WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinese locusta migratoria

  1. Purification and characterization of Locusta migratoria chymotrypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakal, E; Applebaum, S W; Birk, Y

    1988-12-01

    A chymotrypsin-like enzyme (CTLE) was isolated from the digestive tract of the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides by ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose followed by affinity chromatography on phenylbutylamine (PBA) Sepharose. The purity and homogeneity of CTLE have been shown by SDS-PAGE and on cellulose acetate strips. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 24,000, determined by SDS-PAGE and on a Sephadex G-75 calibrated column. It has an isoelectric point of 10.1 and contains 0-1 half cystine residues. Sequence analysis of the first 20 N-terminal amino acids has shown 25% homology with bovine chymotrypsin and 40% homology with Vespa crabo and Vespa orientalis chymotrypsins and with Hypoderma lineatum trypsin. The optimal pH for enzyme activity and stability was in the range of 8.5-9.0. The Km and kcat values, determined on substrates for proteolytic, esterolytic and amidolytic activity, similar to those for bovine chymotrypsin. CTLE was inactivated by PMSF and TPCK indicating the involvement of serine and histidine in its active site. The enzyme was fully inhibited by the proteinaceous, double-headed, chymotrypsin-trypsin inhibitors BBI from soybeans and CI from chickpeas, by chicken ovomucoid (COM) and turkey ovomucoid (TOM), as well as by the Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) which hardly inhibits bovine chymotrypsin. Inhibition studies of CTLE with amino acid and peptide-chloromethylketones point towards the existence of an extended binding site. PMID:3246483

  2. Transovarial transmission of Nosema locustae (Microsporida: Nosematidae) in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, S K; Das, S; Rai, M M; Khurad, A M

    1995-01-01

    Nosema locustae, a microsporidian parasite of locusts and grasshoppers, was transovarially transmitted to the progeny of infected Locusta migratoria reared for up to F14 generations. The mortality of infected progeny in each generation was higher than that of uninfected controls and ranged from 67.6% to 95.5%. Infected female survivors transmitted the microsporidium to the progeny via eggs. The developing eggs harboured vegetative stages of N. locustae, and development of the microsporidium occurred during embryonation. Spores accumulated in the yolk and, after blastokinesis, both the yolk and the spores were enclosed in the midgut of the embryo. Germinated spores infected the functional midgut epithelium and invaded internal tissues. The mortality of newly hatched instars was high when embryonic tissue had been infected during development. PMID:7724512

  3. Insect (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) test monitoring the toxicity of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiripi, L; Nagy, L; Kalmár, T; Kovács, A; Vörös, L

    1998-01-01

    An insect test was developed to investigate the toxicity of cyanobacteria. The African locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides R.F. was used as a test animal instead of mouse. The cyanobacteria tested were Aphanizomenon flos-aque, Anabaena aphanizomenoides, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Microcystis aeruginosa. The toxicity of authentic microcystin-LR was also tested. Cyanobacteria producing toxins killed the animals when the homogenized cell suspension was injected into the animals. The locust test proved to be more sensitive than the mouse test. The LD50 values of the different cyanobacteria for locusts and for mice, respectively were the following: 90 microg/animal (60 mg/kg) and 8000 microg/animal (320 mg/kg), for Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; 255 microg/animal (170.2 mg/kg) and 3750 microg/animal (150 mg/kg), for Anabaena aphanizomenoides; 195 microg/animal (131.4 mg/kg) and 5750 microg/animal (230 mg/kg), for Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii; 22.5 microg/animal (15 mg/kg) and 6000 microg/ animal (240 mg/kg), for Microcystis aeruginosa. In locusts the LD50 value for authentic microcystin-LR was 0.2 microg/animal (130 mg/kg). Since the weight of the mice is 15 to 20 times larger than that of the locusts, hence less toxic cells are needed to kill the locusts. The locust test is cheaper than the mouse test, large number of animals can be used in the experiments and the LD50 values can be estimated more precisely. The toxicity of C. raciborskii was significantly lower when the lyophilized cells were extracted in methanol (LD50 = 767 mg/kg), instead of NaCl solution (LD50 = 131.4 mg/kg). PMID:9745918

  4. Regulation of substrate utilization in the flight muscle of the locust, Locusta migratoria, during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, R.A.A.; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of metabolites involved in carbohydrate metabolizing pathways, of amino acids and adenine nucleotides in the flight muscles of Locusta migratoria were determined during a fligt of 2 hr. During the first 15 min of flight, glycogen and glucose concentrations decreased to reach appro

  5. The mechanism for microsporidian parasite suppression of the hindgut bacteria of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu-Qian; Zhang, Kai-Qi; Chen, Hong-Xing; Ge, Yang; Ji, Rong; Shi, Wang-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Locusts aggregate into bands of nymphs and swarms of adults that can pose a major threat to crop. Previous studies have shown that infection by the microsporidian parasite Paranosema locustae prevents locust aggregation behavior and we show that gut bacteria, which produce components of locust aggregation pheromones, are substantially reduced in locusts infected with P. locustae. We found that P. locustae could reduce the diversity, abundance and community composition of Locusta migratoria's gut bacteria. The parasite infection was also shown to interrupt the peroxidase activity of locust hindgut. Genome-wide expression analysis showed that the parasite infection suppressed peroxidase mRNA relative expression of locust hindgut, but had no effects on attacin expression and superoxide dismutase at 16 d post-inoculation with 20,000 P. locustae spores. Our findings reveal the mechanisms by which P. locustae impairs bacterial diversity and community structure of Locusta migratoria's gut bacteria. PMID:26612678

  6. Regulation of substrate utilization in the flight muscle of the locust, Locusta migratoria, during flight

    OpenAIRE

    Worm, R.A.A.; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of metabolites involved in carbohydrate metabolizing pathways, of amino acids and adenine nucleotides in the flight muscles of Locusta migratoria were determined during a fligt of 2 hr. During the first 15 min of flight, glycogen and glucose concentrations decreased to reach approximately constant levels. The concentration of glucose-6-phosphate increased rapidly. After an initial rise the concentration of fructose-1, 6-diphosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and pyruvate r...

  7. The Effects of Temperature and Body Mass on Jump Performance of the Locust Locusta migratoria

    OpenAIRE

    Snelling, Edward P.; Christie L Becker; Seymour, Roger S.

    2013-01-01

    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump...

  8. The cytogenetic effects of the aqueous extracts of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria L.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkez, Hasan; Incekara, Umit; Güner, Adem; Aydın, Elanur; Dirican, Ebubekir; Togar, Başak

    2014-04-01

    One of the useful and most commonly cultivated commercially species, migratory locust (Locusta migratoria; Orthoptera), was investigated in light of genotoxic damage potentials. For this aim, we evaluated the genotoxic potentials of water soluble extracts of L. migratoria on cultured human blood cells. The micronucleus, sister chromatid exchange and structural chromosome aberration assays were applied to assess DNA and chromosomal damage produced by aqueous extracts in vitro. The extracts were added to the cultures at different concentrations ranging from 0 to 1000 mg/L. Our results indicated that these extracts did not exhibit genotoxicity at tested concentrations. We conclude that this in vitro approach for biomonitoring genotoxicity assessment is useful for comparing the potential health risks of edible insects. PMID:22872633

  9. Flight muscle development in Locusta migratoria: Effects of implantation of corpora allata on the attainment of metabolic enzyme activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel-Franken, M.A.M. van den; Broek, A.Th.M. van den; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of corpora allata (CA) implantation on the development of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscles and the wings and on the pigmentation in Locusta migratoria were investigated. Fifth-instar female larvae 0–24 hr after ecdysis received either one pair of CA taken from adult females or one, t

  10. Attenuation of fungal infection in thermoregulating Locusta migratoria is accompanied by changes in hemolymph proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Robert M; Kamp, Andrena; Goettel, Mark S; Brodeur, Jacques; Bidochka, Michael J

    2002-09-01

    Hemolymph proteins in the locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides infected with the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum were analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Under conditions that allowed locusts to thermoregulate, 2 proteins, ITB1 (ca. 18kDa) and ITB2 (ca. 13kDa) were induced 48h post inoculation. In contrast, under non-thermoregulating conditions, only 1 band, INTB1 (ca. 18kDa) was induced with similar molecular mass to ITB1. ITB1 and ITB2 were N-terminally sequenced but showed little homology to known proteins. The induction of hemolymphal proteins in infected, thermoregulating locusts and implication in insect immune defence are discussed. PMID:12417209

  11. Thiol-activated serine proteinases from nymphal hemolymph of the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzon, Jacob; Smirnoff, Patricia; Applebaum, Shalom W; Mattoo, Autar K; Birk, Yehudith

    2003-02-01

    Two unique serine proteinase isoenzymes (LmHP-1 and LmHP-2) were isolated from the hemolymph of African migratory locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) nymphs. Both have a molecular mass of about 23 kDa and are activated by thiol-reducing agents. PMSF abolishes enzymes activity only after thiol activation, while the cysteine proteinase inhibitors E-64, iodoacetamide, and heavy metals fail to inhibit the thiol-activated enzymes. The N-terminal sequence was determined for the more-abundant LmHP-2 isoenzyme. It exhibits partial homology to that of other insect serine proteinases and similar substrate specificity and inhibition by the synthetic and protein trypsin inhibitors pABA, TLCK, BBI, and STI. The locust trypsins LmHP-1 and LmHP-2 constitute a new category of serine proteases wherein the active site of the enzyme is exposed by thiol activation without cleavage of peptide bonds. PMID:12559979

  12. [Physiological features of the wing muscle fibers of Locusta migratoria locusts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, V V

    1980-01-01

    In bifunctional dorsoventral muscle M-120 of the locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides three groups of fibers have been found which differ with respect to their electrophysiological properties. The evoked fast potentials in the fibers of caudal portion differed from fast potentials observed in the fibers of rostral and intermediate portions of the muscle. In the fibers of the caudal and intermediate portions of muscle, not only fast, but other depolarization potentials were also recorded which differ in the amplitude and duration, as well as the inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. It was shown that fibers in these three parts of the muscle differ in their voltage-current properties. It is concluded that different types of potentials are due to peculiarities of innervation and to structural heterogeneity of muscle fibers. PMID:6247866

  13. Characterization and functional analysis of four glutathione S-transferases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guohua; Jia, Miao; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Xueyao; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In this study, four GSTs (LmGSTd1, LmGSTs5, LmGSTt1, and LmGSTu1) representing different classes were identified from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. These four proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins, purified by Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose column and biochemically characterized. LmGSTd1, LmGSTs5, and LmGSTu1 showed high activities with 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), detectable activity with p-nitro-benzyl chloride (p-NBC) and 1, 2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), whereas LmGSTt1 showed high activity with p-NBC and detectable activity with CDNB. The optimal pH of the locust GSTs ranged between 7.0 to 9.0. Ethacrynic acid and reactive blue effectively inhibited all four GSTs. LmGSTs5 was most sensitive to heavy metals (Cu(2+) and Cd(2+)). The maximum expression of the four GSTs was observed in Malpighian tubules and fat bodies as evaluated by western blot. The nymph mortalities after carbaryl treatment increased by 28 and 12% after LmGSTs5 and LmGSTu1 were silenced, respectively. The nymph mortalities after malathion and chlorpyrifos treatments increased by 26 and 18% after LmGSTs5 and LmGSTu1 were silenced, respectively. These results suggest that sigma GSTs in L. migratoria play a significant role in carbaryl detoxification, whereas some of other GSTs may also involve in the detoxification of carbaryl and chlorpyrifos.

  14. Genetic variation for parental effects on the propensity to gregarise in Locusta migratoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foucart Antoine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental parental effects can have important ecological and evolutionary consequences, yet little is known about genetic variation among populations in the plastic responses of offspring phenotypes to parental environmental conditions. This type of variation may lead to rapid phenotypic divergence among populations and facilitate speciation. With respect to density-dependent phenotypic plasticity, locust species (Orthoptera: family Acrididae, exhibit spectacular developmental and behavioural shifts in response to population density, called phase change. Given the significance of phase change in locust outbreaks and control, its triggering processes have been widely investigated. Whereas crowding within the lifetime of both offspring and parents has emerged as a primary causal factor of phase change, less is known about intraspecific genetic variation in the expression of phase change, and in particular in response to the parental environment. We conducted a laboratory experiment that explicitly controlled for the environmental effects of parental rearing density. This design enabled us to compare the parental effects on offspring expression of phase-related traits between two naturally-occurring, genetically distinct populations of Locusta migratoria that differed in their historical patterns of high population density outbreak events. Results We found that locusts from a historically outbreaking population of L. migratoria expressed parentally-inherited density-dependent phase changes to a greater degree than those from a historically non-outbreaking population. Conclusion Because locusts from both populations were raised in a common environment during our experiment, a genetically-based process must be responsible for the observed variation in the propensity to express phase change. This result emphasizes the importance of genetic factors in the expression of phase traits and calls for further investigations on density

  15. Isolation and characterization of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene from Locusta migratoria manflensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Yan Cui; Yu-Xian Xia

    2009-01-01

    Trehalose plays an important role in protecting organisms from various stresses.Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) is the key enzyme in trehalose synthesis, but in in-sects only a few TPS genes have been identified and their function has not been well characterized. To better understand the function of TPS in insects, a complete TPS com-plementary DNA (eDNA) clone was obtained from the fat body of the locust Locusta migratoria manilensis (GenBank accession number: EU 131894). The full-length cDNA is 2 806 bp, including an open reading frame of 2 442 bp, which encodes an 813 amino acids protein with a calculated molecular weight of 91 976 Daltons and an isoelectric point of 6.14. The deduced amino acid sequence is highly similar to other published insect TPS and its C-terminal also has a region homologous to trehalose phosphate phsophatase (TPP).Semi-quantitative analysis indicated that the TPS transcript was expressed not only in fat body, but also in gut, hemolymph and leg muscle. These data may facilitate studies of TPS function in insects and improve our understanding of trehalose metabolism.

  16. Flight-induced inhibition of the cerebral median peptidergic neurosecretory system in Locusta migratoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study discusses the effects of a 1-hr period of flight on the peptidergic pars intercerebralis (PI)-corpus cardiacum storage part (CCS) system in male Locusta migratoria, particularly the effect on material in this system stained by a histochemical method for peptidergic neurosecretory material (NSM) or labeled by in vivo incorporation of radioactive amino acid molecules. By use of an automatic image analysis system a number of parameters of the stained or radioactively labeled substances were measured to quantify the flight-induced effects and to get information on the manner in which the neurosecretory cell bodies in the PI and their axonal endings in the CCS accommodate changing amounts of NSM. The CCS of flown locusts contained distinctly more stained and radioactively labeled substances than the CCS of unflown locusts. A tendency to similar differences was observed in the cluster of neurosecretory cell bodies in the PI. The results indicate that 1 hr flight inhibited the release of NSM by the PI-CCS system. After the onset of reduced release activity by flight, some NSM continued to be synthesized and transported from the PI to the CCS, gradually filling up and expanding the entire PI-CCS system, the NSM at the same time becoming more and more densely packed. It is concluded that the peptidergic PI-CCS system is not actively involved in the control of flight metabolism or flight behavior

  17. Tissue-Specific Immune Gene Expression in the Migratory Locust, Locusta Migratoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Pulpitel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of hosts to respond to infection involves several complex immune recognition pathways. Broadly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs allow individuals to target a range of invading microbes. Recently, studies on insect innate immunity have found evidence that a single pathogen can activate different immune pathways across species. In this study, expression changes in immune genes encoding peptidoglycan-recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA, gram-negative binding protein 1 (GNBP1 and prophenoloxidase (ProPO were investigated in Locusta migratoria, following an immune challenge using injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS solution from Escherichia coli. Since immune activation might also be tissue-specific, gene expression levels were followed across a range of tissue types. For PGRP-SA, expression increased in response to LPS within all seven of the tissue-types assayed and differed significantly between tissues. Expression of GNBP1 similarly varied across tissue types, yet showed no clear expression difference between LPS-injected and uninfected locusts. Increases in ProPO expression in response to LPS, however, could only be detected in the gut sections. This study has revealed tissue-specific immune response to add a new level of complexity to insect immune studies. In addition to variation in recognition pathways identified in previous works, tissue-specificity should be carefully considered in similar works.

  18. In vitro and in vivo effects of formamidines in locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiripi, L; Nagy, L; Hollingworth, R M

    1999-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments were used to study the effects of formamidines in the locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides. In vivo the lethal and the antifeeding effects, in vitro the inhibition of the binding of a selective 3H-ligand to the receptors of octopamine, tyramine, dopamine, serotonin and gamma-amino butiric acid were studied. We have demonstrated that demethylchlordimeform is specific agonist to octopamine receptor, having high affinity to octopamine receptor, a moderate affinitiy to tyramine receptor and a low affinity to dopamine, serotonin and to gamma-amino butiric acid receptors. The demethylated chlordimeform analogoues, demethylchlordimeform and didemethylchlordimeform have higher affinity to the octopamine receptor than the parent compound. The formamidines had a toxic and an antifeeding effects when injected into the locust. The half lethal doses (LD50) and the feeding inhibition were correlated with the affinity of the compounds (Ki). The ring substitutions of the mulecule have alterated the both affinity and in vivo effect of the compounds. The most effective ring substitution pattern is 2,4-disubstitution with a combination of methyl groups or halogens. Our results suggest that the lethal effect of formamidines is mediated through the octopamine receptor. PMID:10574431

  19. Biochemical basis of synergism between pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and insecticide chlorantraniliprole in Locusta migratoria (Meyen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Miao; Cao, Guangchun; Li, Yibo; Tu, Xiongbing; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Whitman, Douglas W.; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    We challenged Locusta migratoria (Meyen) grasshoppers with simultaneous doses of both the insecticide chlorantraniliprole and the fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae. Our results showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on host mortality and enzyme activities. To elucidate the biochemical mechanisms that underlie detoxification and pathogen-immune responses in insects, we monitored the activities of 10 enzymes. After administration of insecticide and fungus, activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), general esterases (ESTs) and phenol oxidase (PO) decreased in the insect during the initial time period, whereas those of aryl acylamidase (AA) and chitinase (CHI) increased during the initial period and that of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) increased during a later time period. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) decreased at a later time period post treatment. Interestingly, treatment with chlorantraniliprole and M. anisopliae relieved the convulsions that normally accompany M. anisopliae infection. We speculate that locust mortality increased as a result of synergism via a mechanism related to Ca2+ disruption in the host. Our study illuminates the biochemical mechanisms involved in insect immunity to xenobiotics and pathogens as well as the mechanisms by which these factors disrupt host homeostasis and induce death. We expect this knowledge to lead to more effective pest control. PMID:27328936

  20. Study of the biological impact of Pseudomonas spp.fluoresents on hemolyphatic metabolites and histology of the digestive tract of larvae 15 migratory locust Locusta migratoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study allows to test the effect of entomopathogenic bacteria of Pseudomonas fluorescens bv III and Pseudomonas fluorescence bv V on the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria metabolites, namely proteins and carbohydrates as well as on the histology of the digestive system of fifth stage larvae of migratory locust Locusta migratoria. The results show an important decrease of haemolymph protein concentration compared to controls with an increase in carbohydrate concentration. Examination of histological sections of various parts of the digestive tract showed some changes in treated. (author)

  1. Flight muscle development in Locusta migratoria: Effects of implantation of corpora allata on the attainment of metabolic enzyme activities

    OpenAIRE

    Hondel-Franken, M.A.M. van den; Broek, A.Th.M. van den; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of corpora allata (CA) implantation on the development of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscles and the wings and on the pigmentation in Locusta migratoria were investigated. Fifth-instar female larvae 0–24 hr after ecdysis received either one pair of CA taken from adult females or one, two, three, or four pairs of CA taken from young fourth-instar larvae. Implantation of one, two, or (except for a few cases) three pairs of larval CA did not produce any effect. However, after impla...

  2. Characterization of tyramine and octopamine receptors in the insect (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiripi, L; Juhos, S; Downer, R G

    1994-01-01

    The kinetic and pharmacological properties of [3H]tyramine and [3H]octopamine binding to membrane preparations of locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) brain were studied to characterize the tyramine and octopamine receptors. [3H]Tyramine and [3H]octopamine bind specifically and reversibly to the locust brain membrane with equilibrium achieved after 20 min. The dissociation of [3H]tyramine is monophasic while that of the [3H]octopamine shows a biphasic tendency. Scatchard analysis of the saturation curves reveals a single high affinity binding site for each of tyramine and octopamine. The mean (+/- S.E.M.) values of Kd and Bmax are 6.11 +/- 0.71 nM and 21.45 +/- 3.0 fmol/mg tissue for tyramine and 5.65 +/- 0.91 nM and 15.0 +/- 2.4 fmol/mg tissue for octopamine, respectively. Pharmacological analysis of the binding suggests the presence of both tyramine and octopamine receptors in the locust brain. alpha-Adrenergic agonists and antagonists have a high affinity to the octopamine but not the tyramine receptor whereas dopaminergic drugs have a higher affinity to the tyramine receptor than the octopamine receptor. No highly effective inhibitors of tyramine binding were identified. The serotonergic blockers, mianserin, LSD, BOL are effective blockers for both tyramine and octopamine receptors, whereas the serotonergic antagonist gramine is more active against the octopamine than the serotonin receptor. The results suggest that a G-protein binding mechanism is involved in the expression of both the tyramine and octopamine effects. PMID:7907928

  3. Purification and characterization of trypsins from the digestive tract of Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakal, E; Applebaum, S W; Birk, Y

    1989-12-01

    Two trypsin-like enzymes were isolated from the digestive tract of the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides. Primary purification was carried out on a DEAE-cellulose column, from which the two trypsins emerged in the anionic fraction. Further purification was achieved by affinity chromatography on a p-aminobenzamidine (PABA)-Sepharose column, which also separated the two trypsins (TLEAff.1. and TLEAff.2.), or by HPLC on an anion exchange column. The purity and homogeneity of the trypsins were demonstrated by electrophoresis of cellulose acetate strips and in polyacrylamide gels, with and without SDS. The molecular weights of TLEAff.1 and TLEAff.2, as determined by SDS-PAGE, were 17,000 and 24,000 respectively. The amino acid compositions of the locust trypsins were similar to those of trypsins from the digestive systems of other insects, which are characterized by the lack or low content of half cystines. The isoelectric points were 3.2 for TLEAff.1 and 3.5 fold for TLEAff.2. Since most of the locust trypsin comprised TLEAff.2, the latter served as the main object of this study. TLEAff.2 was unstable at low pH, differing in this respect from mammalian trypsins. The optimum activity was at pH 8.5-9.0. The Km and kcat, values were similar to those for bovine trypsin. Activation by substrate, a phenomenon in bovine trypsin, was also observed for TLEAff.2. The locust trypsin was full inhibited by the proteinaceous trypsin inhibitors Bowman-Birk (BBI) and Kunitz from soybeans, CI from chickpeas, chicken ovomucoid (COM), and turkey ovomucoid (TOM). It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK), indicating the involvement of serine and histidine in the active site. PMID:2635697

  4. Cytochemical demonstration of cyclic 3', 5' AMP phosphodiesterase in different tissue of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides R.F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedeczky, I; Rózsa, K S

    1981-01-01

    The localization of cyclic 3', 5'-AMP phosphodiesterase was studied by ultrastructural cytochemical methods in the various tissues of Locusta migratoria. Large amounts of electron dense, granular reaction products were detectable on the surface of the corpora allata and the corpus cardiacum, bound to the basal lamina. In the protocerebral neuropile rather large amounts of reaction products were observed in the processes of the glial cells. A significant number of lead phosphate deposit was found to occur on the membrane of certain large axons, the microtubules of the axons, furthermore on the membrane of several terminals. Reaction product was also observable in certain terminals, bound to the synaptic vesicles and the mitochondria. At the same time, electron dense deposits were not detectable at all on the surface of cerebral neurons. In the case of myocardium, reaction product was only found on the basal lamina and the extracellular surface of the sarcolemma. On the basis of our results it can be stated that the cyclic 3', 5'-AMP phosphodiesterase is detectable by cytochemical methods in different tissues of Locusta migratoria and presumably it fulfils the task of the extracellular cAMP level regulation. PMID:6260713

  5. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P Snelling

    Full Text Available Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m scales with body mass (M; g according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI, jump take-off angle (A; degrees scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06, and jump energy (E; mJ per jump scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09. Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02. The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12% legs and a relatively larger (11% femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight.

  6. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Becker, Christie L; Seymour, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m) scales with body mass (M; g) according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI)), jump take-off angle (A; degrees) scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06), and jump energy (E; mJ per jump) scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09). Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm) of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02). The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12%) legs and a relatively larger (11%) femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight. PMID:23967304

  7. Selection and assessment of reference genes for quantitative PCR normalization in migratory locust Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingpo Yang

    Full Text Available Locusta migratoria is a classic hemimetamorphosis insect and has caused widespread economic damage to crops as a migratory pest. Researches on the expression pattern of functional genes in L. migratoria have drawn focus in recent years, especially with the release of genome information. Real-time quantitative PCR is the most reproducible and sensitive approach for detecting transcript expression levels of target genes, but optimal internal standards are key factors for its accuracy and reliability. Therefore, it's necessary to provide a systematic stability assessment of internal control for well-performed tests of target gene expression profile. In this study, twelve candidate genes (Ach, Act, Cht2, EF1α, RPL32, Hsp70, Tub, RP49, SDH, GAPDH, 18S, and His were analyzed with four statistical methods: the delta Ct approach, geNorm, Bestkeeper and NormFinder. The results from these analyses aimed to choose the best suitable reference gene across different experimental situations for gene profile study in L. migratoria. The result demonstrated that for different developmental stages, EF1α, Hsp70 and RPL32 exhibited the most stable expression status for all samples; EF1α and RPL32 were selected as the best reference genes for studies involving embryo and larvae stages, while SDH and RP49 were identified for adult stage. The best-ranked reference genes across different tissues are RPL32, Hsp70 and RP49. For abiotic treatments, the most appropriate genes we identified were as follows: Act and SDH for larvae subjected to different insecticides; RPL32 and Ach for larvae exposed to different temperature treatments; and Act and Ach for larvae suffering from starvation. The present report should facilitate future researches on gene expression in L. migratoria with accessibly optimal reference genes under different experimental contexts.

  8. In vitro incorporation of L-canavanine into vitellogenin of the fat body of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, M; Rosenthal, G A; Applebaum, S W

    1981-01-01

    L-Canavanine competes with L-arginine for incorporation into vitellogenin secreted in vitro by the fat body of the female locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides. Incorporation of L-[guanidinooxy-14C]canavanine into vitellogenin has been established unequivocally by combined arginase and urease hydrolyses of the acid hydrolysate of antibody-precipitated canavanyl vitellogenin. Continued exposure of the fat body to canavanine decreases in vitro protein secretion but the proportion of canavanyl vitellogenin to native vitellogenin increases. Canavanine-mediated inhibition of fat body protein secretion is dependent on both the canavanine concentration and the arginine retention by the fat body. Canavanine replaces about 10% of the arginyl residues of canavanyl vitellogenin. The electrophoretic mobility of canavanyl vitellogenin is greater than that of native vitellogenin but the ability of this aberrant protein to react with vitellogenin antibody is unimpaired. Images PMID:6946485

  9. In vitro incorporation of L-canavanine into vitellogenin of the fat body of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, M; Rosenthal, G A; Applebaum, S W

    1981-09-01

    L-Canavanine competes with L-arginine for incorporation into vitellogenin secreted in vitro by the fat body of the female locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides. Incorporation of L-[guanidinooxy-14C]canavanine into vitellogenin has been established unequivocally by combined arginase and urease hydrolyses of the acid hydrolysate of antibody-precipitated canavanyl vitellogenin. Continued exposure of the fat body to canavanine decreases in vitro protein secretion but the proportion of canavanyl vitellogenin to native vitellogenin increases. Canavanine-mediated inhibition of fat body protein secretion is dependent on both the canavanine concentration and the arginine retention by the fat body. Canavanine replaces about 10% of the arginyl residues of canavanyl vitellogenin. The electrophoretic mobility of canavanyl vitellogenin is greater than that of native vitellogenin but the ability of this aberrant protein to react with vitellogenin antibody is unimpaired. PMID:6946485

  10. Primary structure of a 14 kDa basic structural protein (Lm-76) from the cuticle of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Andersen, S O; Højrup, P;

    1993-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of a 14 kDa structural protein (LM-76) isolated from pharate cuticle of the locust, Locusta migratoria, was determined by Edman degradation of the intact protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Plasma desorption and electrospray mass spectrometry was used...... region surrounded by two hydrophobic regions with 7 repeats of a (Tyr)-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala/Val motif. The conservation around the prolyl residues within this sequence motif is demonstrated for the hitherto sequenced presumptive exocuticle proteins from L. migratoria. The N-terminal region of protein Lm-76...

