic and peptidomic information thanks to large genome sequencing projects. Heterometabolous insects, although comprising many important species, have been far less studied. The migratory locust Locusta migratoria, a heterometabolous insect, is one of the most infamous agricultural pests. They undergo a well-known and profound phase transition from the relatively harmless solitary form to a ferocious gregarious form. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of this phase transition are not fully understood, but it is undoubtedly that neuropeptides are involved. However, neuropeptide research in locusts is hampered by the absence of genomic information. Results Recently, EST (Expressed Sequence Tag databases from Locusta migratoria were constructed. Using bioinformatical tools, we searched these EST databases specifically for neuropeptide precursors. Based on known locust neuropeptide sequences, we confirmed the sequence of several previously identified neuropeptide precursors (i.e. pacifastin-related peptides, which consolidated our method. In addition, we found two novel neuroparsin precursors and annotated the hitherto unknown tachykinin precursor. Besides one of the known tachykinin peptides, this EST contained an additional tachykinin-like sequence. Using neuropeptide precursors from Drosophila melanogaster as a query, we succeeded in annotating the Locusta neuropeptide F, allatostatin-C and ecdysis-triggering hormone precursor, which until now had not been identified in locusts or in any other heterometabolous insect. For the tachykinin precursor, the ecdysis-triggering hormone precursor and the allatostatin-C precursor, translation of the predicted neuropeptides in neural tissues was confirmed with mass spectrometric techniques. Conclusion In this study we describe the annotation of 6 novel neuropeptide precursors and the neuropeptides they encode from the

  3. WEB BASED TRANSLATION OF CHINESE ORGANIZATION NAME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Muyun; Liu Daxin; Zhao Tiejun; Qi Haoliang; Lin Kaiming

    2009-01-01

    A web-based translation method for Chinese organization name is proposed. After analyzing the structure of Chinese organization name, the methods of bilingual query formulation and maximum entropy based translation re-ranking are suggested to retrieve the English translation from the web via public search engine. The experiments on Chinese university names demonstrate the validness of this approach.

  4. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  5. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  6. Chinese Journal of Lasers (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-22

    Qi Changhong , and Dai Fengmei, Chinese Journal of Physics, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1980, p54. [23) Nd-doped glass heat deformation group, Chinese Journal of...No. 1, 1983, p49. [46] Qi Changhong and Gan Fuxi, Chinese Journal of Optical Emission and Display, No. 3, 1983, pl. [47] Zheng He and Gan Fuxi, Laser

  7. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  8. Constraint-based Word Segmentation for Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Bo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Written Chinese text has no separators between words in the same way as European languages use space characters, and this creates the Chinese Word Segmentation Problem, CWSP: given a text in Chinese, divide it in a correct way into segments corresponding to words. Good solutions are in demand...

  9. Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs One of the most famous journals about Chinese herbal medicines in China.The journal started publication monthly since January 1970,is an academic and technical journal sponsored by Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research.The journal which has a long history over 40 years offers the columns of

  10. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  11. Investigation of Chinese Compliment Response Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽敏

    2015-01-01

    Chinese compliment response strategies are different from western’s.According to the investigation of Chinese politeness,the compliment strategies,and the analysis of the examples,writer summarizes Chinese strategies of Compliment response.The results could be benefit for the cross-cultural communication.

  12. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addendum by Penny Edwards

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45. He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967 and The Political Structure of the Chinese Community in Cambodia (1970. However, subsequent to his research, Chinese communities suffered terribly during the repression of the Lon Nol government between 1970 and 1975 and the atrocities of the Democratic Kampuchea regime. Willmott thus declared Chinese communities—and a willingness to identify as Chinese—destroyed. This understandably pessimistic vision turned out to be unfounded; the next extensive research done on Chinese in Cambodia by Penny Edwards and Chan Sambath in 1995 showed Chinese communities rebuilding. However, the descriptions of these communities showed a complexity of identity formation—from recent immigrants, “the raw Chinese,” to the five “traditional” Chinese dialect groups—that differed markedly from the indexes of identity applied by Willmott in his initial analysis. Academic ideas of how Chineseness should be configured had shifted and complicated; ascribing identity had become increasingly problematic...

  13. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  14. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  15. A Cultural Perspective on Chinese Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaofang

    2011-01-01

    Politeness is a universal phenomenon, but its actual manifestations and the standards for judgment are culturally different. This paper analyzes the characteristics of Chinese politeness from a cultural perspective. It aims to improve our understanding of Chinese politeness and our knowledge of Chinese traditional culture and undertake interpersonal communication successfully.