  11. RNA interference to reveal roles of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene during molting process in Locusta migratoria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Rong; Da-Qi Li; Xue-Yao Zhang; Sheng Li; Kun Yan Zhu; Ya-Ping Guo; En-Bo Ma; Jian-Zhen Zhang

    2013-01-01

    β-N-acetylglucosaminidases are crucial enzymes involved in chitin degradation in insects.We identified a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene(LmNAG1)from Locusta migratoria.The full-length complementary DNA(cDNA)of LmNAGI consists of 2 667 nucleotides,including an open reading frame(ORF)of 1 845 nucleotides encoding 614 amino acid residues,and 233-and 589-nucleotide non-coding regions at the 5'-and 3'-ends,respectively.Phylogenetic analysis grouped the cDNA-deduced LmNAG1 protein with the enzymatically characterized β-N-acetylglucosaminidases in group Ⅰ.Analyses of stage-and tissue-dependent expression patterns of LmNAG1 were carried out by realtime quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Our results showed that LmNAG1 transcript level in the integument was significantly high in the last 2 days of the fourth and fifth instar nymphs.LmNAG1 was highly expressed in foregut and hindgut.RNA interference of LmNAG1 resulted in an effective silence of the gene and a significantly reduced total LmNAG enzyme activity at 48 and 72 h after the injection of LmNAG1 double-stranded RNA(dsRNA).As compared with the control nymphs injected with GFP dsRNA,50% of the dsLmNAG1-injected nymphs were not able to molt successfully and eventually died.Our results suggest that LmNAG1 plays an essential role in molting process of L.migratoria.

  12. Different Effects of Metarhizium anisopliae Strains IMI330189 and IBC200614 on Enzymes Activities and Hemocytes of Locusta migratoria L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangchun; Jia, Miao; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lei; Tu, Xiongbing; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    Background Metarhizium is an important class of entomopathogenic fungi in the biocontrol of insects, but its virulence is affected by insect immunity. To clarify the mechanism in virulence of Metarhizium, we compared the immunological differences in Locusta migratoria L. when exposed to two strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma). Results The virulence of Ma IMI330189 was significantly higher than that of Ma IBC200614 to locust, and IMI330189 overcame the hemocytes and began destroying the hemocytes of locust at 72 h after spray, while locust is immune to IBC200614. IMI330189 could overcome the humoral immunity of locust by inhibiting the activities of phenol oxidase (PO), esterases, multi-function oxidases (MFOs) and acetylcholinesterases in locust while increasing the activities of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), catalase and aryl-acylamidase (AA). However IBC200614 inhibit the activities of GSTs and AA in locust and increase the activities of MFOs, PO, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and chitinase in locust. The changes of enzymes activities in period of infection showed that the time period between the 2nd and the 5th day after spray is critical in the pathogenic process. Conclusion These results found the phenomenon that Ma initiatively broke host hemocytes, revealed the correlation between the virulence of Ma and the changes of enzymes activities in host induced by Ma, and clarified the critical period in the infection of Ma. So, these results should provide guidance for the construction of efficient biocontrol Ma strains. PMID:27227835

  13. Trehalose and trehalose-hydrolyzing enzyme in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria infected with Metarhizium anisopliae strain CQMa102

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA ZHAO; ZHONG-KANG WANG; YOU-PING YIN; YAN-LING LI; ZHEN-LUN LI; GUO-XIONG PENG; YU-XIAN XIA

    2007-01-01

    Topical application of the Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum specialist strain CQMa102 to the locust Locusta migratoria man ilensis results in changes of the concentrations of trehalose and glucose in the haemolymph. Micrographs of the locust haemolymph shows Metarhizium anisopliae can effectivly penetrate the external skeleton of locust and after 2 days infection, the hyphae body will appear in the haemolymph of infected insects. The time in decrease of trehalose concentration coincided with that in increase of trehalose-hydrolysing enzyme activity in the haemolymph of the fungus-infected insects. Overlay gel analysis indicated there was considerably more trehalose-hydrolysing activity in the haemolymph of locusts infected by fungus than in controls. A comparable isoform was identified in in vitro culture of the fungus, suggesting a fungal origin for the in vivo enzyme. Haemolymph trehalose decreased significantly during mycosis of locusts by M. anisopliae. All these results suggested that this fungus may take advantage of competing nutrient utilization against the insect by its trehalose-hydrolyzing enzyme secretion. It may provide fundamental knowledge for fungal pathogenesis.

  14. Circadian rhythm changes in toxicity of the insecticide dieldrin on larvae of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeocha, F A; Fuzeau-Braesch, S

    1991-01-01

    Circadian changes in toxicity of the insecticide dieldrin were documented in the larvae (fifth stage) of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides. Insects were housed under light (L): dark (D) = 12:12, with L from 0800 to 2000 h. Topical applications of dieldrin at fixed clock hours, with doses ranging from 0.1 to 8 micrograms/gm body weight, were carried out in a series of experiments on male and female larvae. Twenty-four h after dosing, mortality was recorded to quantify the median lethal dose (LD50) values with reference to time of treatment. Experiments were performed during February, early and late June, and August. Larvae were more susceptible to dieldrin when dosed during the night rather than during the day [analysis of variance (ANOVA); p less than 0.05]. Moreover, female larvae were less susceptible to dieldrin than were male larvae (ANOVA; p less than 0.05). Cosinor analysis revealed circadian rhythms in susceptibility-resistance to the insecticide in all experiments except no. 2. Toxicity was found to be greatest during the nighttime. Cosinor analysis of pooled data of the four experiments documented circadian rhythmicity to toxicity of dieldrin in female but not in male larvae. Regardless of sex, the timing of least susceptibility (greatest resistance and highest LD50 value) to the insecticide, dieldrin, was around 1500. PMID:1797408

  15. Immunolocalization of a tachykinin-receptor-like protein in the central nervous system of Locusta migratoria migratorioides and neobellieria bullata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veelaert, D; Oonk, H B; Vanden Eynde, G; Torfs, H; Meloen, R H; Schoofs, L; Parmentier, M; De Loof, A; Vanden Broeck, J

    1999-05-10

    Antisera raised against two distinct peptide regions of the Drosophila neurokinin-like receptor NKD were used to immunolocalize tachykinin-receptor-like proteins in the central nervous system of two insect species: the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, and the gray fleshfly, Neobellieria bullata. The resulting immunopositive staining patterns were identical for both antisera. Moreover, a very similar distribution of the immunoreactive material was observed in fleshflies and locusts. Immunoreactivity was found in nerve terminals of the retrocerebral complex, suggesting a presynaptic localization of the receptor in this part of the brain. Cell bodies were stained in the subesophageal ganglion: an anterior group of four larger cells and a posterior group of about 20 cells. These cells have axons projecting into the contralateral nervus corporis allati (NCA) II, bypassing the corpus allatum and projecting through the NCA I into the storage part of the corpus cardiacum. In the glandular part of the corpus cardiacum, the glandular adipokinetic hormone-producing cells did not show any immunopositive staining. In the locust, additional immunopositive staining was observed in internolaterally located neurons of the tritocerebrum and in important integrative parts of the neuropil such as the central body and the mushroom bodies. PMID:10320221

  16. Fenoxycarb and thyroid hormones have JH-like effects on the follicle cells of Locusta migratoria in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, K G; Gordon, D R

    1996-01-01

    Earlier work had shown that JH acts on the membrane of the follicle cell of Locusta migratoria, bringing about a rapid reduction in volume which can be detected in vitro by measuring the increase in optical path difference using quantitative interference microscopy. The juvenoid fenoxycarb, a phenoxyphenyl derivative, is unrelated in structure to the juvenile hormones (which are derivatives of farnesoic acid), but it also caused a reduction in volume of the cells in vitro as measured by an increase in the optical path difference. The vertebrate hormone thyroxine, and thyronine, the non-iodinated derivative of thyroxine, also phenoxy phenyl compounds, evoked a response like fenoxycarb. The effect of thyroxine was abolished by ouabain, which inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase, the effector molecule for JH, and inhibited by ethoxyzolamide which inhibits the binding of JH to a putative membrane receptor. Triiodothyronine, the effective vertebrate hormone, acted at a lower threshold and optimum concentration, and had a greater magnitude of effect than the other compounds tested. These facts suggest that these phenoxyphenyl compounds are JH agonists and that the membrane receptor for JH may resemble a possible membrane receptor for thyroxine.

  17. Cys-loop ligand-gated chloride channels in dorsal unpaired median neurons of Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Daniel; Derst, Christian; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Van Kerkhove, Emmy

    2010-05-01

    In insects, inhibitory neurotransmission is generally associated with members of the cys-loop ligand-gated anion channels, such as the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl), the GABA-gated chloride channels (GABACl), and the histamine-gated chloride channels (HisCl). These ionotropic receptors are considered established target sites for the development of insecticides, and therefore it is necessary to obtain a better insight in their distribution, structure, and functional properties. Here, by combining electrophysiology and molecular biology techniques, we identified and characterized GluCl, GABACl, and HisCl in dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons of Locust migratoria. In whole cell patch-clamp recordings, application of glutamate, GABA, or histamine induced rapidly activating ionic currents. GluCls were sensitive to ibotenic acid and blocked by picrotoxin and fipronil. The pharmacological profile of the L. migratoria GABACl fitted neither the vertebrate GABA(A) nor GABA(C) receptor and was similar to the properties of the cloned Drosophila melanogaster GABA receptor subunit (Rdl). The expression of Rdl-like subunit-containing GABA receptors was shown at the molecular level using RT-PCR. Sequencing analysis indicated that the orthologous GABACl of D. melanogaster CG10357-A is expressed in DUM neurons of L. migratoria. Histamine-induced currents exhibited a fast onset and desensitized completely on continuous application of histamine. In conclusion, within the DUM neurons of L. migratoria, we identified three different cys-loop ligand-gated anion channels that use GABA, glutamate, or histamine as their neurotransmitter. PMID:20200125

  18. The presence of a pregnenolone-binding factor in the copulatory organ of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides R. & F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesen, G; Novak, F; Swevers, L; De Clerck, D; De Loof, A

    1988-12-01

    The presence of binding sites for nonecdysteroid steroids was investigated in the cytosol of several tissues of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides. Binding of androgens was not observed. Most tissues, however, showed nonsaturable binding of estrogens and in some tissues saturable progestin binding could be demonstrated. A pregnenolone binder, that was found to be present in the male copulatory organ, was further studied. It showed a dissociation constant of 4.4 (+/- 1.6) X 10(-8) M. This is the first report of a nonecdysteroid steroid-binding factor in an insect tissue. PMID:3240850

  19. The mechanism for microsporidian parasite suppression of the hindgut bacteria of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria manilensis

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-qian Tan; Kai-qi Zhang; Hong-xing Chen; Yang Ge; Rong Ji; Wang-peng Shi

    2015-01-01

    Locusts aggregate into bands of nymphs and swarms of adults that can pose a major threat to crop. Previous studies have shown that infection by the microsporidian parasite Paranosema locustae prevents locust aggregation behavior and we show that gut bacteria, which produce components of locust aggregation pheromones, are substantially reduced in locusts infected with P. locustae. We found that P. locustae could reduce the diversity, abundance and community composition of Locusta migratoria’s ...

  20. Effects of Glutamate and Na+ on the Development and Enzyme Activity of the Oriental Migratory Locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) in Successive Generations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xia; JIA Miao; WANG Lei; CAO Guang-chun; ZHANG Ze-hua

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and mass rearing of Locusta migratoria manilensis is an urgent need to meet the increasing demand for food of people. In this study, the effects of four artiifcial feeds on the development, reproduction and the activities of detoxiifcation and protective enzymes of L. migratoria manilensis in three successive generations were investigated. The results showed that sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) signiifcantly increased the net reproductive rate (R0) and the intrinsic growth rate (rm) of L. migratoria manilensis, but sodium chloride (0.17%) suppressed this increase. Furthermore, the artiifcial feed with sucrose and monosodium glutamate increased the activities of esterase (EST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), multi-function oxidase (MFO), phenol oxidase (PO), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), but inhibited the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). However, sodium chloride (0.17%) increased the activities of EST, AChE, CAT and SOD, and inhibited the activities of MFO, GST, PO and POD. Correlation analysis found that the increasing of PO activity and the decreasing of SOD activities were signiifcantly related with the increasing of the intrinsic growth rate (rm). The above results indicated that sucrose and monosodium glutamate could promote the development and reproduction of L. migratoria manilensis, but Na+ inhibit such promotion with the concentration above 0.2%. The activities of PO and SOD can be used as biochemical standard to assess the effect of artiifcial feed.

  1. Comparative analysis of cytochrome P450-like genes from Locusta migratoria manilensis: expression profiling and response to insecticide exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Qiong Guo; Jian-Zhen Zhang; Mei-Ling Yang; Liang-Zhen Yan; Kun Yan Zhu; Ya-Ping Guo; En-Bo Ma

    2012-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytochrome P450) gene superfamily comprises many genes that may be involved in the biotransformations of pesticides and other xenobiotics.To date,very little is known about cytochrome P450 genes in the oriental migratory locust,Locusta migratoria manilensis.In this study,we carried out a genomewide analysis of cytochrome P450 genes of the locust to identify putative cytochrome P450 genes and characterize their expression responses to insecticide exposures.We identified 15 cytochrome P450-1ike genes from a locust expressed sequence tag database (LocustDB).Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that most cytochrome P450-1ike genes displayed different tissue and developmental stage expression patterns.However,most of them were predominantly expressed in the midgut,gastric caeca,fatbodies,and/or hindgut.Biochemical analysis showed that cytochrome P450 was differentially affected by three different insecticides.Deltamethrin caused significant inductions in 12 h at LD30 (dose to kill 30% of the tested individuals) in the nymphs,whereas malathion and carbaryl did not have significant effect on cytochrome P450 enzyme activity.Further RT-PCR analysis showed significant increases of transcriptions of several cytochrome P450 genes in deltamethrin-treated locusts.Thus,the increased cytochrome P450 enzyme activity is likely due to increased transcriptions of multiple cytochrome P450genes in response to deltamethrin exposure.These results are expected to help us better understand the interactions between insecticides and major detoxification enzymes,and possible changes of the susceptibility to other insecticides in deltamethrin-treated insects at various molecular levels.

  2. A Family of CSαβ Defensins and Defensin-Like Peptides from the Migratory Locust, Locusta migratoria, and Their Expression Dynamics during Mycosis and Nosemosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Long

    2016-01-01

    Insect defensins are effector components of the innate defense system. During infection, these peptides may play a role in the control of pathogens by providing protective antimicrobial barriers between epithelial cells and the hemocoel. The cDNAs encoding four defensins of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, designated LmDEF 1, 3–5, were identified for the first time by transcriptome-targeted analysis. Three of the members of this CSαβ defensin family, LmDEF 1, 3, and 5, were detected in locust tissues. The pro regions of their sequences have little-shared identities with other insect defensins, though the predicted mature peptides align well with other insect defensins. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a completely novel position of both LmDEF 1 and 3, compared to defensins from hymenopterans. The expression patterns of the genes encoding LmDEFs in the fat body and salivary glands were studied in response to immune-challenge by the microsporidian pathogen Nosema locustae and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae after feeding or topical application, respectively. Focusing on Nosema-induced immunity, qRT-PCR was employed to quantify the transcript levels of LmDEFs. A higher transcript abundance of LmDEF5 was distributed more or less uniformly throughout the fat body along time. A very low baseline transcription of both LmDEFs 1 and 3 in naïve insects was indicated, and that transcription increases with time or is latent in the fat body or salivary glands of infected nymphs. In the salivary glands, expression of LmDEF3 was 20-40-times higher than in the fat body post-microbial infection. A very low expression of LmDEF3 could be detected in the fat body, but eventually increased with time up to a maximum at day 15. Delayed induction of transcription of these peptides in the fat body and salivary glands 5–15 days post-activation and the differential expression patterns suggest that the fat body/salivary glands of this species are active in the immune response

  3. Effects of a methanolic extract of the plant Haplophyllum tuberculatum and of teflubenzuron on female reproduction in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Oedipodinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheuk, Fatma; Cusson, Michel; Doumandji-Mitiche, Bahia

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a methanolic extract of the plant Haplophyllum tuberculatum (ME-Ht) and of teflubenzuron (TFB) were compared on several reproductive variables and ecdysteroid titers in the females of Locusta migratoria. The test products were administered orally to newly emerged females at doses of 1500 (ME-Ht) and 10μg/female (TFB). The methanolic extract and TFB had comparable effects on several of the variables examined. Both significantly delayed the first oviposition and reduced fecundity and fertility. ME-Ht and TFB also displayed similar effects on ovarian growth, vitellogenesis and ecdysteroid titers. Both treatments induced a drop in hemolymph protein levels as well as a reduction in vitellogenin uptake by oocytes. This delay in oogenesis was accompanied by a resorption of terminal oocytes. However, whereas TFB completely blocked egg hatch, ME-Ht only had a modest inhibitory effect on this variable. Hemolymph and ovarian ecdysteroid titers, as measured by radioimmunoassay, were similar and low in both control and treated females, except for a peak observed only in control females at the end of vitellogenesis. We discuss the functional significance of the observed effects in the context of the putative modes of action of the methanolic plant extract and TFB. PMID:22206884

  4. Chill injury in the eggs of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae): the time-temperature relationship with high-temperature interruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-HONGJING; XIAN-HUIWANG; LEKANG

    2005-01-01

    Mortality of the overwinteing egg of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria L., was attributed to chill injury because of its occurrence weU above the egg's supercooling point. In this study, two parameters, upper limit of chill injury zone (ULCIZ) and sum of the injurious temperature (SIT), were used to examine the locust egg' s cold hardiness.The value of ULCIZ for the locust egg is 1.06 + 0.54℃, and the SIT is -329.7 (hour·degree). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities changed dramatically after cold stress, indicating that oxygen and hydroxide free radicals are probably efficiently detoxified at low temperatures. It was suggested that the nature of chill in jury inlocust egg might be a complex of metabolic disorder and a non-proportional decrease in enzymatic reaction and transports, because the LDH activity at low temperature increased significantly and the ATPase activity decreased with prolonged duration of exposure to low temperatures. The results from high temperature interruption revealed that the high temperature intervals significantly increased the survival of locust eggs.

  5. Physical characterization and sequence identification of the ovary maturating parsin. A new neurohormone purified from the nervous corpora cardiaca of the African locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardie, J; Richard, O; Huet, J C; Nespoulous, C; Van Dorsselaer, A; Pernollet, J C

    1991-12-18

    A novel neurohormone, which anticipates ovarian maturation, was recently purified using liquid chromatography from the African locust nervous corpora cardiaca. Both its function and production by the pars intercerebralis of Locusta migratoria lead to its name, the ovary maturating parsin (Lom OMP). In this study, the Lom OMP was physically and chemically characterized. Its multiply charged ion spectrum was interpreted as two peaks of quite equal size having molecular masses of 6923.4 Da (major peak) and 6907.3 Da. The Lom OMP presented no periodic secondary structure according to the far ultraviolet circular dichroism spectrum obtained. It is composed of 65 amino acids and included a high concentration of alanine but is devoid of cysteine, isoleucine, methionine, lysine and threonine. The amino acid sequence indicated only one microheterogeneity, observed at position 26, consisted in the replacement of serine by alanine. The calculated Mr of the two acidic isoforms (calculated pHi = 4.87) were found to be in agreement with mass spectrometry measurements. When compared to the sequence libraries, the Lom OMP, the first insect gonadotropic neurohormone, was revealed as an unique protein. PMID:1765072

  6. Lack of essential enzymes for the biosynthesis of C19 and C18 steroids in gonads of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swevers, L; Lambert, J G; Novak, F; Paesen, G; De Loof, A

    1991-11-01

    Ovaries and testes of the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides, were incubated in vitro with six tritiated steroid precursors. Three developmental stages were investigated--1 day, 14 days, and 6 weeks after adult moulting. 20 alpha-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 20 beta-HSD, 17 beta-HSD, 3 beta-HSD/isomerase, C17-C20 lyase, glucuronyl-transferase, sulfotransferase, and acyltransferase were identified in both sexes. A synthesis of androgens or estrogens comparable to the vertebrate type, however, was not apparent in the locust gonads. 20 alpha-HSD, 20 beta-HSD, and 17 beta-HSD activities were high, while more important steps in steroid synthesis such as 3 beta-HSD and C17-C20 lyase were far less intense. Ovarian 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity was slight. Aromatase activity was not demonstrated. Water-soluble conjugate formation was high in the incubations of "14th-day" and "6th-week" gonads but was absent in "1st-day" ovaries and testes. Active ester formation of pregnenolone was demonstrated in "6th-week" testes. The other steroid conversions were similar in all developmental stages investigated. Major differences between testes and ovaries were not observed. The gonads of the migratory locust are concluded not to produce androgens or estrogens. PMID:1783269

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of dopamine in the brain of the insect Locusta migratoria migratorioides in comparison with the catecholamine distribution determined by the histofluorescence technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillemaringe, J; Duris, P; Geffard, M; Le Moal, M; Delaage, M; Bensch, C; Girardie, J

    1984-01-01

    As part of a follow-up study to our previous investigation of the catecholaminergic neurosecretory cells in the brain of adult female locusts (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) by means of the formaldehyde-induced fluorescence method, we have attempted to specify the identity of the amines present in these cells by an immunohistological technique. Using a recently developed anti-dopamine serum, we have demonstrated that the majority of the catecholaminergic median neurosecretory cells contain dopamine. Moreover, dopamine is present in some cell bodies of other zones of the brain, i.e. the median subocellar neurosecretory cells, perikarya in external areas of the protocerebrum, below the calyces, around the pedunculus, in the optic lobes (between the lobula and the medulla, between the medulla and the lamina), and in external zones of the tritocerebrum. Among the structured neuropils, which were particularly fluorescent in the formaldehyde-induced fluorescence method, only the pedunculus, the posterior part of the central body, the external zones of the alpha- and beta lobes and the proximal part of the lamina contain little dopamine. PMID:6383626

  8. 东亚飞蝗细胞色素P450基因的克隆及表达分析%Cloning, expression of cytochrome P450 from Locusta migratoria manilensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义昆; 邬玉兰; 李荔; 连国云; 刘志刚

    2013-01-01

    To clone the gene of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen),produce its recotnbinant protein. The cDNA of CYP450 was cloned using specific primers from the total RNA of L. m. manilensis. The cloned gene was inserted into pMD18-T vector and digested by BamH Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ. The cDNA was sequenced and subcloned into pET-28a expression vector. The cloned CYP450 cDNA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta by IPTG induction. Result showed that the cloned cDNA ORF sequence contained 1 551 bp and encoded 516 amino acids. Its sequence homology with the published one (Accession no. HM153426) was 99% at nucleotide level. The CYP450 was highly expressed in E. coli Rosetta as a unsoluble protein mainly with the molecular weight of about Mr 53 000 under induction of IPTG.%本文克隆了东亚飞蝗Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen)细胞色素P450(cytochrome P450)基因全长,表达重组蛋白,并对其可溶性进行了分析.通过提取东亚飞蝗总的RNA,反转录成cDNA,设计特异性引物,PCR克隆东亚飞蝗细胞色素P450基因,将测序正确的目的片段克隆至原核表达载体pET-28a中,在大肠埃希菌Escherichia coli Rosetta中用异丙基-β-D-硫代半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导表达.用十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)检测重组蛋白表达结果.结果表明:东亚飞蝗细胞色素P450基因开放阅读框全长为1 551 bp,编码516个氨基酸,与GenBank中已登录的东亚飞蝗细胞色素P450基因(HM153426)的同源性为99%,重组质粒pET-28a-P450在E.coli Rosetta中获得高效表达,重组蛋白相对分子质量(Mr)约为53 000,主要以包涵体的形式存在.

  9. 温度和紫外辐射胁迫对西藏飞蝗抗氧化系统的影响%Effects of temperature stress and ultraviolet radiation stress on antioxidant systems of Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆; 吴蕾; 杨刚; 匡健康; 封传红; 罗怀海; 杨群芳; 蒋春先; 王海建

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of adaptation to environmental stress in the pest species Locusta migratoria tibetensis Chen were investigated with respect to the effects of temperature and ultraviolet ( UV) radiation on its antioxidant system. The effects of low temperature (5-20 ℃ ) , high temperatures (30-45 ℃ ) , and UV radiation on the activities of antioxidant enzymes and on the inalondialdehyde (MDA) content of L migratoria tibettnsis adults were measured. At low temperatures, decreasing from 20 ℃ to 5 ℃ , the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) , and catalase (CAT) , and the MDA contents of the adult integument and alimentary canal all increased. The activities of SOD, POD and CAT also increased at high temperatures, increasing from 30 ℃ to 35 ℃. However, all enzyme activities decreased significantly when the temperature exceeded 35 ℃. The effects of radiation were examined at three wavelengths, ultraviolet-A ( UV-A) , ultraviolet-B ( UV-B) , and visible light. POD and CAT activities increased progressively during increasing exposure to radiation at all three wavelengths (the magnitudes of the changes were in the order: UV-B treatment > UV-A treatment > visible light treatment). UV-A and UV-B produced greater changes in the SOD activity of adult locusts than did visible light, during 24h and 72h exposures. Both UV-A and UV-B radiation caused a marked increase in the MDA content of the body wall, indicating a time-dependent induction of lipid peroxidation. Maximal contents of MDA were 0.72 nmol/g FW in the female integument, 0.88 nmol/g FW in the female alimentary canal, 0.66 nmol/g FW in male integument and 0.94 nmol/g FW in the male alimentary canal after exposures of 72 h UV-B, 72 h UV-A, 72 h UV-A, and 72 h UV-B, respectively. Thus, adult L. migratoria tibetensis are able to endure low temperatures (5-20 ℃ ) by protecting themselves from damage by reactive oxygen species but are unable to endure temperatures exceeding 35 ℃, which

  10. Ultrastructure of Four Types of Antennal Sensilla in Locusta migratoria manilensis (Insecta, Orthoptera)%东亚飞蝗四种类型的触角感受器超微结构(昆虫纲,直翅目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鑫; 张善干; 张龙

    2004-01-01

    The ultrastructures of different types of antennal sensilla in Locusta migratoria manilensis were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. There are four types of sensilla on its antenna: namely, sensilla basiconica, sensilla trichodea,sensilla coeloconica and sensilla chaetica. Sensilla basiconica have two subtypes: subtype A has thin cuticular wall perforated by numerous pores and more than 100 dendritic branchings, each of which contains 1~5 microtubules. Subtype B has also thin wall but much fewer(less than 6) dendritic branchings. Sensilla trichodea are single-walled and grooved. There are relatively few pores on the wall. More than 20 dendrites, each of which contains 1~5 microtubules, can be found in the sensillar lumen. Sensilla coeloconica are situated in pits on the antennal surface and divided into two subtypes: subtype A has grooved surface and double sensillar walls perforated by radial pores and 6~7 dendrites. Subtype B contains 4 dendrites with non-grooved, non-porous single wall. Sensilla chaetica have a thick non-porous wall and contain 5 dendrites sent to a terminal pore. The functions of four types of sensilla were discussed that sensilla basiconica and sensilla trichodea are olfactory sensilla; sensilla coeloconica may be respond to chemo-, hygroand thermostimulation and sensilla chaetica are possibly gustatory or mechanoreceptors.%利用扫描电镜和透射电镜观察了东亚飞蝗(Locusta migratoria manilensis)不同类型触角感受器的超微结构.在触角上存在4种类型的感受器:锥形感受器、毛形感受器、腔锥形感受器和刺形感受器.锥形感受器分为两个亚型:A亚型壁薄多孔,有100多个树突分枝,每个分枝有l~5个微管;B亚型壁薄,只有少于6个树突分枝.毛形感受器单壁,壁上有沟和小孔,孔数相对较少.对感受器腔中有超过20个的树突,每一树突中含有1~5个微管.腔锥形感受器位于触角表皮凹陷当中,含两个亚

  11. Determination of protein content in Locusta migratoria manilensis based on infrared spectroscopy%红外光谱法测定东亚飞蝗蛋白质含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连国云; 何伟逸; 陈义昆; 刘志刚

    2013-01-01

    采用近红外光谱和中红外光谱技术测定不同个体东亚飞蝗的蛋白质含量.以化学分析值作参比,采用偏最小二乘回归算法,在近红外、中红外及全波段光谱范围内分别建立东亚飞蝗光谱信息与蛋白质含量定量模型.预测结果表明,利用红外光谱技术可实现对可食昆虫类蛋白质含量的快速检测,检测过程比传统化学检测法简捷高效,且中红外光谱区域的建模效果优于近红外光谱区域.该研究为快速检测可食昆虫类蛋白质含量提供了借鉴.%The protein content in Locusta migratoria manilensis individuals was determined by using near-and mid-infrared spectrum technology. Based on the chemical values of the protein content of these locusts, the quantitative relation models between the real protein content and the spectral information were respectively established in the near-infrared, mid-infrared and full-band spectral range by using the partial least squares (PLS) regression algorithm. The predicted results show that infrared spectrum technology can be used to rapidly determine the protein content of edible insects. In addition, the mid-infrared model exhibit better effects than the near-infrared one. Furthermore, the determination process is simpler and more effective than traditional chemical methods. This study provides a new method for rapid determination of protein content of edible insects.

  12. Mating and ovipositing behaviors of Locusta migratoria manilensis at different temperatures%不同温度下东亚飞蝗交配及产卵行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂雄兵; 王广君; 农向群; 高松; 张泽华

    2011-01-01

    The mating and ovipositing behaviors of Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) were studied at 18 °C , 21 °C , 24 °C , 27 °C and 30°C , respectively. The results showed that temperature had significant influences on mating and ovipositing behaviors. There were no mating behaviors or only low mating rates and no eggs were laid by female adults when temperature was lower than 24°C . When temperature was not lower than 24 °C , the mating rate was 100% and the egg-laying rate was higher. The pre-oviposition periods of female adults were 14.6 d, 13.1 d and 12.7 d at 24 "C , 27°C and 30 °C , respectively, without significant difference. There were also no significant differences in the weight of female adults before and after oviposition, the total weight of oocysts laid by female adults. The weight of each oocyst at 27 °C or 30 °C was higher than at 24 °C .%本文通过设置18,21,24,27,30℃5个温度梯度研究温度对东亚飞蝗交配和产卵行为的影响,结果表明:温度对东亚飞蝗的交配和产卵行为影响显著.在温度低于24℃时,雌成虫不交配或交配率很低,且不产卵.在24,27,30 ℃ 3个温度条件下交配率都为100%,有效交配率分别为77.8%,122.09%,146.43%;产卵前期分别为14.6,13.1,12.7 d,但无显著差异.不同温度下雌成虫产卵前后体重变化、每头雌虫一生产下的卵囊重量无显著差异,但27℃和30℃时平均卵囊重量显著高于24℃.

  13. 五龄飞蝗不同发育时间实时定量PCR内参基因的筛选%Selection of reference genes on different days during the development of the fifth-instar nymph of Locusta migratoria with quantitative real-time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔淼; 刘晓健; 李涛; 郭亚平; 马恩波; 张建珍

    2014-01-01

    Objectives] To identify the most appropriate reference genes on different days during the development of fifth-instar nymphs of Locusta migratoria to pave the way for relevant studies. [Methods] Six genes were selected as candidate reference genes, including the beta actin gene (β-actin), the Elongation factor 1α gene (EF-1α), the Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH), the Ribosomal protein 49 gene (RP49), the Alpha tubulin gene (α-Tubulin) and the 18S ribosome RNA gene (18S rRNA). The relative expression of these genes on different days during the development of L. migratoria was detected with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The expression stability of these genes was then investigated using geNorm and Normfinder software. [Results] Based on the results of geNorm analysis, the average expression stability (M) of the six genes was, in descending order; β-actin (0.3720)>RP49 (0.3750)>α-Tubulin (0.4030)>18S rRNA (0.4270)>EF-1α(0.4970)>GAPDH (0.6040). The less the M value the more stable the gene expression. The software took 0.15 as a constant value for pairwise variations. The appropriate number of reference genes was 2 because V2/3=0.098<0.15. Similar results were obtained using NormFinder software. [Conclusion] β-actin and RP49 are the most suitable reference genes during the development of fifth-instar nymph of L. migratoria.%【目的】筛选5龄飞蝗不同发育时间的最适内参基因,为相关研究提供基础数据。【方法】本文选取β-肌动蛋白(β-actin)、延长因子(EF-1α)、3-磷酸甘油醛脱氢酶(GAPDH)、核糖体蛋白49(RP49)、α-微管蛋白(α-Tubulin)和18S核糖体RNA(18S rRNA)基因作为候选内参基因,运用实时定量PCR(qPCR)方法研究各基因在5龄飞蝗不同发育时间的相对表达量,用geNorm与Normfinder软件分析这6个基因表达稳定性。【结果】geNorm分析结果显示6个内参基因表达稳定度M值顺序为:β-actin(0

  14. Spatio-Temporal Expression and Insecticide Tolerance Analysis of Carboxylesterase Gene LmCesF1 from Locusta migratoria%飞蝗羧酸酯酶基因LmCesF1的时空表达及与杀虫剂耐受性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建琴; 葛娉婷; 李大琪; 王燕; 张建珍; 马恩波

    2014-01-01

    Objective] The objective of this study is to provide a new candidate gene for pest management through studying the function of pesticide detoxification of carboxylesterase gene LmCesF1 in Locusta migratoria.[Method]The cDNA sequence of LmCesF1 was got from L. migratoria transcriptome database. Amino acid sequence was deduced by using the ExPASy proteomics website software. The molecular mass (MM) and isoelectric point (pI) were predicted by using ExPASy tools. To identify the catalytic triad and substrate binding pocket presented in deduced amino acid sequence, the BLASTp analyses were undertaken in NCBI conserved domain database (CDD). Signal peptide was predicted by SignalP4.0 web tools. The NetNGlyc1.0 Server was used to predict potential N-glycosylation sites of LmCesF1. Phylogenetic tree of LmCesF1 and carboxylesterases from other insect species was constructed with neighbor-joining method. Stage-(including egg, 1-5 instar nymphs and adult) and tissue-dependent expression patterns of LmCesF1 were conducted by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The efficiency of RNAi was assessed by RT-qPCR. RNA interference followed by bioassay was applied to reveal the roles of LmCesF1 in insecticide detoxification. The insecticide was applied at 24 h after ds LmCesF1 injection, dsGFP was used as control. Each nymph was topically applied with 3 µL droplet of insecticide solution (240 ng for malathion, 15 ng for chlorpyrifos, 0.6 ng for deltamethrin and 51 ng for carbaryl) onto the abdomen between the 2nd and 3rd sterna. The doses of these insecticides were predetermined to be approximately LD30 by bioassay. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after topical application of the insecticides.[Result]The full-length cDNAs of LmCesF1 (3 121 bp) was obtained from L. migratoria transcriptome database. The open reading frame (ORF) of LmCesF1 was 2 490 bp, encoded 830 amino acid residues. LmCesF1 had a signal peptide at N-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of LmCesF1

  15. Improving the degree-day model for forecasting Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen (Orthoptera: Acridoidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongbing Tu

    Full Text Available The degree-day (DD model is an important tool for forecasting pest phenology and voltinism. Unfortunately, the DD model is inaccurate, as is the case for the Oriental migratory locust. To improve the existing DD model for this pest, we first studied locust development in seven growth chambers, each of which simulated the complete growing-season climate of a specific region in China (Baiquan, Chengde, Tumotezuoqi, Wenan, Rongan, Qiongzhong, or Qiongshan. In these seven treatments, locusts completed 0.95, 1, 1.1, 2.2, 2.95, 3.95, and 4.95 generations, respectively. Hence, in the Baiquan (700, Rongan (2400, Qiongzhong (3200, and Qiongshan (2400 treatments, the final generation were unable to lay eggs. In a second experiment, we reared locusts for a full generation in growth chambers, at different constant temperatures. This experiment provided two important findings. First, temperatures between 32 and 42°C did not influence locust development rate. Hence, the additional heat provided by temperatures above 32°C did not add to the total heat units acquired by the insects, according to the traditional DD model. Instead, temperatures above 32°C represent overflow heat, and can not be included when calculating total heat acquired during development. We also noted that females raised at constant 21°C failed to oviposit. Hence, temperatures lower than 21°C should be deducted when calculating total heat acquired during adult development. Using our experimental findings, we next micmiked 24-h temperature curve and constructed a new DD model based on a 24-h temperature integral calculation. We then compared our new model with the traditional DD model, results showed the DD deviation was 166 heat units in Langfang during 2011. At last we recalculated the heat by our new DD model, which better predicted the results from our first growth chamber experiment.

  16. Dynamics of energy substrates in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria during flight

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Horst, D J; Houben, N.M.D.; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    In the two-fuel system for flight of the migratory locust, the haemolymph carbohydrate concentration falls during flight periods of up to 1 hr, the decrease being greater in case the pre-flight carbohydrate level is higher. The increase in the lipid concentration from the onset of flight is virtually independent of the initial lipid concentration. Flight intensity affects these changes in substrate concentrations: the carbohydrate level decreases more rapidly if flight speed is higher, wherea...

  17. Dynamics of energy substrates in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Houben, N.M.D.; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    In the two-fuel system for flight of the migratory locust, the haemolymph carbohydrate concentration falls during flight periods of up to 1 hr, the decrease being greater in case the pre-flight carbohydrate level is higher. The increase in the lipid concentration from the onset of flight is virtuall

  18. Microbial community assessment of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) sold for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, J; Crauwels, S; Waud, M; Claes, J; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2016-02-01

    In Western countries, the popularity of edible insects as an alternative animal protein source is increasing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of profound insight into the microbial safety and shelf life of living insects sold for human consumption. The purpose of this study was to characterise the microflora of fresh edible mealworm larvae and grasshoppers in a quantitative and qualitative way. Therefore, culture-dependent analyses (the total viable aerobic count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and bacterial endospores) and next-generation sequencing (454amplicon pyrosequencing) were performed. High microbial counts were obtained for both insect species. Different insect batches resulted in quite similar microbial numbers, except for bacterial endospores. However, the bacterial community composition differed between both insect species. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in mealworm larvae was Propionibacterium. Also members of the genera Haemophilus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium were found. Grasshoppers were mainly dominated by Weissella, Lactococcus and Yersinia/Rahnella. Overall, a variety of potential spoilage bacteria and food pathogens were characterised. The results of this study suggest that a processing step with a microbiocidal effect is required to avoid or minimize risks involved with the consumption of edible insects. PMID:26678139

  19. Microbial community assessment of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) sold for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, J; Crauwels, S; Waud, M; Claes, J; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2016-02-01

    In Western countries, the popularity of edible insects as an alternative animal protein source is increasing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of profound insight into the microbial safety and shelf life of living insects sold for human consumption. The purpose of this study was to characterise the microflora of fresh edible mealworm larvae and grasshoppers in a quantitative and qualitative way. Therefore, culture-dependent analyses (the total viable aerobic count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and bacterial endospores) and next-generation sequencing (454amplicon pyrosequencing) were performed. High microbial counts were obtained for both insect species. Different insect batches resulted in quite similar microbial numbers, except for bacterial endospores. However, the bacterial community composition differed between both insect species. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in mealworm larvae was Propionibacterium. Also members of the genera Haemophilus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium were found. Grasshoppers were mainly dominated by Weissella, Lactococcus and Yersinia/Rahnella. Overall, a variety of potential spoilage bacteria and food pathogens were characterised. The results of this study suggest that a processing step with a microbiocidal effect is required to avoid or minimize risks involved with the consumption of edible insects.

  20. In vitro studies on hormone-stimulated lipid mobilization from fat body and interconversion of haemolymph lipoproteins of Locusta migratoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Heusden, M.C. van; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1984-01-01

    Both adipokinetic hormone and octopamine have a stimulating effect on lipid release from locust fat body in vitro, when incubated in diluted haemolymph. The presence of adipokinetic hormone results in the formation of the flight-specific haemolymph lipoprotein A⁺ accepting the increased amount of li

  1. Thermal sensitivity of excitation-contraction-coupling in a chill susceptible insect, Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Overgaard, Johannes

    Many insect species enter a state of neuromuscular paralysis when their body temperature is lowered to a critical limit but the physiological and cellular processes underlying this chill coma are largely unknown. Previous studies on locusts show that muscle force production is highly depressed...... at low temperature implicating impairment in cellular mechanism in the muscle per se. Aiming to determine these mechanisms we examined the thermal sensitivity of several events in the excitation-contraction-coupling process including: i) Passive membrane properties and propagation of electrical signals......; ii) Intracellular Ca2+ regulation during muscle stimulation and iii) Ca2+-affinity/sensitivity and maximum force of the contractile proteins. Thus far the data show that low temperature resulted in a marked depolarization of resting membrane potential, but had negligible effects on the passive...

  2. Why do insects enter chill coma? Low temperature and high extracellular potassium compromises muscle function in Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard;

    -depressing effects that occur secondary to loss of ion-homeostasis. Using isolated tibial muscle of the chill susceptible locust we investigated the relationship between tetanic force production, temperature and extracellular [K+]. Tetanic force was elicited every 10 minutes using 2s trains of 1ms 12-V pulses...... temperature was reduced from 23°C to 0.5°C. Similarly, elevation of extracellular [K+] from a control value of 10 mM to 30 mM also caused a 50 % reduction of force. When muscles were simultaneously cooled and exposed to elevated K+, force was reduced to around 1 % of the control. These results suggest......Many insect species enter a comatose state when their body temperature is lowered to a critical limit (critical thermal minimum) but the physiological and cellular processes that underlie chill coma are still unresolved. Several studies have demonstrated that transition into chill-coma involves...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1041 - Nosema locustae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... insecticide Nosema locustae is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or on all...

  4. Uptake of horseradish peroxydase by the testis of locusta migratoria during the last larval instar; relation with variations of ecdysteroid levels in haemolymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaillou, C; Szollosi, A; Porcheron, P; Dray, F

    1978-03-31

    By using horseradish peroxydase (HRP) as a tracer, it is shown that the gonial region of the locust testis is an "open" compartment which is almost always freely penetrated by the tracer. During the last larval instar, however, the penetration of HRP decreases and ceases at the time when high levels of ecdysteroids are detected in the haemolymph by radioimmunoassay. A cause and effect relationship between tracer uptake and hormonal level could not be demonstrated by the experiments carried out up to now. From ultrastructural observations of the testis, it is concluded that the temporary isolation of the gonial compartment is not based upon any morphological structure which could act as a barrier. Penetration of the macromolecule is considered as the expression of an active uptake by the testis and the short period of nonpenetrability as a state of inertia whose significance remains to be discovered. PMID:639097

  5. Why do insects enter and recover from chill coma? Low temperature and high extracellular potassium compromises muscle function in Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Petersen, Asbjørn G;

    2014-01-01

    of chill coma in locusts exposed to cold at varying rates of cooling. Chill coma onset temperature changed maximally 1°C under different cooling rates and marked disturbances of ion homeostasis were not observed at any of the cooling rates. In a second set of experiments we used isolated tibial muscle......When exposed to low temperatures, many insect species enter a reversible comatose state (chill coma), which is driven by a failure of neuromuscular function. Chill coma and chill coma recovery have been associated with a loss and recovery of ion-homeostasis (particularly extracellular [K...... to determine how temperature and extracellular [K+], independently and together, affect tetanic force production. Tetanic force decreased by 80% when temperature was reduced from 23°C to 0.5°C, while an increase in extracellular [K+] from 10 mM to 30 mM at 23°C caused a 40% reduction in force. Combining...

  6. Análisis de recapturas de carriceros (Acrocephalus spp. en Txingudi: ruta migratoria, tiempo de paso y velocidades migratorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arizaga, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las recapturas de carriceros (Acrocephalus spp. que se han anillado en Txingudi (N de España y recapturado en otras zonas, y viceversa, para estudiar el origen de los carriceros que pasan por este espacio natural en su migración hacia o desde las áreas de invernada, en el C y S de África, así como sus tiempos de paso y velocidades migratorias. Se obtienen recapturas para tres especies: carricerín común (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, n = 32, carricero común (Acrocephalus scirpaceus, n =102 y carricero tordal (Acrocephalus arundinaceus, n = 2. En todos los casos, las aves que pasan por Txingudi provienen de países del W del Paleártico, principalmente Francia, Bélgica y Reino Unido. Al S de Txingudi, las recapturas son obtenidas en dirección SW, en el W de la Península y NW de África. No hay recapturas más al S de Senegal. La mayoría de las recapturas son obtenidas en el paso posnupcial, no habiendo capturas de A. arundinaceus en el prenupcial. Considerando las recapturas al N de Txingudi, en A. scirpaceus el tiempo de paso se correlacionó con la distancia, sugiriendo que las aves que pasan más tarde por Txingudi provienen de más al N que las que pasan antes. Las velocidades migratorias no variaron entre A. schoenobaenus y A. scirpaceus, siendo en promedio de 60,8 ± 12,1 km/día.

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1323 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1323 ref|YP_002117966.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Locusta migratoria migra...toria] gb|ABX59319.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Locusta migratoria migratoria] YP_002117966.1 0.19 30% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1065 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1065 ref|YP_002117966.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Locusta migratoria migra...toria] gb|ABX59319.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Locusta migratoria migratoria] YP_002117966.1 0.85 30% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1342 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1342 ref|YP_002117966.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Locusta migratoria migra...toria] gb|ABX59319.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Locusta migratoria migratoria] YP_002117966.1 0.003 28% ...

  10. La inversión migratoria en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Lou, María Asunción

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available After a long introduction on the subject, the paper deals with the problem related with the use of statistical sources when looking at international migrations. Secondly, it addresses the interaction between migration patterns and demographic dynamics in Western Europe. Next, the article looks into the labor markets in current western societies and the role of immigrants therein. Finally, the main features of immigration policies in the EU countries are discussed. The rising importance of immigration in Spain is clearly underlined.Tras una extensa introducción para enmarcar el fenómeno descrito, el artículo aborda el problema de las fuentes estadísticas para el estudio de los procesos migratorios internacionales, la incidencia de la inmigración actual en la dinámica demográfica europea, los aspectos más sobresalientes de los nuevos mercados de trabajo y las líneas previsibles de la política migratoria de la Unión Europea a corto y medio plazo. El artículo refleja la importancia relativa de la inmigración española en lo que va de siglo XXI, cuando se compara con la de otros países occidentales.

  11. Phytochemical Composition and Antitumor Activities of New Salad Greens: Rucola (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) and Corn Salad (Valerianella locusta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Bueno, R P; Rincón-Cervera, M A; González-Fernández, M J; Guil-Guerrero, J L

    2016-06-01

    D. tenuifolia and V. locusta, two greens, were analyzed for active compounds and antitumor actions on colorectal cancer cells. Phenolics were determined by UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS; carotenoids and glucosinolates by HPLC-MS; and sterols and fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). For antitumor effects, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) tests were run on HT-29 colorectal cancer cells, and in CCD-18 untransformed enterocyte cells. Six main carotenoids were identified in both vegetables, while total carotenoids accounted for 3520 and 2970 μg · g(-1) dry weight in D. tenuifolia and V. locusta, respectively. Six phenolics were detected in D. tenuifolia (68,600 μg · g(-1) dry weight) and five in V. locusta (139,000 μg · g(-1) dry weight). Three glucosinolates (GSL) were found in D. tenuifolia (1960 μg · g(-1) dry wt. total). Low-polarity extracts from V. locusta and D. tenuifolia showed IC50 ~ 150 and ~200 μg · mL(-1) on HT-29 cells, while both plants lacked actions on CCD-18 cells. V. locusta inhibited HT-29 cancer cells viability more efficiently than D. tenuiofolia, but induced less cytotoxicity. This work highlights the importance of functional foods for colorectal cancer prevention. PMID:27143140

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2359 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2359 ref|NP_007302.1|ND1_10712 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Locusta m...A28904.1| unnamed protein product [Locusta migratoria] emb|CAA56530.1| ND1 [Locusta migratoria] NP_007302.1 0.96 23% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0578 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0578 ref|NP_007302.1|ND1_10712 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Locusta m...A28904.1| unnamed protein product [Locusta migratoria] emb|CAA56530.1| ND1 [Locusta migratoria] NP_007302.1 1.1 23% ...

  14. Patterns of genome evolution among the microsporidian parasites Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Antonospora locustae and Enterocytozoon bieneusi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Corradi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are intracellular parasites that are highly-derived relatives of fungi. They have compacted genomes and, despite a high rate of sequence evolution, distantly related species can share high levels of gene order conservation. To date, only two species have been analysed in detail, and data from one of these largely consists of short genomic fragments. It is therefore difficult to determine how conservation has been maintained through microsporidian evolution, and impossible to identify whether certain regions are more prone to genomic stasis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we analyse three large fragments of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi genome (in total 429 kbp, a species of medical significance. A total of 296 ORFs were identified, annotated and their context compared with Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Antonospora locustae. Overall, a high degree of conservation was found between all three species, and interestingly the level of conservation was similar in all three pairwise comparisons, despite the fact that A. locustae is more distantly related to E. cuniculi and E. bieneusi than either are to each other. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Any two genes that are found together in any pair of genomes are more likely to be conserved in the third genome as well, suggesting that a core of genes tends to be conserved across the entire group. The mechanisms of rearrangments identified among microsporidian genomes were consistent with a very slow evolution of their architecture, as opposed to the very rapid sequence evolution reported for these parasites.

  15. Procesos migratorios: contrastes entre la legislación migratoria y la política social argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid, Liliana; Ruiz, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo procura identificar las políticas sociales de la población inmigrante en Argentina. Para ello, se realiza una aproximación a procesos regionales e internacionales que invitan a repensar la integración. Al mismo tiempo, se reconstruye el perfil del inmigrante actual y se revisan aspectos centrales de la nueva ley migratoria. Asimismo, se presentan los grados de adecuación de las políticas sociales con relación a la legislación migratoria vigente y se cuestionan las posibil...

  16. Uptake of azoles by lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta L.) grown in hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valcárcel, Ana I; Loureiro, Iñigo; Escorial, Concepción; Molero, Encarnación; Tadeo, José L

    2016-02-01

    An uptake and translocation study of azole compounds was performed in lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta L.) grown in nutrient solution fortified with different azoles. Three azoles, (clotrimazole, fluconazole and propiconazole), which have different physico-chemical properties and are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, were the compounds selected. An analytical method, based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by LC-MS/MS determination, was developed to quantify these compounds in aqueous solution and in roots and leaves. The physicochemical properties of azoles are the main factors governing the uptake and plant accumulation. These azoles were detected in leaves indicating their transport within lamb's lettuce. Translocation from nutrient solution to the aerial part of lamb's lettuce was found to be highly dependent on the hydrophobicity of the azole. Clotrimazole accumulates in roots causing necrosis in roots and leaves, whereas fluconazole was the azole with the highest concentration in leaves without causing apparent phytotoxicity symptoms. The assessment of the levels of these azoles in leaves indicates that the risk for human health is negligible. PMID:26513529

  17. Uptake of azoles by lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta L.) grown in hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valcárcel, Ana I; Loureiro, Iñigo; Escorial, Concepción; Molero, Encarnación; Tadeo, José L

    2016-02-01

    An uptake and translocation study of azole compounds was performed in lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta L.) grown in nutrient solution fortified with different azoles. Three azoles, (clotrimazole, fluconazole and propiconazole), which have different physico-chemical properties and are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, were the compounds selected. An analytical method, based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by LC-MS/MS determination, was developed to quantify these compounds in aqueous solution and in roots and leaves. The physicochemical properties of azoles are the main factors governing the uptake and plant accumulation. These azoles were detected in leaves indicating their transport within lamb's lettuce. Translocation from nutrient solution to the aerial part of lamb's lettuce was found to be highly dependent on the hydrophobicity of the azole. Clotrimazole accumulates in roots causing necrosis in roots and leaves, whereas fluconazole was the azole with the highest concentration in leaves without causing apparent phytotoxicity symptoms. The assessment of the levels of these azoles in leaves indicates that the risk for human health is negligible.

  18. The subtle effects of sea water acidification on the amphipod Gammarus locusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an investigation of the effects of increases in pCO2 on the growth and molecular physiology of the neritic amphipod Gammarus locusta, which has a cosmopolitan distribution in estuaries. Amphipods were reared from juvenile to mature adult in laboratory microcosms at three different levels of pH in nominal range 8.1–7.6. Growth rate was estimated from weekly measures of body length. At sexual maturity the amphipods were sacrificed and assayed for changes in the expression of genes coding for a heat shock protein (hsp70 gene and the metabolic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh gene. The data show that the growth and survival rate of this species is not significantly impacted by a decrease in sea water pH of up to 0.5 units. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that there was no significant effect of growth in acidified sea water on the expression of the hsp70 gene. However, there was a consistent and significant increase in the expression of the gapdh gene at a pH of ~7.5 which indicated a possible disruption to oxidative metabolic processes. It was concluded that future predicted changes in sea water pH may have subtle effects on the physiology and metabolism of coastal and marine species which may be overlooked in studies of whole organism response.

  19. Gobernanza y seguridad: Hacia una redefinición de la política migratoria mexicana, 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la importancia del enfoque de la gobernanza para impulsar una política migratoria mexicana más eficaz en el contexto de la violación a derechos humanos de migrantes indocumentados y con participación de diferentes actores guberna - mentales y no gubernamentales. La aportación principal del artículo es destacar un modelo de Gobernanza para Resultados ( gpr que pueda orientar hacia una implementación eficaz de la actual política migratoria mexicana, en especial, res - pecto del Programa Especial de Migración ( pem , 2014-2018 en el contexto de la inseguridad. Se parte de la premisa de que existe un enfoque limitado de gpr en la política migratoria mexicana, por lo cual, no se han reducido los factores que provocan la inseguridad y la violencia que afectan los derechos humanos de los migrantes indocumentados –nacionales y extranjeros– en territorio mexicano, de manera particular en la frontera norte.

  20. Infectividad de Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia) en la "tucura quebrachera" Tropidacris collaris (Orthoptera: Romaleidae) en laboratorio Infectivity of Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia) to the 'quebrachera' grasshopper, Tropidacris collaris (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E. Lange; Christian Bardi; Santiago Plischuk

    2008-01-01

    Siguiendo el procedimiento estándar de inocular por vía oral ninfas de tercer estadio con 105 esporos cada una, se determinó la infectividad del microsporidio Paranosema locustae (Canning), un patógeno desarrollado para el control biológico a largo plazo de tucuras, respecto del Romaleidae Tropidacris collaris (Stoll), especie que en años recientes ha demandado una mayor aplicación de insecticidas para su control. La proporción de insectos que desarrolló infección fue baja (38 %; n = 50), la ...

  1. Infectividad de Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia en la "tucura quebrachera" Tropidacris collaris (Orthoptera: Romaleidae en laboratorio Infectivity of Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia to the 'quebrachera' grasshopper, Tropidacris collaris (Orthoptera: Romaleidae, in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Lange

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Siguiendo el procedimiento estándar de inocular por vía oral ninfas de tercer estadio con 105 esporos cada una, se determinó la infectividad del microsporidio Paranosema locustae (Canning, un patógeno desarrollado para el control biológico a largo plazo de tucuras, respecto del Romaleidae Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, especie que en años recientes ha demandado una mayor aplicación de insecticidas para su control. La proporción de insectos que desarrolló infección fue baja (38 %; n = 50, la producción de esporos en ellos fue casi nula (sólo dos infecciones traza y no se observaron signos o síntomas típicos asociados a infecciones fuertes. Dado que una alta producción de unidades infectivas transmisibles (esporos es normalmente necesaria para la persistencia de una enfermedad infecciosa (con transmisión horizontal predominante en la población del huésped, se estima que P. locustae no sería una alternativa eficaz para el control de T. collaris.Following the standard procedure of orally inoculating third-instar nymphs with 105 spores each, the infectivity of the microsporidium Paranosema locustae (Canning, a pathogen developed for the long-term control of grasshoppers, to Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, was determined. In recent years, T. collaris has demanded a heavier use of insecticides for its control. The proportion of insects that developed infection was low (38 %; n = 50, the level of spore production was almost nil (only two trace infections, and typical signs or symptoms associated with heavy infections were not observed. Since a high production of infective transmissible units (spores is normally needed for an infectious disease with predominant horizontal transmission to be able to persist in the population of the host, it is inferred that P. locustae would not be an efficacious alternative for the control of T. collaris.

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-2922 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2922 ref|NP_007298.1|ND4_10712 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Locusta m...igratoria] sp|Q36424|NU4M_LOCMI NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4) emb|CAA56534.1| ND4 [Locusta migratoria] NP_007298.1 0.012 23% ...

  3. U2 and U6 snRNA genes in the microsporidian Nosema locustae: evidence for a functional spliceosome.

    OpenAIRE

    Fast, N. M.; Roger, A. J.; Richardson, C. A.; Doolittle, W F

    1998-01-01

    The removal of introns from pre-messenger RNA is mediated by the spliceosome, a large complex composed of many proteins and five small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). Of the snRNAs, the U6 and U2 snRNAs are the most conserved in sequence, as they interact extensively with each other and also with the intron, in several base pairings that are necessary for splicing. We have isolated and sequenced the genes encoding both U6 and U2 snRNAs from the intracellularly parasitic microsporidian Nosema locustae ...

  4. The subtle effects of sea water acidification on the amphipod Gammarus locusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We report an investigation of the effects of increases in pCO2 on the survival, growth and molecular physiology of the neritic amphipod Gammarus locusta which has a cosmopolitan distribution in estuaries. Amphipods were reared from juvenile to mature adult in laboratory microcosms at three different levels of pH in nominal range 8.1–7.6. Growth rate was estimated from weekly measures of body length. At sexual maturity the amphipods were sacrificed and assayed for changes in the expression of genes coding for a heat shock protein (hsp70 gene and the metabolic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh gene. The data show that the growth and survival of this species is not significantly impacted by a decrease in sea water pH of up to 0.5 units. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that there was no significant effect of growth in acidified sea water on the sustained expression of the hsp70 gene. There was a consistent and significant increase in the expression of the gapdh gene at a pH of ~7.5 which, when combined with observations from other workers, suggests that metabolic changes may occur in response to acidification. It is concluded that sensitive assays of tissue physiology and molecular biology should be routinely employed in future studies of the impacts of sea water acidification as subtle effects on the physiology and metabolism of coastal marine species may be overlooked in conventional gross "end-point" studies of organism growth or mortality.