  16. How Do Chinese Enterprises Look at REACH?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The new European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization of Chemicals) regulation has come into force. As soon as the REACH white paper was issued, Chinese enterprises started to research the possible impacts of REACH and prepare to cope with them. How then do these Chinese enterprises look at REACH? Following are views of some Chinese enterprises exporting chemical products to the European Union.

  17. Chinese Information Processing and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Li; Tie-Jun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents some main progresses and achievements in Chinese information processing. It focuses on six aspects, I.e., Chinese syntactic analysis, Chinese semantic analysis, machine translation, information retrieval, information extraction, and speech recognition and synthesis. The important techniques and possible key problems of the respective branch in the near future are discussed as well.

  18. Mamma Mia!Hits Chinese Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese version of Broadway’s musical sensation set to run for six months The Chinese version of Mamma Mia!,one of the most popular musicals in the world,has come to China,to demonstrate the charm of the musical to Chinese citizens in three major cities in 2011.

  19. Chinese Family Culture in the Ascendant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN the mid 1980s, Chinese family culture started in Shanghai. Now, more than ten years later, it has spread to cities and the countryside all over China The rise of Chinese family culture cannot be separated from the improved economic development. Reform and opening to the outside world greatly increased the living standard of Chinese families. Many people are in pursuit of

  20. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue...

  1. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  2. Brilliance Auto: Chinese, Global, Successful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      As the only automobile sponsor of BOAO FORUM FOR ASIA in April 2004, Brilliance Auto had a great opportunity to show her 'New Zhonghua" sedan which is an upper-medium car with completely independent intellectual property rights and repre sents the independent development philosophy of Brilliance Auto and is especially made for business personnel. The development pattern of Zhonghua sedan set a brand new model in Chinese auto industry to utilize the global resources and talents and international division of labor in the international arena, and she has become a typical sample of independent brand sedans in the contemporary Chinese auto industry.……

  3. Chinese Hailed "National Fitness Program"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN March, 1994, Liu Ji, Vice Minister of the State Physical Culture and Sports Commission (SPCSC) announced the "National Fitness Program" on behalf of Chinese government at the World Sports-for-All Congress in Uruguay. Almost all the participants thought it important to carry out the program in a country with a population of 1.2 billion. It not only helps improve Chinese people’s health but also the world’s average standard of health. The "National Fitness Program" is an overall, century-spanning, systematic project, which is snowballing. In 1994, the SPCSC issued the One-Two-One Project of the

  4. Ikea success in chinese furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Yihong, Li

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will focus on the market exploiting and development of IKEA in China, analysis the characteristics of Chinese market and the supply-demand of the IKEA products in China. It also analyze the main Chinese consumers’ behaviour and evaluating the furniture retail market in China. IKEA is a successful case to open the china market recent years. The main goal is to acquire this information in order to provide the overseas retailers with a good starting point for creating an effective bu...

  5. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  6. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual skills…

  7. Chinese Strategic Art: A Cultural Framework for Assessing Chinese Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    between a Chinese Taijiquan master and a Western mixed- martial arts opponent.111 111...Taijiquan—which translates as supreme ultimate fist—is a style of martial arts that emphasizes softness to overcome hardness, and focuses on internal...energy instead of external, physical force. There is no equivalent to Taiji in Western pugilistic systems. Mixed- martial arts , is a pugilistic sport

  8. Chinese Network Language and Its Influences on Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧尔; 王芳芳

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet communication in China, more and more people use computers and Chinese Internet Language becomes very popular. This paper has a brief introduction of CIL from the perspective of vocabulary and tense, and discusses CIL’s influences on language teaching and multi-literacy.