  5. Corrupción y gestión migratoria en el México posrevolucionario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankelevich, Pablo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the nature, extension and significances of the corruption practices inside the Mexican Migration Service during the first decades of the 20th century. In a context in which the need to enter or exit the country was seen, both by Mexicans or foreigners, as an opportunity for illicit enrichment, the article reveals how corruption practices flourished under the increase of immigration regulations. The pervasiveness of these practices allows one to assess them as a consubstantial part of the political order as opposed to an issue of a moral character.

    En este trabajo se estudia la naturaleza, extensión y significados de prácticas de corrupción en el Servicio de Migración de México durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Se advierten las maneras en que la corrupción creció al amparo de un ensanchamiento de las regulaciones migratorias y el control fronterizo, en un contexto en que la necesidad de ingresar o salir de país por parte de extranjeros y mexicanos era valorada como una oportunidad para enriquecimientos ilícitos. La dimensión alcanzada por estas prácticas permite valorarlas como parte consustancial del orden político antes que como un asunto de carácter moral.

  6. Infectividad de Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia en la “tucura quebrachera” Tropidacris collaris (Orthoptera: Romaleidae en laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. LANGE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Siguiendo el procedimiento estándar de inocular por vía oral ninfas de tercer estadio con 105 esporos cada una, se determinó la infectividad del microsporidio Paranosema locustae (Canning, un patógeno desarrollado para el control biológico a largo plazo de tucuras, respecto del Romaleidae Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, especie que en años recientes ha demandado una mayor aplicación de insecticidas para su control. La proporción de insectos que desarrolló infección fue baja (38 %; n = 50, la producción de esporos en ellos fue casi nula (sólo dos infecciones traza y no se observaron signos o síntomas típicos asociados a infecciones fuertes. Dado que una alta producción de unidades infectivas transmisibles (esporos es normalmente necesaria para la persistencia de una enfermedad infecciosa (con transmisión horizontal predominante en la población del huésped, se estima que P. locustae no sería una alternativa eficaz para el control de T. collaris.

  7. Migración hacia Estados Unidos y su impacto en la nueva reforma migratoria (Parte I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asael Mercado Maldonado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar el contexto social y político para la implementación de una nueva reforma migratoria integral del Gobierno Norteamericano. Es importante abordar varias posturas que van desde los legisladores Demócratas, Republicanos, el Presidente, los empresarios y la sociedad civil, con la finalidad de reconocer los pros y los contras de dicha reforma, así como el contenido de varias propuestas y sin perder de vista la postura mexicana.

  8. Dinámica migratoria y desigualdades regionales en Argentina (1947-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Velázquez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Hacia fines del siglo XIX, la Argentina, como país agro-exportador, había conferido a su desarrollo económico un marcado carácter de desigualdad regional. Lejos de revertir esta situación, el proceso de industrialización, privilegió como forma de localización la proximidad de los mercados consumidores. El objetivo de este trabajo es indagar el comportamiento de las desigualdades provinciales y regionales durante las seis últimas décadas, privilegiando el papel de la dinámica migratoria en este proceso. Estas desigualdades no pueden comprenderse como una situación de "desequilibrio transitorio", como podría explicarse desde el marco de la economía neoclásica. Se trata más bien, de situaciones estructurales, que se mantienen en el tiempo, en donde se conserva la superioridad de unas regiones por sobre otras de manera interdependiente. Este proceso se lleva adelante de manera acumulativa en el tiempo, reforzando las desigualdades históricamente preexistentes. ABSTRACT Towards end of the 19th century, Argentina, such as agro-export country, had conferred a distinctly regional inequality to their economic development. Far from reversing this situation, the process of industrialization, he favored as a form of localization the proximity of markets consumers. The objective of this study is to investigate the behavior of provincial and regional inequalities over the past six decades, giving priority to the role of migration dynamics in this process. These inequalities cannot understand it as a situation of "transitional imbalance", as it could be explained within the framework of neoclassical economics. It is rather, structural situations, which are kept at the time, where the superiority of some regions is kept above other interdependent way. This process is carried forward cumulatively over time, reinforcing historically pre-existing inequalities.

  9. Spore loads of Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia) in heavily infected grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) of the Argentine Pampas and Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plischuk, Santiago; Bardi, Christian J; Lange, Carlos E

    2013-09-01

    Paranosema locustae, an entomopathogen of grasshoppers and locusts, remains the only microsporidium registered as a biocontrol agent. After introductions from North America, it became established in grasshopper communities of Argentina. We measured the infection intensity of field collected, heavily infected male and female adults of individuals belonging to six grasshopper species, five melanoplines (Melanoplinae) (Baeacris pseudopunctulatus, Dichroplus maculipennis, Dichroplus vittatus, Neopedies brunneri, Scotussa lemniscata), and one gomphocerine (Gomphocerinae) (Staurorhectus longicornis). Average spore load among heavily infected grasshoppers ranged from 8.7±0.5×10(7) to 1.1±0.7×10(9). Only females of B. pseudopunctulatus and S. longicornis showed significantly higher spore loads than the males. PMID:23796497

  10. La transformación del coyotaje en el contexto de políticas migratorias restrictivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo está fundamentado en una metodología cualitativa que incluye entrevistas en profundidad a un centenar de agentes facilitadores del cruce fronterizo. El estudio fue conducido entre abril de 2008 y julio de 2012. Examina la transformación del tráfico de migrantes entre México y los Estados Unidos en el contexto de políticas migratorias restrictivas. El artículo concluye que los polleros mexicanos han perdido independencia, porque ahora tienen que pagar múltiples sobornos y necesitan contar con el apoyo de los empleadores estadounidenses para poder conducir a los migrantes desde el lugar de origen hasta el punto de destino en los Estados Unidos.

  11. Dejando atrás las fronteras. Las políticas migratorias ante las exigencias de la justicia global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco, Juan Carlos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the reciprocal normative implications between the conceptions of global justice and citizenship on the one hand, and the definition of migration politics on the other hand. The investigation is carried out in four steps: first, there will be provided some reasons to overcome the state oriented focus of the theory of justice; then the worldwide poverty and the migration flows will be pointed out as problems that any modern theory of justice has to cope with; in a third step, it will be shown to what extent the national borders have to be regarded as obstacles for an implementation of a global conception of justice; and, finally, it will be argued for a redefinition of the notion of citizenship that is meant to build the normative horizon of migration politics.

    En este artículo se abordan las recíprocas implicaciones normativas existentes entre las concepciones de la justicia global y de la ciudadanía, por un lado, y la definición de las políticas migratorias, por otro. La exploración se hace en cuatro pasos: se ofrecen algunas razones para superar el enfoque estadocéntrico de la teoría de la justicia; se presentan la pobreza mundial y los flujos migratorios generados por ella como cuestiones ineludibles para una teoría de la justicia; se analizan los obstáculos que las fronteras estatales representan a la hora de implementar una concepción global de la justicia; y, finalmente, se argumenta a favor de redefinir la noción de ciudadanía de modo que constituya el horizonte normativo de las políticas migratorias.

  12. Niveles de esporulación experimentales y naturales de Nosema locustae (Microsporidia en especies de tucuras y langostas (Orthoptera: Acridoidea de la Argentina Levels of experimental and natural sporulation of Nosema locustae (Microsporidia in grasshopper and locust species (Orthoptera: Acridoidea of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Lange

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Nosema locustae Canning, un patógeno intracelular esporogénico del cuerpo graso de ortópteros utilizado para el control biológico de acridios, se estableció en ciertas comunidades de éstos de la Argentina luego de ser introducido hace poco más de 20 años. En el presente estudio se midieron, siguiendo metodología estandarizada para la estimación del número de esporos por insecto individual afectado, los niveles de esporulación alcanzados por N. locustae en tres especies de acridios naturalmente infectados [ Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Baeacris punctulatus (Thunberg] y en seis especies infectadas experimentalmente [ Dichroplus maculipennis Blanchard, Dichroplus schulzi Bruner, D. elongatus, B. punctulatus, Ronderosia bergi Stal, Schistocerca cancellata (Serville]. Los niveles de esporulación fueron importantes en todas las especies de la subfamilia Melanoplinae (el promedio varió entre 2 x 10(8 y 3,2 x 10(9, mientras que la producción de esporos fue rara (9,5 % de los ejemplares infectados y baja (máxima de 9,6 x 10(6 en S. cancellata. No ocurrió desarrollo de infección en el acridio Romaleidae Elaeochlora viridicata (Serville. Los valores de esporulación alcanzados en los melanoplinos concuerdan con el establecimiento de N. locustae en comunidades de acridios de la Argentina, pues una alta disponibilidad de unidades infectivas transmisibles (propágulos es un factor central para la transmisión y persistencia de una enfermedad en una población de insectos susceptibles. Aunque los niveles de esporulación más elevados se alcanzaron en D. maculipennis, R. bergi parece, por la falta de diapausa embrionaria obligatoria en su ciclo y por su comportamiento poco reactivo que facilita el manejo de la colonia, la especie más adecuada de las probadas en este estudio para la producción in vivo de N. locustae.Nosema locustae Canning, an intracellular sporogenic pathogen of the fat body of orthopterans

  13. Sexualidades migrantes: La experiencia migratoria de los hombres homosexuales y bisexuales colombianos en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Eduardo Restrepo Pineda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es parte de la primera aproximación al trabajo de campo de la tesis doctoral: “Sexualidades migrantes la experiencia migratoria de los hombres homosexuales y bisexuales colombianos en España”, cuya finalidad es conocer cómo los hombres homosexuales y bisexuales colombianos construyen su sexualidad en función de los valores, las creencias, las representaciones sociales y la cultura de su país de origen y cómo cambian estos en cuanto a significados, representaciones y comportamientos al llegar a un nuevo contexto social en España. Se pretende indagar además si esta interrelación conduce o no a asumir conductas de alto riesgo que afecten su salud, ya que estos comportamientos están influenciados de manera directa por las situaciones y contextos en los cuales las personas tienen sexo, así como por las culturas sexuales que informan lo que cualquier conducta significa dentro de dichas situaciones.

  14. Secretion of Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae proteins into infected cells suggests an active role of microsporidia in the control of host programs and metabolic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderskiy, Igor V; Timofeev, Sergey A; Seliverstova, Elena V; Pavlova, Olga A; Dolgikh, Viacheslav V

    2014-01-01

    Molecular tools of the intracellular protozoan pathogens Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastida for manipulation of host cell machinery have been the focus of investigation for approximately two decades. Microsporidia, fungi-related microorganisms forming another large group of obligate intracellular parasites, are characterized by development in direct contact with host cytoplasm (the majority of species), strong minimization of cell machinery, and acquisition of unique transporters to exploit host metabolic system. All the aforementioned features are suggestive of the ability of microsporidia to modify host metabolic and regulatory pathways. Seven proteins of the microsporidium Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae with predicted signal peptides but without transmembrane domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Western-blot analysis with antibodies against recombinant products showed secretion of parasite proteins from different functional categories into the infected host cell. Secretion of parasite hexokinase and α/β-hydrolase was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, this method showed specific accumulation of A. locustae hexokinase in host nuclei. Expression of hexokinase, trehalase, and two leucine-rich repeat proteins without any exogenous signal peptide led to their secretion in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In contrast, α/β-hydrolase was not found in the culture medium, though a significant amount of this enzyme accumulated in the yeast membrane fraction. These results suggest that microsporidia possess a broad set of enzymes and regulatory proteins secreted into infected cells to control host metabolic processes and molecular programs. PMID:24705470

  15. Secretion of Antonospora (Paranosema locustae proteins into infected cells suggests an active role of microsporidia in the control of host programs and metabolic processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V Senderskiy

    Full Text Available Molecular tools of the intracellular protozoan pathogens Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastida for manipulation of host cell machinery have been the focus of investigation for approximately two decades. Microsporidia, fungi-related microorganisms forming another large group of obligate intracellular parasites, are characterized by development in direct contact with host cytoplasm (the majority of species, strong minimization of cell machinery, and acquisition of unique transporters to exploit host metabolic system. All the aforementioned features are suggestive of the ability of microsporidia to modify host metabolic and regulatory pathways. Seven proteins of the microsporidium Antonospora (Paranosema locustae with predicted signal peptides but without transmembrane domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Western-blot analysis with antibodies against recombinant products showed secretion of parasite proteins from different functional categories into the infected host cell. Secretion of parasite hexokinase and α/β-hydrolase was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, this method showed specific accumulation of A. locustae hexokinase in host nuclei. Expression of hexokinase, trehalase, and two leucine-rich repeat proteins without any exogenous signal peptide led to their secretion in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In contrast, α/β-hydrolase was not found in the culture medium, though a significant amount of this enzyme accumulated in the yeast membrane fraction. These results suggest that microsporidia possess a broad set of enzymes and regulatory proteins secreted into infected cells to control host metabolic processes and molecular programs.

  16. Tablas de Contingencia y Modelos de Regresión Logística aplicados a cuatro rutas migratorias a partir del medio rural en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina López-Calleja Hiort-Lorenzen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Las migraciones internas se han convertido en un problema de fundamental importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las migraciones internas desde el medio rural, en Cuba; identificar las características de los migrantes, en relación con los no migrantes. Se utilizan modelos de regresión logística para los cuatro movimientos migratorios: Rural-Rural-Rural, Rural-Rural-Urbano, Rural-Urbano-Rural y Rural-Urbano-Urbano, con sus pruebas de bondad de ajuste y diagnósticos. A partir de la Encuesta de Migraciones Internas (ENMI se construyen tablas cruzadas que caracterizan a los migrantes,. En el análisis, se interpretan las conocidas razones de disparidad para cada ruta migratoria. Los modelos construidos se ajustan a los datos. Para las rutas analizadas la migración resultó selectiva atendiendo a diferentes atributos sociodemográficos; el color de la piel no resultó importante. En algunos casos existen efectos confusores, por tanto son las razones de disparidad de la regresión logística las válidas. El sexo no influye para la ruta migratoria RRR. Cuando el destino del migrante contiene una zona urbana, el sexo influye. El movimiento migratorio se realiza en familia, para todas las rutas migratorias migran más los jóvenes; en la ruta RUR migran más las con vínculo laboral, y en la ruta RUU las más calificadas.

  17. Tablas de Contingencia y Modelos de Regresión Logística aplicados a cuatro rutas migratorias a partir del medio rural en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina López-Calleja Hiort-Lorenzen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las migraciones internas se han convertido en un problema de fundamental importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las migraciones internas desde el medio rural, en Cuba; identificar las características de los migrantes, en relación con los no migrantes. Se utilizan modelos de regresión logística para los cuatro movimientos migratorios: Rural-Rural-Rural, Rural-Rural-Urbano, Rural-Urbano-Rural y Rural-Urbano- Urbano, con sus pruebas de bondad de ajuste y diagnósticos. A partir de la Encuesta de Migraciones Internas (ENMI se construyen tablas cruzadas que caracterizan a los migrantes,. En el análisis, se interpretan las conocidas razones de disparidad para cada ruta migratoria. Los modelos construidos se ajustan a los datos. Para las rutas analizadas la migración resultó selectiva atendiendo a diferentes atributos sociodemográficos; el color de la piel no resultó importante. En algunos casos existen efectos confusores, por tanto son las razones de disparidad de la regresión logística las válidas. El sexo no influye para la ruta migratoria RRR. Cuando el destino del migrante contiene una zona urbana, el sexo influye. El movimiento migratorio se realiza en familia, para todas las rutas migratorias migran más los jóvenes; en la ruta RUR migran más las con vínculo laboral, y en la ruta RUU las más calificadas.

  18. Elementos del contexto sociocultural de origen que inciden en la decisión migratoria de los estudiantes universitarios huastecos residentes en Monterrey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Martínez Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de una investigación mayor sobre el proceso de reconfiguración étnica de los universitarios huastecos emigrados a Monterrey, en este artículo se identifican los principales elementos del contexto sociocultural de origen que inciden de manera significativa en su decisión migratoria. Se trata de un estudio de corte cualitativo, realizado a través de entrevistas a profundidad realizadas a líderes comunitarios en las comunidades de origen, así como historias de vida de los estudiantes en la ciudad de acogida. Presentamos los resultados desde las dos perspectivas mencionadas, las cuales evidencian aspectos significativos, como la ruptura con la comunidad indígena que se refleja en las nuevas configuraciones de ideales, expectativas y valorizaciones, por parte de ambos actores. Asimismo, en estas nuevas valorizaciones aparece el papel de la educación superior como uno de los elementos que participan no solo en la decisión migratoria sino en la movilidad social de los jóvenes huastecos.

  19. REGISTROS NUEVOS O POCO CONOCIDOS DE AVES MIGRATORIAS EN LA LAGUNA DEL OTÚN, PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL LOS NEVADOS, RISARALDA, COLOMBIA Records of New or Poorly Known Migratory Birds from Laguna del Otún, los Nevados National Natural Park, Risaralda, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORLANDO ACEVEDO-CHARRY

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia es un sitio importante para las aves migratorias. Sin embargo, aún falta mucho conocimiento de dónde estas se encuentran durante su paso o permanencia por el país y cuáles utilizan los páramos. Registramos nuevas especies de aves migratorias para la laguna del Otún, inmersa en un complejo de humedales declarados sitio Ramsar desde el 2008. La laguna está localizada en el Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados a 3932 msnm, en ecosistema de páramo, en la Cordillera Central de los Andes de Colombia. Durante cinco salidas entre 2010 y 2012 se registraron cuatro nuevas especies de aves migratorias para el parque: Anas acuta, Pandion haliaetus, Riparia riparia y Dendroica petechia. Adicionalmente, se registró una ampliación del rango altitudinal para dos especies migratorias que solo habían sido registradas en la región a menos de 3500 msnm: Tringa flavipes e Hirundo rustica. Estas observaciones sugieren que dichas especies podrían tolerar condiciones de alta montaña y utilizar el páramo. Es necesario estudiar a fondo las dinámicas migratorias y el uso de hábitat de alta montaña por las aves migratorias.

  20. La tradición migratoria como factor explicativo del uso de remesas en la financiación de negocios en Guanajuato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín GARCÍA GÓMEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el uso de las remesas por parte de las familias receptoras en México. Los resultados muestran la existencia de diferencias regionales, en el sentido de que la tradición migratoria de una región contribuye a que una mayor proporción de remesas se destine a inversión en negocios. Dos hechos favorecen esta relación: la mayor edad de emigrantes y jefes de hogares receptores (que, por tanto, se encuentran en una fase más avanzada del ciclo vital del ahorro, y el mayor grado de desarrollo de las instituciones relacionadas con el proceso migratorio. La información utilizada para este análisis procede de la Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares (ENIGH y de entrevistas realizadas a la colonia de guanajuaten-ses residentes en California, Estados Unidos.

  1. Inmigrantes laborales y flujo en tránsito en la Frontera Sur de México: dos manifestaciones del proceso y una política migratoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Martínez Velasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto presenta una caracterización de la inmigración laboral de guatemaltecos a México, su perspectiva histórica y sus procesos de cambio en relación con los nuevos espacios territoriales de destino, cruces e inserciones laborales. También establece los rasgos fundamentales de la migración en tránsito proveniente de Centroamérica que cruza el territorio nacional mexicano, sus nuevas trayectorias de cruce y sus costos sociales en términos de sus derechos humanos en un marco de mayor vulnerabilidad social. Con base en esos dos procesos de migración, se analiza el papel que ha desplegado el Estado mexicano en relación con el establecimiento de una nueva política migratoria emprendida en las dos últimas administraciones (2001-2012 de gobiernos del Partido Acción Nacional, los arreglos institucionales y legislativos, sus avances y la asignatura pendiente en relación con la proclamación de los derechos humanos y laborales. Se concluye que aun cuando la normatividad migratoria tuvo avances sin precedentes, ésta manifiesta serias insuficiencias en relación a la inmigración centroamericana a México (sea la laboral como la de tránsito la cual ha cambiado a nuevas formas de expresión, registrando cambios cualitativos y cuantitativos en su cruce, en un ambiente de mayor riesgo en el territorio nacional mexicano.

  2. Alpha and beta subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 from the microsporidian Nosema locustae: mitochondrion-derived carbon metabolism in microsporidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, N M; Keeling, P J

    2001-10-01

    Microsporidia are highly adapted eukaryotic intracellular parasites that infect a variety of animals. Microsporidia contain no recognisable mitochondrion, but recently have been shown to have evolved from fungi and to possess heat shock protein genes derived from mitochondria. These findings make it clear that microsporidian ancestors were mitochondrial, yet it remains unknown whether they still contain the organelle, and if so what its role in microsporidian metabolism might be. Here we have characterised genes encoding the alpha and beta subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 (PDH, EC 1.2.4.1) from the microsporidian Nosema locustae. All other amitochondriate eukaryotes studied to date have lost the PDH complex and replaced it with pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). Nevertheless, molecular phylogeny shows that these Nosema enzymes are most closely related to mitochondrial PDH from other eukaryotes, demonstrating that elements of mitochondrial metabolism have been retained in microsporidia, and that PDH has not been wholly lost. However, there is still no evidence for a mitochondrion in microsporidia, and neither PDH subunit is predicted to encode an amino terminal leader sequence that could function as a mitochondrion-targeting transit peptide, raising questions as to whether these proteins function in a relic organelle or in the cytosol. Moreover, it is also unclear whether these proteins remain part of the PDH complex, or whether they have been retained for another purpose. We propose that microsporidia may utilise a unique pyruvate decarboxylation pathway involving PDH, demonstrating once again the diversity of core metabolism in amitochondriate eukaryotes. PMID:11606230

  3. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  4. Tree fruits consumed by Eophona migratoria in winter%黑尾蜡嘴雀冬季对树木果实的取食作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史永红; 李新华; 郭忠仁

    2012-01-01

    From November 2009 to February 2011, yellow-billed grosbeak( Eophona migratoria )consuming fruits and seeds of 12 tree species in Nanjing city, the capital of Jiangsu province, was observed in order to understand its food habit in winter. Yellow-billed grosbeaks usually crushed and destroyed the hard pericarps or seed coats with its thick bills, then fed on the embryo and endosperm inside , thus acted as a seed predator. As some other frugivorous bird species also foraged these tree fruits, and dispersed their seeds, fruit predation by yellow-billed grosbeaks would not cause serious influence to the seed dispersal of those trees. Yellow-billed grosbeak often foraged in tree canopies in early winter, but later in deep winter, it mainly lived on fallen fruits on the ground under the tree canopies. E. Migratoria could crush the hard pericarps such as nuts of Pterocarya stenoptera, and provided opportunities for those accompanying Eurasian tree sparrows( Passer montanus )to forage seed fragments on the ground.%2009年11月至2011年2月,在江苏省南京市观察到黑尾蜡嘴雀冬季取食12种树木的果实及种子.该鸟通常咬破果皮或种皮,取食种子的胚和胚乳等营养物质,为种子捕食者.由于其他一些食果鸟类也同期取食有关树木的果实,并传播其种子,黑尾蜡嘴雀的取食对这些树木的种子传播的影响是有限的.在初冬季节,黑尾蜡嘴雀常在树冠层取食果实,而在深冬季节,则主要在地表取食落果.黑尾蜡嘴雀能够咬碎枫杨等坚果的坚硬果皮,可为一起在地表觅食的麻雀取食种子碎屑物提供便利条件.黑尾蜡嘴雀与麻雀之间的偏利取食关系属于首次报道.文中对于城市环境管理中合理利用树木落果,为黑尾蜡嘴雀等鸟类提供越冬食物等方面提出了相关建议.

  5. Diversidad, abundancia estacional y uso de hábitat de aves playeras migratorias en el estuario del Rio Gallegos (Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Anahí Becerra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversidad, abundancia estacional y uso de hábitat de aves playeras migratorias en el estuario del rio Gallegos (Santa Cruz. Se presenta información sobre la condición actual de las aves playeras migratorias en un sector del estuario, adyacente a la ciudad de Río Gallegos, que está sujeto a diversos cambios provenientes del uso urbano. Desde marzo de 2011 a enero de 2012, se realizaron 52 visitas a 5 estaciones de muestreo, recorriéndose transectas perpendiculares a la costa. La diversidad específica fue mayor en primavera, superando en más del doble al resto de las estaciones. Del análisis comparativo entre los resultados obtenidos y estudios previos, surgió que la riqueza específica no presentó cambios, manteniéndose entre 8/9 especies. Los cambios más notables en la comunidad no obstante, se presentaron en la abundancia máxima por especie y uso del hábitat, excepto el Ostrero Austral que mantuvo su abundancia, resultando dominante (Frecuencia de Ocurrencia= 92%. El resto de las especies disminuyeron drásticamente el uso del área, como el Playerito Rabadilla Blanca (99%, Becasa de Mar (96,3% y Playero Rojizo (97,4%, en relación a registros históricos de 1997/99. Los hábitats más utilizados fueron el sustrato limo-arcilloso y el arenoso, mientras que la marisma fue la de menor uso, a pesar de que existen reportes anteriores de uso frecuente por varias especies. Se discuten las posibles causas de estos cambios y se efectúan recomendaciones, como la necesidad de mantener un mosaico de diferentes tipos de hábitats, la estructura del sustrato y la Reserva Costera Urbana, siendo necesario la planificación y estudio previo ante cualquier acción antrópica que altere el natural equilibrio erosivo-sedimentario de estos frágiles ecosistemas.

  6. Culturas migratorias en el Caribe colombiano: El caso de los isleños raizales de las islas de Old Providence y Santa Catalina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Márquez Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las migraciones caribeñas han sido ampliamente documentadas, especialmente desde visiones económicas y demográficas que enfatizan los aspectos negativos que estas causan en individuos y sociedades. Sin embargo, desde las ciencias humanas se ha difundido el concepto de culturas migratorias para analizarlas . El eje central es que, más allá de un fenómeno de tipo económico, ligado a superpoblación y desempleo , la movilidad caribeña puede entenderse como una tradición cultural que se ha convertido en un modo de vida legitimado por generaciones de migrantes, permitiendo la viabilidad de estas sociedades. Este concepto supone la movilidad constante a manera de migraciones temporales utilizadas como estrategias económicas básicas, así como mecanismos socioculturales que facilitan y perpetúan esta práctica. Este seria el caso de los habitantes de Providencia y Santa Catalina en el territorio de habla inglesa en el Caribe colombiano, quienes poseen una larga historia de migraciones que continúan hasta hoy y que constituyen una forma de vida. Este documento resulta de investigaciones realizadas tanto en las islas como con migrantes en Bogotá, entre 2004 y 2011, en las cuales se abordaron diversos temas, incluyendo el papel de las migraciones en la vida de estos isleños, las memorias y las percepciones sobre las mismas.

  7. La práctica del fútbol entre mujeres bolivianas en Sevilla. Redes sociales, trayectorias migratorias y relaciones de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Müller

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los inmigrados en España, especialmente de países andinos, han constituido un movimiento asociativoemergente que ha tomado cuerpo en ligas autogestionadas de fútbol y futsal. En dichas ligas la participaciónfemenina es significativa. ¿Cómo entender esta práctica deportiva de las mujeres? Este artículo se centra enel estudio de redes migratorias, sociales y laborales para entender la práctica del fútbol y su influencia en lasrelaciones de género. Su objetivo es analizar las estrategias de los migrantes y explicar cómo las redes migratoriasy sociales de arribo han incidido en la formación y potencialidad de este espacio, así como en el desenvolvimientode los equipos; ejemplificado, en este caso, en el equipo Bolivia de Sevilla donde la autoraparticipó como etnógrafa-jugadora. Con tal fin, se ha utilizado un enfoque empírico, social y procesual queme ha permitido analizar los cambios en el deporte como proceso paralelo al avance de las trayectoriasmigratorias y de las relaciones de pareja.

  8. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  9. Unveiling the mechanism by which microsporidian parasites prevent locust swarm behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Wangpeng; Guo, Yang; XU, CHUAN; Tan, Shuqian; Miao, Jing; Feng, Yanjie; ZHAO, HONG; St. Leger, Raymond J.; Fang, Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    The ability of parasites to modify the behavior of their hosts is a widespread phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be deciphered. Locusts such as Locusta migratoria manilensis are infamous for their ability to aggregate into gregarious migratory swarms that pose a major threat to food security. The microsporidian parasite Paranosema locustae can disrupt swarm formation by migratory locusts, but the underlying mechanisms of this action remain unexplored. In this study, we found...

  10. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  11. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  12. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  13. Españoles fuera de España. Historia y memoria de la última ola migratoria española (1945-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Fernández Vicente

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Les années 1980 furent marquées par la transformation d’une Espagne pays d’émigration en une Espagne accueillant des milliers d’immigrés. Submergée et souvent dépassée par cette réalité, nouvelle et conflictuelle, la société espagnole semble avoir oublié que l’Espagne avait été, jusque récemment, une « terre d’émigrants ». Ce travail a ainsi comme but de récupérer une partie de cette histoire-mémoire concernant la dernière vague migratoire espagnole. Prenant comme point de départ l’extrême richesse et complexité des sources orales, nous tenterons de reconstituer les raisons ayant poussé une partie des Espagnols à l’émigration. Face à l’impossibilité d’embrasser la totalité du flux migratoire, nous avons opté par une comparaison des deux destinations principales du flux : l’Argentine pour la période où l’émigration se dirigeait massivement vers des destinations d’Outre-mer (1945-1955, et la France pour la période dite « continentale » (1956-1980.Los años 80 asistieron a la transformación de una España que «emigraba» en una España que acogía a miles de inmigrantes. Sumida, y a menudo desbordada por esta nueva y conflictiva realidad social, la sociedad española parece haber olvidado que, hasta hace muy poco, España fue, esencialmente, «tierra de emigrantes». Por ello, este trabajo se propone contribuir a recuperar una parte de la historia-memoria de la última ola migratoria española. Partiendo de la riqueza y complejidad de las fuentes orales, se tratará de reconstituir las razones que empujaron a una parte de estos españoles a emigrar. Pero ante la imposibilidad de abarcar la totalidad del flujo migratorio, se optará por una comparación entre sus dos destinos principales : Argentina, para la etapa «ultramarina» (1945-1955 y Francia para la fase «continental» (1956-1980.The’80s have seen Spain transformed from an “Emigration country” to an

  14. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  15. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  16. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  17. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Regulation of glycogenolysis in the locust fat body during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrewijk, W.J.A. van; Broek, A.Th.M. van den; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Glycogen reserves in the fat body of Locusta migratoria decrease dramatically during the first two hours of flight. In fat body of rested locusts only 10% of glycogen phosphorylase occurs in the active form. The enzyme is activated significantly during flight, when up to one-third of the total phosp

  19. Speed over efficiency: locusts select body temperatures that favour growth rate over efficient nutrient utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Gabriel A; Clissold, Fiona J; Mayntz, David;

    2009-01-01

    Ectotherms have evolved preferences for particular body temperatures, but the nutritional and life-history consequences of such temperature preferences are not well understood. We measured thermal preferences in Locusta migratoria (migratory locusts) and used a multi-factorial experimental design...

  20. Hormone-induced rearrangement of locust haemolymph lipoproteins The involvement of glycoprotein C2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Doorn, J.M. van; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1984-01-01

    Formation of lipoprotein A⁺ and elevation of lipoprotein fraction O in locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) haemolymph as induced by adipokinetic hormone (AKH) includes the participation of non-lipid carrying proteins (fraction C), which was examined in more detail. By using gel filtration chr

  1. Una aproximación al análisis de las cadenas migratorias en España a partir de la encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes An Approach to the Analysis of Migratory Chains in Spain from the National Immigrant Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO GAETE QUEZADA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan los resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes aplicada en España desde la perspectiva de las cadenas migratorias como paradigma explicativo de los procesos migratorios en el país. En la primera parte se ofrece una revisión bibliográfica de los principales aspectos del concepto de cadenas migratorias. En la segunda, se identifican y analizan algunas variables indicativas de la existencia de cadenas migratorias en el proceso inmigratorio español reciente, tales como: contactos previos del inmigrante, influencia de los contactos en la decisión de viajar, envío de remesas, los contactos del inmigrante en el país de origen, y la intención de traer familiares.This paper focuses on the First National Immigrant Survey in Spain from the perspective of the migratory chains as an explanatory paradigm of migration processes in the country. The first part provides a literature review of key aspects o the concept of migratory chains. In the second part, we identify and discuss the survey results related to migratory chains, such as: contacts in Spain before arrival, influence of contacts in the decision to travel, money transfer, contacts in the immigrant's home country and intention of bringing relatives.

  2. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  3. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  4. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  5. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  6. Migración de guatemaltecos a México y Estados Unidos a partir de la Encuesta sobre migración en la frontera Guatemala-México 2004: Un análisis de estrategias migratorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Paredes Orozco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La migración guatemalteca hacia México y Estados Unidos ha llamado la atención del debate público en años recientes. Hasta hace poco la disponibilidad de fuentes de datos sobre la misma había sido muy escasa como para emprender un estudio riguroso del fenómeno. Utilizando datos de la Encuesta sobre migración en la frontera Guatemala-México 2004 se realizó un análisis logístico para determinar las diferencias entre dos grupos de migrantes guatemaltecos, uno que retorna desde México y el otro proveniente de Estados Unidos. En el análisis se identifica un conjunto de características demográficas, sociales y laborales que distinguen claramente a ambos flujos de migrantes, y que sirve para: 1 constatar la presencia de diferentes factores de expulsión y de configuración migratoria en el flujo internacional guatemalteco, y 2 identificar a los integrantes de uno y otro flujos como grupos con necesidades de atención distintas.

  7. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  8. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  9. Epilepsy in Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T M; Yang, S H; Ng, P K

    2001-01-01

    This article reviewed the meaning and development of epilepsy in Chinese culture. The theories of Yin and Yang and the five elements, fundamentals of traditional Chinese medicine, were introduced, which form the context of understanding of the etiology, classification, and treatment of epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:11321477

  10. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  11. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  12. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  13. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  14. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  15. Psychiatry and Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tsung-Yi

    1983-01-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chines...

  16. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  17. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  18. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  19. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  20. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  1. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  2. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  3. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  4. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  5. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  6. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  7. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  8. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  9. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  10. La e-migración: un nuevo espacio para pensar la retórica de la integración en las políticas migratorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Nihil Olivera Cajiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, basado en un estudio comparativo de migrantes franceses y ecuatorianos en Barcelona, discute la retórica de la integración en las políticas migratorias dentro del contexto de las tecnologías de la información y la comunica­ción (TIC. Los resultados que se presentan permiten problematizar las relaciones de los migrantes en Barcelona a partir de sus prácticas sociales en las TICs, así como también plantear la existencia de unas características tecnológicas, geográficas y sociales (TGS que crean un nuevo espacio que llamamos e-migración. Se argumenta en este artículo que el discurso de la integración y las TICs, que forma parte de la retórica de las administraciones de gobierno catalana, ocultan desigualdades estructurales entre los migrantes comunitarios y no comunitarios. El estudio de caso de franceses y ecuatorianos migrantes en Cataluña es una muestra de cómo se gestiona la diversidad en clave cultura para categorizar a determinadas poblaciones y no para integrarlas. Palabras clave: integración, política, e-migración, ecuatorianos, franceses, TIC, Barcelona, retórica.   E-migration: a new space to think the rhetoric of integration in migration policies  Abstract This article, based on a comparative study of French and Ecuadorian migrants in Barcelona, discusses the rhetoric of integration in migration policies within the context of information and communication technologies (ICT. The results presented allow to question the relationship of migrants in Barcelona taking into account their ICT social practices, as well as propose the existence of technological, geographical and social (TGS characteristics to create a new space we call e-migration. It is argued in this article that the discourse of integration and ICT, which is part of the rhetoric of the Catalan government administrations, hides structural inequalities between migrants from EU and outside of the EU. The case study of French and Ecuadorian

  11. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  12. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  13. Preparing for Chinese New Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Gordon

    This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English, designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. The booklet follows the activities of a Chinese-American family in its preparations for the Chinese New Year. (CLK)

  14. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  15. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...... are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural...

  16. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  17. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The feature and development direction of ecological garden city; The problem and countermeasures in urban construction audio-visual file management task;Youth network moral education is imperative;A shallow discussion about moral education penetration in Chinese classroom;

  18. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  19. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  20. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  1. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  2. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  3. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  4. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  5. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...

  6. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  7. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  8. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  9. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  10. Psychiatry and Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T Y

    1983-12-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chinese have a relatively favorable prognosis of schizophrenia, low rates of depressive illness, a strong tendency towards somatization and the presence of several unique culture-bound syndromes. From studying Chinese in Vancouver, it was found that they have a characteristic way of dealing with mental illness in the family, in that there is first a protracted period of intrafamilial coping with serious psychiatric illness, followed by recourse to friends, elders and neighbors in the community; third, consultation with traditional specialists, religious healers or general physicians; fourth, outpatient or inpatient treatment from specialists, and, finally, a process of rejection and scapegoating of the patient. The efficacy of Western psychiatric treatment of Chinese patients has yet to be objectively assessed. PMID:6364576

  11. Periodic temperature-associated drought/flood drives locust plagues in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhibin; Cazelles, Bernard; Tian, Huidong; Christian Stige, Leif; Bräuning, Achim; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2008-01-01

    Global warming is currently of great concern. Yet the ecological effects of low-frequency climate variations remain largely unknown. Recent analyses of interdecadal variability in population abundance of the Oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis) in China have revealed negative associations with temperature and positive associations with Yangtze drought and flood frequencies during the past millennium (AD 957-1956). In order to shed new light on the causal relationships bet...

  12. Dietary influences over proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in the locust midgut

    OpenAIRE

    Zudaire, E. (Enrique); Simpson, S J; Illa, I.; Montuenga, L M

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the influence of variations in dietary protein (P) and digestible carbohydrate (C), the quantity of food eaten, and insect age during the fifth instar on the expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the epithelial cells of the midgut (with special reference to the midgut caeca) in the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. Densitometric analysis of PCNA-immunostained cells was used as an indirect measure of the levels of expression of PCNA, and a P...

  13. Hormone-induced rearrangement of locust haemolymph lipoproteins The involvement of glycoprotein C2

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Horst, D J; Doorn, J.M. van; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1984-01-01

    Formation of lipoprotein A⁺ and elevation of lipoprotein fraction O in locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) haemolymph as induced by adipokinetic hormone (AKH) includes the participation of non-lipid carrying proteins (fraction C), which was examined in more detail. By using gel filtration chromatography, the rather heterogenous C-proteins were resolved into three protein fractions, only one of which (C₂) appeared to be actually involved in the lipoprotein reassociation. The changes in ...

  14. Effects of food nutrient content, insect age and stage in the feeding cycle on the FMRFamide immunoreactivity of diffuse endocrine cells in the locust gut

    OpenAIRE

    Zudaire, E. (Enrique); Simpson, S J; Montuenga, L M

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the influence of variations in dietary protein and digestible carbohydrate content, of insect age and of time during the feeding cycle on the endocrine cells of the ampullar region of the midgut in the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria L. Morphometric analysis of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity was used as an indirect measure of the amount of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) stored in the gut endocrine cells. There was a highly significant correlation between FaRP ...

  15. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  16. Chinese boxes: "Typhoon" and Conrad's history of the Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D.

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the novel "Typhoon," by Joseph Conrad, as a story about Chinamen coolies and seamen onboard a steamer transporting Chinese laborers. It argues that the Chinese boxes of the coolies represent several versions of the history of the Chinese and that the coolies are also representatives of a civilization with ideas and institutions, a law and order of nature. It also describes the images of Chinese life and their association to sociality, cooperation, nourishment, simplicity, ...

  17. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  18. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  19. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  20. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their

  1. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  2. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  3. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  4. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  5. Chinese Contemporary Art: Ink Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiDaojian

    2003-01-01

    Chinese ink painting is an age-old art tradition that embodies distinctive characteristics of Chinese culture. In these exquisite paintings, artists integrate nature and everyday life to show how the two exist in harmonyalso a frequent theme in Chinese philosophy.

  6. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  7. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  8. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  9. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    2012 with 41 students studying journalism at People's University, Tsinghua University, China Youth University for Political Sciences, Central University for Nationalities, Beijing Foreign Languages University and Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing and at Fudan University in Shanghai....... society. This chapter is concerned with Chinese journalism students' self-perceptions and evaluations of journalistic performances in order to understand the professional values to which they adhere. The study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted in two periods in Spring 2011 and Fall...

  10. The Chinese Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Moderation, or “the doctrine of the mean,” is the preferred Chinese practice. In order to stimulate the economy since its downturn seven years ago, the Chinese government has adopted a pro-active financial policy that will, in the wake of rapid economic growth, effect its economic soft landing. Since the beginning of 2005, the government has followed the fiscal strategy of cutting deficits and curbing government investment with this aim in mind. Staff reporter Luo Yuanjun examines this issue in his report “Economic Soft Landing: A Common Desire.”

  11. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we......-ba /pha pa/ ta-da /tha ta/ ka-ga / kha-ka/ For L2 acquisition it is held that same and new phonemes are (relatively) easy acquired, whereas similar but not identical sounds are difficult to learn. New sounds are initially mapped onto the L1 phoneme inventory (Kuhl 1991). For Danish, this would predict...

  12. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  13. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming;

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  14. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  15. Milestone for Chinese physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Chinese scientists have discovered a new particle predicted decades ago but never observed before. It could be what was once called the "multi-quark state," tiny elementary particles with a strong interaction or force that serves as the source of nuclear energy (1/2 page).

  16. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Corbiere

    2013-01-01

    <正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in

  17. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  18. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  19. Cataloging Pirated Chinese Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sze-Tseng

    1971-01-01

    Various types of pirated Chinese books are given with specific examples. The basic steps followed for the proper identification of these books is described, and remedies suggested in case the original is discovered after the book has been cataloged according to the information given by the book pirate. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  20. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  1. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  2. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Li Yiyi, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of Shenyang Metal Research Institute, has developed a new system for creating a low temperature and high pressure anti-hydrogen material in the research of engineering material. She has also been successful in her research of various types of steel.

  3. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  4. Chinese Lacquer Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengXiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the

  5. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  6. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  7. Chinese Yuan after Chinese Exchange Rate System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eiji Ogawa; Michiru Sakane

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the actual exchange rate policy conducted by the Chinese government after the Chinese exchange rate system reform on 21 July 2005 is investigated. Also, the long-run effect is investigated, including the Balassa-Samuelson effect on the Chinese yuan. It was found that the Chinese government generated a statistically significant but small change in exchange rate policy during the sample period until 25 January 2006. It was not identifted that the Chinese monetary authority is adopting the currency basket system because the change is too small in the economic sense. It is indicated that the Chinese government should take account of the productivity growth of countries composing the currency basket in order to operate a currency basket regime.

  8. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Socicty of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology,Immunological Journal,Current Immunology,Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology,Chinese Journal of

  9. An Introduction to Chinese Society of Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Society of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology, Immunological Journal, Current Immunology, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology; Chinese Journal of

  10. Chinese New Year Materials for Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene

    This is a resource book designed to be used by teachers in Chinese bilingual bicultural programs. The materials in the book are based on Chinese New Year customs still observed in Chinese-American communities. The resource book contains five types of materials: (1) a general introduction to the Chinese New Year, including the Chinese Lunar Year…

  11. Chinese Investment in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    At the 12th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) held on September 8-11 in Xiamen, Fujian Province, government officials and entrepreneurs from all over the world canvassed Chinese entrepreneurs and investors to invest in their countries. Foreign countries and regions rented 16,000 square meters of exhibition space, an increase of more than 50 percent from last year. Among the 74 participating countries and regions, more than 50 held seminars about their invest- ment environments. Besides the Caribbean countries and underdeveloped African nations that are actively attracting investment, developed countries such as the Untied States, Germany, France, Italy and Sweden also showed extraordinary enthusiasm in trying to win over Chinese investors. Beijing Review interviewed Marinella Loddo, Director of the Industrial Cooperation Division of the Italian Institute for Foreign Trade which is also known as the Italian Trade Commission (ICE).

  12. Chinese Experiences on Orthokeratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peiying; Guo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of myopia in Chinese children has been rising each year. Research has shown that orthokeratology is a good method for controlling the progression of myopia. In this article, we review the current prevalence of myopia, the development and management of orthokeratology, and the myopia control methods used in China. A physical and health survey release indicated that the ratio of poor vision in every range of ages is still high in China. During the past 17 years, Chinese doctors have developed a standard fitting procedure and medical management of orthokeratology patients. This article also reviews the clinical studies in China for Ortho-K lenses, such as myopia control, effects and safety, corneal change, and lens design and fitting. Finally, we review the development of the International Academy of Orthokeratology Asia in China. PMID:26704137

  13. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  14. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Discoverer of the Origin of Life The origin of life on earth has long been a subject explored by scientists around the world. At the 11th International Conference on the Origin of Life held at Orleans University in France on July 9th, 1996, Chinese scientist Zhao Yufen and her partner Cao Peisheng announced the contents of the origin of the seed of life.

  15. The Developing Chinese Garment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1997-01-01

    CHINA is a country with a 5,000-year history and a population of 1.2 billion people. Clothing plays an important role in Chinese people’s cultural and social life. Since the reform and opening up in the 1980s, the garment industry has greatly developed and has increased progressively by an average of 15.7 percent a year. In the past 10 years particularly, township-run garment production enterprises have suddenly come to the fore,

  16. INSET for Chinese Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 陈涛; 刘子春

    2007-01-01

    By setting examples,giving tables or taxonomy and so on,the thesis mainly explains the eight general INSET ( in-service teacher training) principles,including Participation,Sympathetic to the context,Teachers' attitude change,Integration of approaches,Communication and support,Evaluation and follow-up,Adequate timescale,then especially concentrate on the problems and solutions to Chinese teacher in using the INSET principles.

  17. Pollution Across Chinese Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Yap Co; Fanying Kong; Shuanglin Lin

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis using 1987-1995 data for Chinese provinces. A comparison of off-sample (1996-2004) predictions to actual emissions indicates that more stringent rules are still needed to fight industrial (waste water and dust) pollution. Auxiliary regressions show that conditional on income, northern provinces have lower industrial waste water pollution; non-coastal and provinces with smaller secondary industry shares have lower industrial (waste wa...

  18. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dutch-based information provider expands in China to tap new market There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them. "You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,

  19. Chinese institutional investors’ sentiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kling, Gerhard; Gao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    We use daily survey data on Chinese institutional investors’ forecasts to measure investors' sentiment. Our empirical model uncovers that share prices and investor sentiment do not have a long-run relation; however, in the short-run, the mood of investors follows a positive feedback process. Hence, institutional investors are optimistic when previous market returns were positive. Contrarily, negative returns trigger a decline in sentiment, which reacts more sensitively to negative than positi...

  20. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    to interpret their own educational histories and prior experiences, while at the same time making use of imaginaries of 'Western' education to redefine themselves as independent individuals in an increasingly globalised and individualised world. Through a case study of prospective pre-school teachers preparing...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  1. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2011-01-01

    There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them."You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,Wolters Kluwer China CEO.

  2. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  3. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  4. A classification of chinese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of Chinese Cultural Values (CCVs). Although there exist great differences between the Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, it is still possible to identify certain core cultural values that are shared by the Chinese people no matter where they live. Based on the original list by the Chinese Cultural Connection (1987), the paper creates a new list that contains 71 core values against 40 in the old. The implications and limitations of the classification are...

  5. Current Chinese bryological literature (4)

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Yu, Jin

    2000-01-01

    According to our collections of literature, about 400 scientific papers dealing with Chinese bryophytes have been published in China and abroad during 1990’s. Among these, more than 50 % were published in different scientific journals in China and often written in Chinese with English abstract, which are not well known and assessable for foreign bryologists. Therefore, in addition to previous Chinese literature I-III (Cao et al. 1990, Li et Zhang 1993, 1994), we present the fourth part of Chi...

  6. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    projects to acquiring more systemic properties. Chinese companies have acquired a broader sectoral presence in Indonesia and Chinese invested companies in e.g. extractive or manufacturing activities can increasingly rely on complementary Chinese investments in logistics, travel, finance etc....

  7. I Married a Chinese Woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEPHEN SAYERS

    1997-01-01

    He became known all over China because of his appearance on the national television competition "Foreigners Singing Chinese Songs."Dressed in traditional Chinese costume and accompanied by his Chinese wife,he Chinese Girl."In this article,Stephen Sayers tells about his marriage and his personal feelings during his five years in China,Stephen and his wife Candy just moved to Macao in July.In arecent letter he asked the editor to give the money for this article to the education-aiding"Hope project" and specified it for Guizhou.

  8. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  9. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  10. Annotation of novel neuropeptide precursors in the migratory locust based on transcript screening of a public EST database and mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Loof Arnold

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For holometabolous insects there has been an explosion of proteomic and peptidomic information thanks to large genome sequencing projects. Heterometabolous insects, although comprising many important species, have been far less studied. The migratory locust Locusta migratoria, a heterometabolous insect, is one of the most infamous agricultural pests. They undergo a well-known and profound phase transition from the relatively harmless solitary form to a ferocious gregarious form. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of this phase transition are not fully understood, but it is undoubtedly that neuropeptides are involved. However, neuropeptide research in locusts is hampered by the absence of genomic information. Results Recently, EST (Expressed Sequence Tag databases from Locusta migratoria were constructed. Using bioinformatical tools, we searched these EST databases specifically for neuropeptide precursors. Based on known locust neuropeptide sequences, we confirmed the sequence of several previously identified neuropeptide precursors (i.e. pacifastin-related peptides, which consolidated our method. In addition, we found two novel neuroparsin precursors and annotated the hitherto unknown tachykinin precursor. Besides one of the known tachykinin peptides, this EST contained an additional tachykinin-like sequence. Using neuropeptide precursors from Drosophila melanogaster as a query, we succeeded in annotating the Locusta neuropeptide F, allatostatin-C and ecdysis-triggering hormone precursor, which until now had not been identified in locusts or in any other heterometabolous insect. For the tachykinin precursor, the ecdysis-triggering hormone precursor and the allatostatin-C precursor, translation of the predicted neuropeptides in neural tissues was confirmed with mass spectrometric techniques. Conclusion In this study we describe the annotation of 6 novel neuropeptide precursors and the neuropeptides they encode from the

  11. Why Do I Study Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Translator’s Note: The cross language year program-the Chinese Language Year in France and the French Language Year in China-initiated by Chinese and French leaders were held in 2011 and 2012 to promote cultural exchanges and further deepen the China-France comprehensive strategic partnership. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the CPAFFC and the

  12. Danish Chinese Center for Nanometals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    The Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The Chinese partners in the Center are Institute of Metal Research in Shenyang, Tsinghua University and Chongqing University. The Danish part...

  13. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  14. Chinese Converstations: An Intellectual Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, John J.

    1980-01-01

    A profile of how Chinese urban intellectuals view life in their country is presented. Information was obtained through many conversations with Chinese educators and students during the author's visit to China. Discussed are family, education, the cultural revolution, the Gang of Four, the quest for modernization, and the policy toward…

  15. Chinese Festivals: Keeping Traditions Alive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    WE all love holidays and the happy gatherings of family and friends that they bring, and the Chinese are no exception. The Chinese celebrate festivals based on the lunar calendar dating back thousands ofyears. The popular favorite is Lunar New Year, or Spring Festival, which falls on the first day of the first

  16. Chinese private yards catch up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese shipbuilding industry was dominated by state-owned companies for a long time. In 2005, when a global shipbuilding summit was held in China for the first time, no Chinese private shipyards appeared except two national shipbuilders, namely COSCO and CSIC. However, in the same year, Rongsheng,Mingde and Hantong began their first step.

  17. Criminaliteit en traditionele Chinese medicijnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is deeply rooted in the Chinese culture. Although thousands of animal and plant species are used for medicines legally, some medications contain more sinister elements; illegal animal or plant ingredients of protected species. What is the origin of this demand for

  18. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from

  19. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  20. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LI Ru-long: Huang Diancheng's Great Contributions to Chinese Phonology Abstract: Huang Diancheng inherited the essence of traditional Chinese phonology and the research results of the Zhang and Huang School. On the basis of the analysis on the facts of modern dialects, he put forward the principle that Qiangsheng bi ruoyun,

  1. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  2. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Over 1.5 million women workers from 13,000 enterprises have joined the social coordinated system for child-bearing insurance funds in Zhejiang Province. The funds are paid by regular and contract workers and casual laborers from state-owned and collective enterprises and Chinese employees from joint ventures. The social labor insurance committees under the local governments at the city or county levels are in charge of the practical work for taking over the funds. The amounts of money each pays varies according to the different living standard and salary level in each area.

  3. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chinese children are taller and heavier than ever before. According to a national survey from 1995, the average height of children aged 7-14 was 142.3 centimeters, 2 centimeters taller than the average height of children in the same age group ten years before. The average weight was 31.9 kilograms, which is 2.8 kilograms heavier than children of the same age group in 1985. Such improvements must be credited to the development of China’s health care network for children. By the end of last

  4. Chinese Vegetarian Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ONCE in a restaurant specializing in vegetarian food in Hubei Province, I saw some dishes on the menu which did not sound like vegetarian food, such as chicken, duck, fish and pork. Only after I ordered and tasted did I understand that these were all made of bean products. Simply speaking, the Chinese vegetarian diet is comprised of grains, vegetables, bean products and fruits. It also includes bamboo shoots, mushrooms, edible fungus, aquatic plants and dried fruit. This kind of diet boasts a long history. As early as the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) and the early Han

  5. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  6. CHINESE COMMUNITY IN ECUADOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARIA JOSE CIFUENTES CERVANTES

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Republic Of Ecuador is located in the west coast of South America.It has a total area of 256.370 km2 and a population of approximately 14 million.Spanish is considered as the official language.The country is subdivided into 24 provinces with the capital city being Quito and the other major city being Guayaquil.Since the year 2000 US Dollar had been the official currency.Approximately 50,000 people from China live now in Ecuador.Although the Chinese community in Ecuador is not as large as those in Brazil and Peru, it has a strong economic and social weight in the country.

  7. The "Coop-Comp" Chinese Negotiation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    T. Fang

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the cultural roots of Chinese business negotiation strategy. The article argues that, Chinese culture, with its cooperative and competitive components, has bestowed upon Chinese negotiators a distinctive "coop-comp" negotiation strategy. The Chinese are culturally capable of negotiating both sincerely and deceptively at the international business negotiation table.

  8. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment beh

  9. Genetic Algorithm for Chinese Postman Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hua; Kang Li-shan

    2003-01-01

    Chinese Postman Problem is an unsettled graphic problem. It was approached seldom by evolutionary computation. Now we use genetic algorithm to solve Chinese Postman Problem in undirected graph and get good results. It could be extended to solve Chinese postman problem in directed graph. We make these efforts for exploring in optimizing the mixed Chinese postman problem.

  10. Multicultural Awareness for the Classroom: The Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Felix Mario; And Others

    This guide provides the teacher of multiethnic students with information and teaching resources on Chinese. An historical overview of China and the Chinese experience in America is presented in English and Chinese. Several lesson plans and classroom activities reviewing Chinese geography, holidays, legends, and stories are presented. (APM)

  11. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  12. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  13. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  14. The Analysis of the Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓慧

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of pragmatic studies, politeness has aroused great interest among Chinese scholars. Different cultures have different traditions and values, which bring out different understanding and application of politeness strategies. Great Chinese culture brings out the complicated Chinese politeness scale. A successful communication depends on politeness principle. Learning the Chinese politeness scale will make we know more about the Chinese culture. By researching this, we will perform better in communication.

  15. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Fung Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publicatio...

  16. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    2013-01-01

    enterprises supplemented with key informant interviews, available official statistics and secondary data. Considering the evolution of Chinese investments in Indonesia over time, investments have evolved from being individual and isolated projects to acquiring more systemic properties. Chinese companies have...... acquired a broader sectoral presence in Indonesia and Chinese invested companies in, e.g., extractive or manufacturing activities can increasingly rely on complementary Chinese investments in logistics, travel, finance, etc. Where the local development effects are concerned, a picture emerges where Chinese...

  17. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Study on the Application of Mass Media and English Han cui xia (ShanDong BinZhou medical college ShanDong YanTai 264003)Read and Write Periodica,vol.9, No.5,16,2012(ISSN1672-1578,in,Chinese ) Abstract: Rapid technological development of mass media and Internt chances of improvement. This paper analyzes the present situation of adult teaching and learning of English and the application of mass media and Internet in it in the hope of changing the present situation and improving the effect in order for adult learners to benefit more from it.. Key words: mass media; Internet; adult education; teaching and learning of English

  19. TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930433 A study on relationship between hy-pothyroidism and deficiency of kidney YANG.ZHA Lianglun(查良伦),et al.lnstit Integr TCM& West Med,Shanghai Med Univ,Shanghai,200040.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 1993;13(4):202—204.Thirty—two cases of hypothyroidism causedby various factors were treated for one year withChinese medicinal herbs preparation“Shen Lutablet”(SLT)to warm and reinforce the KidneyYang.34 normal persons were studied as a con-trol group.After treatment with SLT,the clini-cal symptoms of hypothyroidism were markedlyimproved.Average serum concentration of totalT3,T4 increased significantly from 67.06±4.81

  20. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives.

  1. Chinese Family: Some New Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    It is a familiar sight in many Chinese cities to witness a large team escorting a baby pram in public: mother, grandmothers, ayi (nan-ny), another ayi maybe, grandfathers quiet possible, and finally tither if you are lucky.

  2. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  3. "Fractal Expression" in Chinese Calligraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuelin

    2008-01-01

    We show that from historical record and mathematic analysis, "fractal expressions" may have been a conscious pursuit at least one thousand years ago as an element of beauty in ancient Chinese calligraphy.

  4. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  5. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  6. The chinese health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese h...... healthcare system. The current situation will be further challenged in the future by an aging population, an increasing need for privatization and growing expectations about quality of healthcare....