  9. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  10. Approaches in Treating AIDS with Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕维柏

    2002-01-01

    @@ Editorial: AIDS is the archenemy of mankind, it also threatened Chinese people seriously. Although anti-retroviral drugs are effective, yet too expensive, the majority of 600 000 Chinese patients can't afford to purchase and use them. Decades ago, some scientists were trying to use Chinese Medicine in treating AIDS, experienc e gained but problems also exposed concerning strategy of research, methodol ogy, racial difference, Chinese drugs screening, integrative Chinese and western medicine, HIV and immunity, etc., sustained and integrative effort would bring safe, effective, and affordable drugs for the fatal pandemic all over the world

  11. Discursive Construction of Chinese Language Teacher Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers within the field of TCFL 1 (teaching Chinese as a foreign language) have begun to examine the notion of Chinese language teacher identity (Bianco, 2009; Cruickshank, 2011; Gao, 2012; Zhang & Jensen, 2013; Zhang, 2013); however, whilst insightful, this research has...... not addressed the ways in which Chinese language teachers identify themselves while interacting with students and how they construct their identities as TCFL teachers in other cultures. In this study, I address this research gap by exploring the discursive construction of three native Chinese language teachers...... (NCLTs) 2 teaching Chinese to Danish students....

  12. Foreign Policies and Foreign Exchanges for Chinese Publishing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's present foreign publishing policies Chinese Government respects and protects intellectual property rights. Chinese Government always attaches importance to the exchange and cooperation between Chinese publishing industry and that of other countries, encourages and supports Chinese publishing industry to actively introduce foreign excellent works to Chinese readers, and meanwhile, also actively advocates introduction of Chinese excellent works to foreign readers. Our persistent guideline is to support and promote exchanges between Chinese and foreign publishing industries in all fields.

  13. Chinese Leadership Styles in Public Sector in Tianjin

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Considerable studies on Chinese leadership styles apply Western models to test Chinese managers, and then define Chinese leadership style with Western ideas. This study assumes that Chinese managers have their own leadership styles distinctive from Westerners and tried to investigate the cultural and historical origin of Chinese leadership style, especially to explore how Confucianism have affected and shaped Chinese leadership style in modern Chinese society. This study adopted a qualitative...

  14. Chinese President Meets Stephen Hawking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Shuqin

    2002-01-01

    @@ Chinese President Jiang Zemin met on August 19 with Stephen Hawking and other world-renown scientists, including Shing-tung Yau, Edward Witten, D.Gross, A. Strominger, et al., who were attending an international conference on string theory and Prof.Hawking had just given a public speech titled "Brane New World" in Beijing.

  15. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  16. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  17. Chinese Sculpture as Public Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YinShuangxi

    2003-01-01

    Chinese arts have undergone tremendous changes thanks to the fast-growing modernization and urbanization process in China. One of the monumental changes is the emergence of “public art”, most notably, urban sculpture. This art is increasingly related to modern urban planning, architecture, and community building.

  18. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN ancient Chinese characters,母(pronounced mu)depicts a womanbending on her knees and crossingher hands in front with two points onher chest symbolizing her breasts.The original meaning of 母 is anadult woman who has given birth tochildren,i.e.a mother It was later

  19. Confessional Peculiarity of Chinese Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nurzat M.; Bulekbayev, Sagadi B.; Kurmanaliyeva, Ainura D.; Abzhalov, Sultanmurat U.; Meirbayev, Bekzhan B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers features of Islam among Muslim peoples in China. Along with the traditional religions of China--Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism--Islam influenced noticeable impact on the formation of Chinese civilization. The followers of Islam have a significant impact on ethno-religious, political, economic and cultural relations of the…

  20. 2006 Chinese RE Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since 2005,China government established series of regulations to rectify Chinese rare earth industry.Especially,the notice of "ceasing the issue of new mining license and controlling the gross rare earth mining volume" implemented in April of 2006 largely reduced the mining in Southern China.

  1. Bilingual Education in Chinese Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明勇

    2005-01-01

    This paper will consider both the general theory of bilingual education and the bilingual practice in Chinese universities. The necessity and possibility of carrying out bilingual education will be particularly dealt with. The current situation will be analyzed, namely, the achievements, the difficulties, and the solution and the future trend.

  2. Clinical Service of Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) faces three major challenges:(1)How to enhance its contribution on overall medical service quality? (2) How to best address the unmet medical needs in the contemporary society? (3)How to guarantee that the traditional perspective for disease diagnosis and treatment not be neglected in clinical practice?

  3. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann;

    2014-01-01

    . The geography of Chinese science is thus not only monocentric as regards overall scientific output, but also exhibits unusually hierarchical collaboration patterns. Unlike in Europe and North America, national and regional capitals are becoming ever more important as scientific coordination centers....