  7. English and Chinese language ambiguity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海

    2009-01-01

    This article from the Voice of Ambiguity,Lexical Ambiguity and Ambiguity in the three aspects of the grammatical structure of English and Chinese languages are compared ambiguity And analysis.Ambiguity in English and Chinese language through the comparison,resulted in two languages to explore the reasons for ambiguity;analysis of the characteristics of English language ambiguities;Research Should not be some ambiguity on how to avoid the emergence of the phenomenon.

  8. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  9. The art of Chinese management?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlevogt, Kai-Alexander.

    1998-01-01

    An empirical study was undertaken (a) to examine the characteristics, influencing factors, and effectiveness of a distinctive Chinese management model adopted by the newly founded private enterprises in mainland China, as well as (b) to test the "fit" notion in contingency theory. The study was based on a random sample of 124 standardized personal interviews with CEOs of Chinese industrial and service companies in Beijing and Shanghai. The standardized questionnaire mainly con...

  10. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  11. Chinese Loan Words in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜战莹

    2015-01-01

    English language is the most common working language.In the history of its development,English has widened its vocabulary by borrowing.Borrowing plays an important role in the formation of modern English.Chinese loan words are a part in the family of all the loan words.Therefore,the number of loan words which originate from Chinese is not that great,but they hold an important role in contemporary English.

  12. Who Will Save Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Like a drama unfolding in a riveting suspense novel, the quadrennial global football gala is becoming more and more compelling as the climax approaches. Billions of people are glued to the tube watching the World Cup in Germany, and Chinese football fans are following the countdown with the rest of the world. According to a poll by China Central Television, the national broadcaster, World Cup games have attracted combined viewers of at least 10 billion. For Chinese football enthusiasts, however, the joy ...

  13. Chinese kindergartners learn to read characters analytically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; McBride, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Do Chinese children implicitly extract information from Chinese print before they are formally taught to read? We examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to regularities in Chinese characters and the relationship between such sensitivity and later literacy ability. Eighty-five kindergartners from Beijing were given a character-learning task and assessed on word reading and word writing twice within a 1-year interval. Sensitivity to the structural and phonetic regularities in Chinese appeared in 4-year-olds, and sensitivity to the positions of radicals in Chinese characters emerged in 5-year-olds. Such sensitivities explained unique variance in Chinese word reading and writing 1 year later, with age and nonverbal IQ statistically controlled. Young children detected regularities in written Chinese before they received formal instruction in it, which underscores both the importance of early statistical learning for literacy development and the analytic properties of Chinese print.

  14. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive Warm-up in Jiang Hua (Department of Foreign Language, Modern College of Northwest University, Xi'an 710130, China)Read and Write Perodica,vol.9,No.10,10,2012 (ISSN1672 -1578,in, Chinese) Abstract: Classroom teaching activities should be an interactive process, which includes not only interaction between teachers and students but also includes the interaction between students and learning materials and the interaction between students and design activities in class. These interaction processes will directly affect the students learning interest and the effect. So classroom interactions are very important. But how to present these interactions well and make them educational in the classroom is a question which needs considered carefully by teachers. Because of the warm-up is the key part for teachers to introduce the whole unit and stimulate the interests of students, this article mainly discusses the warming-up part of college English teaching, to improve the classroom interactions, and stimulate the students' study enthusiasm and the initiative. Key words: Interaction; Educational; Warm-up

  15. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  16. The Chinese-American Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, S.H.

    1990-05-01

    The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Oscar Montelius and Chinese Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, the world-famous Swedish archaeologist, had a key role in the development of modern scientific Chinese archaeology and the discovery of China’s prehistory. We know that one of his major works, Die Methode, the first volume of his Älteren kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, translated into Chinese in the 1930s, had considerable influence on generations of Chinese archaeologists and art historians. What has previously remained unknown, is that Montelius personally promoted the research undertaken in China by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960, whose discoveries of Neolithic cultures in the 1920s constituted the breakthrough and starting point for the development of prehistoric archaeology in China. In this paper, we reproduce, translate and discuss a long forgotten memorandum written by Montelius in 1920 in support of Andersson’s research. In this Montelius indicated his belief in the potential of prehistoric Chinese archaeology as well as his predictions regarding the discoveries about to be made. It is therefore an important document for the study of the history of Chinese archaeology as a whole.

  18. Traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    @@ Further progress has been made in the traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer over the past few years, especially in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment principle, improvement of therapeutic results and prolonging the survival.

  19. Chinese Private Direct Investment and Overseas Chinese Network in Africa%Chinese Private Direct Investment and Overseas Chinese Network in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Song

    2011-01-01

    Based on extensive interviews in China and in Africa over 2 years, the present paper investigates Chinese private direct investment in Africa. Drawing on the Swedish Uppsala model, we explore two mian issues. First, do Chinese private enterprises follow t

  20. "Uighur's Contributions to the Ancient Chinese Culture"

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIN, Geng

    2010-01-01

    In this my paper I speak briefly on the contributions made by the Uighurs and their ancestors to the Chinese civilization. Of course, the Chinese people also made great contributions to the civilization of Uighur people

  1. Translating Chinese Zero Anaphoric Subjects into English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher-leng

    1993-01-01

    Deals with a major difference between European languages and Chinese, namely the sparse use of anaphoric reference in Chinese. Suggests that the translator's way of rendering references will affect the interpretational potential of the text in the target language. (NKA)

  2. A Primer on Chinese Music Instruments Released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuSan

    2005-01-01

    Chinese traditional musical instruments, with a history of 8,000 years, are known for their diverse forms and types. The qualities, functions and materials of these instrunents reflect the unique aesthetic value of Chinese traditional music.

  3. Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

  4. Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingjin

    2015-01-01

    In his article "Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature" Yingjin Zhang revisits the challenge of mapping Chinese literature as world literature in three steps: 1) he delineates of positions of view as proposed by Western scholars who engaged in rethinking world literature(s) in the age of globalization, 2) evaluates consequences of such a new mapping for Chinese literature and tests a different set of "technologies of recognition" (Shih) in the context of Chinese versus Sinophone studi...

  5. Introduction to CRM Systems in Chinese SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoting

    2015-01-01

    CRM (Customer Relationship Management) is an efficient management tool for an enterprise to improve the service level and customer relationships. However, CRM is not widely applied by Chinese SMEs. The implementation of CRM still faces some problems in Chinese CRM market. In this thesis is CRM systems applied in Chinese SMEs were discussed Chinese,including the current situation of CRM and what the SMEs need from a CRM system. In addition, it was discussed how to implement a CRM system in...

  6. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    OpenAIRE

    Addendum by Penny Edwards; Lorraine Paterson

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45). He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967) and...

  7. The Lancaster Corpus of Mandarin Chinese.

    OpenAIRE

    McEnery, A. M.; Xiao, R. Z.

    2003-01-01

    The Lancaster Corpus of Mandarin Chinese (LCMC) addresses an increasing need within the research community for a publicly available balanced corpus of Mandarin Chinese. LCMC has been constructed as part of a research project undertaken by the Linguistics Department, Lancaster University. The corpus is designed as a Chinese match of the Freiburg-LOB Corpus of British English (FLOB), and, as such, will provide a valuable resource for contrastive studies between English and Chinese as well as a ...

  8. Chinese Consumers' Preferences for Livestock Products

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xuehua; Marchant, Mary A.; Qin, Xiang Dong; Zhuang, Jun

    2005-01-01

    This research surveyed over 784 Chinese consumers in Shanghai and Nanjing in 2001 and 2002, evaluating their preferences for livestock product attributes using ordered-probit models and factor analyses. Empirical results confirm the heterogeneity of Chinese livestock retail markets and suggest that livestock distributors should focus on Chinese female consumers and young consumers considering cooking convenience as a key attribute. Chinese consumers with higher incomes placed less importance ...

  9. Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yun; Walter J B van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    We present Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N=28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1429 English words. The results revealed that 71% of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigat...

  10. Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chengjun; Ma, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    In their article "Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture" Chengjun Wang and Junhong Ma discuss three main channels of the "traveling" of Chinese culture to the outside world. Focusing on the situation of bilingualism (i.e., Chinese and English) and the need of spreading Chinese literature and culture especially in the English-speaking world, Wang and Ma argue for "localization and globalization." Further, Wang and Ma argue that in order to narrow the gap of the cultural di...

  11. Informization Implementation for Chinese Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; QIAN Yu; CHEN Jianfeng; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    Retailing is an important component of every country's economic system. The current status and developments in the informization of Chinese retail industry were investigated by using questionnaires and interviews to survey 139 retailers throughout China. The investigation shows that Chinese retailers are in the initial informization stage, and can be classified into different types with corresponding informization characteristics. In addition, the survey identified the key problems faced by retailers in the initial stage. Developments in the information technology field were analyzed to identify the key technologies that Chinese retailers should focus on during the informization process. The investigation also shows that the retailers have not arrived at a consensus about information technology adoption, and thus hesitate to use new information technologies, such as the radio frequency identification.

  12. Moon Cakes, A Chinese Favorite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINA is a nation with many ethnic groups. Thus, there are many legends to explain the nation’s many festivals. The largest and most striking of these festivals are the Spring Festival and Midautumn Festival. Anywhere Chinese people go, they will remember and celebrate these two festivals. The Mid-autumn Festival falls on the fifteenth day of the 8th lunar month. In this festival, Chinese people eat moon cakes, a baked food, with a flour crust around a dense filling. Coming in a great variety of flavors and styles, the moon cake carries a great deal of symbolic significance. The moon cake is round like the moon. "Round" is pronounced "yuan" in Chinese. This character is full of good meanings. When used in reference to a

  13. Chinese Feelings Cherished By Canadians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On March 30, "The Chinese Feelings Across the Pacific-The Century Exhibition of the Old Photos Treasured by the Canadians" was open in the Lu Xun Museum in Beijing. The exhibition lasted for one week. At the exhibition some old photos taken in the early 20th century were on display, showing James G. Endicott, envoy of world peace, together with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai; the family of O. L. Kilborn, one of the founders of West China Union University, together with Chinese women with bound feet: O. L. Kilborn treating the wounded soldiers during the Revolution of 1911; Leslie Earl Willmott in Chinese tunic suit and his wife reluctant to bid farewell to China, as well as photos of Ashley Woodward Lindesay, founder of China’s modern

  14. English Loan Words in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡悦

    2016-01-01

    During the process of language contact, a lot of language changes may appear, among which lexical borrowing, the ori-gin lexical item from one language being used by another language, is one of the most common phenomena. As a result of glo-balization, the frequent contact with western culture and the English language has brought a huge amount of lexical borrowings to the Chinese language. This paper mainly looks at the language contact of the English loan words in Chinese in the following three methods, namely transliteration, semantic loan and a mixture of the two respectively. The discussion over the examination will contribute to the understanding of English as a lingua franca and its language contact with Chinese.

  15. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  16. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  17. Chinese Information Processing and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Li; Tie-Jun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents some main progresses and achievements in Chinese information processing. It focuses on six aspects, I.e., Chinese syntactic analysis, Chinese semantic analysis, machine translation, information retrieval, information extraction, and speech recognition and synthesis. The important techniques and possible key problems of the respective branch in the near future are discussed as well.

  18. WEB BASED TRANSLATION OF CHINESE ORGANIZATION NAME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Muyun; Liu Daxin; Zhao Tiejun; Qi Haoliang; Lin Kaiming

    2009-01-01

    A web-based translation method for Chinese organization name is proposed. After analyzing the structure of Chinese organization name, the methods of bilingual query formulation and maximum entropy based translation re-ranking are suggested to retrieve the English translation from the web via public search engine. The experiments on Chinese university names demonstrate the validness of this approach.

  19. Problems of Textbook in Teaching Chinese Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ta-hsia

    It is proposed that teachers of Chinese expose their students to traditional critical views of Chinese poetics and criticism through careful selection of poems. This approach to language study is based on the assumption that the student may gain insight and appreciation of Chinese poetry as well as a feeling for the culture. Arguments favoring…

  20. How Do Chinese Enterprises Look at REACH?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The new European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization of Chemicals) regulation has come into force. As soon as the REACH white paper was issued, Chinese enterprises started to research the possible impacts of REACH and prepare to cope with them. How then do these Chinese enterprises look at REACH? Following are views of some Chinese enterprises exporting chemical products to the European Union.

  1. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  2. Scientific and Technical Chinese, Volume II. Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kung-yi; And Others

    A composite English-to-Chinese glossary of all terms introduced in the individual lessons of "Scientific and Technical Chinese" is presented here. The appendices include lists of weights and measures and chemical elements, and a partial list of Chinese government organizations and research institutes related to science and technology. (AMH)

  3. Writing Concepts in Chinese Writing Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on how Chinese writing instruction can cause negative interference for Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language students writing in English. The study shows that in Chinese writing, the main idea can be more general, as a theme, or specific, as a thesis statement. It can also come at the beginning or end of a paper, and the writer…

  4. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  5. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  6. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  7. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addendum by Penny Edwards

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45. He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967 and The Political Structure of the Chinese Community in Cambodia (1970. However, subsequent to his research, Chinese communities suffered terribly during the repression of the Lon Nol government between 1970 and 1975 and the atrocities of the Democratic Kampuchea regime. Willmott thus declared Chinese communities—and a willingness to identify as Chinese—destroyed. This understandably pessimistic vision turned out to be unfounded; the next extensive research done on Chinese in Cambodia by Penny Edwards and Chan Sambath in 1995 showed Chinese communities rebuilding. However, the descriptions of these communities showed a complexity of identity formation—from recent immigrants, “the raw Chinese,” to the five “traditional” Chinese dialect groups—that differed markedly from the indexes of identity applied by Willmott in his initial analysis. Academic ideas of how Chineseness should be configured had shifted and complicated; ascribing identity had become increasingly problematic...

  8. Mamma Mia!Hits Chinese Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese version of Broadway’s musical sensation set to run for six months The Chinese version of Mamma Mia!,one of the most popular musicals in the world,has come to China,to demonstrate the charm of the musical to Chinese citizens in three major cities in 2011.

  9. How Should We Revive Traditional Chinese Culture?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    There has been a growing interest during the past year in the popularity of traditional Chinese culture, both domestically and globally. Currently, over 40 Confucius Institutes have been set up worldwide, focusing on promoting Chinese culture. Named after China's most eminent philosopher and the father of Confucianism, the Chinese

  10. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  11. Modern Chinese Punctuation and CSL Reading Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickel, Stan

    1988-01-01

    Provides a brief history of Chinese punctuation and detailed analysis of modern Chinese punctuation. Three tables show: 1) uniquely Chinese punctuation markers; 2) markers graphemically identical and functionally similar to Western markers; and 3) markers graphemically identical but functionally different from Western markers. Each punctuation…

  12. Teaching Oral Chinese in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    1976-01-01

    Because Chinese language textbooks were judged inadequate in teaching vocabulary dealing with everyday life in the U.S. and in China, new methods and materials were introduced into an oral Chinese course. Prepared discussion topics, Chinese films, soap operas, and shortwave radio broadcasts were used. (CHK)

  13. A Cultural Perspective on Chinese Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaofang

    2011-01-01

    Politeness is a universal phenomenon, but its actual manifestations and the standards for judgment are culturally different. This paper analyzes the characteristics of Chinese politeness from a cultural perspective. It aims to improve our understanding of Chinese politeness and our knowledge of Chinese traditional culture and undertake interpersonal communication successfully.

  14. Chinglish in Chinese-English Interpreting in Light of Chinese Thought Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔蓓; 翟娜; 李瑞超

    2014-01-01

    As most interpreters in China are native speakers of Chinese, it is inevitable that the deep-rooted Chinese thinking patters lead to Chinglish in Chinese-English interpreting, which is shown in both lexical and syntactical levels. Based on the theories and problems appeared in Chinese-English interpreting, this article attempts to explore the major phenomena of Chinglish and their relations with Chinese thought patterns and proposes coping strategies.

  15. Ikea success in chinese furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Yihong, Li

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will focus on the market exploiting and development of IKEA in China, analysis the characteristics of Chinese market and the supply-demand of the IKEA products in China. It also analyze the main Chinese consumers’ behaviour and evaluating the furniture retail market in China. IKEA is a successful case to open the china market recent years. The main goal is to acquire this information in order to provide the overseas retailers with a good starting point for creating an effective bu...

  16. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.;

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue....... Finally, we conclude with our suggestions for future indigenous research....

  17. The globalisation of Chinese brands

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.

    2006-01-01

    China has taken over Japan over the last decade to become the largest manufacturer and exporter of more than one hundred consumer products. However, China, as “the world factory”, has yet to create a single brand that is recognised worldwide. The recent acquisition of IBM’s PC business by China’s Lenovo may signal the beginning of the globalisation of Chinese brands. This paper considers the current brand revolution in China, focusing on the unique challenge faced by major Chinese enterprises...

  18. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  19. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  20. Brilliance Auto: Chinese, Global, Successful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      As the only automobile sponsor of BOAO FORUM FOR ASIA in April 2004, Brilliance Auto had a great opportunity to show her 'New Zhonghua" sedan which is an upper-medium car with completely independent intellectual property rights and repre sents the independent development philosophy of Brilliance Auto and is especially made for business personnel. The development pattern of Zhonghua sedan set a brand new model in Chinese auto industry to utilize the global resources and talents and international division of labor in the international arena, and she has become a typical sample of independent brand sedans in the contemporary Chinese auto industry.……

  1. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual skills…

  2. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  3. Discursive Construction of Chinese Language Teacher Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers within the field of TCFL 1 (teaching Chinese as a foreign language) have begun to examine the notion of Chinese language teacher identity (Bianco, 2009; Cruickshank, 2011; Gao, 2012; Zhang & Jensen, 2013; Zhang, 2013); however, whilst insightful, this research has...... not addressed the ways in which Chinese language teachers identify themselves while interacting with students and how they construct their identities as TCFL teachers in other cultures. In this study, I address this research gap by exploring the discursive construction of three native Chinese language teachers...... (NCLTs) 2 teaching Chinese to Danish students....

  4. Approaches in Treating AIDS with Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕维柏

    2002-01-01

    @@ Editorial: AIDS is the archenemy of mankind, it also threatened Chinese people seriously. Although anti-retroviral drugs are effective, yet too expensive, the majority of 600 000 Chinese patients can't afford to purchase and use them. Decades ago, some scientists were trying to use Chinese Medicine in treating AIDS, experienc e gained but problems also exposed concerning strategy of research, methodol ogy, racial difference, Chinese drugs screening, integrative Chinese and western medicine, HIV and immunity, etc., sustained and integrative effort would bring safe, effective, and affordable drugs for the fatal pandemic all over the world

  5. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  6. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen; C. van Marrewijk

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 ¿ 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such as Galtonian

  7. Dynamics of Chinese Comparative Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  8. Autobiography of a Chinese City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of gazetteer [a peculiar Chinese genre of officially supervised local history writing] work in the Northeastern city of Harbin. It is a study of the interaction of politics, bureaucracy, and historical work at the local level in contemporary China, and it points...

  9. Spoken Grammar for Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓敏

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the concept of spoken grammar has been mentioned among Chinese teachers. However, teach-ers in China still have a vague idea of spoken grammar. Therefore this dissertation examines what spoken grammar is and argues that native speakers’ model of spoken grammar needs to be highlighted in the classroom teaching.

  10. Chinese President Meets Stephen Hawking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Shuqin

    2002-01-01

    @@ Chinese President Jiang Zemin met on August 19 with Stephen Hawking and other world-renown scientists, including Shing-tung Yau, Edward Witten, D.Gross, A. Strominger, et al., who were attending an international conference on string theory and Prof.Hawking had just given a public speech titled "Brane New World" in Beijing.

  11. Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in…

  12. The Magic of Chinese Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Betty Siu Junn

    Although this booklet is intended for use in the classroom, the author cautions the reader that it is an adventure into Chinese music rather than a teaching or history experience. By learning how to play the music, students "travel" through China, giving them a better understanding of this country. The author describes the invention of ancient…

  13. The Revolution in Chinese Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifman, Eli

    1978-01-01

    Evaluates the extent to which the "revolution in education" in China has succeeded in integrating communist theory with practice. Concludes that the pre-1975 emphasis on political indoctrination has been tempered by efforts to raise the cultural and technical levels of the Chinese people. (Author/DB)

  14. Chinese Middle-Aged Confusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXINXIN

    2003-01-01

    THE middle-aged generation,those of the age 40 to 55, is special in China. Born in the 1950s and early 1960s, they grew up in the most difficult and chaotic periods of recent Chinese history, having experienced and suffered the Great Leap Forward at the end of the fifties and the “cultural revolution” ( 1966-1976).

  15. 2006 Chinese RE Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since 2005,China government established series of regulations to rectify Chinese rare earth industry.Especially,the notice of "ceasing the issue of new mining license and controlling the gross rare earth mining volume" implemented in April of 2006 largely reduced the mining in Southern China.

  16. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  17. ENERGY CALCULUS IN CHINESE LANGUAGESEGMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on cognitive science, the EnergyCalculus in Chinese language segmentation was presented to eliminate segmentation ambiguity. The notion of "EnergyCost" was advanced to denote the extent of the under-standability of a certain segmentation. EnergyCost function was defined with Z-notation. This approcah is effective to all natural language segmentation.

  18. Foreign Diplomats Cooking Chinese Dishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2nd Chinese Cuisine Contest for Foreign Diplomats(Shanghai),a large-scale activity as part of the 1st Shanghai Shopping Festival,was held at 15:30 on September 22 in Shanghai with the theme of "The Passionate Shanghai".

  19. Chinese Cities in Foreigners' Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU LINTAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ To introduce Chinese cities to the world, a book series Cities of China written by foreign authors will be published during the next three years by the Beijing-based Foreign Languages Press (FLP), a company af-filiated to China International Publishing Group (CIPG).

  20. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g

  1. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN oracle-bone inscription, 面 (mian) depictsthe outline of a face with a large eye at its center.To this end its original meaning was the humanface. However, in ancient Chinese 面 referred tothe front of the head and another characterdenoted the cheek, specifically the area between

  2. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN ancient Chinese characters,母(pronounced mu)depicts a womanbending on her knees and crossingher hands in front with two points onher chest symbolizing her breasts.The original meaning of 母 is anadult woman who has given birth tochildren,i.e.a mother It was later

  3. Clinical Service of Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) faces three major challenges:(1)How to enhance its contribution on overall medical service quality? (2) How to best address the unmet medical needs in the contemporary society? (3)How to guarantee that the traditional perspective for disease diagnosis and treatment not be neglected in clinical practice?

  4. Chinese Sculpture as Public Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YinShuangxi

    2003-01-01

    Chinese arts have undergone tremendous changes thanks to the fast-growing modernization and urbanization process in China. One of the monumental changes is the emergence of “public art”, most notably, urban sculpture. This art is increasingly related to modern urban planning, architecture, and community building.

  5. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  6. Foreign Policies and Foreign Exchanges for Chinese Publishing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's present foreign publishing policies Chinese Government respects and protects intellectual property rights. Chinese Government always attaches importance to the exchange and cooperation between Chinese publishing industry and that of other countries, encourages and supports Chinese publishing industry to actively introduce foreign excellent works to Chinese readers, and meanwhile, also actively advocates introduction of Chinese excellent works to foreign readers. Our persistent guideline is to support and promote exchanges between Chinese and foreign publishing industries in all fields.

  7. Chinese Leadership Styles in Public Sector in Tianjin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Considerable studies on Chinese leadership styles apply Western models to test Chinese managers, and then define Chinese leadership style with Western ideas. This study assumes that Chinese managers have their own leadership styles distinctive from Westerners and tried to investigate the cultural and historical origin of Chinese leadership style, especially to explore how Confucianism have affected and shaped Chinese leadership style in modern Chinese society. This study adopted a qualitative...

  8. Translation Strategy of Chinese Culture-loaded Lexes and the Dissemina-tion of Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-li

    2016-01-01

    Lexes are the most important and basic element of a language. Chinese culture-loaded lexes are those words or expres-sions that are greatly rich in Chinese culture. They can reflect the characteristics of Chinese culture and Chinese nation. There-fore, it is of great significance to pay attention to the translation of Chinese culture-loaded lexes as they play a decisive role in disseminating Chinese culture. It can help promote Chinese culture worldwide, improve China’s cultural exchanges and commu-nication with other nations and strengthen China’s status in the world. This paper focuses on the Chinese culture-loaded words and proposes some possible means of translation with the purpose of spreading Chinese culture.

  9. Microsatellites reveal the genetic structure of thelytokous strains of the migratory locust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO-QIAN TENG; LE KANG

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on two parthenogenetic strains of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. The offspring of thelytokou females had a single fragment per microsatellite loci. All offspring of the parthenogenetic F1 females were genetically identical. These results further confirmed that restitution of the sister products of early cleavage mitoses and cell fusion might be the most likely diploidization mechanisms in the thelytokous locusts. Polymerase chain reaction amplification results demonstrated that thelytoky in the locust was not induced by Wolbachia bacteria. Apart from the low fitness gained in thelytokous females, large populations with migration and losing heterozygosity may be other reasons why regular parthenogenesis has not evolved in the locust.

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04172-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m ... 111 4e-27 2 ( FG298832 ) 1108793322629 New World Screwworm Larvae 9387 EST...... 88 6e-25 4 ( FG298713 ) 1108793319532 New World Screwworm Larvae 9387 EST... 88 6e-25 4 ( CO859112 ) LM_S...M5_000044 Locusta migratoria solitarious phas... 88 6e-25 4 ( FG291974 ) 1108383360238 New World Screwworm L...arvae 9387 EST... 88 6e-25 4 ( FG298200 ) 1108793302934 New World Screwworm Larvae 9387 EST... 88 6e-25 4 ( ...FG293928 ) 1108770691086 New World Screwworm Larvae 9387 EST... 88 7e-25 4 ( FG29

  11. The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor fluvastatin inhibits insect juvenile hormone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debernard, S; Rossignol, F; Couillaud, F

    1994-07-01

    Fluvastatin (Sandoz Compound XU 62-320), a synthetic HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, was assayed in vitro and in vivo for its ability to suppress juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis by corpora allata of Locusta migratoria migratorioides. Fluvastatin inhibited JH biosynthesis by corpora allata in vitro. Exogenous mevalonic acid lactone restored JH biosynthesis in corpora allata inhibited by fluvastatin. Fluvastatin injected into locusts in vivo inhibited JH biosynthesis, but maximal inhibition lasted for only 6 hr. There were no discernible effects on either JH-regulated metamorphosis or oocyte maturation. Lengthening of the fourth larval stadium was observed and increased doses (single or repeated injections) were fatal. PMID:7926659

  12. A Dialectal Chinese Speech Recognition Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Thomas Fang Zheng; William Byrne; Dan Jurafsky

    2006-01-01

    A framework for dialectal Chinese speech recognition is proposed and studied, in which a relatively small dialectal Chinese (or in other words Chinese influenced by the native dialect) speech corpus and dialect-related knowledge are adopted to transform a standard Chinese (or Putonghua, abbreviated as PTH) speech recognizer into a dialectal Chinese speech recognizer. Two kinds of knowledge sources are explored: one is expert knowledge and the other is a small dialectal Chinese corpus. These knowledge sources provide information at four levels: phonetic level, lexicon level, language level,and acoustic decoder level. This paper takes Wu dialectal Chinese (WDC) as an example target language. The goal is to establish a WDC speech recognizer from an existing PTH speech recognizer based on the Initial-Final structure of the Chinese language and a study of how dialectal Chinese speakers speak Putonghua. The authors propose to use contextindependent PTH-IF mappings (where IF means either a Chinese Initial or a Chinese Final), context-independent WDC-IF mappings, and syllable-dependent WDC-IF mappings (obtained from either experts or data), and combine them with the supervised maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) acoustic model adaptation method. To reduce the size of the multipronunciation lexicon introduced by the IF mappings, which might also enlarge the lexicon confusion and hence lead to the performance degradation, a Multi-Pronunciation Expansion (MPE) method based on the accumulated uni-gram probability (AUP) is proposed. In addition, some commonly used WDC words are selected and added to the lexicon. Compared with the original PTH speech recognizer, the resulting WDC speech recognizer achieves 10-18% absolute Character Error Rate (CER) reduction when recognizing WDC, with only a 0.62% CER increase when recognizing PTH. The proposed framework and methods are expected to work not only for Wu dialectal Chinese but also for other dialectal Chinese languages and

  13. Chinese Tea Tradition:From Tea Service to Tea Drinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangFeng

    2003-01-01

    Tea was first discovered and drunk in China several thousand years ago and over the sweep of Chinese history drinking tea has developed to be part of Chinese culture and a reversible habit of Chinese people.With the spread of Chinese civilization,Chinese tea has been introduced to many countries across

  14. Chinese traditional elements in the application of graphic design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹倩倩

    2013-01-01

    Chinese traditional graphic art resources is extremely abundant, this article will from the Chinese tradi-tional culture elements are composed of the Chinese calligraphy, traditional auspicious patterns, national color three aspects, expounds the application of Chinese traditional elements in modern plane design, this paper expounds the application of Chinese traditional elements in modern plane design, research how to dig, change and reform.

  15. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2010-01-22

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology and evolutionary biology based on new fossils from China. These fossils and their studies help to clarify some historical debates about a particular fossil group, or to raise new questions about history of life, or to pose a new challenge in our pursuit of science. These works on new Chinese fossils have covered the whole range of the diversity through the entire Phanerozoic fossil record. PMID:19812080

  16. Thinking Chinese Translation A Course in Translation Method; Chinese to English

    CERN Document Server

    Valerie, Pellatt

    2010-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation

  17. Chinese Youth Delegation Visits France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of Secours Populaire Francais (SPF), a Chinese youth delegation composed of members of the Beijing Fengtai Children and Youth Palace and students of No. 1 Middle School of Anyang City of Henan Province, sent by the CPAFFC,paid a visit to France from July 19 to 30, 2012. The aim was to deepen and expand cooperation between the CPAFFC and the SPF and strengthen friendly exchanges between the youth of the two countries and contribute to the

  18. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Junping; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Weicun; CISC’15

    2016-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers from the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference (CISC’15), held in Yangzhou, China. The topics covered include multi-agent systems, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, complex systems, computation intelligence and soft computing, intelligent control, advanced control technology, robotics and applications, intelligent information processing, iterative learning control, and machine learning. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent systems.

  19. New Hope for Chinese Stocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Many people in recent years have held that investing in the Chinese stock markets posed risks. But remarkable changes have taken place in China's stock markets during the past year, according to Mark De Weaver, a research analyst in Shenzhen who now manages a fund investing in Asian equities called Quantrarian Asia Hedge. According to De Weaver, the changes include split-share and brokerage reforms, a new securities law and more opportunities for qualified foreign investors. His main ideas follow:

  20. Interculutral Polish-Chinese QQing

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Gajek,

    2012-01-01

    Working in tandem with the use of information and communication technologies is well-known and frequently used as a method of supporting learning of foreign languages in authentic communication. It is based on a constructivist approach to teaching. In the reported case study Polish and Chinese students discussed in English preprepared topics. The work shows the potential of e-learning at the micro level, as the language and intercultural task is implemented into an academic course without mod...

  1. The Chinese Health Care System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Yu, Yi

    In the present paper we describe the structure of the Chinese health care system and sketch its future development. We analyse issues of provider incentives and the actual burden sharing between government, enterprises and people. We further aim to identify a number of current problems and link...... these to a discussion of future challenges in the form of an aging population, increased privatization and increased inequity...

  2. Distance Dependent Chinese Restaurant Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Blei, David M.; Frazier, Peter I.

    2009-01-01

    We develop the distance dependent Chinese restaurant process (CRP), a flexible class of distributions over partitions that allows for non-exchangeability. This class can be used to model many kinds of dependencies between data in infinite clustering models, including dependencies across time or space. We examine the properties of the distance dependent CRP, discuss its connections to Bayesian nonparametric mixture models, and derive a Gibbs sampler for both observed and mixture settings. We s...

  3. Research into Chinese media organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of media marketisation in China upon organisational structure and journalistic practices of Chinese news organisations. It aims to assess to what extent market factors have weakened the centralised control over local journalistic practices in the last two and a half decades. This paper focuses on Xinhua Shanghai Bureau, a local division within a central news organisation, Xinhua News Agency, which is headquartered in Beijing and operates nationwide. This artic...

  4. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  5. Comment on Chinese food culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣

    2014-01-01

    <正>Enjoying all kinds of food can be the most important issue in China,Chinese people love to have nice food and to study them,after a few thousand years,food have become the most important part of China and has gradually formed a unique culture.There is a saying,food is the paramount necessity of people(民以食为天),however,in China,people are not eating only when they

  6. On the Chinese People's Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Appreciation of art is not a birthright. In the prehistoric primitive society, the ancestors of the Chinese people rooted in the harsh natural environment of the Yellow River Basin and began forging their own solid characteristics as the loess and rock. Our ancestors survived in the harsh natural conditions. Pressure of keeping alive deprived of their original romantic, despite that Neolithic primitive rock art, pottery painting

  7. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology an...

  8. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  9. Chinese Culture and Business Etiquette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丰

    2011-01-01

    Today the etiquette is playing an important role in the process of globalization. It becomes the reflection and manifestation of one country's politics, economy, culture in people's social contact. Every nation has its own etiquette standard, which created with the spirit of the nation. In this essay will focus on the cultural difference in Chinese business etiquette and search for its root.

  10. "Chinese Style" Auto marketing Thrives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Over the past 10 years, China's auto industry has seen rapid growth.The miracle of such fast development, from a humble beginning to a strong player in the world's auto industry,can be attributed to a variety of factors.The most important factor, however, is that the auto industry has incorporated Chinese characteristics during its growth,whether facing challenges or developing new innovations.

  11. How Chinese learn mathematics perspectives from insiders

    CERN Document Server

    Ngai-Ying, Wong; Lianghuo, Fan; Shiqi, Li

    2004-01-01

    The book has been written by an international group of very active researchers and scholars who have a passion for the study of Chinese mathematics education. It aims to provide readers with a comprehensive and updated picture of the teaching and learning of mathematics involving Chinese students from various perspectives, including the ways in which Chinese students learn mathematics in classrooms, schools and homes, the influence of the cultural and social environment on Chinese students' mathematics learning, and the strengths and weaknesses of the ways in which Chinese learn mathematics. Furthermore, based on the relevant research findings, the book explores the implications for mathematics education and offers sound suggestions for reform and improvement. This book is a must for anyone who is interested in the teaching and learning of mathematics concerning Chinese learners.

  12. Annual Meeting Reveals Competitiveness of Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓午

    2008-01-01

    This is the fifth year since the first "Chinese Enterprises Competitiveness Annual Meeting" convened in 2003. During those five years,we have witnessed a period of remarkable performance by Chinese enterprises. These last five years have seen a reaping of the fruits brought about by China’s three-decade-long reform and opening, as evidenced by the increasing growth and maturity of Chinese enterprises and the rising competitiveness of publicly listed Chinese enterprises. Along with the development of globalization initiatives, Chinese enterprises are moving firmly and solidly towards internationalization and have begun to have a profound impact on the world economy. The roadmap of Chinese enterprises has now become a focus of global attention.

  13. Chinese Massage Therapy for Ankle Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming-xia; LI Nian-qun; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the therapeutic methods and effects in the treatment of acute and chronic injuries of the ankle joint by Chinese massage therapy in combination with external application of Chinese herbal drugs and functional exercises. Methods: Totally, 36 cases of the patients with acute soft tissue injury, chronic soft tissue injury and post-fracture sequelae of the ankle joint were treated by Chinese massage therapy, external application or external wash of Chinese herbal drugs, and exercises of dorsal flexion and extension of the ankle joint, to observe the restoration of the ankle functions.Results: In 36 cases of the patients, the results showed remarkable effect in 18 cases, effect in 16 cases, failure in 2 cases and the effective rate in 94.4%. Conclusion: The combined use of Chinese massage therapy, external application of Chinese herbal drugs and functional exercises can produce precise effect in the treatment of soft tissue injury of the ankle joint.

  14. Chinese geodetic coordinate system 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YuanXi

    2009-01-01

    The basic strategies In establishing the Chinese geodetic coordinate system 2000 have been summarized,including the definition of the coordinate system,the structure of the terrestrial reference frame,the functional and stochastic models involved in the realization of the reference frame as well as the Improvements of the adjustment procedures.First,the fundamental frame of the coordinate system is composed of the permanent GPS tracking network in China which is integrated into the international GPS service stations by combined adjustment,in order to guarantee the consistence between the international terrestrial reference system and the Chinese geodetic coordinate system.Second,the extended frame of the coordinate system is composed of the unified 2000' national GPS network which is Integrated by 6 nationwide GPS networks with more than 2500 stations under the controlling of the fundamental frame.Third,the densified frame is composed of national astronomical geodetic network with nearly 50 thousand stations which was updated by the combined adjustment with the 2000' national GPS network,thus the datum of the national astronomical geodetic network has been unified and the precision greatly improved.By the optimal data fusion method the influences of the datum errors,systematic errors and the outliers in the separated geodetic networks are weakened in the unified Chinese geodetic coordinate frame.The significance in application of the new geodetic coordinate system and the existing problems In the reference frame are described and analyzed.

  15. A history of Chinese mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Martzloff, Jean-Claude

    1997-01-01

    For the English language edition, this completely unique book of J.C. Martzloff has been fully revised and updated. It includes many new recent insights and illustrations, a new appendix on Chinese primary sources and a guide to the to the bibliography. From the reviews: "This book ranks with the most erudite Asian publications, and is the most informative and most broadly informed on its topic in any language." N. Sivin, China Quarterly "... crammed with insights, cautionary tales and a great deal of information about current research ... will surely become a standard reference for students, teachers, and researchers alike", J. N. Crossley, Annals of Science "... a truly scholarly and balanced exposition ... a book that the reviewer believes belongs in the library of every university or college, as well as in that of every individual seriously interested in the history of Chinese mathematics", B. L. McAllister, ZBfM "Martzloff History demonstrates clearly that while the Chinese were adept in applying their m...

  16. Reading Ng Kim Chew: Malaysian-Chineseness and memory in contemporary Malaysian Chinese literature in taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Paoliello, Antonio; Prado Fonts, Carles

    2008-01-01

    The idea of Chineseness as a geographic, cultural-specific and ethnically-charged concept, and the pivotal role assumed by memory linger throughout the writings of most authors hailing from Chinese community in Southeast Asia. Among these communities, being the Malaysian Chinese the more prolific in terms of number of writers and pieces of literature produced, this paper deals specifically with it. Its focus is put on the literature produced by Malaysian Chinese authors residing in Taiwan, wh...

  17. Strategic Trend of Chinese Urban Forestry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhiyong

    2004-01-01

    China is facing new challenges of urban expansion of scale and deterioration of the ecological environment. Urban forestry has a new role and position in Chinese forestry development. ""Chinese Sustainable Development Forestry Strategic Research"" established the strategic objectives and policy measures on urban forestry, improved urban ecological environment and pushed Chinese urban ecological process through building up green forest island in urban central district, green forest zone in suburbs, forest system in remoter outskirts of cities.

  18. On the English Translation of Chinese Neologisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Menglin

    2014-01-01

    <正>1 Introduction A Chinese neologism refers to a word or expression that is widely understood and used nowadays,both new in content and form,just entering into the Chinese vocabulary or old word with new senses.(Zhang Jian,2001,p.10)The newness of Chinese neologism brings great difficulties to its translation.According to the Adaptation Theory,proposed by

  19. Introduction of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The journal published monthly since January 1970 is an academic and technical journal sponsored by Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research (TIPR). The journal which has a long history of 40-years offers the columns of research papers brief reports, reviews, dissertation, and special treatises to report the recent achievements of our basic study, production quality control, and clinic application on traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese materia medica.

  20. The First Chinese Emperor in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Vietnam,a close neighbor of China,was influenced by the Chinese Culture for generations.In history,Vietnam had been under the administration and protection of ancient Chinese imperial court for a long period of time.The first Chinese emperor in Vietnam,who can be traced far back to Qin and Han dynasty,is referred to as the oldest emperor worldwide, His name was Zhao Tuo,

  1. Study on Chinese and American Compliments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东英; 刘宝昌

    2006-01-01

    Chinese and Americans have different cultural background. They value different principles in expressing compliments and respond to them. Chinese tend to be self-denial to show modesty. Americans have a tendency of self-praising to demonstrate their confidence. Based on Leech's politeness principle, the paper analyzes typical instances. In conclusion, as language learner, we should aware it and prepare to be bicultural instead of bilingual. As a Chinese, we should keep our own culture identity instead of Americanized.

  2. OVERVIEW OF CHINESE CHAIN CATERING MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yiting

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a market overview for chain catering business situation in China. Chinese chain catering market is developing rapidly in recent years, it is a business where everybody can become a customer, but the business is highly competitive. The subject of this thesis is to give an overview of the market situation and strategies for market expansion of Chinese chain catering industry. It contains knowledge of chain management and introduction of Chinese chain catering ma...

  3. Industrial Organisation of the Chinese Food Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.; Locke, Christopher G.

    1996-01-01

    The controversy on the convergence of socialism and capitalism has recently been focused on China. In this paper, an industrial organisation framework is used to portray the key features of "Socialism with Chinese Characteristics." The structure of supply and demand and the process of price formation is analysed to explicate the ramifications of the Chinese reform process, and the changing patterns of both government intervention and market forces in the Chinese food economy. An examination o...

  4. Determinants of Global Competitiveness of Chinese Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Elmas Demircioglu Karabiyik

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese economy has reached approximately average annual growth of 9% after economic reform era that began in 1978. This economic development miracle resulted from by exploiting the economic potential of internal factors in a complimentary external environment.  Main aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of the global competitiveness of Chinese economy by considering economic development process of the Chinese economy and World Economic Forum the Global Competitiveness Inde...

  5. Contrast between China English and Chinese English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨公建

    2014-01-01

    With the globalization of English,the discussion about China English and Chinese English attracts many scholars’ interest and attention.The concept of China English and Chinese English usual y makes people confused, so the article wil make some tentative contrasts in terms of definition、attributes and causes of the two terms and make people have a clear comprehension of China English and Chinese English.

  6. Contrast between China English and Chinese English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨公建

    2014-01-01

    With the globalization of English, the discussion about China English and Chinese English attracts many scholars ’interest and attention. The con-cept of China English and Chinese English usual y makes people confused, so the article wil make some tentative contrasts in terms of definition、attri-butes and causes of the two terms and make people have a clear comprehension of China English and Chinese English.

  7. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruite...

  8. Exploring Mobile Technologies for Learning Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Wang; Christine H. Leland

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal how learners of Chinese as a foreign language use mobile technology to study Chinese outside the classroom. Researchers used sociocultural perspectives to frame the study and grounded theory to analyze data. Eleven English-speaking students who had learned Chinese for different years at a midwestern university participated in the study. They answered 23 major questions by submitting journal entries and participating in an interview. Co...

  9. Chinese-English Translation of Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍凤; 李爱琴

    2013-01-01

    This paper is on the Chinese-English advertisement translation. It gives people an orderly discussion with examples in three parts: the problems in current advertisement translation, the causes of these problems, essential steps of making the Chinese-English translation of advertisement onto an appropriate way. This paper also suggests the principles of Chinese-English advertise⁃ment translation: natural, precise and understandable.

  10. The Translation of Chinese Dish Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚佳文

    2015-01-01

    The traditional food of a nation reflects its historical and cultural characteristics This thesis begins with an introduction to the translation situation of Chinese dish names and its existing problem nowadays, and proceeds to the translation principles and tactics for English translation of the names of Chinese dishes, based on Eugene A. Nida’ s Functional Equivalence, with an aim to improve translation efficiency and promote cross-cultural communication, and promoting Chinese food culture throughout the globe.

  11. Origins of English and Chinese Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊

    2012-01-01

    Both English and Chinese are rich in idioms. There is a similarity in theorigins of English and Chinese idioms, but on the one hand, owing to the different social background, customs, religious beliefs, geographic environment, differences are sure to appear in idioms.By comparing English and Chinese idioms from their origins, we could learn more about the relationship between idioms and culture,learning of English and the language as a whole,and have a better mastery of English.

  12. Chinese Function Manager of 2006 Partenariat Comments on the Selection Principle for Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Fang Lei, EU-China Partenariat 2006Function Manager for Chinese Host Companies, worked together with Mr. Richard Morgan, EU Project Expert,Mr. Han Meiqing, Chinese Project Expert in the primary selection of Chinese enterprises.In reply to the strong request of the relevant governmental institutions, CCPIT and enterprises, he gave the following introductions about the details of selection.

  13. Chinese integrative medicine:inclusion of a Chinese medicine programme in a conventional medical institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yong Chen; Yibin Feng; Lixing Lao

    2014-01-01

    To meet community demands with optimal Chinese and conventional medical treatment, the University of Hong Kong is promoting integrative medicine by developing Chinese medicine programmes that train students of both Western and Chinese medicine. The programmes emphasize multi-disciplinary training and interaction between the two therapeutic approaches, enabling students to establish reliable, consistent, and respectful mutual cooperation in their future careers.

  14. Corpora and Collocations in Chinese-English Dictionaries for Chinese Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    The paper identifies the major problems of the Chinese-English dictionary in representing collocational information after an extensive survey of nine dictionaries popular among Chinese users. It is found that the Chinese-English dictionary only provides the collocation types of "v+n" and "v+n," but completely ignores those of…

  15. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  16. Acquired Dyslexia and Dysgraphia in Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wengang Yin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the mappings between orthography and phonology in alphabetic languages are learned, represented and processed has been enhanced by the cognitive neuropsychological investigation of patients with acquired reading and writing disorders. During the past decade, this methodology has been extended to understanding reading and writing in Chinese leading to new insights about language processing, dyslexia and dysgraphia. The aim of this paper is to review reports of patients who have acquired dyslexia and acquired dysgraphia in Chinese and describe the functional architecture of the reading and writing system. Our conclusion is that the unique features of Chinese script will determine the symptoms of acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia in Chinese.

  17. Chinese Statistical Parser Based on Semantic Dependencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涓子; 王作英

    2002-01-01

    A new tagging method is presented to build a Chinese semantic corpus. The method characterizes the sentence meaning as a linear sequence of dependency relationships which are the semantic or syntactic relationships between words in the sentence. This representation method is used to build a Chinese statistical parser model to understand the sentence meaning. Specific experiments on automatic telephone switchboard conversations show that the proposed parser has a precision of 80%. This work provides a foundation for building a large-scale Chinese semantic corpus and for research on understanding modeling of the Chinese language.

  18. On Chinese Translation Methods of English Pun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jin

    2015-01-01

    English pun is the humorous of a word to suggest different meanings or applications or of words having the same or nearly the same sound but different meanings. Due to the great discrepancy between English and Chinese in terms of pronuncia⁃tion, form, sentence structure and ways of expression, the translation of pun into Chinese has been generally thought as untranslat⁃able. Hence, the translator faces great challenges in its Chinese translation. However, puns are not necessarily untranslatable. Six methods are usually employed in English puns’translation into Chinese.

  19. Moment in Peking and Chinese Traditional Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶金

    2014-01-01

    Lin Yutang’s Moment in Peking was a huge success, because he showed the long history of Chinese traditional culture in the book. The era background, character set and the plot of Moment in Peking reflects the significance of Chinese culture in many aspects. The great English masterpiece is a Chinese culture carrier which painted a grand social and historical picture, created a series of vivid images, especially images of traditional Chinese women character. The philosophy of novel is going through the history of space and time tunnel and becoming the main clue of many events in the book.

  20. The Mixing of English in Chinese Newspapers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文娟; 熊剑琴; 毕志伟

    2010-01-01

    This paper conducted a research on examining the code-mixing phenomenon in Chinese local newspapers. This paper will find out the top ten frequently used code-mixing between Chinese and English in local newspapers. After analysing the data, this paper will study the purpose of using code-mixing in Chinese local newspapers .The findings indicate that the codemixing is a trend in Chinese internet discourse, but there is not a sign of cultural invasion by those words, because those words are purely having the linguistic function other than other features.

  1. Sex and the Contemporary Chinese woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXINXIN

    2005-01-01

    THE importance of a mutually fulfilling sex life has gained greater acknowledgement in China in recent years but it is nonetheless a taboo topic. There have been few social surveys on this delicate subject, particularly as regards the degree of sexual satisfaction enjoyed by Chinese women,The 35-question survey on female attitudes to sex, formulated by the Chinese Sexology Society and the Chinese Medical Association, was, therefore, a major breakthrough. Sponsored by Sina.com and carried out in major Chinese cities from August to September 2004, the survey attracted 400,000 hits and drew 31,482 responses.

  2. Chinese-American foods : Geography, culture and tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Alan A.

    2016-01-01

    Food is a major way that Chinese, and other ethnic groups, engage with their cultural heritage. Behavioral perspectives from tourism studies give insight into the range of food neophyllics (love of new foods) and food neophobics (fear of new foods), as well as the role of authenticity in food experiences. Three general types of Chinese food are identified in the US: Chinese American (restaurant) Food, Real Chinese (restaurant) Food, and American Born Chinese (home) Food. Traditional Chinese A...

  3. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation andInformation Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Networkof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanicsand Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science andtechnology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy ofSciences.The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  4. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation andInformation Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Networkof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanicsand Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science andtechnology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  5. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  6. The Development of Chinese Education in Malaysia, 1952-1975: Political Collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association and the Chinese Educationists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yao Sua; Teoh, Hooi See

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Chinese education in Malaysia from 1952 to 1975, focusing on the political collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and the Chinese educationists to advance the cause of Chinese education instead of the usual macro policy analysis. This collaboration was compounded by the different stand…

  7. Look before You Leap: Underestimating Chinese Student History, Chinese University Setting and Chinese University Steering in Sino-British HE Joint Ventures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ewan G.

    2010-01-01

    This article makes the case--in three parts--that many Anglo-Chinese university collaborations (joint ventures) to date have seriously underestimated Chinese (student) history, the Chinese university setting and Chinese national governmental steering as part of the process of "glocalisation". Recent turbulence in this particular HE collaborative…

  8. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985, with the name of Chinese Science and Technology Document Catalogues: Optics and Applied Optics. It changed into a bimonthly publication with the name of Chinese Optics and Applied

  9. The Chinese of Pasuruan : their language and identity

    OpenAIRE

    Oetomo, D.

    1987-01-01

    Chinese language--Indonesia --Pasuruan, Chinese--Indonesia--Pasuruan, Sociolinguistics--Indonesia--Pasuruan, Ethnology--Indonesia--Pasuruan, Pasuruan (Indonesia)--Languages Originally presented as the author's thesis

  10. Chop Suey as Imagined Authentic Chinese Food: The Culinary Identity of Chinese Restaurants in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Haiming Liu

    2009-01-01

    At least until the 1960s, chop suey was synonymous with Chinese food in the United States, where most Chinese restaurants were called chop suey houses. By uncovering the history of chop suey, this article analyzes the development of Chinese cuisine in the U.S. as an example of transnational cultural exchange. The authenticity and culinary identity of Chinese food in America often rested on its real or imagined Chinese roots while its popularity depended on how well Chinese restaurant...

  11. Templates of "Chineseness" and Trajectories of Cambodian Chinese Entrepreneurship in Phnom Penh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Verver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, William Willmott described Cambodia as a plural society in which different ethnic groups occupy different places in the economic structure. The Chinese made up the economic class, active in trade and commerce, and formed a definable ethnic community, both socioculturally and politically. Since Willmott’s seminal studies, Cambodia’s ethnic Chinese have endured the destruction and repression of both private enterprise and Chinese sociocultural life (1970–1990, followed by a revitalization of Chinese business. Through ethnographic case studies, this paper explores the relationship between “Chineseness” and business life in trajectories of Cambodian Chinese entrepreneurship in Phnom Penh. How do entrepreneurs deploy notions of Chinese business? The author argues that Chinese family businesses, trust-based networks, patronage arrangements, and cultural representations have indeed been greatly revitalized over the last few decades, but that they also remain challenged in certain contexts. Moreover, such revitalization has taken a fundamentally different form from Willmott’s description. Practices of Chinese business can no longer be ascribed to an ethnic Chinese “community” in Phnom Penh. Rather, as the latter has become increasingly multiform, Chinese business has developed into a template at the deployment (or neglect of a broader category of Cambodian Chinese entrepreneurs.

  12. On Strategies of Translating Chinese Characteristic Terms into English-Taking Chinese Economic Terms as Examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsering Dekyi

    2016-01-01

    After the reform and opening up to the outside world, great changes have taken place in many fields like economy, poli-tics, and culture in China. In the field of economy, a multitude of new phenomena, new ideas and new things spring up continu-ously. At the same time, many Chinese characteristic terms reflecting these new things have been emerging. The creation of these terms requires the translators to provide accurate and idiomatic translation of them in time. The English translation of Chi-nese characteristic terms plays an important role not only in promoting Chinese characteristic socialist economy but also in deep-ening the understanding of Chinese economy for English readers. Therefore, this paper will analyze the features and translation obstacles of Chinese characteristic terms, then point out some practical guidelines and methods to solve the problems in translat-ing Chinese characteristic terms into English. This paper aims to improve the translation of Chinese Characteristic terms.

  13. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  14. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  15. Chinese, US scientists find new particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Chinese and US scientists have discovered a new particle at the Beijing Electron Position Collider, which is hard to be explained with any known particles, according to scientists from the Institute of High Energy Physics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences Wednesday" (1/2 page).

  16. MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN CHINESE UTILITY COAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of analyzing representative samples of 20 Chinese utility coals for mercury content, and proximate, ultimate, and heating values. The data for these bituminous coals, obtained from China with the cooperation of the Chinese University of Mining Technology,...

  17. New progresses of Chinese art casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN De-rui

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Chinese art casting with 5 000 years history has been rapidly developed in recent ten years. This benefits from the great development of Chinese economy, the large-scale urban construction and transformation, the increasing demands for the cultural work of art, the loose religious environment and the expanding international market.

  18. Understanding Managerial Effectiveness: A Chinese Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to examine the managerial behavior of Chinese managers, as observed by their superiors, subordinates, and peers in a state-owned enterprise in China. Specifically, this study aims to explore two questions. First, what managerial behaviors are perceived as being effective in the Chinese state-owned enterprise? Second, what…

  19. Factor Structure of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Yu, Bai; Tang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yonghong; Li, Tingting; Yuen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the factorial invariance and functional equivalence of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) among the Chinese. Methods: A total of 839 undergraduate students completed the 240-item Simplified Chinese version of the VIA-IS online. Another 40 students participated in qualitative interviews to…

  20. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  1. Fake Makes Chinese Retailers Lose Millions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On April 13,the judiciary of Brazil St.Paul under the help of the local police suddenly confiscated the wholesales market of Chinese clothing,located at Street 25 of the shopping center. In all,48 Chinese dealers were seized under allegation of

  2. Case Study of Chinese Exclusion Act Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Joanne, Comp.

    2012-01-01

    While nearly 85 percent of the U.S. population is currently made up of immigrants and their descendants, some groups were specifically targeted for exclusion and deliberately expelled. The Chinese were the first to experience this. In the 1850s, many Chinese who came to this land to search for gold or to help build the transcontinental railroad,…

  3. Chinese-Cantonese (Toishan) Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This seven-volume series constitutes the Defense Language Institute (Army Language School) 47-week course in the Toishan dialect of Cantonese. Beginning lessons present the tone and sound system in romanized script. Chinese characters are introduced in the fourth lesson. (See related document AL 001 479, "Chinese Cantonese Basic Course," for a…

  4. Is Chinese as a Subject Important?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ In January,six universities in Shanghai held independent admission tests to select students from more than 10,000 applicants.At four of the universities,Chinese was not a test subject or science students were exempted from being tested in Chinese.

  5. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…

  6. Chinese Demand Boosts Luxury Brand Profits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The world’s biggest luxury brands have their eyes set on the Chinese consumer - a strategy that is reaping profits. In the next few months,the British fashion house Burberry will expand its retail space in China to capitalize on strong Chinese consumer demand for luxury products.Already,sales in China have contributed 4 percent to the

  7. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  8. Information Literacy in Chinese Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the new informational and educational environment in China and considers the increasing needs for information and knowledge in Chinese higher education, focusing on information literacy. Highlights include the new learning environment; information skills education in Chinese universities; teaching materials; computer labs; courseware;…

  9. Communicative Language Teaching in the Chinese Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore effective ways to develop Chinese English learners' communicative competence, this study first briefly reviews the advantages of communicative language teaching (CLT) method which widely practiced in the Western countries and analyzes in details its obstacles in Chinese classroom context. Then it offers guidelines for…

  10. Teaching Chinese at an Urban University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Chinese-language program at Portland State University. Elements of this program include newspaper and classical courses; textbooks from China, Taiwan, and English-speaking countries; the use of characters on the first day; and a diverse student body. The university's goal is to make a solid Chinese education available to anyone in…

  11. Ethnic Awareness of Chinese-American Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Esther Lee

    1983-01-01

    American-born Chinese students in Houston, Texas, possess a bicultural identity with strong attachment to their Chinese heritage, a high level of self-esteem, early acceptance of racial differences, and proximity to ethnic social contacts. The students also have assimilated American cultural values and are receptive to social integration. (AOS)

  12. View Chinese & American Culture by VOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓芸

    2010-01-01

    The value orientation method provides a way to understand core culture differences well.Chinese culture and American culture are usually regarded as the representation of the'eastrn and western culture respectively.This paper tries to view Chinese and American Culture by Value Orientations Method to view these two cultures in details.