  4. Chinese Dress in the Louvre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    To the admiring gaze ofa 1,800-strong audience inthe biggest hall of theLouvre, the "Dawn of theChinese Nation—Ancientand Modern FashionShow" was held in October1998, at the ’99 ParisSpring/Summer GrandFashion Show. This is yetanother step on the fashion

  5. Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution…

  6. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  7. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen; C. van Marrewijk

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 ¿ 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such as Galtonian

  8. Dynamics of Chinese Comparative Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  9. Chinese Women Lawyers Society Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    ON November 12, 1993, the Chinese Women Lawyers Society was established in Beijing. The more than 10,000 women lawyers in the country were excited to have their own organization. Xu Weihua, secretary-general of the society and a lawyer working in the All-China Women’s Federation, said: "The society’s establishment will promote the participation of

  10. A Model of Chinese Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    At a national conference at the end of May,the Chinese Government said partnership assistance in the past year had boosted development in northwestern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region remarkably and called for greater support.Since March 2010,19provinces and municipalities have been each assigned a less developed region in Xinjiang to assist.

  11. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN oracle-bone inscription, 面 (mian) depictsthe outline of a face with a large eye at its center.To this end its original meaning was the humanface. However, in ancient Chinese 面 referred tothe front of the head and another characterdenoted the cheek, specifically the area between

  12. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g

  13. The Magic of Chinese Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Betty Siu Junn

    Although this booklet is intended for use in the classroom, the author cautions the reader that it is an adventure into Chinese music rather than a teaching or history experience. By learning how to play the music, students "travel" through China, giving them a better understanding of this country. The author describes the invention of ancient…

  14. Spoken Grammar for Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓敏

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the concept of spoken grammar has been mentioned among Chinese teachers. However, teach-ers in China still have a vague idea of spoken grammar. Therefore this dissertation examines what spoken grammar is and argues that native speakers’ model of spoken grammar needs to be highlighted in the classroom teaching.

  15. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann

    2014-01-01

    Chinese scientific output has increased dramatically in recent years, but its internal spatial structure has received scant attention. Estimated gravity models of intercity scientific coauthorships show that there are two types of spatial political bias in China, apart from the expected mass...

  16. ENERGY CALCULUS IN CHINESE LANGUAGESEGMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on cognitive science, the EnergyCalculus in Chinese language segmentation was presented to eliminate segmentation ambiguity. The notion of "EnergyCost" was advanced to denote the extent of the under-standability of a certain segmentation. EnergyCost function was defined with Z-notation. This approcah is effective to all natural language segmentation.

  17. Autobiography of a Chinese City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of gazetteer [a peculiar Chinese genre of officially supervised local history writing] work in the Northeastern city of Harbin. It is a study of the interaction of politics, bureaucracy, and historical work at the local level in contemporary China, and it points...

  18. Personality types of Chinese dental school applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia; Luo, Zhengxue; Liu, Xufeng

    2007-12-01

    This his article reports the findings of a study conducted to investigate the personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Form G) was used to assess the personality styles of 332 dental school applicants from the mainland of China. The results of the MBTI for Chinese dental school applicants were compared with a previous study of applicants from the U.K. A higher percentage of this group of Chinese applicants scored higher for Introversion (I) than Extroversion (E); both Chinese and English applicants preferred Judging (J) to Perceiving (P). The dominant personality types in Chinese applicants were ISTJ, ESTJ, and ISFP. The findings suggest that the personality types of Chinese dental students may be somewhat different from the personality profiles exhibited by dental students from other nations. The findings may be of value to individuals who desire to investigate personality type differences among dental students with different cultural backgrounds.

  19. Translation Strategy of Chinese Culture-loaded Lexes and the Dissemina-tion of Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-li

    2016-01-01

    Lexes are the most important and basic element of a language. Chinese culture-loaded lexes are those words or expres-sions that are greatly rich in Chinese culture. They can reflect the characteristics of Chinese culture and Chinese nation. There-fore, it is of great significance to pay attention to the translation of Chinese culture-loaded lexes as they play a decisive role in disseminating Chinese culture. It can help promote Chinese culture worldwide, improve China’s cultural exchanges and commu-nication with other nations and strengthen China’s status in the world. This paper focuses on the Chinese culture-loaded words and proposes some possible means of translation with the purpose of spreading Chinese culture.

  20. Chinese Tea Tradition:From Tea Service to Tea Drinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangFeng

    2003-01-01

    Tea was first discovered and drunk in China several thousand years ago and over the sweep of Chinese history drinking tea has developed to be part of Chinese culture and a reversible habit of Chinese people.With the spread of Chinese civilization,Chinese tea has been introduced to many countries across