  13. Quality Assurance in Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Quality assurance has been integrated into the fabric of higher education in China, with the issue of quality in higher education--how to evaluate it and how to enhance it--now taking centre stage in Chinese higher education. In the past decade, the development of quality assurance in Chinese higher education has covered a broad spectrum of…

  14. Implicit Reading in Chinese Pure Alexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chunlei; Zhu, Renjing; Xu, Mingwei; Luo, Benyan; Weng, Xuchu

    2010-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that some patients with pure alexia display evidence of implicit access to lexical and semantic information about words that they cannot read explicitly. This phenomenon has not been investigated systematically in Chinese patients. We report here a case study of a Chinese patient who met the criteria for pure…

  15. Thesaurus Dataset of Educational Technology in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linjing; Liu, Qingtang; Zhao, Gang; Huang, Huan; Huang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The thesaurus dataset of educational technology is a knowledge description of educational technology in Chinese. The aims of this thesaurus were to collect the subject terms in the domain of educational technology, facilitate the standardization of terminology and promote the communication between Chinese researchers and scholars from various…

  16. Chinese immigrants’ parental experiences in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    European Master in Social Work with Families and Children Existing empirical studies of parents in China found that this population presents features of authoritarian parenting style: greater parental demands and control together with lower parental responsiveness. However, when the investigation conducted on Chinese immigrants, parental practice is characterized as more authoritative style, combining high levels of controlling and responsiveness. Paradoxical findings between Chinese paren...

  17. Moral Reasoning in a Communist Chinese Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lawrence J.; Moran, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the cross-cultural universality of Kohlberg's theory of moral development in Communist Chinese society. Presents results of a study that supports the structure criterion of the moral model. Confirms the collectivistic and utilitarian themes in Chinese morality. Concludes further research is necessary to determine compatibility with…

  18. Instruction to Authors of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chinese Herbal Medicines, an international journal sponsored by the Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research and Institute of Medicinal Plant Develop-ment. The Journal s purpose is to provide a forum for the studies on Chinese herbal medicines, traditional medicines, and natural products.

  19. Re-creation of Chinese Traditional Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑜; 张祖芳

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of analysis on both the typical characteristics of Chinese traditional clothing and trendy fashion on present market that is inspired from it,this paper illustrates several re-creation methods of Chinese traditional clothing.These suggestions would push this oriental traditional clothing to a new high in world fashion field and adopted by more and more common people.

  20. The changing Chinese SEA indicator guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2014-01-01

    general trends in the development of SEA and other environmental policies in a recent, Chinese context. Beside a more top-down, intentional approach specifying indicators for different sectors based on Chinese experiences from the preceding years, another significant change, following the new guidelines...

  1. Why do I study Chinese at university?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    The purpose of this case study is to describe the motivational orientations to learn Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in the context of Danish university. The basis of the study is the survey data collected from 64 university students majoring in Chinese at Aarhus University in the year 2011...

  2. Brand Development Suggestions of Chinese Clothing Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 陈素英

    2013-01-01

    According to the analysis of the current situation and problems of Chinese clothing brand, the corresponding measures are raised from three aspects of brand positioning, brand broadcast and brand extension strategy. Some guidance and reference value is provided for the brand building and upgrading of Chinese clothing brand.

  3. A Massive Chinese Floral Corpus Completed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Through the efforts of several generations of Chinese botanists over the past 50years, a massive 80-volume corpus (in 126 books) on China's flora,Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Chinese edition), has finally been completed. This was announced at a press meeting on March 31 in Beijing.

  4. 2006 Chinese Government Auto Purchase Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sponsored by Economic Daily and the China Machinery Enterprises Management Association, the 2006 Chinese Government Auto Purchase Forum will be held in Tianjin on July 11-13. This represents another high-level dialogue and exchange between the government and the auto industry hot on the heels of the 2005 Chinese Government Auto Purchase Forum. This event is launched to promote

  5. Bravo! China: Experience Chinese Culture in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiShegxian

    2004-01-01

    On july 13,2004,"Hail for China and Africa; A Chinese Cultural Tour of Africa" was launched in Prertoria,South Africa,Senior Officials from china and South Africa attended the opening ceremony,including Chinese State Councilor Madame Chen Zhili ,South Africa cultural minister,agricultural minister and mayor of Pretoria.

  6. Study on international standard multilingual nomenclature of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Liu, Lu; Li, Wei; Shi, Da-zhuo; Zeng, Wen-ying; Zhu, Mian-sheng; Angles, Michel; Attali, Jean-Raymond; Choy, Pedro; Choy, Joao; Wu, Chi-haur; Zhai, Fu-han; Ramon, Maria Calduch; Chung, Ching

    2010-04-01

    The International Standard Chinese-English Basic Nomenclature of Chinese medicine (ISN) was released in 2007, a nomenclature list consisting of 6 500 Chinese medical terms. ISN was the culmination of several years of collaborative diligent work of over 200 specialists who represent Chinese medicine in 68 countries. The overall goal for devising standard English nomenclature for Chinese medicine is to develop a practical international standard nomenclature for Chinese medical basic terms, to make it compatible with contemporary research and educational standards in the globalized health care service. In this article, provided is an overview of principles and methods for the multilingual translations, the processes behind the particular content of the Chinese-English ISN and an introduction to the ongoing new projects, i.e. the multilingual versions of ISN (International Standards of Chinese-Spanish, Chinese-French and Chinese-Portuguese Basic Nomenclature of Chinese Medicine).

  7. Reflections on Chinese Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kalim SIDDIQUI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the reasons for the rapid growth in the Chinese economy over the last three decades. China has been growing fastest in human history, which has an impact on the global economy and also various challenges that the country faces. It is seen as heralding a major shift in the international division of labour through changes in its output and employment pattern. China is described as becoming the “work-shop” of the world as a result of the expansion of its manuf...

  8. Western Transitology and Chinese Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    It is the object of considerable debate in Western scholarship whether an authoritarian political order dominated by a strong communist party can continue to exist in China given the many challenges stemming from internal reform and the impact of globalization. Will China eventually turn democrat...... and will the communist party become obsolete and disappear, just as has happened in many other former communist countries. There seems to be a general consensus that Chinese political system is bound to change, but there is no agreement as to the direction and form of change...

  9. Architecture of Chinese Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chen-Zhou; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2004-06-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is brought forward under the background of progresses of astronomical technologies and information technologies. VO architecture design embodies the combination of above two technologies. As an introduction of VO, principle and workflow of Virtual Observatory are given firstly. Then the latest progress on VO architecture is introduced. Based on the Grid technology, layered architecture model and service-oriented architecture model are given for Chinese Virtual Observatory. In the last part of the paper, some problems on architecture design are discussed in detail.

  10. Bamboo and the Chinese Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUOJIANYING

    2003-01-01

    THE bamboo plant, fargesia spathacea, is the staple food of the giant panda and a cultural icon in Chinese history. In sharp contrast to other plants, the bamboo only blossoms every 60 to 80 years, and perishes soon after. It takes one to three decades for its seeds to grow. In the past 3 million years bamboos have undergone more than 50,000 extensive blooms. Pandas survived by migrating,but this is no longer an option owing to the sharp decrease of bamboo forests. The last two bloomings of bamboo caused 250 giant pandas to starve to death.

  11. Chinese RE Industry Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The development goals set for Chinese rare earthindustry in the '10th-Five-Year Plan" (year 2001~2005) wereachieved one year in advance. By 2004, following economyindexes were realized: production of rare earth minerals wasrestricted to around 90,000 tons; consumption of rare earthincreased to 32,000~33,000 tons from 19,200 tons; exportvolume was 70% of the world total, keeping the same level asthat in 2000; export of high value-added products wasincreased. During 2001-2005, rare earth separation capacitywa...

  12. SUBORDINATE GAPS IN MANDARIN CHINESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chi Wei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of subordinate gaps in Mandarin Chinese casts doubt on analyses built on canonical coordinate gapping. We observe that the minimality of contrastive focus and the type of subordinate clause determine the acceptability of a missing gap in subordinate structure. Along this vein, we propose that a semantic-based deletion account can be used to interpret gapping in Mandarin. Such account relies on two violable constraints, AvoidF and Focus condition on gapping (Schwarzchild 1999, Merchant 2001 to compute the acceptability of a gap.

  13. Development of Chinese Lotus Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何娇飞

    2013-01-01

    There is a very long history of lotus culture in China. Lotus has a very high medicinal value. Lotus seed is nutritious food. Lotus has anti-aging, prolong the life of the role. Since ancient time, the image of lotus was recorded in various books and literature works. Lotus is a common and tasty food in China. Chinese people like lotus not only because of its useful value, but al⁃so because of its holy spirit. And people even think highly of soul of lotus.

  14. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  15. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  16. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann;

    2014-01-01

    Chinese scientific output has increased dramatically in recent years, but its internal spatial structure has received scant attention. Estimated gravity models of intercity scientific coauthorships show that there are two types of spatial political bias in China, apart from the expected mass...... and distance effects. Intercity coauthorships involving Beijing are more common than Beijing's output volume and location would imply, and this Beijing bias is increasing over time. The second type of spatial political bias is greater intraprovincial collaboration than is accounted for by size and distance...

  17. Chinese Native Speakers Counterfactuals Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.IntroductionI have found,in my teaching experience,that English counterfactuals are among the most diffi-cult problems for Chinese native speaker EFL learners. A recent survey of EFL teachers in Guilin,China also supports these findings. In response to the question“What do you think is the most diffi-cult for your students to learn in English”,5 6out of 71 ,or 79% said the English subjunctive verbsare. To the question“Do you think the English subjunctives are difficultfor your students”,1 0 0 % ofthe EFL ...

  18. The Chinese Economy Speeds Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In a sign of calming down,the overheating Chinese economy headed for growth in tune with microeconomic controls in the first quarter of 2008 On April 16,the National Bureau of Statistics(NBS)released the eco- nomic data of the first quarter for this year,which backed the tighten- ing efforts of the government.Data show that China’s gross domestic product(GDP) of the first quarter continued a rosy path as it ballooned 10.6 percent year on year to 6.15

  19. Professional Ethics of Chinese Judges

    OpenAIRE

    LI, YUWEN

    2006-01-01

    On October 18th 2001, the Chinese Supreme People’s Court issued the Code of Conduct for Judges in the PRC (the Code) , which makes China one of the few countries in the world with a specific code of conduct for the judiciary. Following the amendment of the Law on Judges in June 2001, the introduction of the Code was an important event, and one that illustrated the continued efforts of the Supreme People’s Court (SPC) to improve professionalism among judges. The promulgation of the Code can be...

  20. Chinese biobanks: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Le; Shi, Chuan; Wang, Xian; Li, Qiyuan; Wan, Qian; Yan, Zhixiang; Zhang, Yong

    2013-12-01

    As the demands of scientific research and application for specimens increase rapidly, biobanks in China have been springing up over the recent years. This paper summarizes Chinese biobanks through investigation and survey on operative, managerial, ethical conditions and challenges of biobanks. At present, hospitals and research institutes in China set up and operate most of the biobanks, collecting human specimens to support clinical and scientific research. With the development of bio-industry and arrival of the big data era, biobanks need not only collect and store human and non-human specimens but also to manage the big data associated with these specimens.

  1. The Chinese Communist Party in Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Yongnian, Zheng

    Contrary to the expectations of many people, China's recent economic growth has not led to the collapse of the Chinese Communist Party. In fact, the party has recently carried out a peaceful and orderly transition to the so-called fourth generation of leadership, has revitalised itself, and created...... social groups, and increasing dissatisfaction among workers who seem to be losing out in the present transition process. "The Chinese Communist Party in Reform" explores the current state of the Chinese Communist Party and the many challenges which it faces. It considers the dynamics of development......, and the likely nature of its evolution. Overall, this book provides a comprehensive assessment of the internal dynamics of the Chinese Communist Party and its role in Chinese society....

  2. Two Language Models Using Chinese Semantic Parsing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingqin; WANG Xia; WANG Zuoying

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents two language models that utilize a Chinese semantic dependency parsing technique for speech recognition. The models are based on a representation of the Chinese semantic structure with dependency relations. A semantic dependency parser was described to automatically tag the semantic class for each word with 90.9% accuracy and parse the sentence semantic dependency structure with 75.8% accuracy. The Chinese semantic parsing technique was applied to structure language models to develop two language models, the semantic dependency model (SDM) and the headword trigram model (HTM). These language models were evaluated using Chinese speech recognition. The experiments show that both models outperform the word trigram model in terms of the Chinese character recognition error rate.

  3. On Interference of Chinese with ELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    九曼

    2011-01-01

    It is popularly admitted that the foreign language learning is strongly influenced by learners' first language.Generally speaking,the interference of Chinese with ELL is divided into negative transfer and positive transfer,which are manifested at various levels during ELL.The thesis aims to show the interference of Chinese with ELL,with the approach of qualitative analysis,the paper is arranged into Part Ⅰ:Introduction; Part Ⅱ:The Contrast between ELL and Chinese Language Acquisition; Part Ⅲ:The Influence of Chinese on ELL:Part Ⅵ:Conclusion.Being aware of the interference of Chinese with ELL will help students overcome the obstacles and promote ELL.

  4. Chinese Diplomacy Since 1949:an Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A prominent Chinese international relations scholar has explored and reviewed the history of Chinese diplomacy over the past 60 years,and has amassed some insightful views and incisive conclusions in his book Sixty Years of China’s Foreign Affairs:1949-2009. Published in September by the China Social Sciences Press,this book is the second volume of a series,Chinese Diplomatic Studies. It not only analyzes the evolution of Chinese diplomacy over the past 60 years but also predicts what the future will hold. Recently,Beijing Review reporters Ding Ying and Yu Yan spoke about the book with its editor in chief Dr. Wang Yizhou,who is also deputy director of the Institute of World Economics and Politics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and a professor at the School of International Studies,Peking University.

  5. Exploring Mobile Technologies for Learning Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to reveal how learners of Chinese as a foreign language use mobile technology to study Chinese outside the classroom. Researchers used sociocultural perspectives to frame the study and grounded theory to analyze data. Eleven English-speaking students who had learned Chinese for different years at a midwestern university participated in the study. They answered 23 major questions by submitting journal entries and participating in an interview. Compared with computer assisted language learning, mobile devices bring changes to tutorial functions, social computing, and gaming. Participants heavily explored tutorial functions, used mobile devices differently from computers for social computing, and showed interest in gaming. Although participants were enthusiastic about using mobile devices to learn Chinese, the number of applications they used and the variety of activities they engaged in were limited. Findings suggest that the effective incorporation of mobile devices to learn Chinese depends on collaboration and scaffolding

  6. Media Development with Chinese Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iginio Gagliardone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese authorities often frame their activities in the development sector as distinctive from those pursued by Western donors by stressing that they are not seeking to export a specific model but simply to help countries reach their potential. This demand-driven approach has applied to old and new development areas, from education to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs, and has appeared fairly consistent across countries. This pledge, however, has not meant that Chinese aid is neutral or without significant political implications. China’s concessionary loans and support to development projects have tended to shift balances of power by favouring certain actors over others and have challenged existing development paradigms, revitalizing ideas of the developmental state. Building on fieldwork conducted in Ghana, Ethiopia, and Kenya this article explains to which extent China’s entrance in the media and telecommunication sector actually challenges the dominant, Western-driven approaches to media development, promoting a state centred vision of the information society.

  7. Geographic Determinants of Chinese Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccord, G. C.; Christensen, P.

    2011-12-01

    In the first years of the 21st century, the human race became primarily urban for the first time in history. With countries like India and China rapidly undergoing structural change from rural agricultural-based economies to urbanized manufacturing- and service-based economies, knowing where the coming waves of urbanization will occur would be of interest for infrastructure planning and for modeling consequences for ecological systems. We employ spatial econometric methods (geographically weighted regression, spatial lag models, and spatial errors models) to estimate two determinants of urbanization in China. The first is the role of physical geography, measured as topography-adjusted distance to major ports and suitability of land for agriculture. The second is the spatial agglomeration effect, which we estimate with a spatial lag model. We find that Chinese urbanization between 1990 and 2000 exhibited important spatial agglomeration effects, as well as significant explanatory power of nearby agricultural suitability and distance to ports, both in a nationwide model and in a model of local regression estimates. These results can help predict the location of new Chinese urbanization, and imply that climate change-induced changes in agricultural potential can affect the spatial distribution of urban areas.

  8. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,

  9. Managing Chinese Catalogingat The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NoraFung

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the experience and the observation of the author as a cataloger of Chinese publications at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Library. The trends in collection development of Chinese language materials in the Library have a crucial impact on Chinese cataloging. The way that Chinese cataloging has been haudled in this rapidly changing environment is reported here.

  10. The Learning of Chinese Idioms through Multimedia Storytelling Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ee Hui; Hew, Soon Hin; Choo, Siew Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the growth of China has successfully boosted the Chinese language to be studied by people from different language-speaking societies. The Chinese language has become the most preferred second or third language among non-Chinese native novices due to the great development of China and global economic change. The Chinese idiom is…

  11. Misrepresenting Chinese Folk Happiness: A Critique of a Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. A recent study on Chinese folk happiness using qualitative method seems to provide some empirical findings beyond anecdotal evidence on Chinese folk happiness. This paper critically examines the study's constructed image of Chinese folk happiness,…

  12. "CLASS Professional Standards" for K-12 Chinese Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lucy C.; Lin, Yu-Lan; Su, Chih-Wen

    2007-01-01

    "CLASS Professional Standards" is a resource for Chinese teachers, foreign language specialists, school administrators, parents, and policy makers who recognize the importance of Chinese cultures taught by professional teachers of Chinese. The release of the book also marks the celebration of the Chinese Language Association of…

  13. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is one of the series of science and technology in-

  14. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

  15. The Influence of Confucianism on Traditional Chinese Families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓玲

    2007-01-01

    Since the time Confucianism was generally accepted by the Chinese populace in the Han Dynasty(2nd century B.C. ), it has become an integral part of Chinese society and what it means to be Chinese. Three aspects of traditional Chinese family under the influence of Confucianism are observed: the family and the state,positional role behavior and ancestor worship.

  16. The Differences between English and Chinese in My View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雪; 叶文冰

    2010-01-01

    this essay is aimed to explore the differences between English and Chinese from three aspects. Firstly, English is hypotactic, while Chinese is paratactic; secondly, passive voice is more often used in English than that in Chinese; thirdly, the expressions of English is stative, on the contrary, Chinese is dynamic.

  17. Chinese coal supply and future production outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's energy supply is dominated by coal, making projections of future coal production in China important. Recent forecasts suggest that Chinese coal production may reach a peak in 2010–2039 but with widely differing peak production levels. The estimated URR (ultimately recoverable resources) influence these projections significantly, however, widely different URR-values were used due to poor understanding of the various Chinese coal classification schemes. To mitigate these shortcomings, a comprehensive investigation of this system and an analysis of the historical evaluation of resources and reporting issues are performed. A more plausible URR is derived, which indicates that many analysts underestimate volumes available for exploitation. Projections based on the updated URR using a modified curve-fitting model indicate that Chinese coal production could peak as early as 2024 at a maximum annual production of 4.1 Gt. By considering other potential constraints, it can be concluded that peak coal in China appears inevitable and immediate. This event can be expected to have significant impact on the Chinese economy, energy strategies and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction strategies. - Highlights: • Review of Chinese coal geology and resources/reserves. • Presentation of the Chinese coal classification system. • Forecasting future Chinese coal production using Hubbert curves. • Critical comparison with other forecasts. • Discussions transportation, environmental impact, water consumption, etc

  18. The Influence of Chinese Character Handwriting Diagnosis and Remedial Instruction System on Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Chen, Chiao-Jia; Wu, Chia-Hou; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study designed and developed a Chinese character handwriting diagnosis and remedial instruction (CHDRI) system to improve Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners' ability to write Chinese characters. The CFL learners were given two tests based on the CHDRI system. One test focused on Chinese character handwriting to diagnose the CFL…

  19. The Voices of Thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese Parents Sharing Views about their Children Attending Chinese Heritage Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Li-yuan; Larke, Patrica J.

    2008-01-01

    Many Chinese and Taiwanese parents in the United States see benefits of Chinese schools in providing their children the opportunity to learn Chinese culture and language. The results of this qualitative study involving interviews with thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese parents indicated that there were three main reasons why parents want to send their…

  20. Preservation of home of Malaysian Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Yee-mei, Agnes; 譚懿媚

    2013-01-01

    The study of diaspora dictates a yearning to return home which finds its Chinese equivalent in the notion of louye-guigen ( 落葉歸根) - returning to the roots. However, reality is that diaspora comes to an end after settlement for two to three generations. We do see the prevailing trend of luodi-shenggen (落地生根) – the planting of permanent roots in the soils of different countries of Chinese overseas. In some Chinese communities, luodi-shenggen turns out to be a total assimilation while others dev...

  1. Artemisinin, a miracle of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling Yi; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2015-12-19

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared by Professor Youyou Tu, focused worldwide attention on artemisinin, a natural product antimalarial drug inspired by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first Nobel Prize in natural sciences presented to a Chinese scientist for her impactful research work in China in collaboration with other Chinese scientists. We are delighted to provide the background and implications of the discovery of artemisinin, along with our personal viewpoints toward the affordability of modern medicines from natural products. PMID:26561737

  2. Chinese librarianship in the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Conghui

    2013-01-01

    The library in China has been transformed by rapid socioeconomic development, and the proliferation of the Internet. The issues faced by Chinese libraries andlibrarians are those faced by library practitioners more globally, however, China also has its own unique set of issues in the digital era, including developmental imbalance between East and West, urban and rural areas, and availability of skilled practitioners. Chinese Librarianship in the Digital Era is the first book on Chinese libraries responding to these issues, and more.The first part of the book places discussion in historical con

  3. Chinese Martial Arts in the Republican Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Acevedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the beginning of the XXth century, China suffered attacks from foreign powers causing the lost of parts of its territory as well as a challenge to its national pride. The traditional Chinese martial arts were unable to defeat the tactics and modern weaponry that China’s enemies had in their arsenal. Despite the overwhelming odds, the Chinese forces made use of their ingenuity and adapted the ancient weapons and fighting skills succeeding to some extent in slowing down the enemy’s advance. This period witnessed the last time cold weapons would play an important role in modern Chinese warfare.

  4. Development of a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shia; Teng, Ching-I

    2009-06-01

    Traditional Western superstitious beliefs, such as black cats and the number 13 bringing bad luck, may not be applicable to different cultures. This study develops a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale by conducting two studies with 363 and 395 participants, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis was used to construct the scale and then structural equation modeling was applied to verify its reliability and validity. The scale contains six dimensions, Homonym, Traditional customs, Power of crystal, Horoscope, Feng-shui, and Luck for gambling. Findings are helpful for understanding the difference between Chinese superstitions and the traditional Western superstitions and permits subsequent development of sociopsychological theories on correlates and effects of Chinese superstitions. PMID:19708408

  5. Is the Chinese Stock Market Really Efficient?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine whether Chinese Stock Market is weak- form efficient. The sample involves daily index price of Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchange for both A share and B share over an extensive period of 1993-2013. In order to seek out whether the result of market efficiency is sensitive to sub-period, this paper computes the different time period of sample. This essay will use three empirical methods, namely unit root test, auto correlation test and run test, to examine whether Chinese Stock Marketis weak-form efficient. The results, regarding efficiency, indicate that Chinese Stock Market is not weak-form efficient.

  6. Cultural Influences on English--Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the cultural influences on English and Chinese translation. Cultural differences between English and Chinese have existed in geographical culture, traditional culture, religious culture, historical culture and customary culture in their long history. Only when English, learners have a better understanding of the cultural factors as well as their influences on two languages, can they do a good job of English-Chinese translation. For English teachers, they should strengthen culture education and guide students to contact with Western culture materials extensively, and improve their cross-cultural awareness.

  7. Constructing a chinese international relations theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P.M.; Nielsen, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Chinese scholars are debating whether, and how, to innovate a Chinese theory of International Relations (IR). This article examines the driving forces behind this theoretical debate. It challenges the commonsensical link between external events in the subject matter (i.r.) and theorizing (IR......), which suggests that the innovation of a Chinese IR theory is a natural product of China's geopolitical rise, its growing political ambitions, and discontent with Western hegemony. We propose instead a sociological approach to intellectual innovation which opens the black box of knowledge production...

  8. Winners of the Japan Chinese Speech Contest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yui Tanaka; Yuka Goto

    2012-01-01

    <正>Editor’s Note:This year marks the 40th anniversary of the normalization of China-Japan diplomatic relations. The final of the 29th Japan Chinese Speech Contest sponsored by the Japan-China Friendship Association (JCFA) was held in Tokyo on January 8. The 28 contestants came from 17 Japanese prefectures. They spoke about their experience in learning Chinese language, their contacts with Chinese people and their views on removing misunderstanding and enhancing mutual understanding and friendship between the two countries.

  9. Foreign Talent Sought for Chinese Detroit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ If there is one thing China does not lack, it is engineers: every year, hundreds of thousands of them graduate from Chinese universities.But in May, Beijing Automotive Group (BAIC), the state-owned carmaker, held its first German recruitment fairs in Stuttgart, Munich and Aachen, to hire engineers.In the same month, Dongfeng Motor, another large Chinese carmaker, went to Munich looking for talent, following in the steps of state-owned car manufacturers such as SAIC Motor Corp and ambitious private carmakers such as Geely. "Increasing numbers of Chinese carmakers are recruiting overseas, in Detroit, Stuttgart and Nagoya," says Ivo Naumann, head of consultants AlixPartners in Shanghai.

  10. [Chinese Medicine in Overall Modern Scientific Technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuan-sheng; Zeng Yong

    2015-10-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) develops with the survival, reproduction, growth, and progressing of the Chinese nation. Scientific technologies not only promote continual progressing of human societies, but also provide new ideas and methods for the development of CM. In recent years, great changes have taken place in CM complying with developing modern scientific technologies, mainly manifested in the depth of CM theories at molecular levels, the combination of syndrome differentiation and disease identification, continuous innovation and development of clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, diversified dosages of Chinese materia medica, the academic tendency of education patterns, occupational refinement, diversified medical practice modes, and so on. PMID:26677664

  11. Pronunciation and Articulation for Singing Chinese Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑菲菲

    2013-01-01

    For singing Chinese works, pronunciation and articulation are the most essential and the most crucial factors. Their beginning should be brief, middle should be melodious and long-lasting, and end should be as clear and crisp as crystal. Considering from pronunciations, Chinese works can be divided into two categories:one is comprehensive style emphasizing clear enunciation; the other is local folk song that should be sung based on corresponding local accent of the works. Besides, based on correct pronunciation and articulation, balance between pro-nunciation and articulation should be achieved, both the essence of western traditional mode of singing and Chinese traditional music should be followed and inherited.

  12. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. On Empty Categories PRO and Pro in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢琼月

    2011-01-01

    With the development of:Generative Grammar,many scholars have done research on Chinese null subjects.However,there still remain controversies over the distinction between Chinese finiteness and non-finiteness and the existence of PRO and pro.Based on Chomsky's GB theory and some research achievements made by Chinese scholars,this paper attempts to propose some standards for the classification of Chinese finiteness and non-finiteness and m make a distraction between PRO and pro in Chinese.

  14. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Being Chinese or Being Different: Exploring Chinese Foreign Language (CFL) Teachers Use of Chineseness in Identity Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    that no matter which way they use ‘Chinese-ness’, the participants are able to reflect on their experiences and manifest a willingness to adapt to another culture, in which their identity as CFL teachers are constructed. By the end of study, the combination of teaching culture of Chinese and Danish, in which...... participants are forging new identities for them are discussed. Key words: CFL teacher, Danish university, teaching culture, Chinese-ness 中国式的汉语教师 探讨新汉语教师在构建其职业身份中对于中国特色的诠释和理解 中文摘要 在对外汉语教学中...

  17. Chinese Function Manager of 2006 Partenariat Comments on the Selection Principle for Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Fang Lei, EU-China Partenariat 2006Function Manager for Chinese Host Companies, worked together with Mr. Richard Morgan, EU Project Expert,Mr. Han Meiqing, Chinese Project Expert in the primary selection of Chinese enterprises.In reply to the strong request of the relevant governmental institutions, CCPIT and enterprises, he gave the following introductions about the details of selection.……

  18. Chinese for Business Professionals: The Workplace Needs and Business Chinese Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haidan

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of pragmatic competence in the workplace is the ultimate goal for business Chinese learners. Whether the business Chinese textbooks and instructional materials can meet the language needs of different workplaces in China has a close bearing on the quality and efficacy of business Chinese teaching. Funded by both the interdisciplinary research grant from the University of Hawai‘i Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER), and the Business Language Researc...

  19. Assessment of Problem Gambling in a Chinese Context: The Chinese G-MAP

    OpenAIRE

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Chan, Elda M. L.

    2009-01-01

    There is a severe lack of instruments to assess problem gambling in Chinese people. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Maroondah Assessment Profile for Problem Gambling (Chinese G-MAP), based on the responses of eight problem gamblers and 125 pathological gamblers seeking help from a problem gambling treatment center. Reliability analyses showed that the G-MAP and its related domains and scales were generally internally consistent. There are also sev...

  20. Chinese Online Hot Expressions:A Chinese Voice that Can Be Heard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jie

    2016-01-01

    Chinese online hot expressions, as one of Chinese popular cultures, were forming in the process of globalization and internetization. With about twenty years’development, now some Chinese online hot expressions have begun to enter into the international netspeak, forming a kind of counter-impact to the international net culture. It is an important part of our national culture and should be used as a special national resource in promoting the cultural soft power of our country.